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1

Application of Municipal Sewage Sludge to Forest and Degraded Land  

SciTech Connect

The paper summarizes research done over a decade at the Savannah River Site and elsewhere in the South evaluating the benefits of land application of municipal wastes. Studies have demonstrated that degraded lands, ranging from borrow pits to mine spoils can be successfully revegetated using a mixture of composed municipal sewage sludge and other amendments. The studies have demonstrated a practical approach to land application and restoration.

D.H. Marx, C. R. Berry, and P. P. Kormanik

1995-09-30

2

Simulation of substrate degradation in composting of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

To simulate the substrate degradation kinetics of the composting process, this paper develops a mathematical model with a first-order reaction assumption and heat/mass balance equations. A pilot-scale composting test with a mixture of sewage sludge and wheat straw was conducted in an insulated reactor. The BVS (biodegradable volatile solids) degradation process, matrix mass, MC (moisture content), DM (dry matter) and VS (volatile solid) were simulated numerically by the model and experimental data. The numerical simulation offered a method for simulating k (the first-order rate constant) and estimating k{sub 20} (the first-order rate constant at 20 {sup o}C). After comparison with experimental values, the relative error of the simulation value of the mass of the compost at maturity was 0.22%, MC 2.9%, DM 4.9% and VS 5.2%, which mean that the simulation is a good fit. The k of sewage sludge was simulated, and k{sub 20}, k{sub 20s} (first-order rate coefficient of slow fraction of BVS at 20 {sup o}C) of the sewage sludge were estimated as 0.082 and 0.015 d{sup -1}, respectively.

Zhang Jun [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Gao Ding, E-mail: gaod@igsnrr.ac.c [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Chen Tongbin; Zheng Guodi; Chen Jun; Ma Chuang; Guo Songlin [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Du Wei [Beijing GreenTech Environmental Engineering Company, Beijing 100080 (China)

2010-10-15

3

Enhancement of pentachlorophenol degradation in soil through induced anaerobiosis and bioaugmentation with anaerobic sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of biologically active anaerobic sewage sludge, previously shown to dechlorinate chlorophenols, to soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) resulted in greatly enhanced rates of PCP degradation. The sludge was added to a soil at a rate of 5 g kg⁻¹ (dry weight basis) and the mixture incubated anaerobically. Initial PCP concentrations of 10-30 mg kg⁻¹ (ppm) were completely degraded

Mark D. Mikesell; Stephen A. Boyd

1988-01-01

4

Anaerobic degradation of brominated flame retardants in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) are high production volume chemicals used as flame retardants in plastics for products such as electronic equipment, insulation panels, and textiles. The environmental safety of brominated flame retardants, especially their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity is a controversial topic. Here, we studied and compared the degradation of TBBPA, HBCD, and DecaBDE under

Andreas C. Gerecke; Walter Giger; Paul C. Hartmann; Norbert V. Heeb; Hans-Peter E. Kohler; Peter Schmid; Markus Zennegg; Martin Kohler

2006-01-01

5

Improving the growth of Rubrivivax gelatinosus cultivated in sewage environment.  

PubMed

Rubrivivax gelatinosus cultivated in wastewater environment can combine the biomass resource recycling for generating chemicals with sewage purification. However, low biomass accumulation restricts the exertion of this advantage. Thus, this paper investigated Fe(3+) advancement for biomass production in starch wastewater under light-anaerobic condition. Results showed that addition of Fe(3+) was successful in enhancing biomass production, which certainly improved the feasibility of biomass recycling in R. gelatinosus starch wastewater treatment. With optimal Fe(3+) dosage (20mg/L), biomass production reached 4,060mg/L, which was 1.63 times that of control group. Amylase activity was improved by 48%. Both COD removal and starch removal reached 90%. Hydraulic retention time was shortened by 25%. Proper Fe(3+) dosage enhanced biomass production, but excess Fe(3+) was harmful for biomass accumulation. PMID:25060412

Wu, Pan; Li, Jian-Zheng; Wang, Yan-Ling; Tong, Qing-Yue; Liu, Xian-Shu; Du, Cong; Li, Ning

2015-01-01

6

Enhancement of pentachlorophenol degradation in soil through induced anaerobiosis and bioaugmentation with anaerobic sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

The addition of biologically active anaerobic sewage sludge, previously shown to dechlorinate chlorophenols, to soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) resulted in greatly enhanced rates of PCP degradation. The sludge was added to a soil at a rate of 5 g kg/sup -1/ (dry weight basis) and the mixture incubated anaerobically. Initial PCP concentrations of 10-30 mg kg/sup -1/ (ppm) were completely degraded within 28-35 days. In anaerobic soil without sludge or aerobic soil with or without sludge, PCP persisted, 55% and 90%, respectively, remaining after 56 days. Higher rates of sludge addition gave small differences in PCP degradation. PCP was degraded by sequential dechlorination, and the products of PCP degradation in soil-sludge mixtures were the same as observed in sludge alone. The sequence of products was PCP ..-->.. 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol ..-->.. 3,4,5-trichlorophenol ..-->.. 3,5-dichlorophenol ..-->.. 3-chlorophenol; 3,4-dichlorophenol was also observed. These results clearly demonstrate that the dechlorinating activity present in sludge could be transferred to soil through bioaugmentation.

Mikesell, M.D.; Boyd, S.A.

1988-12-01

7

Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation  

E-print Network

; Methanobacteriales; naphthalene; PAH; sewage sludge; thermodynamic Introduction In Europe, treatment of wastewater for treatment in EU, followed by spreading on land, which accounted for 37% of the sewage sludge produced will diminish the use of artificial fertilizer. Sewage sludge is usually treated in wastewater treatment plants

8

Anaerobic degradation of amino acids generated from the hydrolysis of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The anaerobic degradation of each amino acid that could be generated through the hydrolysis of sewage sludge was evaluated. Stickland reaction as an intermediate reaction between two kinds of amino acids was restricted in order to evaluate each amino acid. Changes in the chemical oxygen demand (COD), T-N, NH4(+)-N, biogas, and CH4 were analysed for the anaerobic digestion process. The initial nitrogen concentration of all amino acids is adjusted as 1000 mg/L. The degradation rate of the amino acids was determined based on the ammonia form of nitrogen, which is generated by the deamination of amino acids. Among all amino acids, such as alpha-alanine, beta-alanine, lysine, arginine, glycine, histidine, cysteine, methionine, and leucine, deamination rates of cysteine, leucine, and methionine were just 61.55%, 54.59%, and 46.61%, respectively, and they had low removal rates of organic matter and showed very low methane production rates of 13.55, 71.04, and 80.77 mL CH4/g CODin, respectively. Especially for cysteine, the methane content was maintained at approximately 7% during the experiment. If wastewater contains high levels of cysteine, leucine, and methionine and Stickland reaction is not prepared, these amino acids may reduce the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion. PMID:24701908

Park, Junghoon; Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

2014-01-01

9

Degradability of creatinine under sewer conditions affects its potential to be used as biomarker in sewage epidemiology.  

PubMed

Creatinine was proposed to be used as a population normalising factor in sewage epidemiology but its stability in the sewer system has not been assessed. This study thus aimed to evaluate the fate of creatinine under different sewer conditions using laboratory sewer reactors. The results showed that while creatinine was stable in wastewater only, it degraded quickly in reactors with the presence of sewer biofilms. The degradation followed first order kinetics with significantly higher rate in rising main condition than in gravity sewer condition. Additionally, daily loads of creatinine were determined in wastewater samples collected on Census day from 10 wastewater treatment plants around Australia. The measured loads of creatinine from those samples were much lower than expected and did not correlate with the populations across the sampled treatment plants. The results suggested that creatinine may not be a suitable biomarker for population normalisation purpose in sewage epidemiology, especially in sewer catchment with high percentage of rising mains. PMID:24631876

Thai, Phong K; O'Brien, Jake; Jiang, Guangming; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen F

2014-05-15

10

Sewage sludge effects on soil and plant quality in a degraded, semiarid grassland. [Bouteloua gracilis; Hilaria jamesii; Sitanion hystrix (Nutt. )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major problem affecting grassland productivity in the semiarid southwestern USA is the low quantity of soil organic matter and plant-available N. In this study, dried, anaerobically digested sewage sludge was applied at three rates (22.5, 45, and 90 Mg Ha⁻¹) to a degraded semiarid grassland site to determine the effects of sludge on soil chemical and heavy metal properties,

P. R. Fresquez; R. E. Francis; G. L. Dennis

2009-01-01

11

Re-inoculation strategies enhance the degradation of emerging pollutants in fungal bioaugmentation of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The use of Trametes versicolor has been partially successful in the removal of some pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge in laboratory-scale biopile systems. The application of two strategies for the re-inoculation of biomass was assessed during the fungal bioaugmentation of non-sterile sludge (42-d treatment) as an approach to improve the elimination of pharmaceuticals and other groups of emerging pollutants. Globally, the re-inoculation of biopiles with blended mycelium exerted a major effect on the removal of pharmaceuticals (86%), brominated-flame-retardants (81%) and UV filters (80%) with respect to the re-inoculation with additional lignocellulosic substrate colonized by the fungus (69-67-22%). The performance was better than that of the analogous non-re-inoculated systems that were assayed previously for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The results demonstrate the ability of T. versicolor to remove a wide spectrum of emerging micropollutants under non-sterile conditions, while re-inoculation appears to be a useful step to improve the fungal treatment of sludge. PMID:24582425

Rodrguez-Rodrguez, Carlos E; Lucas, Daniel; Barn, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Rodrguez-Mozaz, Sara; Eljarrat, Ethel; Daz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barcel, Dami; Caminal, Glria; Vicent, Teresa

2014-09-01

12

COMPARISON OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM LABORATORY AND FULL-SCALE THERMAL DEGRADATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of sewage sludge burned at one fluidized-bed and three multiple-hearth incinerators were subjected to laboratory flow reactor thermal decomposition testing under both pyrolytic and oxidative atmospheres. he laboratory test results indicated that biomass decomposition prod...

13

Degradation of polyethoxylated nonylphenols in a sewage treatment plant. Quantitative analysis by isotopic dilution-HRGC/MS.  

PubMed

Polyethoxylated alkylphenols (APnEO, where n is the number of ethylene oxide molecules), are non-ionic surfactants widely used for domestic and industrial purposes. Most of APnEO are polyethoxylated nonylphenols (NPnEO). NPnEO are widespread environmental pollutants with relatively low toxicity for mammals and higher toxicity for aquatic organisms. In addition, they have been described as endocrine disrupters in recent publications. One of the main problems related to these surfactants is their uncomplete degradation, even in the most effective sewage treatment plants. Usually, the final products, more toxic and resistant to biological degradation than NPnEO, are nonylphenol (NP), monoethoxylated nonylphenol (NP1EO), diethoxylated nonylphenol (NP2EO), nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP1EC), and nonylphenoxyethoxy acetic acid (NP2EC). In this paper, the degradation of NPnEO was studied in the different processes of a sewage treatment plant. For this purpose, NP, NP1EO and NP2EO were analysed in composite samples collected at different points along the plant (influent, pre-treatment effluent, primary effluent, plant effluent). Analyses were carried out by isotopic dilution-HRGC/MS, using available labelled nonylphenols (13C6-NP, 13C6-NP1EO, 13C6-NP2EO) as internal standards. Extraction of NPnEO from aqueous samples, previous to analysis, was performed by the Likens-Nickerson method (simultaneous steam distillation/solvent extraction, SDE). PMID:11848370

Planas, C; Guadayol, J M; Droguet, M; Escalas, A; Rivera, J; Caixach, J

2002-02-01

14

Effect of sulfur-containing compounds on anaerobic degradation of cellulose to methane by mixed cultures obtained from sewage sludge.  

PubMed Central

Tests were made to determine the effects of inorganic and organic sulfur sources on the degradation of cellulose to methane in a chemically defined medium with sulfur-poor inoculum prepared from sewage sludge. The results show that a sulfur source of about a 0.85 mM concentration is essential for the degradation of cellulose to CH4. However, the production of CH4 from CO2 and H2 provided in the headspace occurred with 0.1 mM sulfate or sulfide. At a 9 mM concentration, all inorganic sulfur compounds other than sulfate inhibited both cellulose degradation and methane formation, and this inhibition increased in the order thiosulfate less than sulfite less than sulfide less than H2S. It appears that the degradation of cellulose to CH4 in a sulfate-free medium by inoculum maintained in a low-sulfur medium is inhibited because of the lack of availability of sulfur for growth of bacteria and synthesis of cell materials and sulfur-containing cofactors involved in cellulose degradation and methanogenesis. The reduction of methanogenesis by higher levels of sulfate probably occurs as a result of stimulation of reactions converting acetate and H2 to end products other than CH4. PMID:677869

Khan, A W; Trottier, T M

1978-01-01

15

Recent land degradation and improvement in China.  

PubMed

Land degradation is a global development and environment issue that afflicts China more than most countries in terms of the extent, economic impact, and number of people affected. Up-to-date, quantitative information is needed to support policy and action for food and water security, economic development, and environmental integrity. Data for a defined, recent period enable us to distinguish the legacy of historical land degradation from what is happening now. We define land degradation as long-term decline in ecosystem function and productivity and measure it by remote sensing of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the greenness index. NDVI may be translated to net primary productivity (NPP). Deviation from the norm serves as a proxy assessment of land degradation and improvement-if other factors that may be responsible are taken into account. These other factors include climate, which may be assessed by rain-use efficiency and energy-use efficiency. Analysis of the 23-year Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) NDVI data reveals that, in China over the period 1981-2003, NPP increased overall, but areas of declining climate-adjusted NPP comprise 23% of the country, mainly in south China. About 35% of China's population (457 million out of 1317 million) depend on the degrading land. Degrading areas suffered a loss of NPP of 12 kgC ha(-1) y(-1), amounting to almost 60 million tC not fixed from the atmosphere; loss of soil organic carbon from these areas is likely to be orders of magnitude greater. There is no correlation between land degradation and dry lands; it is more of an issue in cropland and forest: 21% of degrading land is cropland and 40% is forest, 24% of the arable and 44% of the forest, respectively. There is no simple statistical relationship between land degradation and rural population density or poverty. Most identified land degradation is in the south and east, driven by unprecedented land-use change. PMID:19580032

Bai, Zhanguo; Dent, David

2009-05-01

16

Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation.  

PubMed

Due to the hydrophobic nature of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) they are mostly bound to the sludge and escape aerobic treatment in a wastewater treatment plant. They therefore proceed directly to the anaerobic post treatment, terminate in the sludge, and can be released to the environment if land spreading is used. PAH degradation in anaerobic methanogenic systems has only recently been shown to occur. In this study we have assessed several factors of anaerobic PAH degradation by evaluating thermodynamic feasibility of degradation, assessing degradation at different temperatures, and investigating the enriched cultures using fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). Thermodynamic calculations indicated that PAH degradation was possible under methanogenic conditions, in the presence of hydrogen utilizing methanogens. Removal of naphthalene and 1-methyl naphthalene depended both on temperature and the initial inoculum. Inocula sourced from contaminated land sites were the most effective. The enrichments were all a mixture of Bacteria, and Archaea, and the Archaea were generally identified as Methanobacteriales, using an order-specific probe. The bacteria were not specifically identified. The results indicate a syntrophic culture, with the bacteria oxidizing the naphthalene, and the Archaea converting the hydrogen produced by oxidation, to methane. PMID:15581018

Christensen, N; Batstone, D J; He, Z; Angelidaki, I; Schmidt, J E

2004-01-01

17

Anaerobic bioprocessing of sewage sludge, focusing on degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic degradation of sludge amended with linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) was tested in a one stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and a two stage reactor system consisting of a CSTR as first step and upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor as the second step. Anaerobic removal of LAS was only observed at the second step but not at the

I. Angelidaki; L. Torng; C. M. Waul; J. E. Schmidt

18

Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the hydrophobic nature of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) they are mostly bound to the sludge and escape aerobic treatment in a wastewater treatment plant. They therefore proceed directly to the anaerobic post treatment, terminate in the sludge, and can be released to the environment if land spreading is used. PAH degradation in anaerobic methanogenic systems has only recently

N. Christensen; D. J. Batstone; Z. He; I. Angelidaki; J. E. Schmidt

2004-01-01

19

Soil improvement with coal ash and sewage sludge: a field experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field experimental study was carried out successfully to improve the quality of the sandy soil by adding coal ash and sewage sludge. One ha of barren sandy soil field was chosen for the experiment in Shanghe County, Shandong Province, China. For soil amelioration and tree planting, two formulas of the mixture:coal ash, sewage sludge and soil, in ratios of 20:10:70 and 20:20:60, respectively, were used. Poplar trees were planted in pits filled with soils with additives (mixture of ash and sludge) as well as in the original sandy soil. In the 19th months after the trees were planted, the soils with additives were sampled and analyzed. The results show that the barren sandy soil was greatly improved after mixing with coal ash and sludge. The improved soils have remarkably higher nutrient concentrations, better texture, smaller bulk density, higher porosity and mass moisture content, and higher content of fine-grained minerals. During the first 22 months after planting, the annual increase in height of the trees grown in the soil with additives (4.78 m per year) was 55% higher than that of the control group (3.07 m per year), and the annual increase in diameter at the breast height (1.3 m) was 33 % higher (43.03 vs. 32.36 mm). Trees planted in soils with additives appeared healthier and shed leaves later than those in the control group. As the volume of the additives (30-40% in both formulas) is less than that of the sandy soil in and around the tree pits, it appears that the use of coal ash and sludge for tree planting and soil amelioration is environmentally safe even though the additives have relatively high heavy metal concentrations.

Shen, Junfeng; Zhou, Xuewu; Sun, Daisheng; Fang, Jianguo; Liu, Zhijun; Li, Zhongmin

2008-02-01

20

Improved volatile fatty acids production from proteins of sewage sludge with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) under anaerobic condition.  

PubMed

Organic matters in sewage sludge can be converted into volatile fatty acids (VFAs) as renewable carbon sources. This work for the first time applied anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) for enhancing VFA production from sewage sludge. With 0.066 or 0.33 g AQDS g(-1) dried solids (DS), the yields for VFAs peak at 403 or 563 mg l(-1), 1.9- or 2.7-fold to the control. The accumulated VFAs were principally composed of acetate and propionate. The AQDS enhances degradation rates of model proteins (bovine serum albumin), but had little enhancement on that of model polysaccharides (dextrans). The acidification step is proposed the rate-limiting step for VFA production from sewage sludge, in which the AQDS molecules shuttle electrons to accelerate the redox reactions associated with amino acid degradation. Methanogenic activities are inhibited in the presence of AQDS. The AQDS-assisted VFAs are renewable organic carbon sources, although their direct use for anaerobic digestion is not advised. PMID:22047658

Yang, Xue; Du, Maoan; Lee, Duu-Jong; Wan, Chunli; Zheng, Lina; Wan, Fang

2012-01-01

21

Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination  

SciTech Connect

As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.

Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

2011-02-01

22

Improved degradation resistance of (AlGa)As lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simultaneous doping with Ge and Zn improves degradation resistance of short-wavelength (AlGa)As lasers. Method opens up prospects for greatly increased reliability in lasers and LED's operating at 7,500 angstroms or below.

Kressel, H.; Ladany, J.

1980-01-01

23

Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10-40mm) of pre-composted materials - sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25MJkg(-1) of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest - evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning, comparison analysis with widely used bio-fuel-sawdust and conclusions made are presented. PMID:25481696

Kliopova, Irina; Makarskien?, Kristina

2015-02-01

24

Bioflocculation of microalgae and bacteria combined with flue gas to improve sewage treatment.  

PubMed

Although microalgae are promising for a cradle-to-cradle design approach of sewage treatment, their application is hampered by high harvesting costs and low C:N ratios of sewage. Therefore, the potential of microalgal bacterial flocs (MaB-flocs) was investigated for the secondary treatment of sewage supplemented with different flue gas flow rates (FGFRs) from a coal power plant. Effluent (N, P, turbidity and pH) and off gas discharge levels (NO(x), SO(x)) met the European discharge limits with a hydraulic retention time of only 0.67 days and an FGFR of 0.6Lh(-1) (0.0025 vvm). This FGFR provided sufficient carbon and resulted in removal efficiencies of 48 7% CO(2), 87 5% NO(x) and 99 1% SO(2). MaB-flocs settled fast reaching up to a density of 19 g VSSL(-1). High biomass productivities (0.18 gL(-1)day(-1)) were obtained under a low light intensity. This successful reactor performance indicates the large potential for the industrial application of MaB-flocs for flue gas sparged sewage treatment. PMID:21565287

Van Den Hende, Sofie; Vervaeren, Han; Desmet, Sem; Boon, Nico

2011-12-15

25

Use of Municipal Sewage Sludge for Improvement of Forest Sites in the Southeast  

SciTech Connect

In eight field experiments dried municipal sewage sludge was applied to forest sites before planting of seedlings. In all cases, tree growth was faster on sludge-amended plots than on plots that received fertilizer and lime or no amendment. In all studies, concentrations of total nitrogen in the soil were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots, even on good forest sites. In seven of the eight studies, concentrations of phosphorus also were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots. Nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be higher in foliage from trees growing on sludge plots. Deep subsoiling was beneficial regardless of soil amendment. Where weeds were plentiful at the outset, they became serious competitors on plots receiving sludge.

Charles R. Berry

1987-09-01

26

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

1984-01-01

27

Short-term tests with a pilot sewage plant and biofilm reactors for the biological degradation of the pharmaceutical compounds clofibric acid, ibuprofen, and diclofenac  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradation of three active compounds of pharmaceuticals clofibric acid, ibuprofen, and diclofenac was investigated in short-term tests with a pilot sewage plant (PSP) and biofilm reactors (BFR, oxic and anoxic) as model systems for municipal sewage treatment. The PSP was characterized with respect to mixing behavior, the BFR with respect to biofilm content and sorption of the pharmaceutical compounds.

C. Zwiener; F. H. Frimmel

2003-01-01

28

Purification and Characterization of a Dimethoate-Degrading Enzyme of Aspergillus niger ZHY256, Isolated from Sewage  

PubMed Central

A dimethoate-degrading enzyme from Aspergillus niger ZHY256 was purified to homogeneity with a specific activity of 227.6 U/mg of protein. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 66 kDa by gel filtration and 67 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point was found to be 5.4, and the enzyme activity was optimal at 50C and pH 7.0. The activity was inhibited by most of the metal ions and reagents, while it was induced by Cu2+. The Michaelis constant (Km) and Vmax for dimethoate were 1.25 mM and 292 ?mol min?1 mg of protein?1, respectively. PMID:11472959

Liu, Yu-Huan; Chung, Ying-Cheng; Xiong, Ya

2001-01-01

29

Improvement in the degradation resistance of LDPE for radiochemical processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of rosemary extract on radiochemical stability of low density polyethylene was studied by chemiluminescence, FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry after ?(137Cs)-irradiation at processing low doses (10 and 20 kGy) in respect of pristine material. The additive concentrations (1, 2 and 5 wt%) induced a significant improvement in radiation stability, especially at high temperatures, for example 200 C, which is proved chiefly by lower values of chemiluminescence intensities. The comparison of neat and rosemary-modified LDPE samples has revealed the protection action of this natural extract, which delays efficiently the propagation of oxidative degradation in ?-exposed polyethylene. The most evident proof for antioxidative protection efficiency promoted by rosemary is the smooth changes in hydroxyl and carbonyl indexes calculated on LDPE/5 wt% rosemary samples at all exposure doses.

Zaharescu, Traian; Ple?a, Ilona; Jipa, Silviu

2014-01-01

30

Conditioning of sewage sludge with electrolysis: effectiveness and optimizing study to improve dewaterability.  

PubMed

The potential benefits of electrolysis-conditioned sludge dewatering treatment were investigated in this paper. Focuses were placed on effectiveness and factors affecting such novel application of electrolysis process. Experiments have demonstrated that a significant improvement of sludge dewaterability evaluated by capillary suction time (CST) could be obtained at a relative low value of electrolysis voltage. A Box-Behnken experimental design based on the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the optimum of the influencing variables. The optimal values for electrolysis voltage, electrode distance and electrolysis time are 21 V, 5 cm and 12 min, respectively, at which the CST reduction efficiency of 18.8+/-3.1% could be achieved, this agreed with that predicted by an established polynomial model in this study. PMID:20153168

Yuan, Haiping; Zhu, Nanwen; Song, Lijie

2010-06-01

31

Amendments and mulches improve the biological quality of soils degraded by mining activities in SE Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining and quarrying activities generate negative visual impacts in the landscape and a loss of environmental quality. Substrate properties at the end of mining are in general not suitable for plant growth, even native ones. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gdor (Almera), SE Spain, the effect of organic amendment (sewage sludge, compost from the organic fraction of domestic waste or non-amendment) combined or not with two different kind of mulches (fine gravel, chopped forest residue) was tested by triplicate in 5 x 5 m plots with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot 75 native plants (Stipa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. Effects of adding organic amendments and mulches on some soil microbiological and biochemical parameters (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration and different enzymatic activities, such as dehydrogenase, phosphatase, ?-glucosidase and urease) were analyzed 5 years after the start of the experiment. Vegetation growth was also monitored. The two-way ANOVA, using as factors amendment and mulch, showed a significant positive influence of organic amendments on microbial biomass (Cmic), basal respiration and some enzymatic activities related to the cycles of C and N. The highest values of these parameters were obtained with compost. The influence of the mulch factor and its interactions with the amendment factor on the measured variables did not follow a clear trend with respect the measured parameters. Mulching did not improved significantly (p<0.05) the positive effect of organic amendments on Cmic although Cmic values increased with the incorporation of "forest chopped residue" and decreased with gravel incorporation. In general, both type of mulch decreased or have no effect on the microbial activity detected in the amended soils, with the only exception of the forest chopped residue, which increased phosphatase activity in the compost amended soil. Plant growth was significantly higher in amended soils than in the control, but it is remarkable that the mulch type "forest chopped residue" had a negative effect on vegetation growth. The addition of organic amendments, especially compost from the organic fraction of domestic wastes, is beneficial to restore degraded or man-made soils from quarrying areas because they stimulate microbial growth and activity, resulting in mineralization of nutrients necessary for plants and increasing soil fertility and quality. However, after 5 years the effects of the mulch "forest chopped residue", on the improvement of soil or substrate quality are not clear.

Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Hernndez Fernndez, Mara Teresa; Garca Izquierdo, Carlos; Sol Benet, Albert

2014-05-01

32

Genome Shuffling Improves Degradation of the Anthropogenic Pesticide Pentachlorophenol by Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ATCC 39723  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a highly toxic anthropogenic pesticide, can be mineralized by Sphingobium chlorophenolicum, a gram-negative bacterium isolated from PCP-contaminated soil. However, degradation of PCP is slow and S. chlorophenolicum cannot tolerate high levels of PCP. We have used genome shuffling to improve the degradation of PCP by S. chlorophenolicum. We have obtained several strains that degrade PCP faster and tolerate

MingHua Dai; Shelley D. Copley

2004-01-01

33

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

1991-01-01

34

An improved infectivity assay combining cell culture with real-time PCR for rapid quantification of human adenoviruses 41 and semi-quantification of human adenovirus in sewage.  

PubMed

A protocol for the rapid detection and semi-quantification of human enteric adenovirus based on the quantification of viral mRNA during cell culture infectivity assay was developed. Infectivity assays for adenovirus incorporated cell culture and reverse transcription real-time PCR, where viral mRNA detection was used to monitor the progress of adenovirus infection (CC/mRNA qPCR). The cell line used was G293. This specific infectivity assay was calibrated against different initial concentrations of human adenovirus 41. In addition, the expression of the host's housekeeping (HK) gene, GAPDH, served as internal control for the mRNA assays for quality assurance of the mRNA extraction and reverse transcription steps. The concentrations of infectious human adenoviruses in different sewage samples were estimated semi-quantitatively using the CC/mRNA qPCR assay and calibration obtained for adenovirus 41. A linear relationship between concentrations of viral mRNA (hexon gene) and infectious units was observed between 10(7) to 10(1) infectious units per assay (R(2) = 0.97) in samples analyzed 3-5 days post infection. The expressions of host cell GAPDH gene were not significantly affected by infections with different concentrations of human adenovirus 41, and between virus positive and negative cell cultures (p > 0.1). The estimated concentrations of human adenoviruses in sewage samples ranged between 10(2) to 10(3) mRNA-IU/L. Most of the viruses detected in sewage samples were from human adenovirus species F. The CC/mRNA qPCR assay can be used for quantifying infectious human adenovirus 41, estimating the levels of human adenoviruses in sewage samples, and applied to other sample settings. The CC/mRNA qPCR protocol described here represents an improvement in the detection of human enteric adenoviruses by reducing incubation time (5 days); whereas the conventional cell culture method requires longer incubation periods (10-20 days). More importantly, this protocol can be used to more rapidly and semi-quantitatively estimate the levels of infectious human adenoviruses in environmental samples. PMID:23579085

Rodrguez, Roberto A; Polston, Patsy M; Wu, Ming Jing; Wu, Jianyong; Sobsey, Mark D

2013-06-01

35

Improving the mining soil quality for a vegetation cover after addition of sewage sludges: Inorganic ions and low-molecular-weight organic acids in the soil solution.  

PubMed

We assessed the effects of applying stabilized sewage sludge (SSL) and composted sewage sludge (CLV), at 5 and 10% to an acid mining soil. Limed soil (NCL) amended or not with SSL and CLV was incubated for 47 days. We studied the cations and organic and inorganic anions in the soil solution by means of ion chromatography. Liming led to big increases in Ca(2+) and SO4(2-) and to significant decreases in K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+) and NO3(-). Addition of both organic amendments increased some cations (NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Na(+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO3(-) only with CLV and PO4(3-) only with SSL) and provided a greater amount of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) (SSL more than CLV). Incubation led to decreases in all cations, particularly remarkable for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in SSL-10. A decrease in NH4(+) was associated with variations in NO2(-) and NO3(-) resulting from nitrification reactions. During incubation the LMWOAs content tended to decrease similarly to the cations, especially in SSL-10. Chemometric tools revealed a clear discrimination between SSL, CLV and NCL. Furthermore, treatment effects depended upon dose, mainly in SSL. Amendment nature and dose affect the quality of a mining soil and improve conditions for plant establishment. PMID:25506677

Pea, Arnzazu; Mingorance, M Dolores; Guzmn-Carrizosa, Ignacio; Fernndez-Espinosa, Antonio J

2015-03-01

36

Fungal degradation of lignocellulosic residues: An aspect of improved nutritive quality.  

PubMed

Abstract Microbial degradation of lignocellulosic materials brings a variety of changes in their bio-physicochemical properties. Lower digestibility of various agricultural residues can be enhanced by microbial treatment. White rot fungi are the potential candidates, which can improve the nutritional quality of lignocellulosic residues by degrading lignin and converting complex polysaccharides into simple sugars. Changes in physical qualities of lignocellulosics that is texture, colour and aroma have been an interesting area of study along with chemical properties. Degradation of lignocellulose not only upgrades the quality of degraded biomass, but helps simultaneous production of different commercial enzymes and other by products of interest. The review is focused on fungal degradation of lignocellulosics, resultant changes in physicochemical properties and nutritional value. PMID:23855359

Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Arora, Daljit Singh

2015-02-01

37

Remediation/Restoration of Degraded Soil to Improve Productivity In The Central Great Plains Region  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The quality and productivity of some farmlands in the central Great Plains Region (CGPR) have been lost through wind and water erosion induced by tillage and poor soil management. Productivity of degraded/eroded soils can be restored using organic amendments such as manure and improved crop and soil...

38

The potential of oxygen to improve the stability of anaerobic reactors during unbalanced conditions: results from a pilot-scale digester treating sewage sludge.  

PubMed

A well-functioning pilot reactor treating sewage sludge at approximately 4.4 NL/m(3)/d of oxygen supply and 18d of hydraulic retention time (HRT) was subjected to a hydraulic overload to investigate whether oxygen benefits successful operation in stressful circumstances. Only a mild imbalance was caused, which was overcome without deterioration in the digestion performance. Volatile solids (VS) removal was 45% and 43% at 18 and 14 d of HRT, respectively. Biogas productivity remained around 546 NmL/gVS, but it was slightly higher during the period of imbalance. Thereafter, similar performances were achieved. Under anaerobic conditions, VS removal and biogas productivity were respectively 41% and 525 NmL/gVS, hydrogen partial pressure rose, and acetic acid formation became less favourable. Oxygen seemed to form a more stable digestion system, which meant increased ability to deal successfully with overloads. Additionally, it improved the biogas quality; methane concentration was negligibly lower, while hydrogen sulphide and oxygen remained around 0.02 and 0.03%v/v, respectively. PMID:23672942

Ramos, I; Fdz-Polanco, M

2013-07-01

39

Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.  

PubMed

Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards. PMID:22425275

Ferreiro-Domnguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodrguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa

2012-05-01

40

Improved Learning and Memory in Aged Mice Deficient in Amyloid ?-Degrading Neutral Endopeptidase  

PubMed Central

Background Neutral endopeptidase, also known as neprilysin and abbreviated NEP, is considered to be one of the key enzymes in initial human amyloid-? (A?) degradation. The aim of our study was to explore the impact of NEP deficiency on the initial development of dementia-like symptoms in mice. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that while endogenous A? concentrations were elevated in the brains of NEP-knockout mice at all investigated age groups, immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies did not detect any A? deposits even in old NEP knockout mice. Surprisingly, tests of learning and memory revealed that the ability to learn was not reduced in old NEP-deficient mice but instead had significantly improved, and sustained learning and memory in the aged mice was congruent with improved long-term potentiation (LTP) in brain slices of the hippocampus and lateral amygdala. Our data suggests a beneficial effect of pharmacological inhibition of cerebral NEP on learning and memory in mice due to the accumulation of peptides other than A? degradable by NEP. By conducting degradation studies and peptide measurements in the brain of both genotypes, we identified two neuropeptide candidates, glucagon-like peptide 1 and galanin, as first potential candidates to be involved in the improved learning in aged NEP-deficient mice. Conclusions/Significance Thus, the existence of peptides targeted by NEP that improve learning and memory in older individuals may represent a promising avenue for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19240795

Walther, Thomas; Albrecht, Doris; Becker, Matthias; Schubert, Manja; Kouznetsova, Elena; Wiesner, Burkard; Maul, Bjrn; Schliebs, Reinhard; Grecksch, Gisela; Furkert, Jens; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Becker, Axel; Siems, Wolf-Eberhard

2009-01-01

41

Microbial Degradation of Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane  

PubMed Central

The microbial degradation of low-molecular-weight polydimethylsiloxanes was investigated through laboratory experiments. Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane was found to be biodegraded under anaerobic conditions in composted sewage sludge, as monitored by the occurrence of the main polydimethylsiloxane degradation product, dimethylsilanediol, compared to that found in experiments with sterilized control samples. PMID:10224038

Grmping, R.; Michalke, K.; Hirner, A. V.; Hensel, R.

1999-01-01

42

Lockport Sewage Lagoon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

Perry, John

1995-01-01

43

Improving the packing density of calcium phosphate coating on a magnesium alloy for enhanced degradation resistance.  

PubMed

In this study, an attempt was made to improve the packing density of calcium phosphate (CaP) coating on a magnesium alloy by tailoring the coating solution for enhanced degradation resistance of the alloy for implant applications. An organic solvent, ethanol, was added to the coating solution to decrease the conductivity of the coating solution so that hydrogen bubble formation/bursting reduces during the CaP coating process. Experimental results confirmed that ethanol addition to the coating solution reduces the conductivity of the solution and also decreases the hydrogen evolution/bubble bursting. In vitro electrochemical experiments, that is, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization showed that CaP coating produced in 30% (v/v) ethanol containing coating solution (3E) exhibits significantly higher degradation resistance (i.e., ~50% higher polarization resistance and ~60% lower corrosion current) than the aqueous solution coating. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the coatings revealed that the packing of 3E coating was denser than that of aqueous coating, which can be attributed to the lower hydrogen evolution in the former than in the latter. Further increase in the ethanol content in the coating solution was not beneficial; in fact, the coating produced in 70% (v/v) ethanol containing solution (7E) showed degradation resistance much inferior to that of the aqueous coating, which is due to low thickness of 7E coating. PMID:23008190

Kannan, M Bobby

2013-05-01

44

Eliminating methanogenic activity in hydrogen reactor to improve biogas production in a two-stage anaerobic digestion process co-digesting municipal food waste and sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory scale two-stage anaerobic digestion process model was operated for 280days to investigate the feasibility to produce both hydrogen and methane from a mixture feedstock (1:1 (v\\/v)) of municipal food waste and sewage sludge. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields obtained in the two stages were 0.93 and 9.5mL\\/mLfeedstock. To eliminate methanogenic activity and obtain substantial hydrogen production in the

Heguang Zhu; Wayne Parker; Daniela Conidi; Robert Basnar; Peter Seto

2011-01-01

45

Improving degradation resistance of sisal fiber in concrete through fiber surface treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an ongoing effort to improve the sustainability of reinforced concrete, recycled concrete aggregate is being considered together with natural fibers such as sisal fiber as replacement of synthetic reinforcement. Since natural fibers are known to undergo potential deterioration in the alkaline cement matrix especially in outdoor erosive environment, they need to be treated to improve their durability. This paper describes two such methods (thermal and Na2CO3 treatment) and evaluates their effects on the degradation resistance of sisal fiber and durability of sisal fiber-reinforced concrete with recycled concrete aggregate. Concrete specimens were subjected to cycles of wetting and drying to accelerate aging. The microstructure, tensile strength and Young's modulus of sisal fiber as well as the weight loss of the composite were evaluated. Of primary interest were the effects on compressive and splitting tensile strength of sisal fiber-reinforced concrete. Thermal treatment and Na2CO3 surface treatment were shown to improve the durability of the composite as measured by splitting tensile strength by 36.5% and 46.2% and the compressive strength by 31.1% and 45.4%, respectively. The mechanisms of these two treatment methods were also analyzed. The thermal treatment achieved improvement of cellulose's crystallization, which ensured the initial strength and improved durability of sisal fiber. A layer consisting of calcium carbonate sediments, which protects the internals of a fiber from the strong alkali solution formed in the cement hydration process, was formed and filled in pits and cavities on the Na2CO3 treated sisal fiber's surface to improve their corrosion resistance and durability and reduced the detrimental effects of Na+ ions on concrete.

Wei, Jianqiang; Meyer, Christian

2014-01-01

46

TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

47

Improved removal of estrogenic and pharmaceutical compounds in sewage effluent by full scale granular activated carbon: impact on receiving river water.  

PubMed

Sewage effluents are widely recognised as the main source of emerging contaminants, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals in surface waters. A full-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) plant has been installed as an advanced technology for the removal of these contaminants, in a major sewage treatment works (STW) in South-West England as part of the UK National Demonstration Programme for EDCs. This study presented for the first time, an assessment of the impact of a recently commissioned, post-tertiary GAC plant in the removal of emerging contaminants in a working STW. Through regular sampling followed by solid-phase extraction and analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), a significant reduction in the concentrations of steroidal estrogens was observed (>43-64%). In addition, significant reductions were observed for many of the pharmaceutical compounds such as mebeverine (84-99%), although the reduction was less dramatic for some of the more widely used pharmaceuticals analysed, including carbamazepine and propranolol (17-23%). PMID:21035257

Grover, D P; Zhou, J L; Frickers, P E; Readman, J W

2011-01-30

48

Influence of different bulking agents on the disappearance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during sewage sludge composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve properties of compost produced from sewage sludge, a wide range of additives is used. The aim of the present study has been to determine the influence of fly ash and sawdust on the range of losses of 16 PAHs (US EPA). Composting was carried out in containers in which there was sewage sludge (100%), sewage sludge

Patryk Oleszczuk

2006-01-01

49

Evaluation of sludge properties in a pilot-scale UASB reactor for sewage treatment in a temperate region.  

PubMed

In this study, continuous operation of a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for sewage treatment was conducted for 630 days to investigate the physical and microbial characteristics of the retained sludge. The UASB reactor with a working volume of 20.2 m(3) was operated at ambient temperature (16-29 C) and seeded with digested sludge. After 180 days of operation, when the sewage temperature had dropped to 20 C or lower, the removal efficiency of both total suspended solids (TSS) and total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) deteriorated due to washout of retained sludge. At low temperature, the cellulose concentration of the UASB sludge increased owing to the rate limitation of the hydrolytic reaction of suspended solids in the sewage. However, after an improvement in sludge retention (settleability and concentration) in the UASB reactor, the process performance stabilized and gave sufficient results (68% of TSS removal, 75% of total BOD removal) at an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9.7 h. The methanogenic activity of the retained sludge significantly increased after day 246 due to the accumulation of Methanosaeta and Methanobacterium following the improvement in sludge retention in the UASB reactor. Acid-forming bacteria from phylum Bacteroidetes were detected at high frequency; thus, these bacteria may have an important role in suspended solids degradation. PMID:22105115

Syutsubo, K; Yoochatchaval, W; Tsushima, I; Araki, N; Kubota, K; Onodera, T; Takahashi, M; Yamaguchi, T; Yoneyama, Y

2011-01-01

50

Sewage treatment method  

DOEpatents

The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

Fassbender, Alex G. (4407 Laurel Dr., West Richland, WA 99352)

1995-01-01

51

Antisense suppression of proline degradation improves tolerance to freezing and salinity in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis, degradation, and transport of proline (Pro) are thought to cooperatively control its endogenous levels in higher plants in response to environmental conditions. To evaluate the function of Pro degradation in the regulation of the levels of Pro and to elucidate roles of Pro in stress tolerance, we generated antisense transgenic Arabidopsis plants with an AtProDH cDNA encoding proline dehydrogenase

Tokihiko Nanjo; Masatomo Kobayashi; Yoshu Yoshiba; Yoshitaka Kakubari; Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki; Kazuo Shinozaki

1999-01-01

52

Elimination of COD, microorganisms and pharmaceuticals from sewage by trickling through sandy soil below leaking sewers.  

PubMed

To simulate the filtration and/or degradation of trickling sewage from leaky sewers through the non-water-saturated underground, sewage was trickled through sand of 0.4-2mm from the Rhine valley in glass columns of 125 cm length. For the same sewage the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was almost independent of low or high trickling rates. The COD removal efficiency varied, however, from 67% to 79%, for sewage from rain and dry weather periods, respectively. The water content of the moist sand increased from initially 80 ml kg(-1) with increasing sewage trickling rates to 108 ml kg(-1) sand. It remained at 108 ml kg(-1) at higher trickling rates higher than 600 ml d(-1). Analyses of effluent of five consecutive 25-cm soil columns revealed that about 50% of the initial COD were filtrated off on top of the sand or degraded in the uppermost 25 cm at varying trickling rates. Another 6-12% of the COD were removed in the following 25-50 cm of sand, whereas almost no further COD removal was seen in the subsequent two or three 25-cm columns. The COD elimination during trickling of sewage through the segmented column (interrupted random flow) was slightly better than that in the non-segmented column. Total and faecal coliform bacteria decreased faster with increasing trickling depth than that of total aerobic or anaerobic bacteria. After a filter/degradation stretch of 125 cm elimination of all bacteria reached 96.2-99.9%. The sewage contained low concentrations of at least 10 different pharmaceuticals or X-ray media. During trickling of sewage through sand, elimination of these compounds by adsorption onto sand and/or biodegradation varied from a complete removal, e.g. Ibuprofen or Naproxen, to almost no removal for several X-ray contrast media. Some of the medicals were removed as effectively as during conventional sewage treatment. PMID:14511710

Hua, Jianmin; An, Pinglin; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

2003-11-01

53

Batchwise mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of secondary sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Residues from forest-industry wastewater-treatment systems are treated as waste at many pulp and paper mills. These organic substances have previously been shown to have potential for production of large quantities of biogas. There is concern, however, that the process would require expensive equipment because of the slow degradation of these substances. Pure non-fibrous sludge from forest industry showed lower specific methane production during mesophilic digestion for 19days, 5326 Nml/g of volatile solids as compared to municipal sewage sludge, 8424 Nml/g of volatile solids. This paper explores the possibility of using anaerobic co-digestion with municipal sewage sludge to enhance the potential of methane production from secondary sludge from a pulp and paper mill. It was seen in a batch anaerobic-digestion operation of 19 days that the specific methane production remained largely the same for municipal sewage sludge when up to 50% of the volatile solids were replaced with forest-industry secondary sludge. It was also shown that the solid residue from anaerobic digestion of the forest-industry sludge should be of suitable quality to use for improving soil quality on lands that are not used for food production. PMID:23294534

Hagelqvist, Alina

2013-04-01

54

Improving lignocellulose degradation using xylanase-cellulase fusion protein with a glycine-serine linker.  

PubMed

The fungal hydrolytic system efficiently degrades lignocellulosics efficiently. We previously characterized two hydrolytic enzymes from Gloeophyllum trabeum, namely, endoglucanase (Cel5B) and xylanase (Xyl10g). To enhance lignocellulosic degradation, we designed a fusion protein (Xyl10g GS Cel5B) using a glycine-serine (GS) linker and expressed it in Pichia pastoris GS115, which produced a hydrolytic fusion enzyme for the degradation of lignocellulosics. Purified Xyl10g GS Cel5B protein has a molecular weight of approximately 97kDa and shows a lower specific activity than Xyl10g or Cel5B. However, Xyl10g GS Cel5B can degrade popping-pretreated rice straw, corn stover, kenaf, and oak more efficiently than the mixture of Xyl10g and Cel5B, by about 1.41-, 1.37-, 1.32-, and 1.40-fold, respectively. Our results suggest that Xyl10g GS Cel5B is an efficient hydrolytic enzyme and a suitable candidate for degrading lignocellulosics to produce fermentable sugar. PMID:25478962

Kim, Ho Myeong; Jung, Sera; Lee, Kwang Ho; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

2015-02-01

55

Improvement of whole crop rice silage nutritive value and rumen degradability by molasses and urea supplementation.  

PubMed

Whole crop rice was harvested 120days after planting and chopped to 2-3-cm length for silage making. The whole crop rice silage (WCRS) was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 6??5 factorial arrangement, in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplementation at M0, M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5%, and the second was urea (U) supplementation at U0, U0.5, U1.0, U1.5, and U2.0% of the crop dry mater (DM), respectively. After 45days of ensiling, temperature, pH, chemical composition, and fermentation end products of the silages were measured. Ten U and M treatment combinations of WCRS were subsequently selected to study rumen degradability by nylon bag technique. The results showed that temperature and pH of the silages linearly increased with U supplementation level, while total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), acetic acid (C2) and propionic acid (C3) decreased. In contrast, increasing level of M supplementation decreased WCRS temperature and pH, whereas TVFA, C2, and C3 concentrations increased dramatically. Both M and U supplementation increased concentration of butyric acid (C4). Dry matter, organic matter (OM), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the silages were not influenced by either M or U supplementation. Increasing U supplementation increased crude protein (CP) content, while M level did not show any effect. Furthermore, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content in silage was decreased by both M and U supplementation. The results of the in situ study showed that M and U supplementation increased both ruminal DM and OM degradation. The water-soluble fraction (a) was the highest in WCRS U1.5M3 and lowest in U0M0. Increasing M and U supplementation levels increased the potentially degradable fraction (b) of both DM and OM. Total rumen degradable fraction (a?+?b) was highest in WCRS U1.5M3, whereas OM degradability was highest in U0M3. However, effective degradation of both DM and OM were the highest in WCRS U1.5M3 and the lowest in U0M0. We conclude that supplementation of U and M increases WCRS quality and rumen degradability. Supplementation of U at 1.5 and M at 3-4% of the crop DM is recommended for lactating dairy cows and fattening beef cattle. PMID:23771776

Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote

2013-11-01

56

No-tillage Improvement of Soil Physical Quality in Calcareous, Degradation-prone, Semiarid Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many soils in the semiarid Mediterranean Ebro Valley of Spain are prone to physical and chemical degradation due to their silty texture, low organic matter contents, and presence of carbonates, gypsum, and other soluble salts. Rainfed agriculture on these soils is also hindered by the scarcity of wa...

57

Starch degradation and nutrition value improvement in corn grits by solid state fermentation technique with Coriolus versicolor  

PubMed Central

The study was conducted to evaluate effect of Coriolus versicolor mycelia on degrading starch and improving nutrition value in corn grits through solid state fermentation technique. The results showed that using soybean meal as a nitrogen source, ?-amylase secreted from C. versicolor expressed 407.25U/g of activity, leading to 45.15% of starch degraded. The activity grew with fermentation time until the 15th day, after that the amylase was deactivated rapidly. An orthogonal experiment designed for the study illustrated that degradation rate of starch in corn grits attained to maximum, 50.51%, when 100g of corn grits, added 16g of soybean meal, were fermented by C. versicolor for 12 days, in an initial pH 5.5. After fermenting, compared to the nonfermented control, contents of amino acids, total sugar, crude fat and crude protein were increased by 21.00%, 38.45%, 55.56%, 69.15% respectively. The significant improvement of nutrition value in corn grits is probably attributed to the intense metabolism of C. versicolor. PMID:24031762

Huang, Mian; Zhang, Song

2011-01-01

58

The effectiveness of sewage treatment processes to remove faecal pathogens and antibiotic residues  

PubMed Central

Pathogens and antibiotics enter the aquatic environment via sewage effluents and may pose a health risk to wild life and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of faecal bacteria, and selected antibiotic residues in raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sewage treatment plant 1 and 2 use older technologies, while sewage treatment plant 3 has been upgraded and membrane technologies were incorporated in the treatment processes. Coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were used as bioindicators for faecal bacteria. A chromogenic test was used to screen for coliforms and E. coli. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole are commonly used antibiotics and were selected to monitor the efficiency of sewage treatment processes for antibiotic removal. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were used to quantitate antibiotic residues in raw and treated sewage. Raw intake water at all treatment plants contained total coliforms and E. coli. High removal of E. coli by treatment processes was evident for treatment plant 2 and 3 only. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole were detected in raw wastewater from all sewage treatment plants. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the fluoroquinolone concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced the fluoroquinolone concentration by 21% and 31%, respectively. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the sulfamethoxazole concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced sulfamethoxazole by 34% and 56%, respectively. This study showed that bacteria and antibiotic residues are still discharged into the environment. Further research needs to be undertaken to improve sewage treatment technologies, thereby producing a better quality treated sewage effluent. PMID:22242882

Hendricks, Rahzia; Pool, Edmund John

2012-01-01

59

The effectiveness of sewage treatment processes to remove faecal pathogens and antibiotic residues.  

PubMed

Pathogens and antibiotics enter the aquatic environment via sewage effluents and may pose a health risk to wild life and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of faecal bacteria, and selected antibiotic residues in raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sewage treatment plant 1 and 2 use older technologies, while sewage treatment plant 3 has been upgraded and membrane technologies were incorporated in the treatment processes. Coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were used as bioindicators for faecal bacteria. A chromogenic test was used to screen for coliforms and E. coli. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole are commonly used antibiotics and were selected to monitor the efficiency of sewage treatment processes for antibiotic removal. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were used to quantitate antibiotic residues in raw and treated sewage. Raw intake water at all treatment plants contained total coliforms and E. coli. High removal of E. coli by treatment processes was evident for treatment plant 2 and 3 only. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole were detected in raw wastewater from all sewage treatment plants. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the fluoroquinolone concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced the fluoroquinolone concentration by 21% and 31%, respectively. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the sulfamethoxazole concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced sulfamethoxazole by 34% and 56%, respectively. This study showed that bacteria and antibiotic residues are still discharged into the environment. Further research needs to be undertaken to improve sewage treatment technologies, thereby producing a better quality treated sewage effluent. PMID:22242882

Hendricks, Rahzia; Pool, Edmund John

2012-01-01

60

1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

61

Complete survey of German sewage sludge ash.  

PubMed

The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers. PMID:25265150

Krger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

2014-10-21

62

Degradation pathways of low-ethoxylated nonylphenols by isolated bacteria using an improved method.  

PubMed

Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) with low ethoxylation degree (NPav?EO; containing two ethoxy units on average) and estrogenic properties are the intermediate products of nonionic surfactant NPEOs. To better understand the environmental fate of low-ethoxylated NPEOs, phylogenetically diverse low-ethoxylated NPEO-degrading bacteria were isolated from activated sludge using gellan gum as the gelling reagent. Four isolates belonging to four genera, i.e., Pseudomonas sp. NP522b in ?-Proteobacteria, Variovorax sp. NP427b and Ralstonia sp. NP47a in ?-Proteobacteria, and Sphingomonas sp. NP42a in ?-Proteobacteria were acquired. Ralstonia sp. NP47a or Sphingomonas sp. NP42a, have not been reported for the degradation of low-ethoxylated NPEOs previously. The biotransformation pathways of these isolates were investigated. The first three strains (NP522b, NP427b, and NP47a) exhibited high NPav?EO oxidation ability by oxidizing the polyethoxy (EO) chain to form low-ethoxylated nonylphenoxy carboxylates, and then further oxidizing the alkyl chain to form carboxyalkylphenol polyethoxycarboxylates. Furthermore, Sphingomonas sp. NP42a degraded NPav2EO through a nonoxidative pathway with nonylphenol monoethoxylate as the dominant product. PMID:23943000

Zhang, Yu; Gu, Xin; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Min

2014-08-01

63

Conditioning of sewage sludge by Fenton's reagent combined with skeleton builders.  

PubMed

Physical conditioners, often known as skeleton builders, are commonly used to improve the dewaterability of sewage sludge. This study evaluated a novel joint usage of Fenton's reagent and skeleton builders, referred to as the F-S inorganic composite conditioner, focusing on their efficacies and the optimization of the major operational parameters. The results demonstrate that the F-S composite conditioner for conditioning sewage sludge is a viable alternative to conventional organic polymers, especially when ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and lime are used as the skeleton builders. Experimental investigations confirmed that Fenton reaction required sufficient time (80 min in this study) to degrade organics in the sludge. The optimal condition of this process was at pH=5, Fe(2+)=40 mg g(-1) (dry solids), H(2)O(2)=32 mg g(-1), OPC=300 mg g(-1) and lime=400 mg g(-1), in which the specific resistance to filtration reduction efficiency of 95% was achieved. PMID:22459420

Liu, Huan; Yang, Jiakuan; Shi, Yafei; Li, Ye; He, Shu; Yang, Changzhu; Yao, Hong

2012-06-01

64

Degradation of sulphamethazine by means of an improved photo-Fenton process involving a hydrogen peroxide systematic dosage.  

PubMed

Despite being acknowledged as an emerging contaminant, sulphamethazine (SMT) degradation has received scarce attention in the advanced oxidation processes field. Thus, this work addresses the degradation of SMT in water solutions (12 L of 25mgL-1 samples) by means of a photo-Fenton process and a systematic H202 dosage protocol that enhances its performance. A conventional photo-Fenton process led to 86% mineralization after 120 min treatment when adding the Fenton reactants at once (initial concentrations were 10mgL-1 Fe(II) and 200mgL-1 H2O2). Conversely, the process achieved the total mineralization of the samples in less than 75 min when the same amount of H202 was continuously dosed according to a conveniently tuned dosage protocol. In both cases, total SMT degradation was achieved within 10 min. Hence, this work's aim is to determine the efficient dosage conditions of H2O2. The results show that a significant improvement of the photo-Fenton mineralization of SMT solutions is possible by adjusting the dosage of H2O2. PMID:24956760

Yamal-Turbay, Evelyn; Gonzlez, Lydia Prez; Graells, Moiss; Prez-Moya, Montserrat

2014-08-01

65

Influence of sewage and pharmaceuticals on soil microbial function.  

PubMed

Although sewage effluent application to land is a common approach to recycle water and provide nutrients to plants, bioactive pharmaceuticals contained in sewage may change soil quality by affecting soil microbial communities. Establishing causal effects, however, is difficult, because trace levels of pharmaceuticals are confounded with other effluent constituents. Therefore, two originally similar soil microbial communities, one irrigated in situ with sewage effluent for 12 years and another nonirrigated, were exposed to high levels of acetaminophen, aspirin, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, and tetracycline. The objectives of the current study were to determine the influence of high levels of pharmaceuticals on several soil microbial properties, the effect that prolonged effluent irrigation with ambient levels of pharmaceuticals had on soil microbial function, and how this effect would change in response to pharmaceutical exposure. Several pharmaceuticals, at high exposure levels, imposed stress on the soil microbial community as judged by increased CO(2) respiration, decreased biomass carbon, and altered substrate utilization affinities. Prolonged effluent irrigation, which altered the genetic fingerprint of the microbial community, also mitigated the response that exposure to pharmaceuticals had on the microbial community and enabled degradation of the antimicrobial salicylic acid after aspirin exposure. In conclusion, prolonged irrigation with sewage effluent containing pharmaceuticals at ambient levels influenced the microbial community so that they were able to better cope with sudden exposure to high levels of pharmaceuticals. PMID:21312249

Gielen, Gerty J H P; Clinton, Peter W; Van den Heuvel, Michael R; Kimberley, Mark O; Greenfield, Laurie G

2011-05-01

66

Analysis of Chlorophenols, Chlorocatechols, Chlorinated Methoxyphenols and Monoterpenes in Communal Sewage of ?D? and in the Ner River in 19992000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine phenol, chlorophenols, chlorocatechols, chlorinated methoxyphenols and monoterpenes in communal sewage that was purified by Group Purification Plant in ?d? (Poland) and also in Ner River that is the receiver of purified sewage. The effectivity of degradation (purification) of investigeted compounds was also analysed. The compounds were concentrated on octadecyl (C 18) layers

Jaromir Micha?owicz; Robert O?adowicz Wirgiliusz Duda

2005-01-01

67

EVALUATION OF METHODS TO MEASURE THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Research was undertaken to determine whether improvements were needed to increase the reliability of acute toxicity methodologies for mysid and juvenile Atlantic silverside waste characterization tests for municipal sewage sludge. Three new acute bioassays using mysids, larval fi...

68

Sono-alkalization pretreatment of sewage sludge containing phthalate acid esters.  

PubMed

This work experimentally elucidates the efficiencies of sono-alkalization treatment on municipal sewage sludge. The total solids (TS) concentration of the sewage sludge was pre-adjusted at 29.7 g/L. Two parameters such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) dosage and sonication time were considered by the central composite design (CCD) program to investigate the effect on the degradation of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) and solubilization of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD). The mean concentrations of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) in the sewage sludge were 718, 41 and 8 mg/kg dry weight sludge, respectively. Sono-alkalization process was effective on the degradation of DBP but worthless for DEHP and BBP. Overall degradation of DBP in sewage sludge was estimated to be 100% at the NaOH dosage of 68 m Mand sonication time of 2.2 min. Sono-alkalization was responsible for 6,000 mg/L increase of SCOD based on the decrease of volatile solids in sewage sludge. PMID:21847788

Ma, Ying-Shih; Lin, Jih-Gaw

2011-01-01

69

Science impact of MODIS C5 calibration degradation and C6+ improvements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Collection 6 (C6) MODIS land and atmosphere datasets are scheduled for release in 2014. C6 contains significant revisions of the calibration approach to account for sensor aging. This analysis documents the presence of systematic temporal trends in the visible and near-infrared (500 m) bands of the Collection 5 (C5) MODIS Terra, and to lesser extent, in MODIS Aqua geophysical datasets. Sensor degradation is largest in the Blue band (B3) of the MODIS sensor on Terra and decreases with wavelength. Calibration degradation causes negative global trends in multiple MODIS C5 products including the dark target algorithm's aerosol optical depth over land and ngstrm Exponent over the ocean, global liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness, as well as surface reflectance and vegetation indices, including the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). As the C5 production will be maintained for another year in parallel with C6, one objective of this paper is to raise awareness of the calibration-related trends for the broad MODIS user community. The new C6 calibration approach removes major calibrations trends in the Level 1B (L1B) data. This paper also introduces an enhanced C6+ calibration of the MODIS dataset which includes an additional polarization correction (PC) to compensate for the increased polarization sensitivity of MODIS Terra since about 2007, as well as de-trending and Terra-Aqua cross-calibration over quasi-stable desert calibration sites. The PC algorithm, developed by the MODIS ocean biology processing group (OBPG), removes residual scan angle, mirror side and seasonal biases from aerosol and surface reflectance (SR) records along with spectral distortions of SR. Using the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm over deserts, we have also developed a de-trending and cross-calibration method which removes residual decadal trends on the order of several tenths of one percent of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance in the visible and near-infrared MODIS bands B1-B4, and provides a good consistency between the two MODIS sensors. MAIAC analysis over the southern USA shows that the C6+ approach removed an additional negative decadal trend of Terra ?NDVI ~ 0.01 as compared to Aqua data. This change is particularly important for analysis of vegetation dynamics and trends in the tropics, e.g., Amazon rainforest, where the morning orbit Terra provides considerably more cloud-free observations compared to the afternoon Aqua measurements.

Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Xiong, X.; Meister, G.; Platnick, S.; Levy, R.; Franz, B.; Korkin, S.; Hilker, T.; Tucker, J.; Hall, F.; Sellers, P.; Wu, A.; Angal, A.

2014-07-01

70

Scientific impact of MODIS C5 calibration degradation and C6+ improvements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Collection 6 (C6) MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) land and atmosphere data sets are scheduled for release in 2014. C6 contains significant revisions of the calibration approach to account for sensor aging. This analysis documents the presence of systematic temporal trends in the visible and near-infrared (500 m) bands of the Collection 5 (C5) MODIS Terra and, to lesser extent, in MODIS Aqua geophysical data sets. Sensor degradation is largest in the blue band (B3) of the MODIS sensor on Terra and decreases with wavelength. Calibration degradation causes negative global trends in multiple MODIS C5 products including the dark target algorithm's aerosol optical depth over land and ngstrm exponent over the ocean, global liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness, as well as surface reflectance and vegetation indices, including the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). As the C5 production will be maintained for another year in parallel with C6, one objective of this paper is to raise awareness of the calibration-related trends for the broad MODIS user community. The new C6 calibration approach removes major calibrations trends in the Level 1B (L1B) data. This paper also introduces an enhanced C6+ calibration of the MODIS data set which includes an additional polarization correction (PC) to compensate for the increased polarization sensitivity of MODIS Terra since about 2007, as well as detrending and Terra-Aqua cross-calibration over quasi-stable desert calibration sites. The PC algorithm, developed by the MODIS ocean biology processing group (OBPG), removes residual scan angle, mirror side and seasonal biases from aerosol and surface reflectance (SR) records along with spectral distortions of SR. Using the multiangle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm over deserts, we have also developed a detrending and cross-calibration method which removes residual decadal trends on the order of several tenths of 1% of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance in the visible and near-infrared MODIS bands B1-B4, and provides a good consistency between the two MODIS sensors. MAIAC analysis over the southern USA shows that the C6+ approach removed an additional negative decadal trend of Terra ?NDVI ~ 0.01 as compared to Aqua data. This change is particularly important for analysis of vegetation dynamics and trends in the tropics, e.g., Amazon rainforest, where the morning orbit of Terra provides considerably more cloud-free observations compared to the afternoon Aqua measurements.

Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Xiong, X.; Meister, G.; Platnick, S.; Levy, R.; Franz, B.; Korkin, S.; Hilker, T.; Tucker, J.; Hall, F.; Sellers, P.; Wu, A.; Angal, A.

2014-12-01

71

Analysis of Influence on Suspended Solids of Sewage to Running of Moderate Opposite Angled Flap Anaerobic Baffled Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effluent from the primary sedimentation tank of sewage factory has been treated by the moderate opposite angled flap anaerobic baffled reactor (OAF-ABR) under the lower temperature (10C), the experiment clarified expressly that the influence of suspended solids (SS) to sewage treatment effect and anaerobic microbic activity. The results showed that the operating mode augmented current diffuse to improve touch

J. W. Peng; X. K. Han

2009-01-01

72

Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality\\/sediment parameters, as

A. B. Jones; M. J. O'Donohue; J. Udy; W. C. Dennison

2001-01-01

73

Q-Factor Improvement of Phase Noise Degraded DPSK Signals Using Asymmetric Saturated Regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a 6.3 dB improvement in Q-factor for RZ-DPSK signals using a shifted filter after a highly saturated SOA working in a contra-propagating colliding pulse scheme. We show first, both theoretically and by means of simulations, how the phase noise is transformed after demodulation. Then, we demonstrate experimentally, for the first time, that this configuration induces a spectral asymmetry in addition to self phase modulation that if associated with a shifted filter, removes significantly the noise present in both the demodulated marks and spaces. The Asymmetric Saturated Regeneration (ASR) is an enhanced version of the fiber based Mamyshev regenerator.

Chaouch, Hacene; Parsons, Earl; von Lerber, Tuomo; Mattila, Marco; Tervonen, Ari; Weiershausen, Werner; Kueppers, Franko

2009-09-01

74

Biomaterial-Mediated Delivery of Degradative Enzymes to Improve Meniscus Integration and Repair  

PubMed Central

Endogenous repair of fibrous connective tissues is limited, and there exist few successful strategies to improve healing after injury. As such, new methods that advance repair by promoting cell growth, extracellular matrix (ECM) production, and tissue integration would represent a marked clinical advance. Using the meniscus as a test platform, we sought to develop an enzyme-releasing scaffold that enhances integrative repair. We hypothesized that the high ECM density and low cellularity present physical and biologic barriers to endogenous healing, and that localized collagenase treatment might expedite cell migration to the wound edge and tissue remodeling. To test this hypothesis, we fabricated a delivery system in which collagenase was stored inside electrospun poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofibers and released upon hydration. In vitro results showed that partial digestion of the wound interface improved repair by creating a microenvironment that facilitated cell migration, proliferation, and matrix deposition. Specifically, treatment with high-dose collagenase led to a 2-fold increase in cell density at the wound margin and a 2-fold increase in integrative tissue compared to untreated controls at 4 weeks (p?0.05). Furthermore, when composite scaffolds containing both collagenase-releasing and structural fiber fractions were placed inside meniscal tears in vitro, enzyme release acted locally and resulted in a positive cellular response similar to that of global treatment with aqueous collagenase. This innovative approach of targeted enzyme delivery may aid the many patients that exhibit meniscal tears by promoting integration of the defect, thereby circumventing the pathologic consequences of partial meniscus removal, and may find widespread application in the treatment of injuries to a variety of dense connective tissues. PMID:23376132

Qu, Feini; Lin, Jung-Ming G.; Esterhai, John L.; Fisher, Matthew B.; Mauck, Robert L.

2013-01-01

75

Steam explosion pretreatment of wheat straw to improve methane yields: Investigation of the degradation kinetics of structural compounds during anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Wheat straw can serve as a low-cost substrate for energy production without competing with food or feed production. This study investigated the effect of steam explosion pretreatment on the biological methane potential and the degradation kinetics of wheat straw during anaerobic digestion. It was observed that the biological methane potential of the non steam exploded, ground wheat straw (276lNkgVS(-1)) did not significantly differ from the best steam explosion treated sample (286lNkgVS(-1)) which was achieved at a pretreatment temperature of 140C and a retention time of 60min. Nevertheless degradation speed was improved by the pretreatment. Furthermore it was observed that compounds resulting from chemical reactions during the pretreatment and classified as pseudo-lignin were also degraded during the anaerobic batch experiments. Based on the rumen simulation technique, a model was developed to characterise the degradation process. PMID:25549903

Theuretzbacher, Franz; Lizasoain, Javier; Lefever, Christopher; Saylor, Molly K; Enguidanos, Ramon; Weran, Nikolaus; Gronauer, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander

2015-03-01

76

Effects on Ni and Cd speciation in sewage sludge during composting and co-composting with steel slag.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge and industrial steel slag (SS) pose threats of serious pollution to the environment. The experiments aimed to improve the stabilizing effects of heavy metal Ni and Cd morphology in composting sludge. The total Ni and Cd species distribution and chemical forms in the compost sewage sludge were investigated with the use of compost and co-compost with SS, including degradation. The carbon/nitrogen ratio of piles was regulated with the use of sawdust prior to batch aerobic composting experiments. Results indicated that the co-composting with SS and organic matter humification can contribute to the formation of Fe and Mn hydroxides and that the humus colloid significantly changed Ni and Cd species distribution. The decreased content of Ni and Cd in an unstable state inhibited their biological activity. Conclusions were drawn that an SS amount equal to 7% of the dry sludge mass was optimal value to guarantee the lowest amount of Cd in an unstable state, whereas the amount was 14% for Ni. PMID:24616342

Zeng, Zheng-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Gou, Jian-Feng; Zhang, He-Fei; Wang, Hou-Cheng; Nan, Zhong-Ren

2014-03-01

77

Anaerobic Pretreatment of Strong Sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of applying low cost anaerobic technology for the treatment of relatively high strength sewage of Jordan using two-stage and one-stage UASB reactors operated at ambient temperatures. The wastewater produced in Jordan is characterised by a high concentration of COD tot<\\/sub> with averages higher than 1200 mg\\/l and with a

M. M. Halalsheh

2002-01-01

78

The production, use and quality of sewage sludge in Denmark  

SciTech Connect

In Denmark, the production of municipal sewage sludge decreased from approximately 170,000 ton d.m. in 1994 to 140,000 ton d.m. in 2002. The sludge is handled and treated in a number of ways. The quality of Danish sludge has steadily improved since the middle of the 1980s, when the first set of quality criteria for heavy metals was introduced. In 1997, cut-off criteria for the organic pollutants, LAS, DEHP, nonylphenol and PAHs were introduced. Effective control from authorities, voluntary phasing out agreements with industry, improved source identification tools, better handling and after-care methods have in combination with higher waste duties led to a significant reduction in the sludge level of especially cadmium, mercury, chromium, LAS and nonylphenol. The increased quality demand has, nevertheless, also led to a minor reduction in the use of sewage sludge as organic fertiliser on agricultural land.

Jensen, John [National Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark)]. E-mail: john.jensen@dmu.dk; Jepsen, Svend-Erik [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Strandgade 29, DK-1401 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

2005-07-01

79

Geomorphological Dating Using an Improved Scarp Degradation Model: Is This a Reliable Approach Compared With Common Absolute Dating Methods?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphological dating of a certain landform or geomorphological structure is based on the evolution of the landscape itself. In this context it is difficult to use common absolute dating techniques such as luminescence and radiocarbon dating because they require datable material which is often not available. Additionally these methods do not always date the time since the formation of these structures. For these reasons the application of geomorphological dating seems one reliable possibility to date certain geomorphological features. The aim of our work is to relate present-day shapes of fault scarps and terrace risers to their ages. The time span since scarp formation ceased is reflected by the stage of degradation as well as the rounding of the profile edges due to erosive processes. It is assumed that the average rate of downslope soil movement depends on the local slope angle and can be described in terms of a diffusion equation. On the basis of these assumptions we present a model to simulate the temporal development of scarp degradation by erosion. A diffusivity reflecting the effects of soil erosion, surface runoff and detachability of particles as well as present-day shapes of scarps are included in the model. As observations of present-day scarps suggest a higher diffusivity at the toe than at the head of a slope, we suggest a linear approach with increasing diffusivities in downslope direction. First results show a better match between simulated and observed profiles of the Upper Rhine Graben in comparison to models using a constant diffusivity. To date the scarps the model has to be calibrated. For this purpose we estimate diffusivities by fitting modelled profiles to observed ones of known age. Field data have been collected in the area around Bonn, Germany and in the Alps, Switzerland. It is a matter of current research to assess the quality of this dating technique and to compare the results and the applicability with some of the absolute dating methods mentioned above. For this purpose a Java tool was developed for the general use of geomorphological dating. This tool shall be improved according to the results we achieve.

Oemisch, M.; Hergarten, S.; Neugebauer, H. J.

2002-12-01

80

Positive role of incorporating P-25 TiO2 to mesoporous-assembled TiO2 thin films for improving photocatalytic dye degradation efficiency.  

PubMed

In this work, a simple and effective strategy to improve the photocatalytic dye degradation efficiency of the mesoporous-assembled TiO2 nanoparticle thin films by incorporating small contents of commercial P-25 TiO2 during the thin film preparation was developed. The mesoporous-assembled TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a sol-gel method with the aid of a mesopore-directing surfactant, followed by homogeneously mixing with P-25 TiO2 prior to the thin film coating on glass substrate. The mesoporous-assembled TiO2 film with 5 wt.% P-25 TiO2 incorporation and calcined at 400C provided an improved photocatalytic Acid Black (AB) dye degradation efficiency. The increase in number of coated layers to the optimum four layers of the aforementioned film was found to further improve the degradation efficiency. The recyclability test of this 5 wt.% P-25 TiO2-incorporated mesoporous-assembled TiO2 film with four coated layers revealed that it can be reused for multiple cycles without a requirement of post-treatment while the degradation efficiency was retained. PMID:24998072

Sreethawong, Thammanoon; Ngamsinlapasathian, Supachai; Yoshikawa, Susumu

2014-09-15

81

Agronomic value of sewage sludge and corn cob biochar in an infertile Oxisol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of sewage sludge and other agricultural waste materials has become increasingly difficult in urban environments with limited land space. Carbonization of the hazardous waste produces biochar as a soil amendment with potential to improve soil quality and productivity. A series of greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to assess the agrnomic value of two biochars made from domestic wastewater sludge and corn cob waste. The ash component of the sewage sludge biochar was very high (65.5%) and high for the corn cob (11.4%) biochars. Both biochars contained low concentrations of heavy metals and met EPA land application criteria. The sewage sludge biochar was a better liming material and source of mineral nutrients than the corn cob biochar, but the corn cob biochar showed the greatest increase in soil carbon and total nitrogen. Both biochar materials increased soil pH compared with soils not receiving biochar, but the sewage sludge biochar was a more effective liming material maintaining elevated soil pH throughout the 3 planting cycles. The sewage sludge biochar also showed the greatest increase in extractable soil P and base cations. In the first planting cycle, both biochars in combination with conventional fertilizers produced significantly higher corn seedling growth than the fertilized control. However, the sewage sludge biochar maintained beneficial effects corn seedling growth through the third planting cycle showing 3-fold increases in biomass production compared with the control in the third planting. The high ash content and associated liming properties and mineral nutrient contributions in the sewage sludge biochar explain benefits to plant growth. Conversion of sewage sludge waste into biochar has the potential to effectively address several environmental issues: 1) convert a hazardous waste into a valuable soil amendment, 2) reduce land and water contamination, and 3) improve soil quality and productivity.

Deenik, J. L.; Cooney, M. J.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

2013-12-01

82

Revisiting Methanotrophic Communities in Sewage Treatment Plants  

PubMed Central

The methanotrophic potential in sewage treatment sludge was investigated. We detected a diverse aerobic methanotrophic community that potentially plays a significant role in mitigating methane emission in this environment. The results suggest that community structure was determined by conditions specific to the processes in a sewage treatment plant. PMID:23417005

Vlaeminck, Siegfried E.; Ettwig, Katharina F.; Schneider, Bellinda; Frenzel, Peter

2013-01-01

83

My Town, My Creek, My Sewage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After summarizing the ecology of polluted streams as well as the technology and biology of sewage treatment methods, and considering the economic and social aspects of introducing advanced sewage treatment, comments on the role of biology teachers in providing public information are made. (AL)

Woodburn, John H.

1972-01-01

84

PEM fuel cell degradation  

SciTech Connect

The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. While significant progress has been made in understanding degradation mechanisms and improving materials, further improvements in durability are required to meet commercialization targets. Catalyst and electrode durability remains a primary degradation mode, with much work reported on understanding how the catalyst and electrode structure degrades. Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) are used to rapidly evaluate component degradation, however the results are sometimes easy, and other times difficult to correlate. Tests that were developed to accelerate degradation of single components are shown to also affect other component's degradation modes. Non-ideal examples of this include ASTs examining catalyst degradation performances losses due to catalyst degradation do not always well correlate with catalyst surface area and also lead to losses in mass transport.

Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

85

Improving the light-induced degradation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells using fabrication at elevated temperatures and low pressure.  

E-print Network

??A method of fabricating hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells that reduces light-induced degradation via the Staebler-Wronski effect is presented. By using elevated temperatures up (more)

Modtland, Brian Joseph

2013-01-01

86

Anaerobic Treatment of Domestic Sewage at Low Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this thesis was to asses the anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature and the possibilities to optimize the performance of high-rate anaerobic systems treating domestic sewage at low temperature.The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage and its fractions was investigated in batch experiments. The results showed a high potential of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage

T. A. Elmitwalli; G. Zeeman; G. Lettinga

2000-01-01

87

Biogas production from Sludge of Sewage Treatment Plant at Haridwar (Uttarakhand)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, a source of non-conventional energy is produced by fermentation of sludges. The sewage have collected through sewage pumping stations and treated in the primary and secondary treatment steps in sewage treatment plant at Jagjitpur, Hardwar. The Sewage Treatment Plant receives approximately 40 mld sewage from different pumping stations and 18 mld sewage is used for treatment at sewage treatment

D. S. Malik; Umesh Bharti

88

Microalgae cultured by sewage and organic constituents.  

PubMed

The microalgae could be multiplied by supplying only sewage influent or effluent without any additional microalgal stock or nutrient salt. In a semicontinuous culture, the N:P weight ratios consumed were 14:1 and 18:1 for the sewage influent and effluent, respectively. The total cell number and green algae ratio of microalgae cultivated by semicontinuous culture exceeded those of batch culture. No cyanobacterial cells were observed in the semicontinuous culture using the sewage effluent. The organic components in the cultured microalgae using sewage effluent, eluted by n-hexane, were determined. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acid exceeded that of saturated fatty acid, which was possibly attributable to the fluidity of the cell membrane. The squalene was also obtained by the culture using sewage alone, free of any external stock or nutrient salt. The higher heating value of the microalgae of semicontinuous culture using the sewage influent was 25 MJ kg(-1), corresponding to the heating value of lignite and showing the potential of the sewage culture microalgae as a means of power generation and combustion aid. PMID:24059978

Inoue, Kenichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

2013-10-01

89

Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

2014-05-01

90

Learning to cope with degraded sounds: female zebra finches can improve their expertise in discriminating between male voices at long distances.  

PubMed

Reliable transmission of acoustic information about individual identity is of critical importance for pair bond maintenance in numerous monogamous songbirds. However, information transfer can be impaired by environmental constraints such as external noise or propagation-induced degradation. Birds have been shown to use several adaptive strategies to deal with difficult signal transmission contexts. Specifically, a number of studies have suggested that vocal plasticity at the emitter's level allows birds to counteract the deleterious effects of sound degradation. Although the communication process involves both the emitter and the receiver, perceptual plasticity at the receiver's level has received little attention. Here, we explored the reliability of individual recognition by female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), testing whether perceptual training can improve discrimination of degraded individual vocal signatures. We found that female zebra finches are proficient in discriminating between calls of individual males at long distances, and even more so when they can train themselves with increasingly degraded signals over time. In this latter context, females succeed in discriminating between males as far as 250 m. This result emphasizes that adaptation to adverse communication conditions may involve not only the emitter's vocal plasticity but also the receptor's decoding process through on-going learning. PMID:24948627

Mouterde, Solveig C; Elie, Julie E; Theunissen, Frdric E; Mathevon, Nicolas

2014-09-01

91

Improvements to the design process for a real-time passive millimeter-wave imager to be used for base security and helicopter navigation in degraded visual environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the design of an improved passive millimeter wave imaging system intended to be used for base security in degraded visual environments. The discussion starts with the selection of the optimum frequency band. The trade-offs between requirements on detection, recognition and identification ranges and optical aperture are discussed with reference to the Johnson Criteria. It is shown that these requirements also affect image sampling, receiver numbers and noise temperature, frame rate, field of view, focusing requirements and mechanisms, and tolerance budgets. The effect of image quality degradation is evaluated and a single testable metric is derived that best describes the effects of degradation on meeting the requirements. The discussion is extended to tolerance budgeting constraints if significant degradation is to be avoided, including surface roughness, receiver position errors and scan conversion errors. Although the reflective twist-polarization imager design proposed is potentially relatively low cost and high performance, there is a significant problem with obscuration of the beam by the receiver array. Methods of modeling this accurately and thus designing for best performance are given.

Anderton, Rupert N.; Cameron, Colin D.; Burnett, James G.; Gell, Jeff J.; Sanders-Reed, John N.

2014-06-01

92

Flow Characteristics of the Raw Sewage for the Design of Sewage-Source Heat Pump Systems  

PubMed Central

The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

2014-01-01

93

Impact of food industrial waste on anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and pig manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an anaerobic digestion process is much dependent on the type and the composition of the material to be digested. The effects on the degradation process of co-digesting different types of waste were examined in two laboratory-scale studies. In the first investigation, sewage sludge was co-digested with industrial waste from potato processing. The co-digestion resulted in a low

M Murto; L Bjrnsson; B Mattiasson

2004-01-01

94

Improved degradation and bioactivity of amorphous aerosol derived tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles in poly(lactide-co-glycolide)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The industrially used flame synthesis of silica polymer fillers was extended to amorphous tricalcium phosphate (a-TCP) nanoparticles and resulted in a similar morphology as the traditionally used polymer fillers. Doping of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with such highly agglomerated a-TCP was investigated for mechanical properties, increased in vitro biodegradation and the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the nanocomposite. PLGA films with particle loadings ranging from 0 to 30 wt% were prepared by solvent casting. Degradation in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 C under sterile conditions for up to 42 days was followed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis and tensile tests. The presence of nanoparticles in the PLGA matrix slightly increased the Young's modulus up to 30% compared to pure polymer reference materials. The nanoparticle doped films showed a significantly increased loss of polymer mass during degradation. Scanning electron microscopy images of doped films showed that the SBF degraded the PLGA by corrosion as facilitated by the incorporation of nanoparticulate calcium phosphate. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the deposition of about 10 nm sized hydroxyapatite crystallites on the surface of doped PLGA films was strongly increased by the addition of tricalcium phosphate fillers. The combination of increased hydroxyapatite formation and enhanced polymer degradation may suggest the use of such amorphous, aerosol derived a-TCP fillers for applications in non-load-bearing implant sites.

Loher, Stefan; Reboul, Valentine; Brunner, Tobias J.; Simonet, Marc; Dora, Claudio; Neuenschwander, Peter; Stark, Wendelin J.

2006-04-01

95

CONFIRMED VIRUSES VERSUS UNCONFIRMED PLAQUES IN SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Ninety-two treated and untreated sewage samples from seven wastewater treatment plants in Chicago, Illinois, Memphis, Tennessee, and Cincinnati, Ohio were examined for their virus content. Concentrated and unconcentrated samples were plaque assayed in five different cell culture ...

96

A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge  

PubMed Central

The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenonhazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended. PMID:21283298

Connop, Peter J.

1983-01-01

97

Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and cracking. The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

Mark R. Cole

2013-12-01

98

Mechanism of red mud combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning.  

PubMed

Red mud was evaluated as an alternative skeleton builder combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning. The results show that red mud combined with Fenton's reagent showed good conditioning capability with the pH of the filtrate close to neutrality, indicating that red mud acted as a neutralizer as well as a skeleton builder when jointly used with Fenton's reagent. Through response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal dosages of Fe(2+), H2O2 and red mud were proposed as 31.9, 33.7 and 275.1mg/g DS (dry solids), respectively. The mechanism of the composite conditioner could be illuminated as follows: (1) extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), including loosely bound EPS and tightly bound EPS, were degraded into dissolved organics, e.g., proteins and polysaccharides; (2) bound water was released and converted into free water due to the degradation of EPS; and (3) morphology of the conditioned sludge exhibited a porous structure in contrast with the compact structure of raw sludge, and the addition of red mud formed new mineral phases and a rigid lattice structure in sludge, allowing the outflow of free water. Thus, sludge dewatering performance was effectively improved. The economic assessment for a wastewater treatment plant of 370,000 equivalent inhabitants confirms that using red mud conditioning, combined with Fenton's reagent, leads to a saving of approximately 411,000 USD/y or 50.8 USD/t DS comparing with using lime and ordinary Portland cement combined with Fenton's reagent, and approximately 612,000 USD/y or 75.5 USD/t DS comparing with the traditional treatment. PMID:24810740

Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jiakuan; Yu, Wenbo; Luo, Sen; Peng, Li; Shen, Xingxing; Shi, Yafei; Zhang, Shinan; Song, Jian; Ye, Nan; Li, Ye; Yang, Changzhu; Liang, Sha

2014-08-01

99

Microbial sewage contamination associated with Superstorm Sandy flooding in New York City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lower Hudson River Estuary commonly experiences degraded water quality following precipitation events due to the influence of combined sewer overflows. During Super-storm Sandy large scale flooding occurred in many waterfront areas of New York City, including neighborhoods bordering the Gowanus Canal and Newtown Creek Superfund sites known to frequently contain high levels of sewage associated bacteria. Water, sediment, and surface swab samples were collected from Newtown Creek and Gowanus Canal flood impacted streets and basements in the days following the storm, along with samples from the local waterways. Samples were enumerated for the sewage indicating bacterium, Enterococcus, and DNA was extracted and amplified for 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequence analysis. Waterways were found to have relatively low levels of sewage contamination in the days following the storm. In contrast, much higher levels of Enterococci were detected in basement and storm debris samples and these bacteria were found to persist for many weeks in laboratory incubations. These data suggest that substantial sewage contamination occurred in some flood impacted New York City neighborhoods and that the environmental persistence of flood water associated microbes requires additional study and management attention.

O'Mullan, G.; Dueker, M.; Sahajpal, R.; Juhl, A. R.

2013-05-01

100

Bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent using man-made biofilms: effects of some variables.  

PubMed

Biofilm samples were established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for a month. In batch cultures, such biofilms were effective in removing crude oil, pure n-hexadecane, and pure phenanthrene contaminating sewage effluent. The amounts of the removed hydrocarbons increased with increasing biofilm surface area exposed to the effluent. On the other hand, addition of the reducing agent thioglycollate dramatically inhibited the hydrocarbon bioremediation potential of the biofilms. The same biofilm samples removed contaminating hydrocarbons effectively in three successive batch bioremediation cycles but started to become less effective in the cycles thereafter, apparently due to mechanical biofilm loss during successive transfers. As major hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, the biofilms harbored species belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Zavarzinia, Mycobacterium, Microbacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Gordonia, Bosea, Sphingobium, Brachybacterium, and others. The nitrogen fixer Azospirillum brasilense and the microalga Ochromonas distigma were also present; they seemed to enrich the biofilms, with nitrogenous compounds and molecular oxygen, respectively, which are known to enhance microbiological hydrocarbon degradation. It was concluded that man-made biofilms based upon sewage microflora are promising tools for bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent. PMID:25146193

Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

2014-11-01

101

Effect of biodegradation on the consolidation properties of a dewatered municipal sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The effect of biodegradation on the consolidation characteristics of an anaerobically digested, dewatered municipal sewage sludge was studied. Maintained-load oedometer consolidation tests that included measurement of the pore fluid pressure response were conducted on moderately degraded sludge material and saturated bulk samples that had been stored under static conditions and allowed to anaerobically biodegrade further (simulating what would happen in an actual sewage sludge monofill or lagoon condition). Strongly degraded sludge material was produced after a storage period of 13 years at ambient temperatures of 5-15 degrees C, with the total volatile solids reducing from initially 70% to 55%. The sludge materials were highly compressible, although impermeable for practical purposes. Primary consolidation generally occurred very slowly, which was attributed to the microstructure of the solid phase, the composition and viscosity of the pore fluid, ongoing biodegradation and the high organic contents. The coefficient of primary consolidation values decreased from initially about 0.35m2/yr to 0.003-0.03m2/yr with increasing effective stress (sigmav'=3-100kPa). Initially, the strongly degraded sludge material was slightly more permeable, although both the moderately and strongly degraded materials became impermeable for practical purposes (k=10(-9)-10(-12)m/s) below about 650% and 450% water contents, respectively. Secondary compression became more dominant with increasing effective stress with a mean secondary compression index (Calphae) value of 0.9 measured for both the moderately and strongly degraded materials. PMID:17936608

O'Kelly, Brendan C

2008-01-01

102

Effect of fly ash/sewage sludge mixtures and application rates on biomass production  

SciTech Connect

A greenhouse study was conducted to assess the use of a sewage sludge/fly ash mixture in soils for increased growth and uptake of nutrients by Sorghum vulgaris var. sudanense Hitchc. (`sorgrass`), a sorghum-sundangrass hybrid plant. This experiment was conducted by using four sewage sludge-to-fly ash ratios (4:1, 4:2, 4:3, and 4:4) and six application rates of sewage sludge/fly ash mixtures to soil (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 400 tons/acre). The data in this study indicated that the availability of elements to plants varied depending on the mixture ratios and the application rates. All ratios of sewage sludge amended with fly ash generally improved plant growth and enhanced yield at application rates of 50-100 tons/acre but showed reduced growth and yield at higher application rates. The decrease in yield at higher application rates was probably due to the assimilation of high levels of boron which is phytotoxic. These various treatments of sewage sludge/fly ash ratios and rates of application often resulted in elevated concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, B, Cu, and Zn in both soil and plants. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

Sajwan, K.S. [Savannah State College, GA (United States); Ornes, W.H.; Youngblood, T. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States)

1995-07-01

103

Bio-augmentation to rapid realize partial nitrification of real sewage.  

PubMed

The feasibility of bio-augmentation processes in promoting start-up of partial nitrification of sewage was investigated in this study. Initially, partial nitrification was well-established in an anoxic/oxic reactor treating high-strength ammonia wastewater. Then the influent was replaced by real sewage instantly or gradually. In both cases, nitrite pathway could be maintained for 5-7d. However, it was eventually destroyed due to the inevitable over-aeration. In another strategy, sewage was treated in the adsorption/biodegradation reactor. The nitrite pathway was obviously promoted by addition of the previous activated sludge from high ammonia wastewater treatment. Nitrite accumulation efficiency of sewage was quickly increased from 26% to 86% and maintained at a high level for 2 months. Moreover, the effluent has a favorable ratio of NH(4)(+)/NO(2)(-) for feeding anammox process. The experimental results indicated that appropriate bio-augmentation strategies could significantly improve the build-up partial nitrification of sewage in the pretreatment of anammox. PMID:22673398

Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Shujun; Gan, Yiping; Peng, Yongzhen

2012-08-01

104

Enhancement in characteristics of sewage sludge and anaerobic treatability by electron beam pre-treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron beam was studied to enhance the biodegradability of sewage sludge. Changes in physicochemical characteristics of the sludge were examined with various irradiation doses, sludge thicknesses and exposure times. Irradiation thickness was suggested as the key factor affecting the efficiency of solublization of solid organic matter, whereas exposure time would be the most critical parameter in inducing cell lysis in sewage sludge. In addition, biogas production was improved as much as 22% when the sludge thickness was 0.5 cm with a dose of 7 kGy.

Park, Wooshin; Hwang, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Myun-Joo; Kim, In S.

2009-02-01

105

Evolutionary parameter optimization of a fuzzy controller which is used to control a sewage treatment plant  

E-print Network

, sewage treatment plants may need to be redesigned or extended. Instead of reconstructing large parts inexpensive equipment, which controls parts of the plant in a new way. Fuzzy controllers are often used controls parts of the plant in a new way and thereby leads to an improved water quality. Until

Ebner, Marc

106

Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully converted SS to AC and further modified it to improve absorption. SSMAC has large specific surface areas based on the BET technique. Batch adsorption results indicate that metal adsorption for SSMAC > SSAC, with adsorption occurring within the first 5 minutes of contact. Comparison of the adsorptivity of various sorbents such as commercial activated carbon (CAC), mineral sorbents such as perlite, clinoptilolite and illite indicates that SSMAC CAC clinoptilolite > kaolite.

Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

2013-04-01

107

Generation of Dopamine Neurons with Improved Cell Survival and Phenotype Maintenance Using a Degradation-Resistant Nurr1 Mutant  

PubMed Central

Nurr1 is a transcription factor specific for the development and maintenance of the midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Exogenous Nurr1 in neural precursor (NP) cells induces the differentiation of DA neurons in vitro that are capable of reversing motor dysfunctions in a rodent model for Parkinson disease. The promise of this therapeutic approach, however, is unclear due to poor cell survival and phenotype loss of DA cells after transplantation. We herein demonstrate that Nurr1 proteins undergo ubiquitin-proteasome-system-mediated degradation in differentiating NP cells. The degradation process is activated by a direct Akt-mediated phosphorylation of Nurr1 proteins and can be prevented by abolishing the Akt-target sequence in Nurr1 (Nurr1Akt). Overexpression of Nurr1Akt in NP cells yielded DA neurons in which Nurr1 protein levels were maintained for prolonged periods. The sustained Nurr1 expression endowed the Nurr1Akt-induced DA neurons with resistance to toxic stimuli, enhanced survival, and sustained DA phenotypes in vitro and in vivo after transplantation. PMID:19522012

Jo, A-Young; Kim, Mi-Young; Lee, Hyun-Seob; Rhee, Yong-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Chang-Hwan; Koh, Hyun-Chul; Shin, Incheol; Lee, Yong-Sung; Lee, Sang-Hun

2009-01-01

108

Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

2007-01-01

109

Classification of fault location and the degree of performance degradation of a rolling bearing based on an improved hyper-sphere-structured multi-class support vector machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective classification of a rolling bearing fault location and especially its degree of performance degradation provides an important basis for appropriate fault judgment and processing. Two methods are introduced to extract features of the rolling bearing vibration signalone combining empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with the autoregressive model, whose model parameters and variances of the remnant can be obtained using the Yule-Walker or Ulrych-Clayton method, and the other combining EMD with singular value decomposition. Feature vector matrices obtained are then regarded as the input of the improved hyper-sphere-structured multi-class support vector machine (HSSMC-SVM) for classification. Thereby, multi-status intelligent diagnosis of normal rolling bearings and faulty rolling bearings at different locations and the degrees of performance degradation of the faulty rolling bearings can be achieved simultaneously. Experimental results show that EMD combined with singular value decomposition and the improved HSSMC-SVM intelligent method requires less time and has a higher recognition rate.

Wang, Yujing; Kang, Shouqiang; Jiang, Yicheng; Yang, Guangxue; Song, Lixin; Mikulovich, V. I.

2012-05-01

110

Degradation of 4-Chlorobenzoic Acid by Arthrobacter sp  

PubMed Central

A mixed population, enriched and established in a defined medium, from a sewage sludge inoculum was capable of complete mineralization of 4-chlorobenzoate. An organism, identified as Arthrobacter sp., was isolated from the consortium and shown to be capable of utilizing 4-chlorobenzoate as the sole carbon and energy source in pure culture. This organism (strain TM-1), dehalogenated 4-chlorobenzoate as the initial step in the degradative pathway. The product, 4-hydroxybenzoate, was further metabolized via protocatechuate. The ability of strain TM-1 to degrade 4-chlorobenzoate in liquid medium at 25C was improved by the use of continuous culture and repeated sequential subculturing. Other chlorinated benzoates and the parent compound benzoate did not support growth of strain TM-1. An active cell extract was prepared and shown to dehalogenate 4-chloro-, 4-fluoro-, and 4-bromobenzoate. Dehalogenase activity had an optimum pH of 6.8 and an optimum temperature of 20C and was inhibited by dissolved oxygen and stimulated by manganese (Mn2+). Strain improvement resulted in an increase in the specific activity of the cell extract from 0.09 to 0.85 nmol of 4-hydroxybenzoate per min per mg of protein and a decrease in the doubling time of the organism from 50 to 1.6 h. PMID:16346660

Marks, Trevor S.; Smith, Anthony R. W.; Quirk, Alan V.

1984-01-01

111

Isolation and identification of phytate-degrading rhizobacteria with activity of improving growth of poplar and Masson pine.  

PubMed

A number of soil microorganisms can convert insoluble forms of phosphorus (P) to an accessible form to increase plant yields. Phytate is such a large kind of insoluble organic phosphorus that plants cannot absorb directly in soil, so the objectives of this study were to isolate, screen phytate-degrading rhizobacteria (PDRB), and to select potential microbial inocula that could increase the P uptake by plants. In this study, a total of 24 soil samples were collected from natural habitats of eight poplar and pine planting areas from the eastern to southern China. 17 PDRB strains were preliminarily screened from the rhizosphere soil of poplars and pines by the visible decolorization in the phytate selective medium. The highest ratio of the total diameter (colony + halo zone) to the colony diameter of the isolates was JZ-GX1, 3.85. Afterward, 17 PDRB strains were further determined for their abilities to degrade sodium phytate based on the amount of liberated inorganic P in liquid phytate specific medium. The results showed that the phytase ability of the three highest PDRB strains: JZ-GX1, JZ-DZ1 and JZ-ZJ1 were up to 2.58, 2.36 and 2.24 U/mL, respectively, much better than most of the bacteria reported in previous studies. In the soil-plant experiment, compared to CK, the best three strains of PDRB all could significantly promote growth of poplar and Masson pine under container growing. The three efficient PDRB strains were identified as follow: JZ-GX1, Rahnella aquatilis, both JZ-DZ1 and JZ-ZJ1 being autofluorescent, Pseudomonas fluorescens, by 16S rDNA gene sequencing technology, Biolog Identification System and biological characterization. The present study suggests that the three screened PDRB strains would have great potential application as biological fertilizers in the future. PMID:23709169

Li, Gui-E; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Ye, Jian-Ren; Hou, Liang; Zhou, Ai-Dong; Zhao, Liu

2013-11-01

112

Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

113

Estrogenic Effects of Effluents from Sewage Treatment Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of hermaphrodite fish in the lagoons of sewage treatment works led us to hypothesize that sewage effluent might contain a substance, or substances, estrogenic to fish. to test this hypothesis, we placed cages containing rainbow trout in the effluent from sewage-treatment works, and one to three weeks later measured the vitellogenin concentration in the plasma of the fish.

C. E. Purdom; P. A. Hardiman; V. V. J. Bye; N. C. Eno; C. R. Tyler; J. P. Sumpter

1994-01-01

114

Alterations in the fat body cells of Rhinocricus padbergi (Diplopoda) resulting from exposure to substrate containing sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The final disposal of residues generated at sewage treatment plants (STPs) has become a major problem for cities, due to the increase in the amount of treated sewage. One of the alternatives for the residue, labeled "sewage sludge," is its reuse in agriculture and in degraded soil. However, not all pathogens and metals present in it are eliminated during treatment. Diplopods have been used as bioindicators in ecotoxicological tests as they are constantly in close contact with the soil. Owing to this fact, the purpose of this study was to expose specimens of the diplopod Rhinocricus padbergi to substrate containing sewage sludge collected at STPs to analyze morphological alterations in their parietal and perivisceral fat body, where substances are stored. The exposures were held for 7, 15, or 90 days at different concentrations of sewage sludge (control, 1%, 10%, and 50%). The parietal fat body showed no alterations in any of the three exposure periods or concentrations. Alterations in the perivisceral fat body were observed for all exposure periods. According to the results, we suggest that the sludge used has toxic agents responsible for changing the animal's perivisceral fat body. PMID:22313521

de Souza, Raphael Basto; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

2012-04-01

115

Estimation of amphetamine and methamphetamine uses in Beijing through sewage-based analysis.  

PubMed

Sewage epidemiology has been proven as an effective approach to estimate the use of illicit drugs by a population. In this study, sewage analysis was applied to examine the patterns of amphetamine (AMP) and methamphetamine (METH) uses in the urban area of Beijing. Influent and effluent samples were collected from all the thirteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the urban area during two sampling campaigns. METH concentrations in influents were found to range from several tens to several hundred ngL(-1), whereas AMP concentrations ranged from several to several tens ngL(-1). The concentration ratios between AMP and METH in influents at most STPs were close to the rate of AMP excretion following METH ingestion, indicating that AMP in sewage in Beijing was predominately from the metabolism of METH. Much higher METH loads were observed in the center part of the urban area in Beijing, indicating a strong correlation between METH use and economic level and entertainment activities. Seasonal variation in METH loads was significant, with greater use in summer than in winter. Significant difference in METH loads between weekdays and weekend days were observed in winter but not in summer. No clear trend in diurnal variation of METH use was observed. Nearly complete removal of METH occurred at the STPS in Beijing. Apparent removal rates of AMP were lower than those of METH, likely due to degradation of METH into AMP during the wastewater treatment processes. In summary, this study represents the first application of sewage epidemiology to the entire urban population of a metropolitan in mainland China and provided an overview of METH and AMP uses in the city. PMID:24907608

Li, Jing; Hou, Linlin; Du, Peng; Yang, Jun; Li, Kaiyang; Xu, Zeqiong; Wang, Congcong; Zhang, Huafang; Li, Xiqing

2014-08-15

116

Lowering mechanical degradation of drag reducers in turbulent flow  

E-print Network

pipelines, oil well operations, flood water disposal, fire fighting, field irrigation, transport of suspensions and slurries, sewage systems, water heating and cooling systems, airplane tank filling, marine (such as the Alaska pipeline) we have typically mechanical degradation in flow (MDF); DR decreases

North Texas, University of

117

Iodine-131 monitoring in sewage plant outflow.  

PubMed

Three different hospital sites (Oxford, Sutton and Guildford) have performed sampling of their local sewage plant outflow to determine levels of radioactivity resulting from iodine-131 patients undergoing radionuclide therapies. It was found that a maximum of 20% of activity discharged from the hospitals was present in the sewage plant final effluent channel. This is significantly below the level predicted by mathematical models in current use. The results further show that abatement systems to reduce public exposure are unlikely to be warranted at hospital sites. PMID:24270089

McGowan, D R; Pratt, B E; Hinton, P J; Peet, D J; Crawley, M T

2014-03-01

118

Reduction of matrix effects and improvement of sensitivity during determination of two chloridazon degradation products in aqueous matrices by using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS.  

PubMed

The development and validation of a sensitive and reliable detection method for the determination of two polar degradation products, desphenyl-chloridazon (DPC) and methyl-desphenyl-chloridazon (MDPC) in surface water, ground water and drinking water is presented. The method is based on direct large volume injection ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. This simple but powerful analytical method for polar substances in the aquatic environment is usually hampered by varying matrix effects, depending on the nature of different water bodies. For the two examined degradation products, the matrix effects are particularly strong compared with other polar degradation products of pesticides. Therefore, matrix effects were studied thoroughly with the aim of minimising them and improving sensitivity during determination by postcolumn addition of ammonia solution as a modifier. An internal standard was used in order to compensate for remaining matrix effects. The calibration curve shows very good coefficients of correlation (0.9994 for DPC and 0.9999 for MDPC). Intraday precision values were lower than 5 % for DPC, 3 % for MDPC and the limits of detection were 10 ng/L for both substances. The method was successfully used in a national round robin test with a deviation between 3 and 8 % from target values. Finally, about 1,000 samples from different water bodies have been examined with this method in the Rhine and Ruhr region of North-Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) and in the European Union. Approximately 76 % of analysed samples contained measurable amounts of DPC at concentrations up to 8 ?g/L while 53 % of the samples showed MDPC concentrations up to 2.3 ?g/L. PMID:22526659

Kowal, Sebastian; Balsaa, Peter; Werres, Friedrich; Schmidt, Torsten C

2012-06-01

119

Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture  

PubMed Central

The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation. PMID:13160760

Petrik, Milivoj

1954-01-01

120

In-situ caustic generation from sewage: the impact of caustic strength and sewage composition.  

PubMed

Periodic caustic dosage is a commonly used method by the water industry to elevate pH levels and deactivate sewer biofilms responsible for hydrogen sulfide generation. Caustic (NaOH) can be generated in-situ from sewage using a divided electrochemical cell, which avoids the need for transport, handling and storage of concentrated caustic solutions. In this study, we investigated the impact of caustic strength in the cathode compartment and the impact of sodium concentration in sewage on the Coulombic efficiency (CE) for caustic generation. The CE was found to be independent of the caustic strength produced in the range of up to ~3 wt%. Results showed that a caustic solution of ~3 wt% could be produced directly from sewage at a CE of up to 75 0.5%. The sodium concentration in sewage had a significant impact on the CE for caustic generation as well as on the energy requirements of the system, with a higher sodium concentration leading to a higher CE and lower energy consumption. The proton, calcium, magnesium and ammonium concentrations in sewage affected the CE for caustic generation, especially at low sodium concentrations. Economical assessment based on the experimental results indicated that sulfide control in sewers using electrochemically-generated caustic from sewage is an economically attractive strategy. PMID:23938119

Pikaar, Ilje; Rozendal, Ren A; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo

2013-10-01

121

On-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives  

E-print Network

-site Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Options, VCE publication 448-403, and Individual Homeowner & SmallOn-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives C. Zipper,Extension specialist and associate professor, especially where current waste- water treatment is inadequate. This work is intended to provide information

Liskiewicz, Maciej

122

VALORATION ADDITION DRY SLUDGE SEWAGE IN CONCRETE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great amount of dry sewage sludge that is generated and the need to stabilize, solidify and, whenever possible, reuse it has led us to attempt the application of new approaches to its treatment. The search for recycling alternatives for this dry sludge has given rise to the possibility of their use addition in concrete with Portland cement. Portland cement

A. Yage; S. Valls; E. Vzquez

123

COMPARISON OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested by using the Salmonella/microsome reverse mutation ...

124

Energy minimization at Metro Denver Sewage District  

SciTech Connect

The Metro Denver Sewage District energy minimization includes adjustment of treatment operations to maximize use of high purity oxygen treatment with 31 percent reduction in electric power and replacement of sludge incineration with land disposal at 23 percent energy reduction. Future sludge utilization as fertilizer and minor energy reduction efforts in areas of illumination, heating and employee transportation offer additional benefits.

Korbitz, W.E.

1980-01-01

125

ACTINOMYCETES OF SEWAGE-TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

In some activated sludge sewage treatment plants a thick foam rich in Nocardia may be formed at the surface of the secondary aeration and settling tanks. It had previously been observed that the supernatant from anaerobic digesters contained suspended solids which were toxic for ...

126

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOEpatents

This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

Carlson, L.W.

1985-08-30

127

Dechlorination of pentachlorophenol in anaerobic sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in municipal sewage sludge by a chlorophenols (CPs)-adapted consortium was investigated. Results of a batch experiment showed no significant differences in PCP dechlorination following treatment with inoculum at densities ranging from 10% to 50%, but a significant delay following treatment with inoculum at 5% density. Results also show that the higher the PCP concentration, the slower

Bea-Ven Chang; Chen-Wei Chiang; Shaw-Ying Yuan

1998-01-01

128

SEWAGE SLUDGE PATHOGEN TRANSPORT MODEL PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, raw or anaerobically digest...

129

Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220spC) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This shows the fundamental importance of rapid processing. Rapid thermal conditioning may be incorporated into a wastewater treatment plant where biological treatment is used. For purposes of a concrete example, flow-sheets for the incorporation of the RTC process into the New York City Wards Island WPCP were prepared, and experimental data from the laboratory scale RTC test facility were used to set design parameters. A design incorporating nitrogen removal into the RTC flow sheet was also examined. ASPEN software was used to design the proposed processes and perform economic analyses. Cost estimates for these alternatives show a substantial advantage to implement RTC in comparison to present plant operation. About one third of the current sludge processing cost can be saved by incorporation of RTC into the Wards Island Plant. With nitrogen removal, the economics are even more attractive.

Zheng, Jianhong

130

Removal and factors influencing removal of sulfonamides and trimethoprim from domestic sewage in constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Twelve pilot-scale constructed wetlands with different configurations were set up in the field to evaluate the removal and factors that influence removal of sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfacetamide, sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole) and trimethoprim from domestic sewage. The treatments included four flow types, three substrates, two plants and three hydraulic loading rates across two seasons (summer and winter). Most target antibiotics were efficiently removed by specific constructed wetlands; in particular, all types of constructed wetlands performed well for the degradation of sulfapyridine. Flow types were the most important influencing factor in this study, and the best removal of sulfonamides was achieved in vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands; however, the opposite phenomenon was found with trimethoprim. Significant relationships were observed between antibiotic degradation and higher temperature and redox potential, which indicated that microbiological pathways were the most probable degradation route for sulfonamides and trimethoprim in constructed wetlands. PMID:23954243

Dan A; Yang, Yang; Dai, Yu-nv; Chen, Chun-xing; Wang, Su-yu; Tao, Ran

2013-10-01

131

Modeling sewage leakage to surrounding groundwater and stormwater drains.  

PubMed

Underground sewage pipe systems deteriorate over time resulting in cracks and joint defects. Sewage thus leaks out and contaminates the surrounding groundwater and the surface water in stormwater drains. Many studies have investigated the problem of sewage leakage but no published studies, to the best knowledge of the authors, have examined the hydrologic interactions between leaky sewage pipes, groundwater and stormwater drains. This study numerically models such interactions using generic conditions in Singapore. It first develops accurate representations of weep holes and leaky sewage pipes, and further shows the long-term and short-term system responses to rainfall events. Some of the implications include: (1) quality of water seeping into the drains tends to be low in dry years; (2) complete contaminant attenuation after pipe rehabilitation takes several years; (3) responses to rainfall events at weep holes are immediate but the effects on sewage leakage might only show up a few days later. The simulation results allow us to better understand the local-scale migration of sewage leakage from a sewage pipe to nearby stormwater drains. With calibrations and verifications with local field data, the modeling framework would be applicable and beneficial to the sewage leakage monitoring and sewage pipe rehabilitation worldwide. PMID:23109583

Ly, Duy Khiem; Chui, Ting Fong May

2012-01-01

132

Tracking human sewage microbiome in a municipal wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Human sewage pollution is a major threat to public health because sewage always comes with pathogens. Human sewage is usually received and treated by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to control pathogenic risks and ameliorate environmental health. However, untreated sewage that flows into water environments may cause serious waterborne diseases, as reported in India and Bangladesh. To examine the fate of the human sewage microbiome in a local municipal WWTP of Hong Kong, we used massively parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA gene to systematically profile microbial communities in samples from three sections (i.e., influent, activated sludge, and effluent) obtained monthly throughout 1 year. The results indicated that: (1) influent sewage bacterial profile reflected the human microbiome; (2) human gut bacterial community was the dominant force shaping influent sewage bacterial profile; (3) most human sewage bacteria could be effectively removed by the WWTP; (4) a total of 75 genera were profiled as potentially pathogenic bacteria, most of which were still present in the effluent although at a very low level; (5) a grouped pattern of bacterial community was observed among the same section samples but a dispersed pattern was found among the different section samples; and (6) activated sludge was less affected by the influent sewage bacteria, but it showed a significant impact on the effluent bacteria. All of these findings provide novel insights toward a mechanistic understanding of the fate of human sewage microbiome in the WWTP. PMID:24305737

Cai, Lin; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

2014-04-01

133

Application of hybrid coagulation microfiltration with air backflushing to direct sewage concentration for organic matter recovery.  

PubMed

The idea of sewage concentration is gradually being accepted as a promising and sustainable way of wastewater resource recovery. In this study, Hybrid coagulation microfiltration (HCM) with air backflushing (AB) was investigated to effectively concentrate organic matter. Compared to direct sewage microfiltration, the addition of coagulation process improved the filtration performance with less fouling trends and better concentration efficiency. The use of AB exhibited even better performance within the same 7-h preliminary concentration period by reducing to one tenth of the resistance and collecting around four times as much organic matter into the product concentrate as in direct sewage microfiltration. During 93-h lab-scale continuous concentration by HCM with AB, a product concentrate with the COD concentration over 15,000 mg/L was achieved and around 70% of total influent organic matter could be recovered. Compared to Direct Membrane Filtration (DMF) with Chemically Enhanced Backwash (CEB), HCM with AB achieved better concentration efficiency with higher concentration extent and concentration velocity along with less organic matter mineralization and the more concentrated product despite with lower organic matter retention. HCM with AB could be a promising effective sewage organic matter concentration for resource recovery under optimization. PMID:25464325

Jin, Zhengyu; Gong, Hui; Wang, Kaijun

2015-02-11

134

Protease-degradable PEG-maleimide coating with on-demand release of IL-1Ra to improve tissue response to neural electrodes.  

PubMed

Neural electrodes are an important part of brain-machine interface devices that can restore functionality to patients with sensory and movement disorders. Chronically implanted neural electrodes induce an unfavorable tissue response which includes inflammation, scar formation, and neuronal cell death, eventually causing loss of electrode function. We developed a poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel coating for neural electrodes with non-fouling characteristics, incorporated an anti-inflammatory agent, and engineered a stimulus-responsive degradable portion for on-demand release of the anti-inflammatory agent in response to inflammatory stimuli. This coating reduces invitro glial cell adhesion, cell spreading, and cytokine release compared to uncoated controls. We also analyzed the invivo tissue response using immunohistochemistry and microarray qRT-PCR. Although no differences were observed among coated and uncoated electrodes for inflammatory cell markers, lower IgG penetration into the tissue around PEG+IL-1Ra coated electrodes indicates an improvement in blood-brain barrier integrity. Gene expression analysis showed higher expression of IL-6 and MMP-2 around PEG+IL-1Ra samples, as well as an increase in CNTF expression, an important marker for neuronal survival. Importantly, increased neuronal survival around coated electrodes compared to uncoated controls was observed. Collectively, these results indicate promising findings for an engineered coating to increase neuronal survival and improve tissue response around implanted neural electrodes. PMID:25617126

Gutowski, Stacie M; Shoemaker, James T; Templeman, Kellie L; Wei, Yang; Latour, Robert A; Bellamkonda, Ravi V; LaPlaca, Michelle C; Garca, Andrs J

2015-03-01

135

Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in digested sewage sludge (1993-2012).  

PubMed

The analysis of temporal trends is a key tool to assess the success of national and international regulations on chemical pollution. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are chemical pollutants, which are not only harmful, but also because of their slow environmental degradation they pose a long-time risk. In this study, concentrations of selected POPs were measured between 1993 and 2012 in digested sewage sludge from eight municipal waste water treatment plants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), which have been banned or restricted for decades, exhibited decreasing trends with apparent half-lives between 9 and 12years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and long-chain perfluorinated acids showed no clear trend, which reflects the recent introduction of regulations. The analysis of octabromodiphenyl ethers did not reveal indications for reductive debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether; however the analysis of total bromine showed that up to 14% of the total bromine load in sewage sludge originated from PBDEs (average 2%). This is the first study to report temporal trends for more than 20years of series POPs in sewage sludge. PMID:24071021

Zennegg, Markus; Munoz, Maria; Schmid, Peter; Gerecke, Andreas C

2013-10-01

136

Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not change so much except for the one of the sludges, which experienced an important reduction. According to the results, and from a point of view of future soil applications, the balance of the drying process could be considered as positive. It is using a free, renewable and clean energy, which reduces the water content and odours of sludge, thereby improving their management. Except for the water content, there was little modification of the behaviour in soil of greenhouse dried sludges compared to the dehydrated sludges, maintaining its large amount of available nitrogen after drying. Acknowledgements: Jose. M. Soriano-Disla gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Culture for a research fellowship (AP2005-0320).

Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gmez, I.; Navarro-Pedreo, J.

2009-04-01

137

Is There Sewage in My Sample?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the relationship between sediment sampling and ocean pollution as they discover how scientists collect and study sediment on the bottom of the ocean. They will also find out if the sediment sampling methods used by scientists can be used to detect pollution. They will learn about the proximity of the Hudson Shelf Valley and the Hudson Canyon to the New York City metropolitan region, one of the most populated areas in the United States; and will learn that formerly two dumpsites in the Hudson Shelf Valley and Hudson Canyon were used to dispose of sewage sludge. Students will also learn how scientists collect and use core samples to study seafloor sediments and what are some of the impacts of dumping sewage in the ocean.

138

Enhanced physicochemical-biological sewage treatment process in cold regions.  

PubMed

Biological treatment processes give relatively poor pollutant removal efficiencies in cold regions because microbial activity is inhibited at low temperatures. We developed an enhanced physicochemical-biological wastewater treatment process that involves micro-membrane filtration, anaerobic biofilter, and aerobic biofilter to improve the pollutant removal efficiencies that can be achieved under cold conditions. Full-scale experiments using the process were carried out in the northeast of China, at outdoor temperatures of around -30 C. The average removal efficiencies achieved for chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, and suspended solids were 89.8, 92.9, 94.3, and 95.8%, respectively, using a polyaluminium chloride dosage of 50 mg L?. We concluded that the process is effective to treat sewage in cold regions. PMID:25401308

Xu, Guoren; Jia, Chao; Zhang, Zhao; Jiang, Yunlong

2014-01-01

139

Production of long ceramic sewage pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

shaped from the plastic bodies using screw presses of high capacity (rigid construction) which permit one to obtain pipes from the bodies having a low moisture content (13-14%). At the Soviet ceramic plants, sewage pipes are made from the bodies having a moisture content of 17.5-18.5% which restricts the possibility of increasing the length of the pipes. The studies conducted

V. S. Radyukhin; B. V. Lebedev; V. M. Kraev; Yu. F. Mikhailov

1986-01-01

140

Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed

Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

2003-04-01

141

Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed Central

Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

2003-01-01

142

Detection of Human Sewage in Urban Stormwater Using DNA Based Methods and Stable Isotope Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban stormwater is a major source of fecal indicator bacteria in the Milwaukee River Basin, a major watershed draining to Lake Michigan. Much of the watershed is in highly urbanized areas and Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels have been found to be 20,000 CFU per 100 ml in the estuary leading to Lake Michigan. Aging infrastructure and illicit cross connections may allow sewage to infiltrate the stormwater system and could contribute both fecal indicator bacteria and human pathogens to these waters. We conducted extensive sampling of stormwater outfalls in the lower reaches of three major tributaries. Three outfalls along the heavily urbanized Kinnickinnick (KK) were found to have geometric mean E. coli and enterococci levels of 16,200 and 28,700 CFU/100 ml, respectively. Four outfalls along the Menomonee River, draining both suburban and urban areas, had geometric mean E. coli and enterococci levels of 14,700 and 12,800 CFU/100 ml, respectively. These seven outfalls had more than 60% of the samples positive for human specific Bacteroides genetic marker (n=46), suggesting the presence of human sources. In addition, two outfalls on Lincoln Creek, a smaller tributary of the Milwaukee River, had geometric mean E. coli and enterococci levels of 16,700 and 14,900 CFU per 100 ml, respectively. The human specific Bacteroides marker was positive in nearly 90% of the samples (n=24). Subsequent virus testing at one of these outfalls confirmed human pathogens were present with adenovirus detected at 1.3 x 10E3 genomic equivalents (ge)/L, enterovirus at 1.9 x 10E4 ge/L and G1 norovirus at 1.5 x 10E3 ge/L; these values are similar to concentrations found in sewage. Stable isotope studies were conducted in the three tributaries to investigate the relationship between delta C and delta N isotopic composition and microbiological quality of this urban freshwater system. This work is based on the premise that the organic matter of the stormwater will have a stable isotopic signature related to the mixed organic matter sources in polluted stormwater runoff, and that this signal will distinct from untreated sanitary sewage. Stable isotope signatures of stormwater and untreated sewage were determined and compared with the rivers. Isotopic values of stormwater was delta 15N = 1.1 2 %; delta 13C = -25.5 3 % and sewage was delta 15N = -1.9 0.2 %; delta 13C = -23.6 0.3. Suspended particular organic matter (SPOM) of Milwaukee River showed depleted delta 13C (-28.6 1.6 %) and enriched delta 15N (7.7 1.9 %) values. SPOM of the KK River exhibited the most depleted delta 15N (0.2 1.6 %) and enriched delta 13C (-24.8 1.8 %) isotopic values. Menomonee River SPOM showed intermediate isotopic values. The delta 13C values of each river and the estuary enriched significantly throughout the summer storm periods. The isotope signals in the KK and Menomonee were indicative of stormwater runoff and sewage contamination. These results suggest that unrecognized sewage inputs are chronically present and may be delivered through urban stormwater systems. DNA based methods combined with isotope analysis may provide a useful tool for urban watershed assessments and to identify sewage inputs. Delineating the relative contribution of stormwater and sewage to overall degraded water quality might give the first indication of the impact of these sources on the Michigan Lake waters.

McLellan, S. L.; Malet, N.; Sauer, E.; Mueller-Spitz, S.; Borchardt, M.

2008-12-01

143

USE OF SYNCHRONOUS FLUORESCENCE SPECTRA TO ESTIMATE BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) OF URBAN RIVERS AFFECTED BY TREATED SEWAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronous fluorescence spectra and the first derivative spectra of urban rivers affected by treated sewage were studied to find the optimum index for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) estimation. In addition, various sample treatment methods as well as the multiple regression method using available monitoring parameters were examined to improve the BOD estimation capability of the indices. From July to November

J. Hur

2008-01-01

144

SOIL DEGRADATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil degradation can be defined as loss in the quality or productivity of soil, and is often the result of human activities, such as agriculture, deforestation, mining, waste disposal, or chemical spills. Degradation is attributed to changes in soil nutrient status, biota, loss of organic matter, d...

145

Adaptation of mesophilic anaerobic sewage fermentor populations to thermophilic temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Thermophilic (50/sup 0/ ) and obligately thermophilic (60/sup 0/C) anaerobic carbohydrate- and protein-digesting and methanogenic bacterial populations were enumerated in a mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) fermentor anaerobically digesting municipal primary sludge. Of the total population in the mesophilic fermentor, 9% were thermophiles and 1% were obligate thermophiles. Of these 10%, the percentages of bacteria (thermophiles and obligate thermophiles, respectively) able to use specific substrates were as follows: bacteria able to digest albumin, casein, starch, and mono- and disaccharides, 30 and 10%; pectin degraders, 10 and 0.2%; cellulose degraders, 2 and 0.06%; methanogens that grow with H/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/, methanol, and dimethylamine, 9 and 1%; methanogens that grow with formate, 8 and 5%; and methanogens that grow with acetate, 25 and less than 0.8%. Shortly after the temperature was elevated from 35 to 50 or 60 degrees C, the digestion of albumin, casein, starch, and mono- and disaccharides was detected, and methane was produced from H/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/. Methane produced from acetate was not delayed at 50 degrees C, but was delayed by 29 days at 60 degrees C. Methane produced from formate was delayed by 3 days, from methanol by 7 days, and from dimethylamine by 5 days at 50 and 60 degrees C. A 10- and 20-day acclimation period was required for hydrolysis of pectin and cellulose, respectively, at 50 degrees C. Digestion of pectin required 20 days and cellulose longer than 85 days when the temperature was elevated abruptly from 35 to 60 degrees C. The acclimation period for the digestion of pectin and cellulose at 60 degrees C was shortened to 3 and 15 days, respectively, by seeding with a small amount of a culture acclimated to 50 degrees C. The data suggest that enrichment of cellulolytic, pectinolytic, and acetate-utilizing bacteria is crucial for the digestion of sewage sludge at 60 degrees C. (Refs. 17).

Chen, M.

1983-04-01

146

Process for degrading hypochlorite  

SciTech Connect

It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved means and method for the degradation of hypochlorite in alkali waste solutions. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a more effective and less costly method for the degradation of hypochlorite. The foregoing objects and others are accomplished in accordance with the present invention, generally speaking, by providing a process to degrade hypochlorite into chloride and oxygen which includes contacting an aqueous hypochlorite basic solution with a catalyst comprising about 1--10 w/w % cobalt oxide and about 1--15 w/w % molybdenum oxide on a suitable substrate. In another embodiment a similar process for degrading lithium hypochlorite is provided in which waste solution concentration is lowered in order to minimize carbonate precipitation. 6 tabs.

Huxtable, W.P.; Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.

1989-05-12

147

Nitrogen transformations and losses during composting of sewage sludge with acidified sawdust in a laboratory reactor.  

PubMed

Composting is one of the cost-saving ways for sewage sludge treatment to produce a ?nal product that is stable, and free of pathogens and plant seeds. However, the loss of nitrogen through ammonia emission not only reduces the agronomic value of the composting product, but also leads to air pollution and is potentially health threatening. Five mixtures of sewage sludge and acidified sawdust were co-composted for 22?days with different initial pH values (3.51, 4.45, 5.51, 6.48 and 7.56). Acidified sawdust was used as a pH regulator and also bulking agent during composting. Changes in physicochemical properties were characterised by the temperature, organic matter degradation, carbon dioxide emission and pH value. The results showed that regulating the initial pH of composting materials to 5.51~6.48 was the most effective way in reducing ammonia emissions. Compared with the control group, the cumulative ammonia emission was reduced by 52.1% and the nitrogen loss decreased from 44.7% to 24.8% with no adverse effects on organic matter degradation and microbial activity. PMID:25649403

Li, Yunbei; Li, Weiguang

2015-02-01

148

Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) biomass production in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge compost and irrigated with sewage water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy use is one of the most important current global issues. Traditional energetic resources are limited and its use generates environmental problems, i.e. Global Warming, thus it is necessary to find alternative ways to produce energy. Energy crops represent one step towards sustainability but it must be coupled with appropriate land use and management adapted to local conditions. Moreover, positive effects like soil conservation; economical improvement of rural areas and CO2 storage could be achieved. Treated sewage water and sewage sludge compost were used as low-cost inputs for nutrition and irrigation, to cultivate cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) a perennial Mediterranean crop. The aim of the present field experiment was to ascertain the optimum dose of compost application to obtain maximum biomass production. Four compost treatments were applied by triplicate (D1=0; D2=30; D3=50; D4=70 ton/ha) and forty eight cardoon plants were placed in each plot, 12 per treatment, in a calcareous soil (CLfv; WRB, 2006) plot, located in the South East of Spain, in semi-arid conditions. The experiment was developed for one cardoon productive cycle (one year); soil was sampled three times (October, April and July). Soil, compost and treated sewage irrigation water were analyzed (physical and chemical properties). Stalk, capitula and leave weight as well as height and total biomass production were the parameters determined for cardoon samples. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) at p=0,05 significance level were performed to detect differences among treatments for each sampling/plot and to study soil parameters evolution and biomass production for each plot/dose. Several statistical differences in soil were found between treatments for extractable zinc, magnesium and phosphorus; as well as Kjeldahl nitrogen and organic carbon due to compost application, showing a gradual increase of nutrients from D1 to D4. However, considering the evolution of soil parameters along time, pH was the only with marked and significant decreasing trend from the first to the last sampling period. Mean cardoon biomass production in D1subplot was 13 ton/ha which differed significantly from D4 production, which was about 20 ton/ha. Hence, the maximum biomass production was obtained with the maximum compost dose. The results show that compost amendment increased cardoon biomass production, probably due to the improvement of soil properties, especially plant nutrient availability. No significant differences were found in soil parameters along time, with the exception of pH. However, longer test time is needed to evaluate long term effects in soil and to check the maintenance of biomass productivity. References Fernadez J., Curt, M.D., Aguado P.L. Industrial applications of Cynara cardunculus for energy and other uses. Industrial Crops and Product 24 (2006) pp 222-229. WRB (2006). World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2nd ed.). World Soil Resources Report 103, FAO, Rome, Italy (2006) 133 pp. Casado, J.; Sells, S.; Navarro, J.; Bustamante, M.A.; Mataix, J.; Guerrero, C.; Gomez, I. Evaluation of composted sewage sludge as nutricional source for horticulturals soils. Waste Management 26 (2006). pp 946-952. Acknowledgements: The author gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Science for a research fellowship (AP2007-01641).

Lag, A.; Gomez, I.; Navarro-Pedreo, J.; Melendez, I.; Perez Gimeno, A.; Soriano-Disla, J. M.

2010-05-01

149

Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay occurs before it can reach the public however, incineration, which is done in winter months, directly releases the 131I from sewage sludge to the atmosphere, and even though exposures to both workers and the public were found to be considerably lower than 1% of natural background, incineration of sludge in a pathway for public exposure. Although 131I was readily measurable in sewage sludge, only about 1% of the radioione administered to patients was found in the sludge. The fate of the remaining radioactivity has not been established; some may be in secondary and tertiary residuals, but it is quite likely that most passed through the plant and was discharged in dilute concentrations in plant emissions. The behavior of radioiodine and other radioactive materials released into municipal seweage systems, such as those from large medical facilities, is not yet well understood. PMID:9258296

Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

1997-01-01

150

CAUSES OF PAPILLOMAS ON FISH EXPOSED TO CHLORINATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This research was initiated to determine the cause of oral papillomas in black bullheads (Ictalurus melas) from the final oxidation pond of the Tuskegee, Alabama, sewage treatment plant. The water in this pond was chlorinated effluent from the sewage treatment plant. The presence...

151

APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES AND COMPOSTS BPG NOTE 6  

E-print Network

APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES AND COMPOSTS BPG NOTE 6 Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration harmful organisms (plant, animal and human pathogens) in insufficiently composted materials · If C NOTE 6 PAGE 2 Applications of sewage sludges and composts Forestry Tree growth on nutrient

152

Effect of flooding with sewage water on three wetland sedges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of three wetland sedges, Carex vesicaria, C. rostrata, and C. gracilis, were subjected to flooding with diluted pig farm sewage water in a sand-culture experiment lasting for one growing season (20 weeks). Sewage water application altered growth dynamics and accumulation of dry matter in all three species; it shifted the distribution of dry matter in favor of above-ground parts;

Hana Kon?alov; Jan Kv?t; Jan Pokorn; Vclav Hauser

1993-01-01

153

Credit PSR. Northeast and southwest facades of Sewage Pumping Station ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Credit PSR. Northeast and southwest facades of Sewage Pumping Station (Building 4330). Building retains its World War II construction materials and character. In the background at the extreme left is Building 4305 (Unicon Portable Hangar) - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Sewage Pumping Station, Southwest of E Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

154

FUEL EFFICIENT INCINERATION FOR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...

155

Coxiella burnetii in sewage water at sewage water treatment plants in a Q fever epidemic area.  

PubMed

During 2007-2010, over 4000 persons in The Netherlands contracted Q-fever, a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Goats and sheep are the main reservoir of C. burnetti and infected animals shed the bacterium with their urine, faeces and birth products. Human infections may occur through direct contact with infected animals, or through inhalation of contaminated dust particles or aerosols. Discharge of waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may result in the presence of C. burnetii in sewage water and aerosols at sewage water treatment plants (SWTPs) which may pose a health risk for workers or neighbouring residents. The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of C. burnetii at SWTPs and to optimize available detection methods. In March-July 2011, sewage influent and aeration tank samples from four SWTPs receiving discharge from Q fever positive goat farms were examined by using a multiplex real-time PCR detecting C. burnetii DNA by targeting IS1111 and com1 genes. Influent (44%; n=16/36) and active sludge (36%; n=13/36) samples were positive with low C. burnetii DNA content. Percentage positive samples per SWTP were 28-61%. Positive samples were most frequent in March 2011 and least frequent in May 2011. The presence of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water samples suggests that SWTPs receiving waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may contribute to the spread of C. burnetii to the environment. The low levels of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water during the decline of the Q fever outbreak in The Netherlands in 2011 indicate a low health risk for SWTP workers and residents. PMID:23347968

Schets, F M; de Heer, L; de Roda Husman, A M

2013-11-01

156

Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to increased hardness of the vitrificates and reduced leaching of some heavy metals. PMID:25242604

Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szo?tysek, Jolanta

2014-12-01

157

Improved retrieval of global tropospheric formaldehyde columns from GOME-2/MetOp-A addressing noise reduction and instrumental degradation issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new data set of formaldehyde vertical columns retrieved from observations of GOME-2 onboard of the EUMETSAT MetOp-A platform between 2007 and 2011. The new retrieval scheme, which has been optimised for GOME-2, includes a two-step fitting procedure that strongly reduces the impact of spectral interferences between H2CO and BrO, and a modified DOAS approach that better handles ozone absorption effects at moderately low sun elevations. Owing to these new features, the noise in the H2CO slant columns is reduced by up to 40% in comparison to baseline retrieval settings used operationally. Also, the previously reported underestimation of the H2CO columns in tropical and mid-latitudes regions has been largely eliminated, improving the agreement with coincident SCIAMACHY observations. To compensate for the drift of the GOME-2 slit function and to mitigate the instrumental degradation effects on H2CO retrievals, an asymmetric Gaussian line shape is fitted during the irradiance calibration. Additionally, external parameters used in the tropospheric air mass factor computation (surface reflectances, cloud parameters and a priori profile shapes of H2CO) have been updated using most recent data bases. Similar updates were also applied to the historical data sets of GOME and SCIAMACHY leading to the generation of a consistent multi-mission H2CO data record covering the time period from 1997 until 2011. Comparing the resulting time series of monthly averaged H2CO vertical columns in 12 large regions worldwide, the correlation coefficient between SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 columns is generally higher than 0.8 in the overlap period, and linear regression slopes differ by less than 10% from unity in most of the regions. In comparison to SCIAMACHY, the largely improved spatial sampling of GOME-2 allows for a better characterisation of formaldehyde distribution at the regional scale and/or at shorter timescales, leading to a better identification of the emission sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds.

De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; Stavrakou, T.; Mller, J.-F.; Lerot, C.; Theys, N.; Valks, P.; Hao, N.; van der A, R.

2012-08-01

158

Improved retrieval of global tropospheric formaldehyde columns from GOME-2/MetOp-A addressing noise reduction and instrumental degradation issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new dataset of formaldehyde vertical columns retrieved from observations of GOME-2 on board the EUMETSAT MetOp-A platform between 2007 and 2011. The new retrieval scheme, which has been optimised for GOME-2, includes a two-step fitting procedure that strongly reduces the impact of spectral interferences between H2CO and BrO, and a modified DOAS approach that better handles ozone absorption effects at moderately low sun elevations. Owing to these new features, the noise in the H2CO slant columns is reduced by up to 40% in comparison to baseline retrieval settings used operationally. Also, the previously reported underestimation of the H2CO columns in tropical and mid-latitude regions has been largely eliminated, improving the agreement with coincident SCIAMACHY observations. To compensate for the drift of the GOME-2 slit function and to mitigate the instrumental degradation effects on H2CO retrievals, an asymmetric Gaussian line-shape is fitted during the irradiance calibration. Additionally, external parameters used in the tropospheric air mass factor computation (surface reflectances, cloud parameters and a priori profile shapes of H2CO) have been updated using most recent databases. Similar updates were also applied to the historical datasets of GOME and SCIAMACHY, leading to the generation of a consistent multi-mission H2CO data record covering the time period from 1997 until 2011. Comparing the resulting time series of monthly averaged H2CO vertical columns in 12 large regions worldwide, the correlation coefficient between SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 columns is generally higher than 0.8 in the overlap period, and linear regression slopes differ by less than 10% from unity in most of the regions. In comparison to SCIAMACHY, the largely improved spatial sampling of GOME-2 allows for a better characterisation of formaldehyde distribution at the regional scale and/or at shorter timescales, leading to a better identification of the emission sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds.

De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; Stavrakou, T.; Mller, J.-F.; Lerot, C.; Theys, N.; Valks, P.; Hao, N.; van der A, R.

2012-11-01

159

Challenge of urban sewage disposal in a karst region: Mrida, Yuctan, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four hydrogeologic factors influence urban sewage management on the northern Yuctan (Mexico) Peninsula: 1) lack of rivers capable of transporting and/or oxidizing sewage, 2) near-surface flat-lying, porous, permeable limestone and dolomite with shallow layers of variable permeability but without major subsurface aquitards, 3) rapid groundwater transmission, penetration of seawater inland beneath a fresh water lens, and a flat water table only a few meters below land surface and controlled by sea level, 4) near absence of soil cover. Mrida, Yuctan (population approaching one million, approximately the world's 450th most populous city) has no central sewage system. The water table beneath the city is consistently only 7-9 m below land surface, and the 40 m-thick fresh water lens, which is the sole source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water, directly overlies a marine intrusion of modified seawater composition. The old city has an estimated 130,000 drains feeding untreated household waste directly into the permeable karst aquifer. Numerous storm drains send street runoff directly to the aquifer. In addition, industries, hotels, and some subdivisions have unmonitored injection wells that pump untreated wastewater into the underlying saline intrusion. Some injection wells have flow problems possibly because of low aquifer permeability within the saline intrusion. Deep injection is also problematic because density contrast with saline intrusion water can produce a gravity imbalance, and high sulfate water can react with organic waste to produce H2S. Some city water supply wells are reportedly affected by inflation of the water table beneath the city, by local upconing of saline water, and by nitrate contamination. Paradoxically, Mrida with an abundant, easily contaminated source of fresh water, lacks streams to transport sewage off-site, and thus shares some water supply/sewage treatment problems with cities in arid regions. Recently, compact, efficient systems that provide almost tertiary-level sewage treatment have been developed and installed in various localities worldwide. Fitting the old parts of Mrida with several such systems would be less disruptive than blasting a monolithic sewer network through the city's rocky base, and it would minimize the problem of pumping sewage in an almost completely flat-lying area. Appropriate reuse of water from such local treatment facilities would be more flexible than from a single central system. Furthermore, injecting water into the aquifer after secondary or tertiary treatment would be a huge improvement over pumping of untreated "aguas negras" into the saline intrusion. Finally, there is a renaissance of sorts in sewage treatment technology, and it would be much easier to upgrade a number of individual systems as they became obsolete than to replace a monolithic central system. Safe, effective operation and monitoring of the suggested of sewage system would be challenging. Yet, as more cities join those 500 world-wide that now have populations approaching or exceeding one million, use of streams to export pollution may become infeasible. Perhaps Mrida can become a model to demonstrate that people can safely process and reuse their own wastewater.

Perry, E. C.; Villasuso, M.

2013-05-01

160

Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting.  

PubMed

In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory scale experiments. Two approaches investigated in the study were: (1) evaluation of vermistabilization of PSS and CD mixtures after 15 weeks in terms of fertilizer quality of the products and; (2) growth and reproduction of Eisenia foetida up to 11 weeks in different vermireactors. In all the PSS and CD mixtures, a decrease in pH, TOC and C:N ratio, but increase in EC, TKN, TK and TP was recorded. The heavy metals' content in the vermicomposts was higher than initial mixtures. Maximum worm biomass was attained in 10% PSS+90% CD mixture while, the worm growth rate was highest in 30% PSS+70% CD feed mixture. It was inferred from the study that addition of 30-40% of PSS with CD had no adverse effect on the fertilizer value of the vermicompost as well as growth of Eisenia foetida. The results indicated that PSS could be converted into good quality manure by vermicomposting if mixed in appropriate ratio (30-40%) with cow dung. PMID:17950995

Gupta, Renuka; Garg, V K

2008-05-30

161

Sedimentary records of sewage pollution using faecal markers in contrasting peri-urban shallow lakes.  

PubMed

Sewage contamination in shallow lake sediments is of concern because the pathogens, organic matter and nutrients contribute to the deterioration of the water-bodies' health and ecology. Sediment cores from three shallow lakes (Coneries, Church and Clifton Ponds) within Attenborough nature reserve located downstream of sewage treatment works were analysed for TOC, C/N, ?(13)C, ?(15)N, bacterial coliforms and faecal sterols. (210)Pb and (137)Cs activities were used to date the sediments. Elemental analysis suggests that the source of organic matter was algal and down profile changes in ?(13)C indicate a possible decrease in productivity with time which could be due to improvements in sewage treatment. ?(15)N for Coneries Pond are slightly higher than those observed in Church or Clifton and are consistent with a sewage-derived nitrate source which has been diluted by non-sewage sources of N. The similarity in ?(15)N values (+12 to +10 ) indicates that the three ponds were not entirely hydrologically isolated. Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) reveals that Coneries Pond had sterol concentrations in the range 20 to 30 ?g/g (dry wt.), whereas, those from Clifton and Church Ponds were lower. The highest concentrations of the human-sourced sewage marker 5?-coprostanol were observed in the top 40 cm of Coneries Pond with values up to 2.2 ?g/g. In contrast, Church and Clifton Pond sediments contain only trace amounts throughout. Down-profile comparison of 5?-coprostanol/cholesterol, 5?-coprostanol/(5?-coprostanol+5?-cholestanol) and 5?-epicoprostanol/coprostanol as well as 5?-cholestanol/cholesterol suggests that Coneries Pond has received appreciable amounts of faecal contamination. Examination of 5?-stigmastanol (marker for herbivorous/ruminant animals) down core concentrations suggests a recent decrease in manure slurry input to Coneries Pond. The greater concentration of ?-sitosterol in sediments from Church and Clifton Ponds as compared to Coneries is attributed in part to their greater diversity and extent of aquatic plants and avian faeces. PMID:21067795

Vane, C H; Kim, A W; McGowan, S; Leng, M J; Heaton, T H E; Kendrick, C P; Coombs, P; Yang, H; Swann, G E A

2010-12-15

162

The effectiveness of sewage treatment processes to remove faecal pathogens and antibiotic residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogens and antibiotics enter the aquatic environment via sewage effluents and may pose a health risk to wild life and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of faecal bacteria, and selected antibiotic residues in raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sewage treatment plant

Rahzia Hendricks; Edmund John Pool

2012-01-01

163

Anaerobic degradation of benzoate to methane by a microbial consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stabilized consortium of microbes which anaerobically degraded benzoate and produced CH4 was established by inoculation of a benzoate-mineral salts medium with sewage sludge; the consortium was routinely subcultured anaerobically in this medium for 3 years. Acetate, formate, H2 and CO2 were identified as intermediates in the overall conversion of benzoate to CH4 by the culture. Radioactivity was equally divided

J. G. Ferry; R. S. Wolfe

1976-01-01

164

Medically-derived 131I in municipal sewage effluent.  

PubMed

This work presents (131)I (t()=8.04d) concentrations in sewage effluent from the Stony Brook Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP), a small plant serving a regional thyroid cancer treatment facility in Stony Brook, NY, USA. The concentrations detected in sewage effluent ranged from 1.80.3 to 2272BqL(-1). The primary source of (131)I is excreta from thyroid cancer inpatients treated at the Stony Brook University Medical Center. Based on several time series measurements following known inpatient treatments, the mean sewage half-life (T(s)) of iodine is 3d in this plant. The T(s), analogous to a radioactive half-life, describes the time it takes for half of a wastewater component to be removed from a WPCP. Flow recycling, or activated sludge, used to maintain bacterial populations necessary for sewage treatment causes iodine to remain in this plant far longer than its hydraulic retention time. The experimental results suggest that most (131)I entering the Stony Brook WPCP leaves in sewage effluent, not in sewage sludge. Patient treatments can result in continuous discharges of (131)I to surface waters where it can be used as a tracer of sewage-derived material and to understand the behavior of (131)I in aquatic environments. PMID:22925394

Rose, Paula S; Swanson, R Lawrence; Cochran, J Kirk

2012-11-01

165

[Research on CANON process for municipal sewage in room temperature].  

PubMed

In the room temperature 14.7-24.7 degrees C, simultaneous nitrification-ANAMMOX (CANON) process for municipal sewage was tested by SBR while the DO was controlled between 0.05 and 0.30 mg/L. As a result, the research shows that CANON process can be applied to the nitrogen treatment of municipal wastewater in room temperature by SBR. DO can be regarded as the indication parameter of reaction terminal, and 1 mg/L has been confirmed in the experiment. In the exploring SBR experiments, the consumption velocity of NH4(+) -N was 0.164-0.218 kg/(m3 x d), the production velocity of NO3(-) -N was 0.026-0.036 kg/(m3 x d), the removal velocity and efficiency of TN were 0.124-0.194 kg/(m3 x d) and 65%-75% respectively. Additionally, in the improving SBR experiments, there were three methods for avoiding nitrite accumulation and increasing the nitrogen removal efficiency. They were improving temperature, adding non-aeration period of time and increasing the quantity of ANAMMOX bacteria. Therefore, the removal efficiency of TN was increased to 77%-88% through the three ways above. However, in view of the nitrogen removal velocity and the fact of engineering application condition, the third approach was the best to advance the general ability of ANAMMOX. PMID:19774999

Wang, Jun-An; Li, Dong; Tian, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Zhao-Liang; Fu, Kun-Ming

2009-07-15

166

Radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon in sewage-treatment-plant effluent and domestic sewage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an attempt to better characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in several specific sources to Lake Kasumigaura, such as sewage-treatment-plant effluent (STPE), domestic sewage (DS) and forest stream (FS), we analyzed radiocarbon ( 14C) and stable carbon isotopic compositions ( 13C) of the DOCs. The measurements of 14C for DOC were performed by an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES-TERRA) in Japan. The ? 14C and ? 13C values of the DOCs in several sources to Lake Kasumigaura, have low carbon isotopic values, ranging from -470 to -79 and from -27.9 to -24.2, respectively. These carbon isotopic values are substantially different from those of Lake Kasumigaura. These results imply different origins for the DOC in Lake Kasumigaura. The 14C and 13C analyses of DOC led to a useful classification for DOCs in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan.

Nara, Fumiko Watanabe; Imai, Akio; Matsushige, Kazuo; Komatsu, Kazuhiro; Kawasaki, Nobuyuki; Shibata, Yasuyuki

2010-04-01

167

Transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals during integrated composting-vermicomposting of sewage sludges.  

PubMed

Transformation and availability of nutrients and some heavy metals were assessed during the integrated composting-vermicomposting of both primary sewage sludge (PSS) and waste activated sewage sludge (WAS) using matured vermicompost as indigenous bulking material and employing Eisenia fetida as earthworm species. Vermicomposting resulted in significant increase in total N (TN) (PSS: 41.7-64.6%, F=11.6, P<0.05; WAS: 36.4-58.6%, F=6.4, P<0.05), water soluble N (WSN) (PSS: 37.1-50.5%, F=30.1, P<0.05; WAS: 40.1-53.0%, F=27.6, P<0.05), total P (TP) (PSS: 39.9-69.8%, F=27.1, P<0.05; WAS: 32.2-56.6%, F=21.4, P<0.05) and water soluble P (WSP) (PSS: 25.2-34.3%, F=163.9, P<0.05; WAS: 24.1-34.2%, F=144.3, P<0.05) as compared to the initial compost material depending on different experimental conditions. The study demonstrated that the vermicomposting significantly improved the availability of nutrients in sewage sludges. In addition, vermicomposting considerably reduced the availability of heavy metals except Fe and Mn, presumably by forming organic-bound complexes in spite of several fold increase in their total content. The environmental conditions (i.e., temperature and relative humidity), in general, showed significant effect on the transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals. There was no effect of earthworm density on the transformation and availability of heavy metals and nutrients except N and P, possibly due to prior exposure during acclimation period in sewage sludge. PMID:22277776

Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

2012-05-01

168

Plasma chemical gasification of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The possibility for plasma gasification of sewage sludge is investigated. Water steam is used as the plasma generating gas and as a chemical reagent. The experiments are carried out at a sludge to water steam ratio of 1 to 1.5 by weight, and at a plasma torch temperature of up to 2600 degrees C. The calculated average temperature in the reactor after mixing with the sludge particles is up to 1700 degrees C. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the sludge are given. The resulting gases are analysed by gas chromatography. High calorific gas containing mainly carbon monoxide (48% volume) and hydrogen (46% volume), as well as glass-like slag, is obtained. No water-soluble substances are detected within it. The amount of carbon dioxide produced is under 4% mass. No hydrocarbons are observed within the gas. The investigated process is environmentally safe, compact and shows a high rate of conversion. PMID:12667017

Balgaranova, Janetta

2003-02-01

169

Anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and glycerol, focusing on process kinetics, microbial dynamics and sludge dewaterability.  

PubMed

Anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) is a proven option to significantly boost biogas production while utilizing existing digesters and infrastructure. The aim of the present research was to conduct an exhaustive study regarding anaerobic codigestion of mixed sewage sludge and crude glycerol considering impacts on organic load, hydraulic load, process performance and microbial community. The methane potential of crude glycerol varied from 370 mL CH4g(-1) VS to 483 mL CH4g(-1) VS for different samples tested. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of crude glycerol was 1.01 g VS L(-1), and the primary mechanism of inhibition was through overload from rapid fermentation rather than the presence of toxic compounds in the crude glycerol. In continuous operation over 200 days, feeding glycerol at up to 2% v/v, increased organic load by up to 70% and resulted in a 50% increase in methane production. Glycerol dosing resulted in no change in apparent dewaterability, with both codigestion and control reactors returning values of 22%-24%. Members of the phylum Thermotogae emerged as a niche population during AcoD of sewage sludge and glycerol; however there was no gross change in microbial community structure and only minimal changes in diversity. AcoD did not result in synergisms between sewage sludge and crude glycerol. Actually, at dose rate up to 2% v/v glycerol dosing is still an effective strategy to increase the organic loading rate of continuous anaerobic digesters with minimal impact of the hydraulic retention time. Nonetheless, the dose rate must be managed to: (i) prevent process inhibition and (ii) ensure sufficient degradation time to produce a stable biosolids product. PMID:25459224

Jensen, P D; Astals, S; Lu, Y; Devadas, M; Batstone, D J

2014-12-15

170

Transformation products and human metabolites of triclocarban and triclosan in sewage sludge across the United States.  

PubMed

Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (?=0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2'-hydroxy-TCC (r=0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r=0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (?=0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37-74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4-2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge. PMID:24932693

Pycke, Benny F G; Roll, Isaac B; Brownawell, Bruce J; Kinney, Chad A; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Halden, Rolf U

2014-07-15

171

Enzymatic degradation of (ligno)cellulose.  

PubMed

Glycoside-degrading enzymes play a dominant role in the biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass into low-price biofuels and high-value-added chemicals. New insight into protein functions and substrate structures, the kinetics of recognition, and degradation events has resulted in a substantial improvement of our understanding of cellulose degradation. PMID:25136976

Bornscheuer, Uwe; Buchholz, Klaus; Seibel, Jrgen

2014-10-01

172

USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

173

WINDROW AND STATIC PILE COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Research was conducted on composting anaerobically digested and centrifuge dewatered sewage sludge from 1975 through 1980. Windrow and static pile composting processes were evaluated; new methods were employed using deeper windrows and aerated static piles were constructed withou...

174

IDENTIFYING COMPOUNDS DESPITE CHROMATOGRAPHY LIMITATIONS: ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN TREATED SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Highly concentrated extracts of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents contain detectable levels of dozens of compounds resulting from human activities. Recent concern over use and disposal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPS) (1) has stimulated interest ...

175

Combustion kinetics of sewage sludge and combustible wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimated the kinetics of the mono- and co-combustion of sewage sludge pellets and combustible wastes such as municipal\\u000a solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Sewage sludge was manufactured into pellets with a diameter of 8, 12, or\\u000a 16 mm and a length of 30 mm. The RDF was composed of paper and plastics and was formed into

Ho-Soo Lee; Sung-Keun Bae

2009-01-01

176

Monitoring sewage sludge using heterotrophic nitrogen fixing microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was studied using free-living N2-fixing bacteria in two types of soil amended with six types of municipal sewage sludges and cow and pig manures, respectively. Sludge and manure treatments were as follows: no addition, Swedish recommended rates of 5 t dry wt ha?1, twice the standard rate of addition (2RR), and 10 times the standard rate (10RR). The

A. M. Mrtensson; L. Torstensson

1996-01-01

177

Effects of various pretreatments on biohydrogen production from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plant is a kind of biomass which contains many organics, mainly carbohydrates and\\u000a proteins. Four pretreatments, acid pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment, thermal pretreatment and ultrasonic pretreatment,\\u000a were used to enhance biohydrogen production from sewage sludge. The experimental results showed that the four pretreatments\\u000a could all increase the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of sludge and

BenYi Xiao; JunXin Liu

2009-01-01

178

Oceanographic effects of the 1992 Point Loma sewage pipe spill  

SciTech Connect

Early in early 1992, 180 million gallons of advanced primarily treated sewage emptied into 10 meters of water from the broken Point Loma sewage pipe, San Diego. For about two months a sewage boil about the size of a football field existed at the surface and within the Point Loma kelp bed. Sampling and observations taken during the spill indicated the surface waters at the spill site were grayish and smelling of sewage. The sewage water had mixed with the marine waters reducing salinity to about one-half normal (or 15 ppt.). The sediment load of the sewage coated the blades of the giant kelp and the kelp was limp and withdrawn from the surface. At the site of the main boil the kelp appeared to have dropped to the bottom. Sediments on the bottom in the boil area were mainly coarse sands as compared to the surrounding sandy-muds. Preliminary results using laboratory analysis suggest: one month into the spill no infauna were observed in the sediments or planktons in the water of the boil area, but were in the surrounding sediments and water; the observed phytoplankton were dominated by dinoflagellates and suggested red tide conditions surrounding the boil. The site has been monitored monthly since the spill to observe further impact and recovery.

Casey, R.; Ciccateri, A.; Dougherty, K.; Gacek, L.; Lane, S.; Liponi, K.; Leeds, R.; Walsh, F. (Ocean Research Inst., San Diego, CA (United States))

1992-01-01

179

Drift Degradation Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA code, which determines structurally controlled key-block failure, is not applicable for stress-controlled failure in the lithophysal units. To address these limitations, additional numerical codes have been included that can explicitly apply seismic and thermal loads, providing significant improvements to the analysis of drift degradation and extending the validity of drift degradation models.

D. Kicker

2004-09-16

180

Organic matter transformations and kinetics during sewage sludge composting in a two-stage system.  

PubMed

The use of different proportions of rape straw and grass as amendments in the composting of dewatered sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was tested in a two-stage system (first stage, an aerated bioreactor and second stage, a periodically turned windrow). The composition of feedstock affected the temperature and organic matter degradation in the bioreactor and the formation of humic substances, especially humic acids (HA), during compost maturation in the windrow. The total HA content (the sum of labile and stable HA) increased according to first-order kinetics, whereas labile HA content was constant and did not exceed 12% of total HA. ?logK of 1.0-1.1 indicated that HA was of R-type, indicating a low degree of humification. Temperature during composting was the main factor affecting polymerization of fulvic acids to HA and confirmed the value of the degree of polymerization, which increased only when thermophilic conditions were obtained. PMID:21978622

Kulikowska, Dorota; Klimiuk, Ewa

2011-12-01

181

Potential of the TCE-degrading endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE to improve plant growth and reduce TCE phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration in poplar cuttings  

SciTech Connect

The TCE-degrading poplar endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE was inoculated in poplar cuttings, exposed to 0, 200 and 400 mg l{sup -1} TCE, that were grown in two different experimental setups. During a short-term experiment, plants were grown hydroponically in half strength Hoagland nutrient solution and exposed to TCE for 3 days. Inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE promoted plant growth, reduced TCE phytotoxicity and reduced the amount of TCE present in the leaves. During a mid-term experiment, plants were grown in potting soil and exposed to TCE for 3 weeks. Here, inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE had a less pronounced positive effect on plant growth and TCE phytotoxicity, but resulted in strongly reduced amounts of TCE in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 400 mg l{sup -1} TCE, accompanied by a lowered evapotranspiration of TCE. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), which are known intermediates of TCE degradation, were not detected. The endophyte P. putida W619-TCE degrades TCE during its transport through the xylem, leading to reduced TCE concentrations in poplar, and decreased TCE evapotranspiration.

Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Truyens, S.; Dupae, J.; Newman, L.; Taghavi, S.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

2010-09-01

182

Tracking sewage derived contamination in riverine settings by analysis of synthetic surfactants.  

PubMed

A study has been made of the presence and reactivity of the most commonly used surfactants, both anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, LAS, and alkyl ethoxysulfates, AES) and non-ionic (alcohol polyethoxylates, AEOs, and nonylphenol polyethoxylates, NPEOs), in water and surface sediments from the middle stretch of the Guadalete River in SW Spain (12 stations). Average values were between 0.1 and 3.7 mg kg(-1) in sediment, and between 0.2 and 37 ?g L(-1) in water. The sorption of surfactants was dominated by hydrophobic mechanisms, so those homologues having longer alkyl chains (e.g. C(18)AEO) showed higher relative percentages and concentrations in sediments compared with water. Local and sharply higher concentrations of these compounds were observed at three sampling stations (7, 9 and 12), indicating the occurrence of wastewater discharges into the river. By analysing the distributions of different surfactant homologues and their metabolites we were able to distinguish between sewage contamination from sources discharging treated and untreated wastewaters. Upstream (stations 1-2), LAS concentrations were below 30 ?g L(-1) and the composition of their degradation intermediates (sulfophenyl carboxylic acids, SPCs) (160 ?g L(-1)) was dominated by short-chain homologues (C(6)-C(9)SPCs), indicating that the degradation of this surfactant is at an advanced stage. The highest concentration (487 ?g L(-1)) of SPCs was detected near the effluent outlet of a sewage treatment plant (STP) (station 12). Sampling stations (7 and 9) affected by untreated wastewater discharges were the only ones showing the presence of the most reactive and biodegradable SPC isomers and homologues (e.g. C(11)SPC). Here, LAS reached the highest concentration values measured (>2 mg L(-1)), and showed a homologue distribution closer to that of commercial mixtures than LAS found at the other stations. PMID:21625728

Corada-Fernndez, Carmen; Lara-Martn, Pablo A; Candela, Lucila; Gonzlez-Mazo, Eduardo

2011-07-01

183

Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products as water-soluble molecular markers of sewage.  

PubMed

We examined the utility of 13 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as molecular markers of sewage contamination in riverine, groundwater, and coastal environments. The PPCPs were crotamiton, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, mefenamic acid, thymol, triclosan, propyphenazone, carbamazepine, diethyltoluamide, ethenzamide, and caffeine. Measurements in 37 Japanese rivers showed positive correlations of riverine flux of crotamiton (r2 = 0.85), carbamazepine (r2 = 0.84), ibuprofen (r2 = 0.73), and mefenamic acid (r2 = 0.67) with the population in the catchments. In three surveys in the Tamagawa estuary, crotamiton, carbamazepine, and mefenamic acid behaved conservatively across seasons within a salinity range of 0.4-29 per thousand, suggesting their utility as molecular markers in coastal environments. Removal of ketoprofen and naproxen in the estuary was ascribed to photodegradation. Ibuprofen and thymol were removed from estuarine waters in summer by microbial degradation. Triclosan was removed by a combination of microbial degradation, photodegradation, and adsorption. These results were consistent with those of river water incubated for 8 d at 25 degrees C in the dark in order to examine the effects of biodegradation and photodegradation. Crotamiton was detected in groundwater from the Tokyo metropolitan area (12 out of 14 samples), suggesting wastewater leakage from decrepit sewers. Carbamazepine, ketoprofen, and ibuprofen (5/14), caffeine (4/14), and diethyltoluamide (3/14) were also detected in the groundwater, whereas the other carboxylic and phenolic PPCPs were not detected and were thought to be removed during their passage through soil. All the data demonstrated the utility of crotamiton and carbamazepine as conservative markers in freshwater and coastal environments. We recommend combining these conservative markers with labile PPCPs to detect inputs of poorly treated sewage. PMID:18800500

Nakada, Norihide; Kiri, Kentaro; Shinohara, Hiroyuki; Harada, Arata; Kuroda, Keisuke; Takizawa, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige

2008-09-01

184

Application of biochemical products as a bioremediation technique for domestic sewage treatment plants.  

PubMed

Biochemical products have been widely used for treatment of various types of wastewater. The treatment processes with the addition of biochemical products are quite attractive because of their simplicity, minimal use of equipment, they are environmentally friendly and are suitable for the removal of organic pollutants. The purpose of these products is to enhance the activities of beneficial microbes in order to improve treatment performance. This study was carried out to determine the potential of applying biochemical products in assisting and improving the performance of sewage treatment plants. In this study, four biochemical products, namely: Zeolite, Bio-C, Eco-B and Was-D, were applied to the sewage treatment plant. Analyses were carried out on several water quality parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), oil & grease (O&G), phosphorus (P), ammoniacal nitrogen (AN) and sludge thickness (ST). From the results obtained, it can be seen that the overall performance of the treatment plant improved with most of the parameters studied were found to fulfill the DOE Standard B requirements. The performance of Bio-C was found to give better results than other products. PMID:17951865

Salim, M R; Hassan, R Md; Tan, K Y

2007-01-01

185

Naproxen degradation test to monitor Trametes versicolor activity in solid-state bioremediation processes.  

PubMed

The white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor has been studied as a potential agent for the removal of environmental pollutants. For long-time solid-phase bioremediation systems a test is required to monitor the metabolic status of T. versicolor and its degradation capability at different stages. A biodegradation test based on the percentage of degradation of a spiked model pharmaceutical (anti-inflammatory naproxen) in 24 h (ND24) is proposed to monitor the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in sewage sludge. ND24 is intended to act as a test complementary to ergosterol quantification as specific fungal biomarker, and laccase activity as extracellular oxidative capacity of T. versicolor. For samples collected over 45 d, ND24 values did not necessarily correlate with ergosterol or laccase amounts but in most cases, they were over 30% degradation, indicating that T. versicolor may be suitable for bioremediation of sewage sludge in the studied period. PMID:20347219

Rodrguez-Rodrguez, Carlos E; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Caminal, Gloria

2010-07-15

186

Enhanced compositing of radiation disinfected sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on isothermal composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge and liquid chromatography of water extracts of the products were carried out. The optimum temperature and pH were around 50 C and 7-8, respectively. The repeated use of products as seeds increased the rate of CO 2 evolution. The rate reached a maximum within 10 hours and decreased rapidly, and the CO 2 evolution ceased after about 3 days. The conversion of organic carbon to carbon dioxide attained to about 40% for the repeated use of products as seeds at the optimum conditions. As long as seeds in available were used, no remarkable difference was found in the composting of unirradiated and irradiated sludges. The composting process using radiation, however, can be carried out at the optimum conditions and is expected to shorten the composting period, because it is not necessary to keep fermentation temperature higher to reduce pathogen in sludge. Liquid chromatographic studies of the products showed that low molecular components decreased and higher molecular ones increased with fermentation. An index expressing the degree of reduction of easily decomposable organics was presented. The index also showed that the optimum temperature for fermentation was 50 C, and that the easily decomposable organics disappeared above 30% of the conversion of organic carbon.

Kawakami, W.; Hashimoto, S.

187

Polysaccharide Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

188

Chironomid midge sensitization in sewage workers: case study  

PubMed Central

Non-biting chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) may cause sensitization and allergic reactions in humans and have recently been identified as a potential health problem in Swedish municipal sewage treatment plants. To investigate, on a pilot scale, the allergenic potential of chironomids in sewage workers, all workers (n = 8) at a sewage treatment plant and local controls (n = 16) completed a symptom questionnaire, underwent measurement of the fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air, spirometry, and provided serum samples for the determination of atopy status and the prevalence of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against Chironomus thummi (Chi t) using a commercial fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (FEIA). Three sewage workers (38%) but no controls (0%) were FEIA positive for C. thummi-specific IgE antibodies (P < 0.05). No other health-related findings were significantly different between the groups. The study suggested that occupational exposure to Chironomids may cause sensitization with circulating IgE-antibodies in sewage workers. PMID:23734859

SELDN, AI; CALO, A; MLLEBY, G; HULTGREN, O

2013-01-01

189

76 FR 78253 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Final Affirmative Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...safe and sanitary removal and treatment of sewage from all vessels are...safe and sanitary removal and treatment of sewage from all vessels are...holding tank, to a municipal wastewater treatment plant or to an on-site...

2011-12-16

190

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

2012-01-01

191

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

2013-01-01

192

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

2011-01-01

193

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters...Operations 159.309 Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater....

2010-07-01

194

33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Sewage and graywater discharge record book. 159.315 Section 159...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters... 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While...

2010-07-01

195

Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic communities during sewage decomposition in Mississippi River water  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial decay processes are one of the mechanisms whereby sewage contamination is reduced in the environment. This decomposition process involves a highly complex array of bacterial and eukaryotic communities from both sewage and ambient waters. However, relatively little is kn...

196

40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? 60.4775...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units...

2014-07-01

197

40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... This subpart exempts combustion units that incinerate sewage sludge and are not located at a wastewater treatment facility designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part (e.g.,...

2011-07-01

198

40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?  

... This subpart exempts combustion units that incinerate sewage sludge and are not located at a wastewater treatment facility designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part (e.g.,...

2014-07-01

199

40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... This subpart exempts combustion units that incinerate sewage sludge and are not located at a wastewater treatment facility designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part (e.g.,...

2012-07-01

200

40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... This subpart exempts combustion units that incinerate sewage sludge and are not located at a wastewater treatment facility designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part (e.g.,...

2013-07-01

201

40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? 60.4775...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units...

2011-07-01

202

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

2010-01-01

203

Renewable Energy Production from Waste to Mitigate Climate Change and Counteract Soil Degradation - A Spatial Explicit Assessment for Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste production from urban areas is growing faster than urbanization itself, while at the same time urban areas are increasingly contributing substantial emissions causing climate change. Estimates indicate for urban residents a per capita solid waste (MSW) production of 1.2 kg per day, subject to further increase to 1.5 kg beyond 2025. Waste water and sewage production is estimated at about 260 liters per capita and day, also at increasing rates. Based on these figures, waste - including e.g. MSW, sewage and animal manure - can generally be assumed as a renewable resource with varying organic components and quantity. This paper demonstrates how new and innovative technologies in the field of Waste-to-Green Products can help in various ways not only to reduce costs for waste treatment, reduce the pressure on largely overloaded dump sites, and reduce also the effect of toxic materials at the landfill site and by that i.e. protect the groundwater. Moreover, Waste-to-Green Products can contribute actively to mitigating climate change through fossil fuel substitution and carbon sequestration while at the same time counteracting negative land use effects from other types of renewable energy and feedstock production through substitution. At the same time, the co-production and recycling of fertilizing elements and biochar can substantially counteract soil degradation and improve the soil organic carbon content of different land use types. The overall objective of this paper is to assess the total climate change mitigation potential of MSW, sewage and animal manure for Japan. A techno-economic approach is used to inform the policy discussion on the suitability of this substantial and sustainable mitigation option. We examine the spatial explicit technical mitigation potential from e.g. energy substitution and carbon sequestration through biochar in rural and urban Japan. For this exercise, processed information on respective Japanese waste production, energy demand (population density) and transport infrastructure is used as input data to an engineering model (BeWhere) for optimizing scale and location of waste treatment plants with potential energy and fertilizer co-generation. Finally, this paper quantifies the economic dimension of mitigation through innovative waste treatment while considering the additional business-feasibility and potential benefits from waste treatment co-products such as energy generation, fertilizer and biochar production for counteracting soil degradation.

Kraxner, Florian; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Leduc, Sylvain; Fuss, Sabine; Aoki, Kentaro; Yamagata, Yoshiki

2014-05-01

204

Xylan degradation improved by a combination of monolithic columns bearing immobilized recombinant ?-xylosidase from Aspergillus awamori X-100 and Grindamyl H121 ?-xylanase.  

PubMed

Synergistic action of exo- and endohydrolazes is preferred for effective destruction of biopolymers. The main purpose of the present work was to develop an efficient tool for degradation of xylan. Macroporous lab-made monolithic columns and commercial CIM-Epoxy disk were used to immobilize the recombinant ?-xylosidase from Aspergillus awamori and Grindamyl ?-xylanase. The efficiency of xylan degradation using the low-loaded ?-xylosidase column appeared to be four times higher than for the in-solution process and about six times higher than for the high-loaded bioreactor. Disk bioreactor with the Grindamil ?-xylanase operated in a recirculation mode has shown noticeable advantages over the column design. Additionally, a system comprised of two immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERs) was tested to accelerate the biopolymer hydrolysis, yielding total xylan conversion into xylose within 20 min. Fast online monitoring HPLC procedure was developed where an analytical DEAE CIM disk was added to the two-enzyme system in a conjoint mode. A loss of activity of immobilized enzymes did not exceed 7% after 5 months of the bioreactor usage. We can therefore conclude that the bioreactors developed exhibit high efficiency and remarkable long-term stability. PMID:25367775

Volokitina, Maria V; Bobrov, Kirill S; Piens, Kathleen; Eneyskaya, Elena V; Tennikova, Tatiana B; Vlakh, Evgenia G; Kulminskaya, Anna A

2015-01-01

205

Isolation and identification of dexamethasone sodium phosphate degrading Pseudomonas alcaligenes.  

PubMed

Glucocorticosteroids such as dexamethasone have polluted hospital wastewater, urban sewage, and river water in varying degrees. However, dexamethasone degradation by bioremediation technology is less understood. This study aims to isolate bacteria that could degrade dexamethasone and to identify their degradation characteristics. Hospital wastewater contaminated by dexamethasone was collected. After culturing in inorganic salt medium and in carbon deficient medium containing dexamethasone sodium phosphate, a bacterial strain with dexamethasone sodium phosphate as the sole carbon and energy source was enriched and isolated from the contaminated wastewater. The strain was identified as Pseudomonas alcaligenes by morphology, Gram staining, biochemical test, and 16S rDNA sequencing. Isolated bacteria were domesticated. Then its degradation characteristic was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography method. The degradation rate of P. alcaligenes on dexamethasone sodium phosphate was 50.86%. Of the degraded dexamethasone sodium phosphate, 75.23% of dexamethasone sodium phosphate was degraded to dexamethasone and 23.63% was degraded to other metabolites. In conclusion, the isolated P. alcaligenes in this study would provide experimental evidence for further research on the bioremediation technology to treat dexamethasone sodium phosphate and dexamethasone polluted water and further for the elimination of side effects of dexamethasone. PMID:25284640

Yi, Wang; Zhibang, Yang; Lili, Zhu; Zhongquan, Shi; Lianju, Ma; Ziwei, Tang; Renju, Jiang

2014-10-01

206

Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extracted organic matter from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung.  

PubMed

The chemical changes of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from five different substrates of sewage sludge enriched with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida were investigated using various analytical approaches. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and C/N ratio of the substrates decreased significantly after vermicomposting process. The aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates enhanced considerably, and the amount of volatile fatty acids declined markedly, especially for the cow dung substrate. Gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the molecular weight fraction between 10(3) and 10(6) Da became the main part of WEOM in the final product. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the proportion of H moieties in the area of 0.00-3.00 ppm decreased, while increasing at 3.00-4.25 ppm after vermicomposting. Fluorescence spectra indicated that vermicomposting caused the degradation of protein-like groups, and the formation of fulvic and humic acid-like compounds in the WEOM of the substrates. Overall results indicate clearly that vermicomposting promoted the degradation and transformation of liable WEOM into biological stable substances in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, and testing the WEOM might be an effective way to evaluate the biological maturity and chemical stability of vermicompost. PMID:22230755

Xing, Meiyan; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong; Lu, Yongsen

2012-02-29

207

The occurrence and ecological risks of endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants, and in natural seawater from a marine reserve of Hong Kong.  

PubMed

We determined the concentrations of 12 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in sewage effluents collected from three different sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Hong Kong, and found 4-nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) were the most abundant EDCs. Effluent concentrations of NP and BPA were higher in dry season than in wet season, but opposite seasonal changes of NP were observed in receiving waters, probably due to the surface runoff. The two secondary STPs showed higher removal efficiency for these compounds than the preliminary STP, while having higher removal efficiency in wet season. Therefore, it is necessary to upgrade the preliminary STP and improve the EDC removal efficiency in dry season. Seawaters from the Cape D' Aguilar Marine Reserve adjacent to these STPs also exhibited elevated NP levels with a hazard quotient >1. Furthermore, diluted effluents from the STPs elicited significant transcriptional responses of EDC-related genes in the marine medaka fish. PMID:24650541

Xu, Elvis G B; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zheng, Gene J S; Lee, Joseph H W; Leung, Kenneth M Y

2014-08-30

208

Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Sanitary Engineering

1995-12-31

209

Current state of sewage treatment in China.  

PubMed

The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the aspects of scale, treatment processes, sludge handling, geographical distribution, and discharge standards. By 2012, there were 3340 WWTPs in operation in China with a capacity of 1.42נ10(8)m(3)/d. The number of medium-scale WWTPs (1-10נ10(4)m(3)/d) counted for 75% of total WWTPs. On average, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of small-scale, medium-scale, large-scale and super-large-scale WWTPs were 81, 85.5, 87.5 and 86.5%, respectively. Generally speaking, the nutrients removal instead of COD removal was of concern. As to the different processes, oxidation ditch, anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were the mainstream technologies in China. These technologies had minor difference in terms of overall COD removal efficiency. The sludge treatment in WWTPs was basically "thickening-coagulation-mechanical dehydration" and the major disposal method was sanitary landfill in China. The distributions of WWTPs and their utilization showed significant regional characteristics. The sewage treatment capacity of China concentrated on the coastal areas and middle reaches of Yangtze River, which were the economically developed zones. Besides, most WWTPs enforced the Class 1 or Class 2 discharge standards, but few realized wastewater reuse. Finally, existing problems were discussed, including low removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus, emerging contaminants, low reuse of reclaimed water, poor sludge treatment and disposal, low execution standard of effluent, and emissions of greenhouse gas from WWTPs. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures were given. PMID:25189479

Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Tian, Huifang

2014-12-01

210

Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were monitored to establish the maximum sewage solids loading rate that could be applied without causing environmental deterioration. The results indicate that application of 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha of sludge is the upper limit to ensure protection of the groundwater quality on the site studied. Application rates at or slightly below 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha are sufficient for providing plant nutrients for the dent corn and rye cropping system utilized in the study.

Higgins, A.J.

1984-06-01

211

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-12-01

212

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 230 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

213

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 226 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-08-01

214

Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

1993-01-01

215

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost?effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

216

[Environmental effects of combined sewage detention tank in central Shanghai].  

PubMed

Through measuring the processes of precipitation, discharge and pollutant concentration over 20 times from 2006 to 2008 in Chendulu combined sewerage system (CSS) along Suzhou Creek in central Shanghai, the environmental effects of Chendulu combined sewage detention tank (CSDT), the first running CSDT in China, were studied. The results show that CSDT could improve CSS discharge capacity effectively with promoted interception ratio from 3.87 to 6.90-9.92. The mean annual combined sewer overflow (CSO) reduction and reduction rate are 9.10 x 10(4) m3 and 9.00%, respectively, and those of sanitary waste discharged directly to Suzhou Creek in non-rain-weather are 8.37 x 10(4) m(3) and 100% , respectively. The mean annual pollutants decrease rate of COD, BOD5, SS, NH4+ -N and TP of CSO are 13.76%, 19.69%, 15.29%, 18.24% and 15.10%, respectively, and those CSO pollutants decrease 41.21 t, 12.37 t, 50.10 t, 2.12 t and 0.29 t annually, respectively. The CSDT also could decrease sanitary waste discharged to Suzhou Creek totally, and those decreased pollutants are 20.75 t, 4.87 t, 14.90 t, 4.49 t and 0.30 t annually, respectively. The analysis shows that the CSDT design standard, running models and rainfall characteristics are the important influencing factors to realize the environmental effects of CSDT. PMID:19799280

Cheng, Jiang; L, Yong-peng; Huang, Xiao-fang; Guo, Sheng

2009-08-15

217

Virus movement in soil columns flooded with secondary sewage effluent.  

PubMed

Secondary sewage effluent containing about 3 X 10(4) plaque-forming units of polio virus type 1 (LSc) per ml was passed through columns 250 cm in length packed with calcareous sand from an area in the Salt River bed used for ground-water recharge of secondary sewage effluent. Viruses were not detected in 1-ml samples extracted from the columns below the 160-cm level. However, viruses were detected in 5 of 43 100-ml samples of the column drainage water. Most of the viruses were adsorbed in the top 5 cm of soil. Virus removal was not affected by the infiltration rate, which varied between 15 and 55 cm/day. Flooding a column continuosly for 27 days with the sewage water virus mixture did not saturate the top few centimeters of soil with viruses and did not seem to affect virus movement. Flooding with deionized water caused virus desorption from the soil and increased their movement through the columns. Adding CaCl2 to the deionized water prevented most of the virus desorption. Adding a pulse of deionized water followed by sewage water started a virus front moving through the columns, but the viruses were readsorbed and none was detected in outflow samples. Drying the soil for 1 day between applying the virus and flooding with deionized water greatly reduced desorption, and drying for 5 days prevented desorption. Large reductions (99.99% or more) of virus would be expected after passage of secondary sewage effluent through 250 cm of the calcareous sand similar to that used in our laboratory columns unless heavy rains fell within 1 day after the application of sewage stopped. Such virus movement could be minimized by the proper management of flooding and drying cycles. PMID:185960

Lance, J C; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

1976-10-01

218

Virus movement in soil columns flooded with secondary sewage effluent.  

PubMed Central

Secondary sewage effluent containing about 3 X 10(4) plaque-forming units of polio virus type 1 (LSc) per ml was passed through columns 250 cm in length packed with calcareous sand from an area in the Salt River bed used for ground-water recharge of secondary sewage effluent. Viruses were not detected in 1-ml samples extracted from the columns below the 160-cm level. However, viruses were detected in 5 of 43 100-ml samples of the column drainage water. Most of the viruses were adsorbed in the top 5 cm of soil. Virus removal was not affected by the infiltration rate, which varied between 15 and 55 cm/day. Flooding a column continuosly for 27 days with the sewage water virus mixture did not saturate the top few centimeters of soil with viruses and did not seem to affect virus movement. Flooding with deionized water caused virus desorption from the soil and increased their movement through the columns. Adding CaCl2 to the deionized water prevented most of the virus desorption. Adding a pulse of deionized water followed by sewage water started a virus front moving through the columns, but the viruses were readsorbed and none was detected in outflow samples. Drying the soil for 1 day between applying the virus and flooding with deionized water greatly reduced desorption, and drying for 5 days prevented desorption. Large reductions (99.99% or more) of virus would be expected after passage of secondary sewage effluent through 250 cm of the calcareous sand similar to that used in our laboratory columns unless heavy rains fell within 1 day after the application of sewage stopped. Such virus movement could be minimized by the proper management of flooding and drying cycles. PMID:185960

Lance, J C; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

1976-01-01

219

[Novel phosphorus and nitrogen removal process for municipal sewage treatment: performance evaluation and design optimization].  

PubMed

A novel modified A2/O process (MMAO) was developed for nitrogen and phosphorus removal of municipal sewage. Bench-scale study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the MMAO process treating practical municipal sewage at normal temperature. Activated sludge model (ASM2D) was used to simulate the MMAO process and optimize its design and operation. It was found that the average treatment efficiency of COD, TN, NH4+-N and TP achieved by MMAO were up to 85.7%, 66.8%, 97.35% and 78.1%, respectively. When influent COD concentration of the system was more than 300 mg/L, a better nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency of 70% and 90% were achieved. After being calibrated and validated by the experimental results, the activated sludge model of MMAO could simulate the biological reactions occurred in the systems excellently. Optimization design and operational parameters could be accomplished by the mechanical activated sludge modeling. Furthermore, the model could also evaluate the process performance under peak load and low temperature and presented a whole scheme toward the unit combination and operation control. The effluent quality of MMAO process under stable operating could reach the first (B) standard of Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant Pollutants Discharge Standards (GB 18918-2002). The effluent of anaerobic unit was pumped directly into the anoxic unit to supply carbon source for denitrification instead of internal recirculation of mixture liquid, which would save operation cost significantly. The total hydraulic retention time of MMAO was lower than traditional biological organic removal system, so it was very suitable for the improvement of existing plant. PMID:18763494

Zhang, Bing; Zhou, Xue-fei; Ren, Nan-qi

2008-06-01

220

Land application of chemically treated sewage sludge. II. Effects on soil and plant heavy metal content  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobically digested sewage sludges resulting from treatment of sewage with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/, or FeCl/sub 3/ for phosphorus precipitation were applied to corn (Zea mays L.) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyess) grown on a soil having an initial pH of 7.3. Rates of sludge supplied 200, 400, 800, and and 1,600 kg N/ha each year for 5 years. Treatments with NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ supplying 0, 100, 20, and 400 kg N/ha were included for comparison. Plant tissue was analyzed for Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb. No toxicity or deficiency symptoms were noted. Soil Zn, Cd, and Ni extracted by NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid) were increased by continued sludge application. The NTA-extractable Zn and Cd were positively correlated with the Zn and Cd concentrations in corn stover. Soil pH was reduced by the Fe-sludge application, slightly affected by the Al-sludge, and increased by the Ca-sludge. Increases in Cu concentrations in bromegrass and corn stover were associated with increases in the N content rather than the source of N, and plant Cu concentrations remained relatively constant across years. Sewage sludge application increased Zn, Cd, and Ni concentrations in bromegrass and corn stover, and Zn and Ni concentrations in corn grain, particularly at the higher metal loadings from sludge application. Zinc and Cd concentrations, especially in corn stover, increased with continued sludge application during the 5-year period. The inclusion of soil pH as a factor, in addition to cummulative amounts of Zn or Cd added as a constituent of sludge, improved the regression equations predicting Zn or Cd uptake.

Soon, Y.K.; Bates, T.E.; Moyer, J.R.

1980-07-01

221

Salmonellosis in wild birds feeding at sewage treatment works.  

PubMed Central

Between June 1976 and August 1977 faeces were collected from 599 wild British birds caught during ringing operations at two sewage treatment works in south-east England. Samples were incubated with selenite-F broth to detect the presence of Salmonella. Salm. anatum was isolated from one bird, a Dunnock Prunella modularis an incidence of 0.17% of the total birds examined and 3.23% of the Dunnocks. Comparisons are drawn with previously reported studies and it is suggested that sewage treatment works play little part in the transmission of Salmonella infections to wild birds feeding there. PMID:690424

Plant, C. W.

1978-01-01

222

Constructed Landscaping Combination Constructed Wetlands System Used for Sewage Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a combinant landscape constructed wetland for sewage treatment based on landscape plants in this study. The results are summerized as follows: the system uses model as: A(biological pretreatment pond)-B(biochemistry pond)- C(subsurface flow wetland)-D(surface flow wetland)-E(the third level vertical-flow wetland)-F(second-level vertical-flow wetland) -G(landscape surface flow wetland)-H(biology pond), this combination craft sewage treatment is performed effectively, and the system outcome

Chen Yong-hua; Wu Xiao-fu; Chen Ming-li; Yao Jing; Li Ke-lin; Wang Zhong-cheng; Lei Dian

2010-01-01

223

Disinfection of sewage wastewater and sludge by electron treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of machine-accelerated electrons to disinfect sewage waterwaste and sludge is discussed. The method is shown to be practical and energy-efficient for the broad spectrum disinfection of pathogenic organisms in municipal wastewaters and sludge removed from them. Studies of biological, chemical and physical effects are reported. Electron treatment is suggested as an alternative to chlorination of municipal liquid wastes after electron treatment to provide disinfection. Disposal of sewage sludge is recommended as an agricultural resource by subsurface land injection, or as a nutrient for fish populations by widespread ocean dispersal.

Trump, J. G.; Merrill, E. W.; Wright, K. A.

224

In vitro characterization of the effectiveness of enhanced sewage treatment processes to eliminate endocrine activity of hospital effluents.  

PubMed

Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems is related to sewage effluents. Due to the possible adverse effects on wildlife and humans, degradation and removal of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites during wastewater treatment is an increasingly important task. The present study was part of a proof of concept study at a medium sized country hospital in western Germany that investigated efficiency of advanced treatment processes to remove toxic potencies from sewage. Specifically, the efficiency of treatment processes such as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and ozonation to remove endocrine disruptive potentials was assessed. Estrogenic effects were characterized by use of two receptor-mediated in vitro transactivation assays, the Lyticase Yeast Estrogen Screen (LYES) and the Estrogen Receptor mediated Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (ER CALUX()). In addition, the H295R Steroidogenesis Assay (H295R) was utilized to detect potential disruption of steroidogenesis. Raw sewage contained measurable estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated potency as determined by use of the LYES (28.9 8.6 ng/L, 0.33 concentration), which was reduced after treatment by MBR (2.3 0.3 ng/L) and ozone (1.2 0.4 ng/L). Results were confirmed by use of ER CALUX() which measured concentrations of estrogen equivalents (EEQs) of 0.2 0.11 ng/L (MBR) and 0.01 0.02 ng/L (ozonation). In contrast, treatment with ozone resulted in greater production of estradiol and aromatase activity at 3 and greater concentrations in H295R cells. It is hypothesized that this is partly due to formation of active oxidized products during ozonation. Substance-specific analyses demonstrated efficient removal of most of the measured compounds by ozonation. A comparison of the ER-mediated responses measured by use of the LYES and ER CALUX() with those from the chemical analysis using a mass-balance approach revealed estrone (E1) to be the main compound that caused the estrogenic effects. Overall, treatment of sewage by use of MBR successfully reduced estrogenicity of hospital effluents as well as substances that are able to alter sex steroid production. However, after ozonation, effluents should undergo further investigations regarding the formation of endocrine active metabolites. The results obtained as part of this study demonstrated applicability of in vitro assays for monitoring of endocrine-modulating potency of treated sewage. PMID:23305681

Maletz, Sibylle; Floehr, Tilman; Beier, Silvio; Klmper, Claudia; Brouwer, Abraham; Behnisch, Peter; Higley, Eric; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus; Gebhardt, Wilhelm; Linnemann, Volker; Pinnekamp, Johannes; Hollert, Henner

2013-03-15

225

Environmental Degradation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview: This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Resources and Human Impact SciPack. It explores how human activities, such as reducing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount and variety of chemicals that enter the atmosphere, intensive farming and fishing, and consuming fossil fuels have changed Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. Although the land, atmosphere, and the oceans have a limited capacity to absorb wastes and recycle materials naturally, humans have disrupted these natural cycles. Fresh water, limited in supply, is essential for life and most industrial processes. Overuse and pollution of rivers, lakes, oceans, and groundwater reduces the availability and suitability of these resources for all organisms. Technology used in the extraction and consumption of fossil fuels needed to meet the growing human demand has increased the depletion of nonrenewable energy resources such as fossil fuels, and degraded or altered the environment, both locally and globally. Learning Outcomes: Compare and contrast ways in which different technologies have impacted the environmental system. Differentiate between examples of renewable resources and non-renewable (finite) resources. Summarize how the burning of fossil fuels is affecting the environment. Assess both local and global environmental impacts when given examples of human resource use. Identify ways in which one human-based environmental change can have a domino-effect on the rest of the ecosystem (when given a scenario).

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2008-09-30

226

Detection of pump degradation  

SciTech Connect

There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed.

Casada, D.

1994-12-31

227

Seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass in Victoria Harbour and its vicinity before and after sewage abatement.  

PubMed

This study investigated the seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass at 12 stations in Hong Kong (HK) waters during a three year period from 2004 to 2006 after upgraded sewage treatment and compared these results to observations before sewage treatment. Pearl River estuary (PRE) discharge significantly increased NO(3) and SiO(4) concentrations, particularly in western and southern waters when rainfall and river discharge was maximal in summer. Continuous year round discharge of sewage effluent resulted in high NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbour (VH) and its vicinity. In winter, spring and fall, the water column at all stations was moderately mixed by winds and tidal currents, and phytoplankton biomass was relatively low compared to summer. In summer, the mean surface phytoplankton chl biomass was generally > 9 microL(-1) in most areas as a result of thermohaline stratification, and high nutrients, light, and water temperature. In summer, the potential limiting nutrient is PO(4) in the most productive southern waters and it seldom decreased to limiting levels ( approximately 0.1 microM), suggesting that phytoplankton growth may be only episodically limiting. The mean bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) remained > 3.5 mg L(-1) at most stations, indicating that the eutrophication impact in HK waters was not as severe as expected for such a eutrophic area. After the implementation of chemically enhanced primary sewage treatment in 2001, water quality in VH improved as indicated by a significant decrease in NH(4) and PO(4) and an increase in bottom DO. In contrast, there were an increase in chl a and NO(3), and a significant decrease in bottom DO in southern waters in summer, suggesting that hypoxic events are most likely to occur in this region if phytoplankton biomass and oxygen consumption keep increasing and exceed the buffering capacity of HK waters maintained by monsoon winds, tidal mixing and zooplankton grazing. Therefore, future studies on the long-term changes in nutrient loading from PRE and HK sewage discharge will be crucial for developing future strategies of sewage management in HK waters. PMID:18514234

Ho, Alvin Y T; Xu, Jie; Yin, Kedong; Yuan, Xiangcheng; He, Lei; Jiang, Yuelu; Lee, Joseph H W; Anderson, Donald M; Harrison, Paul J

2008-01-01

228

Rearranging the domain order of a diabody-based IgG-like bispecific antibody enhances its antitumor activity and improves its degradation resistance and pharmacokinetics.  

PubMed

One approach to creating more beneficial therapeutic antibodies is to develop bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), particularly IgG-like formats with tetravalency, which may provide several advantages such as multivalent binding to each target antigen. Although the effects of configuration and antibody-fragment type on the function of IgG-like bsAbs have been studied, there have been only a few detailed studies of the influence of the variable fragment domain order. Here, we prepared four types of hEx3-scDb-Fc, IgG-like bsAbs, built from a single-chain hEx3-Db (humanized bispecific diabody [bsDb] that targets epidermal growth factor receptor and CD3), to investigate the influence of domain order and fusion manner on the function of a bsDb with an Fc fusion format. Higher cytotoxicities were observed with hEx3-scDb-Fcs with a variable light domain (VL)-variable heavy domain (VH) order (hEx3-scDb-Fc-LHs) compared with a VH-VL order, indicating that differences in the Fc fusion manner do not affect bsDb activity. In addition, flow cytometry suggested that the higher cytotoxicities of hEx3-scDb-Fc-LH may be attributable to structural superiority in cross-linking. Interestingly, enhanced degradation resistance and prolonged in vivo half-life were also observed with hEx3-scDb-Fc-LH. hEx3-scDb-Fc-LH and its IgG2 variant exhibited intense in vivo antitumor effects, suggesting that Fc-mediated effector functions are dispensable for effective anti-tumor activities, which may cause fewer side effects. Our results show that merely rearranging the domain order of IgG-like bsAbs can enhance not only their antitumor activity, but also their degradation resistance and in vivo half-life, and that hEx3-scDb-Fc-LHs are potent candidates for next-generation therapeutic antibodies. PMID:24983585

Shimomura, Ippei; Konno, Shota; Ito, Akiko; Masakari, Yosuke; Orimo, Ryota; Taki, Shintaro; Arai, Kyoko; Ogata, Hiromi; Okada, Mai; Furumoto, Shozo; Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Omasa, Takeshi; Hayashi, Hiroki; Katayose, Yu; Unno, Michiaki; Kudo, Toshio; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Kumagai, Izumi; Asano, Ryutaro

2014-07-01

229

Rearranging the domain order of a diabody-based IgG-like bispecific antibody enhances its antitumor activity and improves its degradation resistance and pharmacokinetics.  

PubMed

One approach to creating more beneficial therapeutic antibodies is to develop bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), particularly IgG-like formats with tetravalency, which may provide several advantages such as multivalent binding to each target antigen. Although the effects of configuration and antibody-fragment type on the function of IgG-like bsAbs have been studied, there have been only a few detailed studies of the influence of the variable fragment domain order. Here, we prepared four types of hEx3-scDb-Fc, IgG-like bsAbs, built from a single-chain hEx3-Db (humanized bispecific diabody [bsDb] that targets epidermal growth factor receptor and CD3), to investigate the influence of domain order and fusion manner on the function of a bsDb with an Fc fusion format. Higher cytotoxicities were observed with hEx3-scDb-Fcs with a variable light domain (VL)-variable heavy domain (VH) order (hEx3-scDb-Fc-LHs) compared with a VH-VL order, indicating that differences in the Fc fusion manner do not affect bsDb activity. In addition, flow cytometry suggested that the higher cytotoxicities of hEx3-scDb-Fc-LH may be attributable to structural superiority in cross-linking. Interestingly, enhanced degradation resistance and prolonged in vivo half-life were also observed with hEx3-scDb-Fc-LH. hEx3-scDb-Fc-LH and its IgG2 variant exhibited intense in vivo antitumor effects, suggesting that Fc-mediated effector functions are dispensable for effective anti-tumor activities, which may cause fewer side effects. Our results show that merely rearranging the domain order of IgG-like bsAbs can enhance not only their antitumor activity, but also their degradation resistance and in vivo half-life, and that hEx3-scDb-Fc-LHs are potent candidates for next-generation therapeutic antibodies. PMID:25517309

Asano, Ryutaro; Shimomura, Ippei; Konno, Shota; Ito, Akiko; Masakari, Yosuke; Orimo, Ryota; Taki, Shintaro; Arai, Kyoko; Ogata, Hiromi; Okada, Mai; Furumoto, Shozo; Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Omasa, Takeshi; Hayashi, Hiroki; Katayose, Yu; Unno, Michiaki; Kudo, Toshio; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Kumagai, Izumi

2014-09-01

230

HAZARDOUS WASTE DEGRADATION BY WOOD DEGRADING FUNGI  

EPA Science Inventory

The persistence and toxicity of many hazardous waste constituents indicates that the environment has limited capacity to degrade such materials. he competence and presence of degrading organisms significantly effects our ability to treat and detoxify these hazardous waste chemica...

231

PATHOGEN RISKS FROM APPLYING SEWAGE SLUDGE TO LAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Congress banned ocean dumping of municipal wastes in the late 1980s. In its place, EPA developed guidance (40 CFR Part 503) for land application of processed sewage sludge (biosolids), mainly for agricultural purposes (1). Public health and environmental concerns with processed...

232

Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant - No. 1 Pump House in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS, AND DETAILS - MacDill Air Force Base, Pump House No. 1, Hillsborough Garden Drive & Tampa Boulevard, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

233

Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant - No. 1 Pump House in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) FLOOR PLANS AND SECTIONS - MacDill Air Force Base, Pump House No. 1, Hillsborough Garden Drive & Tampa Boulevard, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

234

Isolation of Candida albicans from freshwater and sewage.  

PubMed Central

The isolation and identification of Candida albicans from polluted aquatic environments were facilitated by the inclusion of a selective medium and a differential screening medium to detect the reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. C. albicans occurred commonly in low numbers in sewage influents, rivers, and streams. PMID:7013713

Cook, W L; Schlitzer, R L

1981-01-01

235

The Effects of Sewage on a Lake Champlain Wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stevens Brook wetland is presently receiving partially treated sewage from the City of St. Albans, Vermont. The water quality in St. Albans Bay is deteriorating. There is conflicting evidence for the theory that wetlands act as a nutrient sink or as a biotic nutrient filter. This research is an investigation into the productivity and trophic food chain relationships of Stevens

Larry N. Schwartz; Gerhard K. Gruendling

1985-01-01

236

CAUSES OF PAPILLOMAS ON FISH LIVING IN CHLORINATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This research was initiated to determine the cause of the oral papillomas on black bullheads (Ictalurus melas) from the final oxidation pond of the Tuskegee, Alabama, sewage treatment plant. Ames-test mutagenicity of a pond-water concentrate indicated the presence of a chemical c...

237

Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ashes for phosphorus recovery.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all living organisms and cannot be replaced. Municipal sewage sludge is a carrier of phosphorus, but also contains organic pollutants and heavy metals. A two-step thermal treatment is suggested, including mono-incineration of sewage sludge and subsequent thermochemical treatment of the ashes. Organic pollutants are completely destroyed by mono-incineration. The resulting sewage sludge ashes contain P, but also heavy metals. P in the ashes exhibits low bioavailability, a disadvantage in farming. Therefore, in a second thermochemical step, P is transferred into mineral phases available for plants, and heavy metals are removed as well. The thermochemical treatment was investigated in a laboratory-scale rotary furnace by treating seven different sewage sludge ashes under systematic variation of operational parameters. Heavy metal removal and the increase of the P-bioavailability were the focus of the investigation. The present experimental study shows that these objectives have been achieved with the proposed process. The P-bioavailability was significantly increased due to the formation of new mineral phases such as chlorapatite, farringtonite and stanfieldite during thermochemical treatment. PMID:19036571

Adam, C; Peplinski, B; Michaelis, M; Kley, G; Simon, F-G

2009-03-01

238

SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION AT NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used for operating the incine...

239

Gaseous fuels production from dried sewage sludge via air gasification.  

PubMed

Gasification is a perspective alternative method of dried sewage sludge thermal treatment. For the purpose of experimental investigations, a laboratory fixed-bed gasifier installation was designed and built. Two sewage sludge (SS) feedstocks, taken from two typical Polish wastewater treatment systems, were analysed: SS1, from a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment system with anaerobic stabilization (fermentation) and high temperature drying; and (SS2) from a mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment system with fermentation and low temperature drying. The gasification results show that greater oxygen content in sewage sludge has a strong influence on the properties of the produced gas. Increasing the air flow caused a decrease in the heating value of the produced gas. Higher hydrogen content in the sewage sludge (from SS1) affected the produced gas composition, which was characterized by high concentrations of combustible components. In the case of the SS1 gasification, ash, charcoal, and tar were produced as byproducts. In the case of SS2 gasification, only ash and tar were produced. SS1 and solid byproducts from its gasification (ash and charcoal) were characterized by lower toxicity in comparison to SS2. However, in all analysed cases, tar samples were toxic. PMID:24938297

Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

2014-06-17

240

Biological Aspects of Metal Waste Reclamation With Sewage Sludge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Smelter waste deposits pose an environmental threat worldwide. Sewage sludges are potentialy useful in reclamation of such sites. Biological aspects of revegetation of Zn and Pb smelter wastelands are discussed in a paper. The goal of the studies was to asses to what extent sludge treatment would...

241

FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

242

Removing phosphorus from sewage effluent and agricultural runoff  

E-print Network

321 14 Removing phosphorus from sewage effluent and agricultural runoff using recovered ochre K © 2004 IWA Publishing. Phosphorus in Environmental Technology: Principles and Applications. Edited by Eugenia Valsami-Jones. ISBN: 1 84339 001 9 #12;322 Phosphorus removal technologies from water and waste

Heal, Kate

243

PRELIMINARY RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PATHOGENS IN LANDFILLED MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology and accompanying model, SLDGFILL (sludge monofill), have been developed to assess the risk to human health posed by parasites, bacteria and viruses in municipal sewage sludge disposed of in sludge-only landfills (monofills). he following information is required for ...

244

Wildlife health implications of sewage disposal in wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildlife health concerns associated with disposal of sewage effluent in wetlands are of three primary types: (1) introduction of pathogens, (2) introduction of pollutants that adversely impact on host body defense mechanisms, and (3) changes in the physical and chemical properties of wetlands that favor the development and maintenance of disease problems. Unlike the situation with human health concerns, introduction of pathogens is not the major concern regarding wildlife health. Instead, the focus of attention needs to be directed at environmental changes likely to take place as a result of effluent discharges into different types of wetlands. Unless these changes are adequately addressed from a disease perspective, marshes utilized for sewage disposal could become disease incubators and wildlife death traps. This result would be unfortunate because the backlash would likely negate the potentially beneficial aspects of the use of sewage wastewater for the creation of new wetlands and have a severe impact on progress being made towards evaluation of the compatibility of wildlife and sewage effluents.

Friend, M.

1985-01-01

245

RESTORATION OF FAILING ON-LOT SEWAGE DISPOSAL AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to evaluate two rehabilitative techniques-water conservation and absorption bed resting--for restoration of failing on-site sewage disposal areas. Eleven homes with failing absorption areas were characterized and baseline water flow and septic ta...

246

EVALUATION OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested using the Salmonella/microsomal activation assay, t...

247

Hydrogen and syngas production from sewage sludge via steam gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature steam gasification is an attractive alternative technology which can allow one to obtain high percentage of hydrogen in the syngas from low-grade fuels. Gasification is considered a clean technology for energy conversion without environmental impact using biomass and solid wastes as feedstock. Sewage sludge is considered a renewable fuel because it is sustainable and has good potential for

Nimit Nipattummakul; Islam I. Ahmed; Somrat Kerdsuwan; Ashwani K. Gupta

2010-01-01

248

The Potential of the Ni-Resistant TCE-Degrading Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE to Reduce Phytotoxicity and Improve Phytoremediation Efficiency of Poplar Cuttings on A Ni-TCE Co-Contamination.  

PubMed

To examine the potential of Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE to improve phytoremediation of Ni-TCE co-contamination, the effects of inoculation of a Ni-resistant, TCE-degrading root endophyte on Ni-TCE phytotoxicity, Ni uptake and trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation of Ni-TCE-exposed poplar cuttings are evaluated. After inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE, root weight of non-exposed poplar cuttings significantly increased. Further, inoculation induced a mitigation of the Ni-TCE phytotoxicity, which was illustrated by a diminished exposure-induced increase in activity of antioxidative enzymes. Considering phytoremediation efficiency, inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE resulted in a 45% increased Ni uptake in roots as well as a slightly significant reduction in TCE concentration in leaves and TCE evapotranspiration to the atmosphere. These results indicate that endophytes equipped with the appropriate characteristics can assist their host plant to deal with co-contamination of toxic metals and organic contaminants during phytoremediation. Furthermore, as poplar is an excellent plant for biomass production as well as for phytoremediation, the obtained results can be exploited to produce biomass for energy and industrial feedstock applications in a highly productive manner on contaminated land that is not suited for normal agriculture. Exploiting this land for biomass production could contribute to diminish the conflict between food and bioenergy production. PMID:25174423

Weyens, Nele; Beckers, Bram; Schellingen, Kerim; Ceulemans, Reinhart; van der Lelie, Daniel; Newman, Lee; Taghavi, Safiyh; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

2015-01-01

249

Foamed lightweight materials made from mixed scrap metal waste powder and sewage sludge ash.  

PubMed

The porous properties and pozzolanic effects of sewage sludge ash (SSA) make it possible to produce lightweight materials. This study explored the effects of different metallic foaming agents, made from waste aluminium products, on the foaming behaviours and engineering characteristics, as well as the microstructure of sewage sludge ash foamed lightweight materials. The results indicated that aluminium powder and mixed scrap metal waste powder possessed similar chemical compositions. After proper pre-treatment, waste aluminium products proved to be ideal substitutes for metallic foaming agents. Increasing the amount of mixed scrap metal waste by 10-15% compared with aluminium powder would produce a similar foaming ratio and compressive strength. The reaction of the metallic foaming agents mainly produced pores larger than 10 microm, different from the hydration reaction of cement that produced pores smaller than 1 microm mostly. To meet the requirements of the lightweight materials characteristics and the compressive strength, the amount of SSA could be up to 60-80% of the total solids. An adequate amount of aluminium powder is 0.5-0.9% of the total solids. Increasing the fineness of the mixed scrap metal waste powder could effectively reduce the amount required and improve the foaming ratio. PMID:15560443

Wang, Kuen-Sheng; Chiou, Ing-Jia

2004-10-01

250

Disinfection and oxidation of sewage effluent water using ozone and UV technologies.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at exploring the reclamation of sewage treatment plant effluent water (SEW) as an alternative water resource. For the oxidation of SEW, an ozone-UV system, based on the results of the combined ozone/UV process performed in our previous study, was set up under practical conditions, including a series type, continuous mode, semi-pilot scale operation (1.5 m3/d). As a result, the serial contact of the ozone and UV reactors showed lower CODCr and TOC removal efficiencies. However, these were greatly enhanced by recycling the water flow of the ozone-UV system at 40Q, as a result of the improvements in the transferred ozone dose in the ozone reactor and the contact efficiency between photons and ozone in the UV reactor, which approached that achieved in the combined ozone/UV process. For the disinfection of SEW, carried out in a syringe-type batch reactor, the increase of instantaneous ozone demand (ozone ID) led to a higher inactivation efficiency, an increased UV transmittance due to ozonation, and an enhanced inactivation rate of E. coli in the UV reactor. Additionally, it was concluded that the ozone/UV process could overcome the limitations of the ozone alone and UV alone processes for the reclamation of sewage effluent water. PMID:17305153

Oh, B S; Park, S J; Jung, Y J; Park, S Y; Kang, J W

2007-01-01

251

Marine meiobenthic and nematode community structure in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong upon recovery from sewage pollution.  

PubMed

Sediment quality, meiofaunal and nematode communities were monitored across six time points at two inside-harbour and three outside-harbour sites over a three-year period in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong, after the implementation of a sewage treatment project. Twenty-one meiofaunal groups comprising mainly free-living nematodes and harpacticoid copepods and 188 species of free-living nematodes were identified. The outside-harbour area had a more diverse and significantly different nematode community structure as compared to that in the inside-harbour area. Such spatial difference was highly correlated with the total Kjeldahl nitrogen content of the sediments. Over the study period, there was no significant improvement in sediment quality within the harbour. However, in the last sampling time, an increase in meiofaunal abundance and a closer similarity in nematode composition between one of the inside- and outside-harbour sites suggested signs of recovery of the meiofauna as a response to abatement of sewage pollution. PMID:21474152

Liu, Xiao-Shou; Xu, Wen-Zhe; Cheung, Siu Gin; Shin, Paul K S

2011-01-01

252

A study of the effectiveness of sewage treatment plants in Delhi region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a conventional kind of monitoring study. The objective of the study was to assess and monitor the physicochemical parameters in wastewater at inlet and outlet of sewage treatment plant (STP) and also to study the effectiveness of the STPs. The average concentration of parameters at inlet sampling site pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, are 7.16, 2,169 ?S/cm, 766.06 mg/l, and major ions bicarbonate, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, chloride, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium values 515.88, 4.28, 82.85, 15.17, 7.01, 23.08, 29.34, 4.14 and 84.31 mg/l. While the average concentration of these parameters, after treatment shows following values 7.47, 2,161.43 (?S/cm), 695.81, 436.52, 1.25, 99.22, 12.69, 6.83, 23.18, 29.07, 4.40 and 82.65 mg/l, respectively. Further, to check the Na % and sodium absorption ratio at inlet and outlet which 27.89 %, 0.67 and 28.19 %, 0.68, respectively, for the suitability of the wastewater. Finally, the agglomerative hierarchical clustering techniques were used to study the similarity in the sewage treatment plants. The result suggests that there is considerable improvement in the wastewater quality after treatment except at the Pappankalan and Coronation Pillar, Timarpur.

Gautam, Sandeep Kumar; Sharma, Divya; Tripathi, Jayant Kumar; Ahirwar, Saroj; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2013-03-01

253

Anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage in modified septic tanks at low temperature.  

PubMed

Three laboratory-scale septic tanks, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)-septic tank (R1), a Yuhuan drawing three-dimensional-carrier-septic tank (R2) and a conventional septic tank (R3), were operated in parallel over half a year under hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 36, 24 and 12 h, with a sewage temperature of 16 degrees C. The removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand (CODtot) achieved in R1 and R2 increased by 14%, 21% and 12% and 18%, 3% and 16%, respectively, under three different HRTs, as compared to those in R3. The total nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies were negligible. R1 sludges had a higher specific methane production rate as compared to that of R2 and R3 sludges. The results indicated that the two modified septic tanks can improve the performance in terms of COD and total solids removal, both were suitable technologies for domestic sewage (pre) treatment at low temperature in northern China. PMID:25145163

Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Qinxue; Guan, Huabin; Bakke, Rune; Ren, Nanqi

2014-01-01

254

Dissolved oxygen in the rehabilitation phase of an estuary: influence of sewage pollution abatement and hydro-climatic factors.  

PubMed

Seasonal and inter-annual variations of dissolved oxygen (DO) along the estuary of Bilbao were investigated from 1998 to 2008, during its rehabilitation phase from pollution, to determine whether anthropogenic or natural forcings or both govern DO dynamics and hypoxia. Both seasonal and inter-annual variations of DO were best explained by hydro-climatic factors, sewage pollution and phytoplankton dynamics in the inner, intermediate and outer estuary respectively. The most remarkable intra-decadal improvement in DO occurred in the halocline layer of the intermediate estuary, where the factor that best explained these changes was sewage pollution abatement. However, in the estuarine hotspot for hypoxia, i.e. inner estuary bottom waters, no parallel response to sewage pollution abatement was observed and hydro-climatic factors were the main drivers of inter-annual DO variations. Differences in the degree of stratification and flushing accounted for this differential response of DO to anthropogenic and climate-related forcings at both axial and vertical scales. PMID:23601887

Villate, Fernando; Iriarte, Arantza; Uriarte, Ibon; Intxausti, Lander; de la Sota, Alejandro

2013-05-15

255

Influence of organic and inorganic flocculants on the formation of PCDD/Fs during sewage sludge incineration.  

PubMed

Flocculants are widely used to improve the properties of sludge dewatering in industrial wastewater treatment. However, there have been no studies conducted on the influence of flocculants on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during sewage sludge incineration. This paper selected three typical kinds of flocculants, including polyacrylamide (PAM), poly-ferric chloride (PFC), and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) flocculant, to study their influences on the formation of PCDD/Fs during sewage sludge incineration. The results indicated that PAM flocculant, which is an organic flocculant, inhibited the formation of PCDD/Fs in sewage sludge incineration, while inorganic flocculant, such as PFC and PAC flocculant, promoted the formation. The most probable explanation is that the amino content in the PAM flocculant acted as an inhibitor in the formation of PCDD/Fs, while the chlorine content, especially the metal catalyst in the PFC and PAC flocculants, increased the formation rate. The addition of flocculants nearly did not change the distribution of PCDD/F homologues. The PCDFs contributed the most toxic equivalent (TEQ) value, especially 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-PeCDF. Therefore, the use of inorganic flocculants in industrial wastewater treatment should be further assessed and possibly needs to be strictly regulated if the sludge is incinerated. From this aspect, a priority to the use of organic flocculants should be given. PMID:25028327

Lin, Xiaoqing; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Wang, Fei; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jianhua

2014-07-16

256

Development of a Web-Based, Emissions Reduction Calculator for Storm Water/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation  

E-print Network

of the retrofit measures to city-wide, wastewater distributions. In come cities the municipal sewer system collects both storm water and sanitary sewage in the same system. During dry weather these sewers carry all the sanitary sewage to the wastewater... the storm water and sewage mix are discharged untreated into rivers or the sewage backs up into streets and basements. In addition, storm water treated in the sewage treatment plant causes unnecessary energy use. Therefore separating the storm water...

Liu, Z.; Haberl, J. S.; Brumbelow, K.; Culp, C.; Gilman, D.; Yazdani, B.

2006-01-01

257

Carbon sequestration and land degradation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Storing carbon (C) in soil as organic matter is not only a viable strategy to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere, but is vital for improving the quality of soil. This presentation describes (1) C sequestration concepts and rationale, (2) relevant management approaches to avoid land degradation and fo...

258

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in selected sewage sludge in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Levels of seven major perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) were analyzed for the first time in sludge from wastewater treatment plants from Nigeria. Measurements were performed using an analytical methodology using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS). The method detection limit and method quantification limit was 3pg/g and 9.5pg/g for both analytes (PFCAs and PFSAs) respectively. Typical recoveries ranged from 50% to 104% for spiked mass labeled internal standards of 1ng (absolute value) to 1g of sample. All sludge samples taken from industrial, domestic and hospital wastewater treatment plants contained measurable levels of PFASs. Levels of the quantified perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates concentrations ranged from 10 to 597 and 14 to 540pg/g, respectively. The concentrations were therefore lower compared to sewage sludge samples reported in other regions in the world. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates with carbon chain having ?8 fluorinated carbons were detected in the analyzed sewage sludge samples at higher levels compared to carboxylates with <8 fluorinated carbon chain. The measured concentrations indicate that no PFAS point source for the 10 investigated sewage treatment plants existed. Furthermore the low levels in the four municipal sewage treatment plants in Lagos is a first indication that even in an African megacity like Lagos the PFASs release from households are low until now. The highest PFOS level was found in a hospital sewage sludge (539.6pg/g) possibly indicating (minor) release from medical equipment where some are known to contain PFOS. The PFASs in waste water sludge from a brewery warrant further investigations. PMID:23648329

Sindiku, Omotayo; Orata, Francis; Weber, Roland; Osibanjo, Oladele

2013-07-01

259

Removal of viruses from sewage, effluents, and waters  

PubMed Central

All sewage and water treatment processes remove or destroy viruses. Some treatment methods are better than others, but none is likely to remove all of the viruses present in sewage or in raw water. Primary settling of solids probably removes a great many of the viruses in sewage because viruses are largely associated with the solids. Long storage of effluents or water is destructive to viruses. Activated sludge is the best biological method for removing viruses from sewage. Trickling filters and oxidation ponds are erratic, the latter probably because of short-circuiting. Coagulation with metal ions is the most effective single treatment method for removing viruses from sewage and from raw waters, according to laboratory studies at least. Lime is the best coagulant for these purposes in the rapidly virucidal high pH range. Polyelectrolytes also can sediment viruses. Rapid filtration through clean sand does not remove viruses, but filtration of coagulated effluents does, probably because the layering floc itself adsorbs viruses. Clays and carbon adsorb viruses to some extent, but the process is not efficient. Ultimately, disinfection should help to produce virus-free waters for drinking and virus-free effluents for discharge into waters with which man may come into contact. Because disinfection is not a simple matter, disinfectants must be selected according to need. Effluents and waters containing solids can probably be disinfected only by heat or by penetrating radiation, waters discharged into streams should not be disinfected with anything that will injure or kill aquatic life (unless the toxic products can be neutralized), and drinking-waters should carry a disinfecting residue. PMID:4607010

Berg, Gerald

1973-01-01

260

Salt Enrichment of Municipal Sewage: New Prevention Approaches in Israel  

PubMed

Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the water-softening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCl solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery. PMID:8661617

Weber; Avnimelech; Juanico

1996-07-01

261

State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

Not Available

1994-06-01

262

Research on atmospheric pressure plasma processing sewage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water pollution has become more and more serious with the industrial progress and social development, so it become a worldwide leading environmental management problem to human survival and personal health, therefore, countries are looking for the best solution. Generally speaking, in this paper the work has the following main achievements and innovation: (1) Developed a new plasma device--Plasma Water Bed. (2) At atmospheric pressure condition, use oxygen, nitrogen, argon and helium as work gas respectively, use fiber spectrometer to atmospheric pressure plasma discharge the emission spectrum of measurement, due to the different work gas producing active particle is different, so can understand discharge, different particle activity, in the treatment of wastewater, has the different degradation effects. (3) Methyl violet solution treatment by plasma water bed. Using plasma drafting make active particles and waste leachate role, observe the decolorization, measurement of ammonia nitrogen removal.

Song, Gui-cai; Na, Yan-xiang; Dong, Xiao-long; Sun, Xiao-liang

2013-08-01

263

Assessment of an Enterovirus Sewage Surveillance System by Comparison of Clinical Isolates with Sewage Isolates from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Collected August 1994 to December 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantity and serotypes of enteroviruses (EVs) in the influent of a local sewage treatment plant were compared to local clinical EV cases to determine if testing of sewage is adequate for an EV surveillance system. The study was carried out from August 1994 to December 2002. Monthly influent specimens were processed by organic flocculation, and dilutions of concentrate were

Gerald Sedmak; David Bina; Jeffrey MacDonald

2003-01-01

264

Environmental release of oseltamivir from a Norwegian sewage treatment plant during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic.  

PubMed

During the 2009 influenza type A(H1N1) pandemic, the antiviral drug oseltamivir (OP, Tamiflu) was extensively used for treatment and prophylaxis after recommendation from World Health Organisation (WHO). Previous studies have indicated that the pharmaceutically active metabolite of OP, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is not readily degraded in sewage treatment plants (STPs) and therefore will be released into receiving waters in elevated concentrations during a pandemic outbreak of influenza. A method for analyzing OP and OC in wastewater by UPLC-TOF has been developed and validated. This analytical method has been used to study the release of OP and OC from a sewage treatment plant outside Oslo, Norway during the 2009 pandemic. Daily flow-proportional influent and effluent samples from 11 weeks covering the main wave of the influenza pandemic were analyzed, and the observed trend in OP and OC concentrations closely followed the trend in percentage of medical consultations caused by influenza-like illness. Concentrations in wastewater influent were in the range of 5-529 ng/L and 28-1213 ng/L for OP and OC, respectively. Concentration data from the 54 influent/effluent sample sets suggest STP removal in the range of -0.8% to 8% for OP and -14% to 0.6% for OC. Statistical analysis of the data sets was inconclusive in determining a removal rate different from 0. PMID:22127154

Leknes, Henriette; Sturtzel, Iren Elisabeth; Dye, Christian

2012-01-01

265

Characterisation of raw sewage and performance assessment of primary settling tanks at Firle Sewage Treatment Works, Harare, Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for more stringent effluent discharge standards as prescribed by the Environmental Management Act 20:27 to protect the environment can be sustainably achieved with the aid of Activated Sludge Models. Thus, the researchers believe it is time to re-evaluate wastewater characteristics at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW) and make use of activated sludge simulators to address pollution challenges caused by the sewage plant. Therefore, this paper characterizes raw sewage and assesses settled and unsettled sewage in order to evaluate the performance of the primary treatment system and the suitability of the settled sewage for treatment by the subsequent Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system at Firle STW. Parameters studied included COD, BOD, TKN, TP, NH3, TSS, pH and Alkalinity. Composite samples were collected over a 9-day campaign period (27 June to 6 July 2012), hourly grab samples over 24 hrs and composite samples on 6 March 2012 which were then analysed in the lab in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater to support the City of Harare 2004-2012 lab historical records. Concentrations for unsettled sewage in mg/L were COD (527 32), BOD (297 83) TKN (19.0 2.0), TP (18 3), NH3 (24.0 12.9), TSS (219 57), while pH was 7.0 0 and Alkalinity 266 36 mg/L. For settled sewage the corresponding values in mg/L were COD (522 15), BOD (324 102), TKN (21.0 3.0), TP (19.0 2.0), NH3 (25.6 11.2), TSS (250 66), while pH was 7.0 0 and Alkalinity 271 17 mg/L. The plant design values for raw sewage are COD (650 mg/L), BOD (200 mg/L), TKN (40 mg/L) and TP (11 mg/L). Thus, COD and nitrogen were within the plant design range while BOD and TP were higher. Treatability of sewage in BNR systems is often inferred from the levels of critical parameters and also the ratios of TKN/COD and COD/TP. The wastewater average settled COD/BOD, COD/TP and TKN/COD ratio were 1.7 0.5, 27.1 3.1 and 0.04 0.01 respectively and corresponding unsettled ratios were 1.8 0.5, 30.77 6.8 and 0.04 0 respectively. Thus, treatability by the 3-stage BNR system appears highly feasible for nitrogen and is likely to be complex for phosphorous. Fractionation of COD, TP and TN is recommended to appropriately advise further steps to optimise the plant operations.

Muserere, Simon Takawira; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Nhapi, Innocent

266

Degradation of inhibitory substances in sludge by Galactomyces sp. Z3 and the role of its extracellular polymeric substances in improving bioleaching.  

PubMed

This study sought to elucidate the effect and mechanism of Galactomyces sp. Z3 in improving the bioleaching of heavy metals from sludge. Results showed that co-inoculation of Galactomyces sp. Z3 and two Acidithiobacillus strains (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5 and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TS6) reduced the period required for sludge bioleaching by 4.5days compared to Acidithiobacillus alone. Further, removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn and oxidation rate of Fe(2+) and S(0) were higher in co-inoculation system than the Acidithiobacillus alone. Galactomyces sp. Z3 consumed the acetate, propionate, iso-butyrate, butyrate, and iso-valerate in sludge from the initial concentrations of 109.50, 28.80, 7.70, 34.30, and 18.40mg/L to 10.20, 0.61, 0.63, 19.40 and 1.30mg/L, respectively, after 12h in the co-inoculation system, significantly lower than the concentrations observed in the Acidithiobacillus alone. Meanwhile, the surfactant properties of the extracellular polymeric substances produced by the Galactomyces accelerated the rate of sulfur oxidization by A. thiooxidans. PMID:23411451

Zhou, Jun; Zheng, Guanyu; Wong, Jonathan W C; Zhou, Lixiang

2013-03-01

267

Evaluation of modified clay coagulant for sewage treatment.  

PubMed

The use of modified clays as coagulants for sewage treatment was investigated in this study. The raw clays were montmorillonites K10 and KSF, and were modified by polymeric Al or Fe and/or Al/Fe mixing polymeric species. The comparative performance of modified clays and aluminium sulphate and ferric sulphate were evaluated in terms of the removal of turbidity, suspended solids, UV(254)-abs, colour, and total and soluble CODs. The results demonstrated that after being modified with mixing polymeric Al/Fe species, two montmorillonite clays possess greater properties to remove the particles (as suspended solids) and organic pollutants (as COD and UV(254)-abs) from the sewage and to enhance the particle settling rate significantly. PMID:15120564

Jiang, Jia-Qian; Zeng, Zhiqiang; Pearce, Pete

2004-07-01

268

Effects of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on an aphid population  

SciTech Connect

Survival and fecundity of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, were markedly reduced when they were fed on collard plants grown in pots of soil treated with chemically contaminated sewage sludge, as compared to populations on potted plants grown in uncontaminated sludge or on fertilized soil (control). Calculated demographic parameters differed significantly between the contaminated sludge and uncontaminated sludge populations and between the contaminated sludge and control populations. No significant differences were detected between the uncontaminated sludge and control populations. The ecological effects on the aphids suggest that plant uptake and translocation of chemicals from the contaminated sludge affected aphid fitness through direct toxicity and/or reduced nutritional value of the plant. These results indicate that phytophagous insects may be affected by chemical contaminants in sewage sludge used in agriculture.

Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

1986-12-01

269

Changes at an activated sludge sewage treatment plant alter the numbers of airborne aerobic microorganisms.  

PubMed

In 1976, the activated sludge sewage treatment plant in Edmonton, Canada, was surveyed to determine the numbers of culturable airborne microorganisms. Many changes have been made at the plant to reduce odors and improve treatment efficiency, so in 2004 another survey was done to determine if these changes had reduced the bioaerosols. Covering the grit tanks and primary settling tanks greatly reduced the numbers of airborne microbes. Changing the design and operation of indoor automated sampling taps and sinks also reduced bioaerosols. The secondary was expanded and converted from a conventional activated sludge process using coarse bubble aeration to a biological nutrient removal system using fine bubble aeration. Although the surface area of the secondary more than doubled, the average number of airborne microorganisms in this part of the plant in 2004 was about 1% of that in 1976. PMID:16209882

Fernando, Nadeesha L; Fedorak, Phillip M

2005-11-01

270

Optimizing chemical conditioning for odour removal of undigested sewage sludge in drying processes.  

PubMed

Emission of odours during the thermal drying in sludge handling processes is one of the main sources of odour problems in wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this work was to assess the use of the response surface methodology as a technique to optimize the chemical conditioning process of undigested sewage sludges, in order to improve the dewaterability, and to reduce the odour emissions during the thermal drying of the sludge. Synergistic effects between inorganic conditioners (iron chloride and calcium oxide) were observed in terms of sulphur emissions and odour reduction. The developed quadratic models indicated that optimizing the conditioners dosage is possible to increase a 70% the dewaterability, reducing a 50% and 54% the emission of odour and volatile sulphur compounds respectively. The optimization of the conditioning process was validated experimentally. PMID:25438118

Vega, Esther; Moncls, Hctor; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Martin, Maria J

2015-03-01

271

Fate of selected estrogenic hormones in an urban sewage treatment plant in Tunisia (North Africa).  

PubMed

Estrogenic compounds have been monitored for one year at an urban sewage treatment plant (STP) located in Tunisia, to evaluate their fate and seasonal variations. The concentrations of these compounds were determined in both wastewater and sludge phases by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed that the highest removal of all estrogens (?80%) was observed in summer. Mass balance analysis revealed that biodegradation was the predominant removal mechanism. Moreover, the results showed that the removal efficiency of the studied emerging micropollutants and their concentrations in the solid phase of return sludge were much higher in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. These findings were closely related to microbial activity and the concentration of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSSs). Finally, the findings can be used to help with the modifications that could be implemented in that STP for the improved removal of estrogenic contaminants. PMID:25317971

Belhaj, Dalel; Baccar, Rim; Jaabiri, Ikram; Bouzid, Jalel; Kallel, Moneem; Ayadi, Habib; Zhou, John L

2015-02-01

272

An Experimental Investigation of Sewage Sludge Gasification in a Fluidized Bed Reactor  

PubMed Central

The gasification of sewage sludge was carried out in a simple atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. Flow and fuel feed rate were adjusted for experimentally obtaining an air mass?:?fuel mass ratio (A/F) of 0.2 < A/F < 0.4. Fuel characterization, mass and power balances, produced gas composition, gas phase alkali and ammonia, tar concentration, agglomeration tendencies, and gas efficiencies were assessed. Although accumulation of material inside the reactor was a main problem, this was avoided by removing and adding bed media along gasification. This allowed improving the process heat transfer and, therefore, gasification efficiency. The heating value of the produced gas was 8.4?MJ/Nm, attaining a hot gas efficiency of 70% and a cold gas efficiency of 57%. PMID:24453863

Calvo, L. F.; Garca, A. I.; Otero, M.

2013-01-01

273

Chemistry and microbiology of a sewage spill in South San Francisco Bay.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During September 1979, the breakdown of a waste treatment plant resulted in discharge of 1.5 X 107 m3 of primary- treated sewage into a tributary of South San Francisco Bay. Chemical and microbial changes occurred within the tributary as decomposition and nitrification depleted dissolved oxygen. Associated with anoxia were relatively high concentrations of particulate organic carbon, dissolved CO2, CH4, C2H4, NH4+, and fecal bacteria, and low phytoplankton biomass and photosynthetic oxygen production. South San Francisco Bay experienced only small changes in water quality, presumably because of its large volume and the assimilation of wastes that occurred within the tributary. Water quality improved rapidly in the tributary once normal tertiary treatment resumed. -Authors

Cloern, J.E.; Oremland, R.S.

1983-01-01

274

Evaluation of modified clay coagulant for sewage treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of modified clays as coagulants for sewage treatment was investigated in this study. The raw clays were montmorillonites K10 and KSF, and were modified by polymeric Al or Fe and\\/or Al\\/Fe mixing polymeric species. The comparative performance of modified clays and aluminium sulphate and ferric sulphate were evaluated in terms of the removal of turbidity, suspended solids, UV254-abs,

Jia-Qian Jiang; Zhiqiang Zeng; Pete Pearce

2004-01-01

275

Application of dried sewage sludge as phenol biosorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to determine the potential application of dried sewage sludge as a biosorbent for removing phenol from aqueous solution. Results showed that biosorption capacity was strongly influenced by the pH of the aqueous solution with an observed maximum phenol removal at pH around 68. Biosorption capacity increased when initial phenol concentration was increased to 110mg\\/L

Usarat Thawornchaisit; Kesinee Pakulanon

2007-01-01

276

IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

2004-10-05

277

Treatment of Sewage by Electroflotation: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out on the decontamination of domestic sewage effluent by electroflotation in a homemade pilot scale reactor. Different values of current density, conductivity and effluent flow rate were tested to determine the most suitable operating parameters of the system. Applying a current density of 14.18A m, adding 0.5g L of NaCl, and using a flow rate of

Joel A. Palomino-Romero; Giancarlo R. Salazar-Banda; Maria Olmpia de O. Rezende

2012-01-01

278

Distribution and levels of brominated flame retardants in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and sixteen sewage sludge samples from 22 municipal wastewater treatment plants in Sweden were analysed for brominated flame retardants. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were in the range n.d.450 ng\\/g wet weight, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) varied between n.d. and 220 ng\\/g wet weight, 2,4,6-tribromophenol was in the range n.d.0.9 ng\\/g wet weight and polybrominated biphenyls were not detected (except

Karin berg; Kristofer Warman; Tomas berg

2002-01-01

279

Selenium biomethylation products from soil and sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Inorganic selenium compounds are converted to volatile methylated species (dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenone or methyl methylselenite) by microorganisms in sewage sludge and soil. In the absence of added selenium, no volatile selenium compounds were detected. All samples were evaluated without the addition of nutrients and in the presence of air or nitrogen. The methylation process may be an important step in the detoxification process for microorganisms exposed to high concentrations of selenium. PMID:17744562

Reamer, D C; Zoller, W H

1980-05-01

280

Long term trends in sewage abatement and water quality in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary  

SciTech Connect

Long-term trends in dissolved oxygen (DO) and coliform bacteria concentrations are used to evaluate the impact of 70 years of sewage abatement and treatment in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary near New York City (NYC). Regional construction of wastewater treatment plants since the 1920`s has reduced discharges of untreated sewage into the estuary from approximately 47 M{sup 3}/S in 1936 to less than 0.1 M{sup 3}/S by 1994. From at least 1922 through the early 1960s, average summer DO percent saturation in the Hudson River varied between 35--50% in surface waters and 25--40% in bottom waters. Beginning in the late 1970s, DO concentrations increased through the 1980s and especially into the 1990s, coinciding with the secondary treatment upgrade of the 7.4 M3/s North River plant in the spring of 1991. Average summer percent saturation in the early 1 990s exceeded 80% in surface waters and 60% in bottom waters. In addition, summer DO minima increased from less than 1.5 mg/L in the early 1970s, to greater than 3.0 mg/L in the 1990s, and the duration of hypoxia during summer months has been reduced. While this general trend has been observed throughout the estuary, some areas have displayed recent declines in DO, possibly due to increasing eutrophication. Total coliforms also display strong decreasing trends from the 1960s into the 1990s, with declines attributed to plant construction and expansion, and improved operation of the sewer system. Metal loadings have also decreased significantly. Signs of improved ecosystem quality include reopened beaches and shellfish beds, re-infestation of woodpilings by marine wood-borers, and the resurgence of wading birds in several areas of the estuary.

Brosnan, T.M.; O`Shea, M.L. [New York City Dept. of Environmental Protection, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

281

Response of benthic foraminifers to sewage discharge and remediation in Santa Monica Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Examination of a time series of foraminiferal assemblage distributions on the continental shelf and slope of Santa Monica Bay from 1955 to 1997-1998 suggests that the benthic microfauna have been greatly affected by the quality and character of the municipal sludge and wastewater discharged into the bay over the last half-century by the Hyperion Treatment Plant serving the greater Los Angeles area. Five species dominate both the living and dead foraminiferal assemblages of the 1997-1998 surface samples, including Eggerella advena, Trochammina pacifica, Bulimina denudata, Buliminella elegantissima, and Epistominella bradyana. Temporal patterns of relative species abundances for both living and dead assemblages, as well as toxicity tests measuring amphipod survival and sea urchin fertilization success, show improvement since the sewage treatment program was enhanced in 1986. None of these trends are evident 10 years earlier, coincident with the onset of a Pacific Decadal Oscillation warming trend. This fact suggests that remediation, and not climate change, is responsible for the faunal changes observed. Even with remediation, however, all foraminiferal faunal trends have not returned to early-outfall levels. The organic-waste indicating species T. pacifica shows a slow decline in abundance as sewage treatment and sludge disposal activities have improved, whereas a dramatic increase in the abundance of the pioneer colonizer of impacted regions, E. advena, has occurred, often with a reciprocal response by B. denudata. Also evident is a dramatic shift in the abundance of the once-dominant species Nonionella basispinata and Nonionella stella, which were unable to recolonize Santa Monica Bay since the two major outfalls (5- and 7-mile) began discharging. Temporal variations in species abundances, as well as range expansions, contractions, and the inability to recolonize areas previously, or presently, impacted, suggests that foraminifers are a useful tool in defining areas affected by waste discharge.

McGann, M.; Alexander, C.R.; Bay, S.M.

2003-01-01

282

Development of an odorant emission model for sewage treatment works.  

PubMed

In the field of odour assessment, much attention has been paid to the measurement of odour concentration. Whilst the concentration of an odour at a receptor is a useful indicator of annoyance, the concentration at the source tells only half the story. The emission rate - the product of odour concentration and air flow rate - is required to appreciate the significance of odour sources. Knowledge of emission rates allows odour sources to be ranked in terms of significance and facilitates appropriate selection and design of odour control units. The emission rate is also a key input for atmospheric dispersion models. Given the increasing importance of odour to sewage treatment works operators, there is a clear need for predictive methods for odour emission rates. Theory suggests that the emission of odorants from sewage to air is controlled by mass transfer resistances in both the gas and liquid phase. These are in turn controlled by odorant and emission source characteristics. The required odorant characteristics are largely known, and mass transfer from many different types of emission sources have been studied. Sewage treatment processes can be described by one or more of six characteristic emission sources, these being quiescent surfaces, channels, weirs and drop structures, diffused aeration, surface aeration and flow over media. This paper describes the development of odorant mass transfer models for these characteristic emission types. The models have been applied in the form of spreadsheet models to the prediction of H2S emissions and the results compared with commercial VOC emission models. PMID:11762460

Gostelow, P; Parsons, S A; Cobb, J

2001-01-01

283

Potentials of using nanofiltration to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Due to the depletion of mineral phosphorus resources there is an increasing demand for efficient phosphorus recovery technologies. In this study the potential of nanofiltration to recover phosphorus from pre-treated sewage sludge is investigated. The efficiency of three commercial nanofiltration membranes (Desal 5DK, NP030; MPF34) was tested using model solutions. Desal 5DK showed the best selectivity for phosphorus. A pH of lower than 1.5 was found to be most suitable. Desal 5DK was used on four different sewage sludge ash eluates and on one sewage sludge. In these experiments it was shown that a separation of phosphorus from undesired components such as heavy metals was possible with significant variations in the efficiency for the different ash and sludge types. Additionally the achievable product recovery was investigated with model solutions. A product recovery of 57.1% was attained for pH 1 and 41.4% for pH 1.5. PMID:18401142

Niewersch, C; Koh, C N; Wintgens, T; Melin, T; Schaum, C; Cornel, P

2008-01-01

284

Sewage sludge does not induce genotoxicity and carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Through a series of experiments, the genotoxic/mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of sewage sludge was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - liver carcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 200 mg/kg i.p.); Group 3 and G4-liver carcinogenesis initiated by DEN and fed 10,000 ppm or 50,000 ppm of sewage sludge. The animals were submitted to a 70% partial hepatectomy at the 3rd week. Livers were processed for routine histological analysis and immunohistochemistry, in order to detect glutathione S-transferase positive altered hepatocyte foci (GST-P+ AHF). Peripheral blood samples for the comet assay were obtained from the periorbital plexus immediately prior to sacrificing. Polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) were analyzed in femoral bone-marrow smears, and the frequencies of those micronucleated (MNPCEs) registered. There was no sewage-sludge-induced increase in frequency of either DNA damage in peripheral blood leucocytes, or MNPCEs in the femoral bone marrow. Also, there was no increase in the levels of DNA damage, in the frequency of MNPCEs, and in the development of GST-P AHF when compared with the respective control group. PMID:23055806

Silva, Paula Regina Pereira; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Dagli, Maria Lcia Zaidan; Saldiva, Paulo Hilrio Nascimento

2012-01-01

285

KINETIC AND BIODEGRADABILITY ASSAY OF ACCLIMATED ANAEROBIC MICROBES DIGESTING PRIMARY SLUDGE IN SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sanitary sewer systems and sewage treatment plants have been under construction aggressively in Taiwan. Interceptive sewer systems are popular in municipal areas to collect the wastewater from the existing sewage channels. The collected primary sludge (PS) attains special characteristics in the sewage treatment plant. The low volatile suspended solids\\/suspended solids ratio of only 0.4 to 0.5 is attributed to the

Sheng-Shung Cheng; Akiyoshi Ohashi; Horisawa Kotaro; Yu-Min Tien; Keng-Hao Yang

286

Absorber coatings' degradation  

SciTech Connect

This report is intended to document some of the Los Alamos efforts that have been carried out under the Department of Energy (DOE) Active Heating and Cooling Materials Reliability, Maintainability, and Exposure Testing program. Funding for these activities is obtained directly from DOE although they represent a variety of projects and coordination with other agencies. Major limitations to the use of solar energy are the uncertain reliability and lifetimes of solar systems. This program is aimed at determining material operating limitations, durabilities, and failure modes such that materials improvements can be made and lifetimes can be extended. Although many active and passive materials and systems are being studied at Los Alamos, this paper will concentrate on absorber coatings and degradation of these coatings.

Moore, S.W.

1984-01-01

287

Degradation of naproxen by UV, VUV photolysis and their combination.  

PubMed

Naproxen is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Recently, this medicine was detected both in natural waters (up to 1.5 ?g L(-1)) and in sewage treatment plant effluents (up to 5.2 ?g L(-1)). Moreover, naproxen is only partly eliminated by classical processes used in sewage treatment plants. Therefore, its degradation is of utmost interest. Advanced oxidation processes proved to be the most suitable methods for the elimination of persistent organic contaminants. In this work ultraviolet (UV, 254 nm), vacuum ultraviolet photolysis (VUV, 172 nm) and their combination (UV/VUV, 254/185 nm) were investigated. The efficiency of the methods increased in the following order: UV < VUV < UV/VUV photolysis. However, VUV irradiation was found to mineralize the contaminant molecule most effectively. The chemical structures of three out of four aromatic by-products and of some aliphatic carboxylic acids were presumed. The effects of dissolved O2 and the initial concentration of naproxen on the degradation were also investigated. PMID:24029532

Arany, Eszter; Szab, Rita Katalin; Apti, Lszl; Alapi, Tnde; Ilisz, Istvn; Mazellier, Patrick; Dombi, Andrs; Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina

2013-11-15

288

The Impact of Sewage Discharge in a Marine Embayment: A Stable Isotope Reconnaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope analyses, ? 13C and ? 15N, of sewage tolerant benthic invertebrates seaward of a sewage effluent discharged in a marine embayment, the Firth of Forth, East Scotland, suggest that the polychaete worm Nereis virens is a suitable species for identifying biological assimilation of sewage derived organic matter. The sewage isotopic signal is not strongly recorded in the sediment due to the combined action of tidal movement, wind-induced wave action and benthic invertebrate grazing of particulate matter on the sea-bed. ? 13C of the plankton is significantly different from the effluent, but ? 15N is not which precludes its use as a trace.

Waldron, S.; Tatner, P.; Jack, I.; Arnott, C.

2001-01-01

289

K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring reports, second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173. This report includes the results of those analyses. None of the analyzed constituents exceeded the Primary Drinking Water Standard or the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria at either the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site or the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site.

Not Available

1992-10-01

290

Energetics of syntrophic cooperation in methanogenic degradation.  

PubMed Central

Fatty acids and alcohols are key intermediates in the methanogenic degradation of organic matter, e.g., in anaerobic sewage sludge digestors or freshwater lake sediments. They are produced by classical fermenting bacteria for disposal of electrons derived in simultaneous substrate oxidations. Methanogenic bacteria can degrade primarily only one-carbon compounds. Therefore, acetate, propionate, ethanol, and their higher homologs have to be fermented further to one-carbon compounds. These fermentations are called secondary or syntrophic fermentations. They are endergonic processes under standard conditions and depend on intimate coupling with methanogenesis. The energetic situation of the prokaryotes cooperating in these processes is problematic: the free energy available in the reactions for total conversion of substrate to methane attributes to each partner amounts of energy in the range of the minimum biochemically convertible energy, i.e., 20 to 25 kJ per mol per reaction. This amount corresponds to one-third of an ATP unit and is equivalent to the energy required for a monovalent ion to cross the charged cytoplasmic membrane. Recent studies have revealed that syntrophically fermenting bacteria synthesize ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation and reinvest part of the ATP-bound energy into reversed electron transport processes, to release the electrons at a redox level accessible by the partner bacteria and to balance their energy budget. These findings allow us to understand the energy economy of these bacteria on the basis of concepts derived from the bioenergetics of other microorganisms. PMID:9184013

Schink, B

1997-01-01

291

Performance of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) as a hydrolysis-acidogenesis unit in treating landfill leachate mixed with municipal sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor(ABR) as a hydrolysis-acidogenesis unit in treating the mixed wastewater of landfill leachate and municipal sewage in different volumetric ratios was carried out. The results showed that ABR substantially improved the biological treatability of the mixed wastewater by increasing its BOD5\\/COD ratio to 0.4-0.6 from the initial values of 0.15-0.3. The

B. Wang; Y. Shen

2000-01-01

292

Avaliao do Potencial Txico de Latossolos e Chernossolos Acrescidos de Lodo de Esgoto Utilizando Bioensaios com Oligoquetas da Espcie Eisenia andrei Toxicity Assessment of Latosols and Chernosols Amended With Sewage Sludge Using Bioassays With Eisenia andrei Earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage Sludge (SEL) has been used in agricultural activities to improve physical and chemical properties of soils. However, this compound also contains very high levels of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms, which can cause serious negative effects on biota and human health. This paper aims to assess potential toxicity of latosols and chernosols amended with SEL, using Eisenia andrei earthworms.

Ricardo Gonalves Cesar; Silvia Gonalves; Renata de Carvalho; Jimenez Alamino; Helena Polivanov; Raphael Corra da Silva; Zuleica Carmen Castilhos; Patricia Correa Araujo

293

Interpreting the synergistic effect in combined ultrasonication-ozonation sewage sludge pre-treatment.  

PubMed

The sequential combination of ultrasonication and ozonation as sewage sludge treatment prior to anaerobic digestion was investigated. Synergistic volatile suspended solids (VSS) solubilization was observed when low energy ultrasonication (?12kJg(-1) TS) was followed by ozonation. 0.048gO3g(-1) TS ozonation induced the maximum VSS solubilization of 41.3% when the sludge was pre-ultrasonicated at 9kJg(-1) TS; while, the same ozone dosage applied without prior ultrasonication only induced 21.1% VSS solubilization. High molecular weight (MW) components (MW>500kDa) were found to be the main solubilization products when sludge was only ozonated. However, solubilization products by ozone were mainly in the form of low MW components (MW<27kDa) when sludge was pre-ultrasonicated. The high MW products generated by ultrasound were effectively degraded in the subsequent ozonation. Anaerobic biodegradability increased by 34.7% when ultrasonication (9kJg(-1) TS) and ozonation (0.036gO3g(-1) TS) were combined sequentially. The maximum methane production rate increased from 3.53 to 4.32, 4.21 and 4.54mL CH4d(-1) after ultrasonication, ozonation and ultrasonication-ozonation pre-treatments, respectively. PMID:25282627

Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Lin, Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

2014-10-01

294

Effect of the addition of rice straw on microbial community in a sewage sludge digester.  

PubMed

Rice straw was added to a sewage sludge digester and its effects on methane production, dewatering characteristics, and microbial communities in the digested sludge were examined by a continuous digestion experiment under mesophilic conditions (35 C). Stable gas generation was monitored in all digestion experiments. Methane yield from raw sludge, chopped rice straw and softened rice straw were estimated to be 0.27, 0.18 and 0.26 NL/g total solids load, respectively. The capillary suction time of digested sludge was decreased by the addition of rice straw. Archaeal and bacterial communities in the sludge were elucidated by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) targeting 16S rRNA genes. The Shannon index of DGGE profiles indicated that bacterial diversity increased with the addition of softened rice straw. DNA sequences of significant bands of the digested sludge were most closely related to Methanosaeta concilii (97.4% identity) and Methanoculleus bourgensis (100% identity). Meanwhile, those in the co-digested sludge with rice straw were most closely related to Methanosarcina barkeri (98.4% identity) and Methanoculleus bourgensis (99.3% identity). Although both Methanosaeta spp. and Methanosarcina spp. metabolize acetate to methane, Methanosarcina spp. have a competitive advantage at acetate concentrations of >70 mg/L. Results suggested that the quantity of acetate produced during rice straw degradation may change the archaeal community. PMID:25225928

Nakakihara, E; Ikemoto-Yamamoto, R; Honda, R; Ohtsuki, S; Takano, M; Suetsugu, Y; Watanabe, H

2014-01-01

295

Antimisting kerosene: Low temperature degradation and blending  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inline filtration characteristics of freshly blended and degraded antimisting fuels (AMK) at low temperature are examined. A needle valve degrader was modified to include partial recirculation of degraded fuel and heat addition in the bypass loop. A pressure drop across the needle valve of up to 4,000 psi was used. The pressure drop across a 325 mesh filter screen placed inline with the degrader and directly downstream of the needle valve was measured as a function of time for different values of pressure drop across the needle valve. A volume flux of 1 gpm/sq in was employed based on the frontal area of the screen. It was found that, at ambient temperatures, freshly blended AMK fuel could be degraded using a single pass degradation at 4,000 psi pressure drop across the needle valve to give acceptable filterability performance. At fuel temperatures below -20 C, degradation becomes increasingly difficult and a single pass technique results in unacceptable filtration performance. Recirculation of a fraction of the degraded fuel and heat addition in the bypass loop improved low temperature degradation performance. The problem is addressed of blending the AMK additive with Jet A at various base fuel temperatures.

Yavrouian, A.; Parikh, P.; Sarohia, V.

1988-01-01

296

Estrone degradation: does organic matter (quality), matter?  

PubMed

Understanding the parameters that drive E1 degradation is necessary to improve existing wastewater treatment systems and evaluate potential treatment options. Organic matter quality could be an important parameter. Microbial communities grown from activated sludge seeds using different dissolved organic matter sources were tested for E1 degradation rates. Synthetic wastewater was aged, filter-sterilized, and used as a carbon and energy source to determine if recalcitrant organic carbon enhances E1 degradation. Higher E1 degradation was observed by biomass grown on 8 d old synthetic wastewater compared to biomass grown on fresh synthetic wastewater (P = 0.033) despite much lower concentrations of bacteria. Minimal or no E1 degradation was observed in biomass grown on 2 d old synthetic wastewater. Organic carbon analyses suggest that products of cell lysis or microbial products released under starvation stress stimulate E1 degradation. Additional water sources were also tested: lake water, river water, and effluents from a municipal wastewater treatement plant and a treatment wetland. E1 degradation was only observed in biomass grown in treatment effluent. Nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, and trace element concentrations were not causative factors for E1 degradation. In both experiments, spectrophotometric analyses reveal degradation of E1 is associated with microbially derived organic carbon but not general recalcitrance. PMID:25454582

Tan, David T; Temme, Hanna R; Arnold, William A; Novak, Paige J

2015-01-01

297

Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent  

SciTech Connect

Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms)) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of one year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ day (23.6 dry tons/acre yr). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (27 dry tons/acre yr), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (22 dry tons/acre yr) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. N and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured im primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7% N and 0.94% P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8% N and 0.79% P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nurtrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N/ha yr and 321 to 387 kg P/ha yr, respectively.

Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKinn, T.

1985-05-01

298

40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Llll of... - Operating Parameters for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a  

...2014-07-01 false Operating Parameters for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 3 Table...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt....

2014-07-01

299

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Llll of... - Emission Limits and Standards for New Fluidized Bed Sewage Sludge Incineration Units  

... false Emission Limits and Standards for New Fluidized Bed Sewage Sludge Incineration Units...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt....

2014-07-01

300

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Llll of... - Summary of Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a  

...false Summary of Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 5 Table...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt....

2014-07-01

301

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Llll of... - Emission Limits and Standards for New Multiple Hearth Sewage Sludge Incineration Units  

... false Emission Limits and Standards for New Multiple Hearth Sewage Sludge Incineration Units...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt....

2014-07-01

302

Targeted polypeptide degradation  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to compositions, methods, cells and organisms useful for selectively localizing polypeptides to the proteasome for degradation. Therapeutic methods and pharmaceutical compositions for treating disorders associated with the expression and/or activity of a polypeptide by targeting these polypeptides for degradation, as well as methods for targeting therapeutic polypeptides for degradation and/or activating therapeutic polypeptides by degradation are provided. The invention provides methods for identifying compounds that mediate proteasome localization and/or polypeptide degradation. The invention also provides research tools for the study of protein function.

Church, George M. (Brookline, MA); Janse, Daniel M. (Brookline, MA)

2008-05-13

303

Durability Improvements Through Degradation Mechanism Studies  

E-print Network

) ­ Characterization (TEM) and metal bipolar plates · University of New Mexico (UNM) ­ Characterization (XPS of component impurities from seals and bipolar plates M3: Ion Power/LANL RH/potential effect on chemical

304

Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms)) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of one year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range

K. R. Reddy; F. M. Hueston; T. McKinn

1985-01-01

305

ISCORS ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVITY IN SEWAGE SLUDGE: MODELING TO ASSESS RADIATION DOSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tran...

306

Phytotoxicity of municipal sewage sludge composts related to physico-chemical properties, PAHs and heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the composting on the phytotoxicity of sewage sludge in relation to their physicalchemical properties, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content. Four municipal sewage sludges were composted for 76 days. A Phytotoxkit Test and pot experiment with Lepidium sativum were used for bioassay. The total PAH content in sludges

Patryk Oleszczuk

2008-01-01

307

Cold Climate Phosphorus Uptake by Submerged Aquatic Plants in a Sewage Treatment Free Water Surface Wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 2002, biomass phosphorus (P) of submerged aquatic plants with associated epiphyton was measured using P-32 tracer addition in a treatment wetland receiving tertiary treated municipal sewage. The wetland is situated 120 km west of Stockholm, Sweden receiving tertiary treated municipal sewage. During the experiment, inflow water had a total P concentration of 0.3 and an iron concentration of

BARBRO ULN; KARINW S. TONDERSKI

2005-01-01

308

Fate of pharmaceuticals and cosmetic ingredients during the operation of a MBR treating sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal wastewaters contain many organic compounds, among them active ingredients as pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products, which are used in large quantities throughout the world. Most of these compounds come either from domestic sewage or from hospital or industrial discharges and enter municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). Modern STPs can effectively accomplish carbon and nitrogen removal, as well as microbial pollution

R. Reif; S. Surez; F. Omil; J. M. Lema

2008-01-01

309

Real-Time Estimation of Small-Area Populations with Human Biomarkers in Sewage  

EPA Science Inventory

A totally new approach is conceptualized for measuring small-area human populations by using biomarkers in sewage. The basis for the concept (SCIM: Sewage Chemical-Information Mining) is supported by a comprehensive examination and synthesis of data published across several disc...

310

Polar drug residues in sewage and natural waters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drug residues of lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories and some drug metabolites have been detected in raw sewage, treated waste water and river water in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These residues are mainly derived from humans via excretion. The median concentrations in the effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) of most drugs investigated in this study ranged from

Marcus Stumpf; Thomas A Ternes; Rolf-Dieter Wilken; Silvana Vianna Rodrigues; Wolfram Baumann

1999-01-01

311

Detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals in aerial invertebrates at sewage treatment works  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) constitute a diverse group of chemical compounds which can alter endocrine function in exposed animals. Whilst most studies have focussed on exposure of wildlife to EDCs via aquatic routes, there is the potential for transfer into the terrestrial food chain through consumption of contaminated prey items developing in sewage sludge and waste water at sewage treatment

Kirsty J. Park; Carsten T. Mller; Shai Markman; Olivia Swinscow-Hall; David Pascoe; Katherine L. Buchanan

2009-01-01

312

Gasification of sewage sludge and other biomass for hydrogen production in supercritical water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digested sewage sludge and other biomass such as wood sawdust can be mixed with a corn starch gel to form a viscous paste. The paste can be delivered to a supercritical flow reactor by means of a cement pump. Different types of feedstocks are used in this work sewage sludge (up to 7.69 wt%) mixed in the corn starch paste.

Xiadong Xu; Michael Jerry Antal

1998-01-01

313

NEAR-BOTTOM PELAGIC BACTERIA AT A DEEP-WATER SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. ixed cultures and bacterial...

314

WET SEWAGE SLUDGE APPLICATION EFFECT ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND ELEMENT CONTENT OF LEAF AND ROOT VEGETABLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pot experiments were conducted in a heated greenhouse to study the effects of increasing doses of sewage sludge application on vegetables grown for leaves (lettuce, endive, spinach) and roots (radish, carrots, beets), and on some soil properties. Results showed that sewage sludge application increased or decreased soil pH in cases of lower or higher values respectively, increased soil organic matter,

Efstathios Tamoutsidis; Ioannis Papadopoulos; Ioannis Tokatlidis; Stilianos Zotis; Theophilactos Mavropoulos

2002-01-01

315

Simultaneous colour and DON removal from sewage treatment plant effluent: Alum coagulation of melanoidin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to detect and characterise melanoidin in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent, and to study the ability of alum coagulation to remove the colour and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) associated with melanoidin. The melanoidin is non-biodegradable due to the complex cyclic based structure and thus it directly contributes to effluent nitrogen concentrations from the sewage

Jason Dwyer; Peter Griffiths; Paul Lant

2009-01-01

316

ENERGY PRODUCTION AND POLLUTION PREVENTION AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS USING FUEL CELL POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses energy production and pollution prevention at sewage treatment plants using fuel cell power plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at waste water treatment plants during the anaerobic treatment of sewage to reduce solids. The major constituents are...

317

Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01

318

Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

319

A New Process for the Drying and Gasification of Sewage Sludge SLUDGE DISPOSAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

n recent years, methods formerly used for the disposal of sewage sludge, including landfill, incin- eration, ocean dumping and disposal on agricultural land have become much less acceptable. Ocean dumping of sewage sludge has been outlawed in the United States since 1998. Space for agricultural land disposal is not available in many urban areas and is meeting with increased opposition

Brendan McAuley; Julie Kunkel; Stanley E. Manahan

2001-01-01

320

Bacteria isolated from sewage influent resistant to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in sewage influent. Resistance was measured by determining the lowest concentration of antibiotic, in micrograms per milliliter (? g mL). To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), which is used in diagnostic laboratories, we used the Etest, a plastic strip containing an antibiotic concentration gradient. In total, we sampled five sewage treatment

Sam R. Zwenger; Eric T. Gillock

2009-01-01

321

LONG-TERM USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents results from the last 2 years of a 15-year study of the long term use of sewage sludge on agricultural and disturbed lands. The three field studies discussed here include (1) the response of corn to repeated annual applications of sewage sludge, (2) the diffe...

322

Ecotoxicological evaluation of sewage sludge contaminated with zinc oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to evaluate the ecotoxicological qualitative risk associated with the use of sewage sludge containing Zn oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) as soil amendment. A sludge-untreated soil and two sludge-treated soils were spiked with ZnO-NPs (0-1,000 mg/kg soil). Soil ecotoxicity was assessed with Eisenia fetida (acute and sublethal end points), and the unfilterable and filterable (0.02 ?m) soil leachates were tested with a battery of biomarkers using Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, and the fish cell line RTG-2 (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The production of E. fetida cocoons in sludge-treated soils was lower than that in sludge-untreated soils. The highest effect in the algal growth inhibition test was detected in sludge-untreated soil, most likely caused by the loss of organic matter in these samples. The D. magna results were always negative. Toxic effects (lysosomal cell function and production of reactive oxygen species) in RTG-2 cells were only observed in sludge-treated soils. In general, the toxicity of ZnO-NPs in sludge-treated soils was similar to that of sludge-untreated soil, and the filterable leachate fraction [Zn salt (Zn(2+))] did not produce greater effects than the unfilterable fraction (ZnO-NPs). Thus, after the addition of ZnO-NP--enriched sewage sludge to agricultural soil, the risk of toxic effects for soil and aquatic organisms was shown to be low. These findings are important because repeated use of organic amendments such as sewage sludge may cause more and more increased concentrations of ZnO-NPs in soils over the long-term. PMID:25185842

Garca-Gmez, Concepcin; Fernndez, Mara Dolores; Babin, Mar

2014-11-01

323

Determination of epichlorohydrin in water and sewage samples.  

PubMed

The simple, quick and effective methods for the analysis of epichlorohydrin (ECH) in water and sewage samples with the use of gas chromatography have been presented. From among all the methods developed, the procedures for monitoring drinking-water quality and the methods which allow the determination of epichlorohydrin in sewage samples have been selected. The limits of ECH detection have been determined by direct aqueous injection (DAI) into the chromatographic column and an analysis with the application of a flame ionization detector (FID), a mass spectrometry detector (MS), an electron capture detector (ECD) and atomic emission detection (AED) detectors. The method allows the determination of ECH in water samples at the concentration level of 0.1mgl(-1). Moreover, the developed methods of water samples preparation for chromatographic analysis using the following extraction methods: headspace (HS), stripping with adsorption on solid phase, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE) and solid phase microextraction (SPME) have been evaluated. The limits of ECH detection for each procedure with the application of gas chromatography (GC) combined with various detectors have been determined and their statistical evaluation has been presented. The SPME method allowed us to determine ECH in water samples at the concentration levels of 1.0ngl(-1). The results of studies on the choice of the selective methods allowing ECH analysis in sewage samples have been demonstrated. The applied SPME method was found to be a quick and effective technique to determine micro trace amounts of ECH in samples containing high amounts of various organic compounds. PMID:18970879

Gaca, Jerzy; Wejnerowska, Grazyna

2006-12-15

324

Thermochemical liquidization and anaerobic treatment of dewatered sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dewatered sewage sludge was thermochemically liquidized at 175C and the liquidized sludge was separated by centrifugation to 57.7% (w\\/w) supernatant [moisture, 92.3%; volatile solid (VS), 7.0%] and 42.3% precipitate (moisture, 71.6%; VS, 18.9%). The supernatant was successfully anaerobically digested. Biogas yield from the supernatant at organic loading concentrations of 1.92.2 g VS\\/l during 9 days' incubation was 440 ml\\/g-added VS

Shigeki Sawayama; Seiichi Inoue; Tatsuo Yagishita; Tomoko Ogi; Shin-Ya Yokoyama

1995-01-01

325

Potential method for gas production: High temperature co-pyrolysis of lignite and sewage sludge with vacuum reactor and long contact time.  

PubMed

Lignite and sewage sludge were co-pyrolyzed in a vacuum reactor with high temperature (900C) and long contact time (more than 2h). Beneficial synergetic effect on gas yield was clearly observed. Gas yield of blend fuel was evidently higher than that of both parent fuels. The gas volume yield, gas lower heating value (LHV), fixed carbon conversion and H2/CO ratio were 1.42Nm(3)/kg(blend fuel), 10.57MJ/Nm(3), 96.64% and 0.88% respectively, which indicated this new method a feasible one for gas production. It was possible that sewage sludge acted as gasification agents (CO2 and H2O) and catalyst (alkali and alkaline earth metals) provider during co-pyrolysis, promoting CO2-char and H2O-char gasification which, as a result, invited the improvement of gas volume yield, gas lower heating value and fixed carbon conversion. PMID:25542402

Yang, Xiao; Yuan, Chengyong; Xu, Jiao; Zhang, Weijiang

2015-03-01

326

Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater using sewage sludge based activated carbon supported manganese and ferric oxides as catalysts.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge of biological wastewater treatment plant was converted into sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) with ZnCl? as activation agent, which supported manganese and ferric oxides as catalysts (including SBAC) to improve the performance of ozonation of real biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater. The results indicated catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalysts significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal and the treated wastewater was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. On the basis of positive effect of higher pH and significant inhibition of radical scavengers in catalytic ozonation, it was deduced that the enhancement of catalytic activity was responsible for generating hydroxyl radicals and the possible reaction pathway was proposed. Moreover, the prepared catalysts showed superior stability and most of toxic and refractory compounds were eliminated at successive catalytic ozonation runs. Thus, the process with economical, efficient and sustainable advantages was beneficial to engineering application. PMID:24907577

Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Zhao, Qian

2014-08-01

327

Evaluation of Clostridium perfringens as a tracer of sewage contamination in sediments by two enumeration methods.  

PubMed

A traditional method of enumerating Clostridium perfringens using membrane filtration (MF) as an indicator of fecal contamination was compared to recently developed rapid method using Rapid Fung Double Tube (RFDT) in an evaluation to characterize the extent of sewage contamination in sediments of the Great Lakes. Evaluation of these two methods included determining C. perfringens concentrations and recovery efficiencies from sewage, sewage-spiked sediments, and water (surface and bottom) and sediment samples collected from two Great Lakes. The RFDT method proved to be a superior method for identifying C. perfringens in lake sediments compared to MF, as it had higher recovery efficiency and was more rapid, reliable, simple, and effective. This study provides biological evidence of the long-term deposition and movement of sewage particulates in the Great Lakes environment and demonstrates the potential usefulness of C. perfringens as a tracer for sewage contamination using a reliable enumeration method. PMID:24833022

Vijayavel, K; Kashian, D R

2014-09-01

328

Reef degradation and coral biodiversity in indonesia: Effects of land-based pollution, destructive fishing practices and changes over time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species-area curves calculated from line-intercept transect surveys on 15 reefs in three regions of Indonesia allow estimation of the relative decrease in within-habitat coral species diversity associated with different types of reef degradation. Reefs subject to land-based pollution (sewage, sedimentation, and\\/or industrial pollution) show 3050% reduced diversity at 3 m, and 4060% reduced diversity at 10 m depth relative to

Evan N Edinger; Jamaluddin Jompa; Gino V Limmon; Wisnu Widjatmoko; Michael J Risk

1998-01-01

329

The behaviour of ashes and heavy metals during the co-combustion of sewage sludges in a fluidised bed  

SciTech Connect

Co-combustion tests of dry sewage sludges with coal were performed in a pilot bubbling FBC aiming at the characterization of ashes and determining the behaviour of heavy metals in the process. The tests showed compliance with the regulatory levels as far as heavy metal emissions were concerned. The bottom ashes, which accounted for about 70% of the total ash production, were obtained in a granular form, with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm. The heavy metals were distributed in ashes obtained from different locations of the installation and their concentrations were found to vary depending on the location of capture. The increase in heavy metals content in bottom ashes was not found to lead to higher leachability and ecotoxicity compared to sewage sludges, suggesting that there could be opportunities for their further use. Mercury suffered vaporisation inside the reactor, thus leaving bottom ashes free of contamination by it. However, there was observed a strong retention of mercury in cyclone ashes due to the presence of unburned carbon which probably acted as an adsorbent. The effluent mercury was also found to be mostly associated with the particulate fraction, being less than 20% emitted in gaseous forms. The results suggested that the combustion of the sewage sludge could successfully be carried out and the amount of unburned carbon leaving the combustor but captured in cyclone was large enough to ensure substantial retention of mercury at low temperatures, hence could contribute to an improvement of the mercury release which still remains an issue of great concern to resolve during combustion of waste materials.

Helena Lopes, M.; Abelha, P.; Lapa, N.; Oliveira, J.S.; Cabrita, I.; Gulyurtlu, I

2003-07-01

330

Response of a seagrass fish assemblage to improved wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

We compared the structure of a seagrass fish assemblage near a sewage outlet before and after improvements to wastewater treatment. To determine whether responses by the fish assemblage were due to changes in water quality or to other factors, comparisons were made with the structure of a fish assemblage from a nearby site unaffected by sewage effluent. Total species richness, density and biomass of fish, decreased at both sites over the 30-year period. An increase in mean trophic level near the sewage outlet following improvements in water quality indicated that wastewater treatment had another important effect. This result is consistent with the reductions in food webs supporting pelagic and benthic fishes that typically accompany decreases in nutrient inputs. Although improvements to wastewater treatment explained much of the variation in the structure of the fish assemblage at PC, our results also suggest that fishing and climate change, at both sites. PMID:25499183

Ourgaud, M; Ruitton, S; Bell, J D; Letourneur, Y; Harmelin, J G; Harmelin-Vivien, M L

2015-01-15

331

Sensitized photolysis as pretreatment to biological degradation of trichlorobenzenes  

SciTech Connect

The role of photolysis as pretreatment process was examined for the biological degradation of trichlorobenzenes (TCBs), namely 1,2,3-, 1,2,4- and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzenes. Initially, direct and indirect photolysis experiments were conducted using aqueous solutions with 1% acetonitrile of the three isomers of trichlorobenzenes with and without sensitizers. The sensitizers used were Fenton's reagent, nitrite, triethylamine, humic acid and TiO{sub 2}. The photochemical experiments were performed using laboratory simulated sunlight and the kinetic rates for these processes were calculated. The effect of photolysis on the biological degradation chlorobenzenes were examined using a chemical activation system (CAS) which consists of EDTA, ferrous sulfate, ascorbic acid, catalase and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in potassium phosphate buffer (monobasic) and a primary sewage effluent. Initially, kinetic rates by CAS biodegradation and primary sewage were obtained and compared. In general, the rates of biodegradation were greater in the test media with catalase. The rate of transformation in CAS was enhanced in the order: monoCB < 1,2,3-TCB < 1,2,4-TCB < 1,3,5-TCB; whereas, when CAS was used as a control, the kinetic rates in the presence of catalase increased in the sequence: 1,2,3-TCB, 1,3,5-TCB < 1,2,4-TCB < MonoCB. Photolysis studied in concert with the biological systems showed significant enhancement of the degradation rate of trichlorobenzenes. The photolysis rates were higher for those with sensitized photolysis. This study shows that photolysis can be used as a pretreatment of enhancing biodegradation of trichlorobenzenes in aqueous systems.

Kim, Jae Hyoun.

1991-01-01

332

Phototransformation of Amlodipine: Degradation Kinetics and Identification of Its Photoproducts  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, monitoring focuses on the primary compounds and does not include degradation products formed during various biological and chemical processes. Transformation products may have the same effects to human health and the environment or sometimes they can be more toxic than the parent compound. Unfortunately, knowledge about the formation of degradation products is still limited, however, can be very important for the environmental risk assessment. Firstly, the photodegradation kinetic of amlodipine was investigated in two experimental conditions: during the exposure to solar radiation and during the exposure to the light emitted by the xenon lamp. In all cases degradation of amlodipine followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. In the next step, identification of transformation products of amlodipine formed during the exposure to xenon lamp irradiation was performed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). As a result sixteen photoproducts were identified, their structures were elucidated and ultimately the transformation pathway was proposed. Fifteen compounds (out of 16 photoproducts) were newly identified and reported here for the first time; some of those compounds were formed from the first photoproduct, amlodipine pyridine derivative. Several analytes were formed only in acidic or basic conditions. Furthermore, the occurrence of amlodipine and its identified degradation products was investigated in environmental waters. Only one out of 16 compounds was found in wastewater effluent. The possibility of the sorption of examined analytes to sewage sludge particles was discussed based on QSAR. PMID:25279815

Jakimska, Anna; ?liwka-Kaszy?ska, Magdalena; Nagrski, Piotr; Namie?nik, Jacek; Kot-Wasik, Agata

2014-01-01

333

Sewage in ground water in the Florida Keys  

SciTech Connect

More than 24,000 septic tanks, 5,000 cesspools, and greater than 600 shallow disposal wells introduce sewage effluents into porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To assess the fate of sewage nutrients, 21 2- to 20-m-deep wells were core drilled and completed as water-monitoring wells. The wells were sampled quarterly and analyzed for 17 parameters. including nutrients and bacteria. Nutrients (mainly NH4, - which is 30 to 40 times higher than in surface sea water) were detected in ground water beneath the Keys and offshore coral reefs. Highest levels were beneath reefs 5 to 8 km offshore. Ground waters were generally hypersaline and fecal bacteria (fecal coliform and streptococci) were detected in ground water beneath living coral reefs. Higher sea level on the Florida Bay side of the Keys is proposed as the mechanism for forcing ground water toward offshore coral reefs. Tidal pumping, which is more pronounced near the Keys, causes leakage of ground water where the sediment is thin. Areas lacking sediment cover consist of bare limestone bedrock or permeable coral reefs. These are the areas where coral diseases and algal growth have increased in recent years. Pollutants entering the ground water beneath the Florida Keys are likely to be transported seaward beneath impermeable Holocene sediments and may be upwelling through coral reefs and other hardbottom communities.

Shinn, E.A.

1995-12-31

334

Genetic analysis of poliovirus strains isolated from sewage in Poland.  

PubMed

The study describes genetic characterization of poliovirus (PV) strains isolated from sewage samples in Poland. The analyses were performed for the detection of any putative polio revertants and recombinants in three genomic regions by sequencing analysis. Thirty-six strains were analyzed. The analyzed strains were identified by neutralization assay as 7 strains of serotype P1, 10 strains of serotype P2, and 19 strains of serotype P3. Sewage isolates were sequenced in 5'UTR, VP1, and 3D genomic regions. All detected PVs were classified as vaccine strains on the basis of VP1 sequence. Mutational differences in the VP1 sequences of isolated viruses ranged from 0.0% to 0.4%, indicating a limited replication period. The genetic analysis of the 3D region showed that some strains have recombinant genomes. Nine strains were found as dipartite recombinants (seven strains--S3/S2, one strain--S2/S1, one strain--S3/S1), while one strain was found as tripartite recombinant (S3/S2/S1). No recombinants with non-PV enteroviruses were identified. None of wild-type PVs or vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) were detected. This study showed the absence of wild or VDPV circulation in the country and demonstrated the usefulness of environmental surveillance in addition to acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in support of polio eradication initiatives. PMID:24123142

Kuryk, ?; Wieczorek, M; Diedrich, S; Bttcher, S; Witek, A; Litwi?ska, B

2014-07-01

335

[Microbial community of municipal discharges in a sewage treatment plant].  

PubMed

There are numerous microorganisms, especial pathogens, in the discharges. Those microorganisms are discharged into the river and sea through sewage outfalls, which results in possible health risks to coastal populations. And more attention should be paid to municipal discharges in developing countries. This study investigated the microbial community in the discharges by constructing 16S rDNA clones library and using the PCR-RFLP technology. Phylogenetic analysis of bacteria in municipal discharges showed that there were 59 species, which were divided into 11 classes. Proteobacteria accounted for 85% of all the bacteria, of which ?-Proteobacteria and ?- Proteobacteria were the dominant classes. Bacteria in the waste water treating process had important influence on microbial community in municipal discharges, therefore, municipal sewage plant should choose the process according to the characteristics and purifying capacity of the receiving water body. Legionella spp. accounted for approximately 10% , the Legionnaires' disease resulted from which might be of top risk for the residents in the surrounding of the municipal discharges outfall and receiving water. Dechloromonas aromatica could make use of chlorite ( CIO - ) , which led to its survival from chlorine disinfection, and it alerted us that several disinfection methods should be used together to ensure the bacterial safety of municipal discharges. Coliform group and other pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella spp. , Shigella spp. , Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Arcobacter spp. were not detected in this study, and it indicated that we should do more work and use more methods to investigate the perniciousness of discharges. PMID:25518668

Xu, Ai-ling; Ren, Jie; Song, Zhi-wen; Wu, Deng-deng; Xia, Yan

2014-09-01

336

Nitrogen compounds in drain sewage after constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Constructed wetlands, commonly known as ground filters, are well suited mostly for wastewater treatment in areas with no central sewage system. The basic difficulty with exploitation of constructed wetlands is connected with irregular hydraulic overload of its surface. However, irregular wastewater inflow can be reduced by cyclical irrigation which increases efficiency. The unquestionable advantage of the constructed wetlands is inexpensive construction and exploitation as well as low energy consumption. The constructed wetlands also fit very well in surrounding area. The investigation concerned the analysis of two constructed wetlands which are composed of mechanical separation (septic tank) and a filter bed with subsurface flow. The research has been undertaken in a period from July to December 2008, with regard to concentration distribution of nitrogen compounds in municipal sewage after constructed wetlands. The preliminary investigation on constructed wetland which has been exploited for 10 years showed variable removal efficiency of nitrogen compounds. The continuation of the research can indicate the efficiency of wastewater treatment in summer and winter season. PMID:19923767

Paweska, K; Malczewska, B

2009-01-01

337

Lognormality of trace contaminant concentrations in sewage effluents.  

PubMed

It is important to understand the statistical distribution of monitoring data for them to be of value in determining the parameters of environmental models. No such distributional information has been available for many trace contaminants in sewage effluents. This paper applies the data of a major UK sewage works' effluent monitoring programme to determine the validity of the common assumption that data are lognormally distributed. Effluent quality was monitored at 162 wastewater treatment works over 1year, generating over 3,000 results for each of over 40 substances, including metals, trace organic substances and pharmaceuticals. It is demonstrated that the lognormal assumption is clearly justified for the great majority of substances in the spatial case-for annual average effluent concentrations across different treatment works. In the site-specific, temporal case-for individual determinations of concentration at a single site over an annual period-lognormality is generally supported but not demonstrated so unequivocally for all site/substance combinations. The principal source of uncertainty was lack of sufficient numbers of observations reported to adequately low reporting limits. PMID:24740389

Gardner, M J

2014-08-01

338

Improved sustainability of feedstock production with sludge and interacting mycorrhiza.  

PubMed

Recycling nutrients saves energy and improves agricultural sustainability. Sewage sludge contains 2.6% P and 3.1% N, so the availability of these nutrients was investigated using four crops grown in either soil or sand. Further attention was paid to the role of mycorrhiza in improvement of nutrient availability. The content of heavy metals and metalloids in the feedstock was analyzed. Sewage sludge application resulted in greater biomass accumulation in ryegrass than comparable single applications of either synthetic fertilizer or digested sludge. Sewage sludge application resulted in more numerous mycorrhizal spores in soil and increased root colonization in comparison to synthetic fertilizer. All plants studied had mycorrhizal colonized roots, with the highest colonization rate in maize, followed by hemp. Sewage sludge application resulted in the highest P uptake in all soil-grown plants. In conclusion, sewage sludge application increased feedstock yield, provided beneficial use for organic wastes, and contributed to the sustainability of bioenergy feedstock production systems. It also improves the soil conditions and plant nutrition through colonization by mycorrhizal fungi as well as reducing leaching and need of synthetic fertilizers. PMID:23481299

Seleiman, Mahmoud F; Santanen, Arja; Kleemola, Jouko; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mkel, Pirjo S A

2013-05-01

339

Modeling human off-site aerosol exposures to polybrominated flame retardants emitted during the land application of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Elevated sewage sludge concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are due to their broad utilization in textiles and polymers, their resistance to biological degradation, and also their hydrophobic nature-which drives partitioning into wastewater solids. This study estimated the total U.S. emissions of PBDE due to sewage sludge land application and then determined the human inhalation exposure to sludge-associated PBDEs as a function meteorological conditions and downwind distances from an application site. These aerosol exposures have also been incorporated into pharmacokinetic models to predict contributions to steady-state body burden. Our results suggest that while the amount of PBDEs aerosolized during the land application process is small compared to aerosol emissions associated with product use, the application of sludges onto U.S. soils constitutes a major source of PBDEs entering the outdoor environment. Regarding aerosol exposure to nearby residents, the maximum daily inhalation dosages from a common land application scenario occur immediately after sewage sludges are applied and were 137, 27, 1.9, and 81pg/day for significant congeners PBDE-47, -99, -153 and 209 respectively. These doses are 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the standard daily inhalation exposure to the same PBDEs associated with home indoor air and are similar to doses from inhalation of urban and rural outdoor air. Under the worst-case atmospheric transport scenario, the dosages are reduced by approximately 1 order of magnitude when the setback distance between the sludge aerosolization source and human receptor is increased to 200m. Though the health implications of low-level exposures are not well-understood, these sludge-derived PBDE dosages contribute less than a tenth of 1% to the estimated total body burden of PBDE produced from inhalation of indoor and outdoor air, exposure to house dust, and exposure to PBDE from food and water intake. Overall, the inhalation of PBDE aerosols from sludge-applied fields does not represent a significant contribution to human exposure compared to other common indoor exposures. However, land application is a major environmental source of PBDEs and sludge health impact analyses should focus on the practice's impacts on other exposures, such as biomagnification in aquatic and terrestrial food webs. PMID:24157584

Ziemba, Chris; Yang, Wulin; Peccia, Jordan

2013-10-01

340

Hydroxyapatite degradation and biocompatibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is widely used as a bioactive ceramics since it forms a chemical bonding to bone. The disadvantage of this material is its poor mechanical properties. HA can be degraded in body, which is the reason for its bioactivity, but too fast degradation rate could cause negative effects, such as macrophage present, particle generation, and even implant clinical failure. HA degradation rate will be greatly changed under many conditions: purity, HA form (i.e. bulk form, porous form, coating, or HA/polymer composites), microstructure, implant site, body conditions, etc. Although much work has been done in HA properties and application areas, the HA degradation behavior and mechanism under these different conditions are still not clear. In this research, three aspects of HA degradation have been studied: (1) Two very common impurities---Tri-Calcium Phosphate (TCP) and Calcium Oxide and their influences on HA degradation in vitro and in vivo, (2) influence of HA/polymer composite form on HA degradation, (3) HA material particle generation and related mechanism. From the in vitro and in vivo tests on bulk HA disks with various Ca/P ratios, HA degradation can clearly be found. The degradation level is different in different Ca/P ratio samples as well as in different test environments. In same test environment, non-stoichiometric HA samples have higher degradation rate than stoichiometric HA. HA/PMMA composite design successfully intensifies HA degradation both in vitro and in vivo. Grain boundary damage can be found on in vivo test samples, which has not been clearly seen on bulk HA degraded surface. HA particle generation is found in in vitro and in vivo HA/PMMA composite surface and in vivo bulk HA surface. Sintering temperature and time does affect HA grain size, and this affect HA degradation rate. Intergranular fracture is found in a several micron zone close to the Ca/P ratio 1.62 and 1.67 sample degraded surfaces. At Ca/P ratio greater than 1.667, after HA degradation in water, solution pH increases because of CaO presence.

Wang, Haibo

341

Bioproduction of ferric sulfate used during heavy metals removal from sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Toxic metals removal from wastewater sewage sludge can be achieved through microbial processes involving Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The oxidation of ferrous ions by A. ferrooxidans, cultured in sewage sludge filtrate, was studied in both batch and continuous flow stirred tank reactors. Sewage sludge filtrate containing natural nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) was recovered as effluent following the dehydration of a primary and secondary sludge mixture. Batch and continuous flow stirred tank reactor tests demonstrated that A. ferrooxidans were able to grow and completely oxidize ferrous iron in a culture medium containing more than 80% (v v(-1)) sewage sludge filtrate with 10 g Fe(II) L(-1) added. Toxic levels were reached when total organic carbon in the sewage sludge filtrate exceeded 250 mg L(-1). The ferric iron solution produced in the sludge filtrate by A. ferrooxidans was used to solubilize heavy metals in primary and secondary sludge. The solubilization of Cu, Cr, and Zn yielded 71, 49, and 80%, respectively. This is comparable with the yield percentages obtained using a FeCl(3) solution. The cost of treating wastewater sewage sludge by bioproducing a ferric ion solution from sewage sludge is three times less expensive than the conventional method requiring a commercial ferric chloride solution. PMID:15843644

Drogui, Patrick; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-Franois

2005-01-01

342

Sewage contamination in the upper Mississippi River as measured by the fecal sterol, coprostanol  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The molecular sewage indicator, coprostanol, was measured in bed sediments of the Mississippi River for the purpose of determining sewage contamination. Coprostanol is a non-ionic, non-polar, organic molecule that associates with sediments in surface waters, and concentrations of coprostanol in bed sediments provide an indication of long-term sewage loads. Because coprostanol concentrations are dependent on particle size and percent organic carbon, a ratio between coprostanol (sewage sources) and cholestanol + cholesterol (sewage and non-sewage sources) was used to remove the biases related to particle size and percent organic carbon. The dynamics of contaminant transport in the Upper Mississippi River are influenced by both hydrologic and geochemical parameters. A mass balance model incorporating environmental parameters such as river and tributary discharge, suspended sediment concentration, fraction of organic carbon, sedimentation rates, municipal discharges and coprostanol decay rates was developed that describes coprostanol concentrations and therefore, expected patterns of municipal sewage effects on the Upper Mississippi River. Comparison of the computed and the measured coprostanol concentrations provides insight into the complex hydrologic and geochemical processes of contaminant transport and the ability to link measured chemical concentrations with hydrologic characteristics of the Mississippi River.

Writer, J.H.; Leenheer, J.A.; Barber, L.B.; Amy, G.L.; Chapra, S.C.

1995-01-01

343

Disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water by electron beam radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficacy of electron beam radiation for the disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water was assessed with ILU-6 Accelerator at Radiation Technology Development Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai India. The current problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of sewage water. In general, sewage water comprises heterogeneous organic based chemicals as well as pathogens. EB treatment of the wastewater has found to be very effective in reducing the pathogens as well as organic load. EB dose of 1.5 kGy was sufficient for complete elimination of total coli forms. The experimental results elucidated the reduction of biological oxygen demandBOD (35 and 51.7%) in both inlet and outlet sewage samples. Similarly reduction of chemical oxygen demandCOD was observed (37.54 and 52.32%) in both sewage samples with respect to increase in irradiation doses (0.45-6 kGy). The present study demonstrated the potential of ionizing radiation for disinfection of sewage and to increase the water quality of the wastewater by decreasing BOD and COD. So, the irradiation sewage water can find its application either in agriculture for irrigation, in industry for cooling purpose and some selected domestic purposes.

Maruthi, Y. Avasn; Das, N. Lakshmana; Hossain, Kaizar; Sarma, K. S. S.; Rawat, K. P.; Sabharwal, S.

2011-09-01

344

Evaluation of a novel oxidation ditch system for biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal from domestic sewage.  

PubMed

A novel oxidation ditch system using anaerobic tanks and innovative dual dissolved oxygen (DO) control technology is proposed for biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal from domestic sewage. A continuous bench-scale experiment running for more than 300 days was performed to evaluate the system. Monitoring and controlling the airflow and recirculation flow rate independently using DO values at two points along the ditch permitted maintenance of aerobic and anoxic zone ratios of around 0.30 and 0.50, respectively. The ability to optimize aerobic and anoxic zone ratios using the dual DO control technology meant that a total nitrogen removal efficiency of 83.2-92.9% could be maintained. This remarkable nitrogen removal performance minimized the nitrate recycle to anaerobic tanks inhibiting the phosphorus release. Hence, the total phosphorus removal efficiency was also improved and ranged within 72.6-88.0%. These results demonstrated that stabilization of the aerobic and anoxic zone ratio by dual DO control technology not only resulted in a marked improvement of nitrogen removal, but it also enhanced phosphorus removal. PMID:20962389

Chen, X; Fujiwara, T; Ohtoshi, K; Inamori, S; Nakamachi, K; Tsuno, H

2010-01-01

345

[Full-scale experiments of municipal sewage treated by symbiotic system consisting of tubifex and microbes].  

PubMed

A symbiotic system consisting of tubifex and microbe was formed when tubifex was incubated in the biological contact oxidation process,the tubifex attached to the outer layer of the carriers. When the density of tubifex was about 31.3 g/L, a recycling food chain between corpse of tubifex and excrement and wastewater and microbe and sludge was formed and it could reach balance. The large scale control experimental system for treating 20,000 m3 x d(-1) municipal sewage was carried out for a long time. The result showed that tubifex could improve water quality in the effluent. When the concentration in the influent of COD,NH4+ -N,TP and SS were 130-459, 14.21-27.46, 1.60-6.93, 60-466 mg x L(-1), respectively,the removal rates of COD and SS can be improved by 8.7% and 13.6%. However, tubifex can also increase the concentration of NH4+ -N in the system,but a proper operation can make the effluent concentration of NH4+ -N below 5 mg x L(-1) stably. The symbiotic system consisting of tubifex and microbe has very good phosphorus removal efficiency. The reactor has a high toleration to loading shock and it could keep the effluent quality stable. PMID:20187394

Lou, Ju-qing; Guo, Mao-xin; Sun, Pei-de; Wu, Ge; Song, Ying-qi

2009-12-01

346

Combined ultrasonication and thermal pre-treatment of sewage sludge for increasing methane production.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the combination of ultrasonic and thermal treatment of sewage sludge (SS). The combination involved ultrasonicating a fraction of the sludge and thermal treatment at various temperatures and this resulted in solubilization of proteins and carbohydrates, and so contributing to increased COD solubilization. During the treatment, SCOD, soluble proteins and carbohydrates increased from 760mg L(-1) to 10,200mg L(-1), 110mg L(-1) to 2,900mg L(-1) and 60mg L(-1) to 630mg L(-1), respectively. It was found ultrasonication of only a fraction of the sludge (>20%) followed by thermal treatment led to significant improvement compared to thermal and ULS treatments applied on their own. At 65C, the kinetic of solubilization was improved and the hyper-thermophilic treatment time could be reduced to a few hours when ultrasonication was used first. A linear correlation (R(2) = 95%) was found between the SCOD obtained after ultrasonication pre-treatment and anaerobic biodegradability. The combined treatment resulted in 20% increase in biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of the pre-treated sludge. PMID:25560267

Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Lin, Li Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

2015-01-28

347

Experimental study on agitated drying characteristics of sewage sludge under the effects of different additive agents.  

PubMed

Drying experiments of dewatered sewage sludge (DSS) were conducted on a agitated paddle dryer, and the effects of additive agents, i.e., CaO, pulverized coal (PC), heavy oil (HO), and dried sludge ("DS" through back mixing) on the agitated drying characteristics of DSS were investigated. The results indicated that CaO can significantly increase the drying rate of DSS. The drying rate at CaO/DSS (mass ratio)=1/100 was 135% higher than that of CaO/DSS=0. Pulverized coal has no obvious effect on drying rate, but the increase of PC/DSS can promote breaking up of sludge lump. Heavy oil was found to be slightly effective in improving the drying rate of DSS in the examined experimental range of HO/DSS=0-1/20. It is also found that HO can reduce the torque of the dryer shaft, due to its lubrication effect. Back mixing of DS was found to be effective in alleviating the unfavorable effect of the lumpy phase by improving the mixing effect of the paddle dryer. There was a marked increase of drying rate with an increase of the DS/DSS in the experimental range of DS/DSS=0-1/3. PMID:25080002

Deng, Wenyi; Su, Yaxin

2014-07-01

348

Mathematical modelling of sewage sludge incineration in a bubbling fluidised bed with special consideration for thermally-thick fuel particles.  

PubMed

Fluidised bed combustor (FBC) is one of the key technologies for sewage sludge incineration. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed for the simulation of a large-scale sewage sludge incineration plant. The model assumes the bed consisting of a fast-gas phase, an emulsion phase and a fuel particle phase with specific consideration for thermally-thick fuel particles. The model further improves over previous works by taking into account throughflow inside the bubbles as well as the floating and random movement of the fuel particles inside the bed. Validation against both previous lab-scale experiments and operational data of a large-scale industrial plant was made. Calculation results indicate that combustion split between the bed and the freeboard can range from 60/40 to 90/10 depending on the fuel particle distribution across the bed height under the specific conditions. The bed performance is heavily affected by the variation in sludge moisture level. The response time to variation in feeding rate is different for different parameters, from 6 min for outlet H2O, 10 min for O2, to 34 min for bed temperature. PMID:18513938

Yang, Yao Bin; Sharifi, Vida; Swithenbank, Jim

2008-11-01

349

Development of a method for detection of human rotavirus in water and sewage.  

PubMed Central

The simian rotavirus SA11 was used to develop a simple, reliable, and efficient method to concentrate rotavirus from tap water, treated sewage, and raw sewage by absorption to and elution from Filterite fiberglass-epoxy filters. SA11 adsorbed optimally to Filterite filters from water containing 0.5 mM AlCl3 at pH 3.5. Filter-bound virus was eluted with 0.05 M glycine-NaOH supplemented with 10% tryptose phosphate broth at pH 10. SA11 was quantitated by plaque assay, whereas human rotavirus was detected by immunofluorescence. The method was applied to detect rotavirus in raw and treated sewage at two Houston, Tex., sewage treatment plants. The sewage isolates were identified as rotavirus, probably a human strain, based on several criteria. The sewage isolates were detectable by an immunofluorescence test, using anti-SA11 serum which would detect the simian, human bovine, and porcine rotaviruses. No reaction was noted by immunofluorescence with the reoviruses or several common enteroviruses. The sewage isolates were neutralized by convalescent sera from a human adult and infant who had been infected by rotavirus as well as by a hyperimmune serum prepared in guinea pigs against purified human rotavirus. Preimmune or preillness sera did not react with the isolates by neutralization or immunofluorescence. The natural isolates were sensitive to pH 11 and other inactivating agents, similar to SA11. The buoyant density of the sewage isolates in CsCl gradients was 1.36 g/cm3, which is the value usually reported for complete, infectious rotavirus particles. The double-shelled particle diameter was 67.1 +/- 2.4 nm. Finally, electron micrographs of cell lysates inoculated with the sewage isolate showed particles displaying characteristic rotavirus morphology. Images PMID:6285825

Smith, E M; Gerba, C P

1982-01-01

350

A Degrading Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners perform an experiment to learn about how different types of marine debris degrade and how weather and sunlight affect the rate of degradation. Learners discover that debris made from natural materials, while biodegradable, can still be considered pollutants and can still harm the marine environment.

Sheavly, Seba; Reigster, Katie

2014-05-28

351

Microbial degradation of pentachlorophenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was the most prevalent wood preservative for many years worldwide. Its widespread use had led to contamination of various environments. Traditional methods of PCP clean-up include storage in land-fill sites, incineration and abiotic degradation processes such as photodecomposition. Some aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms can degrade PCP under a variety of conditions. Axenic bacterial cultures, Flavobacterium sp., Rhodococcus sp.,

Kelly A. McAllister; Hung Lee; Jack T. Trevors

1996-01-01

352

Sustainable sewage management and the inertia to change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing economic costs and environmental concerns have led to that planners around the world are progressively questioning the prevailing sewage management paradigm, calling for a shift in the hydrosocial contract to embrace more sustainable solutions, to be based on closed-loops rather than linear end-of-pipe solutions. Despite considerable attention to the technical possibilities for delivering sewage services in a more integrated and sustainable fashion, shifts in planning and management have been slow. Based on an extensive study of Australian cities, Brown et al (2009) have developed a model with six transitional stages and argue that "while there may be cognitive changes (best practice thinking such as water sustainable urban design), there has not been sufficient normative and regulative change to support new practice." They contrast three historic transition stages with three successive sustainable stages. Unfortunately, the study ends in a rather vague outline of "the Water Sensitive City", with little sign-posts indicating how one might transition to this seemingly utopian last stage. In the present paper, we discuss the normative tensions created between the different actors in this increasingly complex playing field, who represent different and often competing values. We suggest that cities have difficulties transitioning from the old contract to one of the newer ones because the hydro-social contract promised by these new stages create normative tensions not only between the new and the old, but also between what one might call different types of environmentalists: naturalists and pragmatists. The naturalists, who for example are very voiced in several cities along the North American west coast, tend to embrace the perception of Nature described by environmental historians as Untouched Wilderness, where technology is pinpointed as the root of the problems. In contrast, the other side lean more on the idea of modernity, with a more pragmatic approach to nature, which first and foremost is seen as a provider of material resources and technology is a tool that aids solving the problem with the limited supply. The naturalists' cognitive response points to solutions that are perceived as 'natural' such as composting and constructed wetlands, but do to not easily embrace solutions that are perceived as 'technical', such as smart metering, biogas reactors, and recovery of pelleted phosphorous compounds. We suggest that transition to the 'Water Sensitive City' requires explicit recognition that sewage management is a context-dependent multi-dimensional, multi-objective challenge in which competing objectives must be identified and trade-offs made, which includes recognizing and finding ways to manage the tacit tensions caused by competing normative underpinnings among different types of environmentalism.

berg, G.

2012-12-01

353

MICROBIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF TETRACYCLINES  

PubMed Central

Meyers, Edward (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, N.J.) and Dorothy A. Smith. Microbiological degradation of tetracyclines. J. Bacteriol. 84:797802. 1962The degradation of tetracyclines by an ascomycete, Xylaria digitata, was demonstrated. Washedcell suspensions were capable of degrading tetracycline, 5-hydroxytetracycline, 7-chlortetracycline, 7-chlor-6-demethyltetracycline, 2-acetyl-2-decarboxamido-5-hydroxytetracycline, and 12-?-deoxytetracycline. The influence of environmental conditions upon the degradation of tetracycline was investigated. A nonantibacterial, nonfluorescent product was located from the degradation of 14C 5-hydroxytetracycline. Evidence indicated that neither the A nor D ring of 5-hydroxytetracycline is attacked. Acetone powders, lyophilized powders, and cell-free extracts exhibited a relatively limited substrate specificity compared to the washed cells. PMID:13935339

Meyers, Edward; Smith, Dorothy A.

1962-01-01

354

DEA degradation mechanism  

SciTech Connect

Examines factors that increase diethanolamine (DEA) degradation, which reportedly depends on temperature, pressure, gas composition, amine concentration, pH of the amine solution and the presence of metal ions. Plant operators have tried to solve the problem by changing operating conditions and/or installing activated carbon filters. DEA degradation is frequently experienced in gas plants used for removing acidic gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from light hydrocarbons. Experimental results reveal that degradation is governed by: solubility of CO/sub 2/ in the DEA solution; degree of dissociation of the DEA molecules in solution; interaction of DEA and CO/sub 2/ molecules and/or ionic complexes. Most, or all, these phenomena are affected by temperature, pressure, DEA concentration and pH. A series of tests to determine whether activated carbon is capable of removing impurities from partially degraded DEA solutions showed that this treatment did not remove any major degradation compounds from the solutions.

Meisen, A.; Kennard, M.L.

1982-10-01

355

Determination of human pharmaceuticals in pre- and post-sewage treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this present work, an analytical method based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) in positive electrospray ionisation mode was successfully applied to real samples for the determination of human pharmaceuticals in pre- and post-sewage treatment samples. The ten target compounds selected in this study include acetaminophen, theophylline, caffeine, metoprolol, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, prednisolone, ketoprofen, norgestrel and simvastatin. Acetaminophen, theophylline and caffeine were present at all five raw sewage samples. In addition, this work provides the first report on the investigation and detection of theophylline in sewage treatment plant (STP) samples in Malaysia.

Tahrim, Nurfaizah Abu; Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; Aziz, Yang Farina Abdul

2013-11-01

356

Modeling the Radiological Impact of Tritium in Sewage Sludge Being Used as Fertilizer  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to assess the radiological impact on humans via the foodchain resulting from the presence of tritium and C-14 in sewage sludge being used as fertilizer on agricultural land. The key endpoint of the assessment was the annual individual dose to an average member of potential critical groups. As part of the assessment, a model was developed to simulate the distribution of tritium between sewage sludge and effluent in the sewage treatment plant, the release of tritium upon sludge decomposition and subsequent uptake by plants and animals. The modeling assumptions, as well as key parameters and parameter values will be discussed in this paper.

Venter, A.; Smith, G

2005-07-15

357

The real-time method of assessing the contribution of individual sources on visibility degradation in Taichung.  

PubMed

Visibility degradation caused by air pollution has become a serious environmental problem in megacities in Northeast Asia. In general, aerosol chemical compositions are measured by a conventional method of time integrated filter sampling for off-line analysis, which cannot represent temporal and spatial variations in the real atmosphere. The in situ air composition measuring equipment, OCEC carbon aerosol analyzer and a long-path visibility transmissometer-3 were used to collect hourly measurements of the soluble ions, organic/elemental carbon, and ambient visibility, respectively. During the observation, two types of weather conditions were identified: transport and stagnant. Because PM2.5 was identified as the predominant species of light extinction, the sources of PM2.5 were determined and investigated using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. The PMF outputs characterized the six main emission sources (marine/crustal aerosols, secondary nitrate, secondary sulfate, direct vehicle exhaust, coal/incinerator combustion, and local sewage emission) and reconstructed the PM2.5 mass concentrations of each pollutant source in two weather conditions. In addition, the light extinction (bext) was reconstructed using a multivariate linear regression analysis with hourly-reconstructed PM2.5 mass concentrations to determine the contributions of each source to bext. The primary results showed that the extinction coefficient was proportional to the PM2.5 with high value in stagnant weather conditions. The secondary sulfate was the most abundant source of bext contribution during the sampling period. In addition, the bext contributions of direct vehicle exhaust and coal/incinerator combustion significantly increased in the stagnant weather condition. According to the results of hourly measurements, this work further emphasized that the sources of direct vehicle exhaust and coal/incinerator combustion in PM2.5 were the important sources of visibility degradation in the stagnant weather conditions, which suggests that the pollutants derived from direct vehicle exhaust and coal/incinerator combustion should be controlled first to improve visibility in Taichung. PMID:25133995

Chen, Wei-Nai; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Kuo, Chung-Yih; Chou, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Chung-Hao; Huang, Chun-Chieh; Chang, Shih-Yu; Roja Raman, M; Shang, Wen-Lin; Chuang, Tzu-Yao; Liu, Su-Ching

2014-11-01

358

Degradation Kinetics of VX  

SciTech Connect

O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl)phosphonothiolate (VX) is the most toxic of the conventional chemical warfare agents. It is a persistent compound, an attribute derived from its relative involatility and slow rates of hydrolysis. These properties suggest that VX can linger in an exposed environment for extended periods of time long after the air has cleared. Concern over prolonged risk from VX exposure is exacerbated by the fact that it poses a dermal contact hazard. Hence a detailed understanding of volatilization rates, and degradation pathways and rates occurring in various environments is needed. Historically, volatilization has not been considered to be an important mechanism for VX depletion, but recent studies have shown that a significant fraction of VX may volatilize, depending on the matrix. A significant body of research has been conducted over the years to unravel VX degradation reaction pathways and to quantify the rates at which they proceed. Rigorous measurement of degradation rates is frequently difficult, and thus in many cases the degradation of VX has been described in terms of half lives, while in fewer instances rate constants have been measured. This variable approach to describing degradation kinetics reflects uncertainty regarding the exact nature of the degradation mechanisms. In this review, rates of VX degradation are compared on the basis of pseudo-first order rate constants, in order to provide a basis for assessing likelihood of VX persistence in a given environment. An issue of specific concern is that one VX degradation pathway produces S-2-(diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioic acid (known as EA2192), which is a degradation product that retains much of the original toxicity of VX. Consequently degradation pathways and rates for EA2192 are also discussed.

Gary S. Groenewold

2010-12-01

359

Effects of Sulfuroxy Anions on Degradation of Pentachlorophenol by a Methanogenic Enrichment Culture  

PubMed Central

We studied the degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions with an anaerobic mixed culture derived from sewage sludge. The consortium degraded PCP via 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol, 3,4,5-trichlorophenol, and 3,5-dichlorophenol and eventually accumulated 3-chlorophenol. Dechlorination of PCP and metabolites was inhibited in the presence of sulfate, thiosulfate, and sulfite. A decrease in the rate of PCP transformation was noted when the endogenous dissolved H2 was depleted below 0.11 ?M in sulfate-reducing cultures. The effect on dechlorination observed with sulfate could be relieved by addition of molybdate, a competitive inhibitor of sulfate reduction. Addition of H2 reduced the inhibition observed with sulfuroxy anions. The inhibitory effect of sulfuroxy anions may be due to a competition for H2 between sulfate reduction and dechlorination. When cultured under methanogenic conditions, the consortium degraded several chlorinated and brominated phenols. PMID:16348548

Madsen, Torben; Aamand, Jens

1991-01-01

360

Photovoltaic Lifetime & Degradation Science Statistical Pathway Development: Acrylic Degradation  

E-print Network

Photovoltaic Lifetime & Degradation Science Statistical Pathway Development: Acrylic Degradation, USA ABSTRACT In order to optimize and extend the life of photovoltaics (PV) modules, scientific photovoltaics. The statisti- cally significant relationships were investigated using lifetime and degradation

Rollins, Andrew M.

361

Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash through an electrodialytic process.  

PubMed

The electrodialytic separation process (ED) was applied to sewage sludge ash (SSA) aiming at phosphorus (P) recovery. As the SSA may have high heavy metals contents, their removal was also assessed. Two SSA were sampled, one immediately after incineration (SA) and the other from an open deposit (SB). Both samples were ED treated as stirred suspensions in sulphuric acid for 3, 7 and 14 days. After 14 days, phosphorus was mainly mobilized towards the anode end (approx. 60% in the SA and 70% in the SB), whereas heavy metals mainly electromigrated towards the cathode end. The anolyte presented a composition of 98% of P, mainly as orthophosphate, and 2% of heavy metals. The highest heavy metal removal was achieved for Cu (ca. 80%) and the lowest for Pb and Fe (between 4% and 6%). The ED showed to be a viable method for phosphorus recovery from SSA, as it promotes the separation of P from the heavy metals. PMID:24656469

Guedes, Paula; Couto, Nazar; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

2014-05-01

362

HEALTH EFFECTS RELATED TO SEWAGE EFFLUENT DISCHARGE INTO FRESH WATER ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between sewage effluent particulates which reach bathing beaches and swimming-associated health effects was examined. A differential filtration procedure was used to quantify the density of particles greater than 3 microns in size carrying viable Escherichia coli...

363

Proper Sanitization of Sewage Sludge: a Critical Issue for a Sustainable Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

To attain the global goal of an environmentally sustainable society in which organic material is successfully recycled back to arable land, it is crucial to develop effective procedures for the treatment of sewage sludge. The term \\

Veronica Arthurson

2008-01-01

364

SUMMARY OF EFFECTS OF PARTIALLY-TREATED SEWAGE ON NEARSHORE ENVIRONMENTS OF SOUTHEASTERN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

This project consisted of two simultaneous phases. One phase was the construction and preliminary application of a prototype, experimental wastewater treatment seawater aquaria research facility. This facility, the Sewage Treatment and Bioeffects Laboratory (STABEL), was designed...

365

Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute secondary-treated sewage sludge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), conducted a research program to evaluate the feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge. One aspect of the research program involved the measurements of upwelled spectral signatures for sewage-sludge mixtures of different concentrations in an 11600-liter tank. This paper describes the laboratory arrangement and presents radiance and reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared ranges for concentrations ranging from 9.7 to 180 ppm of secondary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled radiance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations.

Witte, W. G.; Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

1977-01-01

366

Thiosteranes in samples impacted by fecal materials and their potential use as marker of sewage input.  

PubMed

Sewage impacted soil, sludge and water samples were studied to understand the occurrence and formation of thiosteranes and to determine the relevance of these compounds as tracers for sewage input into the environment. Soils were collected from wastewater irrigation fields (Wroclaw, Poland), water from the Nexapa River Basin (Mexico), which also received wastewater and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and water and sludge from the Norman WWTP (USA) at different treatment stages. Thiosteranes represented a high proportion of the steroid fraction in the Wroclaw irrigation field and the Nexapa River Basin samples. Small amounts of thiosteranes were found in anaerobically digested sludge from the Norman WWTP. A good correlation between coprostanone and thiosterane concentrations suggests thiosteranes were produced by stanone sulphurization under anoxic conditions. Thiosterane stability under anoxic and suboxic conditions indicates their potential use as tracers for environmental input of sewage products or land application of sewage sludge. PMID:25463722

Biache, Coralie; Navarro Frmeta, Amado Enrique; Czechowski, Franciszek; Lu, Yueming; Philp, R Paul

2014-10-31

367

Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent  

SciTech Connect

Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of 1 year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (23.6 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (27 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (22 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. Nitrogen and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7 percent N and 0.94 percent P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8 percent N and 0.79 percent P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nutrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ and 321 to 387 kg P ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/, respectively.

Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKim, T.

1985-05-01

368

Microbial degradation of pharmaceuticals in estuarine and coastal seawater.  

PubMed

Microbial degradation rates were measured for 19 pharmaceuticals in estuarine and coastal surface water samples. Antipyrine, carbamazepine, cotinine, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim were the most refractory (half-lives, t(1/2)=35 to >100 days), making them excellent candidates for wastewater tracers. Nicotine, acetaminophen, and fluoxetine were labile across all treatments (t(1/2)=0.68-11 days). Caffeine, diltiazem, and nifedipine were also and relatively labile in all but one of the treatments (t(1/2)=3.5-13 days). Microbial degradation of caffeine was further confirmed by production (14)CO(2). The fastest decay of non-refractory compounds was always observed in more sewage-affected Jamaica Bay waters. Degradation rates for the majority of these pharmaceuticals are much slower than reported rates for small biomolecules, such as glucose and amino acids. Batch sorption experiments indicate that removal of these soluble pharmaceuticals from the water column to sediments is a relatively insignificant removal process in these receiving waters. PMID:19038482

Benotti, Mark J; Brownawell, Bruce J

2009-03-01

369

Bioavailability and crop uptake of trace elements in soil columns amended with sewage sludge products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the potential impact of long-term sewage sludge application on soil health, the equivalent of about 25years of agronomic applications of low-metal (`EQ') sewage sludge products were made to greenhouse soil columns. After a 6-year period of `equilibration', during which time successive crops were grown with irrigation by simulated acid rain, the plant-available quantities of trace elements

M. B. McBride; B. K. Richards; T. Steenhuis

2004-01-01

370

K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, Third quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

During third quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for base-neutral/acid semivolatile constituents. None of the analytical results exceeded standards.

Thompson, C.Y.

1993-01-01

371

Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage and brewery sludge for biogas production and land application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thailand, sewage sludge production from the Bangkok metropolitan area can reach up to 63,000 ton\\/y by 2010. The Beer-Thai Company, Thailand, produces beer and generates lots of sludge as waste. Sewage sludge and brewery sludge can be used to generate energy which could be saved on the fossil fuels conventionally used as a source of energy. The possibility was

S. Babel; J. Sae-Tang

2009-01-01

372

Concentrations and specific loads of brominated flame retardants in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many substances related to human activities end up in wastewater and accumulate in sewage sludge. The present study focuses on two classes of brominated flame retardants: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE28, BDE47, BDE49, BDE66, BDE85, BDE99, BDE100, BDE119, BDE138, BDE153, BDE154, BDE183, BDE209) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) detected in sewage sludge collected from a monitoring network in Switzerland. Mean concentrations (n=16 wastewater

Thomas Kupper; Luiz Felippe de Alencastro; Revocat Gatsigazi; Reinhard Furrer; Dominique Grandjean; Joseph Tarradellas

2008-01-01

373

Highly divergent type 2 and 3 vaccine-derived polioviruses isolated from sewage in Tallinn, Estonia.  

PubMed

Highly divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) have been isolated from sewage in Tallinn, Estonia, since 2002. Sequence analysis of VDPVs of serotypes 2 and 3 showed that they shared common noncapsid region recombination sites, indicating origination from a single trivalent oral polio vaccine dose, estimated to have been given between 1986 and 1998. The sewage isolates closely resemble VDPVs chronically excreted by persons with common variable immunodeficiency, but no chronic excretors have yet been identified in Estonia. PMID:24049178

Al-Hello, Haider; Jorba, Jaume; Blomqvist, Soile; Raud, Riina; Kew, Olen; Roivainen, Merja

2013-12-01

374

Gasification of sewage sludge using a throated downdraft gasifier and uncertainty analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important objectives to gasify sewage sludge are to produce a clean gas of acceptable composition for synthesis or combustion, and to convert this solid resource into combustible-clean gas at high efficiency. The experiments of the gasification were conducted using a 5 kWe-throated downdraft gasifier. It was concluded that sewage sludge can be gasified to produce low-quality combustible gas,

Murat Dogru; Adnan Midilli; Colin R Howarth

2002-01-01

375

Feasibility of biohydrogen production by anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge for hydrogen production was performed in serum bottles under various volatile solids (VS) concentrations (0.55.0%) and mixing ratios of two substrates (0:100100:0, VS basis). Through response surface methodology, empirical equations for hydrogen evolution were obtained. The specific hydrogen production potential of food waste was higher than that of sewage sludge. However, hydrogen

Sang-Hyoun Kim; Sun-Kee Han; Hang-Sik Shin

2004-01-01

376

ANAEROBIC SEWAGE TREATMENT IN A ONE-STAGE UASB AND A COMBINED UASB-DIGESTER SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of a novel technology consisting of a UASB complemented with a digester (UASB-Digester) for mutual sewage treatment and sludge stabilisation under low temperature conditions was investigated. The performance of the UASB-Digester system was compared with a one stage UASB. The UASB reactor was operated at a HRT of 6 hours and controlled temperature of 15C, the average sewage

Nidal Mahmoud; Grietje Zeeman; Huub Gijzen; Gatze Lettinga

2003-01-01

377

Treatment of sewage by a UASB reactor under moderate to low temperature conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of sewage treatment by an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was studied using actual sewage at a fixed hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4.7 h, and at temperatures in the range of 2513C, for six months. The average total COD removals and solid COD removals achieved were 70% and 80%, respectively. Total COD removal rate depended on

Shigeki Uemura; Hideki Harada

2000-01-01

378

Process flow model of solid oxide fuel cell system supplied with sewage biogas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for a 100kW class solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system running on biogas from a sewage sludge digestion plant was implemented in a process flow scheme using external steam reforming. The model stack consisted of planar anode supported cells operated at 800C displaying state-of-the-art electrochemical performance (0.15W\\/cm2 at 80% fuel utilisation). Real annual data from an existing sewage

J Van herle; F Marchal; S Leuenberger; Y Membrez; O Bucheli; D Favrat

2004-01-01

379

Experimental Study on Thermal Hydrolysis and Dewatering Characteristics of Mechanically Dewatered Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

After mechanical dewatering, sewage sludge has a moisture content of around 80wt% and further disposal is required. A new sewage sludge semi-drying (dewatering) process is proposed and verified. It combines thermal hydrolysis and subsequent mechanical dewatering, with less energy consumption than traditional thermal drying. Sludge treated using this new process satisfies further disposal requirements (e.g., landfill or autothermal incineration). In

Honglei Ma; Yong Chi; Jianhua Yan; Mingjiang Ni

2011-01-01

380

Microstructural observations on the deterioration of concrete structure for sewage water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructural observations on the deterioration of concrete structure exposed to sewage water for about 10 years are described.\\u000a Concrete cores exposed to various aggressive conditions were obtained from a sewage treatment tank and investigated. Examination\\u000a of the cores by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS)\\u000a revealed the presence of sulfate-bearing products (gypsum, ettringite

Seong-Soo Kim; Seung-Tae Lee

2010-01-01

381

Investigation into emissions of gaseous pollutants during sewage sludge composting with wood waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main environmental problem of sewage sludge treatment and storing processes is unpleasant smell caused by emitted gases, such as NH3, H2S etc.; which are released during organic matter decomposition process. The second environmental problem is that during sewage sludge composting process global warming gases, such as CO2, CH4, and N2O are emitted, the emissions of these gases can be

Aura Zigmontiene; Egle Zuokaite

2010-01-01

382

Optimization of the hydrolytic-acidogenic anaerobic digestion stage (55 degrees C) of sewage sludge: influence of pH and solid content.  

PubMed

In conventional single-stage anaerobic digestion processes, hydrolysis is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as sewage sludge. Two-stage systems have been proposed to enhance this process. However, so far it is not clear which are the best conditions for a two-stage anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge, in terms of temperature and hydraulic retention time of each stage. The aim of this work was to determine the optimal conditions for the hydrolytic-acidogenic stage treating real sludge with a high concentration of total solids (40-50gL(-1)) and volatile solids (25-30gL(-1)), named high concentration sludge. The variables considered for this first stage were: hydraulic retention time (1-4 days) and temperature (55 and 65 degrees C). Maximum volatile fatty acids generation was obtained at 4 days and 3 days hydraulic retention time for 55 degrees C and 65 degrees C, respectively. Consequently, 4 days hydraulic retention time and temperature of 55 degrees C were set as the working conditions for the hydrolytic-acidogenic stage treating high concentration sludge. The results obtained when operating with high concentration sludge were compared with a low concentration sludge consisting of 17-28gL(-1) total solids and 13-21gL(-1) volatile solids. The effect of decreasing the influent sludge pH, when working at the optimal conditions established, was also evaluated. PMID:18687452

Pons, Sergio; Ferrer, Ivet; Vzquez, Felcitas; Font, Xavier

2008-08-01

383

Gasification of dried sewage sludge: status of the demonstration and the pilot plant.  

PubMed

The disposal of sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plants is suffering from raising costs. The gasification is an alternative way of treatment, which can reduce the amount of solid residues that must be disposed from a water treatment plant. The produced gas can be used very flexible to produce electrical energy, to burn it very cleanly or to use it for upgrading. The gasification in the fluidised bed and the gas cleaning with the granular bed filter has shown successful operation. A demonstration plant in Balingen was set up in 2002 and rebuilt to a larger throughput in 2010. As a next step a demonstration plant was built in Mannheim and is now at the end of the commissioning phase. Nowadays the product gas is blended with biogas from sludge fermentation and utilized in a gas engine or combustion chamber to produce heat. In the future the process control for a maximized efficiency and the removal of organic and inorganic impurities in the gas will be further improved. PMID:22284442

Judex, Johannes W; Gaiffi, Michael; Burgbacher, H Christian

2012-04-01

384

Development of lightweight aggregate from dry sewage sludge and coal ash.  

PubMed

In this study, dry sewage sludge (DSS) as the principal material was blended with coal ash (CA) to produce lightweight aggregate. The effects of different raw material compositions and sintering temperatures on the aggregate properties were then evaluated. In addition, an environmental assessment of the lightweight aggregate generated was conducted by analyzing the fixed rate of heavy metals in the aggregate, as well as their leaching behavior. The results indicated that using DSS enhanced the pyrolysis-volatilization reaction due to its high organic matter content, and decreased the bulk density and sintering temperature. However, the sintered products of un-amended DSS were porous and loose due to the formation of large pores during sintering. Adding CA improved the sintering temperature while effectively decreasing the pore size and increasing the compressive strength of the product. Furthermore, the sintering temperature and the proportion of CA were found to be the primary factors affecting the properties of the sintered products, and the addition of 18-25% of CA coupled with sintering at 1100 degrees C for 30 min produced the highest quality lightweight aggregates. In addition, heavy metals were fixed inside products generated under these conditions and the As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn concentrations of the leachate were found to be within the limits of China's regulatory requirements. PMID:19008090

Wang, Xingrun; Jin, Yiying; Wang, Zhiyu; Nie, Yongfeng; Huang, Qifei; Wang, Qi

2009-04-01

385

Energy self-sufficient sewage wastewater treatment plants: is optimized anaerobic sludge digestion the key?  

PubMed

The anaerobic digestion of primary and waste activated sludge generates biogas that can be converted into energy to power the operation of a sewage wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). But can the biogas generated by anaerobic sludge digestion ever completely satisfy the electricity requirements of a WWTP with 'standard' energy consumption (i.e. industrial pollution not treated, no external organic substrate added)? With this question in mind, we optimized biogas production at Prague's Central Wastewater Treatment Plant in the following ways: enhanced primary sludge separation; thickened waste activated sludge; implemented a lysate centrifuge; increased operational temperature; improved digester mixing. With these optimizations, biogas production increased significantly to 12.5 m(3) per population equivalent per year. In turn, this led to an equally significant increase in specific energy production from approximately 15 to 23.5 kWh per population equivalent per year. We compared these full-scale results with those obtained from WWTPs that are already energy self-sufficient, but have exceptionally low energy consumption. Both our results and our analysis suggest that, with the correct optimization of anaerobic digestion technology, even WWTPs with 'standard' energy consumption can either attain or come close to attaining energy self-sufficiency. PMID:24185054

Jenicek, P; Kutil, J; Benes, O; Todt, V; Zabranska, J; Dohanyos, M

2013-01-01

386

Biodegradability and change of physical characteristics of particles during anaerobic digestion of domestic sewage.  

PubMed

At the high-rate anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage, both biological and physical processes play an important role. Therefore, the anaerobic biodegradability of raw, paper-filtered and membrane-filtered sewage and black water has been investigated in batch experiments. Additionally, the effect of anaerobic digestion on physical characteristics, like particle size, surface tension and zeta-potential, of the present particles is studied. The biodegradability of domestic sewage and black water at 30 degrees C is almost similar (71-74%). Moreover, a high methanogenesis of the colloidal fraction in domestic sewage (86 +/- 3%) is achieved, showing that the low removal of colloidal particles in continuous high-rate anaerobic reactors is due to low physical removal rather than biodegradability. The lowest biodegradability is demonstrated for the dissolved fraction (62%). The results show that after anaerobic digestion the average radius of particles with diameter < 4.4 and < 0.45 microns increased for domestic sewage, while it decreased for black water. Part of the surface-active components in domestic sewage is not biodegraded during anaerobic batch digestion, as indicated by the development of the surface tension. The negative zeta-potential of all particles hardly changes during digestion, showing that colloidal interactions were not affected by anaerobic digestion. PMID:11268851

Elmitwalli, T A; Soellner, J; De Keizer, A; Bruning, H; Zeeman, G; Lettinga, G

2001-04-01

387

Soil Microbial Functional and Fungal Diversity as Influenced by Municipal Sewage Sludge Accumulation  

PubMed Central

Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H) were calculated to interpret the results. The fungi isolated from the sewage sludge were identified using comparative rDNA sequencing of the LSU D2 region. The MicroSEQ ID software was used to assess the raw sequence files, perform sequence matching to the MicroSEQ ID-validated reference database and create Neighbor-Joining trees. Moreover, the genera of fungi isolated from the soil were identified using microscopic methods. Municipal sewage sludge can serve as a habitat for plant pathogens and as a source of pathogen strains for biotechnological applications. PMID:25170681

Fr?c, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

2014-01-01

388

Soil microbial functional and fungal diversity as influenced by municipal sewage sludge accumulation.  

PubMed

Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H) were calculated to interpret the results. The fungi isolated from the sewage sludge were identified using comparative rDNA sequencing of the LSU D2 region. The MicroSEQ ID software was used to assess the raw sequence files, perform sequence matching to the MicroSEQ ID-validated reference database and create Neighbor-Joining trees. Moreover, the genera of fungi isolated from the soil were identified using microscopic methods. Municipal sewage sludge can serve as a habitat for plant pathogens and as a source of pathogen strains for biotechnological applications. PMID:25170681

Fr?c, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

2014-09-01

389

Distribution and pollutant load of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in sewage treatment plants and water from Japanese Rivers.  

PubMed

Hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers (?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, and ?-HBCD) were investigated in river water, sewage influent, and sewage effluent from the Yodo River basin, Japan. The mean annual values of HBCDs ranged from 0.19 to 14ngL(-1) in river water. We observed that the concentrations of HBCDs in the brackish water area were low compared with that in the fresh water area. It was implied that, when the flow of the river stagnated in the estuarine area, HBCDs settled with suspended matter because of their hydrophobic character. In the sewage treatment plants, HBCDs ranged from 16 to 400ngL(-1) in sewage influent, whereas they ranged from 0.39 to 12ngL(-1) in sewage effluent. Over 90% of HBCDs were removed from the wastewater in the sewage treatment plants. By using these results, we estimated the pollutant load of HBCDs that flows into Osaka Bay from the study area. It was estimated that approximately 15kg of HBCDs flow into Osaka Bay from the study area in a year. This value is five orders of magnitude lower than the 2010 market demand for HBCDs (3019 metrictons) in Japan. PMID:24880602

Ichihara, Makiko; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Takakura, Koh-ichi; Kakutani, Naoya; Sudo, Miki

2014-09-01

390

Microbial degradation of pendimethalin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial degradation of pendimethalin (N?(l?Ethylpropyl)?3, 4?dimethyl?2, 6?dinitroaniline) in vitro was studied. Fusarium oxysporum and Paecilomyces varioti, two soil fungi, in culture media degraded pendimethalin to two metabolites namely N?(1?Ethylpro?pyl)?3, 4?dimethyl?2?nitrobenzene?l, 6?diamine (II) and 3, 4?Dimethyl?2, 6?dinitroaniline (IV). Rhizoctonia bataticola, another soil fungus, decomposed pendimethalin yielding only the latter metabolite (IV). Fungal decomposition of pendimethalin involved nitro reduction and dealkylation.

S. B. Singh; G. Kulshrestha

1991-01-01

391

Fungal degradation of fluorene.  

PubMed

A selection of 30 strains of micromycetes known as good degraders of polychlorinated aromatic compounds, mostly isolated from soil and belonging to various taxonomic groups, have been investigated to degrade fluorene. Toxicity assays, first evaluated on solid media, have shown high growth inhibition at concentrations above 0.001 g l-1 only towards 23% of strains. Degradation of fluorene (0.005 g l-1) was then investigated in liquid synthetic medium for 2 days and evaluated by HPLC. Among the 30 strains tested, 12 could be considered as best degraders because of a rate of degradation at 60% or over. 3 strains of Cunninghamella genus were very efficient (mean of degradation: 96%) but different strains from Ascomycetes. Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes were also efficient 11 strains are not yet reported in the literature: Aspergillus terreus, Bjerkandera adusta, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Colletotrichum dematium, Cryphonectria parasitica, Cunninghamella blakesleeana, C. echinulata, Drechslera spicifera, Embellisia annulata, Rhizoctonia solani and Sporormiella australis. A metabolic approach with standard compounds (9-fluorenol and 9-fluorenone) indicated the presence of these monooxygenated derivatives for most of the strains. PMID:10665449

Garon, D; Krivobok, S; Seigle-Murandi, F

2000-01-01

392

DDE remediation and degradation.  

PubMed

DDT and its metabolites, DDD and DDE, have been shown to be recalcitrant to degradation. The parent compound, DDT, was used extensively worldwide starting in 1939 and was banned in the United States in 1973. The daughter compound, DDE, may result from aerobic degradation, abiotic dehydrochlorination, or photochemical decomposition. DDE has also occurred as a contaminant in commercial-grade DDT. The p,p'-DDE isomer is more biologically active than the o,p-DDE, with a reported half-life of -5.7 years. However, when DDT was repeatedly applied to the soil, the DDE concentration may remain unchanged for more than 20 yr. Remediation of DDE-contaminated soil and water may be done by several techniques. Phytoremediation involves translocating DDT, DDD, and DDE from the soil into the plant, although some aquatic species (duckweed > elodea > parrot feather) can transform DDT into predominantly DDD with some DDE being formed. Of all the plants that can uptake DDE, Cucurbita pepo has been the most extensively studied, with translocation values approaching "hyperaccumulation" levels. Soil moisture, temperature, and plant density have all been documented as important factors in the uptake of DDE by Cucurbita pepo. Uptake may also be influenced positively by amendments such as biosurfactants, mycorrhizal inoculants, and low molecular weight organic acids (e.g., citric and oxalic acids). DDE microbial degradation by dehalogenases, dioxygenases, and hydrolases occurs under the proper conditions. Although several aerobic degradation pathways have been proposed, none has been fully verified. Very few aerobic pure cultures are capable of fully degrading DDE to CO2. Cometabolism of DDE by Pseudomonas sp., Alicaligens sp., and Terrabacter sp. grown on biphenyl has been reported; however, not all bacterial species that produce biphenyl dioxygenase degraded DDE. Arsenic and copper inhibit DDE degradation by aerobic microorganisms. Similarly, metal chelates such as EDTA inhibit the breakdown of DDE by the extracellular lignolytic enzymes produced by white rot fungi. The addition of adjutants such as sodium ion, surfactants, and cellulose increased the rate of DDT aerobic or anaerobic degradation but did little to enhance the rate of DDE disappearance under anaerobic conditions. Only in the past decade has it been demonstrated that DDE can undergo reductive dechlorination under methanogenic and sulfidogenic conditions to form the degradation product DDMU, 1-chloro-2,2'-bis-(4'-chlorophenyl)ethane. The only pure culture reported to degrade DDE under anaerobic conditions was the denitrifier Alcaligens denitrificans. The degradation of DDE by this bacterium was enhanced by glucose, whereas biphenyl fumes had no effect. Abiotic remediation by DDE volatilization was enhanced by flooding and irrigation and deepplowing inhibited the volatilization. The use of zero-valent iron and surfactants in flooded soils enhanced DDT degradation but did not significantly alter the rate of DDE removal. Other catalysts (palladized magnesium, palladium on carbon, and nickel/aluminum alloys) degraded DDT and its metabolites, including DDE. However, these systems are often biphasic or involve explosive gases or both. Safer abiotic alternatives use UV light with titanium oxide or visible light with methylene green to degrade DDT, DDD, and DDE in aqueous or mixed solvent systems. Remediation and degradation of DDE in soil and water by phytoextraction, aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, or abiotic methods can be accomplished. However, success has been limited, and great care must be taken that the method does not transfer the contaminants to another locale (by volatilization, deep plowing, erosion, or runoff) or to another species (by ingestion of accumulating plants or contaminated water). Although the remediation of DDT-, DDD-, and DDE-contaminated soil and water is beset with myriad problems, there remain many open avenues of research. PMID:18069646

Thomas, John E; Ou, Li-Tse; All-Agely, Abid

2008-01-01

393

Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Sewage Sludge by Gamma Irradiation with Pasteurization as a Tool for Hygienization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research work, management of sewage sludge disposal on agricultural soils is addressed. The increasing amount of sewage sludge and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to recycle sewage sludge efficiently. The research was structured along two main avenues, namely, the efficacy of the irradiation process for removing enteric pathogenic microorganisms and the potential of irradiated sludge as a soil amendment. This study investigated how application of irradiation with heat treatment reduced pathogens in sewage sludge. Raw and pasteurised Sewage sludge was treated at different dose treatment of 1.5, 3 and 5 kilogray (kGy) gamma irradiation individually and for 3 kGy sufficiency was achieved. Decrease in irradiation dose from 5 to 3 kGy was observed for pasteurised sludge resulting in saving of radiation energy. The presence of heavy metals in untreated sewage sludge has raised concerns, which decreases after irradiation.

Priyadarshini, J.; Roy, P. K.; Mazumdar, A.

2014-01-01

394

The effect of sludge recirculation rate on a UASB-digester treating domestic sewage at 15 C.  

PubMed

The anaerobic treatment of low strength domestic sewage at low temperature is an attractive and important topic at present. The upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-digester system is one of the anaerobic systems to challenge low temperature and concentrations. The effect of sludge recirculation rate on a UASB-digester system treating domestic sewage at 15 C was studied in this research. A sludge recirculation rate of 0.9, 2.6 and 12.5% of the influent flow rate was investigated. The results showed that the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency rose with increasing sludge recirculation rate. A sludge recirculation rate of 0.9% of the influent flow rate led to organic solids accumulation in the UASB reactor. After the sludge recirculation rate increased from 0.9 to 2.6%, the stability of the UASB sludge was substantially improved from 0.37 to 0.15 g CH?-COD/g COD, and the bio-gas production in the digester went up from 2.9 to 7.4 L/d. The stability of the UASB sludge and bio-gas production in the digester were not significantly further improved by increasing sludge recirculation rate to 12.5% of the influent flow rate, but the biogas production in the UASB increased from 0.37 to 1.2 L/d. It is recommended to apply a maximum sludge recirculation rate of 2-2.5% of the influent flow rate in a UASB-digester system, as this still allows energy self-sufficiency of the system. PMID:23109575

Zhang, Lei; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Kampman, Christel; Zeeman, Grietje; Temmink, Hardy; Li, Weiguang; Buisman, Cees J N

2012-01-01

395

Microbial community of sulfate-reducing up-flow sludge bed in the SANI process for saline sewage treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the microbial community of the sulfate-reducing up-flow sludge bed (SRUSB) of a novel sulfate reduction,\\u000a autotrophic denitrification, and nitrification integrated (SANI) process for saline sewage treatment. The investigation involved\\u000a a lab-scale SANI system treating synthetic saline sewage and a pilot-scale SANI plant treating 10m3\\/day of screened saline sewage. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were the dominant population, responsible for

Jin Wang; Manyuan Shi; Hui Lu; Di Wu; Ming-Fei Shao; Tong Zhang; George A. Ekama; Mark C. M. van Loosdrecht; Guang-Hao Chen

2011-01-01

396

Removal efficiency and methanogenic activity profiles in a pilot-scale UASB reactor treating settled sewage at moderate temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a sewage treatment system consisting of a settler followed by an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor is described. Mean ambient and sewage temperature were 16.5 and 21.6 degrees C, respectively. Total Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODt) concentration averaged 224.2 and 152.6 mg\\/L, for raw and settled sewage, respectively. The effluent concentration was 68.5 mgCODt\\/L. Total and suspended

L. Seghezzo; R. G. Guerra; S. M. Gonzlez; A. P. Trupiano; M. E. Figueroa; C. M. Cuevas; G. Zeeman; G. Lettinga

2002-01-01

397

Development of a Web-Based, Emissions Reduction Calculator for Storm Water/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation  

E-print Network

developed for the TCEQ to assess the potential emissions reduction from the implementation of the retrofit measures to city-wide, wastewater distributions. In come cities the municipal sewer system collects both storm water and sanitary sewage... in the same system. During dry weather these sewers carry all the sanitary sewage to the wastewater treatment plant for treatment. However, when rainstorms or snow melt increase the amount of runoff, the combined flow of sanitary sewage and storm water...

Liu, Z.; Haberl, J. S.; Brumbelow, K.; Culp, C.; Gilman, D.; Yazdani, B.

2006-01-01

398

Characterization of mass-labeled [13C14]-decabromodiphenylethane and its use as a surrogate standard in the analysis of sewage sludge samples.  

PubMed

Very little data is available about the presence of the brominated flame retardant, DBDPE, in the environment. This study reports the characterization of [(13)C(14)]-decabromodiphenylethane and the use of this surrogate standard to positively identify and quantify the presence of DBDPE in sewage sludge samples. The large difference in response factors between BDE-209 and DBDPE predicates the use of [(13)C(14)]-decabromodiphenylethane as a surrogate standard to improve the accuracy when determining the levels of DBDPE in environmental samples. PMID:16490233

Konstantinov, A; Arsenault, G; Chittim, B; Kolic, T; MacPherson, K; McAlees, A; McCrindle, R; Potter, D; Reiner, E J; Tashiro, C; Yeo, B

2006-06-01

399

Insight into the roles of earthworm in vermicomposting of sewage sludge by determining the water-extracts through chemical and spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

This work illustrated the effects of earthworm in vermicomposting (Eisenia fetida) by determining the water-extracts through chemical and spectroscopic methods. A field experiment with sludge as the only feed was subjected to vermicomposting and the control (without worms) for three weeks. Compared to the control, vermicomposting resulted in lower pH and water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) along with higher electrical conductivity (EC). Moreover, vermicomposting caused nearly two times higher content of water-extractable nitrate (WEN-NO3(-)) than the control. Furthermore, fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) revealed that vermicomposting promoted the hydrolysis/transformation of macromolecular organic matters and accelerated the degradation of polysaccharide-like and protein-like materials. Fluorescence spectroscopy also reflected vermicomposting led to higher humification degree than the control. In all, this study supplies a new view to assess the roles of earthworm in vermicomposting of sewage sludge by evaluating the water extracts. PMID:24384315

Yang, Jian; Lv, Baoyi; Zhang, Jie; Xing, Meiyan

2014-02-01

400

Genotoxicity biomonitoring of sewage in two municipal wastewater treatment plants using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea bioassay  

PubMed Central

The genotoxicity of untreated and treated sewage from two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WTP BN and WTP SJN) in the municipality of Porto Alegre, in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, was evaluated over a one-year period using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea (Trad-MCN) bioassay. Inflorescences of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed to sewage samples in February (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) 2009, and the micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were estimated in each period. The high genotoxicity of untreated sewage from WTP BN in February and April was not observed in treated sewage, indicating the efficiency of treatment at this WTP. However, untreated and treated sewage samples from WTP SJN had high MCN frequencies, except in October, when rainfall may have been responsible for reducing these frequencies at both WTPs. Physicochemical analyses of sewage from both WTPs indicated elevated concentrations of organic matter that were higher at WTP SJN than at WTP BN. Chromium was detected in untreated and treated sewage from WTP SJN, but not in treated sewage from WTP BN. Lead was found in all untreated sewage samples from WTP SJN, but only in the summer and autumn at WTP BN. These results indicate that the short-term Trad-MCN genotoxicity assay may be useful for regular monitoring of municipal WTPs. PMID:22215975

Thewes, Mrcia Regina; Junior, Delio Endres; Droste, Annette

2011-01-01

401

Genotoxicity biomonitoring of sewage in two municipal wastewater treatment plants using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea bioassay.  

PubMed

The genotoxicity of untreated and treated sewage from two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WTP BN and WTP SJN) in the municipality of Porto Alegre, in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, was evaluated over a one-year period using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea (Trad-MCN) bioassay. Inflorescences of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed to sewage samples in February (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) 2009, and the micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were estimated in each period. The high genotoxicity of untreated sewage from WTP BN in February and April was not observed in treated sewage, indicating the efficiency of treatment at this WTP. However, untreated and treated sewage samples from WTP SJN had high MCN frequencies, except in October, when rainfall may have been responsible for reducing these frequencies at both WTPs. Physicochemical analyses of sewage from both WTPs indicated elevated concentrations of organic matter that were higher at WTP SJN than at WTP BN. Chromium was detected in untreated and treated sewage from WTP SJN, but not in treated sewage from WTP BN. Lead was found in all untreated sewage samples from WTP SJN, but only in the summer and autumn at WTP BN. These results indicate that the short-term Trad-MCN genotoxicity assay may be useful for regular monitoring of municipal WTPs. PMID:22215975

Thewes, Mrcia Regina; Junior, Delio Endres; Droste, Annette

2011-10-01

402

A Multiple-Tracer Approach for Identifying Sewage Sources to an Urban Stream System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The presence of human-derived fecal coliform bacteria (sewage) in streams and rivers is recognized as a human health hazard. The source of these human-derived bacteria, however, is often difficult to identify and eliminate, because sewage can be delivered to streams through a variety of mechanisms, such as leaking sanitary sewers or private lateral lines, cross-connected pipes, straight pipes, sewer-line overflows, illicit dumping of septic waste, and vagrancy. A multiple-tracer study was conducted to identify site-specific sources of sewage in Accotink Creek, an urban stream in Fairfax County, Virginia, that is listed on the Commonwealth's priority list of impaired streams for violations of the fecal coliform bacteria standard. Beyond developing this multiple-tracer approach for locating sources of sewage inputs to Accotink Creek, the second objective of the study was to demonstrate how the multiple-tracer approach can be applied to other streams affected by sewage sources. The tracers used in this study were separated into indicator tracers, which are relatively simple and inexpensive to apply, and confirmatory tracers, which are relatively difficult and expensive to analyze. Indicator tracers include fecal coliform bacteria, surfactants, boron, chloride, chloride/bromide ratio, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and water temperature. Confirmatory tracers include 13 organic compounds that are associated with human waste, including caffeine, cotinine, triclosan, a number of detergent metabolites, several fragrances, and several plasticizers. To identify sources of sewage to Accotink Creek, a detailed investigation of the Accotink Creek main channel, tributaries, and flowing storm drains was undertaken from 2001 to 2004. Sampling was conducted in a series of eight synoptic sampling events, each of which began at the most downstream site and extended upstream through the watershed and into the headwaters of each tributary. Using the synoptic sampling approach, 149 sites were sampled at least one time for indicator tracers; 52 of these sites also were sampled for confirmatory tracers at least one time. Through the analysis of multiple-tracer levels in the synoptic samples, three major sewage sources to the Accotink Creek stream network were identified, and several other minor sewage sources to the Accotink Creek system likely deserve additional investigation. Near the end of the synoptic sampling activities, three additional sampling methods were used to gain better understanding of the potential for sewage sources to the watershed. These additional sampling methods included optical brightener monitoring, intensive stream sampling using automated samplers, and additional sampling of several storm-drain networks. The samples obtained by these methods provided further understanding of possible sewage sources to the streams and a better understanding of the variability in the tracer concentrations at a given sampling site. Collectively, these additional sampling methods were a valuable complement to the synoptic sampling approach that was used for the bulk of this study. The study results provide an approach for local authorities to use in applying a relatively simple and inexpensive collection of tracers to locate sewage sources to streams. Although this multiple-tracer approach is effective in detecting sewage sources to streams, additional research is needed to better detect extremely low-volume sewage sources and better enable local authorities to identify the specific sources of the sewage once it is detected in a stream reach.

Hyer, Kenneth Edward

2007-01-01

403

Microbial degradation of herbicides.  

PubMed

Abstract Herbicides remain the most effective, efficient and economical way to control weeds; and its market continues to grow even with the plethora of generic products. With the development of herbicide-tolerant crops, use of herbicides is increasing around the world that has resulted in severe contamination of the environment. The strategies are now being developed to clean these substances in an economical and eco-friendly manner. In this review, an attempt has been made to pool all the available literature on the biodegradation of key herbicides, clodinafop propargyl, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, atrazine, metolachlor, diuron, glyphosate, imazapyr, pendimethalin and paraquat under the following objectives: (1) to highlight the general characteristic and mode of action, (2) to enlist toxicity in animals, (3) to pool microorganisms capable of degrading herbicides, (4) to discuss the assessment of herbicides degradation by efficient microbes, (5) to highlight biodegradation pathways, (6) to discuss the molecular basis of degradation, (7) to enlist the products of herbicides under degradation process, (8) to highlight the factors effecting biodegradation of herbicides and (9) to discuss the future aspects of herbicides degradation. This review may be useful in developing safer and economic microbiological methods for cleanup of soil and water contaminated with such compounds. PMID:25159042

Singh, Baljinder; Singh, Kashmir

2014-08-27

404

Engineering chlorpyrifos-degrading Stenotrophomonas sp. YC-1 for heavy metal accumulation and enhanced chlorpyrifos degradation.  

PubMed

Many ecosystems are currently co-contaminated with pesticides and heavy metals, such as chlorpyrifos and cadmium. A promising strategy to remediate mixed chlorpyrifos-cadmium-contaminated sites is the use of chlorpyrifos-degrading bacteria endowed with cadmium removal capabilities. In this work, a gene coding for synthetic phytochelatins (EC20) with high cadmium-binding capacity was introduced into a chlorpyrifos-degrading bacterium, Stenotrophomonas sp. YC-1, resulting in an engineered strain with both cadmium accumulation and chlorpyrifos degradation capabilities. To improve the cadmium-binding efficiency of whole cells, EC20 was displayed on the cell surface of Stenotrophomonas sp. YC-1 using the truncated ice nucleation protein (INPNC) anchor. The surface localization of the INPNC-EC20 fusion protein was demonstrated by cell fractionation, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Expression of EC20 on the cell surface not only improved cadmium binding, but also alleviated the cellular toxicity of cadmium. As expected, the chlorpyrifos degradation rate was reduced in the presence of cadmium for cells without EC20 expression. However, expression of EC20 (higher cadmium accumulation) completely restored the level of chlorpyrifos degradation. These results demonstrated that EC20 expression not only enhanced cadmium accumulation, but also reduced the toxic effect of cadmium on chlorpyrifos degradation. PMID:25151179

Liu, Ruihua; Jiang, Hong; Xu, Ping; Qiao, Chuanling; Zhou, Qixing; Yang, Chao

2014-11-01

405

Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic communities during sewage decomposition in Mississippi river water.  

PubMed

Microbial decay processes are one of the mechanisms whereby sewage contamination is reduced in the environment. This decomposition process involves a highly complex array of bacterial and eukaryotic communities from both sewage and ambient waters. However, relatively little is known about how these communities change due to mixing and subsequent decomposition of the sewage contaminant. We investigated decay of sewage in upper Mississippi River using Illumina sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA gene hypervariable regions and qPCR for human-associated and general fecal Bacteroidales indicators. Mixtures of primary treated sewage and river water were placed in dialysis bags and incubated in situ under ambient conditions for seven days. We assessed changes in microbial community composition under two treatments in a replicated factorial design: sunlight exposure versus shaded and presence versus absence of native river microbiota. Initial diversity was higher in sewage compared to river water for 16S sequences, but the reverse was observed for 18S sequences. Both treatments significantly shifted community composition for eukaryotes and bacteria (P<0.05). Data indicated that the presence of native river microbiota, rather than exposure to sunlight, accounted for the majority of variation between treatments for both 16S (R=0.50; P>0.001) and 18S (R=0.91; P=0.001) communities. A comparison of 16S sequence data and fecal indicator qPCR measurements indicated that the latter was a good predictor of overall bacterial community change over time (rho: 0.804-0.814, P=0.001). These findings suggest that biotic interactions, such as predation by bacterivorous protozoa, can be critical factors in the decomposition of sewage in freshwater habitats and support the use of Bacteroidales genetic markers as indicators of fecal pollution. PMID:25463929

Korajkic, Asja; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; McMinn, Brian R; Baeza, Yoshiki Vazquez; VanTeuren, Will; Knight, Rob; Shanks, Orin C

2014-11-13

406

Investigating the levels and trends of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl in sewage sludge.  

PubMed

A study was completed to investigate temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, hexachlorbenzene, and DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sewage sludge. Between 2004 and 2006 the concentration of OCPs and PCBs in Australian sewage sludge (n=829) was consistently <1000mugkg(-1) dry solids DS. Dieldrin, chlordane and DDE were detected in 68%, 27% and 13% at maximum concentrations of 770, 290 and 270 microgkg(-1) DS, respectively. Time series analysis (1995-2006) of OCPs and PCBs sewage sludge concentrations (n=2266) taken from six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of the same geographic region found that lindane, aldrin HCB, heptachlor, DDT, DDD and PCBs were infrequently detected (<8%). A correlation between dieldrin and chlordane levels was found (P<0.05) which provides evidence of similar environmental mechanisms facilitating movement of dieldrin and chlordane through environment compartments. It has taken more than 10years for dieldrin and chlordane to reduce to less than detectable concentrations in freshly generated sewage sludge in Australia following government restrictions. Internationally, reported sewage sludge OCP concentrations were consistently low and often less than detection limits. Therefore, OCPs are not considered to be a contaminant of regulatory concern for countries that phased out OCP use several decades ago. Concentrations of PCBs in sewage sludge were also consistently low and rarely exceeded European contaminant limits and therefore, regulatory limits may warrant review. The authors recommend that Australian authorities revise regulatory requirements for OCP and PCBs contaminant levels in sewage sludge destined for beneficial reuse as biosolids. PMID:20171737

Clarke, Bradley O; Porter, Nichola A; Marriott, Philip J; Blackbeard, Judy R

2010-05-01

407

Diversity and population structure of sewage derived microorganisms in wastewater treatment plant influent  

PubMed Central

The release of untreated sewage introduces non-indigenous microbial populations of uncertain composition into surface waters. We used massively parallel 454 sequencing of hypervariable regions in rRNA genes to profile microbial communities from eight untreated sewage influent samples of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in metropolitan Milwaukee. The sewage profiles included a discernable human fecal signature made up of several taxonomic groups including multiple Bifidobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae genera. The fecal signature made up a small fraction of the taxa present in sewage but the relative abundance of these sequence tags mirrored the population structures of human fecal samples. These genera were much more prevalent in the sewage influent than standard indicators species. High-abundance sequences from taxonomic groups within the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria dominated the sewage samples but occurred at very low levels in fecal and surface water samples, suggesting that these organisms proliferate within the sewer system. Samples from Jones Island (JI servicing residential plus a combined sewer system) and South Shore (SS servicing a residential area) WWTPs had very consistent community profiles, with greater similarity between WWTPs on a given collection day than the same plant collected on different days. Rainfall increased influent flows at SS and JI WWTPs, and this corresponded to greater diversity in the community at both plants. Overall, the sewer system appears to be a defined environment with both infiltration of rainwater and stormwater inputs modulating community composition. Microbial sewage communities represent a combination of inputs from human fecal microbes and enrichment of specific microbes from the environment to form a unique population structure. PMID:19840106

McLellan, S.L.; Huse, S.M.; Mueller-Spitz, S.R.; Andreishcheva, E.N.; Sogin, M.L.

2009-01-01

408

Sewage sludge effects on soil: heavy metal accumulation and movement  

SciTech Connect

Treated municipal sewage sludge at 0, 11.2, 33.6, and 67.2 metric tons/ha was applied each year for two consecutive years and incorporated into a Byler loam soil (Typic Fragiudalf) having an initial pH of 5.6. Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare L.) was grown in replicated plots (6.1m x 4.6m). Soil samples were taken at 0 to 20 cm and 20 to 40 cm depth at the end of each year and analyzed for DTPA-extractable Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni. Surface soil exhibited significant increases in heavy metal concentrations in the first year at the 67.2 metric tons/ha rates. Heavy metal concentrations increased with continued sludge application. However, this increase was not in proportion to the amount of sludge applied, suggesting some immobilization of metals with time. After two years, downward movement and significiant increases in Cu, Zn, and Ni levels were noted at the 20 to 40 cm depth at the higher rates. Heavy metal levels in the surface soil did not appear to be phytotoxic as judged from sorghum grain and dry matter yields and comparisons with other similar studies. Sludge applications had little effect on soil pH.

Taylor, R.W.; Duseja, D.R.; Thangudu, P.R.

1982-01-01

409

Avian botulism epizootiology from sewage oxidation ponds in Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

n the microenvironment concept of avian botulism epizootiology, it is hypothesized that invertebrate carcasses may serve both as a substrate for toxin production by Clostridium botulinum type C and as a vehicle for toxin transmission to water birds. We field-tested that hypothesis by attempting to induce botulism in wing-clipped mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) on sewage oxidation ponds in Utah. The experimental ponds were inoculated with C. botulinum spores in June 1974. Aquatic insect populations were monitored throughout the summer. Rotenone was used in August to kill insects in two ponds (one served as control), thereby providing potential substrate for clostridial growth and toxin production. Botulism was not detected among the birds even though they routinely ingested invertebrate carcasses. Samples of dead invertebrates contained no botulinum toxin. We concluded that the microenvironment concept, as it now stands, cannot always be a sufficient explanation of how type C botulism epizootics are initiated in nature. Other microbes may inhibit the growth of clostridial cells or destroy botulinum toxin.

Moulton, D.W.; Jensen, W.I.; Low, J.B.

1976-01-01

410

Synthetic zeolites as amendments for sewage sludge-based compost.  

PubMed

The effects of incorporating a synthetic zeolite (Zeolite P) in a range of concentrations (0.1-1.0 w:w) into an experimental horticultural compost, derived from sewage sludge, have been investigated. The impact of zeolite treatment on time-related changes of the labile zinc, copper, iron and manganese pools within the compost was compared to lime incorporation (5% w:w) and to a proprietary unamended peat-based compost. Addition of 0.5% and 1.0% zeolite significantly reduced labile zinc over a 90 day period. The highest zeolite treatment was more effective than liming; 0.5% zeolite was as effective as lime. Plant growth trials measuring transfer of metals to ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv Elka) in successive harvests demonstrated that both 1.0% zeolite and 5% lime treatment caused significant reduction in total metal transfer from soil-plant over a 116 day growth period. It is concluded that the use of synthetic zeolite as an amendment for compost of this type significantly reduces potential for soil metal mobility and soil-plant transfer. PMID:10819210

Nissen, L R; Lepp, N W; Edwards, R

2000-07-01

411

Phosphorus recycling in sewage treatment plants with biological phosphorus removal.  

PubMed

In this paper, phosphorus balances are calculated for the wastewater purification and sludge treatment stages for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) applying Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR). The possible P-recovery potential is then estimated and evaluated regarding different locations along the process of wastewater purification and sludge treatment, taking the different phosphorus bonding forms into account. Caused by the more favourable bonding forms in the excess sludge as well as possibly also in the sludge ash a recovery of the phosphorus seems especially favoured for WWTPs with EBPR. The processes available for a P recycling are named, and special regard is given to the Phostrip-process, which is a possible recycling process already tested in practice. Further R&D demand consists in basic research regarding disintegration, fermentation or acidic total digestion of excess sludge followed by phosphorus precipitation including separation of the precipitates, MAP-precipitation and separation from digested sludge and on the ability to extract phosphorus and heavy metals from sewage sludge ash. These investigations are a precondition to enable purposeful process developments. At the present state the cost of recycled phosphorus earned from wastewater, sludge and ash, respectively, are a multiple higher than the costs for raw phosphate taking into account the suitable processes. Thus, up to now no phosphorus recycling with a defrayal of costs is possible. The future importance of phosphorus recycling will depend on the market price for raw phosphate, the recycling costs and, furthermore, on the general political framework. PMID:16459832

Heinzmann, B

2005-01-01

412

The fate of radionuclides in sewage sludge applied to land  

SciTech Connect

Municipal sewage sludge containing up to 12 pCi/g {sup 137}Cs, 20 pCi/g {sup 60}Co, and 300 ppm U was injected in a pasture (43 Mg/ha) and sprayed over a young pine plantation (34 Mg/ha). In the pasture, radionuclides were largely retained in the upper 15 cm of the soil, and only about 15% moved below 15 cm. Sludge rapidly infiltrated the soil on the pine plantation. One year after application, at least 85% of the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and U were found in the upper 7 cm of the pine plantation, with only about 15% moving into the 7- to 15-cm strata. On-site total added radiation dose was 2 to 6 mrem/year. Radionuclides were not detected above background in soil solutions at {approximately}50 cm depth or in shallow down-gradient groundwater wells. Surface runoff from application areas did not have elevated radionuclide concentrations. Concentrations of these radionuclides increased slightly in vegetation on treated sites, and uranium was notably higher in earthworms. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

Boston, H.L.; Van Miegroet, H.; Larsen, I.L.; Walzer, A.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Carlton, J.E. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA))

1990-01-01

413

Landfarming of municipal sewage sludge at Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been applying municipal sanitary sludge to 9 sites comprising 90 ha on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) since 1983. Approximately 13,000,000 L are applied annually by spraying sludge (2 to 3% solids) under pressure from a tanker. Under an ongoing monitoring program, both the sludge and the soil in the application areas are analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radioactive parameters on a regular basis. Organic pollutants are analyzed in sludge on a semiannual basis and in the soil application areas on an annual basis. Inorganic parameters are analyzed daily (e.g., pH, total solids) or monthly (e.g., nitrogen, manganese) in sludge and annually in soil in application areas. Radionuclides (Co-60, Cs-137, I-131, Be-7, K-40, Ra-228, U-235, U-238) are scanned daily during application by the sewage treatment plant and analyzed weekly in composite sludge samples and annually in soil. Additionally, data on radioactive body burden for maximally exposed workers who apply the sludge show no detectable exposures. This monitoring program is comprehensive and is one of the few in the United States that analyzes radionuclides. Results from the monitoring program show heavy metals and radionuclides are not accumulating to levels in the soil application areas.

Tischler, M.L.; Pergler, C.; Wilson, M.; Mabry, D.; Stephenson, M.

1995-12-01

414

Use of leaching chambers for on-site sewage treatment.  

PubMed

An innovative chamber system was installed for on-site sewage treatment beneath an active parking lot at a restaurant near Cornwall, Ontario. The configuration of this prototype system used polyethylene leaching chambers over which wastewater was allowed to trickle. The chambers were vented to the surface to provide direct, passive air transfer. This demonstration project was examined as a cost-effective wastewater treatment alternative for a very constrained site. The leaching chambers were installed over a geotextile-covered sand filter bed. Chamber sidewall contact contributed an additional 50% to the total soil contact area hence justification for a footprint reduction. A labile carbon source (sawdust) was added into one half of the bed to encourage dissimilatory denitrification. Average hydraulic loading was 50 l m(-1) day(-1) (5 cm day(-1)). Treatment rates exceeded more than 4 orders of magnitude removal for E. coli; 90% biochemical oxygen demand; ammonium; and 99% total phosphorus. Nitrate-N on the carbon-amended side averaged 0.6 mg l(-1) compared with 8.6 mg l(-1) on the (non-carbon) control side. This project has demonstrated that effective on-site treatment can be accomplished. Flow and load equalization, pulse dosing, chamber venting, phosphorus precipitation, and denitrification were keys to treatment success. Applications include domestic and commercial sites. PMID:11999988

St Marseille, J G; Anderson, B C

2002-03-01

415

Anaerobic co-digestion of coffee waste and sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The feasibility of the anaerobic co-digestion of coffee solid waste and sewage sludge was assessed. Five different solid wastes with different chemical properties were studied in mesophilic batch assays, providing basic data on the methane production, reduction of total and volatile solids and hydrolysis rate constant. Most of the wastes had a methane yield of 0.24-0.28 m3 CH4(STP)/kg VS(initial) and 76-89% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved. Reduction of 50-73% in total solids and 75-80% in volatile solids were obtained and the hydrolysis rate constants were in the range of 0.035-0.063 d(-1). One of the solid wastes, composed of 100% barley, achieved a methane yield of 0.02 m3 CH4(STP)/kg VS(initial), reductions of 31% in total solids, 40% in volatile solids and achieved only 11% of the theoretical methane yield. However, this waste presented the highest hydrolysis rate constant. Considering all the wastes, an inverse linear correlation was obtained between methane yield and the hydrolysis rate constant, suggesting that hydrolysis was not the limiting factor in the anaerobic biodegradability of this type of waste. PMID:16310117

Neves, L; Oliveira, R; Alves, M M

2006-01-01

416

Transformation of phosphorus during drying and roasting of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge (SS), a by-product of wastewater treatment, consists of highly concentrated organic and inorganic pollutants, including phosphorus (P). In this study, P with different chemical fractions in SS under different drying and roasting temperatures was investigated with the use of appropriate standards, measurements, and testing protocol. The drying and roasting treatment of SS was conducted in a laboratory-scale furnace. Two types of SS samples under different treatment temperatures were analyzed by (31)P NMR spectroscopy. These samples were dried by a vacuum freeze dryer at -50C and a thermoelectric thermostat drying box at 105C. Results show that the inorganic P (IP) content increased as the organic P content decreased, and the bio-availability of P increased because IP is a form of phosphorousthat can be directly absorbed by plants. (31)P NMR analysis results indicate the change in P fractions at different temperatures. Non-apatite P was the dominant form of P under low-temperature drying and roasting, whereas apatite P was the major one under high-temperature drying and roasting. Results indicate that temperature affects the transformation of P. PMID:24810201

Li, Rundong; Yin, Jing; Wang, Weiyun; Li, Yanlong; Zhang, Ziheng

2014-07-01

417

Behavior of Selected Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Sewage Treatment Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage treatment plant affects their final fate in water environment. We selected six endocrine disrupting chemicals: 4 alkylphenols (4-tert-octylphenol, octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A) and 2 steroids (17?-ethinylestradiol and estriol) as targets, their removal and transformation in wastewater treatment plant were studied. Five mixed liquors were sampled respectively from different stages of Minhang wastewater treatment plant in Shanghai. EDCs concentration were analyzed with GC-MS. The main removal pathways of EDCs include initial adsorption by suspended solids and following biodegradation in biological sludge. The removal efficiency of six targets was more than 86%. The concentration of OP and 4-n-NP in water significantly increased in anoxic stage, the reason may be the releases of EDCs from sludge to water on the condition of low DO. And it was also found that the EDCs could be released to water phase in the secondary clarifier, which may cause potential risk of EDCs entering the environment with discharge.

Wang, Xinze; Lu, Jiaming; Ollivier, Natacha; Saturnino, Anais; Gomez, Elena; Casellas, Claude; Picot, Bernadette

2010-11-01

418

Degraded document image enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poor quality documents are obtained in various situations such as historical document collections, legal archives, security investigations, and documents found in clandestine locations. Such documents are often scanned for automated analysis, further processing, and archiving. Due to the nature of such documents, degraded document images are often hard to read, have low contrast, and are corrupted by various artifacts. We describe a novel approach for the enhancement of such documents based on probabilistic models which increases the contrast, and thus, readability of such documents under various degradations. The enhancement produced by the proposed approach can be viewed under different viewing conditions if desired. The proposed approach was evaluated qualitatively and compared to standard enhancement techniques on a subset of historical documents obtained from the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum. In addition, quantitative performance was evaluated based on synthetically generated data corrupted under various degradation models. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Agam, G.; Bal, G.; Frieder, G.; Frieder, O.

2007-01-01

419

Use of microextraction by packed sorbents following selective pressurised liquid extraction for the determination of brominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this work, a method based on selective pressurised liquid extraction followed by microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) for the determination of brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) in sewage sludge is presented. The factors affecting the MEPS procedure were optimised. Acetone:water (25:75) sPLE extracts were drawn-ejected 10 times through C18 cartridges at 5 ?L s(-1). The cartridge was dried five times with 250 ?L of air and the BDEs were eluted at 25 ?L s(-1) with 100 ?L of n-hexane that were directly injected at 13 ?L s(-1) in the GC-MSMS system. Under these conditions, there were no carry-over effects. The method was characterised in terms of limits of detection, repeatability, intermediate precision and accuracy. The use of MEPS for the determination of BDEs in sewage sludge means an improvement of the limits of detection due to the preconcentration and clean-up performed before the injection of the whole elute in the PTV injector. The GC-MSMS LODs (25 pg mL(-1)) were improved with MEPS to less than 3 pg mL(-1). RSD less than 7% and recovery values from 92% to 102% were shown. Finally, the method was applied to the sPLE extract analyses of sewage sludge from several wastewater treatment plants in La Rioja. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the MEPS technique has been applied to the analysis of BDEs, and the first time that it has been used for the analysis of extracts from a solid sample. PMID:25204265

Martnez-Moral, Mara Pilar; Tena, Mara Teresa

2014-10-17

420

Photovoltaic Degradation Risk: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The ability to accurately predict power delivery over the course of time is of vital importance to the growth of the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Important cost drivers include the efficiency with which sunlight is converted into power, how this relationship changes over time, and the uncertainty in this prediction. An accurate quantification of power decline over time, also known as degradation rate, is essential to all stakeholders - utility companies, integrators, investors, and researchers alike. In this paper we use a statistical approach based on historical data to quantify degradation rates, discern trends and quantify risks related to measurement uncertainties, number of measurements and methodologies.

Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

2012-04-01

421

Degradation Modelling for Health Monitoring Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Condition-monitoring plays an increasingly important role for technical processes in order to improve reliability, availability, maintenance and lifetime of equipment. With increasing demands for efficiency and product quality, plus progress in the integration of automatic control systems in high-cost mechatronic and critical safety processes, the field of health monitoring is gaining interest. A similar research field is concerned with an estimation of the remaining useful life. A central question in these fields is the modelling of degradation; degradation is a process of a gradual and irreversible accumulation of damage which will finally result in a failure of the system. This paper is based on a current research project and explores various degradation modelling techniques. These results are explained on the basis of an industrial product a system for the generation of health status information for pump systems. The result of this fuzzy-logic based system is a single number indicating the current health of a pump system.

Stetter, R.; Witczak, M.

2014-12-01

422

Modeling of the reburning process using sewage sludge-derived syngas  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification provides an attractive method for sewage sludges treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification generates a fuel gas (syngas) which can be used as a reburning fuel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reburning potential of sewage sludge gasification gases was defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical simulation of co-combustion of syngases in coal fired boiler has been done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculation shows that analysed syngases can provide higher than 80% reduction of NO{sub x}. - Abstract: Gasification of sewage sludge can provide clean and effective reburning fuel for combustion applications. The motivation of this work was to define the reburning potential of the sewage sludge gasification gas (syngas). A numerical simulation of the co-combustion process of syngas in a hard coal-fired boiler was done. All calculations were performed using the Chemkin programme and a plug-flow reactor model was used. The calculations were modelled using the GRI-Mech 2.11 mechanism. The highest conversions for nitric oxide (NO) were obtained at temperatures of approximately 1000-1200 K. The combustion of hard coal with sewage sludge-derived syngas reduces NO emissions. The highest reduction efficiency (>90%) was achieved when the molar flow ratio of the syngas was 15%. Calculations show that the analysed syngas can provide better results than advanced reburning (connected with ammonia injection), which is more complicated process.

Werle, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.werle@polsl.pl [Institute of Thermal Technology, Silesian University of Technology at Gliwice, 44-100 Gliwice, Konarskiego 22 (Poland)

2012-04-15

423

[Experimental research on in-situ auto-monitoring for underground sewage pipeline leakage].  

PubMed

The leakage of underground sewage pipes may seriously affect the soil and the environment of groundwater. In this paper, an in-situ automatic monitoring device on basis of multi-electrode resistivity method was developed for the leakage of underground sewage pipelines, and it was validated by a simulated experiment in laboratory that the feasibility of the new device is feasible for real-time monitoring the leakage of underground sewage pipelines at many different groundwater levels. The experimental results indicated that small leakage of sewage pipelines could be rapidly detected by the developed monitoring device when the pipeline was located in the vadose zone. The leakage could also be monitored in a prompt manner when the pipeline was located near the groundwater level, and the extent of pollutant leakage could be speculated with the gradient change in resistivity of the soil layer above the pipeline. When the pipeline was located below the groundwater level, the device could only monitor the leakage if it reached a certain concentration to produce notable changes in resistivity, because of the rapid mixing and diffusion of the pollutant in groundwater. The device set up in this paper was found capable of real-time automatic monitoring the leakage of underground sewage pipelines buried in different depths and groundwater levels. PMID:23379164

Guo, Lei; Jia, Yong-Gang; Fu, Teng-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhan-Kun

2012-12-01

424

Evaluation of the genotoxicity of municipal sewage effluent using the marine worm Platynereis dumerilii (Polychaeta: Nereidae).  

PubMed

Samples of settled (primary) effluent were collected from a municipal sewage treatment works at Newton Abbot, Devon, UK, a site which discharges primary effluent via long sea pipeline into the English Channel (minimum of 200-fold initial dilution). Sewage samples were collected during the period February-April 1995 and were analysed for standard physico-chemical parameters (ammonia, chemical oxygen demand, conductivity, non-purgeable organic carbon and settled solids). Samples were also tested for cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and for developmental effects in the embryo-larval stages of the marine worm, Platynereis dumerilii. Exposure to sewage concentrations of > or = 10% (v/v) in seawater at 20 +/- 1 degrees C led to a marked reduction in normal embryo-larval development (7 h EC50 values from 10% to 18% v/v, n = 5). There was also evidence of a simultaneous delay in the cell cycle progression (as determined by sister chromatid differential staining) following embryo-larval exposures to sewage concentrations of > or = 10% (v/v). Following the calculation of the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD), based on cytotoxic and developmental effects, cells from the same embryo-larvae were analysed for chromosomal aberrations (CAs). Results were consistent for all samples tested, demonstrating the absence of cytogenetic damage following the in vivo exposure of polychaete embryo-larvae to settled sewage. PMID:9268043

Jha, A N; Hutchinson, T H; Mackay, J M; Elliott, B M; Dixons, D R

1997-07-14

425

Degradability of Dental Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of dental ceramics generally occurs because of mechanical forces or chemical attack. The possible physiological side-effects of ceramics are their tendency to abrade opposing dental structures, the emission of radiation from radioactive components, the roughening of their surfaces by chemical attack with a corresponding increase in plaque retention, and the release of potentially unsafe concentrations of elements as

K. J. Anusavice

1992-01-01

426

The optimisation of food waste addition as a co-substrate in anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Food waste has been regarded as the main source of various environmental pollution in Korea due to the high volatile solids (VS) and moisture content caused by the features of dietary habits. The feasibility of food waste as a co-substrate in anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was investigated in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using batch tests. Cumulative methane production, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were monitored to find the optimal mixing ratios of food waste and sewage sludge for the enhanced performance of co-digestion. It was observed that adequately mixed food waste led to the enhanced methane production both at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. However, a conventional linear regression conducted for the optimisation of co-substrate mixing ratios was not accurate in describing exact methane production trends of co-digestion because of the different biodegradability of substrates. Therefore, a remodified Gompertz equation showing nonlinear relationship between variables was developed to find exact information with the same experimental data obtained at 2g VS/l generally used in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. Based on an influential parameter, methane production rate (MPR), the optimal mixing ratios of food waste were 39.3% and 50.1% in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. To confirm the application of the remodified Gompertz equation, secondary batch tests were conducted with the substrate concentrations of 1-4g VS/l. In overall range tested, the confident mixing ratios of food waste was adjusted to 30-40% and 40% in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. The most significant factor for enhanced performance was the improved organic carbon content provided by additional food waste. PMID:14986713

Kim, Hyun-Woo; Han, Sun-Kee; Shin, Hang-Sik

2003-12-01

427

PEM Degradation Investigation Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this paper are: (1) Develop a system capable of measuring current and voltage performance for each membrane in a Polymer Electrolyte Membranes (PEM) fuel cell stack and record the performance of each individual cell; (2) Develop a single cell PEM FC to allow in situ synchrotron x-ray measurements of the cell in operation and to perform spatially resolved x-ray measurements on fuel cell elements before and after degradation; and (3) Perform initial magnetic resonance microimaging experiments on membrane materials. The Montana State University PEM Membrane Degradation program is geared towards determining how and why membranes in fuel cells degrade and fail. By monitoring every individual membrane in a fuel cell 2000 times/sec while the cell is subjected to real-world type use, we hope to: (1) cause the types of degradation users see, but in a controlled environment; (2) determine an electrical signature that will identify what causes failure, or at least warns of impending failure; (3) allows us to perform advanced x-ray and MRI characterization of the degraded membranes to provide information that may result in improvements of the membrane material; and (4) perhaps allow design of electronic control systems that will prevent fuel cells from operating under conditions where damage is likely to occur.

Dan Stevenson; Lee H Spangler

2007-11-02

428

Detection of pump degradation  

SciTech Connect

This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

1995-08-01

429

BleedThrough Removal from Degraded Documents Using a Color Decorrelation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A color decorrelation strategy to improve the human or automatic readability of degraded documents is presented. The particular degradation that is considered here is bleed-through, that is, a pattern that interferes with the text to be read due to seeping of ink from the reverse side of the document. A simplified linear model for this degradation is introduced to permit

Anna Tonazzini; Emanuele Salerno; Matteo Mochi; Luigi Bedini

2004-01-01

430

Microbial metabolism of haloaromatics: isolation and properties of a chlorobenzene-degrading bacterium  

SciTech Connect

A chlorobenzene-degrading bacterium was isolated by continuous enrichment from a mixture of soil and sewage samples. This organism, strain WR1306, was grown in a chemostat on a mineral medium with chlorobenzene being supplied through the vapor phase with a critical D/sub c/ value at a dilution rate of 0.55 h/sup -1/. Maximum growth rates in batch culture were accomplished at substrate concentrations of less than or equal to 0.5 mM in the culture medium. During growth on chlorobenzene, stoichiometric amounts of chloride were released. Respiration data and enzyme activities in cell extracts as well as the isolation of 3-chlorocatechol from the culture fluid are consistent with the degradation of chlorobenzene via 3-chloro-cis-1,2-dihydroxycyclohexa-3,5-diene, 3-chlorocatechol, 2-chloro-cis, cis-muconate, trans-4-carboxymethylenebut-2-en-4-olide, maleylacetate, and 3-oxoadipate. 55 references.

Reineke, W.; Knackmuss, H.J.

1984-02-01

431

Computational Modeling of Degradation of Substituted Benzyltrimethyl Ammonium: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The degradation of cations on the alkaline exchange membranes is the major challenge for alkaline membrane fuel cells. In this paper, we investigated the degradation barriers by density functional theory for substituted benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA+) cations, which is one of the most commonly used cations for alkaline exchange membranes. We found that substituted cations with electron-releasing substituent groups at meta-position of the benzyl ring could result in improved degradation barriers. However, after investigating more than thirty substituted BTMA+ cations with ten different substituent groups, the largest improvement of degradation barriers is only 1.6 kcal/mol. This implies that the lifetime of alkaline membrane fuel cells could increase from a few months to a few years by using substituted BTMA+ cations, an encouraging but still limited improvement for real-world applications.

Long, H.; Pivovar, B. S.

2014-09-01

432

Influence of sewage sludge application on soil properties and on the distribution and availability of heavy metal fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of sewage sludge application on some soil properties and on the growth of wheat and corn plants were studied with pot experiments. The distribution of heavy metals among the various soil fractions and their availability to plants were also investigated in relation to soil pH. The results showed that sewage sludge application significantly ifluenced pH, organic matter content,

C. D. Tsadilas; Theodora Matsi; N. Barbayiannis; D. Dimoyiannis

1995-01-01

433

Influence of Solar Radiation and Biotic Interactions on Bacterial and Eukaryotic Communities Associated with Sewage Decomposition in Ambient Water - Poster  

EPA Science Inventory

Sewage and ambient water both consist of a highly complex array of bacteria and eukaryotic microbes. When these communities are mixed, the persistence of sewage-derived pathogens in environmental waters can represent a significant public health concern. Solar radiation and biotic...

434

Influence of solar radiation and biotic interactions on bacterial and eukaryotic communities associated with sewage decomposition in ambient water  

EPA Science Inventory

Sewage and ambient water both consist of a highly complex array of bacteria and eukaryotic microbes. When these communities are mixed, the persistence of sewage-derived pathogens in environmental waters can represent a significant public health concern. Solar radiation and biot...

435

Continental Shelf Research 20 (2000) 1}13 Internal tide e!ects on a sewage plume  

E-print Network

Continental Shelf Research 20 (2000) 1}13 Internal tide e!ects on a sewage plume at Sand Island, is described and explained by the forcing from an internal tide. The sewage plume, discharged from the Sand to the di!user, suggested that the presence of an internal tide of 18 km wavelength propagating along

Fabrikant, Sara Irina