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Anaerobic degradation of phenol in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic phenol degrading consortia were selected in sewage sludge and culture conditions were improved to allow maximum degradation rates of 0.9 g\\/l·d. Phenol had to be added in two portions of 0.45 g\\/l at intervals of 12 h to keep the fermentation at stable conditions. From U-14C-phenol little benzoate and acetate were formed as intermediates under a N2:CO2 gas phase.

G. Knoll; J. Winter



Biological Degradation of Cyclophosphamide and Its Occurrence in Sewage Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutagenic and cancerogenic antineoplastic agent cyclophosphamide (CP) is released into sewage water by cancer patient excretion. To assess the biological degradability of CP two standardized test systems, the Zahn–Wellens\\/EMPA test (OECD 302B) and a laboratory scale sewage treatment plant, were used. In both test systems the agent exhibited only poor degradability. To verify the expected occurrence of CP in

T. Steger-Hartmann; K. Kümmerer; A. Hartmann



Modification to degradation of hexazinone in forest soils amended with sewage sludge.  


Influences of one sewage sludge on degradation of hexazinone and formation of its major metabolites were investigated in four forest soils (A, B, C and D), collected in Zhejiang Province, China. In non-amended forest soils, the degradation half-life of hexazinone was 21.4, 30.4, 19.4 and 32.8 days in forest soil A, B, C and D, respectively. Degradation could start in soil A and C without lag period because the two soils had been contaminated by this herbicide for a long time, possibly leading to completion of acclimation period of hexazinone-degrading bacteria. In forest soils amended with sewage sludge, the degradation rate constant increased by 17.3% in soil A, 48.2% in soil B, 8.1% in soil C and 51.6% in soil D, respectively. The higher degradation rates (soil A and C) in non-amended soils accord with the lower rate increase in sewage sludge-amended soils. Under non-sterile conditions, biological mechanism accounted for 51.8-62.4% of hexazinone degradation in four soils. Under sterile conditions, the four soils had the similar chemical degradation capacity for hexazinone. In non-amended soil B, only one metabolite (B) was detected, while two metabolites (B and C) were found in sewage sludge-amended soil B. Similarly situated in agricultural soils, N-demethylation at 6-position of triazine ring, hydroxylation at the 4-positon of cyclohexyl group, and removal of the dimethylamino group with formation of a carbonyl group at 6-position of triazine ring appear to be the principal mechanism involved in hexazinone degradation in sewage sludge-amended forest soils. These data will improve understanding of the actual pollution risk as a result of forest soil fertilization with sewage sludge. PMID:22112800

Wang, Huili; Wang, Chengjun; Chen, Fan; Ma, Meiping; Lin, Zhenkun; Wang, Wenwei; Xu, Zhengti; Wang, Xuedong



Short-term Effects of Sewage-Sludge Compost on a Degraded Mediterranean Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mediterranean areas, often characterized by degraded soil due to recurrent fires and violent precipitation events, sewage sludge com- post could improve soil properties and stimulate plant succession pro- cesses. Most of the studies dealing with compost effects on soil properties only take into account the mineral horizon compartment, without studying compost effects on organic horizon properties. In this study,

Marie Larchevêque; Virginie Baldy; Nicolas Montès; Catherine Fernandez; Gilles Bonin; Christine Ballini



Degradation of keratin substrates by fungi isolated from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four fungal species including two dermatophytes and two saprophytes were isolated from sewage sludge samples at Basrah (Iraq)\\u000a they were tested for their degradative ability towards three types of keratin substrates (human hair, chicken feathers and\\u000a wool). The rate of keratin degradation was expressed as weight loss over three weeks of incubation using a liquid culture\\u000a medium. Human hair had

Tawfik M. Muhsin; Rawa B. Hadi



Application of Municipal Sewage Sludge to Forest and Degraded Land  

SciTech Connect

The paper summarizes research done over a decade at the Savannah River Site and elsewhere in the South evaluating the benefits of land application of municipal wastes. Studies have demonstrated that degraded lands, ranging from borrow pits to mine spoils can be successfully revegetated using a mixture of composed municipal sewage sludge and other amendments. The studies have demonstrated a practical approach to land application and restoration.

D.H. Marx, C. R. Berry, and P. P. Kormanik



Simulation of substrate degradation in composting of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

To simulate the substrate degradation kinetics of the composting process, this paper develops a mathematical model with a first-order reaction assumption and heat/mass balance equations. A pilot-scale composting test with a mixture of sewage sludge and wheat straw was conducted in an insulated reactor. The BVS (biodegradable volatile solids) degradation process, matrix mass, MC (moisture content), DM (dry matter) and VS (volatile solid) were simulated numerically by the model and experimental data. The numerical simulation offered a method for simulating k (the first-order rate constant) and estimating k{sub 20} (the first-order rate constant at 20 {sup o}C). After comparison with experimental values, the relative error of the simulation value of the mass of the compost at maturity was 0.22%, MC 2.9%, DM 4.9% and VS 5.2%, which mean that the simulation is a good fit. The k of sewage sludge was simulated, and k{sub 20}, k{sub 20s} (first-order rate coefficient of slow fraction of BVS at 20 {sup o}C) of the sewage sludge were estimated as 0.082 and 0.015 d{sup -1}, respectively.

Zhang Jun [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Gao Ding, E-mail: [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Chen Tongbin; Zheng Guodi; Chen Jun; Ma Chuang; Guo Songlin [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Du Wei [Beijing GreenTech Environmental Engineering Company, Beijing 100080 (China)



Degradation of naturally contaminated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in municipal sewage sludge by electron beam irradiation.  


This study was to evaluate the degradation efficiency of naturally contaminated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sewage sludge by using electron beam irradiation as a function of the absorbed dose. Degradation efficiency of PAHs was near to 90% at the absorbed doses 5 kGy. The degradation of PAHs was "first order" reaction rates with respect to absorbed dose. The electron beam irradiation was found effective in means of removing PAHs in domestic wastewater. PMID:18491024

Chung, B Y; Cho, J Y; Song, C H; Park, B J



Degradation of Naturally Contaminated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Municipal Sewage Sludge by Electron Beam Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was to evaluate the degradation efficiency of naturally contaminated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sewage\\u000a sludge by using electron beam irradiation as a function of the absorbed dose. Degradation efficiency of PAHs was near to 90%\\u000a at the absorbed doses 5 kGy. The degradation of PAHs was “first order” reaction rates with respect to absorbed dose. The electron\\u000a beam irradiation

B. Y. Chung; J. Y. Cho; C. H. Song; B. J. Park



[Monitoring the sewage degradation by analyzing optic fiber SPR spectrum character].  


The working principle of the optic fiber SPR sensor was discussed in the present paper at first. The feasibility of using it to monitor the degradation process of the environmental sewage represented by the methyl orange was studied. Finally, the optic fiber SPR sensor was adopted to monitor the change in degradation concentration represented by the original methyl orange solution on the base of 50 mL initial concentration 30 mg x L(-1), and the optic fiber SPR spectrum character of degradation process was analyzed in detail. Meanwhile the UV spectrophotometer was used to measure the change in concentration in the course of the degradation. The measurement data were analyzed and compared at large. The research work indicates that both the methods have consistent results, as the degradation time increases, the absorbance and concentration of the environmental sewage represented by the methyl orange solution decrease by and by, and the resonant wavelength of the optic fiber SPR sensor blue shifts step by step, as compared to the original standardization methyl orange solution resonant spectrum. It was shown that the methyl orange solution was degraded, and the rate of degradation was up to about 73 percent within two hours. The comparative results illustrate that it is feasible to use the optic fiber SPR sensor to monitor the environmental sewage degradation. The research result not only provides a new monitoring method for the degradation process of the environmental sewage, but also promotes the technique of the SPR sensor combined to the environment monitor by a long way. PMID:20384161

Zhang, Xiao-Li; Liang, Da-Kai; Zeng, Jie; Zhao, Zhi-Yuan; Zeng, Jian-Min



Eucalyptus development in degraded soil fertilized with sewage sludge and mineral fertilizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to compare the development of eucalyptus in a degraded Oxisol with mineral fertilizer and sewage sludge. The study was conducted in Selviria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. The culture of eucalyptus was planted in 2003 at 2.0 m x 1.5 m spacing, with application of 60 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (dry basis) and mineral fertilizer. After five years (2008) the area received biosolids and mineral fertilizer, and after five months, were evaluated for height and diameter at breast height of Eucalyptus. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments: T1 - control (without addition of inputs), T2 - Mineral fertilization (30 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 60 kg ha-1 K2O), T3 - Reapplication of 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis, T4 - Reapplication of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis. Before reapplication the biosolids plant height was higher in the eucalyptus with treatment 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (8.03 m) compared to control (5.75 m) and mineral fertilizer (5.91 m) and that treatment 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (6.34 m) did not differ from the previous three. For the diameter at breast height was the highest value for treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 (7.78 cm) compared to control (5.23 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm), and that of mineral fertilizer (5.96 cm) did not differ from all treatments. After reapplication of sludge plant height was higher in the eucalyptus treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (11.21 m) compared with control (7.51 m), mineral fertilizer (7.77 m) and 4 64 Mg ha-1 (8.07 m), which did not differ. The diameter at breast height had the same behavior before the application of biosolids in the highest value observed being 9.28 Mg ha-1 (8.46 cm) compared with control (5.75 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm) and that of mineral fertilizer (6.34 cm) did not differ from the others. Reapplication of the dose of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge in degraded Oxisol provided greater height and diameter at breast height from eucalyptus trees.

Rodrigues, R. A. F.; Santos, E. B.; Alves, M. C.; Arruda, O. G.



Isolation and characterization of an anaerobic syntrophic benzoate-degrading bacterium from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anaerobic, motile, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium is described which degrades benzoate in coculture with an H2-utilizing organism and in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors such as O2, SO4=or NO3-. The bacterium was isolated from a municipal primary, anaerobic sewage digestor using anaerobic roll-tube medium with benzoate as the main energy source and in syntrophic association with an H2-utilizing sulfate-reducing

Douglas O. Mountfort; Marvin P. Bryant



Microbial degradation of /sup 14/C-diphenylamine in a laboratory model sewage sludge system  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the biodegradation of diphenylamine (DPA) in a laboratory model sewage system. Ten /sup 14/C-DPA and 7.5 mg unlabeled DPA in 5 mL acetone were added to 1.5 L sludge mixed liquor in the incubation flask to produce a solution containing DPA at the 5 ppm level. Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Radioactive extracts were counted with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. DPA was degraded in the model sewage sludge system. Results using 3 different 1.5 L batches of sludge were virtually identical. With our extraction procedure, the average recovery of added radioactivity was 82%. When 300 mL of the sludge mixed liquor was boiled for 5 min before 24 h incubation with 5 ppm DPA, 98% of the radioactivity, as unchanged DPA, was recovered. Ninety-seven percent of the radioactivity, as unchanged DPA, was recovered from 300 mL of nutrient medium alone after 24 h incubation with DPA. These data indicate that the sludge microorganisms alone caused the degradation of DPA. (JMT)

Gardner, A.M.; Alvarez, G.H.; Ku, Y.



Enhancement of pentachlorophenol degradation in soil through induced anaerobiosis and bioaugmentation with anaerobic sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

The addition of biologically active anaerobic sewage sludge, previously shown to dechlorinate chlorophenols, to soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) resulted in greatly enhanced rates of PCP degradation. The sludge was added to a soil at a rate of 5 g kg/sup -1/ (dry weight basis) and the mixture incubated anaerobically. Initial PCP concentrations of 10-30 mg kg/sup -1/ (ppm) were completely degraded within 28-35 days. In anaerobic soil without sludge or aerobic soil with or without sludge, PCP persisted, 55% and 90%, respectively, remaining after 56 days. Higher rates of sludge addition gave small differences in PCP degradation. PCP was degraded by sequential dechlorination, and the products of PCP degradation in soil-sludge mixtures were the same as observed in sludge alone. The sequence of products was PCP ..-->.. 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol ..-->.. 3,4,5-trichlorophenol ..-->.. 3,5-dichlorophenol ..-->.. 3-chlorophenol; 3,4-dichlorophenol was also observed. These results clearly demonstrate that the dechlorinating activity present in sludge could be transferred to soil through bioaugmentation.

Mikesell, M.D.; Boyd, S.A.



Adsorption and Fenton-like degradation of naphthalene dye intermediate on sewage sludge derived porous carbon.  


A sewage sludge derived porous carbon (SC), which was prepared by physicochemical activation and carbonization (600°C), was applied for the adsorption and degradation of 1-diazo-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (1,2,4-Acid) in the presence of H(2)O(2) and the performance was compared to that of pure Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The prepared SC showed mesoporous structure with magnetic property, which made it favorable for solid-liquid separation application. Further experiments revealed that SC had a higher adsorption capacity and degradation efficiency of 1,2,4-Acid than bare Fe(3)O(4). The Langmuir and Freundlich model fitted the isotherm data and illustrated that the equilibrium adsorption amount of 1,2,4-Acid onto SC (95.1 mg g(-1)) was quadruple as large as that on Fe(3)O(4) (26.4 mg g(-1)). The subsequent degradation experiments were conducted at conditions (pH 5.0 in the presence of 15 mM H(2)O(2)) with regard to 1,2,4-Acid degradation efficiency and metal ions leach. The 120 min's treatment in SC/H(2)O(2) system achieved 94% of 1,2,4-Acid (from 150 mg L(-1) after adsorption equilibrium to 9 mg L(-1)) and 48.1% TOC reduction, far higher than the efficiency of 46% and 24.3% by using Fe(3)O(4) MNPs. Further analysis evidenced the co-catalytic effect of iron, carbon, silicon and aluminum, which existed in large quantities in sludge derived SC. The carbonaceous phase along with silica contributes to an increase in the dispersion of catalytic centers and an adsorbent to concentrate organic pollutant whereas the iron oxide as well as alumina provides the catalytic centers for a Haber-Weiss initiated reactions. PMID:23298740

Gu, Lin; Zhu, Nanwen; Guo, Huaqing; Huang, Shouqiang; Lou, Ziyang; Yuan, Haiping



Aerobic degradation of phthalic acid by Comamonas acidovoran Fy1 and dimethyl phthalate ester by two reconstituted consortia from sewage sludge at high concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial degradation of phthalic acid (PA) and dimethyl phthalate ester (DMPE) under aerobic conditions was investigated using a pure species of bacteria and two consortia from sewage sludge. Five morphologically distinct microorganisms were obtained in pure culture and identified, and tested for the capability of degrading phthalate and DMPE. Comamonas acidovorans strain Fy-1 showed the highest ability to degrade high

Yingying Wang; Yanzhen Fan; Ji-Dong Gu




EPA Science Inventory

Samples of sewage sludge burned at one fluidized-bed and three multiple-hearth incinerators were subjected to laboratory flow reactor thermal decomposition testing under both pyrolytic and oxidative atmospheres. he laboratory test results indicated that biomass decomposition prod...


Degradation of 17?-Estradiol by a Gram-Negative Bacterium Isolated from Activated Sludge in a Sewage Treatment Plant in Tokyo, Japan  

PubMed Central

A 17?-estradiol (E2)-degrading bacterium was isolated from activated sludge in a sewage treatment plant in Tokyo, Japan. The isolate was suggested to be a new Novosphingobium species. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of the metabolites of E2 degradation suggested that no toxic products accumulated in the culture medium.

Fujii, Katsuhiko; Kikuchi, Shintaro; Satomi, Masataka; Ushio-Sata, Noriko; Morita, Naoki



Reliability improvement experiments with degradation data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of experiments is a useful tool for improving the reliability of products. This article develops an integrated methodology for quality and reliability improvement when degrada- tion data are available as the response in the experiments. A new classiflcation of the noise factors is introduced to capture the special structure for the variance of the degradation char- acteristic. Based on

V. Roshan Joseph; I-tang Yu



Recent land degradation and improvement in China.  


Land degradation is a global development and environment issue that afflicts China more than most countries in terms of the extent, economic impact, and number of people affected. Up-to-date, quantitative information is needed to support policy and action for food and water security, economic development, and environmental integrity. Data for a defined, recent period enable us to distinguish the legacy of historical land degradation from what is happening now. We define land degradation as long-term decline in ecosystem function and productivity and measure it by remote sensing of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the greenness index. NDVI may be translated to net primary productivity (NPP). Deviation from the norm serves as a proxy assessment of land degradation and improvement-if other factors that may be responsible are taken into account. These other factors include climate, which may be assessed by rain-use efficiency and energy-use efficiency. Analysis of the 23-year Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) NDVI data reveals that, in China over the period 1981-2003, NPP increased overall, but areas of declining climate-adjusted NPP comprise 23% of the country, mainly in south China. About 35% of China's population (457 million out of 1317 million) depend on the degrading land. Degrading areas suffered a loss of NPP of 12 kgC ha(-1) y(-1), amounting to almost 60 million tC not fixed from the atmosphere; loss of soil organic carbon from these areas is likely to be orders of magnitude greater. There is no correlation between land degradation and dry lands; it is more of an issue in cropland and forest: 21% of degrading land is cropland and 40% is forest, 24% of the arable and 44% of the forest, respectively. There is no simple statistical relationship between land degradation and rural population density or poverty. Most identified land degradation is in the south and east, driven by unprecedented land-use change. PMID:19580032

Bai, Zhanguo; Dent, David



Microbial degradation of 14 C-diphenylamine in a laboratory model sewage sludge system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the biodegradation of diphenylamine (DPA) in a laboratory model sewage system. Ten ¹⁴C-DPA and 7.5 mg unlabeled DPA in 5 mL acetone were added to 1.5 L sludge mixed liquor in the incubation flask to produce a solution containing DPA at the 5 ppm level. Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography\\/mass spectroscopy. Radioactive extracts

Albert M. Gardner; George H. Alvarez; Yuoh Ku



Comparison of organic emissions from laboratory and full-scale thermal degradation of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

Samples of sewage sludge burned at one fluidized-bed and three multiple-hearth incinerators were subjected to laboratory flow reactor thermal decomposition testing under both pyrolytic and oxidative atmospheres. The laboratory test results indicated that biomass decomposition products, not toxic industrial contaminants, comprised the majority of the emissions. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, acrylonitrile, and acetonitrile were consistently the most environmentally significant products of thermal exposure. Comparison of the results from in the study with those obtained in the field was complicated by an apparent loss of volatile chlorocarbons from the sludge samples received for laboratory testing. However, quantitative comparison of emission factors derived from lab and field results for those compounds observed in both studies showed excellent correlation for the pyrolysis testing.

Tirey, D.A.; Striebich, R.C.; Dellinger, B.; Bostian, H.E.



Triclosan affects the microbial community in simulated sewage-drain-field soil and slows down xenobiotic degradation.  


Effects of the common antibacterial agent triclosan on microbial communities and degradation of domestic xenobiotics were studied in simulated sewage-drain-field soil. Cultivable microbial populations decreased 22-fold in the presence of 4 mg kg?¹ of triclosan, and triclosan-resistant Pseudomonas strains were strongly enriched. Exposure to triclosan also changed the general metabolic profile (Ecoplate substrate profiling) and the general profile (T-RFLP) of the microbial community. Triclosan degradation was slow at all concentrations tested (0.33-81 mg kg?¹) during 50-days of incubation. Mineralization experiments (¹?C-tracers) and chemical analyses (LC-MS/MS) showed that the persistence of a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and a common analgesic (ibuprofen) increased with increasing triclosan concentrations (0.16-100 mg kg?¹). The largest effect was seen for LAS mineralization which was severely reduced by 0.16 mg kg?¹ of triclosan. Our findings indicate that environmentally realistic concentrations of triclosan may affect the efficiency of biodegradation in percolation systems. PMID:21435762

Svenningsen, Hanne; Henriksen, Trine; Priemé, Anders; Johnsen, Anders R



The impact of intermediate thermal hydrolysis on the degradation kinetics of carbohydrates in sewage sludge.  


The purpose of this paper is to report the results, from laboratory-scale investigations, on the impact of intermediate thermal hydrolysis process (ITHP) on already digested sludge in general, and sludge carbohydrate content degradation process efficiency in particular. The ITHP performance data were compared with the performance of established conventional thermal hydrolysis process (THP). The degradation of sludge carbohydrates as a result of thermal pre-treatment and anaerobic digestion followed the first order kinetics. The overall sludge organic matter degradation kinetics rate constants indicated that the use of THP as an intermediate digestion step can enhance the already digested sludge organic matter degradation; further reducing the sludge mass and increasing its conversion to biogas. PMID:23584417

Shana, A; Ouki, S; Asaadi, M; Pearce, P; Mancini, G



Sewage sludge dehydration with biodegradable polyelectrolytes as flocculants. Final report. Pt. 1. Development of synthetic polyelectrolytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polyelectrolytes with improved degradability were to be developed for dehydration of uncontaminated sewage sludge. Part-project I investigated the synthesis of polymers. For this purpose, polyvinyl alcohol was functionalized into polyelectrolytes by ether...

H. Matuschewski U. Gohlke W. Jaeger



Anaerobic bioprocessing of sewage sludge, focusing on degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic degradation of sludge amended with linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) was tested in a one stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and a two stage reactor system consisting of a CSTR as first step and upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor as the second step. Anaerobic removal of LAS was only observed at the second step but not at the

I. Angelidaki; L. Toräng; C. M. Waul; J. E. Schmidt


A Study About Improvement of Efficiency of a Sewage Heat Utilization System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of the data analysis of operational performance at the DHC plant in Makuhari HB area, it is examined how the properties of the sewage used as a heat source affect the effectiveness of the system. The result of this study suggests that a sewage heat utilization system is able to perform higher efficiency when it is designed as a distributed system that has separate heat sources than a central system.

Kobayakawa, Tomoaki; Hihara, Eiji; Hanazaki, Hirotaka


A Study About Improvement of Efficiency of a Sewage Heat Utilization System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to acquire the basis of technical information that will be required for the design and operation of a sewage heat utilization system, this paper discusses the data analysis of operational performance at the DHC plant in Makuhari HB area. The methodology used in this study is to clarify the characteristics of a sewage heat utilization system from compound characteristics of the DHC plant that consists of various heating systems, and evaluate them.

Kobayakawa, Tomoaki; Hihara, Eiji; Hanazaki, Hirotaka


Improving sewage sludge ultrasonic pretreatment under pressure by changing initial pH.  


This work aimed at understanding the combined effect of sludge pH, temperature, and external pressure on the efficiency of sewage sludge ultrasound (US) pretreatment. Based on the evolution of both the degree of sludge disintegration (DDCOD) and pH, application of 40 mgNaOH/gTS during 30 min was selected for chemical pretreatment. Mechanical and thermal effects induced by cavitation contributed in similar proportion to sludge disruption, but the role of the latter effect tended to be weakened after mild alkalisation of sludge. When applying external pressure, DDCOD was always improved, by about 10% at the optimal value of 2 bar. The optimal combination was an addition of 40 mgNaOH/gTS prior to adiabatic sonication at 2 bar, resulting in a DDCOD value of about 46% at 75,000 kJ/kgTS (as compared to 35% for sole US) for the investigated mixed sludge. Very short time US application yielded a drastic reduction of the volume mean particle size, mainly due to the erosion and disruption of large flocs (>90 ?m), yet this was not sufficient to initiate significant subsequent COD solubilisation under stirring. PMID:23831677

Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour, Carine; Ratsimba, Berthe; Delmas, Henri



Bioflocculation of microalgae and bacteria combined with flue gas to improve sewage treatment.  


Although microalgae are promising for a cradle-to-cradle design approach of sewage treatment, their application is hampered by high harvesting costs and low C:N ratios of sewage. Therefore, the potential of microalgal bacterial flocs (MaB-flocs) was investigated for the secondary treatment of sewage supplemented with different flue gas flow rates (FGFRs) from a coal power plant. Effluent (N, P, turbidity and pH) and off gas discharge levels (NO(x), SO(x)) met the European discharge limits with a hydraulic retention time of only 0.67 days and an FGFR of 0.6Lh(-1) (0.0025 vvm). This FGFR provided sufficient carbon and resulted in removal efficiencies of 48 ± 7% CO(2), 87 ± 5% NO(x) and 99 ± 1% SO(2). MaB-flocs settled fast reaching up to a density of 19 g VSSL(-1). High biomass productivities (0.18 gL(-1)day(-1)) were obtained under a low light intensity. This successful reactor performance indicates the large potential for the industrial application of MaB-flocs for flue gas sparged sewage treatment. PMID:21565287

Van Den Hende, Sofie; Vervaeren, Han; Desmet, Sem; Boon, Nico



Increased temperature in the thermophilic stage in temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) improves degradability of waste activated sludge.  


Two-stage temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) is an increasingly popular method to improve stabilisation of sewage waste activated sludge, which normally has inherently poor and slow degradation. However, there has been limited systematic analysis of the impact of the initial thermophilic stage (temperature, pH and retention time) on performance in the main mesophilic stage. In this study, we demonstrate a novel two-stage batch test method for TPAD processes, and use it to optimize operating conditions of the thermophilic stage in terms of degradation extent and methane production. The method determines overall degradability and apparent hydrolysis coefficient in both stages. The overall process was more effective with short pre-treatment retention times (1-2 days) and neutral pH compared to longer retention time (4 days) and low pH (4-5). Degradabilities and apparent hydrolysis coefficients were 0.3-0.5 (fraction degradable) and 0.1-0.4d(-1), respectively, with a margin of error in each measurement of approximately 20% relative (95% confidence). Pre-treatment temperature had a strong impact on the whole process, increasing overall degradability from 0.3 to 0.5 as temperature increased from 50 to 65 °C, with apparent hydrolysis coefficient increasing from 0.1 to 0.4d(-1). PMID:21277081

Ge, Huoqing; Jensen, Paul D; Batstone, Damien J



Population dynamics of an introduced bacterium degrading chlorinated benzenes in a soil column and in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of the ß-Proteobacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain P51, which degrades chlorinated benzenes, to metabolize 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) under environmental conditions was tested by its release into two experimental systems. The first system consisted of laboratory scale microcosms which were operated with and without the addition of TCB and which were inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. The second

Ronen Tchelet; Rainer Meckenstock; Patrick Steinle; Jan Roelof van der Meer



Purification and Characterization of a Dimethoate-Degrading Enzyme of Aspergillus niger ZHY256, Isolated from Sewage  

PubMed Central

A dimethoate-degrading enzyme from Aspergillus niger ZHY256 was purified to homogeneity with a specific activity of 227.6 U/mg of protein. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 66 kDa by gel filtration and 67 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point was found to be 5.4, and the enzyme activity was optimal at 50°C and pH 7.0. The activity was inhibited by most of the metal ions and reagents, while it was induced by Cu2+. The Michaelis constant (Km) and Vmax for dimethoate were 1.25 mM and 292 ?mol min?1 mg of protein?1, respectively.

Liu, Yu-Huan; Chung, Ying-Cheng; Xiong, Ya



Plasticizers and their degradation products in the process streams of a large urban physicochemical sewage treatment plant.  


The plasticizers bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (BEHTP) and bis (2-ethylhexyl) adipate (BEHA) were found in significant quantities in the influents, process streams, treated effluent and solid residues of a large physicochemical treatment plant in Montreal, Canada. Of these plasticizers, BEHA was the most abundant in the influent but most was removed during primary treatment. Evidence indicated that significant biodegradation occurred within the sewers and during treatment resulting in the formation of three biodegradation products that had been reported in earlier laboratory studies; namely, 2-ethylhexanol, 2-ethylhexanal and 2-ethylhexanoic acid. Significantly greater concentrations of 2-ethylhexanal were found in process streams than had been reported in earlier laboratory work. This was attributed to the fact that there were fewer opportunities for losses of this volatile compound over the course of wastewater treatment. The plasticizers were removed from the aqueous phase to varying degrees during treatment, with most ending up in the solid residues. All three metabolites and the parent plasticizers were observed in the effluent and most were found in the solids that were analyzed. Results suggest that the treatment plant does not effectively remove plasticizers from the influent and represents a significant source of these compounds and their degradation products in the environment. PMID:17706266

Barnabé, S; Beauchesne, I; Cooper, D G; Nicell, J A



Genome Shuffling Improves Degradation of the Anthropogenic Pesticide Pentachlorophenol by Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ATCC 39723  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a highly toxic anthropogenic pesticide, can be mineralized by Sphingobium chlorophenolicum, a gram-negative bacterium isolated from PCP-contaminated soil. However, degradation of PCP is slow and S. chlorophenolicum cannot tolerate high levels of PCP. We have used genome shuffling to improve the degradation of PCP by S. chlorophenolicum. We have obtained several strains that degrade PCP faster and tolerate

MingHua Dai; Shelley D. Copley



Antiviral Oseltamivir Is not Removed or Degraded in Normal Sewage Water Treatment: Implications for Development of Resistance by Influenza A Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oseltamivir is the main antiviral for treatment and prevention of pandemic influenza. The increase in oseltamivir resistance reported recently has therefore sparked a debate on how to use oseltamivir in non pandemic influenza and the risks associated with wide spread use during a pandemic. Several questions have been asked about the fate of oseltamivir in the sewage treatment plants and

Jerker Fick; Richard H. Lindberg; Mats Tysklind; Paul D. Haemig; Jonas Waldenström; Anders Wallensten; Björn Olsen



Ultrasonic disintegration of biosolids for improved biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological cell lysis is known to be the rate-limiting step of anaerobic biosolids degradation. Shear forces generated by low frequency ultrasound can be used to disintegrate bacterial cells in sewage sludge. Thus, the quantity of dissolved organic substrate is increased. Consequently, the degradation rate and the biodegradability of organic biosolids mass are improved. Fundamental pilot-studies showed a significantly accelerated biosolids

Klaus Nickel; Uwe Neis



Microwave synthesis, extraction, improvement and degradation in oil chemistry.  


This review article summarizes research directed toward microwave heating in the oil chemistry. Topics to be discussed include microwave synthesis of surfactants, extraction methods, modification of crude oil properties, and degradation of surfactants. The specific effects of microwave heating, which cannot be obtained by conventional heating in particular, are explained. PMID:23823909

Sumi, Takuya; Horikoshi, Satoshi



LCMS determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and their carboxylic degradation products in influent and effluent water samples and sludges from sewage-treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) have been determined in samples of the influent and the effluent, and in the sludge, from sewage-treatment plants (STP). LAS and sulfophenyl carboxylate compounds (SPC) were isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with the polymeric phase Isolute ENV, then determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The method enabled unequivocal identification of C10-C13 LAS by monitoring the

J. Riu; E. Martínez; D. Barceló; A. Ginebreda; L. L. Tirapu



Improved sample treatment for the determination of insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.  


A new selective and sensitive method for the determination of insoluble fatty acid salts (soap) in sewage sludge samples is proposed. The method involves a clean up of sample with petroleum ether, the conversion of calcium and magnesium insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts, potassium salts extraction with methanol, and a derivatization procedure previous to the liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) analysis. Three different extraction techniques (Soxhlet, microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasounds) were compared and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was selected as appropriate for our purpose. This allowed to reduce the extraction time and solvent waste (50 mL of methanol in contrast with 250 mL for Soxhlet procedure). The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two standards (C(13:0) and C(17:0)) that are not commercials and neither of them has been detected in sewage sludge samples. Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect since both standards have similar environmental behaviour (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C(10:0)-C(18:0)). The method was successfully applied to samples from different sources and consequently, with different composition. PMID:20801371

Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Vílchez, J L; Crovetto, G; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A



Improved Degradation of Monochlorophenols by a Constructed Strain  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas sp. strain B13, a strain able to degrade 3-chlorobenzoate and, after prolonged adaptation (40 days), 4-chlorophenol, could transfer the ability to degrade chlorocatechols to a recipient, Alcaligenes sp. strain A7, which is able to grow with benzoate and phenol. Representative transconjugants, such as Alcaligenes sp. strain A7-2, were able to utilize all three isomeric chlorophenols; this property was not possessed by the donor or the recipient. The ability to grow readily with 4-chlorophenol may be attributable to a more rapid induction of phenol hydroxylase by Alcaligenes sp. strain A7-2 than by Pseudomonas sp. strain B13, a property which correlates with the greater level of resistance to chlorophenols shown by the transconjugant.

Schwien, Uwe; Schmidt, Eberhard



Electron beam pretreatment of sewage sludge before anaerobic digestion.  


The pretreatment of waste-activated sludge (WAS) by electron beam irradiation was studied in order to improve anaerobic sludge digestion. The irradiation dose of the electron beam was varied from 0.5 to 10 kGy. Batch and continuous-flow stirred tank reactors (CFSTRs) were operated to evaluate the effect of the electron beam pretreatment on anaerobic sludge digestion. Approximately 30-52% of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) content of the WAS was solubilized within 24 h after electron beam irradiation. A large quantity of soluble COD, protein, and carbohydrates leached out from cell ruptures caused by the electron beam irradiation. Volatile fatty acids production from the irradiated sludge was approx 90% higher than that of the unirradiated sludge. The degradation of irradiated sewage sludge was described by two distinct first-order decay rates (k1 and k2). Most initial decay reaction accelerated within 10 d, with an average k1 of 0.06/d for sewage sludge irradiated at all dosages. The mean values for the long-term batch first-order decay coefficient (k2) were 0.025/d for irradiated sewage sludge and 0.007/d for unirradiated sludge. Volatile solids removal efficiency of the control reactor fed with unirradiated sewage sludge at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 d was almost the same as that of the CFSTRs fed with irradiated sludge at an HRT of 10 d. Therefore, disintegration of sewage sludge cells using electron beam pretreatment could reduce the reactor solid retention time by half. PMID:12794296

Shin, Kyung-Sook; Kang, Ho


Coating nanothickness degradable films on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite particles to improve the bonding strength between nanohydroxyapatite and degradable polymer matrix.  


Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles are similar to bone apatite in size, phase composition, and crystal structure. When compared with micron-size HA particles, nano-HA possesses improved mechanical properties and superior bioactivity for promoting bone growth and regeneration. However, scaffolds fabricated from nano-HA alone cannot meet the mechanical requirements for direct-loading applications. A number of studies suggest that nanostructured composites may offer surface and/or chemical properties of native bone, and therefore represent ideal substrates to support bone regeneration. However, a common problem with nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA)-polymer composites is the weak binding strength between the nano-HA filler and the polymer matrix since they are two different categories of materials and cannot form covalent bonds between them during the mixing process. Often, the mechanical strength of the composite is compromised due to the phase separation of the HA filler from the polymer matrix during the tissue repair process. To overcome this problem, an ultrathin degradable polymer film was grafted onto the surface of nano-HA using a radio-frequency plasma polymerization technology from acrylic acid monomers. The treated nano-HA powders are expected to bind to the polymer matrix via covalent bonds, thus enhancing the mechanical properties of the resultant composites. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) experiments showed that an extremely thin polymer film (2 nm) was uniformly deposited on the surfaces of the nanoparticles. The HRTEM results were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS). Tensile tests performed on the specimens revealed that the degradable coating had improved elastic and strength properties when compared with the nondegradable and uncoated controls. XPS and TOSIMS data revealed that more functional carboxyl groups were formed on degradable coatings than cross-linked nondegradable coatings. Cytocompatibility assay demonstrated that both the degradable and nondegradable coatings are cytocompatible. PMID:17295227

Nichols, Heather L; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Donglu; Bhaduri, Sarit; Wen, Xuejun



Degradation behaviors of nonylphenol ethoxylates by isolated bacteria using improved isolation method.  


Nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO)-degrading bacteria were isolated from activated sludge using an improved isolation method, and the corresponding degradation behaviours were investigated. Eight NPEO-degrading strains distributed in genera Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Sphingobium, Cupriavidus, Ralstonia, Achromobacter, and Staphylococcus were acquired. The latter five genera have never been reported for the degradation of NPEOs. Four degradation patterns were observed for the eight pure strains. In pattern A, NPEOs were converted to short-chain NPEOs and carboxylated products, while in pattern B, lower ethoxylated oligomers appeared. Nonylphenol monoethoxylate was the main product in pattern C, while in pattern D ethoxylated units was oxidized but not shortened. Pattern C and D have not yet been reported. PMID:19143306

Gu, Xin; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Min; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Kamagata, Yoichi



Accelerated degradation and improved bone-bonding ability of hydroxyapatite ceramics by the addition of glass.  


Dense hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics are useful bone substitutes, but they degrade minimally. One solution is to incorporate degradable materials in the HA. In this study, we manufactured glass-containing HA and investigated whether the degradability and bone-bonding ability of the HA were improved. The glass-containing HA was manufactured from a mixture of HA powder and 1.0 wt% glass powder. The control HA was manufactured from pure HA powder. In vitro degradability was evaluated by soaking in physiological saline, and a rabbit model was used to evaluate in vivo degradability and bone-bonding ability. Detaching tests were performed for all removed samples to quantify bone-bonding ability of each type of HA. The glass-containing HA showed higher degradability than the control HA, both in vitro and in vivo. The detaching failure load of the glass-containing HA was rapidly elevated after implantation and was higher than that of the control HA. Our results suggest that the dissolution of the added glass made the glass-containing HA degradable and that the detaching failure load of the glass-containing HA was elevated by reinforcement of the mechanical locking at the roughened interface. Incorporation of glass additives into HA can be concluded to be a good candidate for producing a bone substitute that can partially degrade and bond to bone firmly and rapidly. PMID:16753209

So, Kazutaka; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Neo, Masashi; Anan, Yukiko; Ogawa, Tetsuro; Kokubo, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takashi



Noise cancellation to improve the quality of LPC processed speech degraded by noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for improving the quality of the speech resulting from linear predictive analysis/synthesis of speech degraded by background noise are discussed. A method of noise cancellation using Wiener filtering in the frequency domain with the short-time Fourier transform was chosen for implementation. Implementation was done on a Data General Nova/Eclipse digital signal processing system in FORTRAN 5. Speech degraded by white gaussian noise was processed through linear predictive analysis/synthesis with and without noise cancellation preprocessing. Preliminary laboratory listenings verified that an improvement in quality was achieved with noise cancellation preprocessing. Although improvement in quality was achieved, more effort is required to make this implementation more efficient and improve the quality of speech produced.

Batchelor, C. L.



Improvement in anaerobic degradation of olive mill effluent (OME) by chemical pretreatment using batch systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, feasibility of using chemical pretreatment to improve the anaerobic biological degradation of industrial effluents containing high concentrations of phenolic compounds was investigated. For this purpose, chemical pretreatment of the wastewater generated from olive oil production process, namely olive mill effluent (OME), was conducted by means of acid cracking followed by coagulation–flocculation process using one of the coagulating

Nuri Azbar; Tugba Keskin; Ebru Cokay Catalkaya



Improved analysis of long STR amplicons from degraded single source and mixed DNA.  


DNA profiles from degraded samples often suffer from information loss at the longer short tandem repeat (STR) loci. Sensitising the reactions, either by performing additional PCR cycles or increasing the capillary electrophoresis injection settings, carries the risk of over-amplifying or overloading the shorter fragments. We explored whether profiling of degraded DNA can be improved by preferential capturing of the longer amplified fragments. To this aim, a post-PCR purification protocol was developed that is based on AMPure XP beads that have size-selective properties. A comparison was made with an unselective post-PCR purification system (DTR gel filtration) and no purification of the PCR products. Besides a set of differently and serially degraded single source samples, unequal mixtures of degraded DNAs were analysed, in order to extract more genotyping information for the minor contributor without overloading the major component at the shorter amplicons. Purification by the AMPure protocol resulted in higher peak heights especially for the longer amplicons, while DTR gel filtration gave higher peaks for all amplicon sizes. Both purification methods presented more detected alleles, with the AMPure protocol performing slightly better, on average. In conclusion, the in-house developed AMPure protocol can be employed to improve STR profile analysis of degraded single source and (unequally) mixed DNA samples. PMID:23306520

Westen, Antoinette A; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; de Knijff, Peter; Sijen, Titia



Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.  


Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards. PMID:22425275

Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa




EPA Science Inventory

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of sewage treatment plants in Connecticut. It is a point Shapefile that includes the locations of sewage treatment plants, but not their discharge locations to surface or groundater. The National Pollution Discharge Elimintation Discharge Syste...


Antioxidant compounds improved PCB-degradation by Burkholderia xenovorans strain LB400.  


Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are toxic and persistent organic pollutants that are widely distributed in the environment. Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 is capable of degrading aerobically an unusually wide range of PCBs. However, during PCB-degradation B. xenovorans LB400 generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that affect its viability. The aim of this study was to increase the efficiency of PCB-degradation of B. xenovorans LB400 by adding antioxidant compounds that could increase tolerance to oxidative stress. The effect of antioxidant compounds on the growth, morphology and PCB-degradation by B. xenovorans LB400 was evaluated. ?-Tocopherol or vitamin E (vitE) and berry extract (BE) increased slightly the growth of strain LB400 on biphenyl, whereas in presence of ascorbic acid or vitamin C (vitC) an inhibition of growth was observed. The growth of B. xenovorans LB400 in glucose was inhibited by the addition of 4-chlorobiphenyl (4-CB). Interestingly, in presence of ?-tocopherol the growth of strain LB400 was less affected by 4-CB. By transmission electronic microscopy it was observed that ?-tocopherol preserved the cell membranes and improved cell integrity of glucose-grown LB400 cells exposed to 4-CB, suggesting a protective effect of ?-tocopherol. Notably, ?-tocopherol increased biphenyl and 4-CB degradation by B. xenovorans LB400 in an aqueous solution. The effect of antioxidants compounds on PCB-bioremediation was evaluated in agricultural soil spiked with 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-CB), 4-CB and 2,4'-chlorobiphenyl (2,4'-CB). For bioaugmentation, LB400 cells grown on biphenyl and subsequently incubated with pyruvate were added to the soil. Native soil microbiota was able to remove PCBs. Bioaugmentation with strain LB400 increased strongly the PCB-degradation rate. Bioaugmentation with strain LB400 and biostimulation with ?-tocopherol or berry extract increased further the PCB degradation. Half-life of 2,4'-CB decreased by bioaugmentation from 24 days to 4 days and by bioaugmentation in presence of ?-tocopherol and berry extract to 2 days. By bioaugmentation with strain LB400, 85% of 2,4'-CB was degraded in 20 days, whereas bioaugmentation with strain LB400 and biostimulation with ?-tocopherol or berry extract reduced the time to less than 13 days. This indicates that antioxidant compounds stimulated PCB-degradation in soil. Therefore, the addition of antioxidant compounds constitutes an attractive strategy for the scale-up of aerobic PCB-bioremediation processes. PMID:22142725

Ponce, Bernardita L; Latorre, Valeria K; González, Myriam; Seeger, Michael



Microbial Degradation of Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane  

PubMed Central

The microbial degradation of low-molecular-weight polydimethylsiloxanes was investigated through laboratory experiments. Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane was found to be biodegraded under anaerobic conditions in composted sewage sludge, as monitored by the occurrence of the main polydimethylsiloxane degradation product, dimethylsilanediol, compared to that found in experiments with sterilized control samples.

Grumping, R.; Michalke, K.; Hirner, A. V.; Hensel, R.



Composting Dewatered Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The test program described was designed to obtain the following basic information concerning the composting of a combination of primary and secondary dewatered sewage sludges: (1) effect of mixing; (2) effect of moisture content; (3) effect of recycling; ...



Sewage impacts coral reefs at multiple levels of ecological organization.  


Against a backdrop of rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification which pose global threats to coral reefs, excess nutrients and turbidity continue to be significant stressors at regional and local scales. Because interventions usually require local data on pollution impacts, we measured ecological responses to sewage discharges in Surin Marine Park, Thailand. Wastewater disposal significantly increased inorganic nutrients and turbidity levels, and this degradation in water quality resulted in substantial ecological shifts in the form of (i) increased macroalgal density and species richness, (ii) lower cover of hard corals, and (iii) significant declines in fish abundance. Thus, the effects of nutrient pollution and turbidity can cascade across several levels of ecological organization to change key properties of the benthos and fish on coral reefs. Maintenance or restoration of ecological reef health requires improved wastewater management and run-off control for reefs to deliver their valuable ecosystems services. PMID:19515390

Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Schlacher, Thomas A; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai



Spider silk aging: initial improvement in a high performance material followed by slow degradation.  


Spider silk possesses a unique combination of high tensile strength and elasticity resulting in extraordinarily tough fibers, compared with the best synthetic materials. However, the potential application of spider silk and biomimetic fibers depends upon retention of their high performance under a variety of conditions. Here, we report on changes in the mechanical properties of dragline and capture silk fibers from several spider species over periods up to 4 years of benign aging. We find an improvement in mechanical performance of silk fibers during the first year of aging. Fibers rapidly decrease in diameter, suggesting an increase in structural alignment and organization of molecules. One-year old silk also is stiffer and has higher stress at yield than fresh silk, whereas breaking force, elasticity, and toughness either improve or are unaffected by early aging. However, 4-year old silk shows signs of degradation as the breaking load, elasticity, and toughness are all lower than in fresh silk. Aging, however, does not reduce the tensile strength of silk. These data suggest initially rapid reorganization and tighter packaging of molecules within the fiber, followed by longer-term decomposition. We hypothesize that possibly the breakdown of amino acids via emission of ammonia gas, as is seen in long-term aging of museum silkworm fabrics, may contribute. Degradation of spider silk under benign conditions may be a concern for efforts to construct and utilize biomimetic silk analogs. However, our findings suggest an initial improvement in mechanical performance and that even old spider silk still retains impressive mechanical performance. PMID:18626974

Agnarsson, Ingi; Boutry, Cecilia; Blackledge, Todd A




EPA Science Inventory

This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...


Soil effects due to sewage sludge application in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials show that increased nutrients (mainly P) and heavy metals in soil due to agricultural use of sewage sludge have mainly to be expected when sludge is applied in too high amounts. The biological effects of heavy metals on plants are determined by their solubility which is increased by pH decrease and degradation of organic matter. Normally, it should

H. Häni; A. Siegenthaler; T. Candinas



Do new matrix formulations improve resin composite resistance to degradation processes?  


The aim of this study was to determine the degradation resistance of three new formulations-silorane-, Ormocer- and dimer-acid-based materials-and compare them to the traditional dimethacrylate-based materials. One silorane- (Filtek P90, P90), one Ormocer- (Ceram-X, CX), one dimer-acid- (N'Durance, ND) and two dimethacrylate-based (Filtek P60, P60; Tetric Ceram, TC) materials were investigated. Water sorption (Wsp) and solubility (Wsl) were determined after the materials were immersed in water for 28 days. Knoop hardness (KH) was determined before and after 24 h immersion in pure ethanol. The flexural-strength (FS) was determined by the bending test after one-week storage in a dry environment or after one-week immersion in pure ethanol. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (95%). The three new formulations showed lower Wsp than the dimethacrylate-based formulation. CX (0.50 ± 0.17%) and ND (0.72 ± 0.19%) exhibited the lowest Wsp, whereas P90 (0.02 ± 0.03%) and P60 (0.04 ± 0.03%) showed the lowest Wsl. All resins showed reduced Knoop hardness number (KHN) after ethanol immersion. P60 presented the lowest decrease in KH value (19 ± 5%). TC (48 ± 3%) and P90 (39 ± 9%) showed the highest KHN decrease after ethanol storage. The FS of CX, ND and TC were affected by ethanol storage. The new formulations did not improve the degradation resistance, as compared with the traditional methacrylate-based materials. PMID:24036979

Fonseca, Andrea Soares Quirino da Silva; Gerhardt, Kátia Maria da Fonseca; Pereira, Gisele Damiana da Silveira; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Schneider, Luis Felipe Jochims


Novel Approach to the Improvement of Biphenyl and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation Activity: Promoter Implantation by Homologous Recombination  

PubMed Central

To improve the capabilities of microorganisms relevant for biodegradation, we developed a new genetic approach and applied it to the bph operon (bphEGF[orf4]A1A2A3CD[orf1]A4R) of Pseudomonas sp. strain KKS102 to enhance its biphenyl- and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading activity. A native promoter of the bph operon, which was under control, was replaced through homologous recombination by a series of promoters that had constitutive activity. By testing a series of promoters with various strengths, we were able to obtain strains that have enhanced degradation activity for biphenyl and PCBs. This strategy removes the rate-limiting factor associated with transcription and has the potential to improve the degradation activity of a wide variety of microorganisms involved in biodegradation.

Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Shimura, Minoru; Delawary, Mina; Kimbara, Kazuhide; Takagi, Masamichi; Kudo, Toshiaki; Ohta, Akinori; Nagata, Yuji



On-farm Pretreatment Technologies for Improving Enzymatic Degradability of Cellulose and Hemicellulose Present in Perennial Grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated the ability of on-farm pretreatments with acid, alkali, ozone or novel enzymes to improve enzymatic degradability of cellulose and hemicelluloses in biomass at the biorefinery. Two perennial grasses, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), were direct-cut harvested, pretreated, and stored anaerobically for 30 d. Pretreated and untreated samples were fermented to ethanol by Saccharomyces

Matthew F. Digman; Kevin J. Shinners; Bruce S. Dien; Ronald D. Hatfield; Xin-Liang Li; Richard E. Muck; J. Weimer



Alternative fuel comprised of sewage sludge and a liquid hydrocarbon fuel oil  

SciTech Connect

An improved fuel composition is provided comprising in minor proportion a non-dewatered sewage sludge and in major proportion an organic fuel comprised of a hydrocarbon fuel oil. A method is also provided for the incineration of sewage sludge comprised of providing an admixture of a minor proportion of a non-dewatered sewage sludge and a major proportion of an organic fuel comprised of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel oil and incinerating the admixture.

Ashworth, R. A.



Wastewater discharge degrades coastal waters and reef communities in southern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff and sewage discharge from land developments can cause significant changes in water quality of coastal waters, resulting in coral degradation. Coastal waters around Phuket, Thailand are influenced by numerous sewage outfalls associated with rapid tourism development. Water quality and biological monitoring around the Phuket region was undertaken to quantify water quality and biotic characteristics at various distances from sewage

Pasinee Reopanichkul; R. W. Carter; Suchai Worachananant; C. J. Crossland



Organic chemicals in sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludges are residues resulting from the treatment of wastewater released from various sources including homes, industries, medical facilities, street runoff and businesses. Sewage sludges contain nutrients and organic matter that can provide soil benefits and are widely used as soil amendments. They also, however, contain contaminants including metals, pathogens, and organic pollutants. Although current regulations require pathogen reduction and

Ellen Z. Harrison; Summer Rayne Oakes; Matthew Hysell; Anthony Hay



Antisense suppression of proline degradation improves tolerance to freezing and salinity in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis, degradation, and transport of proline (Pro) are thought to cooperatively control its endogenous levels in higher plants in response to environmental conditions. To evaluate the function of Pro degradation in the regulation of the levels of Pro and to elucidate roles of Pro in stress tolerance, we generated antisense transgenic Arabidopsis plants with an AtProDH cDNA encoding proline dehydrogenase

Tokihiko Nanjo; Masatomo Kobayashi; Yoshu Yoshiba; Yoshitaka Kakubari; Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki; Kazuo Shinozaki



Reuse of water treatment works sludge to enhance particulate pollutant removal from sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempted to study the feasibility of reusing water treatment works sludge (“alum sludge”) to improve particulate pollutant removal from sewage. The main issues focused upon were: (1) the appropriate dosage of the alum sludge, (2) the appropriate operating conditions, and (3) the possible mechanisms for enhancement by adding alum sludge. Actual alum sludge and sewage were applied to

Xiao-Hong Guan; Guang-Hao Chen; Chii Shang



Improved xenobiotic-degrading activity of Rhodococcus opacus strain 1cp after dormancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of the present work were as follows: to obtain the dormant forms of R. opacus 1cp; to study the phenotypic variability during their germination; to compare phenotypic variants during the growth on selective and elective media; and to reveal changes in the ability of the strain to destruct xenobiotics that had not been degradable before dormancy. It was

Inna P. Solyanikova; Andrej L. Mulyukin; Natalja E. Suzina; Galina I. El-Registan; Ludmila A. Golovleva



Screening for PGPR to improve growth of Cistus ladanifer seedlings for reforestation of degraded mediterranean ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening for PGPRs was carried out in the rhizosphere of wild populations of Cistus ladanifer. Two hundred and seventy bacteria were isolated, purified and grouped by morphological criteria. Fifty percent of the isolates were selected and tested for aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACC) degradation, auxin and siderophore production and phosphate solubilisation. Fifty-eight percent of the isolates showed at least one of

M. T. Pereyra de la Iglesia; A. Probanza; J. A. Lucas García; M. Megías; F. J. Gutierrez Mañero



The importance of pathogenic organisms in sewage and sewage sludge.  


Deficient sanitation poses a serious threat to human and animal health, involving complex relationships between environments, animals, refuse, food, pathogens, parasites, and man. However, by sanitizing and stabilizing the organic matter of sewage sludge, agriculture can utilize it to maintain soil, water, and air quality. As ingredients in soil amendments, such bioresidues are a source of nutrients for plants. Stabilization and sanitation of sewage sludge safely couple its recycling and disposal. This coupling becomes increasingly important as economic and environmental constraints make strategies for waste disposal more difficult to apply. The occurrence of viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and zooparasites in sewage sludge is reviewed in this article, and consequential epidemiologic concerns that arise from sewage sludge recycling is also addressed. PMID:11417676

Dumontet, S; Scopa, A; Kerje, S; Krovacek, K



The dissipation of phosphorus in sewage and sewage effluents.  


Of the 41 kt of phosphorus reaching the sewage works in England and Wales 15 kt is removed in sewage sludge and the remainder is disposed of to rivers. 60% of the sewage sludge is now used as fertilizer and this proportion will no doubt increase in the future. The total use of sewage sludge, however, represents only about 5% of the current annual usage of artificial phosphorus fertilizer. At present there is no general economic incentive to make better use of the phosphorus in effluents. Phosphorus removal is expensive--about 2--3 pence/m3. If all the sewage effluents in England and Wales were to be so treated the cost would be about 100--150 million pounds annually, that is about 50% of the present costs of sewage treatment. In certain cases, but rarely in the UK, phosphate is removed, not to conserve phosphorus but to minimize the problems it creates in the environment. The phosphorus removed has little value as fertilizer. Alternative methods of using the phosphorus in effluents by the production and harvesting of crops of algae or aquatic plants have so far proved uneconomic. However, these methods need to be reviewed periodically as they may in the future become economically more attractive, especially in warmer climates where plant growth can be maintained throughout the year. PMID:357121

Collingwood, R W



EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...


Sewage Sludge Pathogen Transport Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, ra...



Improved performance of degraded solar arrays at non-zero sun incidence angles  

SciTech Connect

A silicon solar array was flown in a high-radiation orbit with thin cover glasses. As a result, severe radiation degradation occurred. It was discovered that as degradation proceeded, the maximum array output current was obtained for sun incidence angles other than O deg for some bus voltages. Optimum angles as high as 38 deg have been observed. The analysis reported herein was undertaken in order to quantitatively explain the observed sun angle and bus voltage dependence of the array current. The resulting model, which includes temperature and radiation effects on the solar cell properties, was able to account for all of the flight data that have been collected, and can be used for power management planning purposes on this vehicle.

Marvin, D.C.



Partial oxidation of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

A process is described comprising: (1) splitting a stream of dewatered sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 17-40 wt.% into a first stream and a second stream; (2) drying the first stream of dewatered sewage sludge to produce a stream of dried sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 75-99 wt.%: (3) grinding the dried sewage sludge from (2) to a particle size so that 100 wt% passes through ASTM E11 Standard Sieve Designation 1.40 mm; (4) mixing about 2-8 parts by dry weight aqueous slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel having a solids content of about 50-70 wt. % with each part by weight of said second stream of dewatered sewage sludge from (1); (5) heating the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry from (4) to a temperature of about 140-212 F; and mixing together 3-9 parts by dry weight of the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage sludge slurry from (4) with each part by weight of dried sewage sludge from (2) to produce a pumpable fuel slurry comprising sewage sludge and solid carbonaceous fuel and having a solids content in the range of about 45-70 wt. %; and (6) reacting the fuel slurry from (5) in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator at a temperature in the range of about 1800-3500 F and a pressure in the range of about 1-35 atmospheres, and in the presence of free-oxygen containing gas, thereby producing a hot raw effluent gas stream of synthesis gas, reducing gas or fuel gas; (7) cooling, cleaning and purifying said raw effluent gas stream to produce a stream of fuel gas; (8) burning the fuel gas from (7) with air in a combustor of a gas turbine, and passing the hot exhaust gas through an expansion turbine which drives an electric generator; and (9) passing the hot exhaust gas from (8) in indirect heat exchange with water to produce steam for use in drying said first stream of dewatered sewage sludge in (2) and/or for heating said solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry is (5) by indirect heat exchange.

McMahon, M.A.; Martin, M.C.; McKenzie, K.W.



Screening for PGPR to improve growth of Cistus ladanifer seedlings for reforestation of degraded mediterranean ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening for PGPRs was carried out in the rhizosphere of wild populations of Cistus ladanifer. Two hundred and seventy bacteria were isolated, purified and grouped by morphological criteria. Fifty percent of the isolates\\u000a were selected and tested for aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACC) degradation, auxin and siderophore production and phosphate\\u000a solubilisation. Fifty-eight percent of the isolates showed at least one of

B. Ramos Solano; M. T. Pereyra de la Iglesia; A. Probanza; J. A. Lucas García; M. Megías; F. J. Gutierrez Mañero


Improvement of environmental degradation resistance of Fe–Al-based alloys by surface modification treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of surface modifications on the resistance of environmental degradation of an Fe–18Al–0.1Nb–2Si alloy was investigated. A variety of surface modification techniques including electroplating, electroless plating, magnetron sputtering, fluidized bed and pack cementation were applied to the alloy to produce various protective coatings. The result of electrochemical hydrogen permeation tests showed that the specimens with a Ni-coating by a

Pee-Yew Lee; Liu-Ho Chiu; Chih-Fu Yang; Wei-Der Chen; Wu Kai; Jinn P. Chu



Reduction of entanglement degradation and teleportation improvement in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bipartite entanglement for states of a non-interacting bosonic or fermionic\\u000afield in the spacetime of a spherically symmetric black hole of\\u000aEinstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, is investigated. Although the initial state is\\u000achosen to be maximally entangled as the Bell states, the Hawking-Unruh effect\\u000acauses the state to be mixed and the entanglement degrades, but with different\\u000aasymptotic behaviors for the fermionic

Bahram Nasr Esfahani; Mahmoud Shamirzai; Morteza Soltani



Sewage disposal system and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The system includes transport means to carry sewage to holding pits or tanks in open areas remote from community and delivery from tanks to tunnels plowed in ground. Transport may be by tankers or pipeline. Tender tankers receive batches of sewage from storage tanks and deliver to field where tractors pull frames with depending plow members which produce tunnels in ground with narrow slashes or crevices extending to surface. Frames carry manifolds and discharge conduits to deliver sewage to tunnels. Tender tankers arranged beside tractors have supply conduits connecting them to manifolds, with pumps in conduits to produce continuous flow. Tankers travel in synchronism with tractors and deliver sewage to tunnels as they are formed. Compacting rollers pulled behind frames close crevices directly after they are formed by plow, and sewage is sealed into ground. The sewage provides moisture, nutrients, and humus at a proper sub-surface level to support crop growth for a year or more, and the same ground may be used for repeated disposals at suitable intervals.

Danford, J.D.



The use of sewage sludge and horticultural waste to develop artificial soil for plant cultivation in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse pot experiments were performed with Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) to evaluate artificial soil produced from poor fertility subsoil, horticultural compost, and sewage sludge. The addition of horticultural compost and sewage sludge to subsoil substantially improved plant growth, improved the physical properties of subsoil and enriched subsoil by essential nutrients for plants. The effect was enhanced when the two ingredients

O. Stabnikova; W.-K. Goh; H.-B. Ding; J.-H. Tay; J.-Y. Wang



Influence of sewage and pharmaceuticals on soil microbial function.  


Although sewage effluent application to land is a common approach to recycle water and provide nutrients to plants, bioactive pharmaceuticals contained in sewage may change soil quality by affecting soil microbial communities. Establishing causal effects, however, is difficult, because trace levels of pharmaceuticals are confounded with other effluent constituents. Therefore, two originally similar soil microbial communities, one irrigated in situ with sewage effluent for 12 years and another nonirrigated, were exposed to high levels of acetaminophen, aspirin, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, and tetracycline. The objectives of the current study were to determine the influence of high levels of pharmaceuticals on several soil microbial properties, the effect that prolonged effluent irrigation with ambient levels of pharmaceuticals had on soil microbial function, and how this effect would change in response to pharmaceutical exposure. Several pharmaceuticals, at high exposure levels, imposed stress on the soil microbial community as judged by increased CO(2) respiration, decreased biomass carbon, and altered substrate utilization affinities. Prolonged effluent irrigation, which altered the genetic fingerprint of the microbial community, also mitigated the response that exposure to pharmaceuticals had on the microbial community and enabled degradation of the antimicrobial salicylic acid after aspirin exposure. In conclusion, prolonged irrigation with sewage effluent containing pharmaceuticals at ambient levels influenced the microbial community so that they were able to better cope with sudden exposure to high levels of pharmaceuticals. PMID:21312249

Gielen, Gerty J H P; Clinton, Peter W; Van den Heuvel, Michael R; Kimberley, Mark O; Greenfield, Laurie G



Marine sewage disposal  

SciTech Connect

An activated sludge marine sewage disposal apparatus is described that includes an aeration chamber immediately adjacent to a flooded settling tank, rising above a disinfectant chamber and a holding chamber disposed around the lower part of the tank. Flow from the aeration chamber to the settling tank is through a port in the common wall between the aeration chamber and settling tank, and up inside a pond separated from the rest of the tank by a downwardly flaring baffle of skirt depending from the top of the tank. A single shimmer at the center of the area at the top of the pond picks up floating solids and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber. A vent disposed directly over the shimmer continuously draws off air and gas to the aeration chamber. A sludge return line picks up heavy solids for the bottom of the tank and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber through a riser located in the aeration chamber. Liquid in the settling tank flows out through a submerged perforated pipe into a standpipe in the aeration chamber, with is located centrally in the aeration chamber, and overflows through an inverted U tube, vented to the aeration chamber, the tube connecting to a downcomer sending the liquid back through the common wall to the disinfectant compartment. When sufficient volume of fluid accumulates in the disinfectant compartment, it overflows into a holding tank, from which it emerges via a port.

Sullivan, D.W.



SNG from refuse and sewage sludge by the BIOGAS process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory, small pilot, and field work on the development of a process for the gasification of municipal solid wastes and sewage sludge has had a number of objectives. These include increasing the production of methane and the solids destruction efficiency; cost reduction; evaluating, selecting, and integrating unit operations; and improving the overall process design. Out of this work has evolved

S. Ghosh; D. L. Klass



Dual Delivery of Hepatocyte and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors via a Protease-Degradable Hydrogel Improves Cardiac Function in Rats  

PubMed Central

Acute myocardial infarction (MI) caused by ischemia and reperfusion (IR) is the most common cause of cardiac dysfunction due to local cell death and a temporally regulated inflammatory response. Current therapeutics are limited by delivery vehicles that do not address spatial and temporal aspects of healing. The aim of this study was to engineer biotherapeutic delivery materials to harness endogenous cell repair to enhance myocardial repair and function. We have previously engineered poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels to present cell adhesive motifs and deliver VEGF to promote vascularization in vivo. In the current study, bioactive hydrogels with a protease-degradable crosslinker were loaded with hepatocyte and vascular endothelial growth factors (HGF and VEGF, respectively) and delivered to the infarcted myocardium of rats. Release of both growth factors was accelerated in the presence of collagenase due to hydrogel degradation. When delivered to the border zones following ischemia-reperfusion injury, there was no acute effect on cardiac function as measured by echocardiography. Over time there was a significant increase in angiogenesis, stem cell recruitment, and a decrease in fibrosis in the dual growth factor delivery group that was significant compared with single growth factor therapy. This led to an improvement in chronic function as measured by both invasive hemodynamics and echocardiography. These data demonstrate that dual growth factor release of HGF and VEGF from a bioactive hydrogel has the capacity to significantly improve cardiac remodeling and function following IR injury.

Boopathy, Archana V.; Che, Pao-lin; Brown, Milton; Garcia, Andres J.; Davis, Michael E.



Solvent effects and improvements in the deoxyribose degradation assay for hydroxyl radical-scavenging.  


The deoxyribose degradation assay is widely used to evaluate the hydroxyl (OH) radical-scavenging ability of food or medicines. We compared the hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity of 25 antioxidant samples prepared in ethanol solution with samples prepared after removing the ethanol (residue). The data suggested that there was an approximately 9-fold difference between assay results for the ethanol solution and residue samples. This indicated a strong alcoholic interference. To further study the mechanism, the scavenging activities of 18 organic solvents (including ethanol) were measured by the deoxyribose assay. Most pure organic solvents (especially alcohols) could effectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. As hydroxyl radicals have extremely high reactivities, they will quickly react with surrounding solvent molecules. This shows that any organic solvent should be completely evaporated before measurement. The proposed method is regarded as a reliable hydroxyl radical-scavenging assay, suitable for all types of antioxidants. PMID:23870931

Li, Xican



Vermitechnology for sewage sludge recycling.  


The present paper is aimed at safe reuse and recycling of sewage sludge (SS) and production of good quality compost using vermicomposting. Three different earthworm species Eiseniafetida (E. fetida), Eudrilus eugeniae (E. eugeniae), Perionyx excavatus (P. excavatus) in individual and combinations were utilized to compare the suitability of worm species for composting of sewage sludge as well as the quality of the end product. The sewage sludge without blending can be directly converted into good quality fertilizer (vermicompost). Vermicomposting resulted in reduction in C/N ratio 25.6 to 6-9, TOC (25%) but increase in electrical conductivity (EC) (47-51%), total nitrogen (TN) (2.4-2.8 times), potassium (45-71%), calcium (49-62%), sodium (62-82%) and total phosphorous (TP) (1.5-1.8 times), which indicated that sewage sludge can be recycled as a good quality fertilizer. The present study also inferred that the application of sewage sludge in the agricultural fields after vermicomposting would not have any adverse effect as the heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are now within the permissible limits. PMID:18515003

Khwairakpam, Meena; Bhargava, Renu



Evaluation of forest trees growth after sewage sludge application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sewage sludge is extensively used in forest to improve soil properties. It is expected that sewage sludge rich in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic material enhance the germination of tree seedlings in poor soils. In Lithuania, the deforested soils are highly acid, and have a lack of nutrients, especially in exploited peat areas. Sewage sludge from industry contains beneficial components for the soils (such as organic matter, phosphorus, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, etc.). However, it is also rich in heavy metals, especially Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn. High heavy metals concentrations in soil can be phytotoxic and cause reduced plant growth or plant death. The main objectives of this research was to determine the influence of industrial sewage sludge in the forestry and to highlight the idea that industrial sewage sludge containing metals does not favour development of birch and pine trees. The study was performed in Taruskos experimental plot in Panevezys region (Lithuania), amended with industrial sewage sludge ten years ago was afforestated with birch and pine seedlings. In order to observe the effects of the amendment in accumulation the mentioned metals and tree growth we collected data from trees in amended plot and control plot. The results showed that soil parameters were improved in the amended plot, in comparing with control site (higher pH, organic matter and cation exchange capacity). However, the growth of investigated trees was slower (e.g. birch roots, shoot, stem and leaves biomass was 40, 7.4, 18.6, 22% smaller than in control site. In pine case: 30, 1.2, 17, 36%, respectively; the stem height of birch was 16% and pine - 12% smaller than in control site). This reduced growth can be related with heavy metals concentration load on soil and accumulation in trees. Cu and Cd concentrations were higher in soil amended with sewage sludge comparing with control site (60 and 36%, respectively). Also, in contaminated trees Cu and Cd concentrations were higher (Cu - 37% in birch and 27% in pine shoots; 6% in birch and 73% in pine roots; Cd was 3% in birch and 1.4% in pine shoots; 53% in birch and 24% in pine roots). Our results showed that the sewage sludge applied from industrial sources was not effective to improve tree growth, despite the fact, that it revealed positive effects on forest soil properties.

Vaitkutä--, Dovilé; Balträ--Naitä--, Edita; Booth, Colin A.; Fullen, Michael A.; Pereira, Paulo



Nomination Guidance: Beneficial Sewage Sludge Use Awards Program for Operating Projects, Technology Development, Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the awards program is to encourage the development and use of cost-effective and environmentally safe sewage sludge beneficial use practices which recycle nutrients, improve soil conditions or otherwise conserve valuable natural resources. ...



33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel...307 Untreated sewage. No person shall...discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable waters of...



33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel...307 Untreated sewage. No person shall...discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable waters of...



Isolation and preliminary characterization of a 3-chlorobenzoate degrading bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to compare the diversity of 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorobenzoate degraders in two pristine soils and one contaminated sewage sludge. These samples contained strikingly different populations of mono-chlorobenzoate degraders. Although fewer cultures were isolated in the uncontaminated soils than contaminated one, the ability of microbial populations to mineralize chlorobenzoate was widespread. The 3- and 4-chlorobenzoate degraders were

Yun QI; Lin ZHAO; Z. Olusheyi OJEKUNLE; Xin TAN



Bioremediation as an efficient method to degrade creosote and improve groundwater quality  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogeologic monitoring evaluation was conducted to determine the efficiency of bioremediation on a site at which creosote is used for pressure treating and wood preservation. Initially, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and diesel fuel were incorporated with the creosote. The waste water generated from the process was disposed of in three unlined surface impoundments until 1982. Thirteen monitoring wells were installed between August 1981 and the first half of 1982 where both PCP and creosote releases were found and attributed to the impoundments. A groundwater quality assessment program was initiated in April 1986 and a subsequent pilot groundwater remediation program begun in February 1987. A Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been in operation since August 1987 and was designed to remediate groundwater from the uppermost water-bearing sand (Bentley sand), which was affected by the impoundment areas. With the CAP, a system of 21 recovery wells set in 4 lines were implemented to withdraw the groundwater. The groundwater was then treated in above-ground bioreactors where microorganisms were introduced to degrade the creosote compounds. Treated groundwater was then discharged to the public waste-water facility or injected to recharge the Bentley sands by the use of either of the two recharge trenches. Both nutrients and oxygen were added to the water prior to injection to increase the in-situ bioremediation of the creosote and PCP contaminants via two air sparging lines. The results demonstrate the reduction of creosote constituents from the groundwater with the use of bioremediation.

Newbern, V.A. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)



Dewatering behavior of sewage screenings.  


Screenings from municipal sewage treatment plants have increased in importance in recent years, particularly in Germany, where laws prohibit depositing of screenings in landfill. This paper presents basic investigations of sewage screenings, especially the structure and dewatering behavior. Two standard experiments are conducted. First, the relationship between pressure and water content is determined. Secondly the flow resistance as a function of pressure is evaluated. The results help to derive simulation models in order to understand how the material behaves inside a wash press. PMID:23374399

Gregor, H; Rupp, W; Janoske, U; Kuhn, M



On the Prediction of Mechanical Behavior of Particulate Composites Using an Improved Modulus Degradation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

New micromechanical models for the prediction of particulate composite mechanical behavior have been developed. The models use an energy balance concept to account for nonlinear behavior due to particle debonding and incorporate a composite modulus prediction routine based on an improved Mori-Tanaka method. This method permits particle interaction effects to be taken into account and allows the stiffness matrix for

F. C. Wong; A. Ait Kadi




EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to characterize the chemical properties of municipal sewage sludges, to evaluate the fate of sludge components in soils, and to determine the distribution of trace metals in milling fractions of grains grown on sludge-treated soils....


Improvement of luminescence degradation in pure water of nanocrystalline silicon particles covered by a hydrogenated amorphous carbon layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of luminescence in pure water of surface-modified nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) particles has been studied. The surfaces of nc-Si particles were modified with more stable silicon-oxygen (Si-O) and silicon-carbon (Si-C) bonds by the formation of a thin native oxide layer and a hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) layer consisting of both disordered regions and graphite bands. The peak position of luminescence in pure water of the sample with the a-C:H layer was similar to that in the sample without the a-C:H layer. Moreover, the degradation rate of the luminescence intensity of the sample with the a-C:H layer was less than that of the sample without the a-C:H layer, for immersion in pure water above 100 h. The luminescence in pure water of the a-C:H coated sample could be seen with the naked eye even after aging for 200 h. The degradation of the luminescence in pure water can be improved remarkably by the formation of Si-O and Si-C bonds with strong bond strengths on the surfaces of the nc-Si particles.

Sato, Keisuke; Kishimoto, Naoki; Oku, Takahiro; Hirakuri, Kenji



Coincident Cost Improvement vs. Degradation by Adding Connections to Noncooperative Networks and Distributed Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In computer and transportation networks, we consider the situation where each user has its own routing or load balancing decision\\u000a and seeks to minimize noncooperatively the expected passage time of its packet or job, given the routing or load balancing\\u000a decisions of other users. Intuitively, it is anticipated that adding connections to such a noncooperative system may bring\\u000a cost improvement

Hisao Kameda



Study of evolution of PCDD\\/F in sewage sludge-amended soils for land restoration purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) in sewage sludge-amended soils used in the restoration of degraded lands, like quarries, has been studied. Two experiments were performed: one in the lab, under controlled conditions, and another in a quarry. Two different doses of sewage sludge were applied in both experiments (with two types of application in the

L. Molina; J. D??az-Ferrero; M. Coll; R. Mart??; F. Broto-Puig; L. Comellas; M. C. Rodr??guez-Larena



Study on the effect and mechanism of hydrothermal pretreatment of dewatered sewage sludge cake for dewaterability.  


In China, over 17 million tons dewatered sewage sludge cake (DSSC), with about 80% water content, was generated from wastewater treatment plants in 2010. High water content is the bottleneck of sludge treatment and disposal. In this study, the combination of hydrothermal and mechanical treatments has been chosen in order to improve sludge dewaterability. Sludge thermogravimetry analysis was conducted to determine 180 degrees C as the upper-limit hydrothermal temperature. Five temperatures (60, 80, 120, 150, 180 degrees C) were chosen to study the effects of hydrothermal treatment temperature and the holding time on dewaterability. The higher the hydrothermal temperature, the better was the dewaterability character. The water contents of solid products were positively correlated with the hydrothermal holding time at predetermined temperatures in this study. Degradation of macromolecules into acidic compounds could be the reason of pH decrease of separated liquid. Destruction of zoogloe and decomposition of organic matters improved the sludge dewaterability. Sludge dewaterability experiencing hydrothermal processes in this study was negatively correlated with extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content. With the rising temperature, sludge flocculate disaggregated to small particles generally, this could also be one of the important reasons for sludge dewaterability. Implications: High water content is the bottleneck of sludge treatment and disposal. Up to now, only a small amount of research has been conducted to determine whether the dewaterability of dewatered sewage sludge cake can be improved by hydrothermal pretreatment. The mechanism of sludge dewaterability by hydrothermal pretreatment is uncertain. In this study, a new sludge disposal method and corresponding parameters were given. The mechanism of sludge dewaterability was analyzed extensively by extracellular polymeric substances, scanning electron microscope images, element contents, and caloric values, etc. This study will be helpful for knowing about sludge hydrothermal pretreatment technology and its mechanism. PMID:24010381

Zhu, Ying; Han, Zhe; Liu, Xiuyu; Li, Jing; Liu, Feng; Feng, Suping



Parameters optimization of interferometric fiber optic gyroscope for improvement of random walk coefficient degradation in space radiation environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A random walk coefficient (RWC) prediction model of interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG) in radiation environment has been developed, combining a radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) model of fiber and a RWC expression of digital closed-loop IFOG, and verified by the radiation experiments results of two fiber coils and an experimental IFOG. Using the RWC prediction model the effects of source power, fiber length and modulation phase on the RWC of IFOG were investigated in space radiation environments. Based on the prediction model and its parameters analysis, a parameters optimization method was proposed for IFOG design to improve the RWC degradation in space radiation environments. Finally, the three parameters of the experimental IFOG were redesigned according to the optimization method.

Jin, Jing; Lin, Song



Comparison of six sewage effluents treated with different treatment technologies—Population level responses in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since conventional treatment technologies may fail in removing many micro-pollutants, there is currently a focus on the potential of additional treatment technologies for improved sewage treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate six different effluents from Henriksdal Sewage Treatment Plant in Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were; conventionally treated effluent (chemical phosphorous removal in combination with an activated

Elin Lundström; Berndt Björlenius; Markus Brinkmann; Henner Hollert; Jan-Olov Persson; Magnus Breitholtz



Incineration system for sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incineration system consists of a sludge dryer, a cyclone separator unit, an incomplete combustion incinerator, a complete combustion incinerator with a heat exchanger, a heat exchanger and so forth and comprises gas circulation passage involving the units above in order to burn sewage sludge economically without any additional fuel except for starting up thereof, with stable heat balancing in




Improved Enrichment and Isolation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)Degrading Microorganisms in Soil Using Anthracene as a Model PAH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of attention to soil and microbial characteristics that influence PAHs degradation has been a leading cause of failures\\u000a in isolation of efficient PAH degraders and bioaugumentation processes with microbial consortia. This study compared the classic\\u000a method of isolation of PAHs-degraders with a modified method employing a pre-enrichment respirometric analysis. The modified\\u000a enrichment of PAH degrading microorganisms using in vitro

Rodrigo J. S. Jacques; Benedict C. Okeke; Fátima M. Bento; Maria C. R. Peralba; Flávio A. O. Camargo



Membrane separation to improve degradation of road side grass by rumen enhanced solid incubation.  


Membrane separation proved to be an excellent means to maintain high residence time of microorganisms in an anaerobic hydrolysis reactor, and relatively low concentration of hydrolysis products. The microbial biocommunity typical for the rumen environment could be maintained, and the reactor efficiency of the reactor improved. Less than 4 days were reqired to reach almost complete hydrolysis of the grass fed into the reactor. To avoid blocking of the membrane unit, a backwash system is necessary. The membranes needed to be backwashed every 20 min with 4 bar gas-pressure for 10 s. After this treatment the initial permeability was regained. The plant was operated with a flux of 12 ml h(-1) cm(-2) on average. The transmembrane pressure was in the range of 0.8-0.9 bar. 90% of the dissolved fatty acids permeated through the membrane. PMID:14531435

Dalhoff, R; Rababah, A; Sonakya, V; Raizada, N; Wilderer, P A



Ozone treatment of organic micro-pollutants in sewage sludge.  


Organic micro-pollutants accumulate to a certain extent in sewage sludge and are therefore ecologically relevant if the sludge is to be reused in both agriculture and landscaping applications. This paper describes the degradation of endocrine-disrupting compounds and other micro-contaminants by means of ozone and ultrasonic treatment. One of the findings is that, as expected, aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be degraded easily by ozone. Thus it could be shown that, apart from enhanced VSS reduction and increased biogas production, sludge disintegration processes using ozone provide an additional benefit, i.e. the degradation of micro-pollutants, which is practically unattainable with ultrasonic treatment. PMID:20489266

Lahnsteiner, J; Vranitzky, R



Fermentation of cellulose and fatty acids with enrichments from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed culture enriched from sewage sludge and anaerobic digestor effluent was able to degrade cellulose and acetate rapidly and quantitatively to methane and carbon dioxide. The maximum specific rate of gas production was 87 ml\\/gm cell-h, corresponding to a rate of cellulose utilization of 0.1 g\\/g cells-h. Acetate, an intermediate in cellulose degradation, was fermented much more rapidly than

Josef U. Winter; Charles L. Cooney



Genetic diversity of noroviruses in raw and treated sewage water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human noroviruses cause gastroenteritis in humans, leading to high virus loads in sewage. Norovirus concentrations in raw and treated sewage samples from two sewage treatment plants (STP) were studied, along with virus removal and genetic diversity. Over one year, the average norovirus concentrations in raw sewage were approximately 105 pcr detectable units (pdu) per liter compared with 103 pdu\\/l of treated sewage.

Harold van den Berg; Willemijn Lodder; Wim van der Poel; Harry Vennema; Ana Maria de Roda Husman



Malachite Green-INT (MINT)MethodforDetermining Active Bacteria inSewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

tetrazo- liumchloride (INT)and,after fixation, passed through membrane filters. Filters were counterstained withmalachite greenandthen were examined bybright-field microscopy. Thecontrast between bacteria andthefilter background was greatly improved bydrying andthenclearing thefilter before counterstaining. Bythis method, itwas found that active bacterial fractions inraw sewage,settled sewage, andsecondary effluent were 40,29,and58%,respectively, whereas thepropor- tion ofrespiring bacteria inchlorinated secondary effluent was 6.1%.Theactive bacterial fraction ofactivated sludge was




Sewage sludge treatment with lime.  


The article describes the application of lime as a method for treatment and hygienisation of sewage sludges with lime products such as quicklime, slake lime and dolomitic lime. As a result of the increase in temperature and pH-value during sludge and lime mixing most pathogenic vectors of disease (i.e. bacteria, worms, viruses and parasites) are reduced in concentration and viability to manufacture a safe product for further application on agricultural land. PMID:10842835

Herbst, B



The production, use and quality of sewage sludge in Denmark  

SciTech Connect

In Denmark, the production of municipal sewage sludge decreased from approximately 170,000 ton d.m. in 1994 to 140,000 ton d.m. in 2002. The sludge is handled and treated in a number of ways. The quality of Danish sludge has steadily improved since the middle of the 1980s, when the first set of quality criteria for heavy metals was introduced. In 1997, cut-off criteria for the organic pollutants, LAS, DEHP, nonylphenol and PAHs were introduced. Effective control from authorities, voluntary phasing out agreements with industry, improved source identification tools, better handling and after-care methods have in combination with higher waste duties led to a significant reduction in the sludge level of especially cadmium, mercury, chromium, LAS and nonylphenol. The increased quality demand has, nevertheless, also led to a minor reduction in the use of sewage sludge as organic fertiliser on agricultural land.

Jensen, John [National Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark)]. E-mail:; Jepsen, Svend-Erik [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Strandgade 29, DK-1401 Copenhagen K (Denmark)



Smurf2-mediated degradation of EZH2 enhances neuron differentiation and improves functional recovery after ischaemic stroke.  


EZH2 plays an important role in stem cell renewal and maintenance by inducing gene silencing via its histone methyltransferase activity. Previously, we showed that EZH2 downregulation enhances neuron differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs); however, the underlying mechanisms of EZH2-regulated neuron differentiation are still unclear. Here, we identify Smurf2 as the E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for the polyubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of EZH2, which is required for neuron differentiation. A ChIP-on-chip screen combined with gene microarray analysis revealed that PPAR? was the only gene involved in neuron differentiation with significant changes in both its modification and expression status during differentiation. Moreover, knocking down PPAR? prevented cells from undergoing efficient neuron differentiation. In animal model, rats implanted with intracerebral EZH2-knocked-down hMSCs or hMSCs plus treatment with PPAR? agonist (rosiglitazone) showed better improvement than those without EZH2 knockdown or rosiglitazone treatment after a stroke. Together, our results support Smurf2 as a regulator of EZH2 turnover to facilitate PPAR? expression, which is specifically required for neuron differentiation, providing a molecular mechanism for clinical applications in the neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23526793

Yu, Yung-Luen; Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Wu, Chen-Shiou; Chiang, Shu-Ya; Chang, Wei-Jung; Chen, Jia-Ni; Tseng, Yen-Ju; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Wei; Yeh, Su-Peng; Hsu, Jennifer L; Yang, Cheng-Chieh; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Hung, Mien-Chie



Effects of the closure of a major sewage outfall on sublittoral, soft sediment benthic communities.  


The present study examines the benthos within western inner Swansea Bay (Wales, UK), for the period before, during and immediately after the cessation of a major, sewage discharge from Mumbles Head. There have been significant improvements in seawater quality and changes in the species composition of the benthic communities following the cessation of the sewage discharge. There has been an increase in the diversity of deposit feeders, especially the amphipods, and a decrease in the diversity of the filter feeders, especially the polychaetes. Changes are not attributable either to sediment organic matter content or to gross changes in sediment type, but are related to the significant reduction in suspended particulate organic material and sewage contaminants discharged to the Bay. A recovery model has been proposed to describe how soft sediment benthic communities in a shallow, sublittoral, high tidal energy environment respond to the abrupt cessation of a major sewage discharge. PMID:16321404

Smith, Julie; Shackley, Susan E



Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory

Renuka Gupta; V. K. Garg



Quality requirements for irrigation with sewage water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation is an excellent use for sewage effluent because it is mostly water with nutrients. For small flows, the effluent can be used on special, well-supervised sewage farms, where forage, fiber, or seed crops are grown that can be irrigated with standard primary or secondary effluent. Large-scale use of the effluent requires special treatment so that it meets the public

Herman Bouwer; Emanuel Idelovitch




PubMed Central

Economy and conservation have worked for years at the problem of profit from sewage. Mr. Weston notes that many American cities have potential by-products enough to make recovery worth trying. English cities have found the American Miles process profitable. It will at least lessen the cost of sewage disposal.

Weston, Robert Spurr



Treatment and reuse of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was treated using composting, fixed-bed and stirred anaerobic digesters. The treatment performance in terms of the physico chemical parameters, bacterial indicators and pathogenic forms were assessed. In addition, the biogas production rate was recorded in the case of anaerobic digesters. Composting of the sewage sludge increased its total solids from 39 to 93% after 6 weeks, while the

Fayza A. Nasr



Revisiting Methanotrophic Communities in Sewage Treatment Plants  

PubMed Central

The methanotrophic potential in sewage treatment sludge was investigated. We detected a diverse aerobic methanotrophic community that potentially plays a significant role in mitigating methane emission in this environment. The results suggest that community structure was determined by conditions specific to the processes in a sewage treatment plant.

Vlaeminck, Siegfried E.; Ettwig, Katharina F.; Schneider, Bellinda; Frenzel, Peter



Mortality among Paris sewage workers  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the mortality of Paris sewage workers. Methods A cohort of all Paris sewage workers since 1970 was established and followed up in mortality until 1999. The causes of death were determined by matching with a national database. The mortality rates were compared to the rates of a local reference population. Results A large excess in mortality (standardised mortality ratio (SMR)?=?1.25; 530 cases, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.36) and in particular mortality from cancer (SMR?=?1.37, 235 cases) was detected which was particularly important in the subgroup of subjects who had left employment because they resigned or were laid off (SMR?=?1.77; 50 cases). The excess mortality is to a large extent due to alcohol related diseases (SMR?=?1.65, 122 cases) especially malignant (SMR?=?1.85, 16 cases) and non?malignant (SMR?=? 1.68, 38 cases) liver diseases, lung cancer (SMR?=?1.47, 68 cases), and infectious diseases (SMR?=? 1.86, 25 cases). The SMRs for some diseases (all cancers, cancers of the oesophagus and lung, all alcohol related diseases) seem to increase with duration of employment as a sewage worker. Other than lung cancer, smoking related diseases were not in excess. Conclusion The increased mortality by both malignant and non?malignant liver diseases is probably due to excessive alcohol consumption, but could be partially the result of occupational exposure to chemical and infectious agents and interactions of these factors. The excess lung cancer is unlikely to be due to an increased smoking prevalence.

Wild, P; Ambroise, D; Benbrik, E; Tiberguent, A; Massin, N



Boston Harbor sewage stack (for microcomputers). Software  

SciTech Connect

The Boston Harbor Sewage Stack is interactive educational computer program about how municipalities deal with sewage, how sewage systems work, non point pollution, and what citizens can do to help - focusing on Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Cleanup. The program is written at a level accessible to middle-school students, but with enough depth for adults. Schools and environmental organizations, especially in coastal areas, will find this program a useful addition to their environmental education offerings. The program shows what happens to sewage - from the moment of flush to its passage through the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's sewage system and into Boston Harbor - now and as the cleanup proceeds. Users encounter topics for exploration, including storm sewers and combined sewer overflows (CSOs); non point pollution from pets, spilled waste oil, lawn and garden chemicals, and other sources; what not to flush and why; how officials can tell if water is polluted; and why it all matters.

Not Available



Persistence of enteroviruses in sewage sludge*  

PubMed Central

Sewage from residential areas often contains viruses pathogenic for man and significant amounts are probably associated with solids in sewage sludge. Information on the survival of viruses in sewage sludge is necessary in order to develop guidelines for recycling programmes that involve spreading the sludge on land. In the present study, a number of enteroviruses were added to sewage sludge and the artificially contaminated sludges were tested for viruses at intervals over a 12-week period. Most of the viruses survived for many weeks at room temperature. It is clear that sewage sludge destined for land application should be adequately treated for virus inactivation. In interpreting these results, it should be borne in mind that the survival of hepatitis A virus might be similar. Recent reports about the reappearance of poliomyelitis in regions with immunization programmes should also be taken into consideration.

Subrahmanyan, T. P.



Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  


A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)



Nutrient sequestration, biomass production by microalgae and phytoremediation of sewage water.  


The present work was aimed at analysing the role of inoculated microalgae in nutrient dynamics, bioremediation and biomass production of sewage water. Preliminary microscopic analyses of sewage water revealed the presence of different algal groups, with predominance of Cyanophyta. Among the inoculated strains, Calothrix showed highest dry cell weight (916.67 mg L(-1)), chlorophyll and carotenoid content in tap water + sewage water (1:1) treatment. Significant removal of NO3-N ranging from 57-78% and PO4-P (44-91%) was recorded in microalgae inoculated tap water + sewage water. The total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity of tap water + sewage water after incubation with Calothrix sp. decreased by 28.5 and 28.0%, accompanied by an increase in dissolved oxygen from 4.4 to 6.4 mg L(-1) on the 20th day. Our investigation revealed the robustness of Calothrix sp. in sequestering nutrients (N and P), improving water quality and proliferating in sewage water. PMID:23819275

Renuka, N; Sood, A; Ratha, S K; Prasanna, R; Ahluwalia, A S



Intestinal parasite carriage in workers exposed to sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of protozoan cysts and helminth eggs in sewage and the very low minimal infective doses of parasites suggest an occupational risk for workers exposed to sewage. The objective of this study was to assess this risk in a group of raw sewage–exposed workers. The relationship between sewage exposure and intestinal parasite carriage was estimated by a multiple cross-sectional

Olivier Schlosser; Dany Grall; Marie-Noëlle Laurenceau



Anaerobic Treatment of Domestic Sewage at Low Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this thesis was to asses the anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature and the possibilities to optimize the performance of high-rate anaerobic systems treating domestic sewage at low temperature.The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage and its fractions was investigated in batch experiments. The results showed a high potential of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage

T. A. Elmitwalli; G. Zeeman; G. Lettinga



Biogas production from Sludge of Sewage Treatment Plant at Haridwar (Uttarakhand)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, a source of non-conventional energy is produced by fermentation of sludges. The sewage have collected through sewage pumping stations and treated in the primary and secondary treatment steps in sewage treatment plant at Jagjitpur, Hardwar. The Sewage Treatment Plant receives approximately 40 mld sewage from different pumping stations and 18 mld sewage is used for treatment at sewage treatment

D. S. Malik; Umesh Bharti


Application of municipal sewage sludge in forest and degraded land  


... year in the USA by the more than 15,000 publicly owned treatment plants and the ... is an excellent organic amendment and chemical fertilizer for various plants . ... nutrients found in sludges, and that forests are not major contributors to food ...


Trace analysis of the antineoplastics ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide in sewage water by twostep solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive, specific and highly reproducible method for the analysis of the two antineoplastics, ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide, in sewage water at the ppt-level is presented. The method includes a two-step solid-phase extraction (SPE) on C18 and SiOH material and GC-MS analysis using single ion monitoring (SIM). The method was applied to degradational studies of the two drugs in laboratory-scale sewage

Thomas Steger-Hartmann; Klaus Kümmerer; Jörn Schecker



Mechanism of improvement of resistance degradation in Y-doped BaTiO 3 based MLCCs with Ni electrodes under highly accelerated life testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of improvement of resistance degradation in Y-doped BaTiO3 based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) with Ni electrodes has been studied using electrical measurement techniques, minor phase identification and the measurement of oxygen vacancy concentration. Admittance spectroscopy and thermally stimulated current measurements show the relaxation due to barium vacancy states caused by Y doping. The minor phase identification by XRD

Shigeki Sato; Yukie Nakano; Akira Sato; Takeshi Nomura



The improvement of boron-doped diamond anode system in electrochemical degradation of p-nitrophenol by zero-valent iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes are promising anode materials in electrochemical treatment of wastewaters containing bio-refractory organic compounds due to their strong oxidation capability and remarkable corrosion stability. In order to further improve the performance of BDD anode system, electrochemical degradation of p-nitrophenol were initially investigated at the BDD anode in the presence of zero-valent iron (ZVI). The results showed that

Xiuping Zhu; Jinren Ni


Inoculation with a mixed degrading culture improves the pesticide removal of an on-farm biopurification system.  


To investigate whether the pesticide removal in on-farm biopurification systems (BPS) filled with two different types of substrata (biomix and plastic carriers) is affected by inoculation with a pesticide-degrading strain or mixed culture, lab-scale BPS used to treat chloropropham point source contaminations were bioaugmented with either a specialized chloropropham-degrading strain or a chloropropham-degrading enrichment culture. Application of both inoculum types leads to an accelerated degradation activity in the columns filled with plastic carriers. For both substratum types, inoculation with the mixed culture resulted in a lower breakthrough of the toxic intermediate 3-chloroaniline at high hydraulic loads, compared to inoculation with the pure isolate and no inoculation. This study suggests that the use of plastic carrier materials could be a proficient alternative to the use of a conventional biomix as a substratum in on-farm BPS and that inoculation with a mixed degrading culture can reduce the leaching of more mobile toxic intermediates. PMID:23708426

Verhagen, Pieter; De Gelder, Leen; Boon, Nico



Microalgae cultured by sewage and organic constituents.  


The microalgae could be multiplied by supplying only sewage influent or effluent without any additional microalgal stock or nutrient salt. In a semicontinuous culture, the N:P weight ratios consumed were 14:1 and 18:1 for the sewage influent and effluent, respectively. The total cell number and green algae ratio of microalgae cultivated by semicontinuous culture exceeded those of batch culture. No cyanobacterial cells were observed in the semicontinuous culture using the sewage effluent. The organic components in the cultured microalgae using sewage effluent, eluted by n-hexane, were determined. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acid exceeded that of saturated fatty acid, which was possibly attributable to the fluidity of the cell membrane. The squalene was also obtained by the culture using sewage alone, free of any external stock or nutrient salt. The higher heating value of the microalgae of semicontinuous culture using the sewage influent was 25MJkg(-1), corresponding to the heating value of lignite and showing the potential of the sewage culture microalgae as a means of power generation and combustion aid. PMID:24059978

Inoue, Kenichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu



Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi


Determination of Carbon\\/Nitrogen Ratio and Heavy Metals in Bulking Agents Used for Sewage Composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving the soil quality with organic matter content and presence of elements such as N, P and K are some of sewage sludge benefits. Adjusting carbonaceous materials such as plant wastes to dewatered sludge compost increases its moisture and improves C\\/N ratio. So dewatered sludge has low C\\/N ratio and should be mixed with bulking agents. This study was performed

A Parvaresh; H Alidadi



Occurrence and elimination of antibiotics at four sewage treatment plants in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the occurrence and elimination of eight selected antibiotics mainly for human use, including chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolone, sulfonamide and macrolide groups, were investigated at four sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China. The most frequently detected antibiotics in the present study were ofloxacin, norfloxacin, roxithromycin, erythromycin-H2O (the main degradation product of erythromycin) and sulfamethoxazole.

Weihai Xu; Gan Zhang; Xiangdong Lib; Shichun Zou; Ping Li; Zhaohui Hua; Jun Li



Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation  

SciTech Connect

Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO[sub 2] evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans.

Black, W.; Zamora, J. (Middle Tennessee State Univ., Murfreesboro (United States))



Improved pulsed-field gel electrophoresis procedure for the analysis of Flavobacterium columnare isolates previously affected by DNA degradation.  


Flavobacterium columnare is a fresh water bacterium that causes columnaris diseases in over 36 fish species. Intra-species typing of F. columnare can be performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). However, this method is hampered by the degradation of chromosomal DNA in about 10% of strains. In the current study, DNA degradation problems caused by extracellular DNases were overcome by fixation of cells with formaldehyde prior to isolation. The results substantiate that after problems due to DNases are overcome, PFGE analysis is a reproducible highly discriminating epidemiological method for studying F. columnare isolates regardless of fish host. PMID:18023300

Soto, Esteban; Mauel, Michael; Lawrence, Mark



Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge management: A review.  


In this article, 35 published studies on life cycle assessment (LCA) of sewage sludge were reviewed for their methodological and technological assumptions. Overall, LCA has been providing a flexible framework to quantify environmental impacts of wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and disposal processes for multiple scales, ranging from process selection to policy evaluation. The results of LCA are, in principle, unique to the goal and scope of each study, reflecting its local conditions and comparison between different LCAs is not intended. Furthermore, the assessments are limited by the methodological development of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and the advancement of research in quantifying environmental emissions associated with wastewater and sewage sludge treatment processes. Thus, large discrepancies were found in the selection of the environmental emissions to be included and how they were estimated in the analysis. In order to reduce these choice uncertainties, consolidation of the modelling approach in the following area are recommended: quantification of fugitive gas emissions and modelling of disposal practices. Besides harmonization of the key technical assumptions, clear documentation of the modelling approach and the uncertainties associating with each assumption is encouraged so as to improve the integrity and robustness of assessment. PMID:24061046

Yoshida, Hiroko; Christensen, Thomas H; Scheutz, Charlotte



Distribution of Coliphages in Hong Kong Sewage  

PubMed Central

Coliphage content of sewage collected from 11 different localities in Hong Kong was determined. The number of plaque-forming units (PFU) ranged from 0.036 × 103 to 15.9 × 103 per ml. In general, urban sewage tended to be richer than rural sewage both in PFU count as well as plaque morphological variation. Seventy-seven isolates were subjected to a host range study. Fifty per cent of these were able to grow on Escherichia coli K-12 as well as E. coli B. Approximately 32% were found to be male specific, and the remaining 18% were K-12 specific although sex-indifferent.

Dhillon, T. S.; Chan, Y. S.; Sun, S. M.; Chau, W. S.



Improved degradation and bioactivity of amorphous aerosol derived tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles in poly(lactide-co-glycolide)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The industrially used flame synthesis of silica polymer fillers was extended to amorphous tricalcium phosphate (a-TCP) nanoparticles and resulted in a similar morphology as the traditionally used polymer fillers. Doping of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with such highly agglomerated a-TCP was investigated for mechanical properties, increased in vitro biodegradation and the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the nanocomposite. PLGA films with particle loadings ranging from 0 to 30 wt% were prepared by solvent casting. Degradation in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C under sterile conditions for up to 42 days was followed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis and tensile tests. The presence of nanoparticles in the PLGA matrix slightly increased the Young's modulus up to 30% compared to pure polymer reference materials. The nanoparticle doped films showed a significantly increased loss of polymer mass during degradation. Scanning electron microscopy images of doped films showed that the SBF degraded the PLGA by corrosion as facilitated by the incorporation of nanoparticulate calcium phosphate. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the deposition of about 10 nm sized hydroxyapatite crystallites on the surface of doped PLGA films was strongly increased by the addition of tricalcium phosphate fillers. The combination of increased hydroxyapatite formation and enhanced polymer degradation may suggest the use of such amorphous, aerosol derived a-TCP fillers for applications in non-load-bearing implant sites.

Loher, Stefan; Reboul, Valentine; Brunner, Tobias J.; Simonet, Marc; Dora, Claudio; Neuenschwander, Peter; Stark, Wendelin J.



Sewage and the fuel cell  

SciTech Connect

This article very briefly describes a phosphoric-acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant installed by the New York Power Authority at a wastewater treatment plant. The facility is the first in the world to use anaerobic digester gas (ADG), a natural byproduct of sewage treatment, as fuel. ADG is partially utilized and partially flared at the plant. The PAFC captures a portion of the otherwise flared ADG and uses it as fuel to produce approximately 200kW of electricity and heat for plant use. The U.S. Department of Energy, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Electric Power Research Institute are helping the power authority finance the project.

Zelingher, S. [New York Power Authority`s Energy Efficiency Unit, NY (United States); Kishinevsky, Y.



Impact of food industrial waste on anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and pig manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an anaerobic digestion process is much dependent on the type and the composition of the material to be digested. The effects on the degradation process of co-digesting different types of waste were examined in two laboratory-scale studies. In the first investigation, sewage sludge was co-digested with industrial waste from potato processing. The co-digestion resulted in a low

M Murto; L Björnsson; B Mattiasson



Global hepatic gene expression in rainbow trout exposed to sewage effluents: a comparison of different sewage treatment technologies.  


Effluents from sewage treatment plants contain a mixture of micropollutants with the potential of harming aquatic organisms. Thus, addition of advanced treatment techniques to complement existing conventional methods has been proposed. Some of the advanced techniques could, however, potentially produce additional compounds affecting exposed organisms by unknown modes of action. In the present study the aim was to improve our understanding of how exposure to different sewage effluents affects fish. This was achieved by explorative microarray and quantitative PCR analyses of hepatic gene expression, as well as relative organ sizes of rainbow trout exposed to different sewage effluents (conventionally treated, granular activated carbon, ozonation (5 or 15 mg/L), 5 mg/L ozone plus a moving bed biofilm reactor, or UV-light treatment in combination with hydrogen peroxide). Exposure to the conventionally treated effluent caused a significant increase in liver and heart somatic indexes, an effect removed by all other treatments. Genes connected to xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome p450 1A, were differentially expressed in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluents, though only effluent treatment with granular activated carbon or ozone at 15 mg/L completely removed this response. The mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 kDa was induced in all three groups exposed to ozone-treated effluents, suggesting some form of added stress in these fish. The induction of estrogen-responsive genes in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluent was effectively reduced by all investigated advanced treatment technologies, although the moving bed biofilm reactor was least efficient. Taken together, granular activated carbon showed the highest potential of reducing responses in fish induced by exposure to sewage effluents. PMID:22575374

Cuklev, Filip; Gunnarsson, Lina; Cvijovic, Marija; Kristiansson, Erik; Rutgersson, Carolin; Björlenius, Berndt; Larsson, D G Joakim



Sewage Sludge Pathogen Transport Model Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, ra...

J. F. Dawson K. E. Hain B. McClure R. E. Sheridan J. G. Yeager



Sewage Sludge Incinerator Fuel Reduction, Hartford, Connecticut.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel u...

A. J. Verdouw E. W. Waltz P. F. Gilbert



Reducing the Vulnerability of Sewage Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide describes characteristics of typical modern sewage treatment plants in the United States, reviews their relative vulnerability to nuclear effects and considers protective measures. For this guide, OCD has established the effects of 2, 5, and 10...




EPA Science Inventory

Ninety-two treated and untreated sewage samples from seven wastewater treatment plants in Chicago, Illinois, Memphis, Tennessee, and Cincinnati, Ohio were examined for their virus content. Concentrated and unconcentrated samples were plaque assayed in five different cell culture ...


A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge  

PubMed Central

The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended.

Connop, Peter J.



Lightweight aggregate from flyash and sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of treating flyash and sewage sludge. It comprises: mixing flyash with sewage sludge having a high fuel value; agglomerating the mixture; drying the agglomerated mixture; heating the agglomerated mixture to a temperature less than the melting point of the mixture in a rotary kiln using the agglomerated mixture as the principal source of fuel in the kiln to form a porous nodular product; and recovering the nodular product from the kiln.

Nechvatal, T.M.; Heian, G.A.



Effect of particle dimensions and pre-processing of nanoparticles in improving surface degradation characteristics of nanodielectrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusion of nano-sized alumina and titania fillers in epoxy resin has been found to increase the resistance of the material to surface degradation, when exposed to surface discharges. In this paper, the work was extended to include Alumina platelets as opposed to spherical gamma-alumina nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with diameter of range 40-47 nm and platelets 200 nm in thickness and 5-10

P. Maity; S. V. Kasisomayajula; S. Basu; V. Parameswaran; Nandini Gupta



An acyl homoserine lactone-degrading microbial community improves the survival of first-feeding turbot larvae ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) degrading enrichment cultures (EC3 and EC5), originating from the microbial community of the Penaeus vannamei shrimp gut, were incorporated into first-feeding turbot larvae through addition to the rearing water and\\/or bio-encapsulation in rotifers, prior to their feeding to the turbot larvae. Both ECs were able to colonize the larval gut and to persist up to

Nguyen Thi Ngoc Tinh; Vu Hong Nhu Yen; Kristof Dierckens; Patrick Sorgeloos; Peter Bossier



Changes in soil quality indicators under long-term sewage irrigation in a sub-tropical environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though irrigation with sewage water has potential benefits of meeting the water requirements, the sewage irrigation may mess up to harm the soil health. To assess the potential impacts of long-term sewage irrigation on soil health and to identify sensitive soil indicators, soil samples were collected from crop fields that have been irrigated with sewage water for more than 20 years. An adjacent rain-fed Leucaena leucocephala plantation system was used as a reference to compare the impact of sewage irrigation on soil qualities. Soils were analyzed for different physical, chemical, biological and biochemical parameters. Results have shown that use of sewage for irrigation improved the clay content to 18-22.7%, organic carbon to 0.51-0.86% and fertility status of soils. Build up in total N was up to 2,713 kg ha-1, available N (397 kg ha-1), available P (128 kg ha-1), available K (524 kg ha-1) and available S (65.5 kg ha-1) in the surface (0.15 m) soil. Long-term sewage irrigation has also resulted a significant build-up of DTPA extractable Zn (314%), Cu (102%), Fe (715%), Mn (197.2), Cd (203%), Ni (1358%) and Pb (15.2%) when compared with the adjacent rain-fed reference soil. Soils irrigated with sewage exhibited a significant decrease in microbial biomass carbon (-78.2%), soil respiration (-82.3%), phosphatase activity (-59.12%) and dehydrogenase activity (-59.4%). An attempt was also made to identify the sensitive soil indicators under sewage irrigation, where microbial biomass carbon was singled out as the most sensitive indicator.

Masto, Reginald Ebhin; Chhonkar, Pramod K.; Singh, Dhyan; Patra, Ashok K.



Synthetic Fibers as Indicators of Municipal Sewage Sludge, Sludge Products, and Sewage Treatment Plant Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of concerns regarding health, safety, and aesthetics, a test that identifies the presence of sewage sludge or its products (biosolids) in commercial materials such as soil conditioners and composts would be useful. This test could also trace the effluent plume from a sewage treatment plant. We have discovered that synthetic fibers serve as such an indicator. Synthetic fibers are

Daniel Habib; David C. Locke; Leonard J. Cannone



Characterization of Malaysian sewage sludge and nitrogen mineralization in three soils treated with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to determine the chemical composition of sewage sludges produced in Malaysia and the potentially mineralizable nitogen (No) and mineralization rate constant (k) of sewage sludge in three Malaysian soils are reported. Analyses of the sludges collected from 10 wastewater treatment plants in Malaysia are acidic in nature and the N. P, Ca, K and Mg contents is variable. The

A. B. Rosenani; D. R. Kala; C. I. Fauziah


Prevention of Sewage Pollution by Stabilization Ponds Sewage Pollution & Stabilization Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It

J. S. S. Lakshminarayana



Biotechnology of intensive aerobic conversion of sewage sludge and food waste into fertilizer.  


Biotechnology for intensive aerobic bioconversion of sewage sludge and food waste into fertilizer was developed. The wastes were treated in a closed reactor under controlled aeration, stirring, pH, and temperature at 60 degrees C, after addition of starter bacterial culture Bacillus thermoamylovorans. The biodegradation of sewage sludge was studied by decrease of volatile solids (VS), content of organic carbon and autofluorescence of coenzyme F420. The degradation of anaerobic biomass was faster than biodegradation of total organic matter. The best fertilizer was obtained when sewage sludge was thermally pre-treated, mixed with food waste, chalk, and artificial bulking agent. The content of volatile solid and the content of organic carbon decreased at 24.8% and 13.5% of total solids, respectively, during ten days of bioconversion. The fertilizer was a powder with moisture content of 5%. It was stable, and not toxic for the germination of plant seeds. Addition of 1.0 to 1.5% of this fertilizer to the subsoil increased the growth of different plants tested by 113 to 164%. The biotechnology can be applied in larger scale for the recycling of sewage sludge and food wastes in Singapore. PMID:15259949

Wang, J Y; Stabnikova, O; Tay, S T L; Ivanov, V; Tay, J H



Occurrence of multiclass UV filters in treated sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants.  


Many substances related to human activities end up in wastewater and accumulate in sewage sludge. So far, there is only one extensive survey on the occurrence of UV filter residues in sewage sludge. However, more data are required to draw a reliable picture of the fate and effects of these compounds in the environment. This study attempts to fill this gap through the determination of selected UV filters and derivatives namely 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor, benzophenone-3, octocrylene, ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate, ethylhexyldimethyl PABA, 4-hydroxybenzophenone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, and 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone in treated sewage sludge. The target compounds were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction and after this, determined by ultra high resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The determination was fast and sensitive, affording limits of detection lower than 19 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) except for 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (60 ng g(-1) dw). Good recovery rates, especially given the high complexity of sludge matrix (between 70% and 102% except for 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (30%)) were achieved. The application of developed method allowed reporting for the first time the occurrence of two major degradation products of benzophenone-3 that have estrogenic activity in sewage sludge: 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone (in 5/15 WWTPs) and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (in 1/15 WWTPs). Results revealed the presence of UV filters in 15 wastewater treatment plants in Catalonia (Spain) at concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 9.17 ?g g(-1) dw. PMID:21530995

Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià



Titanium (IV)Improved H2O2\\/O3 Process for Acetic Acid Degradation under Acid Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Ti(IV) on the degradation efficiency of acetic acid by O3\\/H2O2 was investigated. The removal rate of acetic acid by O3\\/H2O2 increased from 8.0% to 62.9% after 30 min when Ti(IV) was added to acetic acid solution at pH 2.8. The optimized parameters were as follows: the pH of acetic acid solution less than 5.0; the mass concentration

Shao-Ping Tong; Wen-wen Li; Shu-qin Zhao; Chun-an Ma



Spatial and temporal trends in water quality in a Mediterranean temporary river impacted by sewage effluents.  


This paper analyzes how changes in hydrological conditions can affect the water quality of a temporary river that receives direct inputs of sewage effluents. Data from 12 spatial surveys of the Vène river were examined. Physico-chemical parameters, major ion, and nutrient concentrations were measured. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate analyses were performed. ANOVA revealed significant spatial differences for conductivity and major ion but no significant spatial differences for nutrient concentrations even if higher average concentrations were observed at stations located downstream from sewage effluent discharge points. Significant temporal differences were observed among all the parameters. Karstic springs had a marked dilution effect on the direct disposal of sewage effluents. During high-flow periods, nutrient concentrations were high to moderate whereas nutrient concentrations ranged from moderate to bad at stations located downstream from the direct inputs of sewage effluents during low-flow periods. Principal component analysis showed that water quality parameters that explained the water quality of the Vène river were highly dependent on hydrological conditions. Cluster analysis showed that when the karstic springs were flowing, water quality was homogeneous all along the river, whereas when karstic springs were dry, water quality at the monitoring stations was more fragmented. These results underline the importance of considering hydrological conditions when monitoring the water quality of temporary rivers. In view of the pollution observed in the Vène river, "good water chemical status" can probably only be achieved by improving the management of sewage effluents during low-flow periods. PMID:22847028

David, Arthur; Tournoud, Marie-George; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Rosain, David; Rodier, Claire; Salles, Christian; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Picot, Bernadette



Bio-augmentation to rapid realize partial nitrification of real sewage.  


The feasibility of bio-augmentation processes in promoting start-up of partial nitrification of sewage was investigated in this study. Initially, partial nitrification was well-established in an anoxic/oxic reactor treating high-strength ammonia wastewater. Then the influent was replaced by real sewage instantly or gradually. In both cases, nitrite pathway could be maintained for 5-7d. However, it was eventually destroyed due to the inevitable over-aeration. In another strategy, sewage was treated in the adsorption/biodegradation reactor. The nitrite pathway was obviously promoted by addition of the previous activated sludge from high ammonia wastewater treatment. Nitrite accumulation efficiency of sewage was quickly increased from 26% to 86% and maintained at a high level for 2 months. Moreover, the effluent has a favorable ratio of NH(4)(+)/NO(2)(-) for feeding anammox process. The experimental results indicated that appropriate bio-augmentation strategies could significantly improve the build-up partial nitrification of sewage in the pretreatment of anammox. PMID:22673398

Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Shujun; Gan, Yiping; Peng, Yongzhen



Enhancement in characteristics of sewage sludge and anaerobic treatability by electron beam pre-treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron beam was studied to enhance the biodegradability of sewage sludge. Changes in physicochemical characteristics of the sludge were examined with various irradiation doses, sludge thicknesses and exposure times. Irradiation thickness was suggested as the key factor affecting the efficiency of solublization of solid organic matter, whereas exposure time would be the most critical parameter in inducing cell lysis in sewage sludge. In addition, biogas production was improved as much as 22% when the sludge thickness was 0.5 cm with a dose of 7 kGy.

Park, Wooshin; Hwang, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Myun-Joo; Kim, In S.



Vermistabilization of primary sewage sludge.  


An integrated composting-vermicomposting process has been developed for utilization of primary sewage sludge (PSS). Matured vermicompost was used as bulking material and a source of active microbial culture during aerobic activated composting (AAC). AAC resulted in sufficient enrichment of bulking material with organic matter after 20 cycles of recycling and mixing with PSS and produced materials acceptable for vermicomposting. Vermicomposting caused significant reduction in pH, volatile solids (VS), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratio and pathogens and substantial increase in electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) as compared to compost. Environmental conditions and stocking density have profound effects on vermicomposting. Temperature of 20°C with high humidity is favorable environmental condition for vermicomposting employing Eisenia fetida. Favorable stocking density range for vermiculture is 0.5-2.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 0.5 kg m(-2)) and for vermicomposting is 2.0-4.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 3.0 kg m(-2)), respectively. PMID:21036608

Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod



Pulverized fuel ash products solve the sewage sludge problems of the wastewater industry  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge recycling has become one of the predominant problems of the water industry. Not all types of sewage sludges are able to be recycled to farm land or into composting processes. Pulverized fuel ash is used as a major ingredient in a product called Rhenipal which is used to stabilize sewage sludge for recycling into a material for land reclamation, as a soil conditioner, as cover material for landfill and as a landfill engineering material. This article deals with the results achieved when applying rhenipal in a post-stabilization process to prepare landfill engineering material. The process is currently developed further and can be operated in a pre-stabilization mode, which will further improve the economical results shown for the post-stabilization method in this paper.

Dirk, G. [Rhenipal UK Ltd., Birkenhead (United Kingdom)



Sewage sludge effects on carbon dioxide?carbon production from a desurfaced soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desurfaced soils are found near cities in the Pampean Region of Argentina because A horizons were used for brick production. These soils are not suitable for agriculture. Application of sewage sludge is a tool for improving soil productivity, but its effects on the environment are not thoroughly understood. Production of carbon dioxide (C02)?carbon (C) in the field from a desurfaced

R. Alvarez; M. Alconada; R. Lavado



Method for Thermal Design of Paddle Dryers: Application to Municipal Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental methodology was developed to improve the energy design of paddle dryers for sewage sludges. A laboratory batch dryer with a vertical agitator has been especially designed and instrumented to determine the heat flux densities. To determine the drying kinetic and the evaporation rates, the specific heat and the total heat of desorption of the sludge were measured using

P. Arlabosse; S. Chavez; D. Lecomte



Liposomes containing glycocholate as potential oral insulin delivery systems: preparation, in vitro characterization, and improved protection against enzymatic degradation  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral delivery of insulin is challenging and must overcome the barriers of gastric and enzymatic degradation as well as low permeation across the intestinal epithelium. The present study aimed to develop a liposomal delivery system containing glycocholate as an enzyme inhibitor and permeation enhancer for oral insulin delivery. Methods: Liposomes containing sodium glycocholate were prepared by a reversed-phase evaporation method followed by homogenization. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of recombinant human insulin (rhINS)-loaded sodium glycocholate liposomes can be easily adjusted by tuning the homogenization parameters, phospholipid:sodium glycocholate ratio, insulin:phospholipid ratio, water:ether volume ratio, interior water phase pH, and the hydration buffer pH. Results: The optimal formulation showed an insulin entrapment efficiency of 30% ± 2% and a particle size of 154 ± 18 nm. A conformational study by circular dichroism spectroscopy and a bioactivity study confirmed the preserved integrity of rhINS against preparative stress. Transmission electron micrographs revealed a nearly spherical and deformed structure with discernable lamella for sodium glycocholate liposomes. Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed better protection of insulin against enzymatic degradation by pepsin, trypsin, and ?-chymotrypsin than liposomes containing the bile salt counterparts of sodium taurocholate and sodium deoxycholate. Conclusion: Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed promising in vitro characteristics and have the potential to be able to deliver insulin orally.

Niu, Mengmeng; Lu, Yi; Hovgaard, Lars; Wu, Wei



Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

Robson, Stanley G.



12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps are connected to sewage treatment tanks. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID


Effects of Sewage on the Marine Biota: A Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography contains 108 references to articles concerning marine waste disposal, marine sewage pollution, and the effects of sewage on the marine environment. The bibliography was originally intended to be a complete survey of the effects of pollut...

R. R. Corey M. M. Bundy




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 620, THE SEWAGE EJECTOR, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Sewage Ejector, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA


Classification of fault location and the degree of performance degradation of a rolling bearing based on an improved hyper-sphere-structured multi-class support vector machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective classification of a rolling bearing fault location and especially its degree of performance degradation provides an important basis for appropriate fault judgment and processing. Two methods are introduced to extract features of the rolling bearing vibration signal—one combining empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with the autoregressive model, whose model parameters and variances of the remnant can be obtained using the Yule-Walker or Ulrych-Clayton method, and the other combining EMD with singular value decomposition. Feature vector matrices obtained are then regarded as the input of the improved hyper-sphere-structured multi-class support vector machine (HSSMC-SVM) for classification. Thereby, multi-status intelligent diagnosis of normal rolling bearings and faulty rolling bearings at different locations and the degrees of performance degradation of the faulty rolling bearings can be achieved simultaneously. Experimental results show that EMD combined with singular value decomposition and the improved HSSMC-SVM intelligent method requires less time and has a higher recognition rate.

Wang, Yujing; Kang, Shouqiang; Jiang, Yicheng; Yang, Guangxue; Song, Lixin; Mikulovich, V. I.



SCFFbx2-E3-ligase-mediated degradation of BACE1 attenuates Alzheimer's disease amyloidosis and improves synaptic function  

PubMed Central

Summary BACE1 (?-secretase) plays a central role in the ?-amyloidogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The ubiquitin–proteasome system, a major intracellular protein quality control system, has been implicated recently in BACE1 metabolism. We report that the SCFFbx2-E3 ligase is involved in the binding and ubiquitination of BACE1 via its Trp 280 residue of F-box-associated domain. Physiologically, we found that Fbx2 was expressed in various intracellular organelles in brain neurons and that BACE1 is colocalized with Fbx2 and the amyloid precursor protein (APP), mainly at the early endosome and endoplasmic reticulum. The former are believed to be the major intracellular compartments where the APP is cleaved by BACE1 and ?-amyloid is produced. Importantly, we found that overexpression of Fbx2 in the primary cortical and hippocampal neurons derived from Tg2576 transgenic mice significantly promoted BACE1 degradation and reduced ?-amyloid production. In the search for specific endogenous modulators of Fbx2 expression, we found that PPAR? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) was capable of promoting the degradation of BACE1 through a mechanism involving Fbx2 gene expression. Interestingly, we found that the expression of both Fbx2 and PGC-1? was significantly decreased in the brains of aging Tg2576 mice. Our in vivo studies using a mouse model of AD revealed that exogenous adenoviral Fbx2 expression in the brain significantly decreased BACE1 protein levels and activity, coincidentally reducing ?-amyloid levels and rescuing synaptic deficits. Our study is the first to suggest that promoting Fbx2 in the brain may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of AD.

Gong, Bing; Chen, Fei; Pan, Yong; Arrieta-Cruz, Isabel; Yoshida, Yukiko; Haroutunian, Vahram; Pasinetti, Giulio M.



Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

Anderson, Stephen P.


Estrogenic Effects of Effluents from Sewage Treatment Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of hermaphrodite fish in the lagoons of sewage treatment works led us to hypothesize that sewage effluent might contain a substance, or substances, estrogenic to fish. to test this hypothesis, we placed cages containing rainbow trout in the effluent from sewage-treatment works, and one to three weeks later measured the vitellogenin concentration in the plasma of the fish.

C. E. Purdom; P. A. Hardiman; V. V. J. Bye; N. C. Eno; C. R. Tyler; J. P. Sumpter



Bioluminescent method in studying the complex effect of sewage components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition of bacterial luminescence has been used in testing industrial enterprises sewage. The toxicity of the sewage is less than the total toxicity of separate components due to neutralization of quinone products of polyphenol oxidation in the reactions with the other phenol components of sewage. Toxicity increase is due to their influence on the cell membrane. Studies of cell

Devard I. Stom; Tatyana A. Geel; Alla E. Balayan; Galina I. Shachova; Aleksandr M. Kuznetsov; Svetlana E. Medvedeva



Sewage Treatment Control System Design Based on Industry Ethernet  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing attention has been paid to environment protection by government, sewage treatment works is becoming more and more concerned. There are many equipments and complicated process in the project of sewage disposal. The paper discussed the application of PLC and network in the sewage treatment plant. Through the combination of the industrial automatic control technology, computer technology, network

Zhang Hongwei; Wang Xinhuan; Yan Youyun; Zhang Tao



Study of the pyrolysis liquids obtained from different sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis of sewage sludge in fluidized bed to produce bio-oil is under study as a useful way to valorise this waste. Sewage sludge is the waste produced in the wastewater treatment plants. Its composition may change due to the origin and to the non-standardized treatments in the wastewater treatment plants. The pyrolysis of three samples of anaerobically digested sewage sludge

I. Fonts; M. Azuara; G. Gea; M. B. Murillo



Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the

Baruch Weber; Yoram Avnimelech; Marcelo Juanico



Hydrodynamic assessment of sewage impact on water quality of Malad Creek, Mumbai, India.  


The rapid population growth and uncontrolled development in the coastal zone have led to major pollution impacts on creeks, estuarine, and coastal environment. Water quality models are valuable tools to understand the environmental processes for prediction of pollution impacts and evaluate future trends for management. Presently, the Malad creek in west coast of Mumbai receives wastewater and sewage from open drains and partially treated sewage from Malad and Versova treatment plants. The objective of the paper is to assess the environmental quality and estimate the extent of improvement in different parts of the creek by enhancing the collection efficiency and adequate treatment of sewage as well as disposal through ocean outfall. A hydrodynamic and water quality simulation has been carried out for the present condition in the creek and calibrated and validated with two different season data for better representation of the system. Calibrated model has been used to generate future scenarios based on various options. Among scenarios, option of treated effluent diverted to propose outfall and improvement in collection of unorganized flow through sewage up to 40% and 60% are found most significant for biochemical oxygen demand reduction and increase in dissolved oxygen. Fecal coliform reduction is also found drastically but still very high against standard. To improve the environmental quality of the creek, still upper stretch requires more dilution and flushing due to narrow width and contribution of heavy pollution from open drains. PMID:19424815

Vijay, Ritesh; Sardar, Veena K; Dhage, Shivani S; Kelkar, Prakash S; Gupta, Apurba



Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants.

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil



Enzymology of cellulose degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years there has been a considerable improvement in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the microbial degradation of cellulose, but there are still many uncertainties. As presently understood, it would appear that different mechanisms may operate in the various types of microorganism. Thus degradation of crystalline cellulose is effected by anaerobic bacteria by large Ca-dependent

Thomas M. Wood; Vicenta Garcia-Campayo



Degradation of 4-chlorobenzoic acid by Arthrobacter sp  

SciTech Connect

A mixed population, enriched and established in a defined medium, from a sewage sludge inoculum was capable of complete mineralization of 4-chlorobenzoate. An organism, identified as Arthrobacter sp., was isolated from the consortium and shown to be capable of utilizing 4-chlorobenzoate as the sole carbon and energy source in pure culture. This organism (strain TM-1), dehalogenated 4-chlorobenzoate as the initial step in the degradative pathway. The production, 4-hydroxybenzoate, was further metabolized via protocatechuate. The ability of strain TM-1 to degrade 4-chlorobenzoate in liquid medium at 25/sup 0/C was improved by the use of continuous culture and repeated sequential subculturing. Other chlorinated benzoates and the parent compound benzoate did not support growth of strain TM-1. An active cell extract was prepared and shown to dehalogenate 4-chloro-, 4-fluoro-, and 4-bromobenzoate. Dehalogenase activity had an optimum pH of 6.8 and an optimum temperature of 20/sup 0/C and was inhibited by dissolved oxygen and stimulated by manganese (Mn/sup 2 +/). Strain improvement resulted in an increase in the specific activity of the cell extract from 0.09 to 0.85 nmol of 4-hydroxybenzoate per min per mg of protein and a decrease in the doubling time of the organism from 50 to 1.6 h. 18 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

Marks, T.S.; Smith, A.R.W.; Quirk, A.V.



Sorption and Degradation of Pentachlorophenol in Sludge-Amended Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sorption and degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by two alkaline and one acid soil was studied in the presence and absence of sewage sludge. The PCP concentrations used (0.1-10 mg/kg) included PCP rates expected with land application of normal municipa...

C. A. Bellin G. A. O'Connor Y. Jin



Anaerobic degradation of isovalerate by a defined methanogenic coculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isovalerate-oxidizing strictly aneerobic bacteria were isolated from marine sediment and sewage sludge in coculture with Desulfovibrio sp. Cells stained Gram positive and behaved Gram positive also in Gram classification with KOH. Isovalerate degradation depended on interspecies hydrogen transfer to syntrophic hydrogen-oxidizing sulfate reducers or methanogens. Isovalerate was the only substrate utilized and was fermented to 3 mol acetate and 1

Marion Stieb; Bernhard Schink



Anaerobic degradation of nonionic and anionic surfactants in enrichment cultures and fixed-bed reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic biodegradation and inhibitory effects of nonionic and anionic surfactants on methanogenic fermentation were tested in incubation experiments with anoxic sediment samples and sewage sludge. Alkylsulfonates and alkylbenzenesulfonates were not degraded but inhibited meth- anogenesis from sludge constituents at concentrations 1> 10 mg l-k Sodium dodecylsulfate was at least partly degraded after adaptation at concentrations ~< 100 mg 1 -~




Oxisol decapitated recovery with green manure and sewage sludge: Effect on growth of Astronium fraxinifolium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorrect use of land and large buildings in rural areas are causing changes to it, making them less productive and thus increasing the degraded areas. Techniques aimed at ecological restoration of degraded soils have been investigated. In recovery planning a degraded area, the great challenge to be achieved is the establishment of a A horizon, so that from then on, the process is catalyzed by the biosphere, and there may be other horizons, as the natural conditioning. In this sense the positive changes were investigated in an environment of decapitated Savannah Oxisol, which was removed a layer 8.5 m thick to build a hydroelectric power plant. For recovery, we used a native tree species, green manure, sewage sludge and grass. The studied soil is under human intervention techniques for recovery for seven years. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were: 1-Control- bare soil (without management), 2-Astronium fraxinifolium Schott; 3-A. fraxinifolium + Canavalia ensiformis; 4- A. fraxinifolium + Raphanus sativus by 2005 was replaced in 2006 by Crotalaria juncea; 5- A. fraxinifolium + Brachiaria decumbens + sewage sludge (60 t ha-1, dry basis). We studied in 2010 and 2011 the development of tree species (stem diameter and plant height), the fresh and dry matter of green manures and B. decumbens. The results were analyzed by performing the variance analysis and Tukey test at 5% probability to compare averages. The rate of plant growth during the periods studied in the treatment with sewage sludge was higher than other treatments, so this is the most appropriate management for the recovery of degraded soil under study.

Souto Filho, S. N.; Marchini, D. C.; de Arruda, O. G.; Giácomo, R. G.; Alves, M. C.



Culture methods for obtaining m-cresol-degrading methanogenic consortia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the metabolism of m-cresol under methanogenic conditions have been hampered by difficulties in enriching and maintaining active consortia. With anaerobic sewage sludge as an inoculum, m-cresol degradation was shown to be inhibited by sodium sulfide at concentrations typically used to pre-reduce culture medium. In enrichment cultures, the acclimation time for m-cresol degradation was shortened from 61 days to

Deborah J. Roberts; Phillip M. Fedorak; Steve E. Hrudey



In-situ caustic generation from sewage: The impact of caustic strength and sewage composition.  


Periodic caustic dosage is a commonly used method by the water industry to elevate pH levels and deactivate sewer biofilms responsible for hydrogen sulfide generation. Caustic (NaOH) can be generated in-situ from sewage using a divided electrochemical cell, which avoids the need for transport, handling and storage of concentrated caustic solutions. In this study, we investigated the impact of caustic strength in the cathode compartment and the impact of sodium concentration in sewage on the Coulombic efficiency (CE) for caustic generation. The CE was found to be independent of the caustic strength produced in the range of up to ?3 wt%. Results showed that a caustic solution of ?3 wt% could be produced directly from sewage at a CE of up to 75 ± 0.5%. The sodium concentration in sewage had a significant impact on the CE for caustic generation as well as on the energy requirements of the system, with a higher sodium concentration leading to a higher CE and lower energy consumption. The proton, calcium, magnesium and ammonium concentrations in sewage affected the CE for caustic generation, especially at low sodium concentrations. Economical assessment based on the experimental results indicated that sulfide control in sewers using electrochemically-generated caustic from sewage is an economically attractive strategy. PMID:23938119

Pikaar, Ilje; Rozendal, René A; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo



Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture  

PubMed Central

The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation.

Petrik, Milivoj



Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of dewatered, anaerobically digested sewage sludge were determined from soil laboratory tests. The sludge material is largely composed of organic clay sized-particles, a sizable fraction of which is in an active state of biological digestion which can continue over many years under field conditions. Moderately digested sludge material was found to have a typical specific gravity of

Brendan C. O’Kelly



Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  


This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

Carlson, L.W.




EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested by using the Salmonella/microsome reverse mutation ...



EPA Science Inventory

An epidemiology study which included environmental samples and clinical specimens within a three mile radius of a new sewage treatment plant near Chicago, Illinois was carried out. Evaluations were made before and after plant start-up to determine if operations resulted in any ad...


Seasonal occurrence of rotavirus in sewage.  

PubMed Central

A seasonal distribution was observed for rotaviruses in sewage by using indirect immunofluorescence. Levels were low from May through September and generally higher during winter and spring. In contrast, no seasonal pattern was observed for total enteroviruses. Limitations of the indirect immunofluorescence assay and enzyme immunoassay for environmental samples are discussed.

Hejkal, T W; Smith, E M; Gerba, C P



Sewage and Water Works Construction, 1968.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annual report of 'Sewage and Water Works Construction 1968' is published to provide a continuing and ready source of information and reference as to how successfully the national needs in municipal water supply and pollution control are being met thr...




EPA Science Inventory

As a result of a demonstration project partly sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, realized a 34% fuel savings for sewage sludge incineration. At the sa...


Sewage sludge incinerator fuel reduction, Hartford, Connecticut  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel efficient burning procedures and operator training further reduced that amount 51%. The Hartford plant originally used 122

A. J. Verdouw; E. W. Waltz; P. F. Gilbert




EPA Science Inventory

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...


Removal and factors influencing removal of sulfonamides and trimethoprim from domestic sewage in constructed wetlands.  


Twelve pilot-scale constructed wetlands with different configurations were set up in the field to evaluate the removal and factors that influence removal of sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfacetamide, sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole) and trimethoprim from domestic sewage. The treatments included four flow types, three substrates, two plants and three hydraulic loading rates across two seasons (summer and winter). Most target antibiotics were efficiently removed by specific constructed wetlands; in particular, all types of constructed wetlands performed well for the degradation of sulfapyridine. Flow types were the most important influencing factor in this study, and the best removal of sulfonamides was achieved in vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands; however, the opposite phenomenon was found with trimethoprim. Significant relationships were observed between antibiotic degradation and higher temperature and redox potential, which indicated that microbiological pathways were the most probable degradation route for sulfonamides and trimethoprim in constructed wetlands. PMID:23954243

Dan A; Yang, Yang; Dai, Yu-nv; Chen, Chun-xing; Wang, Su-yu; Tao, Ran



Photodegradation of the pharmaceuticals amoxicillin, bezafibrate and paracetamol by the photo-Fenton process—Application to sewage treatment plant effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodegradation of the pharmaceuticals amoxicillin (AMX), bezafibrate (BZF) and paracetamol (PCT) in aqueous solutions via the photo-Fenton process was investigated under black-light and solar irradiation. The influences of iron source, initial H2O2 concentration and matrix (distilled water and sewage treatment plant effluent) on degradation efficiency were discussed in detail. The results showed that (i) the degradation of the drugs was

Alam Gustavo Trovó; Silene Alessandra Santos Melo; Raquel Fernandes Pupo Nogueira



Occurrence, partition and removal of pharmaceuticals in sewage water and sludge during wastewater treatment.  


During 8 sampling campaigns carried out over a period of two years, 72 samples, including influent and effluent wastewater, and sludge samples from three conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), were analyzed to assess the occurrence and fate of 43 pharmaceutical compounds. The selected pharmaceuticals belong to different therapeutic classes, i.e. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, lipid modifying agents (fibrates and statins), psychiatric drugs (benzodiazepine derivative drugs and antiepileptics), histamine H2-receptor antagonists, antibacterials for systemic use, beta blocking agents, beta-agonists, diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and anti-diabetics. The obtained results showed the presence of 32 target compounds in wastewater influent and 29 in effluent, in concentrations ranging from low ng/L to a few ?g/L (e.g. NSAIDs). The analysis of sludge samples showed that 21 pharmaceuticals accumulated in sewage sludge from all three WWTPs in concentrations up to 100 ng/g. This indicates that even good removal rates obtained in aqueous phase (i.e. comparison of influent and effluent wastewater concentrations) do not imply degradation to the same extent. For this reason, the overall removal was estimated as a sum of all the losses of a parent compound produces by different mechanisms of chemical and physical transformation, biodegradation and sorption to solid matter. The target compounds showed very different removal rates and no logical pattern in behaviour even if they belong to the same therapeutic groups. What is clear is that the elimination of most of the substances is incomplete and improvements of the wastewater treatment and subsequent treatments of the produced sludge are required to prevent the introduction of these micro-pollutants in the environment. PMID:21167546

Jelic, Aleksandra; Gros, Meritxell; Ginebreda, Antoni; Cespedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Ventura, Francesc; Petrovic, Mira; Barcelo, Damia



Improving STP Performance by Lime Addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a COD in Roma-Nord sewage is predominantly associated with settleable and supracolloidal particles, each size class containing\\u000a about 40% of total COD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a A large fraction of COD associated with supracolloidal particles is characterised by slow degradability, therefore suggesting\\u000a that removal of these particles prior to biological treatment may greatly improve the overall treatment scheme.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a Pilot plant coagulation tests

D. Marani; R. Ramadori; V. Renzi; C. M. Braguglia; A. C. Pinto


Degradation of tetracycline by photo-Fenton process—Solar irradiation and matrix effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of the antibiotic tetracycline (TC) by the photo-Fenton process was evaluated under black-light and solar irradiation. The influences of iron source (Fe(NO3)3 or ferrioxalate), hydrogen peroxide and matrix (pure water, surface water and a sewage treatment plant effluent—STP) were evaluated. Under black-light irradiation, TC degradation was favored in the presence of Fe(NO3)3, achieving total degradation after 1min irradiation,

Ivonete Rossi Bautitz; Raquel F. Pupo Nogueira



Gold and platinoids in sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludges from German municipal wastewater treatment plants possess high gold concentrations (280 to 56,000 ?g\\/kg in dry matter) similar to some ore deposits which are being mined for gold. In addition, the sludges exhibit elevated platinum (<10 to 1,070 ?g\\/kg) and palladium values (38 to 4,700 ?g\\/kg), and low osmium (<3 to <51 ?g\\/kg), iridium (0.6 to 26.5 ?g\\/kg),

Bernd G. Lottermoser



40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7...



7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. ...public parties to treat sewage or supply bulk water shall have written...



7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. ...public parties to treat sewage or supply bulk water shall have written...



33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...discharge of treated sewage or graywater...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...discharge treated sewage or graywater from...the applicable waters of Alaska unless...the applicable waters of Alaska, treated sewage and...



33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...discharge of treated sewage or graywater...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...discharge treated sewage or graywater from...the applicable waters of Alaska unless...the applicable waters of Alaska, treated sewage and...



33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. 159.315 Section 159.315 Navigation... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While operating in the applicable...legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book with the vessel's name and...



Detection of Human Sewage in Urban Stormwater Using DNA Based Methods and Stable Isotope Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban stormwater is a major source of fecal indicator bacteria in the Milwaukee River Basin, a major watershed draining to Lake Michigan. Much of the watershed is in highly urbanized areas and Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels have been found to be 20,000 CFU per 100 ml in the estuary leading to Lake Michigan. Aging infrastructure and illicit cross connections may allow sewage to infiltrate the stormwater system and could contribute both fecal indicator bacteria and human pathogens to these waters. We conducted extensive sampling of stormwater outfalls in the lower reaches of three major tributaries. Three outfalls along the heavily urbanized Kinnickinnick (KK) were found to have geometric mean E. coli and enterococci levels of 16,200 and 28,700 CFU/100 ml, respectively. Four outfalls along the Menomonee River, draining both suburban and urban areas, had geometric mean E. coli and enterococci levels of 14,700 and 12,800 CFU/100 ml, respectively. These seven outfalls had more than 60% of the samples positive for human specific Bacteroides genetic marker (n=46), suggesting the presence of human sources. In addition, two outfalls on Lincoln Creek, a smaller tributary of the Milwaukee River, had geometric mean E. coli and enterococci levels of 16,700 and 14,900 CFU per 100 ml, respectively. The human specific Bacteroides marker was positive in nearly 90% of the samples (n=24). Subsequent virus testing at one of these outfalls confirmed human pathogens were present with adenovirus detected at 1.3 x 10E3 genomic equivalents (ge)/L, enterovirus at 1.9 x 10E4 ge/L and G1 norovirus at 1.5 x 10E3 ge/L; these values are similar to concentrations found in sewage. Stable isotope studies were conducted in the three tributaries to investigate the relationship between delta C and delta N isotopic composition and microbiological quality of this urban freshwater system. This work is based on the premise that the organic matter of the stormwater will have a stable isotopic signature related to the mixed organic matter sources in polluted stormwater runoff, and that this signal will distinct from untreated sanitary sewage. Stable isotope signatures of stormwater and untreated sewage were determined and compared with the rivers. Isotopic values of stormwater was delta 15N = 1.1 ± 2 %; delta 13C = -25.5 ± 3 % and sewage was delta 15N = -1.9 ± 0.2 %; delta 13C = -23.6 ± 0.3. Suspended particular organic matter (SPOM) of Milwaukee River showed depleted delta 13C (-28.6 ± 1.6 %) and enriched delta 15N (7.7 ± 1.9 %) values. SPOM of the KK River exhibited the most depleted delta 15N (0.2 ± 1.6 %) and enriched delta 13C (-24.8 ± 1.8 %) isotopic values. Menomonee River SPOM showed intermediate isotopic values. The delta 13C values of each river and the estuary enriched significantly throughout the summer storm periods. The isotope signals in the KK and Menomonee were indicative of stormwater runoff and sewage contamination. These results suggest that unrecognized sewage inputs are chronically present and may be delivered through urban stormwater systems. DNA based methods combined with isotope analysis may provide a useful tool for urban watershed assessments and to identify sewage inputs. Delineating the relative contribution of stormwater and sewage to overall degraded water quality might give the first indication of the impact of these sources on the Michigan Lake waters.

McLellan, S. L.; Malet, N.; Sauer, E.; Mueller-Spitz, S.; Borchardt, M.



Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed Central

Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts.

Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M



Assessment of enteric viruses in a sewage treatment plant located in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.  


In order to verify the microbial quality of the influents and effluents of one STP from southern Brazil, an eight-month survey was conducted to examine the presence of total and fecal coliforms and of adenovirus (HAdV), enterovirus (EV), genogroup A rotaviruses (GARV) and Torque teno virus (TTV), in treated effluent samples from São João/Navegantes STP, Porto Alegre (Brazil). A total of 16 samples were collected, eight of influent (raw sewage, prior to treatment), and the other eight of the effluent (post-treatment sewage). Total and fecal coliform levels ranging from 3.6 × 10(4) to 4.4 × 10(7) MPN/100 mL and 2.9 × 10(3) to 1.7 × 10(7) MPN/100 mL, were detected in all samples. In raw sewage, HAdV (25%) and GARV (28.6%) viral genomes were detected. The analysis of effluent samples revealed the presence of HAdV (50%), EV (37.5%), and TTV (12.5%) genomic fragments. All samples, regardless of the month analysed, presented detection of a least one virus genus, except for in April. Higher virus detection rates were observed in treated sewage samples (62.5%), and in 80% of them (effluent positive samples) HAdV was detected. Results showed that improvements in sewage monitoring and treatment processes are necessary to reduce the viral and bacterial load on the environment in southern Brazil. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study showing the monitoring of viral genomes in influent and effluent samples from a STP located in Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), southern Brazil. PMID:23295512

Vecchia, A D; Fleck, J D; Kluge, M; Comerlato, J; Bergamaschi, B; Luz, R B; Arantes, T S; Silva, J V S; Thewes, M R; Spilki, F R



Anaerobic degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether.  


The environmental safety of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), a widely used flame retardant, has been the topic of controversial discussions during the past several years. Degradation of BDE-209 into lower brominated diphenyl ether congeners, exhibiting a higher bioaccumulation potential, has been a critical issue. Here, we report on the degradation of BDE-209 and the formation of octa- and nonabromodiphenyl ether congeners under anaerobic conditions. Sewage sludge collected from a mesophilic digester was used as the inoculum and incubated up to 238 days with and without a set of five primers. Following Soxhlet extraction and a liquid chromatography cleanup procedure, parent compounds and debromination products were analyzed by GC/HRMS. In experiments with primers, concentrations of BDE-209 decreased by 30% within 238 days. This corresponds to a pseudo-first-order degradation rate constant of 1 x 10(-3) d(-1). Without primers, the degradation rate constant was 50% lower. Formation of two nonabromodiphenyl ether and six octabromodiphenyl ether congeners proved that BDE-209 underwent reductive debromination in these experiments. Debromination occurred at the para and the meta positions, whereas debromination at the ortho position was not statistically significant. All three nonabromodiphenyl ether congeners (BDE-206, BDE-207, and BDE-208) were found to undergo reductive debromination as well. No significant change of the BDE-209 concentration and no formation of lower brominated congeners was observed in sterile control experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating microbially mediated reductive debromination of BDE-209 under anaerobic conditions. PMID:15773480

Gerecke, Andreas C; Hartmann, Paul C; Heeb, Norbert V; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Giger, Walter; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Kohler, Martin



Co-digestion to support low temperature anaerobic pretreatment of municipal sewage in a UASB-digester.  


The aim of this work was to demonstrate that co-digestion improves soluble sewage COD removal efficiency in treatment of low temperature municipal sewage by a UASB-digester system. A pilot scale UASB-digester system was applied to treat real municipal sewage, and glucose was chosen as a model co-substrate. Co-substrate was added in the sludge digester to produce additional methanogenic biomass, which was continuously recycled to inoculate the UASB reactor. Soluble sewage COD removal efficiency increased from 6 to 23%, which was similar to its biological methane potential (BMP). Specific methanogenic activity of the UASB and of the digester sludge at 15°C tripled to a value respectively of 43 and 39mg CH4-COD/(gVSSd). Methane production in the UASB reactor increased by more than 90% due to its doubled methanogenic capacity. Therefore, co-digestion is a suitable approach to support a UASB-digester for pretreatment of low temperature municipal sewage. PMID:24080295

Zhang, Lei; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Kampman, Christel; Temmink, Hardy; Zeeman, Grietje



Distribution of Coliphages Against Four E. Coli Virotypes in Hospital Originated Sewage Sample and a Sewage Treatment Plant in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of coliphages infecting different Escherichia coli virotypes (EHEC, EIEC, EPEC, ETEC) and an avirulent strain (K-12) in sewage system of a hospital and a sewage treatment plant\\u000a (STP) was investigated by culture-based agar overlay methods. Coliphages were found in all the samples except stool dumping\\u000a site in the sewage system of the hospital and lagoon of the STP.

Muntasir Alam; Tasmia Farzana; Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan; Mahmuda Yasmin; Jamalun Nessa



Use of biosolids to restore the natural vegetation cover on degraded soils in the badlands of Zaragoza (NE Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the semiarid central Ebro valley, the soils of the badlands surrounding Zaragoza city exhibit severe degradation features. Nevertheless, poor land management practices and limiting climatic and edaphic factors make the natural regeneration of the soil difficult. The use of sewage sludge as amendment for land rehabilitation is increasingly being considered as a technical solution to reverse this environmental degradation

Ana Navas; Javier Mach??n; Belinda Navas



Alleviation of Environmental Pollution Using Nuclear Techniques Recycling of Sewage Water and Sludge in Agriculture: a Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture soil has always been the disposal site for sewage effluent and solid sewage sludge. In Egypt, the use of raw sewage effluent as a source of irrigation and fertilization has been practiced for almost 80 years at ElGabal ElAsfar farm. At Helwan sewage effluent has started to be used in agriculture since 1992. Raw sewage sludge and sewage water

Rawia A. El-Motaium


Improved 1,3-propanediol production with hemicellulosic hydrolysates (corn straw) as cosubstrate: Impact of degradation products on Klebsiella pneumoniae growth and 1,3-propanediol fermentation.  


To improve 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production by an economic and efficient approach, hemicellulosic hydrolysates (HH) used as cosubstrate resulted in more biomass and higher reducing power for 1,3-PD production. The effects of primary degradation products such as individual sugars (xylose, glucose, mannose, arabinose and galactose) and major inhibitors (furfural, acetate and formate) on the Klebsiella pneumoiae growth and 1,3-PD production were investigated in this study. Xylose and mannose could efficiently promote the 1,3-PD production and cell growth. Furfural (0.28 g/l) and sodium acetate (1.46 g/l) in low concentration were not inhibitory to Klebsiella pneumoniae, rather they have stimulatory effect on the growth and 1,3-PD biosynthesis, especially the acetate. In fed-batch fermentation with HH as cosubstrate, the final 1,3-PD production, conversion from glycerol and productivity were 71.58 g/l, 0.65 mol/mol and 1.93 g/l/h, respectively, which were 17.8%, 25.0% and 17.7% higher than that from glycerol alone. PMID:21036601

Jin, Pin; Li, Shuang; Lu, Sheng-guo; Zhu, Jian-guo; Huang, He



Phosphorus availability from phosphate rock and sewage sludge as influenced by the addition of water soluble phosphate fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) inputs are required for sustainable agricultural production in most acid soils of the tropics and subtropics. Phosphate rocks (PR) and organic materials have been suggested as alternative P sources in these soils. Quantitative information on the P availability from sewage sludge (SL) is scanty. Methods to improve the effectiveness of PR such as partial acidulation and compaction with

F. Zapata; A. R. Zaharah



Effects of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LASs) in Sewage Sludge–Amended Soils on Nutrient Contents of Broccoli Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge is used in agriculture as a fertilizer and an organic amendment to improve physical and chemical soil properties. However, sludge contains organic compounds, such as surfactants, which may be toxic in the soil–plant system. The effects on plants of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), a group of anionic surfactants that are widely used in detergent products, have not been

Daniel Prats; Raul Moral; Concepcion Paredes; Victor León



Use of MSW compost, dried sewage sludge and other wastes as partial substitutes for peat and soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of different materials; peat, sand or forest soil, in the production of substrates for ornamental plants and for revegetating sealed landfills is a practice leading to economic and environmental problems. Therefore, the feasibility of using composted municipal solid wastes (MSW), sewage sludge and other organic wastes to produce alternative substrates for ornamental plants and to improve the re-vegetation

F. Ingelmo; R. Canet; M. A. Ibañez; F. Pomares; J. García



Investigations into the control of odour and viscosity of biomass oil derived from pyrolysis of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass oil derived from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge has good commercial value as a fuel to power diesel engines. However, the properties of the oil, such as its bad odour, high viscosity and its instability can be a disadvantage for marketing the oil. This paper examines the possibilities of improving the characteristics of biomass oil that was derived from

V. A. Doshi; H. B. Vuthaluru; T. Bastow



Fate of triclosan in field soils receiving sewage sludge.  


The anti-microbial substance triclosan can partition to sewage sludge during wastewater treatment and subsequently transfer to soil when applied to land. Here, we describe the fate of triclosan in a one-year plot experiment on three different soils receiving sludge. Triclosan and methyl-triclosan concentrations were measured in soil samples collected monthly from three depths. A large fraction of triclosan loss appeared to be explained by transformation to methyl-triclosan. After 12 months less than 20% of the initial triclosan was recovered from each soil. However, the majority was recovered as methyl-triclosan. Most of the chemical recovered at the end of the experiment (both triclosan and methyl-triclosan) was still in the top 10 cm layer, although there was translocation to lower soil horizons in all three soils. Between 16.5 and 50.6% of the applied triclosan was unaccounted for after 12 months either as a consequence of degradation or the formation of non-extractable residues. PMID:22561896

Butler, E; Whelan, M J; Sakrabani, R; van Egmond, R



From sewage water treatment to wastewater reuse. One century of Paris sewage farms history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The irrigation fields of Paris have been used for 100 years. Their soils mainly contain heavy metals in the topmost layer. Metals come from raw sewage as well as from digested sludge of biological treatment plants which have been diluted for years in raw water. Vegetables that are cultivated in the irrigation fields concentrate metals but their average contents, however,

B. Védry; M. Gousailles; M. Affholder; A. Lefaux; J. Bontoux


Human Enteropathogen Load in Activated Sewage Sludge and Corresponding Sewage Sludge End Products?  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrated a significant reduction in the concentrations of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, and spores of human-virulent microsporidia in dewatered and biologically stabilized sewage sludge cake end products compared to those of the respective pathogens in the corresponding samples collected during the sludge activation process.

Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Lucy, Frances E.; Tamang, Leena; Miraflor, Allen



Algal Growth Response in Two Illinois Rivers Receiving Sewage Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) primarily enters streams in Illinois as effluent released from sewage treatment plants and runoff from agricultural fields. As a result, water quality can be affected and large amounts of algal growth are possible. We determined the growth of periphytic algae (as chla) relative to differing amounts of P (factor of 10) released in sewage effluent in two rivers.

Linda M. Jacobson; Mark B. Davida; Corey A. Mitchell



Optimization study on sewage sludge conditioning using Moringa oleifera seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of sewage sludge is a main problem faced by local municipalities in Malaysia. Sludge conditioned with chemical polymer often termed as undesirable use for land application. However, using natural polymer will help to reduce the impact of this problem. In this study, optimization using Moringa oleifera seeds as a natural polymer in sewage sludge conditioning is highlighted. An earlier

Wai Kien Tat; Azni Idris; Megat Johari Megat Mohd Noor; Thamer A. Mohamed; Abdul Halim Ghazali; Suleyman A. Muyibi



Cyanobacteria as a biosorbent of heavy metals in sewage water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sewage water on some physiological activities of cyanobacteria was studied. Metal-tolerant cyanobacterium (Nostoc linckia) and metal-sensitive (Nostoc rivularis) were grown at three levels of sewage water (25, 50 and 75%). The growth rate showed significant stimulation in low and moderate levels (50% for N. linckia and 25% for N. rivularis). Not only the number of cells was

A. E. El-Enany; A. A. Issa



Effect of flooding with sewage water on three wetland sedges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of three wetland sedges, Carex vesicaria, C. rostrata, and C. gracilis, were subjected to flooding with diluted pig farm sewage water in a sand-culture experiment lasting for one growing season (20 weeks). Sewage water application altered growth dynamics and accumulation of dry matter in all three species; it shifted the distribution of dry matter in favor of above-ground parts;

Hana Kon?alová; Jan Kv?t; Jan Pokorný; Václav Hauser



Chironomidae From a Sewage Treatment Station of Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the great number of insects living and reproducing at a municipal sewage treatment station located in Piracicaba City and the fear about how dangerous it could be for human healthy, a study was conduct to identify the taxa presented there and to analyze their community structure using stable isotopes. The Chironomidae identification was performed on specific level. The sewage

R. P. Signoretti; K. C. Sonoda; E. Ferraz



Removal of dissolved estrogen in sewage effluents by ?-cyclodextrin polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substances with estrogenic activity are found in effluents of municipal sewage plants and dairy farms. These effluents have the potential to induce feminization in male fish. In this study, cyclodextrin polymers (CDPs) that are insoluble in both polar and non-polar solvents were selected for the removal of dissolved estrogens in the effluent of a municipal sewage plant. The removal capacity

Kyoko Oishi; Ayumi Moriuchi



Sewage Sludge ElectroDewatering Treatment—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purification of municipal wastewater generates huge amounts of sewage sludge, which contains large quantities of water, biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances. It is widely known that sewage sludge usually has a poor dewaterability. A large amount of water in sludge directly translates into high transport and handling costs; therefore, sludge treatment and disposal usually requires over 50% of the operation

Pham-Anh Tuan; Sillanpää Mika; Isosaari Pirjo



Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in treated sewage sludge, in a

Leena Sahlström; Verena Rehbinder; Ann Albihn; Anna Aspan; Björn Bengtsson



Use of composted sewage sludge in growth media for broccoli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the use of composted sewage sludge (CSS) as a binary component with peat (P) in growth media for a horticultural crop, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Botryti cv. Marathon), was evaluated. Four treatments were established, based on the addition of increasing quantities of composted sewage sludge to peat (0%, 15%, 30% and 50%, v\\/v). Physical, physico-chemical and chemical

M. D. Perez-Murcia; R. Moral; J. Moreno-Caselles; A. Perez-Espinosa; C. Paredes



Endocrine disrupting chemicals accumulate in earthworms exposed to sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter endocrine function in exposed animals. Such critical effects, combined with the ubiquity of EDCs in sewage effluent and potentially in tapwater, have led to concerns that they could be major physiological disruptors for wildlife and more controversially for humans. Although sewage effluent is known to be a rich source of EDCs, there is as

Shai Markman; Irina A. Guschina; Sara Barnsley; Katherine L. Buchanan; David Pascoe; Carsten T. Müller




Microsoft Academic Search

Dewatering of sewage sludge is an important part of proper sludge management practice. It is becoming a challenging issue for water industries as new regulations on sludge disposal are being imposed. In this paper, the application of mechanical thermal expression (MTE) to dewater sewage sludge and the conditioning of sludge by mixing with brown coal prior to MTE are investigated.

K. B. Thapa; S. A. Clayton; A. F. A. Hoadley



EPA Science Inventory

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...


[Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].  


"Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one. PMID:23705396

Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai



Effects of sewage sludge application method on corn production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the effects of land application of municipal sewage sludge to agricultural land in Upper Cumberland Region of the Tennessee valley. Treatments included single and annual applications of sewage sludge both surface applied and injected into the soil. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effects of different land application methods of

R. W. Cripps; S. K. Winfree; J. L. Reagan



Energy Generation by a Renewable Source - Sewage Biogas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will present two projects related to energy generation using sewage biogas as fuel and different engines, one is a Otto cycle engine and the other is a microturbine. The first one had as project proposal the sewage biogas use as fuel in an 18 kva Otto cycle generator, to produce electric energy, which development was a commitment of

Sílvia Maria Stortini González; Orlando Cristiano; Osvaldo Stella Martins; Fernando Castro


Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) biomass production in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge compost and irrigated with sewage water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy use is one of the most important current global issues. Traditional energetic resources are limited and its use generates environmental problems, i.e. Global Warming, thus it is necessary to find alternative ways to produce energy. Energy crops represent one step towards sustainability but it must be coupled with appropriate land use and management adapted to local conditions. Moreover, positive effects like soil conservation; economical improvement of rural areas and CO2 storage could be achieved. Treated sewage water and sewage sludge compost were used as low-cost inputs for nutrition and irrigation, to cultivate cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) a perennial Mediterranean crop. The aim of the present field experiment was to ascertain the optimum dose of compost application to obtain maximum biomass production. Four compost treatments were applied by triplicate (D1=0; D2=30; D3=50; D4=70 ton/ha) and forty eight cardoon plants were placed in each plot, 12 per treatment, in a calcareous soil (CLfv; WRB, 2006) plot, located in the South East of Spain, in semi-arid conditions. The experiment was developed for one cardoon productive cycle (one year); soil was sampled three times (October, April and July). Soil, compost and treated sewage irrigation water were analyzed (physical and chemical properties). Stalk, capitula and leave weight as well as height and total biomass production were the parameters determined for cardoon samples. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) at p=0,05 significance level were performed to detect differences among treatments for each sampling/plot and to study soil parameters evolution and biomass production for each plot/dose. Several statistical differences in soil were found between treatments for extractable zinc, magnesium and phosphorus; as well as Kjeldahl nitrogen and organic carbon due to compost application, showing a gradual increase of nutrients from D1 to D4. However, considering the evolution of soil parameters along time, pH was the only with marked and significant decreasing trend from the first to the last sampling period. Mean cardoon biomass production in D1subplot was 13 ton/ha which differed significantly from D4 production, which was about 20 ton/ha. Hence, the maximum biomass production was obtained with the maximum compost dose. The results show that compost amendment increased cardoon biomass production, probably due to the improvement of soil properties, especially plant nutrient availability. No significant differences were found in soil parameters along time, with the exception of pH. However, longer test time is needed to evaluate long term effects in soil and to check the maintenance of biomass productivity. References Fernadez J., Curt, M.D., Aguado P.L. Industrial applications of Cynara cardunculus for energy and other uses. Industrial Crops and Product 24 (2006) pp 222-229. WRB (2006). World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2nd ed.). World Soil Resources Report 103, FAO, Rome, Italy (2006) 133 pp. Casado, J.; Sellés, S.; Navarro, J.; Bustamante, M.A.; Mataix, J.; Guerrero, C.; Gomez, I. Evaluation of composted sewage sludge as nutricional source for horticulturals soils. Waste Management 26 (2006). pp 946-952. Acknowledgements: The author gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Science for a research fellowship (AP2007-01641).

Lag, A.; Gomez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Melendez, I.; Perez Gimeno, A.; Soriano-Disla, J. M.



Coxiella burnetii in sewage water at sewage water treatment plants in a Q fever epidemic area.  


During 2007-2010, over 4000 persons in The Netherlands contracted Q-fever, a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Goats and sheep are the main reservoir of C. burnetti and infected animals shed the bacterium with their urine, faeces and birth products. Human infections may occur through direct contact with infected animals, or through inhalation of contaminated dust particles or aerosols. Discharge of waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may result in the presence of C. burnetii in sewage water and aerosols at sewage water treatment plants (SWTPs) which may pose a health risk for workers or neighbouring residents. The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of C. burnetii at SWTPs and to optimize available detection methods. In March-July 2011, sewage influent and aeration tank samples from four SWTPs receiving discharge from Q fever positive goat farms were examined by using a multiplex real-time PCR detecting C. burnetii DNA by targeting IS1111 and com1 genes. Influent (44%; n=16/36) and active sludge (36%; n=13/36) samples were positive with low C. burnetii DNA content. Percentage positive samples per SWTP were 28-61%. Positive samples were most frequent in March 2011 and least frequent in May 2011. The presence of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water samples suggests that SWTPs receiving waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may contribute to the spread of C. burnetii to the environment. The low levels of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water during the decline of the Q fever outbreak in The Netherlands in 2011 indicate a low health risk for SWTP workers and residents. PMID:23347968

Schets, F M; de Heer, L; de Roda Husman, A M



Mechanical disintegration of sewage sludge.  


Mechanical disintegration can be used for an accelerated and improved anaerobic digestion of excess sludge. The hydrolysis is the limiting step of this process. Mechanical disintegration can be used to disrupt the cell walls and to cause the release of the organic material from the cells. Particle size analysis describes the size reduction but is not suitable for characterising the release of the organic material and the cell disruption. Two biochemical methods were developed for these phenomena. One of the parameters provides information about the disruption of micro-organisms, the other one gives information about the release of organic material. Different ultrasonic homogenizers, a high pressure homogenizer and stirred ball mills were used for disintegration experiments using various parameters. The influences of a mechanical disintegration on the particle size and of the energy intensity on the disintegration were investigated. Further investigations had to detect the influence of the solid content on the disintegration results. For sludge with a higher solid content better results in terms of energy consumption could be achieved. An optimum of the bead diameter and the stress intensity in stirred ball mills could be detected. A comparison of the results of different methods of sludge disintegration shows that the investigated ultrasonic homogenizers are inferior to a high pressure homogenizer and a stirred ball mill in terms of energy consumption. PMID:11379090

Lehne, G; Müller, A; Schwedes, J



Process for degrading hypochlorite  


It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved means and method for the degradation of hypochlorite in alkali waste solutions. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a more effective and less costly method for the degradation of hypochlorite. The foregoing objects and others are accomplished in accordance with the present invention, generally speaking, by providing a process to degrade hypochlorite into chloride and oxygen which includes contacting an aqueous hypochlorite basic solution with a catalyst comprising about 1--10 w/w % cobalt oxide and about 1--15 w/w % molybdenum oxide on a suitable substrate. In another embodiment a similar process for degrading lithium hypochlorite is provided in which waste solution concentration is lowered in order to minimize carbonate precipitation. 6 tabs.

Huxtable, W.P.; Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.



Gaseous emissions from ceramics manufactured with urban sewage sludge during firing processes.  


The re-use of sewage sludge without any treatment as primary material-mixed with clays-in order to obtain structural ceramics for buildings has been successfully improved. In the Ecobrick project, the firing of a mixture of specific percentages of three components (clays, sludges and forest debris) resulted in a lighter and more thermal and acoustic insulating brick, compared with conventional clay-bricks. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission from the manufacturing of ceramics is the most important aspect to control. In the Ecobrick project VOC emissions were monitored by using a bench-scale furnace. The study was conducted using an EPA recommended sampling train and portable sampling tubes that were thermally desorbed and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Drying of raw sewage-sludge and firing processes were considered separately. In this paper, we present VOC emissions coming from the firing step of the Ecobrick production. PMID:12737969

Cusidó, J A; Cremades, L V; González, M



Improvement of municipal wastewaters by electron beam accelerator in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation processing of municipal sewage and sludge has been considered not only for disinfection but also for solids and organic matter removal in Brazil. The improvement of irradiated systems were demonstrated by the elimination of indicator bacteria and by the reduction on the total bacteria count, on the chemical and biochemical oxygen demand from raw sewage and biologically treated effluents.

S. I. Borrely; N. L. del Mastro; M. H. O. Sampa



Environmental Study of the Sewage Outfall Area at San Clemente Island. An Open-Ocean Sewage Disposal Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An environmental-impact study of the San Clemente Island sewage discharge site was used as a model to predict the effects of dumping raw sewage into the open ocean. Coliform bacterial counts, used to assess water sanitary quality, showed that the water at...

P. R. Kenis M. H. Salazar J. A. Tritschler



Effect of irrigation on the survival of total coliforms in three semiarid soils after amendment with sewage sludge.  


Sewage sludges are increasingly used in soil amendment programmes, although not without risk since they contain, among other potential hazards, high concentrations of total coliform bacteria. In this paper we have studied the effect of irrigation on the survival of total coliforms in three semiarid degraded soils with different agricultural practices. Fresh sewage sludge was added at 50 g kg(-1) soil, and incubated in both the presence and absence of irrigation. The absence of irrigation led to a sharp decrease in the number of total coliforms in all soils, with the bacteria disappearing in 40 days. Irrigation produced a substantial initial increase in the number of coliforms in the three soils, although after 80 days there was none growing in any of the soils. The results showed that there were significant differences in the survival of coliform bacteria due to the presence or absence of irrigation. PMID:17092698

García-Orenes, F; Roldán, A; Guerrero, C; Mataix-Solera, J; Navarro-Pedreño, J; Gómez, I; Mataix-Beneyto, J



Production and characterization of glazed tiles containing incinerated sewage sludge.  


In this article, glaze with different colorants was applied to tile specimens manufactured by incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and clay. Improvements using different amounts of colorants, and glaze components and concentrations on tile bodies were investigated. Four different proportions of clay (by weight ratio) were replaced by ISSA. Tiles of size 12 cm x 6 cm x 1 cm were made and left in an electric furnace to make biscuit tiles at 800 degrees C. Afterwards, four colorants, Fe2O3 (red), V2O5 (yellow), CoCO3 (blue), and MnO2 (purple), and four different glaze concentrations were applied on biscuit tile specimens. These specimens were later sintered into glazed tiles at 1050 degrees C. The study shows that replacement of clay by sludge ash had adverse effects on properties of tiles. Water absorption increased and bending strength reduced with increased amounts of ash. However, both water absorption and bending strength improved for glazed ash tiles. Abrasion of grazed tiles reduced noticeably from 0.001 to 0.002 g. This implies glaze can enhance abrasion resistance of tiles. Effects like lightfastness and acid-alkali resistance improved as different glazes were applied on tiles. In general, red glazed tiles showed the most stable performance, followed by blue, yellow, and purple. PMID:17433656

Lin, D F; Chang, W C; Yuan, C; Luo, H L



An environmental risk assessment for oseltamivir (Tamiflu) for sewage works and surface waters under seasonal-influenza- and pandemic-use conditions.  


In the event of an influenza pandemic, anti-viral medications such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) are expected to be used in high amounts over a duration of several weeks. Oseltamivir has been predicted to reach high concentrations in surface waters and sewage works. New oseltamivir environmental fate and toxicity studies permit an environmental risk assessment (ERA) under seasonal- and pandemic-use scenarios. The environmental fate data for sewage works (no removal), surface waters (no significant degradation), and water/sediment systems (>50% primary degradation in 100 days) were used for the derivation of new predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) for western Europe and the River Lee catchment in the UK. Existing worst-case PECs for western Europe, the River Lee catchment in the UK and the Lower Colorado basin in the USA under pandemic conditions (< or =98.1 microg/L for surface waters, < or =348 microg/L for sewage works) were also considered for the ERA. PECs were compared with predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) based on new chronic ecotoxicity data (no observed effect concentration for algae, daphnia, and fish > or =1 mg/L). Based on all PEC/PNEC risk ratios, no significant risk is evident to surface waters or sewage works during both regular seasonal-use and high pandemic-use of oseltamivir. PMID:19560203

Straub, Jürg Oliver



An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants.  


Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean. Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1 ng L(-1) to 7.6 ?g L(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary treatments. From the present study it can be concluded that constructed wetlands may provide a complementary sewage treatment option, especially where other treatment is lacking today. To fully remove micro-pollutants from sewage effluent, however, other more advanced treatment technologies are likely needed. PMID:22192709

Breitholtz, Magnus; Näslund, Maria; Stråe, Daniel; Borg, Hans; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker



Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA).  


Ashes from sewage sludge incineration are rich in phosphorus content, ranging between 4% and 9%. Due to the current methods of disposal used for these ashes, phosphorus, which is a valuable plant nutrient, is removed from biological cycling. This article proposes the possible three-stage processing of SSA, whereby more than 90% of phosphorus can be extracted to make an adequate phosphate fertilizer. SSA from two Swiss sewage sludge incinerators was used for laboratory investigations. In an initial step, SSA was leached with sulfuric acid using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2. The leaching time and pH required for high phosphorus dissolution were determined. Inevitably, dissolution of heavy metals takes place that would contaminate the fertilizer. Thus in a second step, leach solution has to be purified by having the heavy metals removed. Both ion exchange using chelating resins and sulfide precipitation turned out to be suitable for removing critical Cu, Ni and Cd. Thirdly, phosphates were precipitated as calcium phosphates with lime water. The resulting phosphate sludge was dewatered, dried and ground to get a powdery fertilizer whose efficacy was demonstrated by plant tests in a greenhouse. By measuring the weight of plants after 6 weeks of growth, fertilized in part with conventional phosphate fertilizer, fertilizer made from SSA was proven to be equal in its plant uptake efficiency. PMID:17919895

Franz, M



Improving Sewage Treatment Plant Performance in Wet Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment plants may be subject to significant process upsets during extreme flow conditions. The type and extent of the upset\\u000a will vary depending on plant configuration, processes, and gradient-duration of the load transient. Better utilisation of\\u000a STPs with respect to the attainment of receiving water quality goals can be achieved by implementing appropriate process modifications\\u000a and\\/or additions and by adopting

A. G. Capodaglio


Occurrence and removal of organic pollutants in sewages and landfill leachates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewages of different composition and the effluents of four sewage treatment plants (STPs), plus sewage sludges were analysed for semivolatile organic priority pollutants. Furthermore, 11 landfill leachates were analysed to evaluate their contribution to sewage pollutants when co-treated. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the pollutant occurring at highest concentrations (up to 122 ?g\\/l) and it was present in all sewages and

Sanna K Marttinen; Riitta H Kettunen; Jukka A Rintala



Cultivation and characterization of bacterial isolates capable of degrading pharmaceutical and personal care products for improved removal in activated sludge wastewater treatment.  


Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) discharged with wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are an emerging surface water quality concern. Biological transformation has been identified as an important removal mechanism during wastewater treatment. The aim of this research was the identification of bacteria with characteristics for potential bioaugmentation to enhance PPCP removal. We report here the cultivation and characterization of bacteria capable of degrading PPCPs to ng/L concentrations. An isolation approach was developed using serial enrichment in mineral medium containing 1 mg/L of an individual PPCP as the sole organic carbon source available to heterotrophs until the original activated sludge inocula was diluted to ~10(-8) of its initial concentration, followed by colony growth on solid R2A agar. Eleven bacteria were isolated, eight that could remove triclosan, bisphenol A, ibuprofen, or 17?-estradiol to below 10 ng/L, one that could remove gemfibrozil to below 60 ng/L, and two that could remove triclosan or E2, but not to ng/L concentrations. Most bacterial isolates degraded contaminants during early growth when grown utilizing rich carbon sources and were only able to degrade the PPCPs on which they were isolated. Seven of the bacterial isolates were sphingomonads, including all the triclosan and bisphenol A degraders and the ibuprofen degrader. The study results indicate that the isolated bacteria may have a positive influence on removal in WWTPs if present at sufficient concentrations and may be useful for bioaugmentation. PMID:23455956

Zhou, Nicolette A; Lutovsky, April C; Andaker, Greta L; Gough, Heidi L; Ferguson, John F



[Research on CANON process for municipal sewage in room temperature].  


In the room temperature 14.7-24.7 degrees C, simultaneous nitrification-ANAMMOX (CANON) process for municipal sewage was tested by SBR while the DO was controlled between 0.05 and 0.30 mg/L. As a result, the research shows that CANON process can be applied to the nitrogen treatment of municipal wastewater in room temperature by SBR. DO can be regarded as the indication parameter of reaction terminal, and 1 mg/L has been confirmed in the experiment. In the exploring SBR experiments, the consumption velocity of NH4(+) -N was 0.164-0.218 kg/(m3 x d), the production velocity of NO3(-) -N was 0.026-0.036 kg/(m3 x d), the removal velocity and efficiency of TN were 0.124-0.194 kg/(m3 x d) and 65%-75% respectively. Additionally, in the improving SBR experiments, there were three methods for avoiding nitrite accumulation and increasing the nitrogen removal efficiency. They were improving temperature, adding non-aeration period of time and increasing the quantity of ANAMMOX bacteria. Therefore, the removal efficiency of TN was increased to 77%-88% through the three ways above. However, in view of the nitrogen removal velocity and the fact of engineering application condition, the third approach was the best to advance the general ability of ANAMMOX. PMID:19774999

Wang, Jun-An; Li, Dong; Tian, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Zhao-Liang; Fu, Kun-Ming



Combustion Characteristics of Sewage Sludge Using a Pressurized Fluidized Bed Incinerator with Turbocharger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of sewage sludge incinerator that combines a pressurized fluidized bed combustor and a turbocharger driven by flue gas was proposed. This plant has four main advantages. (l) The combustion rate can be improved since the oxygen partial pressure in the combustor is increased by the pressurization. The incinerator volume can be substantially smaller than that of an atmospheric incinerator with the same incineration capacity. Thus, the amount of supplementary fuel can be reduced because the heat loss from the incinerator can be decreased. (2) Because the maximum operating pressure is O.3 MPa (absolute pressure), which matches the pressure required for the turbocharger, a pressure vessel is unnecessary. (3) An energy savings of more than 40% can be achieved compared with a conventional plant since the FDF and the IDF are unnecessary. (4) Because steam in the flue gas becomes the working fluid of the turbocharger, the turbocharger can generate surplus air in addition to the combustion air. The surplus air can be used in other processes, such as aeration, in sewage works. We constructed a demonstration plant (4.32 tid scale) at a sewage works in Japan. The operation and combustion characteristics of the plant were clarified, and the design data of a commercial plant was obtained.

Murakami, T.; Kltajlma, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Nagasawa, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Koseki, T.; Hirose, H.; Okamoto, S.


Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with shredded grass from public green spaces.  


Adding greenery from public spaces to the co-digestion process with sewage sludge was evaluated by shredding experiments and laboratory-scale batch and continuous mesophilic anaerobic fermentation experiments. The ratio of the shredded grass with 20mm or less in length by a commercially available shredder was 93%. The methane production was around 0.2NL/gVS-grass in the batch experiment. The continuous experiment fed with sewage sludge and shredded grass was stably operated for 81days. The average methane production was 0.09NL/gVS-grass when the TS ratio of the sewage sludge and the grass was 10:1. This value was smaller than those of other reports using grass silage, but the grass species in this study were not managed, and the collected grass was just shredded and not ensiled before feeding to the reactor for simple operation. The addition of grass to a digester can improve the carbon/nitrogen ratio, methane production and dewaterability. PMID:23334025

Hidaka, Taira; Arai, Sayuri; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu



Metal transfer in vermicomposting of sewage sludge and plant wastes  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge is an urban waste that has a potential nutrient value for recycling into food production. A set of guidelines has been developed that prescribes the quality of sludge suitable for utilization on foodlands. A number of sewage sludges do not meet the criteria and are therefore not acceptable for direct foodland application. One of the options available for such sludges is the production of compost and one of these composting processes involves worms (vermicomposting). This study looks at a pilot vermicomposting operation and follows metal concentrations by batch lot from the sewage sludge to the final commercial product.

Frank, R. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario); Klauck, C.; Stonefield, K.I.



Kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of reactive dyes in a TiO 2 slurry reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The textile industry consumes considerable amounts of water during the dyeing and finishing operations. Dyes are extensively used and hence wastewaters discharged in rivers or public sewage treatment plants are highly contaminated. In this work, a detailed investigation of the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of the safira HEXL dye, an anionic azo dye of reactive class, is presented. H2O2 and

T Sauer; G Cesconeto Neto; H. J José; R. F. P. M Moreira



Biochemical activities in a degraded soil restored by two amendments: a laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the soil biochemical activity after different amounts of organic materials with varying degrees of stability [sewage sludge (SS), and farmyard manure (FYM)] were incorporated into a degraded Mediterranean soil. SS greatly enhanced the biomass C content and increased respiration. Soil treated with fresh material (SS) produced more CO2 than that treated with stabilized FYM, with higher values

A. Saviozzi; P. Bufalino; R. Levi-Minzi; R. Riffaldi



Infl uence of Diff erent Organic Amendments on the Degradation, Metabolism, and Adsorption of Terbuthylazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Th e behavior of the herbicide terbuthylazine (TA) was studied in a clay loam soil after the addition of diff erent organic amendments (OAs). Addition of poultry compost (PC) and urban sewage sludge (USS) retarded degradation of TA with half- life values of 60.3 and 73.7 d, respectively. In contrast, addition of corn straw (CS) did not signifi cantly alter

Dimitrios G. Karpouzas; Urania Menkissoglu-Spiroudi; Ilias Eleftherohorinos; Evangelos A. Voudrias


Transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals during integrated composting-vermicomposting of sewage sludges.  


Transformation and availability of nutrients and some heavy metals were assessed during the integrated composting-vermicomposting of both primary sewage sludge (PSS) and waste activated sewage sludge (WAS) using matured vermicompost as indigenous bulking material and employing Eisenia fetida as earthworm species. Vermicomposting resulted in significant increase in total N (TN) (PSS: 41.7-64.6%, F=11.6, P<0.05; WAS: 36.4-58.6%, F=6.4, P<0.05), water soluble N (WSN) (PSS: 37.1-50.5%, F=30.1, P<0.05; WAS: 40.1-53.0%, F=27.6, P<0.05), total P (TP) (PSS: 39.9-69.8%, F=27.1, P<0.05; WAS: 32.2-56.6%, F=21.4, P<0.05) and water soluble P (WSP) (PSS: 25.2-34.3%, F=163.9, P<0.05; WAS: 24.1-34.2%, F=144.3, P<0.05) as compared to the initial compost material depending on different experimental conditions. The study demonstrated that the vermicomposting significantly improved the availability of nutrients in sewage sludges. In addition, vermicomposting considerably reduced the availability of heavy metals except Fe and Mn, presumably by forming organic-bound complexes in spite of several fold increase in their total content. The environmental conditions (i.e., temperature and relative humidity), in general, showed significant effect on the transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals. There was no effect of earthworm density on the transformation and availability of heavy metals and nutrients except N and P, possibly due to prior exposure during acclimation period in sewage sludge. PMID:22277776

Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod



PBDEs in Italian sewage sludge and environmental risk of using sewage sludge for land application.  


Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sewage sludge samples collected from eight Italian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) between June 2009 and March 2010. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 158.3 to 9427 ng g(-1) dw, while deca-BDE (BDE-209) (concentrations ranging from 130.6 to 9411 ng g(-1) dw) dominated the congener profile in all the samples, contributing between 77% and 99.8% of total PBDE. The suitability of using a magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was also tested. The ELISA results, expressed as BDE-47 equivalents, were well correlated with those obtained by GC-NCI-MS, with correlation coefficients (r(2)) of 0.899 and 0.959, depending on the extraction procedure adopted. The risk assessment of PBDEs in sewage sludge addressed to land application was calculated. PEC(soil) values compared to the relative PNEC(soil) for penta and deca-BDE suggests that there is a low risk to the soil environment. PMID:22230090

Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Misuri, Lorenza; Lanciotti, Eudes; Sweetman, Andy; Laschi, Serena; Palchetti, Ilaria



Microbial utilization and transformation of humic acid-like substances extracted from a mixture of municipal refuse and sewage sludge disposed of in a landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the research was to establish whether humic acid-like substances (HA) related to municipal refuse disposed of in a landfill can resist microbial degradation and if they contribute, in that way, to long-term stabilization of landfill refuse. Using a mixture of 0.1 M Na4P2O7 + 0.1 M NaOH, we extracted HA from municipal refuse mixed with sewage sludge

Z Filip; W Pecher; J Berthelin



Isolation of azo-dye-degrading microorganisms and their application to white discharge printing of fabric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three bacterial strains, which degraded azo dyes, were isolated from soil and sewage samples. The strains were identified as Bacillus sp. OY1-2, Xanthomonas sp. NR25-2 and Pseudomonas sp. PR41-1. The bacteria produced azo-dyes-degrading enzymes. That catalyzed the reduction of methyl red and produced dimethyl p-phenylenediamine and o-aminobenzoic acid. The enzymes could thus be applied to white discharge printing of azo-dyed

Wataru Sugiura; Toshio Miyashita; Tadashi Yokoyama; Motoo Arai



Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that the viral universe is far more vast and diverse than previously suspected.

Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.



Usage of sewage effluent in irrigation of some woody tree seedlings. Part 3: Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.  


A pot experiment was investigated to study the effect of sewage irrigation treatments (primary and secondary effluents) compared with tap water on the growth and chemical constituents of mahogany seedlings (Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.) as well as soil chemical properties. The experiment was conducted at a greenhouse in the nursery of Timber Trees Research Department of Sabahia, Horticultural Research Station in Alexandria, Egypt, from June 2003 to December 2004 for three irrigation periods (6, 12 and 18 months). The sewage effluent waters were taken from oxidation ponds located in New Borg EL-Arab city and used directly for irrigation. The primary effluent treatment was superior than other treatments in improving the growth parameters (plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, leaves number, fresh and dry weights of leaves, shoots and roots and shoot/root ratio) and showed the highest concentration and total uptake of N, P, K, Cd, Ni, Pb and Fe in plant parts, followed by secondary effluent then tap water. The data revealed that soil salinity in terms of electrical conductivity of saturated paste (EC), CaCO3%, organic matter% and soluble anions and cations were influenced significantly by primary or secondary effluent treatment. The data also showed that the use of sewage effluent for irrigation increased N, P, K and DTPA-extractable-heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of sewage effluent on growth parameters and elements content in plant parts and treated soil were more pronounced as water treatments were used for long period. The results suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating mahogany trees grown on calcareous sandy loam soil was an important agriculture practice for improving soil properties, increasing fuel and timber production, and is an economic and safe way to dispose wastewaters. PMID:23961125

Ali, Hayssam M; El-Mahrouk, El-Sayed M; Hassan, Fatma A; El-Tarawy, Mohamed A



High congruence of isotope sewage signals in multiple marine taxa.  


Assessments of sewage pollution routinely employ stable nitrogen isotope analysis (?(15)N) in biota, but multiple taxa are rarely used. This single species focus leads to underreporting of whether derived spatial N patterns are consistent. Here we test the question of 'reproducibility', incorporating 'taxonomic replication' in the measurement of ?(15)N gradients in algae, seagrasses, crabs and fish with distance from a sewage outfall on the Adelaide coast (southern Australia). Isotopic sewage signals were equally strong in all taxa and declined at the same rate. This congruence amongst taxa has not been reported previously. It implies that sewage-N propagates to fish via a tight spatial coupling between production and consumption processes, resulting from limited animal movement that closely preserves the spatial pollution imprint. In situations such as this where consumers mirror pollution signals of primary producers, analyses of higher trophic levels will capture a broader ambit of ecological effects. PMID:23602260

Connolly, Rod M; Gorman, Daniel; Hindell, Jeremy S; Kildea, Timothy N; Schlacher, Thomas A




EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...



EPA Science Inventory

Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...


Bacteriophages active against Bacteroides fragilis in sewage-polluted waters.  

PubMed Central

Twelve strains of different Bacteroides species were tested for their efficiency of detection of bacteriophages from sewage. The host range of several isolated phages was investigated. The results indicated that there was a high degree of strain specificity. Then, by using Bacteroides fragilis HSP 40 as the host, which proved to be the most efficient for the detection of phages, feces from humans and several animal species and raw sewage, river water, water from lagoons, seawater, groundwater, and sediments were tested for the presence of bacteriophages that were active against B. fragilis HSP 40. Phages were detected in feces of 10% of the human fecal samples tested and was never detected in feces of the other animal species studied. Moreover, bacteriophages were always recovered from sewage and sewage-polluted samples of waters and sediments, but not from nonpolluted samples. The titers recovered were dependent on the degree of pollution in analyzed waters and sediments.

Tartera, C; Jofre, J



Sewage Sludge Incinerator Fuel Reduction at Nashville, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used...

A. J. Verdouw E. W. Waltz



Preliminary Investigation of Sewage Sludge Dumping off Delaware Bay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Requests from Region II Water Supply and Sea Resources Program, the shellfish sanitation agencies in the states of Region II, the shelfish industry and others interested in the pollution potential of sewage sludge, chemical wastes and other wastes being d...

R. W. Buelow B. H. Pringle J. L. Verber



Effects of Irrigation of Municipal Sewage Effluent on Spoil Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The discharge of increasing volumes of sewage effluent from waste water treatment plants as a result of increasing population and urbanization has accentuated water pollution problems in the eastern United States. Such effluents are relatively rich in min...

W. E. Sopper



Agricultural Utilization of Sewage Effluent and Sludge. An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effluent and sewage sludge from municipal and industrial treatment plants is a source of water and nutrients for agricultural uses. Considering its potential, only a few instances of agricultural uses of waste water in crop production have been record...

J. P. Law




EPA Science Inventory

This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge and septage destined for land application or surface disposal. t also provides guidance for meeting those requirements. he chapters of this document discuss why pathogen control is necessary, t...


Use of Coal to Enhance Metabolic Treatment of Sewage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A newly proposed sewage treatment process in which coal particulates are suspended in mixed liquor and recirculated with activated sludge has been investigated. The premise that the suspended coal particles concentrate nutrients and organic matter by phys...



Metal sorption on soils as affected by the dissolved organic matter in sewage sludge and the relative calculation of sewage sludge application  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the influences of sewage sludge-derived organic matters on metal sorption and on the resultant sludge loading estimates, a batch experiment was conducted to compare the sorption of Ni, Cu and Pb in sewage sludge filtrates (1:20 sewage sludge to water) on eight soils and the adsorption of metals in a reference solution which had the same matrix as

Xiaoli Liu; Shuzhen Zhang; Wenyong Wu; Honglu Liu



Aminopropanone as a marker for raw sewage in natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminopropanone has been identified in raw sewage. Its presence at high concentrations (up to 60 ?mol l?1) in several samples from the Mersey Estuary (UK) and Port Erin Bay (Isle of Man) is consistent with the contamination at those sites. The lifetime of the ketone is sufficiently long (t12ca 8–10 days in raw sewage) for it to be useful as

Mark F. Fitzsimons; M. Kamil Abdul Rashid; John P. Riley; George A. Wolff



Molecular Detection of Norwalk-Like Caliciviruses in Sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, Norwalk-like virus (NLV) RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) in sewage water concentrates. Sequence analysis of the RT-PCR products revealed identical sequences in stools of patients and related sewage samples. In 6 of 11 outbreak-unrelated follow-up samples, multiple NLV genotypes were present. Levels as high as 10 7 RNA-containing particles per liter were found. These




Combustion kinetics of sewage sludge and combustible wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimated the kinetics of the mono- and co-combustion of sewage sludge pellets and combustible wastes such as municipal\\u000a solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Sewage sludge was manufactured into pellets with a diameter of 8, 12, or\\u000a 16 mm and a length of 30 mm. The RDF was composed of paper and plastics and was formed into

Ho-Soo Lee; Sung-Keun Bae



Toxicity evaluation of sewage sludges in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobically digested sewage sludges collected from four wastewater treatment plants located in Sha Tin, Tai Po, Yuen Long, and Shek Wu Hui in Hong Kong were subjected to chemical characterization and toxicity testing to provide preliminary assessment of their suitability for land application. All sewage sludges were slightly alkaline with pH range of 8.3–8.7. Electrical conductivity (EC; 0.69 dS m?1)

J. W. C Wong; K Li; M Fang; D. C Su



Extractabilities of heavy metals in chemically-fixed sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically-fixed sewage sludges, including lime-treated sludge (LS), lime–sodium silicate-treated sludge (LSS), cement-treated sludge (CS), and cement–sodium silicate-treated sludge (CSS), were produced from sewage sludge by bench processes using lime, cement, and sodium silicate as additives. The extractabilities of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn) in these chemically-fixed sludges were studied using sequential extraction and single extraction. For comparative objectives,

Ping-Chin Hsiau; Shang-Lien Lo




Microsoft Academic Search

Although the loss of green color in senescent leaves and ripening fruits is a spectacular natural phenomenon, research on chlorophyll breakdown has been largely neglected until recently. This review summarizes knowledge about the fate of chlorophyll in degreening tissues that has been gained during the past few years. Structures of end- and intermediary products of degradation as well as the

Philippe Matile; Stefan Hortensteiner; Howard Thomas



Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L-1, respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17?-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation.

Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho



Forest land application of sewage sludge on the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

In 1980, a sewage sludge application study was initiated on the Savannah River Plant to evaluate the effects of sludge additions on nutrient cycling processes in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest ecosystems and to determine whether or not such additions beneficially enhance forest productivity. Sewage sludge, either as a liquid anaerobic sludge at 0, 402, or 804 kg N/ha (360 and 720 lb/ac) containing approximately 7% N (oven dry) or a solid aerobic material at 632 kg N/ha (560 lb/ac) with approximately 1.3% N (oven dry), was applied to 1-, 3-, 8-, and 28-year-old loblolly pine stands on sandy and clayey upper coastal plain soils. A total of 525,000 gallons of liquid sludge and 560 tons of solid sludge was applied on 11.6 hectares (28.7 acres) of loblolly pine forest plots. Sludge additions were monitored to determine availability and movement so that potential impacts could be evaluated on water quality, nutrient and heavy metal cycling, soil and forest floor, understory vegetation, tree foliage, stand growth, biomass production, and wood quality. This study concluded that using liquid sludge at rates of 400 kg N/ha or less as a silvicultural treatment to fertilize pulp and sawtimber loblolly pine stands resulted in increased forest productivity without environmental or wood quality degradation. Application recommendations for stand age and loading rates for management purposes are addressed.

Davis, C.E. (comp.)



Biological and abiotic losses of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils freshly amended with sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge containing typical indigenous concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was applied to several different soils in glass microcosms. Biologically active and sterilized soils were monitored for PAH content over a period of approximately 205 d. Agricultural soils with and without previous exposure to sewage sludge were tested, together with a forest soil and a soil from a major roadside. Loss of PAHs from a soil spike with a PAH standard solution was also investigated. Results indicate the PAH compounds with less than four benzene rings are susceptible to abiotic loss processes. However, losses by these mechanisms were insignificant for compounds with four or more benzene rings. Half-lives for the sludge-applied PAHs were derived and indicated a strong dependence of persistence on chemical structure. Half-lives for phenanthrene and benzo[ghi]perylene were between 83 and 193 d and 282 and 535 d, respectively. Mean half-lives correlate directly with log K[sub ow] and inversely with log water solubility. Behavior of PAHs was different in each soil, probably due to different soil characteristics and history of PAH exposure. The soil spiked with PAHs provided the lowest half-life values for most PAH compounds, suggesting a higher susceptibility of spiked PAHs to both abiotic and biological degradation.

Wild, S.R.; Jones, K.C. (Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom))



[National survey of urban sewage reuse in China].  


On the basis of the national survey of the urban sewage treatment, the survey of 2007 national urban sewage reuse was conducted under the charge of the Ministry of Water Resources. The survey results indicated that the amount of urban sewage reuse was 17.9 x 10(8) m3 x a(-1), mainly used for industry, landscape, agriculture forestry, animal husbandry, urban non-potable water, and groundwater recharge. The urban sewage reuse rate was 5.23%. There were 127 sewage reclaiming plants in China, of which the production capacity of reclaimed water reached 347.75 x 10(4) m3 x d(-1), which produced 5.74 x 10(8) m3 reclaimed water in 2007. The total investment of sewage reclaiming plants was 56.44 x 10(8) Yuan, in which the central government investment, local fiscal investment and other investments accounted for 16%, 26% and 58%, respectively. The reclaimed water price varied greatly with the purposes or areas. PMID:23323420

Guo, Yu-Jie; Wang, Xue-Chao; Zhou, Zhen-Min



Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503  

SciTech Connect

The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

Not Available



Nutrient Input from the Loxahatchee River Environmental Control District Sewage-Treatment Plant to the Loxahatchee River Estuary, Southeastern Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Treated sewage effluent from the Loxahatchee River Environmental Control District sewage-treatment plant is discharged to the Loxahatchee River, 14 river miles upstream of Jupiter Inlet. Two test discharges of treated-sewage effluent to the Loxahatchee Ri...



Photocatalytic performance of ZnGa 2O 4 for degradation of methylene blue and its improvement by doping with Cd  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZnGa2O4 powder catalysts, synthesized by a sol–gel process, exhibit high photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB) degradation. The pH value at the point of zero charge (pHpzc) was determined to be 5.9 by a titrations method and MB conversion increased with the increase of the pH value. The valence and conduction band positions were determined at 3.35V and ?1.45V (Normal

Weiwei Zhang; Junying Zhang; Xiang Lan; Ziyu Chen; Tianmin Wang



Improved photocatalytic degradation rates of phenol achieved using novel porous ZrO2-doped TiO2 nanoparticulate powders.  


This paper studies the photocatalytic degradation of phenol using zirconia-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles. ZrO(2) was chosen due to its promising results during preliminary studies. Particles smaller than 10nm were synthesised and doped with quantities of ZrO(2) ranging from 0.5 to 4% (molar metal content). Particles were calcined at different temperatures to alter the TiO(2) structure, from anatase to rutile, in order to provide an ideal ratio of the two phases. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis was used to examine the transformation between anatase and rutile. Degradation of phenol was carried out using a 40 W UV bulb at 365 nm and results were measured by UV-vis spectrometry. TEM images were obtained and show the particles exhibit a highly ordered structure. TiO(2) doped with 1% ZrO(2) (molar metal content) calcined at 700 °C proved to be the most efficient catalyst. This is due to an ideal anatase:rutlie ratio of 80:20, a large surface area and the existence of stable electron-hole pairs. ZrO(2) doping above the optimum loading acted as an electron-hole recombination centre for electron-hole pairs and reduced photocatalytic degradation. Synthesised photocatalysts compared favourably to the commercially available photocatalyst P25. The materials also demonstrated the ability to be recycled with similar results to those achieved on fresh material after 5 uses. PMID:21813241

McManamon, Colm; Holmes, Justin D; Morris, Michael A



Potential of the TCE-degrading endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE to improve plant growth and reduce TCE phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration in poplar cuttings  

SciTech Connect

The TCE-degrading poplar endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE was inoculated in poplar cuttings, exposed to 0, 200 and 400 mg l{sup -1} TCE, that were grown in two different experimental setups. During a short-term experiment, plants were grown hydroponically in half strength Hoagland nutrient solution and exposed to TCE for 3 days. Inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE promoted plant growth, reduced TCE phytotoxicity and reduced the amount of TCE present in the leaves. During a mid-term experiment, plants were grown in potting soil and exposed to TCE for 3 weeks. Here, inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE had a less pronounced positive effect on plant growth and TCE phytotoxicity, but resulted in strongly reduced amounts of TCE in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 400 mg l{sup -1} TCE, accompanied by a lowered evapotranspiration of TCE. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), which are known intermediates of TCE degradation, were not detected. The endophyte P. putida W619-TCE degrades TCE during its transport through the xylem, leading to reduced TCE concentrations in poplar, and decreased TCE evapotranspiration.

Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Truyens, S.; Dupae, J.; Newman, L.; Taghavi, S.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.



Organic matter transformations and kinetics during sewage sludge composting in a two-stage system.  


The use of different proportions of rape straw and grass as amendments in the composting of dewatered sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was tested in a two-stage system (first stage, an aerated bioreactor and second stage, a periodically turned windrow). The composition of feedstock affected the temperature and organic matter degradation in the bioreactor and the formation of humic substances, especially humic acids (HA), during compost maturation in the windrow. The total HA content (the sum of labile and stable HA) increased according to first-order kinetics, whereas labile HA content was constant and did not exceed 12% of total HA. ?logK of 1.0-1.1 indicated that HA was of R-type, indicating a low degree of humification. Temperature during composting was the main factor affecting polymerization of fulvic acids to HA and confirmed the value of the degree of polymerization, which increased only when thermophilic conditions were obtained. PMID:21978622

Kulikowska, Dorota; Klimiuk, Ewa



Evaluation of uncertainties associated with the determination of community drug use through the measurement of sewage drug biomarkers.  


The aim of this study was to integrally address the uncertainty associated with all the steps used to estimate community drug consumption through the chemical analysis of sewage biomarkers of illicit drugs. Uncertainty has been evaluated for sampling, chemical analysis, stability of drug biomarkers in sewage, back-calculation of drug use (specific case of cocaine), and estimation of population size in a catchment using data collected from a recent Europe-wide investigation and from the available literature. The quality of sampling protocols and analytical measurements has been evaluated by analyzing standardized questionnaires collected from 19 sewage treatments plants (STPs) and the results of an interlaboratory study (ILS), respectively. Extensive reviews of the available literature have been used to evaluate stability of drug biomarkers in sewage and the uncertainty related to back-calculation of cocaine use. Different methods for estimating population size in a catchment have been compared and the variability among the collected data was very high (7-55%). A reasonable strategy to reduce uncertainty was therefore to choose the most reliable estimation case by case. In the other cases, the highest uncertainties are related to the analysis of sewage drug biomarkers (uncertainty as relative standard deviation; RSD: 6-26% from ILS) and to the back-calculation of cocaine use (uncertainty; RSD: 26%). Uncertainty can be kept below 10% in the remaining steps, if specific requirements outlined in this work are considered. For each step, a best practice protocol has been suggested and discussed to reduce and keep to a minimum the uncertainty of the entire procedure and to improve the reliability of the estimates of drug use. PMID:23259772

Castiglioni, Sara; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Covaci, Adrian; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; Reid, Malcolm; Ort, Christoph; Thomas, Kevin V; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; de Voogt, Pim; Zuccato, Ettore



Drift Degradation Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA code, which determines structurally controlled key-block failure, is not applicable for stress-controlled failure in the lithophysal units. To address these limitations, additional numerical codes have been included that can explicitly apply seismic and thermal loads, providing significant improvements to the analysis of drift degradation and extending the validity of drift degradation models.

D. Kicker



Degradation of substituted indoles by an indole-degrading methanogenic consortium.  

PubMed Central

Degradation of indole by an indole-degrading methanogenic consortium enriched from sewage sludge proceeded through a two-step hydroxylation pathway yielding oxindole and isatin. The ability of this consortium to hydroxylate and subsequently degrade substituted indoles was investigated. Of the substituted indoles tested, the consortium was able to transform or degrade 3-methylindole and 3-indolyl acetate. Oxindole, 3-methyloxindole, and indoxyl were identified as metabolites of indole, 3-methylindole, and 3-indolyl acetate degradation, respectively. Isatin (indole-2,3-dione) was produced as an intermediate when the consortium was amended with oxindole, providing evidence that degradation of indole proceeded through successive hydroxylation of the 2- and 3-positions prior to ring cleavage between the C-2 and C-3 atoms on the pyrrole ring of indole. The presence of a methyl group (-CH3) at either the 1- or 2-position of indole inhibited the initial hydroxylation reaction. The substituted indole, 3-methylindole, was hydroxylated in the 2-position but not in the 3-position and could not be further metabolized through the oxindole-isatin pathway. Indoxyl (indole-3-one), the deacetylated product of 3-indolyl acetate, was not hydroxylated in the 2-position and thus was not further metabolized by the consortium. When an H atom or electron-donating group (i.e., -CH3) was present at the 3-position, hydroxylation proceeded at the 2-position, but the presence of electron-withdrawing substituent groups (i.e., -OH or -COOH) at the 3-position inhibited hydroxylation.

Gu, J D; Berry, D F



Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products as water-soluble molecular markers of sewage.  


We examined the utility of 13 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as molecular markers of sewage contamination in riverine, groundwater, and coastal environments. The PPCPs were crotamiton, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, mefenamic acid, thymol, triclosan, propyphenazone, carbamazepine, diethyltoluamide, ethenzamide, and caffeine. Measurements in 37 Japanese rivers showed positive correlations of riverine flux of crotamiton (r2 = 0.85), carbamazepine (r2 = 0.84), ibuprofen (r2 = 0.73), and mefenamic acid (r2 = 0.67) with the population in the catchments. In three surveys in the Tamagawa estuary, crotamiton, carbamazepine, and mefenamic acid behaved conservatively across seasons within a salinity range of 0.4-29 per thousand, suggesting their utility as molecular markers in coastal environments. Removal of ketoprofen and naproxen in the estuary was ascribed to photodegradation. Ibuprofen and thymol were removed from estuarine waters in summer by microbial degradation. Triclosan was removed by a combination of microbial degradation, photodegradation, and adsorption. These results were consistent with those of river water incubated for 8 d at 25 degrees C in the dark in order to examine the effects of biodegradation and photodegradation. Crotamiton was detected in groundwater from the Tokyo metropolitan area (12 out of 14 samples), suggesting wastewater leakage from decrepit sewers. Carbamazepine, ketoprofen, and ibuprofen (5/14), caffeine (4/14), and diethyltoluamide (3/14) were also detected in the groundwater, whereas the other carboxylic and phenolic PPCPs were not detected and were thought to be removed during their passage through soil. All the data demonstrated the utility of crotamiton and carbamazepine as conservative markers in freshwater and coastal environments. We recommend combining these conservative markers with labile PPCPs to detect inputs of poorly treated sewage. PMID:18800500

Nakada, Norihide; Kiri, Kentaro; Shinohara, Hiroyuki; Harada, Arata; Kuroda, Keisuke; Takizawa, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige



Intestinal parasite carriage in workers exposed to sewage.  


The presence of protozoan cysts and helminth eggs in sewage and the very low minimal infective doses of parasites suggest an occupational risk for workers exposed to sewage. The objective of this study was to assess this risk in a group of raw sewage-exposed workers. The relationship between sewage exposure and intestinal parasite carriage was estimated by a multiple cross-sectional survey comparing yearly prevalence rates in 126 employees working in sewers in Paris, France, with the prevalence rate in 363 food-handlers employed between 1988 and 1993. The incidence of intestinal parasitic infestation was estimated among sewage-exposed workers. Four parasite species were identified among sewage-exposed workers: whipworm, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nanus. The prevalence mean of intestinal parasite carriage was 11.8% (57/480), related to the presence of protozoa in 91% of samples. G. lamblia was present in 3.5% (17/480) of samples. The incidence of positive parasitological stool examination was 5.9/100 person-years. The incidence of G. lamblia in stool examinations was 1.7/100 person-years. Age-adjusted odds ratios were significantly higher in exposed workers in 1988 (OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 2.0-14.5), 1990 (OR: 4.4; 95% CI: 1.2-10.1) and 1991 (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.0-8.2), but not during the other three years. The results of this study emphasize an occupational risk of intestinal protozoan infestation in workers exposed to sewage. The decrease of adjusted OR with time reflects the efficacy of compliance with rules of hygiene. PMID:10395056

Schlosser, O; Grall, D; Laurenceau, M N



The Phytotoxicity Changes of Sewage Sludge-Amended Soils.  


The aim of the present study was the estimation of changes in the phytotoxicity of soils amended with sewage sludge with relation to Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum. The study was realised in the system of a plot experiment for a period of 29 months. Samples for analyses were taken at the beginning of the experiment, and then after 5, 17 and 29 months. Two kinds of sewage sludge, with varying properties, were added to a sandy soil (soil S) or a loamy soil (soil L) at the dose of 90 t/ha. The addition of sewage sludge to the soils at the start of the experiment caused a significant reduction of both seed germination capacity and root length of the test plants, the toxic effect being distinctly related to the test plant species. With the passage of time the negative effect of sewage sludge weakened, the extent of its reduction depending both of the kind of sewage sludge applied and on the type of soil. Phytotoxicity of the soils amended with the sewage sludges was significantly lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning. The species of the plants grown on the soils also had a significant effect on their phytotoxicity. The greatest reduction of toxicity was observed in the soil on which no plants were grown (sandy soil) and in the soil under a culture of willow (loamy soil). Solid phase of sewage sludge-amended soils was characterised by higher toxicity than their extracts. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11270-012-1248-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23002312

Oleszczuk, Patryk; Malara, Anna; Jo?ko, Izabela; Lesiuk, Adam



Determination of antibiotic substances in hospital sewage water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry and group analogue internal standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for determination of antibiotics in hospital sewage water has been developed and validated. Analogue internal standards for fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, ?-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporines), nitroimidazoles and tetracyclines were successfully used for calibration and shown to generally improve precision compared to external calibration. Matrix components caused ion suppression\\/enhancement effects during the MS detection for all analytes studied. Two effects

Richard Lindberg; Per-Åke Jarnheimer; Björn Olsen; Magnus Johansson; Mats Tysklind



Norovirus pathway in water environment estimated by genetic analysis of strains from patients of gastroenteritis, sewage, treated wastewater, river water and oysters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, Norovirus (NV) capsid gene was detected from patients of gastroenteritis, domestic sewage, treated wastewater, river water and cultivated oysters in geographically close areas where all of samples were collected. In order to improve recovery efficiency of NVs from oysters, a new method using a spallation apparatus was developed. As a result, 18 of 30 oysters (60%) were

You Ueki; Daisuke Sano; Toru Watanabe; Kazuo Akiyama; Tatsuo Omura



Isolation and characterisation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) degrading actinomycetes and purification of PHBV depolymerase from newly isolated Streptoverticillium kashmirense AF1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptoverticillium kashmirense AF1 with the ability to degrade a natural polymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) was isolated from\\u000a municipal sewage sludge by soil burial technique. The PHBV film was degraded by the action of extracellular enzymes secreted\\u000a by the microorganisms. Degradation of PHBV was evident by the formation of clear zones of hydrolysis on the polymer containing\\u000a mineral salt agar plates. The

Aamer Ali Shah; Fariha Hasan; Abdul Hameed; Safia Ahmed



33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01...requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of...Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.79...



33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2009-07-01...requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of...Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.79...



Energy Production and Pollution Prevention at Sewage Treatment Plants Using Fuel Cell Power Plants  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses energy production and pollution prevention at sewage treatment plants using fuel cell power plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at waste water treatment plants during the anaerobic treatment of sewage to reduce solids. Fue...

R. J. Spiegel J. L. Preston



Sewage Disposal Facility (Land Acquisition Portion only) Fy 72 Military Construction Program, 1 April 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acquisition is proposed of approximately 440 acres near the Naval Air Station, Lemoore, California, to construct sewage treatment and evaporation ponds for sewage and surface water runoff from the Naval Air Station administrative and housing areas. The fl...



Volatilization, Plant Uptake and Mineralization of Nitrogen in Soils Treated with Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify the amount of ammonia volatilization taking place after application of sewage sludge to the soil surface, evaluate the movement of nitrogen and plant uptake from soils treated with sewage sludge,...

L. E. Sommers C. F. Parker G. J. Meyers



Enhanced soil sorption of methidathion using sewage sludge and surfactants.  


Batch experiments were carried out to examine the partitioning of an organophosphorus insecticide, methidathion, in non-amended agricultural soil and soil amended with urban sewage sludge and/or different types of surfactant. Kinetic data showed that sewage sludge significantly reduced adsorption rate, whereas amendment of the soil with the cationic surfactant tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TDTMA) at 10 x CMC (critical micellar concentration) increased the adsorption rate by a factor of 10. The adsorption isotherms were evaluated using the Freundlich model. The soil adsorption capacity for methidathion was enhanced by amendment with sewage sludge and even more significantly with TDTMA at 10 x CMC or combined with sewage sludge. TDTMA conferred a high hydrophobic character to the soil, enhancing the adsorption capacity of the rather hydrophobic methidathion. The amendment of soil both with sewage sludge and TDTMA combines the increased hydrophobicity with a higher surfactant retention by organic matter, due to an increase in cation exchange capacity, which promotes even more the adsorption capacity for the insecticide. An anionic surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, and the non-ionic Tween 80 only induced a slight modification in the kinetics and adsorption of methidathion. PMID:12916766

Sánchez, Lourdes; Romero, Esperanza; Sánchez-Rasero, Francisco; Dios, Gonzalo; Peña, Aránzazu



Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extracted organic matter from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung.  


The chemical changes of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from five different substrates of sewage sludge enriched with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida were investigated using various analytical approaches. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and C/N ratio of the substrates decreased significantly after vermicomposting process. The aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates enhanced considerably, and the amount of volatile fatty acids declined markedly, especially for the cow dung substrate. Gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the molecular weight fraction between 10(3) and 10(6) Da became the main part of WEOM in the final product. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the proportion of H moieties in the area of 0.00-3.00 ppm decreased, while increasing at 3.00-4.25 ppm after vermicomposting. Fluorescence spectra indicated that vermicomposting caused the degradation of protein-like groups, and the formation of fulvic and humic acid-like compounds in the WEOM of the substrates. Overall results indicate clearly that vermicomposting promoted the degradation and transformation of liable WEOM into biological stable substances in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, and testing the WEOM might be an effective way to evaluate the biological maturity and chemical stability of vermicompost. PMID:22230755

Xing, Meiyan; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong; Lu, Yongsen



Polysaccharide Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.


Degradation of olestra, a non caloric fat replacer, by microorganisms isolated from activated sludge and other environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olestra is a non-caloric fat substitute consisting of fatty acids esterified to sucrose. Previous work has shown that olestra is not metabolized in the gut and is excreted unmodified in human feces. To better understand the fate of olestra in engineered and natural environments, aerobic bacteria and fungi that degrade olestra were enriched from sewage sludges, soils and municipal solid

David M. Lee; Roy M. Ventullo



Anaerobic microbial degradation of acridine and the application of remote fiber spectroscopy to monitor the transformation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic microbial transformation of a polynuclear nitrogen heterocycle, acridine, was studied in laboratory microcosms with three different inocula: a stabilized, mixed culture growing on ferulic acid that was originally enriched from anaerobic sewage sludge, and sulfate-reducing and methanogenic aquifer materials from two sites at a groundwater aquifer contaminated by landfill leachate. Acridine degradation was investigated under methanogenic, denitrifying and sulfate-reducing

John P. Knezovich; Dorothy J. Bishop; Thomas J. Kulp; D. Grbic-Galic; John Dewitt



Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection among sewage workers in the Parisian area, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewers are an ideal environment to be occupationally exposed to viral hepatitis A (HAV) infection, because of high frequency and ability of the virus to remain viable for prolonged periods in sewage. However, data on the occupational risk of HAV infection among sewage workers is not well documented. In a cross sectional study comparing sewage workers (n = 155) to

P. Cadilhac; F. Roudot-Thoraval



Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel...Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater the applicable waters of Alaska each cruise...English, a legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge...into the applicable waters of Alaska: (1) Treated or untreated sewage; (2)...



33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel...Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater the applicable waters of Alaska each cruise...English, a legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge...into the applicable waters of Alaska: (1) Treated or untreated sewage; (2)...



Fish bile used to detect estrogenic substances in treated sewage water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting effects on fish associated with sewage treatment effluents have been demonstrated in several studies. To investigate if the effluents from two modern Swedish sewage treatment plants contained estrogenic substances, juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to sewage water before and after the last treatment step which is a sand filter. As a biomarker for estrogenic effect, vitellogenin was analysed

Maria Pettersson; Margaretha Adolfsson-Erici; Jari Parkkonen; Lars Förlin; Lillemor Asplund




Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage and sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant were analyzed for 16 EPA-PAHs. This plant is a classic mechanical-biological treatment plant, consisting of activated sludge technology with additional chemical treatment for the removal of phosphorus compounds. The process of sewage sludge treatment is carried out in closed as well as open sludge digesters. Primary and mechanically thickened sludge

Maria Wlodarczyk-Makula




Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage from the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory near Schenectady, N. Y., ; was dosed with 4.53 curies of P³² prior to discharge into the Mohawk River. ; Its pattern of diffusion was measured in the river with immersible GM-tubes and ; by sampling. The initial path of sewage was strongly influenced by dlfferences ; in density betveen sewage and river

E. S. Simpson; W. A. Beetem; F. H. Ruggles



Comparison of humification processes occurring during sewage purification in treatment plants with different technological processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The course of the humification process of sewage sludge collected from three biologic–mechanical treatment plants with different treatment technologies was studied. The maturity of sewage sludge and its usefulness for agricultural purposes was also discussed. The physical–chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge received from comparable stages of sludge purification were described. Changes of the sludge properties during

J. Polak; M. Bartoszek; W. W. Su?kowski



The Effect and Mechanism of Cement-Soil Using for Sewage Purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cement-soil samples were made from composite cement (25%), red clay (75%) and proper amount of ultra-pure water. The samples were used to treat sewage water in the experiment of anaerobic reaction and aerobic reaction respectively. The raw sewage was collected from the inflow path of a wastewater treatment plan and it mainly consisted of domestic sewage. Results showed that the

Jun-kang Lan; Bao-jian Liu



Heavy Metal Contents of Vegetables Irrigated by Sewage\\/Tubewell Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted to find the effect of sewage\\/tube well water irrigation on the accumulated concentration of heavy metal contents in okra fruit and spinach leaves. Three adjacent fields were selected for each crop and separately irrigated by sewage water, tube well water and mixture of sewage and tube well water. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and spinach (Spinacea oleracea)




EPA Science Inventory

The city of San Angelo, Texas, has used sewage effluent which has undergone primary treatment for irrigation of the same 259-hectare sewage farm since 1958. The impact of 18 years of sewage effluent irrigation on the soil and water quality was studied from 1975 to 1977. The volum...



EPA Science Inventory

Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and costâ??effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...


Modelling of pharmaceutical residues in Australian sewage by quantities of use and fugacity calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual model is presented for determining which currently prescribed pharmaceutical compounds are most likely to be found in sewage, and for estimating their concentrations, both in raw sewage and after successive stages of secondary sewage treatment. A ranking of the “top-50” pharmaceutical compounds (by total mass dispensed) in Australia over the 1998 calendar year was prepared. Information on the

Stuart J. Khan; Jerry E. Ongerth



Concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in tropical soils amended with sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge.  


Sewage sludge may be used as an agricultural fertilizer, but the practice has been criticized because sludge may contain trace elements and pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of total and pseudototal extractants of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn, and to compare the results with the bioavailable concentrations of these elements to maize and sugarcane in a soil that was amended with sewage sludge for 13 consecutive years and in a separate soil that was amended a single time with sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge. The 13-year amendment experiment involved 3 rates of sludge (5, 10, and 20 t ha(-1)). The one-time amendment experiment involved treatments reflecting 50, 100, and 200 % of values stipulated by current legislation. The metal concentrations extracted by aqua regia (AR) were more similar to those obtained by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 3052 than to those obtained by EPA3051, and the strongest correlation was observed between pseudo(total) concentrations extracted by AR and EPA3052 and bioavailable concentrations obtained by Mehlich III. An effect of sewage sludge amendment on the concentrations of heavy metals was only observed in samples from the 13-year experiment. PMID:22810380

Nogueirol, Roberta Corrêa; de Melo, Wanderley José; Bertoncini, Edna Ivani; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú



Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge.  


The mechanical properties of dewatered, anaerobically digested sewage sludge were determined from soil laboratory tests. The sludge material is largely composed of organic clay sized-particles, a sizable fraction of which is in an active state of biological digestion which can continue over many years under field conditions. Moderately digested sludge material was found to have a typical specific gravity of solids value of 1.55, and loss on ignition (LOI) value of 70% dry mass. Strongly digested sludge, produced by digesting the liquid sludge further at 35 degrees C in the laboratory, was found to have a lower LOI value of 55% dry mass, and a higher specific gravity of solids value of about 1.72. The maximum dry density of 0.56 tonne/m3 for the dried sludge material was produced using standard Proctor compaction at roughly 85% moisture content (54% solids content). Air-dried, compacted sludge material was tested in quick-undrained triaxial compression and vane shear. Undrained shear strength-moisture content plots are presented. Shear strength values measured in triaxial compression and vane shear were consistent. The effective angle of shearing resistance (phi') was determined from consolidated-undrained, triaxial compression tests on pasteurized, normally consolidated samples of the sludge material. The mechanical properties of the sludge material changed with the level of sludge digestion. The phi' value increased from 32 degrees for moderately digested sludge, to 37 degrees for strongly digested sludge. The effective cohesion of the sludge material remained zero throughout. The shrinkage, swelling and adhesion properties of the sludge material were also studied. Significant shrinkage occurred as the compacted material dried. The sludge material lost its adhesion below about 95% moisture content (51% solids content). Re-hydration of the dry material caused the bulk volume to double. PMID:15681178

O'Kelly, Brendan C



Drug Resistance of Coliform Bacteria in Hospital and City Sewage  

PubMed Central

The number and properties of drug-resistant coliform bacteria in hospital and city sewage were compared. There was little difference in the counts of organisms with nontransferable resistance to one or more of 13 commonly used drugs. An average of 26% of coliforms in hospital waste water had transferable resistance to at least one of the drugs ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, or tetracycline as compared to an average of 4% in city sewage. R+ bacteria in the hospital discharge were also resistant to a broader spectrum of drugs than those in city sewage. In both effluents, the occurrence of fecal Escherichia coli among R+ coliforms was twice as high as among coliforms with nontransferable resistance. Resistance was transferable to Salmonella typhi, and such drug-resistant pathogens in the water environment could be of particular concern. The significance of the results with regard to environmental pollution with R+ bacteria and the dissemination of these organisms is discussed.

Grabow, W. O. K.; Prozesky, O. W.



Useful Ingredients Recovery from Sewage Sludge by using Hydrothermal Reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal treatment of sludge from a sewage treatment plant was conducted to obtain useful ingredients for culture of specific microbes which can reduce polysulfide ion into sulfide ion and/or hydrogen sulfide. Several additives such as acid, base, and oxidizer were added to the hydrothermal reaction of excess sludge to promote the production of useful materials. After hydrothermal treatment, reaction solution and precipitation were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and estimated the availability as nutrition in cultural medium. From the results of product analysis, most of organic solid in sewage was basically decomposed by hydrothermal hydrolysis and transformed into oily or water-soluble compounds. Bacterial culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) showed the good results in multiplication with medium which was obtained from hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge with magnesium or calcium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

Suzuki, Koichi; Moriyama, Mika; Yamasaki, Yuki; Takahashi, Yui; Inoue, Chihiro



The Effect of paper mill waste and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, Mediterranean soils have low organic matter content, due to the climate characteristics of this region and inadequate land management. Traditionally, organic wastes such as manure are used as amendment in order to improve the soil quality, increasing soil fertility by the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients in the soil. In the last decade, other anthropogenic organic wastes such as sewage sludge or paper waste materials have been studied as soil amendments to improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of waste from a paper mill and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter. For this reason, soil organic matter evolution was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the derivative (dTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal analytical techniques have the advantage of using full samples without pre-treatments and have been extensively used to study the evolution of organic matter in soils, to evaluate composting process or to study the evolution of organic matter of growing media.

Méndez, Ana; Barriga, Sandra; Guerrero, Francisca; Gascó, Gabriel



Compositional and functional features of humic acid-like fractions from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung.  


The chemical changes occurring in five different substrates of sewage sludge spiked with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia foetida for 90 days were investigated. Their humic acid-like (HAL) fractions were isolated to determine the elemental and functional composition, and structural and functional characteristics using ultraviolet/visible, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and fluorescence spectroscopies and scanning electron microscopy. After vermicomposting, the total organic C and C/N ratio decreased, and the total extractable C and humic acid (HA) C increased in all substrates. In the HAL fractions, the C and H contents, C/N and C/O and aliphatic structures, proteinaceous components and carbohydrates decreased, while the O and N and acidic functional group contents and C/H ratio, aromaticity and polycondensation structures increased. Further, the results suggest that the addition of cow dung to sewage sludge could improve the quality of organic matter humification of the substrates. The structures of HAL fractions in vermicomposts resembled those typical of soil HA, especially the vermicompost of cow dung alone. Scanning electron microscopy showed the microstructure of HAL fraction in final product became close-grained and lumpy. Overall results indicate that vermicomposting was an efficient technology for promoting organic matter (OM) humification in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, improving their quality and environmental safety as a soil OM resource for utilization as soil amendments. PMID:21030148

Li, Xiaowei; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong



Pharmaceutical and personal care products in sewage treatment works.  


In this study a number of analytical procedures are described to determine pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and their metabolites during sewage treatment. The work shows that PPCPs occur in sewage influent and are removed by various wastewater treatment processes. PPCPs include a wide range of chemicals such as prescription drugs as well as diagnostic agents, fragrances, sun-screen agents, and various other compounds commonly present in household items (e.g. detergents, cleaners, toothpastes etc.). During this study a number of PPCPs including painkillers (aspirin, ibuprofen), cholesterol control medication (clofibric acid), antibacterial agents (triclosan), musks (including galaxolide and tonalide), X-ray contrast media (diatrizoate), cancer treatment drugs (cyclophosphamide) and anti-depressant drugs (fluvoxamine) were investigated. Analysis was carried out using a number of techniques. Samples were extracted using solid phase extraction or liquid-liquid extraction and the extracts analysed using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring or liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or LC-MS-MS. The results obtained show that aspirin, clolibric acid, diatrozate, fluvoxamine and cyclophosphamide were not detected in any of the crude sewage or sewage effluent samples above the limit of detection of the applied methods. Ibuprofen was detected in all crude sewage samples as well as in all effluent samples with one exception. Removal of ibuprofen by the different STWs was generally between 80-100%, with the exception of one STW where removal was poor (14.4 to 44%). Triclosan was also detected in all crude sewage samples and in all sewage effluent samples. The highest concentration of triclosan detected was 3100 ng l(-1). A high removal efficiency was observed in effluent samples taken on two occasions (average removal 95.6%). The concentrations of musks detected in the crude sewage were generally low except for galaxolide and tonalide. The results from STW effluent samples showed significant removal of galaxolide (70-83% removal) except at one STW (STW 1) where removal was low (57% and 39%). Similar removal efficiencies for tonalide were achieved at these STWs (73-96%) except at STW 1 where removal was poor (53%). PMID:14587856

Kanda, Rakesh; Griffin, Paul; James, Huw A; Fothergill, James



The application of potassium ferrate for sewage treatment.  


The comparative performance of potassium ferrate(VI), ferric sulphate and aluminium sulphate for the removal of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour (as Vis400-abs) and bacteria in sewage treatment was evaluated. For coagulation and disinfection of sewage, potassium ferrate(VI) can remove more organic contaminants, COD and bacteria in comparison with the other two coagulants for the same doses used. Also, potassium ferrate(VI) produces less sludge volume and removes more contaminants, which should make subsequent sludge treatment easier. PMID:16182439

Jiang, Jia-Qian; Panagoulopoulos, Alex; Bauer, Mike; Pearce, Pete



The detection of enteroviruses in sewage using Caco-2 cells.  


The work presented here demonstrates the utility of Caco-2 cells to detect enteroviruses in sewage. Viruses were concentrated by beef extract elution and organic flocculation prior to analysis by cell culture assays and RT-PCR. Enteroviruses were detected in all sewage samples, but only one sample was positive solely in RT-PCR assay. We proved that Caco-2 cells were more effective than RD and L20B cells in enterovirus isolation, depending on procedures used in the inoculation process. PMID:23829085

Wieczorek, Magdalena; Kuryk, ?ukasz; Witek, Agnieszka; Diuwe, Anna; Litwi?ska, Bogumi?a



Coprostanol distribution from sewage discharge into Sarasota Bay, Florida  

SciTech Connect

Distribution of the fecal sterol, coprostanol, was determined in sediment from forty-one sites throughout Sarasota Bay, Florida. This project was part of a water quality study to estimate the impact of sewage effluent discharged from the City of Sarasota's wastewater treatment plant into Sarasota Bay. Coprostanol (5..beta..-cholestan-3..beta..-ol) is one of the principal sterols found in the feces of man and other mammals, and has been shown to be a reliable marker of fecal pollution. For this study, coprostanol was used as an indicator to estimate the extent to which sewage-derived particulate matter has been distributed within Sarasota Bay sediment.

Pierce, R.H.; Brown, R.C.



Minimization Method for Combined Sewage Overflow of Urban Drainage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the overflow of combined sewage is concerned with in this paper. The sewer's discrete state-space model of the hydraulics and predictive model are established to predict the future output at sampling time. Firstly, the model is corrected by the errors between value of observation and prediction. Secondly a quadratic function by comparing the predicted output with the reference trajectory is introduced to calculate the best flow rate. Finally, the minimal overflow of combined sewage is obtained in urban hydraulic system.

Liqun, Cao; Jianzhong, Wang; Renquan, Lu



Seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass in Victoria Harbour and its vicinity before and after sewage abatement.  


This study investigated the seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass at 12 stations in Hong Kong (HK) waters during a three year period from 2004 to 2006 after upgraded sewage treatment and compared these results to observations before sewage treatment. Pearl River estuary (PRE) discharge significantly increased NO(3) and SiO(4) concentrations, particularly in western and southern waters when rainfall and river discharge was maximal in summer. Continuous year round discharge of sewage effluent resulted in high NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbour (VH) and its vicinity. In winter, spring and fall, the water column at all stations was moderately mixed by winds and tidal currents, and phytoplankton biomass was relatively low compared to summer. In summer, the mean surface phytoplankton chl biomass was generally > 9 microL(-1) in most areas as a result of thermohaline stratification, and high nutrients, light, and water temperature. In summer, the potential limiting nutrient is PO(4) in the most productive southern waters and it seldom decreased to limiting levels ( approximately 0.1 microM), suggesting that phytoplankton growth may be only episodically limiting. The mean bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) remained > 3.5 mg L(-1) at most stations, indicating that the eutrophication impact in HK waters was not as severe as expected for such a eutrophic area. After the implementation of chemically enhanced primary sewage treatment in 2001, water quality in VH improved as indicated by a significant decrease in NH(4) and PO(4) and an increase in bottom DO. In contrast, there were an increase in chl a and NO(3), and a significant decrease in bottom DO in southern waters in summer, suggesting that hypoxic events are most likely to occur in this region if phytoplankton biomass and oxygen consumption keep increasing and exceed the buffering capacity of HK waters maintained by monsoon winds, tidal mixing and zooplankton grazing. Therefore, future studies on the long-term changes in nutrient loading from PRE and HK sewage discharge will be crucial for developing future strategies of sewage management in HK waters. PMID:18514234

Ho, Alvin Y T; Xu, Jie; Yin, Kedong; Yuan, Xiangcheng; He, Lei; Jiang, Yuelu; Lee, Joseph H W; Anderson, Donald M; Harrison, Paul J



Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroidales Alternative Fecal Indicators Reveal Chronic Human Sewage Contamination in an Urban Harbor?†  

PubMed Central

The complexity of fecal microbial communities and overlap among human and other animal sources have made it difficult to identify source-specific fecal indicator bacteria. However, the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies now provides increased sequencing power to resolve microbial community composition within and among environments. These data can be mined for information on source-specific phylotypes and/or assemblages of phylotypes (i.e., microbial signatures). We report the development of a new genetic marker for human fecal contamination identified through microbial pyrotag sequence analysis of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence analysis of 37 sewage samples and comparison with database sequences revealed a human-associated phylotype within the Lachnospiraceae family, which was closely related to the genus Blautia. This phylotype, termed Lachno2, was on average the second most abundant fecal bacterial phylotype in sewage influent samples from Milwaukee, WI. We developed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for Lachno2 and used it along with the qPCR-based assays for human Bacteroidales (based on the HF183 genetic marker), total Bacteroidales spp., and enterococci and the conventional Escherichia coli and enterococci plate count assays to examine the prevalence of fecal and human fecal pollution in Milwaukee's harbor. Both the conventional fecal indicators and the human-associated indicators revealed chronic fecal pollution in the harbor, with significant increases following heavy rain events and combined sewer overflows. The two human-associated genetic marker abundances were tightly correlated in the harbor, a strong indication they target the same source (i.e., human sewage). Human adenoviruses were routinely detected under all conditions in the harbor, and the probability of their occurrence increased by 154% for every 10-fold increase in the human indicator concentration. Both Lachno2 and human Bacteroidales increased specificity to detect sewage compared to general indicators, and the relationship to a human pathogen group suggests that the use of these alternative indicators will improve assessments for human health risks in urban waters.

Newton, Ryan J.; VandeWalle, Jessica L.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Gorelick, Marc H.; McLellan, Sandra L.



Identifying the source, transport path and sinks of sewage derived organic matter.  


Since sewage discharges can significantly contribute to the contaminant loadings in coastal areas, it is important to identify sources, pathways and environmental sinks. Sterol and fatty alcohol biomarkers were quantified in source materials, suspended sediments and settling matter from the Ria Formosa Lagoon. Simple ratios between key biomarkers including 5beta-coprostanol, cholesterol and epi-coprostanol were able to identify the sewage sources and effected deposition sites. Multivariate methods (PCA) were used to identify co-varying sites. PLS analysis using the sewage discharge as the signature indicated approximately 25% of the variance in the sites could be predicted by the sewage signature. A new source of sewage derived organic matter was found with a high sewage predictable signature. The suspended sediments had relatively low sewage signatures as the material was diluted with other organic matter from in situ production. From a management viewpoint, PLS provides a useful tool in identifying the pathways and accumulation sites for such contaminants. PMID:15840529

Mudge, Stephen M; Duce, Caroline E



Environmental Degradation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview: This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Resources and Human Impact SciPack. It explores how human activities, such as reducing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount and variety of chemicals that enter the atmosphere, intensive farming and fishing, and consuming fossil fuels have changed Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. Although the land, atmosphere, and the oceans have a limited capacity to absorb wastes and recycle materials naturally, humans have disrupted these natural cycles. Fresh water, limited in supply, is essential for life and most industrial processes. Overuse and pollution of rivers, lakes, oceans, and groundwater reduces the availability and suitability of these resources for all organisms. Technology used in the extraction and consumption of fossil fuels needed to meet the growing human demand has increased the depletion of nonrenewable energy resources such as fossil fuels, and degraded or altered the environment, both locally and globally. Learning Outcomes: Compare and contrast ways in which different technologies have impacted the environmental system. Differentiate between examples of renewable resources and non-renewable (finite) resources. Summarize how the burning of fossil fuels is affecting the environment. Assess both local and global environmental impacts when given examples of human resource use. Identify ways in which one human-based environmental change can have a domino-effect on the rest of the ecosystem (when given a scenario).

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)



Application of MATLAB image processing technology in sewage monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper puts forward the application of Matlab image processing technology in sewage monitoring system. The percentage of the bubbles on the surface of the water can be got by using some functions in the image processing toolbox of MATLAB, such as binaryzation, dilating, erosion and so on. The automatic alarm will be raised when the percentage of the bubbles

Huidan Cao; Yuming Shen



Co-digestion of grease trap sludge and sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redirection of organic waste, from landfilling or incineration, to biological treatment such as anaerobic digestion is of current interest in the Malmö-Copenhagen region. One type of waste that is expected to be suitable for anaerobic digestion is sludge from grease traps. Separate anaerobic digestion of this waste type and co-digestion with sewage sludge were evaluated. The methane potential was measured

Å. Davidsson; C. Lövstedt; J. la Cour Jansen; C. Gruvberger; H. Aspegren



Baghouse Efficiency on a Multiple Hearth Incinerator Burning Sewage Sludge,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot-scale fabric filter (baghouse) was evaluated for its removal performance for 23 metals and for sulfur as well as for total particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale baghouse was installed to take...

R. C. Adams L. E. Keller E. V. Robb M. C. Vancil J. B. Farrell



Radiation processing of sewage and sludge. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the potential of using ionizing radiation to disinfect sewage and sludge, as well as the possibilities of recycling natural resources and their by-products. Presented here is a brief review on the development of radiolytic treatment of wastewaters with electron beam accelerators or 60Co gamma sources to eliminate organic and biological contaminants from liquid and solid wastes. Suitable

S. I. Borrely; A. C. Cruz; N. L. Del Mastro; M. H. O. Sampa; E. S. Somessari



Ozonation for Control of Enteric Viruses in Sewage Effluent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object was to determine guidelines for dosage and contact time of ozone with respect to virus inactivation in various types of secondary sewage effluent. It was found that the demand of ozone for the inactivation of 5 human enteric viruses, namely pol...

P. W. Chang



33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR which primary sludge has been added, as necessary, to create a test sewage with a minimum of 500 milligrams of suspended solids per liter. [CGD 73-83, 40 FR 4624, Jan. 30, 1975, as amended by USCG-2002-12471, 67 FR 41333,...



Transport of Sewage Sludge in a Mixed Water Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge from four publicly-owned treatment works was sampled and characterized in terms of parameters affecting transport at the 106-mile deep ocean disposal site as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's site monitoring programme. Samples from treatment plants in Passaic Valley, Rahway, and Elizabeth, New Jersey and New York City were characterized in terms of dynamic size distribution, suspended

J. S. Bonner; A. N. Ernest; D. S. Hernandez; R. L. Autenrieth



Chironomidae From a Sewage Treatment Station of Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the great number of insects living and reproducing at a municipal sewage treatment station located in Piracicaba City and the fear about how dangerous it could be for human healthy, a study was conduct to identify the taxa presented there and to analyze their community structure using stable isotopes. The Chironomidae identification was performed on specific level. The sewage treatment station is a man-made wetland system, situated 30m nearby the Piracicaba River. It treats the sewage from an urban area with 3000 inhabitants. The sewage discharge varies from 133 to 186L/s/ha. The samples were taken on the ending of the rainy season with a D-frame net. The material was washed (210mm mesh size), sorted and preserved in 70% alcohol. Chironomidae had a low participation in the community, with 14.9% of the specimens. Goeldichironomus serratus (47.8% from total Chironomidae), G. holoprasinus (43.5%) and Chironomus decorus (8.7%) were identified. Those species are worldwide recognized as pollution-resistant, used as indicators of environmental water quality. The wetland studied showed low dissolved oxygen (1.5mg/L) on the sampling period and the presence of those Chironomidae species should be expected. The low diversity and high dominance are common features for those impacted environments.

Signoretti, R. P.; Sonoda, K. C.; Ferraz, E.




EPA Science Inventory

This project demonstrated that land application is feasible and practical for a metropolitan treatment plant for disposal of a large volume (265,000 cu m) of stabilized, liquid sewage sludge stored in lagoons. The project involved transportation of sludge by semi-trailer tankers ...



EPA Science Inventory

Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...


The realization of report in Sewage Treatment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expounding the realization of two reports functions of automatic and manual in the application of INTELLUTION IFIX monitoring software by the establishment of dispatching events and the proceduring script in the controlling system of No.2 Sewage Treatment Plant in Changchun.

Meng Ya'nan




EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses a study designed to determine the practical survival and transmission of the ova of the nematode worm Ascaris sp. through a modern sewage and sludge treatment process. Four large experiments and three smaller ones involving 178 specific pathogen free (SPF) p...



Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we studied the total content of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) in a soil treated with different sewage sludges and the distribution of these metals in the soil profile (0-50 cm) as a func- tion of the type and dose of sludge added, of the residence time of the sludge in the soil,

M. J. Sánchez-Martín; M. García-Delgado; L. F. Lorenzo; M. Sánchez-Camazano



EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested using the Salmonella/microsomal activation assay, t...


Prevalence of Campylobacter in Dutch sewage purification plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in man. Although food of animal origin is the main source of human infection, a casecontrol study in the United States of America showed that 8% of all campylobacteriosis cases could be attributed to consumption of contaminated surface water. In this thesis the prevalence of Campylobacter in sewage purification plants was

P. M. F. J. Koenraad



Combustible gas production from sewage sludge with a downdraft gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, sewage sludge has particularly become an important problem all over the world because of its harmful impacts on the environment and living beings. It should be converted to combustible gas or useful energy in order to remove all its negative effects and to contribute to a significant portion of the power generation. In this study, combustible gas production from

Adnan Midilli; Murat Dogru; Colin R. Howarth; Mike J. Ling; Teoman Ayhan



Sewage impacts coral reefs at multiple levels of ecological organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against a backdrop of rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification which pose global threats to coral reefs, excess nutrients and turbidity continue to be significant stressors at regional and local scales. Because interventions usually require local data on pollution impacts, we measured ecological responses to sewage discharges in Surin Marine Park, Thailand. Wastewater disposal significantly increased inorganic nutrients and turbidity

Pasinee Reopanichkul; Thomas A. Schlacher; R. W. Carter; Suchai Worachananant




EPA Science Inventory

Feasibility and market potential were determined for non-food-chain crops cultivated using sewage sludge. Non-food-chain crops that are currently being sold on the open market or that have a good potential for marketability were selected. From a list of 20 crops, 3 were selected ...



EPA Science Inventory

The accumulative effects of annual use of sewage sludge on composition of soils, plants, water, and animals that consume the plants is presented. Plant yields were increased and no evidence of phototoxicity from trace elements was observed. Phosphorus toxicity in soybeans develop...


Removal of DEHP in composting and aeration of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of composting and aeration to remove bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from municipal sewage sludge was studied with two dewatered sludges: raw sludge and anaerobically digested sludge. Composting removed 58% of the DEHP content of the raw sludge and 34% of that of the anaerobically digested sludge during 85 days stabilisation in compost bins. A similar removal for the anaerobically

Sanna K Marttinen; Kari Hänninen; Jukka A Rintala



Biodegradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in the production of polyvinyl chloride to impart flexibility to the product. Because of its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, the presence of DEHP in sludge limits the application of sludge as a soil fertilizer. In this study, sludges were collected from three sewage treatment plants and thirteen wastewater treatment plants of different

H. F. Cheng; S. Y. Chen; J. G. Lin


Measured variation in boron loads reaching European sewage treatment works  

Microsoft Academic Search

Per capita boron loads reaching 48 sewage treatment works (STWs) in The Netherlands, Germany, Italy, and the UK have been determined from monitoring data. These have been compared with the per capita input predicted from boron in detergents, as determined from detergent product sales data. The resulting distribution of the ratios of measured boron to boron predicted from consumer usage

K. K. Fox; G. Cassani; A. Facchi; F. R. Schröder; C. Poelloth; M. S. Holt




EPA Science Inventory

Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...


Vermicomposting of sewage sludge: a new technology for Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mexico 31% of the treatment plants have a flow less than 60 l\\/s. This study offers a simple and economical alternative through vermicomposting to resolve the management of sewage sludge and water hyacinth for these small treatment plants. This study was developed with laboratory and pilot scale systems. In the laboratory Eisenia foetida survival was quantified. They were fed

L. Cardosa Vigueros; E. Ramírez Camperos


Digested sewage sludge solidification by converter slag for landfill cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technology for solidification of digested sewage sludge referred to as converter slag solidification (CSS) has been developed using converter slag as the solidifying agent and quick lime as the solidifying aid. The CSS technology was investigated by analyzing the physicochemical properties of solidified sludge and determining its microstructural characteristics. The feasibility of using solidified sludge as a landfill

Eung-Ho Kim; Jin-Kyu Cho; Soobin Yim



Use of Sewage Sludge Ash as Brick Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brick manufactured from incinerated sewage sludge ash and clay is investigated. The results of Atterberg limits tests of molded ash-clay mixtures indicated that both plastic index and dry shrinkage decrease with an increasing amount of ash in the mixture. Results of tests indicated that the ash proportion and firing temperature were the two key factors determining the quality of brick.

Deng-Fong Lin; Chih-Huang Weng




EPA Science Inventory

This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used for operating the incine...



EPA Science Inventory

A methodology and accompanying model, SLDGFILL (sludge monofill), have been developed to assess the risk to human health posed by parasites, bacteria and viruses in municipal sewage sludge disposed of in sludge-only landfills (monofills). he following information is required for ...


Influence of bulking agent on sewage sludge composting process.  


Four types of compost, consisting of mixtures of Acacia dealbata (A) with sewage sludge (SS) were studied in a laboratory reactor. Composting time was 80 days and parameters monitored over this period included temperature, organic matter, pH, CO(2), O(2), C/N ratio, Kjeldahl-N, as well as maturity indexes. All the studied parameters were influenced by the bulking amount used. The highest profile temperature measured was for the A/SS 1/2 (w/w) mixture that reached a maxima temperature of 67 degrees C and lower maximum temperatures of 52, 48 and 46 degrees C were observed for A/SS 1/3, 1/1 and 1/0 composts, respectively. The kinetic model used showed that a descent of sewage sludge in the composting mixtures favored the enzyme-substrate affinity. However, an increase in depending on the parameters of the process factors was observed when the sewage sludge ratio was increased in mixtures. The optimal amounts of sewage sludge for co-composting with Acacia indicate that moderate amounts of sludge (1/1) would be the best compromise. PMID:19560348

Yañez, R; Alonso, J L; Díaz, M J



Disposal of Sewage Sludge Into a Sanitary Landfill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the results of a three-year demonstration study of the disposal of liquid sewage sludge and septic tank pumpings into solid waste at a sanitary landfill. Bench-scale laboratory studies were conducted to determine the moisture-absorbin...

R. Stone



Characterization of iron and Zinc in Albuquerque sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical forms of Fe and Zn present in anaerobically digested sewage sludge from Albuquerque, NM were identified and quantified. Water-soluble Fe and Zn were speciated based on charged and stability of metal complexes, and on their degree of association with soluble organics. Chemical forms of Fe and Zn present in the solid phase of the sludge were characterized with a

K. Knudtsen; G. A. OConnor




EPA Science Inventory

This demonstration project in a small residential community in Kentucky was initiated to show the feasibility of treating sewage with a physical-chemical type of wastewater treatment plant with a biological process for nitrification. The 50,000 gallon per day system had unit proc...


Sustainability life cycle comparison of biofuels: sewage the saviour?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this research is to conduct a holistic sustainability life cycle assessment (LCA) comparison of different kinds of biofuels, integrating environmental, social, cultural and economic sustainability. The feasibility of a vision that by year 2015 households, companies, and other organizations all over the world will turn their sewages into biofuels, instead of discharging them into the

Tarja Ketola; Tiina Salmi




EPA Science Inventory

Results of 8 field studies of long-term use of digested sewage on agricultural and disturbed lands are presented. The studies included: (1) response of corn grown on 3 soil types previously amended with annual sludge applications; (2) response of corn grown annually on Blount sil...


Effect of seeding during thermophilic composting of sewage sludge.  

PubMed Central

The effect of seeding on the thermophilic composting of sewage sludge was examined by measuring the changes in CO2 evolution rates and microbial numbers. Although the succession of thermophilic bacteria and thermophilic actinomycetes clearly reflected the effect of seeding, no clear difference was observed in the overall rate of composting or quality of the composted product.

Nakasaki, K; Sasaki, M; Shoda, M; Kubota, H



Monitoring and assessing variation of sewage quality and microbial functional groups in a trunk sewer line.  


In this study, the variation of sewage quality was investigated and the active fraction of different microbial functional groups in biofilm was quantified in a 5.6-km trunk sewer line. The sewage quality including suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, total chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen were measured and compared with the values in literatures. The results indicated that since the wastewater treatment plant was not operated at its full capacity, the concentrations of different compounds were lower compared with the values in literatures. The values of heterotrophic growth rate constant lay between 5.6 and 8.6 day(-1). Its average value was 7.7 day(-1). The values of heterotrophic lysis rate constant lay between 0.2 and 0.4 day(-1). The active heterotrophic biomass in biofilm varied from 240 to 800 mg COD m(-2) and average value was 497 mg COD m(-2). The biofilm mass varied from 880 to 1,080 mg m(-2). The percentage of heterotroph to biofilm mass fall within the range of 24.0-90.9% and average value was 52.9%. In the oxygen uptake rate batch tests, the biomass, growth rate constant, and lysis rate constant of autotroph could not be determined because the fraction of autotroph in biofilm was relatively few. It revealed that the degradation of organic matters, nitrification, and denitrification occurred in the trunk sewer line. But the results indicate that the condition seem favorable for nitrification. PMID:20069450

Pai, Tzu-Yi; Chen, C L; Chung, H; Ho, H H; Shiu, T W



Construction of Engineered Bifunctional Enzymes and Their Overproduction in Aspergillus niger for Improved Enzymatic Tools To Degrade Agricultural By-Products  

PubMed Central

Two chimeric enzymes, FLX and FLXLC, were designed and successfully overproduced in Aspergillus niger. FLX construct is composed of the sequences encoding the feruloyl esterase A (FAEA) fused to the endoxylanase B (XYNB) of A. niger. A C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module (CBM family 1) was grafted to FLX, generating the second hybrid enzyme, FLXLC. Between each partner, a hyperglycosylated linker was included to stabilize the constructs. Hybrid proteins were purified to homogeneity, and molecular masses were estimated to be 72 and 97 kDa for FLX and FLXLC, respectively. Integrity of hybrid enzymes was checked by immunodetection that showed a single form by using antibodies raised against FAEA and polyhistidine tag. Physicochemical properties of each catalytic module of the bifunctional enzymes corresponded to those of the free enzymes. In addition, we verified that FLXLC exhibited an affinity for microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) with binding parameters corresponding to a Kd of 9.9 × 10?8 M for the dissociation constant and 0.98 ?mol/g Avicel for the binding capacity. Both bifunctional enzymes were investigated for their capacity to release ferulic acid from natural substrates: corn and wheat brans. Compared to free enzymes FAEA and XYNB, a higher synergistic effect was obtained by using FLX and FLXLC for both substrates. Moreover, the release of ferulic acid from corn bran was increased by using FLXLC rather than FLX. This result confirms a positive role of the CBM. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the fusion of naturally free cell wall hydrolases and an A. niger-derived CBM onto bifunctional enzymes enables the increase of the synergistic effect on the degradation of complex substrates.

Levasseur, Anthony; Navarro, David; Punt, Peter J.; Belaich, Jean-Pierre; Asther, Marcel; Record, Eric



The improvement of solar photocatalytic activity of ZnO by doping with Er3+:Y3Al5O12 during dye degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Er3+:Y3Al5O12, an upconversion luminescence agent, which is able to transform the visible light to ultraviolet light, was synthesized by nitrate-citric acid method. And then, a novel photocatalyst, Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO composites, was prepared by ultrasonic dispersing and liquid boil method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structural morphology and surface properties of the Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO. Azo Fuchsine dye was selected as target organic pollutant to inspect the photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO. The key parameters affecting the photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO, such as Er3+:Y3Al5O12 content, heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time, were studied. In addition, the effects of dye initial concentration, Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO amount and solar light irradiation time were also reviewed, as well as the photocatalytic activity in degradation of other organic dyes were compared. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO was much superior to pure ZnO under the same conditions. Thus, the Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO is a useful photocatalyst for the wastewater treatment because it can efficiently utilize solar light by converting visible light into ultraviolet light.

Yin, L. N.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Kong, Y. M.; Zhai, Y.; Wang, B. X.; Li, K.; Zhang, X. D.



Microbial Transformation of Nitroaromatic Compounds in Sewage Effluent  

PubMed Central

The transformation of mono- and dinitroaromatic compounds was measured in sewage effluent maintained under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Most of the nitrobenzene, 3- and 4-nitrobenzoic acids, and 3- and 4-nitrotoluenes and much of the 1,2- and 1,3-dinitrobenzenes disappeared both in the presence and absence of oxygen. Under anaerobiosis, 2,6-dinitrotoluene and 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid disappeared slowly, but no loss was evident in 28 days in aerated sewage. Aromatic amines did not accumulate during the aerobic decomposition of the mononitro compounds. They did appear in nonsterile, but not in sterile, sewage incubated aerobically with the dinitro compounds and anaerobically with all the chemicals. Analysis by gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that aniline was formed from nitrobenzene, toluidine was formed from 3- and 4-nitrotoluenes, and aminobenzoic acid was formed from 3- and 4-nitrobenzoic acids under anaerobiosis, and that nitroaniline was formed from 1,2- and 1,3-dinitrobenzenes, aminonitrotoluene resulted from 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and aminonitrobenzoic acid was a product of 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid under both conditions. The isomeric forms of the metabolites were not established. Aniline, 4-toluidine, and 4-aminobenzoic acid added to sewage disappeared from aerated nonsterile, but not from sterile, sewage or sewage in the absence of oxygen. 2-Nitroaniline, 2-amino-3-nitrotoluene, and 2-amino-5-nitrobenzoic acid added to sewage persisted for at least 60 days in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Gas chromatographic and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses demonstrated that acetanilide and 2-methylquinoline were formed from aniline, 4-methylformanilide and 4-methylacetanilide were formed from 4-toluidine, 2-methylbenzimidazole was a product of 2-nitroaniline, and unidentified benzimidazoles were formed from 2-amino-3-nitrotoluene in the absence of oxygen, and that 2-nitroacetanilide and 2-methyl-6-nitroacetanilide were formed from 2-nitroaniline and 2-amino-3-nitrotoluene, respectively, in the presence or absence of oxygen. It is suggested that the transformations of widely used nitroaromatic compounds should be further studied because of the persistence and possible toxicity of products of their metabolism.

Hallas, Laurence E.; Alexander, Martin



Effects of sewage sludge compost application on crops and cropland in a 3-year field study.  


Composted sewage sludge can be applied to cropland to supply nutrients and improve soil physical properties. However, farmers are much concerned about heavy metal accumulation in cropland and heavy metal availability for crops. A 3-year field study was carried out in this study to investigate the effects of sewage sludge compost (SSC) application on the heavy metal accumulation in cropland soil, rapeseed germination and plumelet development, and yields of barley and Chinese cabbage, compared with conventional mineral fertilization. In addition, the availability of heavy metals for barley and Chinese cabbage was examined. Experimental results showed that SSC application produced little effects on rapeseed germination and stimulated the rape plumelet development at lower application rates (<150 ton ha(-1)). Heavy metals (Cu and Zn) were accumulated in the topsoil (0-20 cm), the barley grains and the cabbage leaves. The yields of barley and Chinese cabbage generated positive response to the SSC application. Addition of mineral N-P-K fertilizers into SSC could further increase the crop yield. Considering the heavy metals accumulation in cropland soil and their availability for crops, SSC should be applied to cropland at a limited application rate (<150 ton ha(-1)). PMID:15857637

Wei, Yongjie; Liu, Yangsheng




EPA Science Inventory

The persistence and toxicity of many hazardous waste constituents indicates that the environment has limited capacity to degrade such materials. he competence and presence of degrading organisms significantly effects our ability to treat and detoxify these hazardous waste chemica...


Effect of biomass addition on the surface and adsorption characterization of carbon-based adsorbents from sewage sludge.  


Sewage sludge with the additive corn cob was used as prescusor to prepare sludge-based carbon adsorbents by pyrolysis method. And then, the carbonizated products were activated with potassium hydroxide. The mixing ratio of the corn cob to sewage sludge was investigated. The surface area and pore size distribution, elemental composition, surface chemistry structure and the surface physical morphology were determined and compared. The results demonstrated that the addition of corn cob into the sewage sludge sample could effectively improve the surface area (from 287 to 591 m2/g) and the microporosity (from 5% to 48%) of the carbon based adsorbent, thus enhancing the adsorption behavior. The sulfur dioxide adsorption capacity was measured according to breakthrough test. It was found that the sulfur dioxide adsorption capacity of the adsorbents was obviously enhanced after the addition of the corn cob. It is presumed that not only highly porous adsorbents, but also a high metallic content of these materials are required to achieve good performances. PMID:23596963

Wu, Changzi; Song, Min; Jin, Baosheng; Wu, Yimin; Huang, Yaji



Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in selected sewage sludge in Nigeria.  


Levels of seven major perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) were analyzed for the first time in sludge from wastewater treatment plants from Nigeria. Measurements were performed using an analytical methodology using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS). The method detection limit and method quantification limit was 3pg/g and 9.5pg/g for both analytes (PFCAs and PFSAs) respectively. Typical recoveries ranged from 50% to 104% for spiked mass labeled internal standards of 1ng (absolute value) to 1g of sample. All sludge samples taken from industrial, domestic and hospital wastewater treatment plants contained measurable levels of PFASs. Levels of the quantified perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates concentrations ranged from 10 to 597 and 14 to 540pg/g, respectively. The concentrations were therefore lower compared to sewage sludge samples reported in other regions in the world. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates with carbon chain having ?8 fluorinated carbons were detected in the analyzed sewage sludge samples at higher levels compared to carboxylates with <8 fluorinated carbon chain. The measured concentrations indicate that no PFAS point source for the 10 investigated sewage treatment plants existed. Furthermore the low levels in the four municipal sewage treatment plants in Lagos is a first indication that even in an African megacity like Lagos the PFASs release from households are low until now. The highest PFOS level was found in a hospital sewage sludge (539.6pg/g) possibly indicating (minor) release from medical equipment where some are known to contain PFOS. The PFASs in waste water sludge from a brewery warrant further investigations. PMID:23648329

Sindiku, Omotayo; Orata, Francis; Weber, Roland; Osibanjo, Oladele



State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

Not Available



Mucosal and Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses Detected in Raw Sewages  

PubMed Central

Epitheliotropic viruses can find their way into sewage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and genetic diversity of Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) in urban wastewaters. Sewage samples were collected from treatment plants distributed throughout Italy. The DNA extracted from these samples was analyzed by PCR using five PV-specific sets of primers targeting the L1 (GP5/GP6, MY09/MY11, FAP59/64, SKF/SKR) and E1 regions (PM-A/PM-B), according to the protocols previously validated for the detection of mucosal and cutaneous HPV genotypes. PCR products underwent sequencing analysis and the sequences were aligned to reference genomes from the Papillomavirus Episteme database. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to assess the genetic relationships among the different sequences and between the sequences of the samples and those of the prototype strains. A broad spectrum of sequences related to mucosal and cutaneous HPV types was detected in 81% of the sewage samples analyzed. Surprisingly, sequences related to the anogenital HPV6 and 11 were detected in 19% of the samples, and sequences related to the “high risk” oncogenic HPV16 were identified in two samples. Sequences related to HPV9, HPV20, HPV25, HPV76, HPV80, HPV104, HPV110, HPV111, HPV120 and HPV145 beta Papillomaviruses were detected in 76% of the samples. In addition, similarity searches and phylogenetic analysis of some sequences suggest that they could belong to putative new genotypes of the beta genus. In this study, for the first time, the presence of HPV viruses strongly related to human cancer is reported in sewage samples. Our data increases the knowledge of HPV genomic diversity and suggests that virological analysis of urban sewage can provide key information useful in supporting epidemiological studies.

La Rosa, Giuseppina; Fratini, Marta; Accardi, Luisa; D'Oro, Graziana; Della Libera, Simonetta; Muscillo, Michele; Di Bonito, Paola



Sewage contamination of a densely populated coral 'atoll' (Bermuda).  


Bermuda is a densely populated coral 'atoll' located on a seamount in the mid-Atlantic (Sargasso Sea). There is no national sewerage system and the ?20 × 10(6) L of sewage generated daily is disposed of via marine outfalls, cess pits/septic tanks underneath houses and through waste disposal (injection) wells. Gastrointestinal (GI) enterococci concentrations were measured in surface seawater samples collected monthly at multiple locations across the island over a 5-year period. According to the EU Bathing Water Directive microbial classification categories, 18 of the sites were in the 'excellent' category, four sites in the 'good', five sites were in the 'sufficient' and three sites in the 'poor' categories. One of the sites in the 'poor' category is beside a popular swimming beach. Between 20-30% of 58 sub tidal sediment samples collected from creeks, coves, bays, harbours and marinas in the Great Sound complex on the western side of Bermuda tested positive for the presence of the human specific bacterial biomarker Bacteroides (using culture-independent PCR-based methods) and for the faecal biomarker coprostanol (5?-cholestan-3-?-ol, which ranged in concentration from <0.05-0.77 mg kg(?-?1). There was a significant statistical correlation between these two independent techniques for faecal contamination identification. Overall the microbial water quality and sedimentary biomarker surveys suggest sewage contamination in Bermuda was quite low compared with other published studies; nevertheless, several sewage contamination hotpots exist, and these could be attributed to discharge of raw sewage from house boats, from nearby sewage outfalls and leakage from septic tanks/cess pits. PMID:20978839

Jones, Ross; Parsons, Rachel; Watkinson, Elaine; Kendell, David



Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the watersoftening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCI solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery.

Weber, Baruch; Avnimelech, Yoram; Juanico, Marcelo



Cyanobacteria as a biosorbent of heavy metals in sewage water.  


The effect of sewage water on some physiological activities of cyanobacteria was studied. Metal-tolerant cyanobacterium (Nostoc linckia) and metal-sensitive (Nostoc rivularis) were grown at three levels of sewage water (25, 50 and 75%). The growth rate showed significant stimulation in low and moderate levels (50% for N. linckia and 25% for N. rivularis). Not only the number of cells was elevated but also, the time required to reach the exponential and the stationary phases was reduced. Also, low levels of sewage water increased chl.a content, photosynthetic O(2)-evolution, respiration and protein content. Similarly, heterocyst frequency as well as nitrogenase activity were increased in cyanobacteria grown at low and moderate levels (25 and 50% sewage). On the other hand, the high level of waste (75%) reduced growth and metabolic activities of the two species. N. linckia accumulated about 30-fold of Zn and ten-fold of Cd than those of growth medium (50% sewage water). Also, N. rivularis accumulated about ten-fold of Zn and two-fold of Cd. The distribution of Cd and Zn in cells were investigated. About 65-60% of Cd or Zn were found in pellets (sediment) as insoluble form in the two species. The soluble form (cytosolic fraction) after being fractionated on sephadex G-(75-100) revealed two peaks with molecular weights of 70-75 and 40-45 kDa. These peaks were in coincidence with Cd and Zn maxima. Nostoc rivulais showed more sensitivity to heavy metals than N. linckia, and accumulated less amount of metal-binding proteins. Nostoc linckia seems to be tolerant to heavy metals (Zn and Cd) and is able to accumulate this metal by adsorption on the pellets (cell surface) and/or through sequestration via metal-binding protein. Therefore it can be recommended it to be employed in the purification of waste contaminated with these heavy metals. PMID:10867368

El-Enany; Issa



Effect of sewage sludge amendment on heavy metal uptake and yield of ryegrass seedling in a mudflat soil.  


Mudflat soil amendment by sewage sludge is a potential way to dispose of solid wastes and increase fertility of mudflat soils for crop growth. The present study aimed to assess the impact of sewage sludge amendment (SSA) on heavy metal accumulation and growth of ryegrass ( L.) in a seedling stage. We investigated the metal availability, plant uptake, and plant yield in response to SSA at rates of 0, 30, 75, 150, and 300 t ha. The SSA increased the metal availability in a mudflat soil and subsequently metal accumulation in ryegrass. The SSA increased the bioavailable fraction of the metals by 4550, 58.8, 898, 189, 35.8, and 84.8% for Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Cd, respectively, at an SSA rate of 300 t ha as compared to unamended soil. Consequently, the metal concentrations in ryegrass increased by 1130, 12.9, 355, 108, 2230, and 497% in roots and by 431, -4.3, 92.6, 58.3, 890, and 211% in aboveground parts, for Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Cd, respectively, at the 300 t ha rate as compared to unamended soil. The enhanced metal accumulation, however, did not induce growth inhibition of ryegrass. Fresh weight of aboveground parts and roots of ryegrass at 300 t ha SSA rate increased by 555 and 128%, respectively, as compared to those grown in unamended soil. The study suggests that SSA can promote yield of ryegrass seedlings grown in mudflat soils. None of metal concentrations at all SSA rates was above the Chinese permissible limits. Despite the data at only the seedling stage, our results indicate that SSA in mudflat soils might be a potential way for mudflat soil fertility improvement and sewage sludge disposal. Further study at plants' maturity stage is warranted to fully assess the suitability of sewage sludge amendment on mudflat soils. PMID:23673834

Gu, Chuanhui; Bai, Yanchao; Tao, Tianyun; Chen, Guohua; Shan, Yuhua


Removal mechanisms and kinetics of trace tetracycline by two types of activated sludge treating freshwater sewage and saline sewage.  


Understanding the removal mechanisms and kinetics of trace tetracycline by activated sludge is critical to both evaluation of tetracycline elimination in sewage treatment plants and risk assessment/management of tetracycline released to soil environment due to the application of biosolids as fertilizer. Adsorption is found to be the primary removal mechanism while biodegradation, volatilization, and hydrolysis can be ignored in this study. Adsorption kinetics was well described by pseudo-second-order model. Faster adsorption rate (k? = 2.04 × 10(-2)?g min(-1) ?g(-1)) and greater adsorption capacity (qe = 38.8 ?g g(-1)) were found in activated sludge treating freshwater sewage. Different adsorption rate and adsorption capacity resulted from chemical properties of sewage matrix rather than activated sludge surface characteristics. The decrease of tetracycline adsorption in saline sewage was mainly due to Mg(2+) which significantly reduced adsorption distribution coefficient (Kd) from 12,990 ± 260 to 4,690 ± 180 L kg(-1). Species-specific adsorption distribution coefficients followed the order of Kd???>Kd???>Kd???. Contribution of zwitterionic tetracycline to the overall adsorption was >90 % in the actual pH range in aeration tank. Adsorption of tetracycline in a wide range of temperature (10 to 35 °C) followed the Freundlich adsorption isotherm well. PMID:23054779

Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong



Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation of sewage disposal.  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens, a marker of domestic sewage contamination, was enumerated in sediment samples obtained from the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site 1 month and 1 year after cessation of sewage disposal at this site. C. perfringens counts in sediments collected at the disposal site and from stations 26 nautical miles (ca. 48 km) and 50 nautical miles (ca. 92 km) to the southwest of the site were, in general, more than 10-fold higher than counts from an uncontaminated reference site. C. perfringens counts at the disposal site were not significantly different between 1992 and 1993, suggesting that sewage sludge had remained in the benthic environment at this site. At stations where C. perfringens counts were elevated (i.e., stations other than the reference station), counts were generally higher in the top 1 cm and decreased down to 5 cm. In some cases, C. perfringens counts in the bottom 4 or 5 cm showed a trend of higher counts in 1993 than in 1992, suggesting bioturbation. We conclude that widespread sludge contamination of the benthic environment has persisted for at least 1 year after cessation of ocean sewage disposal at the 106-Mile Site.

Hill, R T; Straube, W L; Palmisano, A C; Gibson, S L; Colwell, R R



Degradation monitoring using probabilistic inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to increase safety and improve economy and performance in a nuclear power plant (NPP), the source and extent of component degradations should be identified before failures and breakdowns occur. It is also crucial for the next generation of NPPs, which are designed to have a long core life and high fuel burnup to have a degradation monitoring system in order to keep the reactor in a safe state, to meet the designed reactor core lifetime and to optimize the scheduled maintenance. Model-based methods are based on determining the inconsistencies between the actual and expected behavior of the plant, and use these inconsistencies for detection and diagnostics of degradations. By defining degradation as a random abrupt change from the nominal to a constant degraded state of a component, we employed nonlinear filtering techniques based on state/parameter estimation. We utilized a Bayesian recursive estimation formulation in the sequential probabilistic inference framework and constructed a hidden Markov model to represent a general physical system. By addressing the problem of a filter's inability to estimate an abrupt change, which is called the oblivious filter problem in nonlinear extensions of Kalman filtering, and the sample impoverishment problem in particle filtering, we developed techniques to modify filtering algorithms by utilizing additional data sources to improve the filter's response to this problem. We utilized a reliability degradation database that can be constructed from plant specific operational experience and test and maintenance reports to generate proposal densities for probable degradation modes. These are used in a multiple hypothesis testing algorithm. We then test samples drawn from these proposal densities with the particle filtering estimates based on the Bayesian recursive estimation formulation with the Metropolis Hastings algorithm, which is a well-known Markov chain Monte Carlo method (MCMC). This multiple hypothesis testing algorithm using MCMC in particle filtering helps the filter to explore the state space more effectively in the direction of the degradations. We extended this algorithm for degradation detection and isolation to complete the degradation monitoring framework. We successfully tested our algorithms in degradation monitoring of balance of plant of a boiling water reactor.

Alpay, Bulent


Research on atmospheric pressure plasma processing sewage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water pollution has become more and more serious with the industrial progress and social development, so it become a worldwide leading environmental management problem to human survival and personal health, therefore, countries are looking for the best solution. Generally speaking, in this paper the work has the following main achievements and innovation: (1) Developed a new plasma device--Plasma Water Bed. (2) At atmospheric pressure condition, use oxygen, nitrogen, argon and helium as work gas respectively, use fiber spectrometer to atmospheric pressure plasma discharge the emission spectrum of measurement, due to the different work gas producing active particle is different, so can understand discharge, different particle activity, in the treatment of wastewater, has the different degradation effects. (3) Methyl violet solution treatment by plasma water bed. Using plasma drafting make active particles and waste leachate role, observe the decolorization, measurement of ammonia nitrogen removal.

Song, Gui-cai; Na, Yan-xiang; Dong, Xiao-long; Sun, Xiao-liang



Radiolytic decomposition of multi-class surfactants and their biotransformation products in sewage treatment plant effluents.  


Electron beam irradiation (EBI), as one of the most efficient advanced oxidation processes, was applied to the treatment of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent, with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of radiolytic decomposition of multi-class surfactants. Target compounds, included several high-volume surfactant groups, such as alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) and their biotransformation products, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), alkyl sulfates (AS), alkylether sulfates (AES), coconut diethanol amides (CDEA), alcohol ethoxylates (AEO) and polyethylene glycols (PEGs). EBI treatment of STP effluent (total concentration of APEO-derived compounds 265mugl(-1), being APE(2)C the most abundant by-degradation products) resulted in efficient decomposition of all alkylphenolic compounds; elimination of 94% longer ethoxy chain nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO, n(EO)=3-15) was obtained when 3kGy were applied. Slightly less efficient decomposition of short ethoxy chain oligomers (NPEO(1) and NPEO(2)) was observed, resulting in disappearance of about 80% of the initially present compounds. LC-MS analysis of treated wastewater suggested that the mechanism of EBI degradation of APEOs is a combination of two parallel pathways: a progressive shortening and oxidation of the ethoxy chain, which resulted in a formation of short ethoxy chain oligomers and APECs and central fission that resulted in formation of PEGs. Decomposition of APECs at 1kGy initially yielded APs, which were subsequently eliminated applying higher radiation doses. With a radiation dose of 2kGy about 95% of NPE(1)C and 97% of NPE(2)C were decomposed. Similar elimination rates were obtained for octylphenolic compounds. Radiolytic treatment applied was also very effective in removing PEGs formed as by-products from APEO degradation, as well as in decomposing other surfactants, such as linear LAS, AS and AES. PMID:16808959

Petrovic, M; Gehringer, P; Eschweiler, H; Barceló, D



Carbon sequestration and land degradation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Storing carbon (C) in soil as organic matter is not only a viable strategy to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere, but is vital for improving the quality of soil. This presentation describes (1) C sequestration concepts and rationale, (2) relevant management approaches to avoid land degradation and fo...


Improvement of Manganese Peroxidase Production by the Hyper Lignin-Degrading Fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 by Recombinant Expression of the 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Synthase Gene.  


The manganese peroxidase (MnP) gene (mnp4) promoter of Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 was used to drive expression of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (als), which is a key heme biosynthesis enzyme. The expression plasmid pMnP4pro-als was transformed into P. sordida YK-624 uracil auxotrophic mutant UV-64, and 14 recombinant als expressing-transformants were generated. Average cumulative MnP activities in the transformants were 1.18-fold higher than that of control transformants. In particular, transformants A-14 and A-61 showed significantly higher MnP activity (approximately 2.8-fold) than wild type. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the increased MnP activity was caused by elevated recombinant als expression. These results suggest that the production of MnP is improved by high expression of als. PMID:23884595

Hirai, Hirofumi; Misumi, Kenta; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kawagishi, Hirokazu



Assessment of an Enterovirus Sewage Surveillance System by Comparison of Clinical Isolates with Sewage Isolates from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Collected August 1994 to December 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantity and serotypes of enteroviruses (EVs) in the influent of a local sewage treatment plant were compared to local clinical EV cases to determine if testing of sewage is adequate for an EV surveillance system. The study was carried out from August 1994 to December 2002. Monthly influent specimens were processed by organic flocculation, and dilutions of concentrate were

Gerald Sedmak; David Bina; Jeffrey MacDonald



Isolation and identification of dibutyl phthalate-degrading bacteria from hydrospheres in Tokyo.  


Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is used widely as a plasticizer and is thought to negatively affect various organisms. To isolate and investigate DBP-degrading bacteria from hydrospheres in Tokyo, strains were selected on YNB medium containing DBP as the sole carbon source, and candidate strains were identified by zones of clearing around the colonies. Degradation of DBP by the strains was subsequently measured with HPLC, and bacterial identification was accomplished using 16S rDNA sequences. Nineteen strains of DBP degraders were isolated from activated sludge in a sewage treatment plant, from Tokyo Bay, and from the Takahama Canal. These strains degraded 16.8%-88.0% of DBP (0.1%, v/v) for 2 weeks and were identified as several species of Acinetobacter, as well as Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens, Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Commercially available strains of Acinetobacter were also found to degrade DBP. PMID:19700919

Ogawa, Go; Ishida, Masami; Urano, Naoto



Investigation of the fate of sulfonamides downgradient of a decommissioned sewage farm near Berlin, Germany.  


The drinking water production of a drinking water treatment plant in Berlin is affected by ambient contaminated groundwater. The three organic compounds para-toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA), ortho-toluenesulfonamide (o-TSA) and benzenesulfonamide (BSA) were identified in the catchment area of this plant. The groundwater pollution is a result of former sewage farm irrigation in the area, operating for almost 70 years until the 1980s. The distribution of the sulfonamides in the anoxic groundwater was investigated, and a large number of observation and production wells were sampled for this purpose. The contaminant plume is 25 m3000 m2000 m (depth, length, width) in size. The high concentrations of p-TSA, o-TSA and BSA in the groundwater show that the sulfonamides persist over decades in an anoxic aquifer environment. Groundwater quality assessment revealed that elevated concentrations of the analytes can be expected in the abstraction well galleries in the future. Therefore, sulfonamides should periodically be monitored in the drinking water (maximum allowed concentration of 0.30 microg/L of p-TSA and for o-TSA and BSA, a limit of 0.10 microg/L for unknown substances applies). Because of the widespread application and the persistence of the sulfonamides under anoxic conditions, our local investigations suggest that the substances may generally be present in groundwater under the influence of sewage irrigation. Incubation experiments were conducted under in situ hydrostatic pressure to study the behaviour of these trace organic compounds under different redox conditions (oxic and anoxic). Groundwater sampling equipment was either sterilised or not sterilised in order to distinguish between microbiological processes occurring in the aquifer and those representing sampling and storage artefacts (incubation experiments). Results showed that the addition of oxygen to the anoxic groundwater facilitates p-TSA and o-TSA degradation. Hence, while the substances are persistent under anoxic conditions, they are more degradable in the presence of oxygen. Results also illustrate that maintaining anoxic conditions or applying appropriate preservation techniques is necessary to ensure accurate analysis. PMID:19371963

Richter, Doreen; Massmann, Gudrun; Taute, Thomas; Duennbier, Uwe



Improvement of cellulose-degrading ability of a yeast strain displaying Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase II by recombination of cellulose-binding domains.  


To improve the cellulolytic activity of a yeast strain displaying endoglucanase II (EGII) from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei QM9414, the genes encoding the cellulose-binding domain (CBD) of EGII, cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) and cellobiohydrolase II (CBHII) from T. reesei QM9414, were fused with the catalytic domain of EGII and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Display of each of the recombinant EGIIs was confirmed using immunofluorescence microscopy. In the case of EGII-displaying yeast strains in which the CBD of EGII was replaced with the CBD of CBHI or CBHII, the binding affinity to Avicel and hydrolytic activity toward phosphoric acid swollen Avicel were similar to that of a yeast strain displaying wild-type EGII. On the other hand, the three yeast strains displaying EGII with two or three tandemly aligned CBDs showed binding affinity and hydrolytic activity higher than that of the yeast strain displaying wild-type EGII. This result indicates that the hydrolytic activity of yeast strains displaying recombinant EGII increases with increased binding ability to cellulose. PMID:15176869

Ito, Junji; Fujita, Yasuya; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko


Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.  


A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. PMID:23777667

Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei



The toxicity to plants of the sewage sludges containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sewage sludges containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with an outer diameter <10 nm (CNT10) or 40-60 nm (CNT60) to Lepidium sativum (cress), Sorghum saccharatum (sorgo), Solanum lycopersicon (tomato), Raphanus sativus (radish) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). CNTs were also incubated in sewage sludge for 7 or 31 days to determine the effect of CNT aging on sewage sludge phytotoxicity. The influence of CNTs on 4 different sewage sludges was tested. The CNTs' influence on sludge toxicity varied with respect to the CNTs' outer diameter, type of sewage sludges and the plants tested. No significant influence of CNT concentration on phytotoxicity was noted. In the case of two sludges, a positive influence of CNTs on seed germination and root growth was observed. Depending on the CNTs' outer diameter, CNT aging decreased (CNT10) or increased (CNT60) sewage sludge phytotoxicity. PMID:21145166

Oleszczuk, Patryk; Jo?ko, Izabela; Xing, Baoshan



Recharging of contaminated aquifer with reclaimed sewage water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 40% of the water supply of Cairo, Egypt, is drawn from a groundwater reservoir located southeast of the Nile Delta. Several thousand shallow wells supply drinking water to the farmers from the same groundwater reservoir, which is recharged by seepage from Ismailia canal, the irrigation canal network, and other wastewater lagoons in the same areas. Sewage water lagoons were located at the high ground of the area, recharging contaminated water into the aquifer. Since the groundwater in this area is used for drinking purposes, it was decided to treat the sewage water recharging the aquifer for health reasons. In this paper a solution to the problem is presented using an injection well recharging good quality water into the aquifer. A pumping well located at a distance downstream is used to pump the contaminated water out of the aquifer. A three-dimensional solute transport model was developed to study the concentration distribution with remediation time in the contaminated zone.

Soliman, M. M.; El-Din, M. Nour; Hassan, N. A.



Phosphine production potential of various wastewater and sewage sludge sources  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory incubation procedure followed by gas chromatographic detection was used to measure phosphine production potential in representative wastewater and sewage sludge sources. Phosphine production potential was determined by measuring the rate of phosphine formation in samples incubated under laboratory conditions over a seven day period when both electron donors and the targeted electron acceptor were not limiting factors. Results of their experiments showed that except the primary effluent and secondary effluent wastewater samples all other samples studied (influent wastewater, various type of sludge and sediment sources) produced phosphine. The minimum phosphine production potential value (0.39 pg/ml wastewater/day) was measured in composite influent wastewater samples while the maximum (268 pg/g wet sludge/day) was measured in sediment samples collected from an open-air sewage treatment plant.

Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Wetland Biogeochemistry Inst.; Devai, G.; Czegeny, I. [Lajos Kossuth Univ., Debrecen (Hungary). Dept. of Ecology



Financial management of Kashima Rinkai Specified Sewage Works.  


The Kashima Rinkai Specified Sewage Works (KRSSW) is located at the northern side of the Kashima Coastal Industrial Zone, facing the Sea of Kashimanada (Pacific Ocean). It straddles one city and two townships: the city of Kashima, which boasts Kashima Port, a transportation center that was constructed on Kashimanada Beach by digging into the virgin sands, and the towns of Kamisu and Hasaki. The industries located there include steel, petrochemicals, chemicals, foodstuffs, livestock feeds, electric power and machinery metals. Industrial wastewaters with public sewage, except steel industry, are treated by the Fukashiba Treatment Plant which is managed by the Ibaraki Prefectural Government. The financial management of KRSSW is analysed to show its stand-alone condition. PMID:16862787

Ochiai, E; Igarashi, T; Iseki, H; Seya, H; Matsui, S



Cotreatment of sewage and septage in waste stabilization ponds.  


A one year study was carried out in a waste stabilization ponds system where septage and sewage are cotreated. The system consists of two septage ponds which operate alternately followed by two ponds in series which receive the combined effluent. The septage ponds also act as evaporation ponds for the accumulated sludge. The monitoring program was divided in two phases. The results of the first phase indicate that the effluent of septage ponds has an adequate quality to be discharged into the waste stabilization ponds designed to treat sewage and that is possible to use the septage ponds to dry the accumulated sludge. Further investigation is needed to find suitable post-treatment of the sludge in order to use it in agriculture. PMID:11833736

Ingallinella, A M; Sanguinetti, G; Fernández, R G; Strauss, M; Montangero, A



A high-level disinfection standard for land applying sewage sludges (biosolids).  

PubMed Central

Complaints associated with land-applied sewage sludges primarily involve irritation of the skin, mucous membranes, and the respiratory tract accompanied by opportunistic infections. Volatile emissions and organic dusts appear to be the main source of irritation. Occasionally, chronic gastrointestinal problems are reported by affected residents who have private wells. To prevent acute health effects, we recommend that the current system of classifying sludges based on indicator pathogen levels (Class A and Class B) be replaced with a single high-level disinfection standard and that methods used to treat sludges be improved to reduce levels of irritant chemicals, especially endotoxins. A national opinion survey of individuals impacted by or concerned about the safety of land-application practices indicated that most did not consider the practice inherently unsafe but that they lacked confidence in research supported by federal and state agencies.

Gattie, David K; McLaughlin, Tara J




SciTech Connect

The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.



Residual effects of irrigating corn with digested sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The same corn hybrid (Zea mays L.) was grown during the last 3 years that Blount silt loam plots were irrigated with liquid, municipal sewage sludge and for the next succeeding 4 years after termination of applications. During the last year in which sludge was applied, leaves from maximum sludge-treated plots contained 112 mg Zn\\/kg and 7.1 mg Cd\\/kg. Four

T. D. Hinesly; E. L. Ziegler; G. L. Barrett



Biofouling in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating municipal sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, considering the availability of reports on aerobic membrane reactor research and full scale experiences, there is a lack of understanding associated to anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) applications for low-strength wastewater treatment. In this context, this research aims (1) to evaluate the performance of an AnMBR for municipal sewage treatment at ambient temperature and (2) to contribute to the

M. Herrera-Robledo; D. M. Cid-León; J. M. Morgan-Sagastume; A. Noyola



Sewage Biogas Conversion into Electricity by Using Small Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This article intends to present some considerations about electricity generation with 30 kW (ISO) microturbines, using biogas\\u000a generated by a sewage treatment process at SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of São Paulo State), located in Barueri, Brazil.\\u000a This project, pioneer in Latin America, is being accomplished together with BUN – Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent),\\u000a in association with CENBIO – Brazilian

Suani Teixeira Coelho; Sílvia Maria Stortini González Velázquez; Osvaldo Stella Martins; Fernando Castro Abreu


Growth of water hyacinths in treated sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two thousand plants of the water hyacinth,Eichornia crassipes Solms., were introduced on April 11, 1971, into a series of five ponds, each 5000 sq. ft. in area and 2.6 ft. deep. Treated waste\\u000a water effluent from the Ames sewage treatment plant filled the ponds and was added to pond 1 at 127 gallons per minute. By\\u000a growth and vegetative reproduction,

Jean W. Wooten; John D. Dodd



Nutritional composition of water hyacinths grown on domestic sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nutrient analysis of water hyacinths grown in sewage wastewaters was conducted. Crude protein averaged 32.9% dry weight\\u000a in the leaves, where it was most concentrated. The amino acid content of water hyacinth leaves was found to compare favorably\\u000a with that of soybean and cottonseed meal. The vitamin and mineral content of dried water hyacinths met or exceeded the FAO

B. C. Wolverton; Rebecca C. Mcdonald



Treatment of sewage using an aged-refuse-based bioreactor.  


The refuse in landfills becomes stabilized or aged after years of placement, and the resultant partly or fully stabilized refuse thus obtained is referred to as "aged refuse" in this work. The aged refuse contains a wide spectrum and large quantity of microorganisms, which have been proved to have a strong decomposition capability for both biodegradable and refractory organic matter present in some wastewaters. In this study, the aged refuse excavated from a 10-year old closed landfill compartment at Shanghai Refuse Landfill was used as the substrate in a bioreactor for the biofiltration of sewage taken from the sewage pipeline systems in Shanghai downtown areas. Typically, 120kg of screened aged refuse with a diameter less than 15mm was used as biofiltration material in a round shaped bioreactor with an inner diameter of 80cm and a height of 150cm. Influent sewage with initial COD, BOD, and NH(3)-N concentrations of 400-500, 240-300, and 45-50mg/L, respectively, was introduced into the bioreactor. The corresponding concentrations in the effluent were reduced to below 80-100, 10-20, and 10-15mg/L, respectively, at a hydraulic load of 1000-1200L/m(3) refuse/day, and the treatment efficiencies decreased with increased hydraulic load. The treatment mechanism was also studied. It was found that the pollutant removal efficiencies dramatically decreased when the aged refuse in the bioreactor was preliminarily disinfected using NaClO solutions, indicating that the pollutants in the sewage were biologically removed. The treatment process developed in this work is cost-effective. PMID:16784804

Zhao, Youcai; Lou, Ziyang; Guo, Yali; Xu, Dimin



Stabilization of heavy metals in sewage sludge composting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the stabilization of heavy metals in a sewage sludge composting process using kaoline addition. The results indicate that the temperature increased rapidly to the thermophilic phase (>55°C) at day 1. The additives enhanced the rate of biodegradation and microbial activity during the co- composting process. The changes in pH (ranging from 8 to 8.5) and electrical conductivity

K.-Y. Chiang; S.-D. Yoi; H. N. Lin; K.-S. Wang


Effects of high temperature melting on the porosity and microstructure of slags from domestic sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage treatment plant sludges continue to pose great problems in terms of volume, odour and method of disposal. Thermal treatment of sewage sludge is considered as an attractive method in reducing sludge volume, which at the same time produces reusable by-products. Studies on high temperature melting of sewage sludge, above 1200ºC, show promising results where by stable and inert by-products

Z. Abu-Kaddourah; A. Idris; M. J. M. M. Noor; F. R. Ahmadun


Disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water by electron beam radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of electron beam radiation for the disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water was assessed with\\u000a ILU-6 Accelerator at Radiation Technology Development Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai India. The current\\u000a problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of sewage water. In general,\\u000a sewage water comprises heterogeneous

Y. Avasn Maruthi; N. Lakshmana Das; Kaizar Hossain; K. S. S. Sarma; K. P. Rawat; S. Sabharwal



Effect of sewage sludge and cobalt treatments on tomato fruit yield, weight, and quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of increased concentrations of cobalt (Co) (0,50,100, and 200 mg Kg) and treatment with sewage sludge was investigated on the yield and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Ramy), grown in a calcareous soil. Anaerobically digested sewage sludge was applied at the rates of 2 and 4 g sewage sludge\\/100 g soil d.w., equivalent to 60 and

R. Moral; I. Gomez



Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site

M. Takizawa; W. L. Straube; R. T. Hill; R. R. Colwell



The Effect of Microwave Radiation Treatment on Flowing Sewage Sludge in a Dynamic Manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impact on characters of flowing sewage sludge by microwave radiation in a dynamic manner was inspected. The changes in settling and vacuum filtration dewaterability of sewage sludge in 3 minutes of microwave radiation were investigated,influences on volatile suspended solid(VSS)dissolving ratio, COD in supernatant and micro-morphology of sewage sludge by microwave radiation were investigated as well. Low intensity radiation had little

Bo-zhi Ren; Bao-lin Hou; Xue-li Wu



Intersex in wild roach ( Rutilus rutilus) from Danish sewage effluent-receiving streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roach (Rutilus rutilus) from Danish streams that receive discharges of domestic sewage effluent were examined for the presence of alterations to gonadal development. In male roach, intersex was observed at a prevalence of 4.5–5% at reference sites and 6.7–6.5% at sewage effluent-impacted sites. A positive correlation was found between sewage effluent load and intersex frequency among male roach. The highest

Lisette B. Bjerregaard; Bodil Korsgaard; Poul Bjerregaard



Sewage sludge does not induce genotoxicity and carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Through a series of experiments, the genotoxic/mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of sewage sludge was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - liver carcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 200 mg/kg i.p.); Group 3 and G4-liver carcinogenesis initiated by DEN and fed 10,000 ppm or 50,000 ppm of sewage sludge. The animals were submitted to a 70% partial hepatectomy at the 3rd week. Livers were processed for routine histological analysis and immunohistochemistry, in order to detect glutathione S-transferase positive altered hepatocyte foci (GST-P+ AHF). Peripheral blood samples for the comet assay were obtained from the periorbital plexus immediately prior to sacrificing. Polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) were analyzed in femoral bone-marrow smears, and the frequencies of those micronucleated (MNPCEs) registered. There was no sewage-sludge-induced increase in frequency of either DNA damage in peripheral blood leucocytes, or MNPCEs in the femoral bone marrow. Also, there was no increase in the levels of DNA damage, in the frequency of MNPCEs, and in the development of GST-P AHF when compared with the respective control group.

Silva, Paula Regina Pereira; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Dagli, Maria Lucia Zaidan; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento



Separation of metals and phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge ash.  


Microbial acidification of incinerated sewage sludge ash and dissolution of metals from the acidified ash were investigated using a semi-batch reactor at different solid retention times (SRTs). The average pH values ranged from 0.91 to 1.2 at SRTs longer than 10 days, whereas the reduction of SRT to 4 days resulted in an increase in the pH value to about 2. The dissolution efficiencies of Al, As, Cd, Cu and Mn were greater than 60% at a SRT of 4 days. Moreover, the effect of pH on precipitation of metals and P (dissolution of 80%) in the filtrate removed from the acidified sewage ash suspension, and the separation of phosphorus and the other metals in the filtrate using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or ferric ion, were examined. Although neutralisation of the filtrate to a pH of 5 simultaneously precipitated 100% of Al and 80% of P recovered from the acidified sewage ash, the addition of EDTA decreased their precipitation to 70 and 50%, respectively, at the same pH value, which would promote precipitation of P as calcium phosphate. Furthermore, neutralising to a pH of 2.5 after the addition of ferric ion precipitated P separately from Al and heavy metals. PMID:23752380

Ito, A; Yamada, K; Ishikawa, N; Umita, T



Investigation into antimony mobility in sewage sludge fermentation.  


Antimony is distributed in the environment in inorganic and organic species with different solubility and mobility characters. Here we investigate the transformation of antimony in view of biomethylation during sewage sludge fermentation as a case study for an anaerobic environment. Our approach was to identify if antimony methylation follows the Challenger pathway by using isotopically enriched antimonite (123Sb(v)). The antimony source was subjected to methylation in sewage sludge, an anaerobic dominant methanogenic Archaea community. The antimony species were determined in the gas phase using cryotrapping (CT)-GC-ICP-MS, and in the medium (sewage slude) by hydride generation (HG) prior CT-GC-ICP-MS. The determined 123/121Sb isotope ratios in the volatile trimethylstibine and non-volatile methylantimony species indicated that the methylation follows the proposed methylation pathway. With this approach we were able to quantify 123Sb incorporation into monomethyl-, dimethyl- and trimethylantimony, respectively. The incorporation decreased with further methylation from 91% to 82% and 73%. Volatilisation as trimethystibine was generally lower than 0.1%, however, up to 0.8% of added antimony was found methylated to methylantimony species and mainly accumulated in the cell. Moreover, antimony biomethylation was enhanced by stimulation of the anaerobic communities of methanogenic Archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), with the methanogens showing a higher activity. PMID:16307071

Wehmeier, Silvia; Feldmann, Jörg



Sewage pollution impact on Mediterranean rocky-reef fish assemblages.  


The effects of sewage outfalls on subtidal fish assemblages were studied along the NW coasts of Malta (Sicily channel, Mediterranean Sea) by means of underwater visual census. The presence of two spatially distinct outfalls discharging untreated wastewaters allowed to use a balanced symmetrical after control/impact (ACI) design that consisted of two putatively impacted locations and two controls, with four sites nested in each location. Surveys were performed in 2006 at two random dates. The study highlighted significant changes at both assemblage and individual species levels. Fish assemblages structures were different between controls and sewages, where total abundance of fish were higher. The responses of individual species to sewage pollution were mostly related to an anomalous increase of two small opportunistic species i.e. Gobius bucchichii and Parablennius rouxi and to a decrease of species of the genus Symphodus, particularly S. roissali and S. ocellatus. Moreover in correspondence of the outfalls, significant changes of the fish size distribution were detected for several species. These results support the use of fish assemblages as biological indicators for marine coastal waters and demonstrated the possibility to obtain sharp signals of environmental impact from some individual fish species. PMID:20193961

Azzurro, Ernesto; Matiddi, Marco; Fanelli, Emanuela; Guidetti, Paolo; La Mesa, Gabriele; Scarpato, Alfonso; Axiak, Victor



Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection among sewage workers in the Parisian area, France.  


Sewers are an ideal environment to be occupationally exposed to viral hepatitis A (HAV) infection, because of high frequency and ability of the virus to remain viable for prolonged periods in sewage. However, data on the occupational risk of HAV infection among sewage workers is not well documented. In a cross sectional study comparing sewage workers (n = 155) to those not occupationally exposed to it (n = 70), we found a non significant increase in HAV seropositivity among sewage workers of 12.9% (p = 0.07). The prevalence of HAV antibody was significantly associated with duration of occupational exposure to sewage (p < 0.015), stay in HAV endemic areas (p < 0.03), age (p < 0.001), and number of siblings (p < 0.03). A stepwise logistic regression analysis gave an adjusted odds ratio for HAV seropositivity 2.15 fold greater in sewage workers compared to those not occupationally exposed to it. So, although there was no significant difference in the prevalence of HAV antibody between sewage workers and others, exposure to sewage was an independent risk factor for HAV seropositivity, and this raises the question of whether it is necessary to vaccinate sewage workers against viral hepatitis A. PMID:8884189

Cadilhac, P; Roudot-Thoraval, F



K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring reports, second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173. This report includes the results of those analyses. None of the analyzed constituents exceeded the Primary Drinking Water Standard or the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria at either the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site or the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site.

Not Available



The Impact of Sewage Discharge in a Marine Embayment: A Stable Isotope Reconnaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope analyses, ? 13C and ? 15N, of sewage tolerant benthic invertebrates seaward of a sewage effluent discharged in a marine embayment, the Firth of Forth, East Scotland, suggest that the polychaete worm Nereis virens is a suitable species for identifying biological assimilation of sewage derived organic matter. The sewage isotopic signal is not strongly recorded in the sediment due to the combined action of tidal movement, wind-induced wave action and benthic invertebrate grazing of particulate matter on the sea-bed. ? 13C of the plankton is significantly different from the effluent, but ? 15N is not which precludes its use as a trace.

Waldron, S.; Tatner, P.; Jack, I.; Arnott, C.



Synchronous anaerobic and aerobic degradation of DDT by an immobilized mixed culture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the investigation of a mixed anaerobic and aerobic degradation of xenobiotics the reductive dechlorination of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) to 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD) and the oxidative degradation of the DDT-conversion product 4,4'-dichlorodiphenylmethane (DDM) were studied. Enrichments from digested sewage sludge led to the isolation of an Enterobacter cloacae-strain which is able to reductive dechlorination of DDT during the fermentation of

Jiirgen Beunink; Hans-Jiirgen Rehm



Isolation and characterization of a pentachlorophenol-degrading bacterium.  

PubMed Central

With a new enrichment protocol, pentachlorophenol (PCP)-degrading bacteria were isolated from soil, water, and sewage. When characterized, all isolates were related and shared characteristics of the genus Arthrobacter. Growth rates for strain NC were determined for a number of substrates, including PCP and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. Changes in PCP concentration affected growth rate and length of the lag phase but not cell yield. Increasing the pH from 6.8 to 7.8 decreased the length of the lag phase for growth on PCP. Cessation of growth, upon incremental addition of PCP, was found to be related to a decrease in pH rather than to a buildup of a toxic metabolite. Degradation of PCP by strain NC was shown to be complete.

Stanlake, G J; Finn, R K



Carbon dioxide adsorption in chemically activated carbon from sewage sludge.  


In this work, sewage sludge was used as precursor in the production of activated carbon by means of chemical activation with KOH and NaOH. The sludge-based activated carbons were investigated for their gaseous adsorption characteristics using CO2 as adsorbate. Although both chemicals were effective in the development of the adsorption capacity, the best results were obtained with solid NaOH (SBA(T16)). Adsorption results were modeled according to the Langmuir and Freundlich models, with resulting CO2 adsorption capacities about 56 mg/g. The SBA(T16) was characterized for its surface and pore characteristics using continuous volumetric nitrogen gas adsorption and mercury porosimetry. The results informed about the mesoporous character of the SBA(T16) (average pore diameter of 56.5 angstroms). The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the SBA(T16) was low (179 m2/g) in comparison with a commercial activated carbon (Airpel 10; 1020 m2/g) and was mainly composed of mesopores and macropores. On the other hand, the SBA(T16) adsorption capacity was higher than that of Airpel 10, which can be explained by the formation of basic surface sites in the SBA(T16) where CO2 experienced chemisorption. According to these results, it can be concluded that the use of sewage-sludge-based activated carbons is a promising option for the capture of CO2. Implications: Adsorption methods are one of the current ways to reduce CO2 emissions. Taking this into account, sewage-sludge-based activated carbons were produced to study their CO2 adsorption capacity. Specifically, chemical activation with KOH and NaOH of previously pyrolyzed sewage sludge was carried out. The results obtained show that even with a low BET surface area, the adsorption capacity of these materials was comparable to that of a commercial activated carbon. As a consequence, the use of sewage-sludge-based activated carbons is a promising option for the capture of CO2 and an interesting application for this waste. PMID:23786147

de Andrés, Juan Manuel; Orjales, Luis; Narros, Adolfo; de la Fuente, María del Mar; Encarnación Rodríguez, María



Chemical Changes and Heavy Metal Partitioning in an Oxisol Cultivated with Maize (Zea mays, L.) after 5 Years Disposal of a Domestic and an Industrial Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for solutions to minimize the negative environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities Fhas increased. Sewage sludge\\u000a is composed of predominantly organic matter and can be used to improve soil characteristics, such as fertility. Therefore,\\u000a its application in agriculture is an adequate alternative for its final disposal. However, there is a lack of information\\u000a on its long-term effects on soil

S. Alcantara; D. V. Pérez; M. R. A. Almeida; G. M. Silva; J. C. Polidoro; W. Bettiol



Energetics of syntrophic cooperation in methanogenic degradation.  

PubMed Central

Fatty acids and alcohols are key intermediates in the methanogenic degradation of organic matter, e.g., in anaerobic sewage sludge digestors or freshwater lake sediments. They are produced by classical fermenting bacteria for disposal of electrons derived in simultaneous substrate oxidations. Methanogenic bacteria can degrade primarily only one-carbon compounds. Therefore, acetate, propionate, ethanol, and their higher homologs have to be fermented further to one-carbon compounds. These fermentations are called secondary or syntrophic fermentations. They are endergonic processes under standard conditions and depend on intimate coupling with methanogenesis. The energetic situation of the prokaryotes cooperating in these processes is problematic: the free energy available in the reactions for total conversion of substrate to methane attributes to each partner amounts of energy in the range of the minimum biochemically convertible energy, i.e., 20 to 25 kJ per mol per reaction. This amount corresponds to one-third of an ATP unit and is equivalent to the energy required for a monovalent ion to cross the charged cytoplasmic membrane. Recent studies have revealed that syntrophically fermenting bacteria synthesize ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation and reinvest part of the ATP-bound energy into reversed electron transport processes, to release the electrons at a redox level accessible by the partner bacteria and to balance their energy budget. These findings allow us to understand the energy economy of these bacteria on the basis of concepts derived from the bioenergetics of other microorganisms.

Schink, B



Absorber coatings' degradation  

SciTech Connect

This report is intended to document some of the Los Alamos efforts that have been carried out under the Department of Energy (DOE) Active Heating and Cooling Materials Reliability, Maintainability, and Exposure Testing program. Funding for these activities is obtained directly from DOE although they represent a variety of projects and coordination with other agencies. Major limitations to the use of solar energy are the uncertain reliability and lifetimes of solar systems. This program is aimed at determining material operating limitations, durabilities, and failure modes such that materials improvements can be made and lifetimes can be extended. Although many active and passive materials and systems are being studied at Los Alamos, this paper will concentrate on absorber coatings and degradation of these coatings.

Moore, S.W.



Avaliação do Potencial Tóxico de Latossolos e Chernossolos Acrescidos de Lodo de Esgoto Utilizando Bioensaios com Oligoquetas da Espécie Eisenia andrei Toxicity Assessment of Latosols and Chernosols Amended With Sewage Sludge Using Bioassays With Eisenia andrei Earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage Sludge (SEL) has been used in agricultural activities to improve physical and chemical properties of soils. However, this compound also contains very high levels of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms, which can cause serious negative effects on biota and human health. This paper aims to assess potential toxicity of latosols and chernosols amended with SEL, using Eisenia andrei earthworms.

Ricardo Gonçalves Cesar; Silvia Gonçalves; Renata de Carvalho; Jimenez Alamino; Helena Polivanov; Raphael Corrêa da Silva; Zuleica Carmen Castilhos; Patricia Correa Araujo


Solids characterisation in an anaerobic migrating bed reactor (AMBR) sewage treatment system.  


The aim of this work was to characterise the solids in an anaerobic sewage treatment process. Hindered settling velocity, particle size distributions (PSD), influent and effluent COD(P)/SS and discrete settling velocity distributions were all measured. The anaerobic migrating bed reactor (AMBR) solids were mainly flocculent and had a settling rate equivalent to a good settling activated sludge ( approximately SSVI=60 mL/g). The PSD of the anaerobic solids were very different to PSD for activated sludge flocs, with the anaerobic solids having a modal size an order of magnitude smaller than activated sludge, but a range of particle sizes being two orders of magnitude larger. There was a far greater range in size and structure in the anaerobic solids. The anaerobic process solids were primarily feed solids undergoing VSS destruction (hydrolysis). The biological mass was small. The solids seemed to retain their size as the volatiles were degraded and the density decreased ('skeletons' of the influent particulates). The small fraction of slowly settling solids, which have been identified to have a similar modal size but lower density than the mixed solids in the reactor, pose a solids retention time (SRT) control problem when relying on settling alone for solids retention. PMID:17451779

Lant, Paul; Hartley, Ken



The anaerobic treatment of sewage and granule formation in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.  


The granulation process was examined using synthetic wastewater containing glucose in a 1 liter laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The anaerobic biotransformation of glucose was investigated during the granulation process. Anaerobic unacclimated sludge and glucose were used as seed and primary substrate, respectively. Massive initial granules were developed after three months of start-up. The effect of operational parameters such as influent glucose concentrations, pH, Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) were also considered during granulation. The presence of a large concentration of sulphate in the sludge of a mesophilic (37 degrees C+/-1 degrees C) UASB reactor treating sewage resulted in severe process disturbance, with a complete inhibition of the propionate-degrading ability of the sludge. Severe inhibition of acetate removal was also observed, with concentrations of propionic acid and acetic acid in the reactor effluent of 1.72% and 18.88%, respectively. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is formed from the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter containing sulfate by sulfate-reducing bacteria. This gas is toxic at rate exceeding 2% tolerable by a reactor. The result shows the rate of hydrogen sulfide production was 3.8 %. PMID:17067129

Makni, H; Bettaieb, F; Dhaouadi, H; M'Henni, F; Bakhrouf, A



Sewage sludge addition to food waste synergistically enhances hydrogen fermentation performance.  


The effect of sewage sludge (SWS) addition on the H2 fermentation of food waste (FW) was investigated. It was found that a slight addition of SWS (10:1=FW:SWS on a COD basis) significantly enhanced the H2 fermentation performance, not only increasing the total amount of H2 produced but accelerating the whole reaction, shortening the lag period, and increasing the H2 production rate. Substrate degradation and microbial germination were also facilitated by SWS addition. A simple calculation reveals that the increased amount of H2 production derived mostly from FW, indicating that SWS addition synergistically enhanced H2 fermentation performance. This was attributed to the existence of Fe and Ca at much higher concentrations in the SWS compared to the FW. The batch process treating a mixture of FW and SWS was repeated and showed an average H2 yield of 2.11 ± 0.20 mol H2/mol hexose(added), which was 13% higher than that of FW treated alone. PMID:21571523

Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Mi-Sun; Shin, Hang-Sik



Direct sewage up-concentration by submerged aerated and vibrated membranes.  


Membrane filtration is a promising technology for realising the so-called ZeroWasteWater concept, i.e. the wastewater can be up-concentrated and the retentate can sequentially be sent to a bioreactor (e.g., for energy production) while the permeate is aimed for reuse. In the present study, aerated and novel vibrated membrane filtration systems were evaluated as possible techniques for both energy and water recovery through the up-concentration of sewage from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The lab-scale experiments proved the clear advantage of vibrated membrane filtration over the aerated system, considering both the filtration performance (fouling control) and energy usage. Both microfiltration systems were found efficient in up-concentrating the COD, but not the nitrogen nor the phosphorus. The semi-continuous pilot-scale experiment could not confirm the usefulness of the process which was due to both fast in situ microbial COD degradation and fast particulate COD settling in the feed tank. PMID:22695138

Mezohegyi, G; Bilad, M R; Vankelecom, Ivo F J



Composting of anaerobic sludge: an economically feasible element of a sustainable sewage sludge management.  


An investigation into the feasibility of anaerobic sludge composting, as a sustainable treatment of sewage sludge management, was carried out under actual Slovenian environmental conditions. In order to demonstrate successful composting, five pilot plant experiments were performed during the summer and winter conditions. The first three experiments were performed with pile aeration, while experiments 4 and 5 were carried out by pile turning. Anaerobic sludge to bulking agent ratios were set at 1-6.4:1. The composting was successful and thermophilic temperature being achieved in all cases. In winter conditions, the composting process was prolonged; and low ambient temperatures had a significant impact in pile turning experiments. During winter, a temperature drop of 30 °C during turning of the material doubled the necessary time for an adequate composting process. Five scenarios were considered within an economic feasibility study and in the most favourable scenario, where 60% of compost was commercialised and 40% was used as landfill cover. The payback period in this scenario was 2.9 years. The study of compost quality showed that it can be used in variety of civil engineering applications, especially as a landfill cover and for recultivation of degraded areas. PMID:22562011

Cukjati, N; Zupan?i?, G D; Roš, M; Grilc, V



Factors controlling the aggregate stability and bulk density in two different degraded soils amended with biosolids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive agricultural practices generally lead to considerable reduction of organic carbon in soils. Moreover, the use of saline water affects physical parameters such as aggregate stability, and thus, bulk density. Organic amendments have been proposed as an effective method to improve physical properties of soils. In this paper, the effect of successive biosolids (sewage sludge) amendments on aggregate stability percentage

F. García-Orenes; C. Guerrero; J. Mataix-Solera; J. Navarro-Pedreño; I. Gómez; J. Mataix-Beneyto



40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE...



Lignocellulose-Degrading Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The preparation of strains of Streptomyces viridosporous (T7A) and their ability to degrade lignin were studied. An effective method for producing lignin degrading streptomycete strains was developed.

R. L. Crawford



Rainfall and Land Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of the notion ‘land’ and its scale features leads to many different definitions of land and land degradation.\\u000a Among the components of land degradation are desertification, soil degradation and erosion. There is a wealth of literature\\u000a claiming that land degradation is serious. These so-called doom papers are based on ‘hard’ facts from remote sensing, computer\\u000a models and measurements.

Leo Stroosnijder



Enhancement of Oil Degradation by Co-culture of Hydrocarbon Degrading and Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the biodegradation of oil by hydrocarbon degrading Pseudomonas putida in the presence of a biosurfactant- producing bacterium was investigated. The co-culture of test organisms exhibited improved degradation capacities, in a reproducible fashion, in aqueous and soil matrix in comparison to the individual bacterium culture. Results indicate that the in situ biosurfactant production not only resulted in increased



Evaluation on different forms of Moringa oleifera seeds dosing on sewage sludge conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different form of dosing using Moringa oleifera seeds in sewage sludge conditioning was studied. Settled activated sludge after clarification process was obtained from sludge holding tank in Sewage Treatment Plant, Taman Tun Dr. Ismail, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In this study, sludge conditioning with Moringa oleifera seeds in 3 different forms: dry powder, distilled water extracted and salt

Kien Tat Wai; Azni Idris; Megat Mohd Noor Megat Johari; Thamer A. Mohammad; Abdul Halim Ghazali; Suleyman A. Muyibi



Application of ionizing radiation to the treatment of waste waters and sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the treatment of waste water and sewage sludge by ionizing radiation, ; opinion is varied as to its competitiveness with conventional methods. Past ; studies in this connection are reviewed. If polluting matter in sewage is ; irradiated and is changed to that of easy biological dissociation, it can lead to ; decrease of BOD or COD. To a;taln





Microsoft Academic Search

Technical and economic analyses of an irradiation plant for sewage sludge treatment determined that an appropriate place for the first sludge electron irradiator in Mexico would be the sewage water treatment plant located north of Toluca in the State of Mexico. This treatment plant is mainly used for domestic wastewater and produces an approximate volume of 70 ton d-1 liquid

Jaime MORENO; Arturo COLÍN; Miguel BALCÁZAR; Leticia TAVERA


Basic Study of Concrete Made Using Ash Derived from the Incinerating Sewage Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sewage sludge incinerated ash is discharged as waste. Those are increasing with progress of a sewage enterprise every year. However, the reservation of the last disposal place for reclaiming the generated incineration ash is becoming quickly difficult. In this situation of sewage sludge processing, it is very important to promote more reducing and development of new reusing method. Recently, in the construction industry, reusing technology that was used sewage sludge incinerated ash as aggregate for concrete products is developed. But there are many unknown points in the performance and durability of concrete. In this study, sewage sludge incinerated ash is used instead of natural aggregate for concrete. It is investigated about fresh characteristics, chloride content, strength, resistance to frost damage and drying shrinkage of concrete using sewage sludge incinerated ash. As the results of this research, the compressive strength increases with ratio of sewage sludge incinerated ash. And the relationship between the compressive strength and the dynamic modulus of elasticity can be comparatively expressed as the linear relationship. If this concrete includes proper air content, the resistance to frost damage is enough. The drying shrinkage is become larger with increase of substitute rate of sewage sludge incinerated ash.

Sasaoka, Nobutaka; Yokoi, Katsunori; Yamanaka, Takashi


Enzyme Activities in a Sandy Soil Amended with Sewage Sludge and Coal Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies showed that coal fly ash could stabilize sewage sludge by reducing metal availability, but fly ash may cause an adverse effect on soil microbial activities. Therefore, an experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of amendment of soil with anaerobically digested dewatered sewage sludge, stabilised with alkaline coal fly ash, on soil enzyme activity and the implications for

K. M. Lai; D. Y. Ye; J. W. C. Wong



Bacteria isolated from sewage influent resistant to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in sewage influent. Resistance was measured by determining the lowest concentration of antibiotic, in micrograms per milliliter (? g mL). To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), which is used in diagnostic laboratories, we used the Etest, a plastic strip containing an antibiotic concentration gradient. In total, we sampled five sewage treatment

Sam R. Zwenger; Eric T. Gillock



Algal single cell protein production from sewage effluent with high salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Laboratory studies indicate that the unicellular green algaChlorella salina CU-1 could be cultivated in treated sewage effluent with high salinity. The high protein content (51% dry weight), and the relatively complete amino acid profile of the cells, suggest that this alga might be an ideal organism to be used for single cell protein production from high-salinity sewage.

P. K. Wong; Kwong-yu Chan



Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available



Polar drug residues in sewage and natural waters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drug residues of lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories and some drug metabolites have been detected in raw sewage, treated waste water and river water in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These residues are mainly derived from humans via excretion. The median concentrations in the effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) of most drugs investigated in this study ranged from

Marcus Stumpf; Thomas A Ternes; Rolf-Dieter Wilken; Silvana Vianna Rodrigues; Wolfram Baumann



Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)




Process for utilizing a pumpable fuel from highly dewatered sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for disposing of sewage sludge comprising: (1) dewatering an aqueous slurry of sewage sludge having a solids content of at least about 3 wt. % to produce an aqueous slurry of sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 5 to 20 wt. %; (2) pressing and/or centrifuging the dewatered slurry of sewage sludge from (1) to produce amorphous sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 28 to 50 wt. %; (3) heating the amorphous sewage sludge from (2) in a closed pressure vessel at a temperature in the range of about 150 F to 510 F in the absence of air for a period in the range of about 3 seconds to 60 minutes and shearing the sewage sludge by a rotor/mixer operating at a speed in the range of about 15 to 100 rpm, thereby producing a pumpable slurry of sewage sludge having a viscosity in the range of about 400 to 1,500 centipoise when a measured at 200 F and a higher heating value in the range of about 5,000 to 9,500 Btu/lb, dry basis; and (4) burning said pumpable slurry from (3) in a partial oxidation gasifier, furnace, boiler, or incinerator to produce an effluent gas stream.

Khan, M.R.



Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that

Samuel Cantarero; Alberto Zafra-Gómez; Oscar Ballesteros; Alberto Navalón; Marco S. Reis; Pedro M. Saraiva; José L. Vílchez



Effect of treated sewage water on vegetative and reproductive growth of date palm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of treated sewage water on the vegetative and reproductive growth of date palms was assessed. Leaves and fruits samples were collected from locations irrigated with treated sewage (TSW), desalinised, and well water. Samples were analysed for their calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) content by atomic absorption spectro?photometry and for sodium

Mahdi O. El Mardi; S. B. Salama; Evangeline Consolacion




Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of municipal sewage sludge solids concentration, leaching microorganisms (Thiobacillus thiooxidans or Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) and the addition of energy source (S or Fe(II)) on the bioleaching of metals from sewage sludge has been investigated under laboratory conditions using shake flasks. The results show that metal solubilization was better accomplished if additional energy source is supplemented to the microorganisms and

Ana T. Lombardi; Oswaldo Garcia Jr; Antonio A. Mozeto



Phytotoxicity and speciation of copper, zinc and lead during the aerobic composting of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content and speciation of heavy metals in composted sewage sludge is the main cause of negative impacts on environment and health of animal and human. An aerobic composting procedure was conducted to investigate the influences of some key parameters on phytotoxicity and speciation of Cu, Zn and Pb during sewage sludge composting. The pH value reached the optimal range

Miao-miao He; Guang-ming Tian; Xin-qiang Liang



Occurrence of multiclass UV filters in treated sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many substances related to human activities end up in wastewater and accumulate in sewage sludge. So far, there is only one extensive survey on the occurrence of UV filter residues in sewage sludge. However, more data are required to draw a reliable picture of the fate and effects of these compounds in the environment. This study attempts to fill this

Pablo Gago-Ferrero; M. Silvia Díaz-Cruz; Damià Barceló



Heavy metals in sludge from the sewage treatment plant of Rio de Janeiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final disposal of sewage sludge on soils as a compost for agriculture increases heavy metal contamination in soils. This demands controlled use to avoid hazardous situations. This work measures the heavy metals content in sludge and its potential as a fertilizer in agriculture. Samples were collected from the Penha urban sewage plant, the largest in Rio de Janeiro. Heavy

Tomaz Langenbach; Wolfgang Pfeifer; Luiz Rodrigues Freire; Michele Sarpa; Sueli Paim




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This special edition of the journal is devoted entirely to the 2001 workshop that USEPA and USDA co-hosted on Emerging Pathogens and Disinfection Technologies for Sewage Sludge and Animal Manure. The purpose of the workshop was to review, discuss, and evaluate the effectiveness of current sewage slu...


Quinone Profiling of Bacterial Communities in Natural and Synthetic Sewage Activated Sludge for Enhanced Phosphate Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory quinones were used as biomarkers to study bacterial community structures in activated sludge reactors used for enhanced biological phosphate removal (EBPR). We compared the quinone profiles of EBPR sludges and standard sludges, of natural sewage and synthetic sewage, and of plant scale and laboratory scale systems. Ubiquinone (Q) and menaquinone (MK) components were detected in all sludges tested at




Chemical modifications of groundwater contaminated by recharge of treated sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term monitoring of the chemical composition of recharge sewage effluent and associated contaminated groundwater from the Dan Region Sewage Reclamation Project shows, after 16 years of recharge operation, the presence of a distinct saline plume (up to 400 mg\\/l Cl), extending 1600 m downgradient in the Coastal Plain aquifer of Israel. The recorded electrolyte composition of groundwater in the vicinity

Avner Vengosh; Rami Keren



Nodulation and growth of subterranean clover ( Trifolium subterraneum L.) in soils previously treated with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-year pot experiment testing the use of sewage sludges as fertilizers for subclover plants was carried out under greenhouse conditions. Two limed soil samples (leptosol and Luvisol) and two anaerobically digested sewage sludges (Evora and Belmonte) were used at the rates of 5, 10, 20 and 60 t ha?1, together with a standard mineral fertilizer-treated (PK) sample and an

E. M. Ferreira; I. V. Castro



Nitrogen contribution of sewage sludge to nutrition of crops, using nuclear techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land applications of municipal sewage sludges are being practised throughout the world. Their beneficial effects can include increases in crop yields, soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity, water-holding capacity and fertility in general. High levels of nitrogen and phosphorus and micronutrients make it an excellent fertilizer. At present, information on the availability of nitrogen and other nutrients from sewage sludge



Detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals in aerial invertebrates at sewage treatment works  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) constitute a diverse group of chemical compounds which can alter endocrine function in exposed animals. Whilst most studies have focussed on exposure of wildlife to EDCs via aquatic routes, there is the potential for transfer into the terrestrial food chain through consumption of contaminated prey items developing in sewage sludge and waste water at sewage treatment

Kirsty J.