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1

Modeling organic micro pollutant degradation kinetics during sewage sludge composting.  

PubMed

Degradation of 13 different organic micro-pollutants in sewage sludge during aerobic composting at 5 different temperatures over a 52day period was investigated. Adequacy of two kinetic models: a single first order, and a dual first order expression (using an early (first 7days) and a late-time (last 45days) degradation coefficient), for describing micro-pollutant degradation, and kinetic constant dependency on composting temperature were evaluated. The results showed that both models provide relatively good descriptions of the degradation process, with the dual first order model being most accurate. The single first order degradation coefficient was 0.025d(-1) on average across all compounds and temperatures. At early times, degradation was about three times faster than at later times. Average values of the early and late time degradation coefficients for the dual first order model were 0.066d(-1) and 0.022d(-1), respectively. On average 30% of the initial micro-pollutant mass present in the compost was degraded rapidly during the early stages of the composting process. Single first order and late time dual first order kinetic constants were strongly dependent on composting temperature with maximum values at temperatures of 35-65°C. In contrast the early time degradation coefficients were relatively independent of composting temperature. PMID:25081851

Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

2014-11-01

2

Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation  

E-print Network

Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N, terminate in the sludge, and can be released to the environment if land spreading is used. PAH degradation factors of anaerobic PAH degradation by evaluating thermodynamic feasibility of degradation, assessing

3

Eucalyptus development in degraded soil fertilized with sewage sludge and mineral fertilizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to compare the development of eucalyptus in a degraded Oxisol with mineral fertilizer and sewage sludge. The study was conducted in Selviria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. The culture of eucalyptus was planted in 2003 at 2.0 m x 1.5 m spacing, with application of 60 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (dry basis) and mineral fertilizer. After five years (2008) the area received biosolids and mineral fertilizer, and after five months, were evaluated for height and diameter at breast height of Eucalyptus. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments: T1 - control (without addition of inputs), T2 - Mineral fertilization (30 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 60 kg ha-1 K2O), T3 - Reapplication of 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis, T4 - Reapplication of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis. Before reapplication the biosolids plant height was higher in the eucalyptus with treatment 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (8.03 m) compared to control (5.75 m) and mineral fertilizer (5.91 m) and that treatment 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (6.34 m) did not differ from the previous three. For the diameter at breast height was the highest value for treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 (7.78 cm) compared to control (5.23 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm), and that of mineral fertilizer (5.96 cm) did not differ from all treatments. After reapplication of sludge plant height was higher in the eucalyptus treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (11.21 m) compared with control (7.51 m), mineral fertilizer (7.77 m) and 4 64 Mg ha-1 (8.07 m), which did not differ. The diameter at breast height had the same behavior before the application of biosolids in the highest value observed being 9.28 Mg ha-1 (8.46 cm) compared with control (5.75 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm) and that of mineral fertilizer (6.34 cm) did not differ from the others. Reapplication of the dose of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge in degraded Oxisol provided greater height and diameter at breast height from eucalyptus trees.

Rodrigues, R. A. F.; Santos, E. B.; Alves, M. C.; Arruda, O. G.

2012-04-01

4

[Artifical improvement of soil fertility in a regraded forest ecosystem by using municipal sewage sludge].  

PubMed

The increasing occurrence of forest ecosystem degradation is a serious problem in tropical and subtropical regions. Field experiments showed that the application of sludge from a sewage treatment plant could not only promote the growth and reproduction of trees, including the increase in the height and diameter of trees and thus being advantageous to the growth of shrub and herb of trees, but also improve soil fertility such as increasing soil organic matter and available nitrogen and phosphorus. The test of residual heavy metals of soil indicated that the application of sludge increased the content of Pb in the soil and the increment of Pb was varied with the increase of sludge usage. There was no significant increase in other heavy metals. PMID:11993117

Li, Guibao; Yin, Chengqing; Lin, Yongbiao; Li, Zhian

2002-02-01

5

Effects of disintegration on anaerobic degradation of sewage excess sludge in downflow stationary fixed film digesters.  

PubMed

The effects of mechanical disintegration on anaerobic digestibility of sewage excess sludge in downflow stationary fixed film (DSFF) digesters were investigated on laboratory scale. Mechanical pretreatment using a high pressure homogenizer led to significantly enhanced concentrations of soluble proteins and carbohydrates in the feed sludge. Using DSFF digesters with two different tubular plastic media as support material it was shown that a stable digestion process could be achieved at hydraulic retention times (HRT) down to 5 days. Compared to conventional digesters at 10 d and 15 d HRT respectively, the degradation of volatile solids was enhanced up to 25%, also resulting in a higher specific biogas production. Further investigations on degradation of soluble proteins and carbohydrates showed that a slowly degradable fraction of carbohydrates was released via disintegration. Using the distribution of chain length and the concentrations of volatile fatty acids as process parameters, the dependability on the HRT and the degree of disintegration (the release of soluble COD) predominated the effects of specific surface area of the support media. PMID:11381989

Engelhart, M; Krüger, M; Kopp, J; Dichtl, N

2000-01-01

6

Degradability of creatinine under sewer conditions affects its potential to be used as biomarker in sewage epidemiology.  

PubMed

Creatinine was proposed to be used as a population normalising factor in sewage epidemiology but its stability in the sewer system has not been assessed. This study thus aimed to evaluate the fate of creatinine under different sewer conditions using laboratory sewer reactors. The results showed that while creatinine was stable in wastewater only, it degraded quickly in reactors with the presence of sewer biofilms. The degradation followed first order kinetics with significantly higher rate in rising main condition than in gravity sewer condition. Additionally, daily loads of creatinine were determined in wastewater samples collected on Census day from 10 wastewater treatment plants around Australia. The measured loads of creatinine from those samples were much lower than expected and did not correlate with the populations across the sampled treatment plants. The results suggested that creatinine may not be a suitable biomarker for population normalisation purpose in sewage epidemiology, especially in sewer catchment with high percentage of rising mains. PMID:24631876

Thai, Phong K; O'Brien, Jake; Jiang, Guangming; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen F

2014-05-15

7

Comparison of organic emissions from laboratory and full-scale thermal degradation of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of sewage sludge burned at one fluidized-bed and three multiple-hearth incinerators were subjected to laboratory flow reactor thermal decomposition testing under both pyrolytic and oxidative atmospheres. The laboratory test results indicated that biomass decomposition products, not toxic industrial contaminants, comprised the majority of the emissions. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, acrylonitrile, and acetonitrile were consistently the most environmentally significant products of

D. A. Tirey; R. C. Striebich; B. Dellinger; H. E. Bostian

1991-01-01

8

Organic matter in degraded agricultural soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cumulative and residual effects of composted and thermally-dried sewage sludge (CSS and TSS, respectively) on soil organic matter and its humified fraction were evaluated in a field experiment under Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design included soil plots either unamended (control) or amended with mineral fertilizer, CSS and TSS at rates of 20 and 80 t ha?1. After the first year

José M. Fernández; Diana Hernández; César Plaza; Alfredo Polo

2007-01-01

9

Comparison of organic emissions from laboratory and full-scale thermal degradation of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of sewage sludge burned at one fluidized-bed and three multiple-hearth incinerators were subjected to laboratory flow reactor thermal decomposition testing in both pyrolytic and oxidative atmospheres. The time\\/temperature conditions of the laboratory testing were established to simulate as closely as possible full-scale incineration conditions so that a direct comparison of results could be made. The laboratory test results indicated

D. A. Tirey; R. C. Striebich; B. Dellinger; H. E. Bostian

2009-01-01

10

Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the hydrophobic nature of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) they are mostly bound to the sludge and escape aerobic treatment in a wastewater treatment plant. They therefore proceed directly to the anaerobic post treatment, terminate in the sludge, and can be released to the environment if land spreading is used. PAH degradation in anaerobic methanogenic systems has only recently

N. Christensen; D. J. Batstone; Z. He; I. Angelidaki; J. E. Schmidt

2004-01-01

11

Anaerobic bioprocessing of sewage sludge, focusing on degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic degradation of sludge amended with linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) was tested in a one stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and a two stage reactor system consisting of a CSTR as first step and upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor as the second step. Anaerobic removal of LAS was only observed at the second step but not at the

I. Angelidaki; L. Toräng; C. M. Waul; J. E. Schmidt

12

Analytical improvements in PV degradation rate determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly

D. C. Jordan; S. R. Kurtz

2010-01-01

13

Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly

D. C. Jordan; S. R. Kurtz

2011-01-01

14

Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination  

SciTech Connect

As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.

Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

2011-02-01

15

Improvement of the quality of sewage sludge compost by adding natural clinoptilolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeolites are naturally occurring minerals characterized by high cation exchange and adsorption capacity and, thus, are used for metal uptake from sewage sludge subjected to composting process. In the present paper, changes in the physicochemical characteristics of sewage sludge samples after composting were recorded and analysed. The composting process was carried out for 120 days in pilot bioreactors, which were

M. A. Stylianou; V. J. Inglezakis; K. G. Moustakas; M. D. Loizidou

2008-01-01

16

Improved degradation resistance of (AlGa)As lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simultaneous doping with Ge and Zn improves degradation resistance of short-wavelength (AlGa)As lasers. Method opens up prospects for greatly increased reliability in lasers and LED's operating at 7,500 angstroms or below.

Kressel, H.; Ladany, J.

1980-01-01

17

A Study About Improvement of Efficiency of a Sewage Heat Utilization System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to acquire the basis of technical information that will be required for the design and operation of a sewage heat utilization system, this paper discusses the data analysis of operational performance at the DHC plant in Makuhari HB area. The methodology used in this study is to clarify the characteristics of a sewage heat utilization system from compound characteristics of the DHC plant that consists of various heating systems, and evaluate them.

Kobayakawa, Tomoaki; Hihara, Eiji; Hanazaki, Hirotaka

18

A Study About Improvement of Efficiency of a Sewage Heat Utilization System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of the data analysis of operational performance at the DHC plant in Makuhari HB area, it is examined how the properties of the sewage used as a heat source affect the effectiveness of the system. The result of this study suggests that a sewage heat utilization system is able to perform higher efficiency when it is designed as a distributed system that has separate heat sources than a central system.

Kobayakawa, Tomoaki; Hihara, Eiji; Hanazaki, Hirotaka

19

Enzyme treatment to decrease solids and improve digestion of primary sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of anaerobic digestion of primary sewage sludge is to convert the carbonaceous material contained in the solids into methane and carbon dioxide. The products of digestion are therefore gases, stabilised sludge solids which are subsequently dewatered and disposed of, and sludge liquor which is generally further treated. This investigation assessed the impact of addition of hydrolytic enzymes to

H. J. Roman; J. E. Burgess; B. I. Pletschke

20

Use of Municipal Sewage Sludge for Improvement of Forest Sites in the Southeast  

SciTech Connect

In eight field experiments dried municipal sewage sludge was applied to forest sites before planting of seedlings. In all cases, tree growth was faster on sludge-amended plots than on plots that received fertilizer and lime or no amendment. In all studies, concentrations of total nitrogen in the soil were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots, even on good forest sites. In seven of the eight studies, concentrations of phosphorus also were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots. Nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be higher in foliage from trees growing on sludge plots. Deep subsoiling was beneficial regardless of soil amendment. Where weeds were plentiful at the outset, they became serious competitors on plots receiving sludge.

Charles R. Berry

1987-09-01

21

Sewage Monitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

1987-01-01

22

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

1984-01-01

23

Plasticizers and their degradation products in the process streams of a large urban physicochemical sewage treatment plant.  

PubMed

The plasticizers bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (BEHTP) and bis (2-ethylhexyl) adipate (BEHA) were found in significant quantities in the influents, process streams, treated effluent and solid residues of a large physicochemical treatment plant in Montreal, Canada. Of these plasticizers, BEHA was the most abundant in the influent but most was removed during primary treatment. Evidence indicated that significant biodegradation occurred within the sewers and during treatment resulting in the formation of three biodegradation products that had been reported in earlier laboratory studies; namely, 2-ethylhexanol, 2-ethylhexanal and 2-ethylhexanoic acid. Significantly greater concentrations of 2-ethylhexanal were found in process streams than had been reported in earlier laboratory work. This was attributed to the fact that there were fewer opportunities for losses of this volatile compound over the course of wastewater treatment. The plasticizers were removed from the aqueous phase to varying degrees during treatment, with most ending up in the solid residues. All three metabolites and the parent plasticizers were observed in the effluent and most were found in the solids that were analyzed. Results suggest that the treatment plant does not effectively remove plasticizers from the influent and represents a significant source of these compounds and their degradation products in the environment. PMID:17706266

Barnabé, S; Beauchesne, I; Cooper, D G; Nicell, J A

2008-01-01

24

Sewage and Waste Technologies Department of Civil Engineering  

E-print Network

calculation and pollution load controlling · Ability, improvement and extension of local sewage facilitiesSewage and Waste Technologies Department of Civil Engineering Section Sewage and Waste Technologies Research Institute for Water and Environment Section Sewage and Waste Technologies EFFICIENT practical

Siegen, Universität

25

Battery separators with improved resistance to KOH degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battery separator composites were made by coating nonwovens with regenerated cellulose from the viscose process. The composite samples were stored at room temperature for 90 days in 40% potassium hydroxide (KOH). The tensile strength of the samples was measured over time to check the rate of degradation of the separator composites. The data show that a composite made using a

Thomas Danko

1996-01-01

26

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

1991-01-01

27

Improved sample treatment for the determination of insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

A new selective and sensitive method for the determination of insoluble fatty acid salts (soap) in sewage sludge samples is proposed. The method involves a clean up of sample with petroleum ether, the conversion of calcium and magnesium insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts, potassium salts extraction with methanol, and a derivatization procedure previous to the liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) analysis. Three different extraction techniques (Soxhlet, microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasounds) were compared and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was selected as appropriate for our purpose. This allowed to reduce the extraction time and solvent waste (50 mL of methanol in contrast with 250 mL for Soxhlet procedure). The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two standards (C(13:0) and C(17:0)) that are not commercials and neither of them has been detected in sewage sludge samples. Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect since both standards have similar environmental behaviour (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C(10:0)-C(18:0)). The method was successfully applied to samples from different sources and consequently, with different composition. PMID:20801371

Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Vílchez, J L; Crovetto, G; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A

2010-09-15

28

Degradation and responses of coprostanol and selected sterol biomarkers in sediments to a simulated major sewage pollution event: A microcosm experiment under sub-tropical estuarine conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microcosm experiment was conducted to investigate the degradation of coprostanol and related sterol biomarkers and Escherichia coli in ‘natural’ sediments from a highly mixed (marine and estuarine) sub-tropical environment following a simulated pollution event. This experiment revealed that sterols are synthesised and degraded over time by auto- and hetero trophic organisms within the sediment matrix from a onetime addition

Catherine Pratt; Jan Warnken; Rhys Leeming; Michael J. Arthur; Darren I. Grice

2008-01-01

29

Opportunities to improve fiber degradation in the rumen: microbiology, ecology, and genomics.  

PubMed

The degradation of plant cell walls by ruminants is of major economic importance in the developed as well as developing world. Rumen fermentation is unique in that efficient plant cell wall degradation relies on the cooperation between microorganisms that produce fibrolytic enzymes and the host animal that provides an anaerobic fermentation chamber. Increasing the efficiency with which the rumen microbiota degrades fiber has been the subject of extensive research for at least the last 100 years. Fiber digestion in the rumen is not optimal, as is supported by the fact that fiber recovered from feces is fermentable. This view is confirmed by the knowledge that mechanical and chemical pretreatments improve fiber degradation, as well as more recent research, which has demonstrated increased fiber digestion by rumen microorganisms when plant lignin composition is modified by genetic manipulation. Rumen microbiologists have sought to improve fiber digestion by genetic and ecological manipulation of rumen fermentation. This has been difficult and a number of constraints have limited progress, including: (a) a lack of reliable transformation systems for major fibrolytic rumen bacteria, (b) a poor understanding of ecological factors that govern persistence of fibrolytic bacteria and fungi in the rumen, (c) a poor understanding of which glycolyl hydrolases need to be manipulated, and (d) a lack of knowledge of the functional genomic framework within which fiber degradation operates. In this review the major fibrolytic organisms are briefly discussed. A more extensive discussion of the enzymes involved in fiber degradation is included. We also discuss the use of plant genetic manipulation, application of free-living lignolytic fungi and the use of exogenous enzymes. Lastly, we will discuss how newer technologies such as genomic and metagenomic approaches can be used to improve our knowledge of the functional genomic framework of plant cell wall degradation in the rumen. PMID:14638418

Krause, Denis O; Denman, Stuart E; Mackie, Roderick I; Morrison, Mark; Rae, Ann L; Attwood, Graeme T; McSweeney, Christopher S

2003-12-01

30

Sawdust and natural zeolite as a bulking agent for improving quality of a composting product from anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge.  

PubMed

This study has dealt with the production of compost from dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) and sawdust (SWD). SWD is added in order to increase the humic substances in the final product. The DASPSS is mixed with clinoptilolite (Cli), which is used as a bulking agent at 20% w/w, and the mixture is amended with sawdust at 10%, 30% and 40% (w/w). The final results have indicated that by increasing the sawdust concentration in the initial mixture, the humic substances in the final product increase too. The natural zeolite that was added in the initial mixture takes up a significant amount of heavy metals. In order to observe the maturity of the final product, the germination index is used in oat cultivation. The results indicate that the substrate appears to be non-phytotoxic after 75 d of maturity. Also, in order to estimate the metal leachability of the final compost product, the generalized acid neutralization capacity procedure is applied, and it is found that by increasing the pH values, the heavy metal concentrations decrease. PMID:18439819

Zorpas, Antonis A; Loizidou, Maria

2008-11-01

31

Networked control systems by PID controller Improvement of performance degradation caused by packet loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to examine the performance of networked control systems (NCSs) with a PID controller. Here, we discuss packet loss, especially improvement of the response degradation caused by manipulated variable (MV) packet loss. With MV packet loss, the actuator complements MV by inputting some value to the plant. This complemented value is different from the MV calculated by

Ryotaro OKANO; T. Ohtani; A. Nagashima

2008-01-01

32

How to increase microbial degradation in constructed wetlands: influencing factors and improvement measures.  

PubMed

Microorganisms play a vital role in degradation of multiple pollutants in constructed wetlands (CWs). Thus, the search for methods to improve microbial degradation in CWs is crucial. This study provides a review of critical parameters including availability of organic carbon, redox condition, temperature, pH, presence of plants, media characteristics and their influences on microbial processes. Current strategies focusing on regulation of carbon source, redox condition, and choice of substrates to enhance microbial activity in CWs are also described. A special emphasis is given to the application of bioaugmentation to enhance microbial activities in wetland in future research. PMID:24559743

Meng, Panpan; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Shao, Yuanyuan; Li, Zheng

2014-04-01

33

Work related symptoms among sewage workers.  

PubMed Central

Employees at six sewage treatment plants and three drinking water plants were interviewed for the presence of specific medical symptoms. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations, white blood cell counts and fibrinogen degradation product concentrations (FDP) in urine were determined as were the number and species of airborne Gram negative rods in order to characterise exposure to aerosols of sewage water. The highest number of bacteria was found in areas where the sewage water was agitated. A significantly higher proportion of employees at sewage treatment plants reported skin disorders, diarrhoea, and other gastrointestinal symptoms than the control group. No significant differences were found between the groups for white blood cell count or serum immunoglobulin concentrations, except that IgM concentrations were slightly higher in the sewage workers. Some workers had serum transaminase concentrations in excess of normal; some of these returned to normal after the summer holiday. Among non-smokers a higher proportion of sewage treatment workers had increased amounts of FDP in urine. It is conceivable that the symptoms observed were caused by toxins from Gram negative bacteria. PMID:6871122

Lundholm, M; Rylander, R

1983-01-01

34

Improving the packing density of calcium phosphate coating on a magnesium alloy for enhanced degradation resistance.  

PubMed

In this study, an attempt was made to improve the packing density of calcium phosphate (CaP) coating on a magnesium alloy by tailoring the coating solution for enhanced degradation resistance of the alloy for implant applications. An organic solvent, ethanol, was added to the coating solution to decrease the conductivity of the coating solution so that hydrogen bubble formation/bursting reduces during the CaP coating process. Experimental results confirmed that ethanol addition to the coating solution reduces the conductivity of the solution and also decreases the hydrogen evolution/bubble bursting. In vitro electrochemical experiments, that is, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization showed that CaP coating produced in 30% (v/v) ethanol containing coating solution (3E) exhibits significantly higher degradation resistance (i.e., ~50% higher polarization resistance and ~60% lower corrosion current) than the aqueous solution coating. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the coatings revealed that the packing of 3E coating was denser than that of aqueous coating, which can be attributed to the lower hydrogen evolution in the former than in the latter. Further increase in the ethanol content in the coating solution was not beneficial; in fact, the coating produced in 70% (v/v) ethanol containing solution (7E) showed degradation resistance much inferior to that of the aqueous coating, which is due to low thickness of 7E coating. PMID:23008190

Kannan, M Bobby

2013-05-01

35

CONNECTICUT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of sewage treatment plants in Connecticut. It is a point Shapefile that includes the locations of sewage treatment plants, but not their discharge locations to surface or groundater. The National Pollution Discharge Elimintation Discharge Syste...

36

Sewage sludge combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current review paper, various issues related to the combustion of sewage sludge are discussed. After briefly explaining the formation and treatment of sewage sludge, current and future sludge production are discussed. Thereafter, the four sludge disposal methods which are currently used, i.e. recycling in agriculture, landfilling, dumping into sea and incineration, are examined, and the future trend presented

J. Werther; T. Ogada

1999-01-01

37

Improvement of the detection rate in digital watermarked images against image degradation caused by image processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current environment of medical information disclosure, the general-purpose image format such as JPEG/BMP which does not require special software for viewing, is suitable for carrying and managing medical image information individually. These formats have no way to know patient and study information. We have therefore developed two kinds of ID embedding methods: one is Bit-swapping method for embedding Alteration detection ID and the other is data-imposing method in Fourier domain using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) for embedding Original image source ID. We then applied these two digital watermark methods to four modality images (Chest X-ray, Head CT, Abdomen CT, Bone scintigraphy). However, there were some cases where the digital watermarked ID could not be detected correctly due to image degradation caused by image processing. In this study, we improved the detection rate in digital watermarked image using several techniques, which are Error correction method, Majority correction method, and Scramble location method. We applied these techniques to digital watermarked images against image processing (Smoothing) and evaluated the effectiveness. As a result, Majority correction method is effective to improve the detection rate in digital watermarked image against image degradation.

Nishio, Masato; Ando, Yutaka; Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro; Kawashima, Hironao; Nakamura, Shinya

2004-04-01

38

Sewage impacts coral reefs at multiple levels of ecological organization.  

PubMed

Against a backdrop of rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification which pose global threats to coral reefs, excess nutrients and turbidity continue to be significant stressors at regional and local scales. Because interventions usually require local data on pollution impacts, we measured ecological responses to sewage discharges in Surin Marine Park, Thailand. Wastewater disposal significantly increased inorganic nutrients and turbidity levels, and this degradation in water quality resulted in substantial ecological shifts in the form of (i) increased macroalgal density and species richness, (ii) lower cover of hard corals, and (iii) significant declines in fish abundance. Thus, the effects of nutrient pollution and turbidity can cascade across several levels of ecological organization to change key properties of the benthos and fish on coral reefs. Maintenance or restoration of ecological reef health requires improved wastewater management and run-off control for reefs to deliver their valuable ecosystems services. PMID:19515390

Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Schlacher, Thomas A; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai

2009-09-01

39

Distribution of Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb in sewage sludge amended soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restoration of degraded soils with organic wastes could be a feasible practice to minimise erosion in the Mediterranean area. Today the use of sewage sludge to improve the nutrient contents of a soil is a common practice. Contamination of soils by potentially toxic elements (e.g. Cd, Ni, Cr, Pb) from amendments of sewage sludge is subject to strict controls within the European Community in relation to total permissible metal concentrations, soil properties and intended use. This study is aimed at ascertaining the chemical partitioning of Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb in agricultural soils repeatedly amended with sludge. Five surface soils (0-15 cm) that were polluted as a result of agricultural activities were used in this experiment. The sewage sludge amended soils were selected for diversity of physicochemical properties, especially pH and carbonate content. The soils are classified as non-calcareous and calcareous soils. The distribution of chemical forms of Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb in five sewage sludge amended soils was studied using a sequential extraction procedure that fractionates the metal into soluble-exchangeable, specifically sorbed-carbonate bound, oxidizable, reducible and residual forms. With regard to the mineralogical composition of the soil clay fraction, the mineralogical association found was: illite, kaolinite and chlorite. This paper provides quantitative evidence regarding the form of the association of metals and indirectly of their bioavailability. It can help to explain the process by which metals are eliminated from sewage sludge and also indicate the impact of the use of sludge on agricultural soils, as amendments. Data obtained showed different metal distribution trend among the fractions in sludge-amended soils. Comparison of distribution pattern of metals in sludge-applied soils shows that there is possible redistribution of metals among the different phases. Detailed knowledge of the soil at the application site, especially pH, CEC, buffering capacity, organic matter and clay content, is essential. The sewage sludge incorporation has modified the soil composition, leading to the increment of heavy metals. The heavy metals in this set of sewage sludge amended soils were mostly and variously associated with residual, reducible and carbonate forms depending on the nature and properties of the soils. Mainly, Ni, Cr and Pb are associated with residual phase. However, Cd is mainly associated with carbonate forms. Use of X-rays diffraction to observe possible associations of heavy metals with soil constituents proved to be unsuccessful due to a combination of the highly dispersed distribution of the heavy metals in the soil matrix.

Sanfeliu, Teófilo

2010-05-01

40

Improved mechanical properties of chitosan fibers with applications to degradable radar countermeasure chaff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work has been to improve the mechanical properties of wet spun chitosan fibers for applications to a degradable form of radar countermeasure chaff. The first part of the study characterizes the chitosan used for spinning. Three methods for determining the degree of deacetylation (% DDA) were used and they include titration, elemental analysis, and first derivative ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry. The molecular weight of the chitosan was determined in a solvent system of 0.25 M CH3COOH/0.25 M CH3COONa, using viscometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Several samples of chitosan were used with the % DDA varying from 64.3 to 96.0%. The Mark-Houwink-Sakurada constants used for the determination of viscosity average molecular weight and the universal calibration of the HPLC system were K = 1.40 x 10 -4 dL/g and a = 0.83, respectively. A literature review of molecular weight analysis of chitosan is included. Preliminary wet spinning experiments involved a coagulation rate study which demonstrated that 1 M KOH was an effective coagulant for wet spinning and that the rate of coagulation increases with decreasing solvent ratio in the spin dope. A drying study confirmed the effectiveness of a methanol drying bath followed by a heated roller at 50°C. Following these studies, a wet spinning system was constructed and used. A lack of published data exists concerning the subjects of chitosan fiber spinning and mechanical improvements to both wet and dry chitosan fibers. Several post-spinning modification experiments focused on the reaction of the dried as-spun chitosan fibers with aqueous agents including potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4), potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP), glutaraldehyde (GA), and glyoxal (GLY). For the aqueous buffering agents of KH2PO4, and KHP, the highest mechanical properties resulted from solutions containing phthalate ions at pH 5.00, and from solutions containing phosphate ions at pH 5.39. The best time and temperature for these reactions was 25.8°C and 1 hour reaction time. Substantial gains in mechanical properties were witnessed with an aqueous 0.024 mol/dL solution of GA and an aqueous 0.100 mol/dL solution of GLY after 1 hour at 25.8°C. Reaction time shortened with increasing temperature. Chitosan films were subjected to similar treatments in phosphate and phthalate ion solutions, and also aqueous solutions of GA and GLY. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of the films suggest that some interaction is occurring between the phosphate ions and the amine group on the chitosan backbone. IR film spectra indicate the presence of a 'C = N' bond in the cases of GA and GLY reacting with chitosan. Extensive published material is available suggesting that the reaction mechanism between chitosan and GA or GLY is either a Schiff's base or an acetyl type reaction. Evidence presented herein proposes a new reaction mechanism for both GA/chitosan and GLY/chitosan systems. A six week environmental experiment involved all of the chemically reacted fibers, along with unreacted chitosan fibers, and chaff fibers, in soil burial, water immersion, and open air environments. Fibers of chitosan, chitosan reacted with KHP(aq.), and chitosan fibers reacted with KH2PO 4 (aq.) degraded completely from sight after 6 weeks in wet soil kept in light conditions. The chaff, GLY/chitosan, and GA/chitosan fibers did not degrade in any of the environments after 6 weeks.

Knaul, Jonathan Zvi

41

Improved AOX Degradation in UV Oxidative Waste Water Treatment by Dialysis with Nanofiltration Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the wastewater treatment by UV oxidation with and without preceding desalination is compared. The influence of different chloride concentrations on the TOC degradation and AOX concentration is analyzed. Nanofiltration membrane dialysis is used to separate the chloride ions from wastewater. It is demonstrated that a reduction of the chloride concentration leads to a faster TOC degradation compared

M. Seiss; A. Gahr; R. Niessner

2001-01-01

42

Opportunities to improve fiber degradation in the rumen: microbiology, ecology, and genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of plant cell walls by ruminants is of major economic importance in the developed as well as developing world. Rumen fermentation is unique in that efficient plant cell wall degradation relies on the cooperation between microorganisms that produce fibrolytic enzymes and the host animal that provides an anaerobic fermentation chamber. Increasing the efficiency with which the rumen microbiota

Denis O Krause; Stuart E Denman; Roderick I Mackie; Mark Morrison; Ann L Rae; Graeme T Attwood; Christopher S McSweeney

2003-01-01

43

Opportunities to improve ¢ber degradation in the rumen: microbiology, ecology, and genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of plant cell walls by ruminants is of major economic importance in the developed as well as developing world. Rumen fermentation is unique in that efficient plant cell wall degradation relies on the cooperation between microorganisms that produce fibrolytic enzymes and the host animal that provides an anaerobic fermentation chamber. Increasing the efficiency with which the rumen microbiota

Denis O. Krause; Stuart E. Denman; Roderick I. Mackie; Mark Morrison; Ann L. Rae; Graeme T. Attwood; Christopher S. McSweeney

44

Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

45

TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

46

Improvement of River Water Quality Through a Seasonal Effluent Discharge Program (SEDP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to improve water quality in rivers and streams or to maintain water quality without further degradation, most Environmental Protection Authorities throughout the world set stringent effluent discharge limits on sewage treatment plants. In most cases, these limits are based on Best Available Technology. The use of this technology is expensive, and does not consider the ability of

A. W. M. Ng; B. J. C. Perera; D. H. Tran

2006-01-01

47

Improvement of whole crop rice silage nutritive value and rumen degradability by molasses and urea supplementation.  

PubMed

Whole crop rice was harvested 120 days after planting and chopped to 2-3-cm length for silage making. The whole crop rice silage (WCRS) was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 6?×?5 factorial arrangement, in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplementation at M0, M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 %, and the second was urea (U) supplementation at U0, U0.5, U1.0, U1.5, and U2.0 % of the crop dry mater (DM), respectively. After 45 days of ensiling, temperature, pH, chemical composition, and fermentation end products of the silages were measured. Ten U and M treatment combinations of WCRS were subsequently selected to study rumen degradability by nylon bag technique. The results showed that temperature and pH of the silages linearly increased with U supplementation level, while total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), acetic acid (C2) and propionic acid (C3) decreased. In contrast, increasing level of M supplementation decreased WCRS temperature and pH, whereas TVFA, C2, and C3 concentrations increased dramatically. Both M and U supplementation increased concentration of butyric acid (C4). Dry matter, organic matter (OM), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the silages were not influenced by either M or U supplementation. Increasing U supplementation increased crude protein (CP) content, while M level did not show any effect. Furthermore, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content in silage was decreased by both M and U supplementation. The results of the in situ study showed that M and U supplementation increased both ruminal DM and OM degradation. The water-soluble fraction (a) was the highest in WCRS U1.5M3 and lowest in U0M0. Increasing M and U supplementation levels increased the potentially degradable fraction (b) of both DM and OM. Total rumen degradable fraction (a?+?b) was highest in WCRS U1.5M3, whereas OM degradability was highest in U0M3. However, effective degradation of both DM and OM were the highest in WCRS U1.5M3 and the lowest in U0M0. We conclude that supplementation of U and M increases WCRS quality and rumen degradability. Supplementation of U at 1.5 and M at 3-4 % of the crop DM is recommended for lactating dairy cows and fattening beef cattle. PMID:23771776

Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote

2013-11-01

48

Improving mobile database access over wide-area networks without degrading consistency  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the design, implementation, and evaluation of a sys- tem called Cedar that enables mobile database access with good performance over low-bandwidth networks. This is accomplished without degrading consistency. Cedar exploits the disk storage and processing power of a mobile client to compensate for weak con- nectivity. Its central organizing principle is that even a stale client replica

Niraj Tolia; Mahadev Satyanarayanan; Adam Wolbach

2007-01-01

49

Improving ruminal degradability of oil palm fronds using white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of oil palm fronds (OPF) in livestock production is limited as up to 0.20 of their dry biomass is lignin. White rot fungi (WRF) are very effective basidiomycetes for biological pre-treatment as they degrade lignin extensively. Ten WRF were screened for their potential to increase OPF digestibility, which were colonized with one of the 10 WRF for 3

M. M. Rahman; M. Lourenço; H. A. Hassim; J. J. P. Baars; A. S. M. Sonnenberg; J. W. Cone; J. De Boever; V. Fievez

2011-01-01

50

Improved Degradation of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents and p-Nitrophenol by Pseudomonas putida JS444 with  

E-print Network

, and chemical warfare agents (1-3), and their widespread contamination of soil, sedi- ments, and groundwater of Chemical and Environmental Engineeirng, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 Pseudomonas parathion, respectively. The excellent stability in combination with the rapid degradation rate

Chen, Wilfred

51

Analysis of coral mucus as an improved medium for detection of enteric microbes and for determining patterns of sewage contamination in reef environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Traditional fecal indicator bacteria are often subject to a high degree of die-off and dilution in tropical marine waters, particularly in offshore areas such as coral reefs. Furthermore, these microbes are often not associated with human waste, and their presence may not be indicative of health risk. To address the offshore extent of wastewater contamination in the Florida Keys reef tract, we assayed coral surfaces for the presence of human-specific enteric viruses. The overlying water column and surface mucopolysaccharide (mucus) layers from scleractinian corals were sampled from three stations along a nearshore-to-offshore transect beginning at Long Key in the middle Florida Keys, USA. Samples were assayed for standard bacterial water quality indicators (fecal coliform bacteria and enterococci) and for human enteroviruses by direct reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The concentration of the bacterial indicators was greatest at the nearshore station in both the water column and corals, and decreased with distance from shore; no indicator bacteria were detected at the offshore station. Whereas human enteroviruses were not detected in any of the water column samples, they were detected in 50–80% of coral mucus samples at each station. These data provide evidence that human sewage is impacting the reef tract up to ~6.5 km from shore in the middle Florida Keys and that coral mucus is an efficient trap for viral markers associated with anthropogenic pollution.

Lipp, Erin K.; Griffin, Dale W.

2004-01-01

52

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES... § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

2012-07-01

53

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES... § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

2010-07-01

54

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

...2014-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES... § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

2014-07-01

55

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES... § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

2011-07-01

56

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES... § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

2013-07-01

57

Sewage treatment method  

DOEpatents

The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

Fassbender, Alex G. (4407 Laurel Dr., West Richland, WA 99352)

1995-01-01

58

Investigation of protease-mediated cuticle-degradation of nematodes by using an improved immunofluorescence-localization method.  

PubMed

In order to facilitate the understanding of the actual process of enzyme-based degradation of nematodes, we visualized the localization of BLG4, a cuticle-degrading protease from the nematophagous bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus G4, on nematode cuticle by using an improved immuno-labeled fluorescent method. Live nematodes, heat-killed nematodes and extracted nematode cuticles were exposed to the protease, and the localization of the protease and the resulting tissue degradation and destruction were observed microscopically. The bioassay findings showed that live nematodes were significantly more resistant to the protease than the dead nematodes and the extracted cuticles were. The observation of the immuno-labeling fluorescence for BLG4 revealed that the protease localized first in the tail region of the live target; and then spread over the entire target and ultimately destroyed it, including the cuticle. The results indicated the resistance of nematode cuticles to enzymatic attacks and the differences in protease susceptibilities at different regions on the nematode cuticles. PMID:19435598

Tian, Baoyu; Huang, Wei; Huang, Jianzhong; Jiang, Xianzhang; Qin, Lina

2009-06-01

59

Batchwise mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of secondary sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Residues from forest-industry wastewater-treatment systems are treated as waste at many pulp and paper mills. These organic substances have previously been shown to have potential for production of large quantities of biogas. There is concern, however, that the process would require expensive equipment because of the slow degradation of these substances. Pure non-fibrous sludge from forest industry showed lower specific methane production during mesophilic digestion for 19days, 53±26 Nml/g of volatile solids as compared to municipal sewage sludge, 84±24 Nml/g of volatile solids. This paper explores the possibility of using anaerobic co-digestion with municipal sewage sludge to enhance the potential of methane production from secondary sludge from a pulp and paper mill. It was seen in a batch anaerobic-digestion operation of 19 days that the specific methane production remained largely the same for municipal sewage sludge when up to 50% of the volatile solids were replaced with forest-industry secondary sludge. It was also shown that the solid residue from anaerobic digestion of the forest-industry sludge should be of suitable quality to use for improving soil quality on lands that are not used for food production. PMID:23294534

Hagelqvist, Alina

2013-04-01

60

Characterization of a modified amplification approach for improved STR recovery from severely degraded skeletal elements.  

PubMed

Degraded skeletal remains generally contain limited quantities of genetic material and thus DNA-based identification efforts often target the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region due to the relative abundance of intact mtDNA as compared to nuclear DNA. In many missing person cases, however, the discriminatory power of mtDNA is inadequate to permit identification when associated anthropological, odontological, or contextual evidence is also limited, and/or the event involves a large number of individuals. In situations such as these, more aggressive amplification protocols which can permit recovery of STR data are badly needed as they may represent the last hope for conclusive identification. We have previously demonstrated the potential of a modified Promega PowerPlex 16 amplification strategy for the recovery of autosomal STR data from severely degraded skeletal elements. Here, we further characterize the results obtained under these modified parameters on a variety of sample types including pristine control DNA and representative case work specimens. Not only is the amplification approach evaluated here sensitive to extremely low authentic DNA input quantities (6 pg), but when the method was applied to thirty-one challenging casework specimens, nine or more alleles were reproducibly recovered from 69% of the samples tested. Moreover, when we independently considered bone samples extracted with a protocol that includes complete demineralization of the bone matrix, the percentage of samples yielding nine or more reproducible alleles increased to 95% with the modified amplification parameters. Overall, direct comparisons between the modified amplification protocol and the standard amplification protocol demonstrated that allele recovery was significantly greater using the aggressive parameters, with only a minimal associated increase in artifactual data. PMID:22402195

Irwin, Jodi A; Just, Rebecca S; Loreille, Odile M; Parsons, Thomas J

2012-09-01

61

Dual Delivery of Hepatocyte and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors via a Protease-Degradable Hydrogel Improves Cardiac Function in Rats  

PubMed Central

Acute myocardial infarction (MI) caused by ischemia and reperfusion (IR) is the most common cause of cardiac dysfunction due to local cell death and a temporally regulated inflammatory response. Current therapeutics are limited by delivery vehicles that do not address spatial and temporal aspects of healing. The aim of this study was to engineer biotherapeutic delivery materials to harness endogenous cell repair to enhance myocardial repair and function. We have previously engineered poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels to present cell adhesive motifs and deliver VEGF to promote vascularization in vivo. In the current study, bioactive hydrogels with a protease-degradable crosslinker were loaded with hepatocyte and vascular endothelial growth factors (HGF and VEGF, respectively) and delivered to the infarcted myocardium of rats. Release of both growth factors was accelerated in the presence of collagenase due to hydrogel degradation. When delivered to the border zones following ischemia-reperfusion injury, there was no acute effect on cardiac function as measured by echocardiography. Over time there was a significant increase in angiogenesis, stem cell recruitment, and a decrease in fibrosis in the dual growth factor delivery group that was significant compared with single growth factor therapy. This led to an improvement in chronic function as measured by both invasive hemodynamics and echocardiography. These data demonstrate that dual growth factor release of HGF and VEGF from a bioactive hydrogel has the capacity to significantly improve cardiac remodeling and function following IR injury. PMID:23226440

Boopathy, Archana V.; Che, Pao-lin; Brown, Milton; Garcia, Andres J.; Davis, Michael E.

2012-01-01

62

The importance of pathogenic organisms in sewage and sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Deficient sanitation poses a serious threat to human and animal health, involving complex relationships between environments, animals, refuse, food, pathogens, parasites, and man. However, by sanitizing and stabilizing the organic matter of sewage sludge, agriculture can utilize it to maintain soil, water, and air quality. As ingredients in soil amendments, such bioresidues are a source of nutrients for plants. Stabilization and sanitation of sewage sludge safely couple its recycling and disposal. This coupling becomes increasingly important as economic and environmental constraints make strategies for waste disposal more difficult to apply. The occurrence of viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and zooparasites in sewage sludge is reviewed in this article, and consequential epidemiologic concerns that arise from sewage sludge recycling is also addressed. PMID:11417676

Dumontet, S; Scopa, A; Kerje, S; Krovacek, K

2001-06-01

63

Analysis of degradation phenomena in ancient, traditional and improved building materials of historical monuments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is presented on constructive techniques plus materials and the processes involved in degradation phenomena observed in two historical monuments: the Zambujeiro dolmen (Portugal) and the Roman Aqueduct of Carthage (Tunisia). Dolmens are particularly impressive megalithic constructions for the dimensions of granite blocks. At Zambujeiro, the upright stones have undergone a catastrophic evolution after the archaeological exploitation due to accelerated weathering through a process apparently distinct from natural granite decay in nearby outcrops. The biological attack of granite minerals by lichen exudates has emphasized the hazardous character of bromine and more has been learnt about construction techniques, namely, the insertion in the mound of an impermeable clay stratum that hinders water penetration into the dolmen chamber. The characterization of original Roman ashlar blocks, including masonry and the diagnosis of Byzantine and medieval reconstruction testimonies in the Aqueduct of Carthage were the object of a detailed study by X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence. Traditional constructive techniques and local construction materials were studied and successive historical, modern and recent rehabilitations were reappraised.

Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Veiga, J. P.

2008-07-01

64

Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions.  

PubMed

This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the infiltration process, due to frozen ground and snow melt including the contact between the melting snow cover and the soil, and unsaturated flow is emphasised. In this paper, the applicability of geophysical methods for characterising soil heterogeneity is considered, aimed at modelling and monitoring changes in contamination. To deal with heterogeneity, a stochastic modelling framework may be appropriate, emphasizing the more robust spatial and temporal moments. Examples of a combination of different field techniques for measuring subsoil properties and monitoring contaminants and integration through transport modelling are provided by the SoilCAM project and previous work. Commonly, the results of flow and contaminant fate modelling are quite detailed and complex and require post-processing before communication and advising stakeholders. The managers' perspectives with respect to monitoring strategies and challenges still unresolved have been analysed with basis in experience with research collaboration with one of the case study sites, Oslo airport, Gardermoen, Norway. Both scientific challenges of monitoring subsoil contaminants in cold regions and the effective interaction between investigators and management are illustrated. PMID:24281673

French, Helen K; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M

2014-08-01

65

The dissipation of phosphorus in sewage and sewage effluents.  

PubMed

Of the 41 kt of phosphorus reaching the sewage works in England and Wales 15 kt is removed in sewage sludge and the remainder is disposed of to rivers. 60% of the sewage sludge is now used as fertilizer and this proportion will no doubt increase in the future. The total use of sewage sludge, however, represents only about 5% of the current annual usage of artificial phosphorus fertilizer. At present there is no general economic incentive to make better use of the phosphorus in effluents. Phosphorus removal is expensive--about 2--3 pence/m3. If all the sewage effluents in England and Wales were to be so treated the cost would be about 100--150 million pounds annually, that is about 50% of the present costs of sewage treatment. In certain cases, but rarely in the UK, phosphate is removed, not to conserve phosphorus but to minimize the problems it creates in the environment. The phosphorus removed has little value as fertilizer. Alternative methods of using the phosphorus in effluents by the production and harvesting of crops of algae or aquatic plants have so far proved uneconomic. However, these methods need to be reviewed periodically as they may in the future become economically more attractive, especially in warmer climates where plant growth can be maintained throughout the year. PMID:357121

Collingwood, R W

66

1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

67

Observation of improved and degraded confinement with driven flow on the LAPD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

External continuous control over azimuthal flow and flow shear has been achieved in a linear plasma device for the first time allowing for a careful study of the effect of flow shear on pressure-gradient-driven turbulence and transport in the edge of the Large Plasma Device (LAPD). The flow is controlled using biasable iris-like limiters situated axially between the cathode source and main plasma chamber. LAPD rotates spontaneously in the ion diamagnetic direction (IDD); positive limiter bias first reduces, then minimizes (producing a near-zero shear state), and finally reverses the flow into the electron diamagnetic direction (EDD). Degradation of particle confinement is observed in the minimum shearing state and reduction in turbulent particle flux is observed with increasing shearing in both flow directions. Near-complete suppression of turbulent particle flux is observed for shearing rates comparable to the turbulent autocorrelation rate measured in the minimum shear state. Turbulent flux suppression is dominated by amplitude reduction in low-frequency (>10kHz) density fluctuations and a reduction in the radial correlation length. An increase in fluctuations for the highest shearing states is observed with the emergence of a coherent mode which does not lead to net particle transport. Magnetic field is varied in order to explore whether and how field effects transport modification. Calculations of transport equations are used to predict density profiles given source and temperature profiles and can show the level of transport predicted to be necessary in order to produce the experimental density profiles observed. Finally, the variations of density fluctuations and radial correlation length are fit well with power-laws and compare favorably to simple models of shear suppression of transport.

Schaffner, David

2012-10-01

68

Complete survey of german sewage sludge ash.  

PubMed

The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers. PMID:25265150

Krüger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

2014-10-21

69

Unchanged prevalence of shell disease in the edible crab Cancer pagurus four years after decommissioning of a sewage outfall at Langland Bay, UK.  

PubMed

Shell disease is a bacteria-associated degradative disease of the crustacean exoskeleton that leads to formation of extensive lesions in the cuticle with ultimate involvement of haemocoelic septicaemia. Field surveys of edible crabs Cancer pagurus from Langland Bay, Gower, UK, from February 1997 to March 1998 had revealed unusually high prevalence (ca. 55%) of this disease amongst the population, and it was suggested that one of the predisposing factors might have been the presence of raw sewage in this area. Since February 1999, a local raw sewage outfall affecting this area has been decommissioned, raising the possibility that the prevalence and severity of this disease could have become reduced as a result of the cessation of sewage exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and severity of shell disease in edible crabs from Langland Bay pre- and post-sewage discharge. The overall prevalence of shell disease from February 2003 to March 2004 was 59.2%, and in only 1 size class (80-99 mm carapace width, males) was the prevalence higher in 2003-04 than in 1997-98. In terms of severity, only smaller crabs (60-199 mm width) showed a significant reduction in 2003-04 compared with 1997-98. No changes were found in the severity of the disease in different regions of the exoskeleton of infected crabs between the 1997-98 survey and the present work. Overall, it is concluded that no significant changes in the occurrence of shell disease have resulted from the improvement in water quality (in terms of faecal pollution) at this site, suggesting that sewage pollution is probably not a major contributory factor to this disease. PMID:16465837

Powell, Adam; Rowley, Andrew F

2005-12-30

70

Single application of Sewage Sludge to an Alluvial Agricultural Soil - impacts on Soil Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limited information exists on the effects of sewage sludge on soil quality with regard to their ability to maintain soil functions. We studied effects of sewage sludge amendment on soil chemical properties, microbial community structure and microbial degradation of the herbicide glyphosate. Three months soil column leaching experiment has been conducted using alluvial soils (Eutric Fluvisol) with no prior history of sludge application. The soil was loamy with pH 7,4 and organic matter content of 3,5%. Soil material in the upper 2 cm of columns was mixed with dehydrated sewage sludge which was applied in amounts corresponding to the standards governing the use of sewage sludge for agricultural land. Sludge did increase some nutrients (total N, NH4+, available P and K, organic carbon) and some heavy metals contents (Zn, Cu, Pb) in soil. However, upper limits for heavy metals in agricultural soils were not exceeded. Results of heavy metal availability in soil determined by sequential extraction will be also presented. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of 16s/18s rDNA, using universal fungal and bacterial primers, revealed clear shifts in bacterial and fungal community structure in the upper 2 cm of soils after amendment. Fungal fingerprints showed greater short term effects of sewage sludge, whereas sewage sludge seems to have prolonged effects on soil bacteria. Furthermore, sewage sludge amendment significantly increased glyphosate degradation from 21.6±1% to 33.6±1% over a 2 months period. The most probable reasons for shifts in microbial community structure and increased degradation of glyphosate are beneficial alterations to the physical-chemical characteristics of the soil. Negative effects of potentially toxic substances present in the sewage sludge on soil microbial community functioning were not observed with the methods used in our study.

Suhadolc, M.; Graham, D. B.; Hagn, A.; Doerfler, U.; Schloter, M.; Schroll, R.; Munch, J. C.; Lobnik, F.

2009-04-01

71

Q-Factor Improvement of Phase Noise Degraded DPSK Signals Using Asymmetric Saturated Regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a 6.3 dB improvement in Q-factor for RZ-DPSK signals using a shifted filter after a highly saturated SOA working in a contra-propagating colliding pulse scheme. We show first, both theoretically and by means of simulations, how the phase noise is transformed after demodulation. Then, we demonstrate experimentally, for the first time, that this configuration induces a spectral asymmetry in addition to self phase modulation that if associated with a shifted filter, removes significantly the noise present in both the demodulated marks and spaces. The Asymmetric Saturated Regeneration (ASR) is an enhanced version of the fiber based Mamyshev regenerator.

Chaouch, Hacene; Parsons, Earl; von Lerber, Tuomo; Mattila, Marco; Tervonen, Ari; Weiershausen, Werner; Kueppers, Franko

2009-09-01

72

Biomaterial-Mediated Delivery of Degradative Enzymes to Improve Meniscus Integration and Repair  

PubMed Central

Endogenous repair of fibrous connective tissues is limited, and there exist few successful strategies to improve healing after injury. As such, new methods that advance repair by promoting cell growth, extracellular matrix (ECM) production, and tissue integration would represent a marked clinical advance. Using the meniscus as a test platform, we sought to develop an enzyme-releasing scaffold that enhances integrative repair. We hypothesized that the high ECM density and low cellularity present physical and biologic barriers to endogenous healing, and that localized collagenase treatment might expedite cell migration to the wound edge and tissue remodeling. To test this hypothesis, we fabricated a delivery system in which collagenase was stored inside electrospun poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofibers and released upon hydration. In vitro results showed that partial digestion of the wound interface improved repair by creating a microenvironment that facilitated cell migration, proliferation, and matrix deposition. Specifically, treatment with high-dose collagenase led to a 2-fold increase in cell density at the wound margin and a 2-fold increase in integrative tissue compared to untreated controls at 4 weeks (p?0.05). Furthermore, when composite scaffolds containing both collagenase-releasing and structural fiber fractions were placed inside meniscal tears in vitro, enzyme release acted locally and resulted in a positive cellular response similar to that of global treatment with aqueous collagenase. This innovative approach of targeted enzyme delivery may aid the many patients that exhibit meniscal tears by promoting integration of the defect, thereby circumventing the pathologic consequences of partial meniscus removal, and may find widespread application in the treatment of injuries to a variety of dense connective tissues. PMID:23376132

Qu, Feini; Lin, Jung-Ming G.; Esterhai, John L.; Fisher, Matthew B.; Mauck, Robert L.

2013-01-01

73

Improving stability of a novel dextran-degrading enzyme from marine Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11.  

PubMed

Dextranases can hydrolyze dextran, so they are used in the sugar industry to mitigate the milling problems associated with dextran contamination. Few studies have been carried out on the storage stability of dextranase, let alone the dextranase of Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 isolated from sea mud samples. This study improved the storage stability of dextranase from marine A. oxydans KQ11 by adding enzymatic protective reagents (stabilizer and antiseptic). Initially, the conditions (55 °C and 30 min) for maintaining 50% dextranase activity were obtained. Then, the best stabilizers of dextranase were obtained, namely, glycerol (16%), sodium acetate (18%) and sodium citrate (20%). Results showed that p-hydroxybenzoic acid compound sodium acetate (0.05%), D-sodium isoascorbiate (0.03%), and potassium sorbate (0.05%) were the best antiseptics. Subsequent validation experiment showed that dextranase with enzymatic protective reagents maintained 70.8% and 28.96% activities at the 13th week at 25 and 37 °C, respectively. PMID:24528732

Wang, Delong; Lu, Mingsheng; Wang, Xiaobei; Jiao, Yuliang; Fang, Yaowei; Liu, Zhaopu; Wang, Shujun

2014-03-15

74

33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction...Sewage removal. The device must be designed for...solids in the sewage retention...

2013-07-01

75

33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.  

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction...Sewage removal. The device must be designed for...solids in the sewage retention...

2014-07-01

76

33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction...Sewage removal. The device must be designed for...solids in the sewage retention...

2010-07-01

77

33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction...Sewage removal. The device must be designed for...solids in the sewage retention...

2011-07-01

78

33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction...Sewage removal. The device must be designed for...solids in the sewage retention...

2012-07-01

79

EVALUATION OF METHODS TO MEASURE THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Research was undertaken to determine whether improvements were needed to increase the reliability of acute toxicity methodologies for mysid and juvenile Atlantic silverside waste characterization tests for municipal sewage sludge. Three new acute bioassays using mysids, larval fi...

80

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic material with fungi capable of higher lignin degradation and lower carbohydrate degradation improves substrate acid hydrolysis and the eventual conversion to ethanol.  

PubMed

Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus,and fungal isolates RCK-1 and RCK-3 were tested for their lignin degradation abilities when grown on wheat straw (WS) and Prosopis juliflora (PJ) under solid-state cultivation conditions. Fungal isolate RCK-1 degraded more lignin in WS (12.26% and 22.64%) and PJ (19.30% and 21.97%) and less holocellulose in WS (6.27% and 9.39%) and PJ (3.01% and 4.58%) after 10 and 20 days, respectively, than other fungi tested. Phanerochaete chrysosporium caused higher substrate mass loss and degraded more of holocellulosic content (WS: 55.67%; PJ: 48.89%) than lignin (WS: 18.89%; PJ: 20.20%) after 20 days. The fungal pretreatment of WS and PJ with a high-lignin-degrading and low-holocellulose-degrading fungus (fungal isolate RCK-1) for 10 days resulted in (i) reduction in acid load for hydrolysis of structural polysaccharides (from 3.5% to 2.5% in WS and from 4.5% to 2.5% in PJ), (ii) an increase in the release of fermentable sugars (from 30.27 to 40.82 g L(-1) in WS and from 18.18 to 26.00 g L(-1) in PJ), and (iii) a reduction in fermentation inhibitors (total phenolics) in acid hydrolysate of WS (from 1.31 to 0.63 g L(-1)) and PJ (from 2.05 to 0.80 g L(-1)). Ethanol yield and volumetric productivity from RCK-1-treated WS (0.48 g g(-1) and 0.54 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively) and PJ (0.46 g g(-1) and 0.33 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively) were higher than untreated WS (0.36 g g(-1) and 0.30 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively) and untreated PJ (0.42 g g(-1) and 0.21 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively). PMID:18389003

Kuhar, Sarika; Nair, Lavanya M; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

2008-04-01

81

Presence and destruction of tubercle bacilli in sewage.  

PubMed

The author examined the sewage from 5 towns with tuberculosis sanatoria and from one institution for the care of the feeble-minded, which had a tuberculosis ward, for the presence of tubercle bacilli. The 6 effluents were treated in biological-purification plants and average samples taken. These were centrifuged, and the sediment treated for 1 hour at 37 degrees C with 4% NaOH before inoculation into guinea-pigs. Tubercle bacilli were demonstrated in the influent to all the plants and in the digested sludge of all those operating on sewage where the ratio of infective patients to all persons connected with the plant was up to 1:600. Experiments with cultivated tubercle bacilli showed that centrifuging of sewage resulted in only an insignificant loss of bacilli, but that NaOH treatment caused a loss of over 99%.After consideration of the risk of infection to both man and cattle from the sewage of tuberculosis institutions, the author reports on his own studies on the killing of tubercle bacilli in sewage. It took about 11(1/2)-15 months before tubercle bacilli could no longer be demonstrated in sludge that had been kept on the drying beds. The addition of 10 mg of chlorine per litre of biologically purified effluent from an activated-sludge plant was found effectively to destroy tubercle bacilli. Disinfection of sludge was also carried out with 0.5% lysol and 0.1%-0.2% formol; 3.1% copper sulfate proved ineffective.The author concludes that the disinfection of sewage from tuberculosis institutions presents no special difficulties, but that work on this subject in different countries should be co-ordinated in an effort to improve plant and reduce costs. PMID:13160757

JENSEN, K E

1954-01-01

82

[Rice straw and sewage sludge as carbon sources for sulfate-reducing bacteria treating acid mine drainage].  

PubMed

The performance of three organic carbon sources was assessed in terms of sulfate reduction and main metal removal, by using sewage sludge as the source of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and adding rice straw and ethanol with equal quantity. Results indicated that sewage sludge which contained certain amount of alkaline material could neutralize acidity of acid mine drainage(AMD) on the first day of experiment, elevating pH value from the initial 2.5 to around 5.4-6.3 and achieving suitable pH condition for SRB growth. Sewage sludge contained fewer biodegradable organic substance, reactive mixture with single sewage sludge showed the lowest sulfate reduction (65.9%). When the single sewage sludge was supplemented with rice straw, SRB reducing sulfate was enhanced (79.2%), because the degradation rate of rice straw was accelerated by the specific bacteria in sewage sludge, providing relatively abundant carbon source for SRB. Control experiment with ethanol was most effective in promoting sulfate reduction (97.9%). Metal removal efficiency in all three reactors was as high as 99% for copper, early copper removal was mainly attributed to the adsorption capacity of sewage sludge prior to SRB acclimation. It is feasible for using rice straw and sewage sludge as carbon sources for SRB treating acid mine drainage at a low cost, this may have significant implication for in situ bioremediation of mine environment. PMID:21090305

Su, Yu; Wang, Jin; Peng, Shu-chuan; Yue, Zheng-bo; Chen, Tian-hu; Jin, Jie

2010-08-01

83

ELECTROMAGNETIC TECHNOLOGY ON SEWAGE TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic treatments for water and wastewater attract a special attention due to their safety, ecological purity, simplicity and low operating costs. Thus this study was carried out in order to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of applying magnetic technology for a better understanding of the sewage characteristics. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the feasibility of magnetic

Fadhil Othman; Johan Sohaili

84

Impact of Lead and Sewage Sludge on Soil Microbial Biomass and Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge disposal on arable land is viewed as a method to reduce waste accumulation and to enrich soil fertility. However, such disposal can degrade soil ecosystems due to the presence of potentially harmful substances, such as heavy metals. Pb has assumed greater significance because currently its dispersal through anthropogenic activities has exceeded the inputs from natural sources by about

G. H. Dar

1997-01-01

85

Ozone treatment of organic micro-pollutants in sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Organic micro-pollutants accumulate to a certain extent in sewage sludge and are therefore ecologically relevant if the sludge is to be reused in both agriculture and landscaping applications. This paper describes the degradation of endocrine-disrupting compounds and other micro-contaminants by means of ozone and ultrasonic treatment. One of the findings is that, as expected, aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be degraded easily by ozone. Thus it could be shown that, apart from enhanced VSS reduction and increased biogas production, sludge disintegration processes using ozone provide an additional benefit, i.e. the degradation of micro-pollutants, which is practically unattainable with ultrasonic treatment. PMID:20489266

Lahnsteiner, J; Vranitzky, R

2010-01-01

86

Codigestion of olive oil mill wastewaters with manure, household waste or sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined anaerobic digestion of oil mill effluent(OME) together with manure, household waste (HHW) orsewage sludge was investigated. In batch experimentsit was shown that OME could be degraded into biogaswhen codigested with manure. In codigestion with HHWor sewage sludge, OME dilution with water (1:5) wasrequired in order to degrade it. Using continuouslystirred lab-scale reactors it was shown thatcodigestion of OME with

I. Angelidaki; B. K. Ahring

1997-01-01

87

Fermentation of cellulose and fatty acids with enrichments from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed culture enriched from sewage sludge and anaerobic digestor effluent was able to degrade cellulose and acetate rapidly and quantitatively to methane and carbon dioxide. The maximum specific rate of gas production was 87 ml\\/gm cell-h, corresponding to a rate of cellulose utilization of 0.1 g\\/g cells-h. Acetate, an intermediate in cellulose degradation, was fermented much more rapidly than

Josef U. Winter; Charles L. Cooney

1980-01-01

88

CFD simulation of anaerobic digester with variable sewage sludge rheology.  

PubMed

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that evaluates mechanical mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester was developed to investigate the influence of sewage sludge rheology on the steady-state digester performance. Mechanical mixing is provided through an impeller located in a draft tube. Use is made of the Multiple Reference Frame model to incorporate the rotating impeller. The non-Newtonian sludge is modeled using the Hershel-Bulkley law because of the yield stress present in the fluid. Water is also used as modeling fluid to illustrate the significant non-Newtonian effects of sewage sludge on mixing patterns. The variation of the sewage sludge rheology as a result of the digestion process is considered to determine its influence on both the required impeller torque and digester mixing patterns. It was found that when modeling the fluid with the Hershel-Bulkley law, the high slope of the sewage stress-strain curve at high shear rates causes significant viscous torque on the impeller surface. Although the overall fluid shear stress property is reduced during digestion, this slope is increased with sludge age, causing an increase in impeller torque for digested sludge due to the high strain rates caused by the pumping impeller. Consideration should be given to using the Bingham law to deal with high strain rates. The overall mixing flow patterns of the digested sludge do however improve slightly. PMID:23764598

Craig, K J; Nieuwoudt, M N; Niemand, L J

2013-09-01

89

Inoculation with a mixed degrading culture improves the pesticide removal of an on-farm biopurification system.  

PubMed

To investigate whether the pesticide removal in on-farm biopurification systems (BPS) filled with two different types of substrata (biomix and plastic carriers) is affected by inoculation with a pesticide-degrading strain or mixed culture, lab-scale BPS used to treat chloropropham point source contaminations were bioaugmented with either a specialized chloropropham-degrading strain or a chloropropham-degrading enrichment culture. Application of both inoculum types leads to an accelerated degradation activity in the columns filled with plastic carriers. For both substratum types, inoculation with the mixed culture resulted in a lower breakthrough of the toxic intermediate 3-chloroaniline at high hydraulic loads, compared to inoculation with the pure isolate and no inoculation. This study suggests that the use of plastic carrier materials could be a proficient alternative to the use of a conventional biomix as a substratum in on-farm BPS and that inoculation with a mixed degrading culture can reduce the leaching of more mobile toxic intermediates. PMID:23708426

Verhagen, Pieter; De Gelder, Leen; Boon, Nico

2013-10-01

90

Mechanism of improvement of resistance degradation in Y-doped BaTiO 3 based MLCCs with Ni electrodes under highly accelerated life testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of improvement of resistance degradation in Y-doped BaTiO3 based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) with Ni electrodes has been studied using electrical measurement techniques, minor phase identification and the measurement of oxygen vacancy concentration. Admittance spectroscopy and thermally stimulated current measurements show the relaxation due to barium vacancy states caused by Y doping. The minor phase identification by XRD

Shigeki Sato; Yukie Nakano; Akira Sato; Takeshi Nomura

1999-01-01

91

1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF STORAGE SHED (BLDG 773). SECURITY FENCE EAST OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Sewage Treatment Plant, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

92

33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which...

2012-07-01

93

33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which...

2013-07-01

94

33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which...

2010-07-01

95

33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which...

2011-07-01

96

Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants  

MedlinePLUS

Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and ... Careful work habits can help protect you. Some Biological Hazards That May Be in Sewage Or Wastewater ...

97

Reducing sewage pollution in the Antarctic marine environment using a sewage treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite Antarctica being the largest pristine wilderness on Earth, many coastal Antarctic research stations release untreated sewage waste into the marine environment, which may have negative effects on local wildlife. In February 2003 a sewage treatment plant was installed at Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula). After one year of operation the sewage treatment plant had dramatically reduced the

Kevin A. Hughes

2004-01-01

98

Sewage-sludge incineration: An overview of the technology  

SciTech Connect

Incineration is becoming more attractive as a way to dispose of sewage sludge. Technological advances make it possible to reduce sludge volume, maintain air quality, and often generate electricity to offset the cost of treatment. Both are described. The paper also describes auxiliary equipment: input subsystems, heat recovery, air emissions control, and ash handling. Recent advances which are described include feed sludge preparation, design improvements, air distribution systems, and pyrolysis technology.

Brinkmann, W.K.; Forbess, R.G.

1988-10-01

99

Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation  

SciTech Connect

Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO[sub 2] evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans.

Black, W.; Zamora, J. (Middle Tennessee State Univ., Murfreesboro (United States))

1993-04-01

100

Agronomic value of sewage sludge and corn cob biochar in an infertile Oxisol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of sewage sludge and other agricultural waste materials has become increasingly difficult in urban environments with limited land space. Carbonization of the hazardous waste produces biochar as a soil amendment with potential to improve soil quality and productivity. A series of greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to assess the agrnomic value of two biochars made from domestic wastewater sludge and corn cob waste. The ash component of the sewage sludge biochar was very high (65.5%) and high for the corn cob (11.4%) biochars. Both biochars contained low concentrations of heavy metals and met EPA land application criteria. The sewage sludge biochar was a better liming material and source of mineral nutrients than the corn cob biochar, but the corn cob biochar showed the greatest increase in soil carbon and total nitrogen. Both biochar materials increased soil pH compared with soils not receiving biochar, but the sewage sludge biochar was a more effective liming material maintaining elevated soil pH throughout the 3 planting cycles. The sewage sludge biochar also showed the greatest increase in extractable soil P and base cations. In the first planting cycle, both biochars in combination with conventional fertilizers produced significantly higher corn seedling growth than the fertilized control. However, the sewage sludge biochar maintained beneficial effects corn seedling growth through the third planting cycle showing 3-fold increases in biomass production compared with the control in the third planting. The high ash content and associated liming properties and mineral nutrient contributions in the sewage sludge biochar explain benefits to plant growth. Conversion of sewage sludge waste into biochar has the potential to effectively address several environmental issues: 1) convert a hazardous waste into a valuable soil amendment, 2) reduce land and water contamination, and 3) improve soil quality and productivity.

Deenik, J. L.; Cooney, M. J.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

2013-12-01

101

Improvement of ethanol productivity and energy efficiency by degradation of inhibitors using recombinant Zymomonas mobilis (pHW20a-fdh).  

PubMed

Toxic compounds, such as formic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) generated during pretreatment of corn stover (CS) at high temperature and low pH, inhibit growth of Zymomonas mobilis and lower the conversion efficiency of CS to biofuel and other products. The inhibition of toxic compounds is considered as one of the major technical barriers in the lignocellulose bioconversion. In order to detoxify and/or degrade these toxic compounds by the model ethanologenic strain Z. mobilis itself in situ the fermentation medium, we constructed a recombinant Z. mobilis ZM4 (pHW20a-fdh) strain that is capable of degrading toxic inhibitor, formate. This is accomplished by cloning heterologous formate dehydrogenase gene (fdh) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and by coupling this reaction of NADH regeneration reaction system with furfural and HMF degradation in the recombinant Z. mobilis strain. The NADH regeneration reaction also improved both the energy efficiency and cell physiological activity of the recombinant organism, which were definitely confirmed by the improved cell growth, ethanol yield, and ethanol productivity during fermentation with CS hydrolysate. PMID:23475631

Dong, Hong-Wei; Fan, Li-Qiang; Luo, Zichen; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Ryu, Dewey D Y; Bao, Jie

2013-09-01

102

Heavy Metal Speciation in Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge is a rich source of organic matter and nutrients, so there is a possibility of their broader agricultural utilization. However, agricultural utilization of this material is limited by excessive quantities of heavy metals. In accordance with this, the current paper presents the results of investigations referring to the speci- ation of heavy metals in selected sewage sludge. It

M. Jakubus; J. Czeka?a

103

Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

Ayotamuno, M. J.

1993-01-01

104

Sensitivity of amphipods to sewage pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphipods are considered a sensitive group to pollution but here different levels of sensitivity were detected among species, by analysing the impact of five sewage outfalls, with different flow and treatment levels, on amphipod assemblages from the Castellon coast (NE Spain). Sewage pollution produced a decrease in the abundance and richness of amphipods close to the outfalls. Most of the

J. A. De-la-Ossa-Carretero; Y. del-Pilar-Ruso; F. Giménez-Casalduero; J. L. Sánchez-Lizaso; J.-C. Dauvin

105

My Town, My Creek, My Sewage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After summarizing the ecology of polluted streams as well as the technology and biology of sewage treatment methods, and considering the economic and social aspects of introducing advanced sewage treatment, comments on the role of biology teachers in providing public information are made. (AL)

Woodburn, John H.

1972-01-01

106

Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory

Renuka Gupta; V. K. Garg

2008-01-01

107

Boston Harbor sewage stack (for microcomputers). Software  

SciTech Connect

The Boston Harbor Sewage Stack is interactive educational computer program about how municipalities deal with sewage, how sewage systems work, non point pollution, and what citizens can do to help - focusing on Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Cleanup. The program is written at a level accessible to middle-school students, but with enough depth for adults. Schools and environmental organizations, especially in coastal areas, will find this program a useful addition to their environmental education offerings. The program shows what happens to sewage - from the moment of flush to its passage through the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's sewage system and into Boston Harbor - now and as the cleanup proceeds. Users encounter topics for exploration, including storm sewers and combined sewer overflows (CSOs); non point pollution from pets, spilled waste oil, lawn and garden chemicals, and other sources; what not to flush and why; how officials can tell if water is polluted; and why it all matters.

Not Available

1992-12-01

108

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01

109

Sewage treatment level and flow rates affect polychaete assemblages.  

PubMed

The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (UWWTD) aim to improve water quality and reduce the environmental impact of wastewater, by requiring member states to introduce better treatment levels. This study was carried out in order to detect the most suitable treatment type or flow level for reducing benthic environmental impact. Therefore, soft-bottom polychaete assemblages affected by discharges of six treatment plants, with different treatment technologies and flow rates, were analysed over three consecutive years. Polychaete assemblages changed as a result of sewage discharge. These changes were related to treatment level and flow rates. Both disposal quality and quantity are important since changes in soft-bottom assemblages in stations affected by pre-treated sewage with medium and high flow rates are observed. However, the location with a low-flow pre-treated effluent has similar polychaete assemblages with regard to locations with biological treatment or controls. PMID:20863533

Del-Pilar-Ruso, Yoana; de-la-Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio; Giménez-Casalduero, Francisca; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis

2010-11-01

110

Gille-STPA 35 1 Sewage on San Diego Beaches  

E-print Network

Gille-STPA 35 1 Sewage on San Diego Beaches For a casual reader of the San Diego Union treatment standards, so that San Diego could dump less seriously treated sewage into the ocean. Then he. As a result, sewage from Tijuana will be held to a higher treatment standard than sewage from San Diego. Why

Gille, Sarah T.

111

Anaerobic Treatment of Domestic Sewage at Low Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this thesis was to asses the anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature and the possibilities to optimize the performance of high-rate anaerobic systems treating domestic sewage at low temperature.The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage and its fractions was investigated in batch experiments. The results showed a high potential of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage

T. A. Elmitwalli; G. Zeeman; G. Lettinga

2000-01-01

112

Nilotinib reverses loss of dopamine neurons and improves motor behavior via autophagic degradation of ?-synuclein in Parkinson's disease models  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease is a movement disorder characterized by death of dopaminergic substantia nigra (SN) neurons and brain accumulation of ?-synuclein. The tyrosine kinase Abl is activated in neurodegeneration. Here, we show that lentiviral expression of ?-synuclein in the mouse SN leads to Abl activation (phosphorylation) and lentiviral Abl expression increases ?-synuclein levels, in agreement with Abl activation in PD brains. Administration of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib decreases Abl activity and ameliorates autophagic clearance of ?-synuclein in transgenic and lentiviral gene transfer models. Subcellular fractionation shows accumulation of ?-synuclein and hyper-phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) in autophagic vacuoles in ?-synuclein expressing brains, but nilotinib enhances protein deposition into the lysosomes. Nilotinib is used for adult leukemia treatment and it enters the brain within US Food and Drug Administration approved doses, leading to autophagic degradation of ?-synuclein, protection of SN neurons and amelioration of motor performance. These data suggest that nilotinib may be a therapeutic strategy to degrade ?-synuclein in PD and other ?-synucleinopathies. PMID:23666528

Hebron, Michaeline L.; Lonskaya, Irina; Moussa, Charbel E.-H.

2013-01-01

113

Liposomes containing glycocholate as potential oral insulin delivery systems: preparation, in vitro characterization, and improved protection against enzymatic degradation  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral delivery of insulin is challenging and must overcome the barriers of gastric and enzymatic degradation as well as low permeation across the intestinal epithelium. The present study aimed to develop a liposomal delivery system containing glycocholate as an enzyme inhibitor and permeation enhancer for oral insulin delivery. Methods: Liposomes containing sodium glycocholate were prepared by a reversed-phase evaporation method followed by homogenization. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of recombinant human insulin (rhINS)-loaded sodium glycocholate liposomes can be easily adjusted by tuning the homogenization parameters, phospholipid:sodium glycocholate ratio, insulin:phospholipid ratio, water:ether volume ratio, interior water phase pH, and the hydration buffer pH. Results: The optimal formulation showed an insulin entrapment efficiency of 30% ± 2% and a particle size of 154 ± 18 nm. A conformational study by circular dichroism spectroscopy and a bioactivity study confirmed the preserved integrity of rhINS against preparative stress. Transmission electron micrographs revealed a nearly spherical and deformed structure with discernable lamella for sodium glycocholate liposomes. Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed better protection of insulin against enzymatic degradation by pepsin, trypsin, and ?-chymotrypsin than liposomes containing the bile salt counterparts of sodium taurocholate and sodium deoxycholate. Conclusion: Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed promising in vitro characteristics and have the potential to be able to deliver insulin orally. PMID:21822379

Niu, Mengmeng; Lu, Yi; Hovgaard, Lars; Wu, Wei

2011-01-01

114

Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

115

Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge management: a review.  

PubMed

In this article, 35 published studies on life cycle assessment (LCA) of sewage sludge were reviewed for their methodological and technological assumptions. Overall, LCA has been providing a flexible framework to quantify environmental impacts of wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and disposal processes for multiple scales, ranging from process selection to policy evaluation. The results of LCA are, in principle, unique to the goal and scope of each study, reflecting its local conditions and comparison between different LCAs is not intended. Furthermore, the assessments are limited by the methodological development of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and the advancement of research in quantifying environmental emissions associated with wastewater and sewage sludge treatment processes. Thus, large discrepancies were found in the selection of the environmental emissions to be included and how they were estimated in the analysis. In order to reduce these choice uncertainties, consolidation of the modelling approach in the following area are recommended: quantification of fugitive gas emissions and modelling of disposal practices. Besides harmonization of the key technical assumptions, clear documentation of the modelling approach and the uncertainties associating with each assumption is encouraged so as to improve the integrity and robustness of assessment. PMID:24061046

Yoshida, Hiroko; Christensen, Thomas H; Scheutz, Charlotte

2013-11-01

116

The agricultural use of municipal sewage.  

PubMed

The reuse of municipal sewage for agricultural purposes is becoming more prevalent. The literature concerning the impact of this practice is reviewed. It is readily apparent that agricultural reuse of municipal sewage is preferable to other common methods of disposal both from the point of view of ecological influence and economical waste utilization. There is a need to establish guidelines for the agricultural use of municipal sewage which will serve the variable conditions found in Canada and meet the public health concerns associated with an extensive agricultural use. PMID:6091855

Hamilton, D L; Brockman, R P; Knipfel, J E

1984-08-01

117

Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

2014-05-01

118

Estrogenic metabolites of alkylphenol polyethoxylates in secondary sewage effluents and rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation products of nonionic surfactants of the nonylphenol polyethoxylate type (NPnEO) were reported recently to be estrogenic to fish at low microgram per litre concentrations. These estrogenic metabolites, including nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) as well as their corresponding carboxylic acids (NP1EC and NP2EC), were measured during 1997 and 1998 in sewage effluents and ambient waters

M. Ahel; E. Molnar; S. Ibric; W. Giger

119

Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.  

PubMed

The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

2014-01-01

120

The occurrence and significance to animal health of salmonellas in sewage and sewage sludges.  

PubMed Central

A total of 882 samples of settled sewage, sewage sludges and final effluents from eight sewage treatment plants were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Of these samples 68% were positive, isolations being made most frequently from settled sewage (85%), raw sludge (87%) and anaerobically digested sludge (96%). Fewer isolations were made from final effluent (24%) and processed sludges (58%). Samples usually contained less than 200 salmonellas/100 ml and arguments are presented that such concentrations should not lead to disease in animals if suitable grazing restrictions are followed. PMID:6985928

Jones, P. W.; Rennison, L. M.; Lewin, V. H.; Redhead, D. L.

1980-01-01

121

Flow Characteristics of the Raw Sewage for the Design of Sewage-Source Heat Pump Systems  

PubMed Central

The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

2014-01-01

122

Sewage Pollution Risk Assessment for Environmental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tremendous potential for Geographic Information Systems to benefit the management of environmental health is progressively being realised. This paper summarises a new approach to mapping the risks associated with on-site sewage facilities. One of the many intended applications is to help predict and thereby manage sources of pathogens contributing to health issues. Over 284,000 on-site sewage facilities exist in

Steven Kenway; Robert Irvine

2001-01-01

123

Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

Mark R. Cole

2013-12-01

124

Reduction of matrix effects and improvement of sensitivity during determination of two chloridazon degradation products in aqueous matrices by using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS.  

PubMed

The development and validation of a sensitive and reliable detection method for the determination of two polar degradation products, desphenyl-chloridazon (DPC) and methyl-desphenyl-chloridazon (MDPC) in surface water, ground water and drinking water is presented. The method is based on direct large volume injection ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. This simple but powerful analytical method for polar substances in the aquatic environment is usually hampered by varying matrix effects, depending on the nature of different water bodies. For the two examined degradation products, the matrix effects are particularly strong compared with other polar degradation products of pesticides. Therefore, matrix effects were studied thoroughly with the aim of minimising them and improving sensitivity during determination by postcolumn addition of ammonia solution as a modifier. An internal standard was used in order to compensate for remaining matrix effects. The calibration curve shows very good coefficients of correlation (0.9994 for DPC and 0.9999 for MDPC). Intraday precision values were lower than 5 % for DPC, 3 % for MDPC and the limits of detection were 10 ng/L for both substances. The method was successfully used in a national round robin test with a deviation between 3 and 8 % from target values. Finally, about 1,000 samples from different water bodies have been examined with this method in the Rhine and Ruhr region of North-Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) and in the European Union. Approximately 76 % of analysed samples contained measurable amounts of DPC at concentrations up to 8 ?g/L while 53 % of the samples showed MDPC concentrations up to 2.3 ?g/L. PMID:22526659

Kowal, Sebastian; Balsaa, Peter; Werres, Friedrich; Schmidt, Torsten C

2012-06-01

125

?-Hydroxy ?-methylbutyrate improves dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy by modulating the muscle degradation pathway in SD rat.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle atrophy results from various conditions including high levels of glucocorticoids, and ?-hydroxy ?-methylbutyrate (HMB; a metabolite of leucine) is a potent therapeutical supplement used to treat various muscle disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated that HMB inhibits dexamethasone-induced atrophy in cultured myotubes, but its effect on dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy has not been determined in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HMB on dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in rats. Treatment with dexamethasone weakened grip strengths and increased muscle damage as determined by increased serum creatine kinase levels and by histological analysis. Dexamethasone treatment also reduced both soleus and gastrocnemius muscle masses. However, HMB supplementation significantly prevented reductions in grip strengths, reduced muscle damage, and prevented muscle mass and protein concentration decrease in soleus muscle. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that dexamethasone markedly increased levels of MuRF1 protein, which causes the ubiquitination and degradation of MyHC. Indeed, dexamethasone treatment decreased MyHC protein expression and increased the ubiquitinated-MyHC to MyHC ratio. However, HMB supplementation caused the down-regulations of MuRF1 protein and of ubiquitinated-MyHC. Furthermore, additional experiments provided evidence that HMB supplementation inhibited the nuclear translocation of FOXO1 induced by dexamethasone, and showed increased MyoD expression in the nuclear fractions of soleus muscles. These findings suggest that HMB supplementation attenuates dexamethasone-induced muscle wasting by regulating FOXO1 transcription factor and subsequent MuRF1 expression. Accordingly, our results suggest that HMB supplementation could be used to prevent steroid myopathy. PMID:25032690

Noh, Kyung Kyun; Chung, Ki Wung; Choi, Yeon Ja; Park, Min Hi; Jang, Eun Ji; Park, Chan Hum; Yoon, Changshin; Kim, Nam Deuk; Kim, Mi Kyung; Chung, Hae Young

2014-01-01

126

Prevention of Sewage Pollution by Stabilization Ponds Sewage Pollution & Stabilization Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It

J. S. S. Lakshminarayana

1975-01-01

127

Synthetic Fibers as Indicators of Municipal Sewage Sludge, Sludge Products, and Sewage Treatment Plant Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of concerns regarding health, safety, and aesthetics, a test that identifies the presence of sewage sludge or its products (biosolids) in commercial materials such as soil conditioners and composts would be useful. This test could also trace the effluent plume from a sewage treatment plant. We have discovered that synthetic fibers serve as such an indicator. Synthetic fibers are

Daniel Habib; David C. Locke; Leonard J. Cannone

1998-01-01

128

Improvement of degraded physical properties of a saline-sodic soil by reclamation with kallar grass ( Leptochloa fusca )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of growing salt tolerant plants to improve the physical characteristics of a saline-sodic soil. Kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth], a species tolerant to salinity, sodicity and alkalinity, was irrigated for five years with poor quality ground water (EC = 0.14 S m-1, SARadj=19.3, RSC = 9.7 meq L-1). The soil physical properties of

J. Akhter; R. Murray; K. Mahmood; K. A. Malik; S. Ahmed

2004-01-01

129

Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (? 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant ? 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The ? 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant flora indicated that sewage N extended further from the creek mouths than shrimp N. The combination of physical/chemical and biological indicators used in this study was effective in distinguishing the composition and subsequent impacts of aquaculture and sewage effluent on the receiving waters.

Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

2001-01-01

130

Metal pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of valiathura sewage farm in kerala, South India.  

PubMed

A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate metal pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of Valiathura Sewage Farm in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala using the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI). Forty two groundwater samples were collected during the summer season (April 2010) and the concentration of metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were analyzed. Results showed that groundwater was contaminated mainly with Fe, Cu and Pb. Correlation analysis revealed that the sources of metals in groundwater in the study area are the same, and it may be due to the leachates from the nearby Sewage Farm, Parvathy Puthanar canal and solid wastes dumped in the residential area. Of the groundwater samples studied, 47.62 % were medium and 2.68 % were classified in HPI high category. HPI was highest (41.79) in DW29, which was adjacent to the polluted Parvathy Puthanar canal and Sewage Farm. The present study points out that the metal pollution causes the degradation of groundwater quality around the Sewage Farm during the study period. PMID:25358622

Varghese, J; Jaya, D S

2014-12-01

131

Microbial sewage contamination associated with Superstorm Sandy flooding in New York City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lower Hudson River Estuary commonly experiences degraded water quality following precipitation events due to the influence of combined sewer overflows. During Super-storm Sandy large scale flooding occurred in many waterfront areas of New York City, including neighborhoods bordering the Gowanus Canal and Newtown Creek Superfund sites known to frequently contain high levels of sewage associated bacteria. Water, sediment, and surface swab samples were collected from Newtown Creek and Gowanus Canal flood impacted streets and basements in the days following the storm, along with samples from the local waterways. Samples were enumerated for the sewage indicating bacterium, Enterococcus, and DNA was extracted and amplified for 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequence analysis. Waterways were found to have relatively low levels of sewage contamination in the days following the storm. In contrast, much higher levels of Enterococci were detected in basement and storm debris samples and these bacteria were found to persist for many weeks in laboratory incubations. These data suggest that substantial sewage contamination occurred in some flood impacted New York City neighborhoods and that the environmental persistence of flood water associated microbes requires additional study and management attention.

O'Mullan, G.; Dueker, M.; Sahajpal, R.; Juhl, A. R.

2013-05-01

132

Bioremediation of Hydrocarbons Contaminating Sewage Effluent Using Man-made Biofilms: Effects of Some Variables.  

PubMed

Biofilm samples were established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for a month. In batch cultures, such biofilms were effective in removing crude oil, pure n-hexadecane, and pure phenanthrene contaminating sewage effluent. The amounts of the removed hydrocarbons increased with increasing biofilm surface area exposed to the effluent. On the other hand, addition of the reducing agent thioglycollate dramatically inhibited the hydrocarbon bioremediation potential of the biofilms. The same biofilm samples removed contaminating hydrocarbons effectively in three successive batch bioremediation cycles but started to become less effective in the cycles thereafter, apparently due to mechanical biofilm loss during successive transfers. As major hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, the biofilms harbored species belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Zavarzinia, Mycobacterium, Microbacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Gordonia, Bosea, Sphingobium, Brachybacterium, and others. The nitrogen fixer Azospirillum brasilense and the microalga Ochromonas distigma were also present; they seemed to enrich the biofilms, with nitrogenous compounds and molecular oxygen, respectively, which are known to enhance microbiological hydrocarbon degradation. It was concluded that man-made biofilms based upon sewage microflora are promising tools for bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent. PMID:25146193

Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

2014-11-01

133

Improved purity and immunostimulatory activity of ?-(1?3)(1?6)-glucan from Pleurotus sajor-caju using cell wall-degrading enzymes.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to improve the purity of ?-(1?3)(1?6)-glucan in the native triple helical structure from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus sajor-caju for effective biological function using cell wall-degrading enzymes. A crude carbohydrate was extracted with hot water, then treated with crude xylanase and cellulase from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6. ?-Glucan in the extract was purified to homogeneity with a single and symmetrical peak using 650M DEAE Toyopearl and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. The purity of ?-glucan was confirmed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography. Purified ?-glucan was obtained at a purity of up to 90.2%. The Congo red reaction and atomic force microscopy indicated that the purified ?-glucan exhibited a triple helix conformation. Purified ?-glucan was able to effectively up-regulate the functions of macrophages such as nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) production. PMID:22563990

Satitmanwiwat, Saranya; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Laohakunjit, Natta; Chao, Louis Kuoping; Chen, Shui-Tein; Pason, Patthra; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Kyu, Khin Lay

2012-05-30

134

Vermistabilization of primary sewage sludge.  

PubMed

An integrated composting-vermicomposting process has been developed for utilization of primary sewage sludge (PSS). Matured vermicompost was used as bulking material and a source of active microbial culture during aerobic activated composting (AAC). AAC resulted in sufficient enrichment of bulking material with organic matter after 20 cycles of recycling and mixing with PSS and produced materials acceptable for vermicomposting. Vermicomposting caused significant reduction in pH, volatile solids (VS), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratio and pathogens and substantial increase in electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) as compared to compost. Environmental conditions and stocking density have profound effects on vermicomposting. Temperature of 20°C with high humidity is favorable environmental condition for vermicomposting employing Eisenia fetida. Favorable stocking density range for vermiculture is 0.5-2.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 0.5 kg m(-2)) and for vermicomposting is 2.0-4.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 3.0 kg m(-2)), respectively. PMID:21036608

Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

2011-02-01

135

Degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms and helminths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms, fungi, and helminths is reviewed. Azo dyes are used in a wide variety of products and can be found in the effluent of most sewage treatment facilities. Substantial quantities of these dyes have been deposited in the environment, particularly in streams and rivers. Azo dyes were shown to affect microbial activities and

King-Thom Chung; S. Edward Stevens

1993-01-01

136

Direct sewage filtration for concentration of organic matters by dynamic membrane.  

PubMed

Sewage treatment is experiencing a paradigm shift whereby sewage should be treated as a resource with maximum reuse of water, nutrients and energy. Concentration of sewage for organic matter enrichment is essential for improved energy recovery. In this study, the concentrating performance of direct sewage filtration by a dynamic membrane was investigated. A novel double-layer cloth-media membrane module was developed. A 50 ?m Daron cloth was selected as inner layer and a 1 ?m propene polymer cloth as outer layer. Quick formation of the dynamic membrane was observed and it agreed with the complete blocking model. The results of continuous-flow experiments showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) was concentrated to about 4500 mg/L within nine operation cycles in 70 hours. Trans-membrane pressure increased quickly to 80 kPa at the end of each cycle. Theoretical concentrating efficiency (?) was 77% and the carbon balance calculation showed 70.7% COD was retained in the reactor during the concentrating process. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the cake layer was almost completely removed after physical cleaning and the gel layer was not remarkable. A sequencing sewage concentrating process was proposed for long-term operation. PMID:25353951

Gong, Hui; Wang, Xian; Zheng, Mingxia; Jin, Zhengyu; Wang, Kaijun

2014-10-01

137

Mixing in large-scale municipal solid waste-sewage sludge anaerobic digesters  

SciTech Connect

Operational problems were encountered in the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste and municipal sewage sludge in a 10.7-m-diam. digester. Use on increased mixing power would probably improve the operability of the system, but at the expense of increased energy costs.

James, S.C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH); Wiles, C.C.; Swartzbaugh, J.T.; Smith, R.B.

1980-01-01

138

Enzyme activities and heavy metals concentration in soil amended with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and yard waste compost (YWC) provide amendments useful for improving soil structure and nutrient status. However, soil amendments contain heavy metals that may potentially affect soil microbes and the enzymes they produce. A field study was conducted using three soil managemet practices (MSS, YWC, and native soil). Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) seedlings were planted, and the

George F. Antonious

2009-01-01

139

Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully converted SS to AC and further modified it to improve absorption. SSMAC has large specific surface areas based on the BET technique. Batch adsorption results indicate that metal adsorption for SSMAC > SSAC, with adsorption occurring within the first 5 minutes of contact. Comparison of the adsorptivity of various sorbents such as commercial activated carbon (CAC), mineral sorbents such as perlite, clinoptilolite and illite indicates that SSMAC × CAC × clinoptilolite > kaolite.

Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

2013-04-01

140

Biological and ecophysiological reactions of white wall rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides L.) grown on sewage sludge compost.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of sewage sludge compost on white wall rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides L.) compared with mineral fertilization and control (without any fertilizer) in a greenhouse experiment. The plants grown on the compost-amended soil showed a different growth dynamic: a significant delay in flowering and a bigger root system. Both the compost and the fertilization treatments increased biomass and seed yield. Heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni) distribution within the plant was in the following order: roots > leaves > stems, except for zinc which was homogeneously distributed. The balance of mineral nutrition was not affected by treatments. Zinc was the trace element which was most taken up. Unlike many species of Brassicaceae, white wall rocket is not a hyperaccumulator. Although sewage sludge compost improved plant growth, delay in flowering shows that it is necessary to take precautions when spreading sewage sludge in natural areas. PMID:11916052

Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Bonin, Gilles; Massiani, Catherine

2002-01-01

141

Improved production of fatty acid ethyl esters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through up-regulation of the ethanol degradation pathway and expression of the heterologous phosphoketolase pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Due to an increasing demand of transportation fuels, a lower availability of cheap crude oil and a lack of sustainability of fossil fuels, a gradual shift from petroleum based fuels towards alternative and renewable fuel resources will be required in the near future. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) have properties similar to current crude diesel and could therefore form an important contribution to the development of sustainable transportation fuels in future. It is important to develop novel cell factories for efficient production of FAEEs and their precursors. Results Here, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell factory expressing a heterologous wax ester synthase (ws2) from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus was used to produce FAEEs from ethanol and acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA). The production of acyl-CoA requires large amounts of NADPH and acetyl-CoA. Therefore, two metabolic engineering strategies for improved provision of NADPH and acetyl-CoA were evaluated. First, the ethanol degradation pathway was employed to re-channel carbon flow towards the synthesis of acetyl-CoA. Therefore, ADH2 and ALD6 encoding, respectively, alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase were overexpressed together with the heterologous gene acsSEL641P encoding acetyl-CoA synthetase. The co-overexpression of ADH2, ALD6 and acsSEL641P with ws2 resulted in 408?±?270 ?g FAEE gCDW?1, a 3-fold improvement. Secondly, for the expression of the PHK pathway two genes, xpkA and ack, both descending from Aspergillus nidulans, were co-expressed together with ws2 to catalyze, respectively, the conversion of xylulose-5-phosphate to acetyl phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and acetyl phosphate to acetate. Alternatively, ack was substituted with pta from Bacillus subtilis, encoding phosphotransacetylase for the conversion of acetyl phosphate to acetyl-CoA. Both PHK pathways were additionally expressed in a strain with multiple chromosomally integrated ws2 gene, which resulted in respectively 5100?±?509 and 4670?±?379 ?g FAEE gCDW?1, an up to 1.7-fold improvement. Conclusion Two different strategies for engineering of the central carbon metabolism for efficient provision of acetyl-CoA and NADPH required for fatty acid biosynthesis and hence FAEE production were evaluated and it was found that both the ethanol degradation pathway as well as the phosphoketolase pathway improve the yield of FAEEs. PMID:24618091

2014-01-01

142

Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

Robson, Stanley G.

1977-01-01

143

21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from...

2010-04-01

144

A mangrove stand under sewage pollution stress: Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mangrove stand of Avicennia marina located at the South Corniche of Jeddah city receives about 100 000 m3 of sewage per day. The sewage has high values of BOD, COD, nutrient concentrations, heavy metals and faecal coliform counts.

A. S. Mandura

1997-01-01

145

JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

1976-01-01

146

Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

147

Biodegradation of sewage wastewater using autochthonous bacteria.  

PubMed

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

148

High Prevalence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Swedish Sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe the use of the growth promoter avoparcin is considered to have selected for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Sweden ceased using avoparcin in 1986, and only occasional cases of VRE from hospitals have been reported since 1995. Within the framework of a European study, samples from urban raw sewage, treated sewage, surface water, and hospital sewage in Sweden (n 118)

Aina Iversen; I. Kuhn; Anders Franklin; R. Mollby

2002-01-01

149

Estrogenic Effects of Effluents from Sewage Treatment Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of hermaphrodite fish in the lagoons of sewage treatment works led us to hypothesize that sewage effluent might contain a substance, or substances, estrogenic to fish. to test this hypothesis, we placed cages containing rainbow trout in the effluent from sewage-treatment works, and one to three weeks later measured the vitellogenin concentration in the plasma of the fish.

C. E. Purdom; P. A. Hardiman; V. V. J. Bye; N. C. Eno; C. R. Tyler; J. P. Sumpter

1994-01-01

150

Hydrodynamic assessment of sewage impact on water quality of Malad Creek, Mumbai, India.  

PubMed

The rapid population growth and uncontrolled development in the coastal zone have led to major pollution impacts on creeks, estuarine, and coastal environment. Water quality models are valuable tools to understand the environmental processes for prediction of pollution impacts and evaluate future trends for management. Presently, the Malad creek in west coast of Mumbai receives wastewater and sewage from open drains and partially treated sewage from Malad and Versova treatment plants. The objective of the paper is to assess the environmental quality and estimate the extent of improvement in different parts of the creek by enhancing the collection efficiency and adequate treatment of sewage as well as disposal through ocean outfall. A hydrodynamic and water quality simulation has been carried out for the present condition in the creek and calibrated and validated with two different season data for better representation of the system. Calibrated model has been used to generate future scenarios based on various options. Among scenarios, option of treated effluent diverted to propose outfall and improvement in collection of unorganized flow through sewage up to 40% and 60% are found most significant for biochemical oxygen demand reduction and increase in dissolved oxygen. Fecal coliform reduction is also found drastically but still very high against standard. To improve the environmental quality of the creek, still upper stretch requires more dilution and flushing due to narrow width and contribution of heavy pollution from open drains. PMID:19424815

Vijay, Ritesh; Sardar, Veena K; Dhage, Shivani S; Kelkar, Prakash S; Gupta, Apurba

2010-06-01

151

Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/sewage sludge irradiation project. Progress report, October 1982-March 1983  

SciTech Connect

Gamma irradiation of various commodities in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids (SIDSS) and the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) continued during this reporting period. One truck-load of grapefruit was irradiated. Pelletized straw was irradiated to doses of 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 megarads in SIDSS. Sludge, virus, and fungus samples were irradiated. Infected ground pork and infected pig carcasses were irradiated in the GIF as a method of Trichinella spiralis inactivation. Other experiments conducted in the GIF included irradiation of cut flowers to extend their shelf life and irradiation of kepone to induce its degradation. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) capsule studies at ORNL and SNLA continued. A purchase order was placed for a prototype sludge solar dryer. Sewage Sludge Irradiation Transportation System (SSITS) cask activities included thermal stress analyses of cask performance following separation from the impact limiters during a fire. Analyses of cask performance, when loaded with six strontium-90 (Sr-90) capsules, also were done.

Pierce, J.D.

1984-11-01

152

Evaluation of multiple sewage-associated Bacteroides PCR markers for sewage pollution tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host specificity of the five published sewage-associated Bacteroides markers (i.e., HF183, BacHum, HuBac, BacH and Human-Bac) was evaluated in Southeast Queensland, Australia by testing fecal DNA samples (n=186) from 11 animal species including human fecal samples collected via influent to a sewage treatment plant (STP). All human fecal samples (n=50) were positive for all five markers indicating 100% sensitivity

W. Ahmed; A. Goonetilleke; D. Powell; T. Gardner

2009-01-01

153

Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture  

PubMed Central

The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation. PMID:13160760

Petrik, Milivoj

1954-01-01

154

Are Sewage Treatment Plants Promoting Antibiotic Resistance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is widespread speculation that sewage treatment plants (STPs) and aquatic environments in general may be breeding grounds for antibiotic resistant bacteria. We examine the question of whether low concentrations of antibiotics in STPs can provide or contribute to a selective pressure facilitating the acquisition or proliferation of antibiotic resistance among bacteria in the receiving environment. Examination of available literature

Karen L. Jury; Stuart J. Khan; Tony Vancov; Richard M. Stuetz; Nicholas J. Ashbolt

2011-01-01

155

Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

Wooding, N. Henry

156

Seasonal occurrence of rotavirus in sewage.  

PubMed Central

A seasonal distribution was observed for rotaviruses in sewage by using indirect immunofluorescence. Levels were low from May through September and generally higher during winter and spring. In contrast, no seasonal pattern was observed for total enteroviruses. Limitations of the indirect immunofluorescence assay and enzyme immunoassay for environmental samples are discussed. PMID:6324678

Hejkal, T W; Smith, E M; Gerba, C P

1984-01-01

157

HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An epidemiology study which included environmental samples and clinical specimens within a three mile radius of a new sewage treatment plant near Chicago, Illinois was carried out. Evaluations were made before and after plant start-up to determine if operations resulted in any ad...

158

FUEL SAVINGS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of a demonstration project partly sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, realized a 34% fuel savings for sewage sludge incineration. At the sa...

159

DISTRICT OF HOPE SEWAGE TREATMENT STUDY  

E-print Network

Discharge Permit 2.4 Effluent Monitoring Results Figure 1 1992 BOI) & TSS Figure 2 1993 BOD & TSS discharges to raw sewage is as follows: Total Suspended SOlidS(TSS) 200 ppm 15,000 ppm 75:1 BOD6 200 ppm 10 is equivalent to a daily BOD loading of 500 people. This loading is received over a relatively s

160

SEWAGE SLUDGE PATHOGEN TRANSPORT MODEL PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, raw or anaerobically digest...

161

SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT  

EPA Science Inventory

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

162

Sewage outfall plume dispersion observations with an autonomous underwater vehicle.  

PubMed

This work represents one of the first successful applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for interdisciplinary coastal research. A monitoring mission to study the shape and estimate the initial dilution of the S. Jacinto sewage outfall plume using an AUV was performed on July 2002. An efficient sampling strategy enabling greater improvements in spatial and temporal range of detection demonstrated that the sewage effluent plume can be clearly traced using naturally occurring tracers in the wastewater. The outfall plume was found at the surface highly influenced by the weak stratification and low currents. Dilution varying with distance downstream was estimated from the plume rise over the outfall diffuser until a nearly constant value of 130:1, 60 m from the diffuser, indicating the near field end. Our results demonstrate that AUVs can provide high-quality measurements of physical properties of effluent plumes in a very effective manner and valuable considerations about the initial mixing processes under real oceanic conditions can be further investigated. PMID:16477997

Ramos, P; Cunha, S R; Neves, M V; Pereira, F L; Quintaneiro, I

2005-01-01

163

Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

2013-04-01

164

Removal and factors influencing removal of sulfonamides and trimethoprim from domestic sewage in constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Twelve pilot-scale constructed wetlands with different configurations were set up in the field to evaluate the removal and factors that influence removal of sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfacetamide, sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole) and trimethoprim from domestic sewage. The treatments included four flow types, three substrates, two plants and three hydraulic loading rates across two seasons (summer and winter). Most target antibiotics were efficiently removed by specific constructed wetlands; in particular, all types of constructed wetlands performed well for the degradation of sulfapyridine. Flow types were the most important influencing factor in this study, and the best removal of sulfonamides was achieved in vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands; however, the opposite phenomenon was found with trimethoprim. Significant relationships were observed between antibiotic degradation and higher temperature and redox potential, which indicated that microbiological pathways were the most probable degradation route for sulfonamides and trimethoprim in constructed wetlands. PMID:23954243

Dan A; Yang, Yang; Dai, Yu-nv; Chen, Chun-xing; Wang, Su-yu; Tao, Ran

2013-10-01

165

Tracking human sewage microbiome in a municipal wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Human sewage pollution is a major threat to public health because sewage always comes with pathogens. Human sewage is usually received and treated by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to control pathogenic risks and ameliorate environmental health. However, untreated sewage that flows into water environments may cause serious waterborne diseases, as reported in India and Bangladesh. To examine the fate of the human sewage microbiome in a local municipal WWTP of Hong Kong, we used massively parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA gene to systematically profile microbial communities in samples from three sections (i.e., influent, activated sludge, and effluent) obtained monthly throughout 1 year. The results indicated that: (1) influent sewage bacterial profile reflected the human microbiome; (2) human gut bacterial community was the dominant force shaping influent sewage bacterial profile; (3) most human sewage bacteria could be effectively removed by the WWTP; (4) a total of 75 genera were profiled as potentially pathogenic bacteria, most of which were still present in the effluent although at a very low level; (5) a grouped pattern of bacterial community was observed among the same section samples but a dispersed pattern was found among the different section samples; and (6) activated sludge was less affected by the influent sewage bacteria, but it showed a significant impact on the effluent bacteria. All of these findings provide novel insights toward a mechanistic understanding of the fate of human sewage microbiome in the WWTP. PMID:24305737

Cai, Lin; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

2014-04-01

166

Environmental response to sewage treatment strategies: Hong Kong's experience in long term water quality monitoring.  

PubMed

In many coastal cities around the world, marine outfalls are used for disposal of partially treated wastewater effluent. The combined use of land-based treatment and marine discharge can be a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable sewage strategy. Before 2001, screened sewage was discharged into Victoria Harbour through many small outfalls. After 2001, the Hong Kong Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS) was implemented to improve the water quality in Victoria Harbour and surrounding waters. Stage I of HATS involved the construction of a 24 km long deep tunnel sewerage system to collect sewage from the densely populated urban areas of Hong Kong to a centralized sewage treatment plant at Stonecutters Island. A sewage flow of 1.4 million m3 d(-1) receives Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) followed by discharge via a 1.2 km long outfall 2 km west of the harbor. The ecosystem recovery in Victoria Harbour and the environmental response to sewage abatement after the implementation of HATS was studied using a 21-year data set from long term monthly water quality monitoring. Overall, the pollution control scheme has achieved the intended objectives. The sewage abatement has resulted in improved water quality in terms of a significant reduction in nutrients and an increase in bottom DO levels. Furthermore, due to the efficient tidal mixing and flushing, the impact of the HATS discharge on water quality in the vicinity of the outfall location is relatively limited. However, Chl a concentrations have not been reduced in Victoria Harbour where algal growth is limited by hydrodynamic mixing and water clarity rather than nutrient concentrations. Phosphorus removal in the summer is suggested to reduce the risk of algal blooms in the more weakly-flushed and stratified southern waters, while nutrient removal is less important in other seasons due to the pronounced role played by hydrodynamic mixing. The need for disinfection of the effluent to reduce bacterial (E. coli) concentrations to acceptable levels is also confirmed and has recently been implemented. PMID:21871638

Xu, Jie; Lee, Joseph H W; Yin, Kedong; Liu, Hongbin; Harrison, Paul J

2011-11-01

167

Improved retrieval of global tropospheric formaldehyde columns from GOME-2/MetOp-A addressing noise reduction and instrumental degradation issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new dataset of formaldehyde vertical columns retrieved from observations of GOME-2 on board the EUMETSAT MetOp-A platform between 2007 and 2011. The new retrieval scheme, which has been optimised for GOME-2, includes a two-step fitting procedure that strongly reduces the impact of spectral interferences between H2CO and BrO, and a modified DOAS approach that better handles ozone absorption effects at moderately low sun elevations. Owing to these new features, the noise in the H2CO slant columns is reduced by up to 40% in comparison to baseline retrieval settings used operationally. Also, the previously reported underestimation of the H2CO columns in tropical and mid-latitude regions has been largely eliminated, improving the agreement with coincident SCIAMACHY observations. To compensate for the drift of the GOME-2 slit function and to mitigate the instrumental degradation effects on H2CO retrievals, an asymmetric Gaussian line-shape is fitted during the irradiance calibration. Additionally, external parameters used in the tropospheric air mass factor computation (surface reflectances, cloud parameters and a priori profile shapes of H2CO) have been updated using most recent databases. Similar updates were also applied to the historical datasets of GOME and SCIAMACHY, leading to the generation of a consistent multi-mission H2CO data record covering the time period from 1997 until 2011. Comparing the resulting time series of monthly averaged H2CO vertical columns in 12 large regions worldwide, the correlation coefficient between SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 columns is generally higher than 0.8 in the overlap period, and linear regression slopes differ by less than 10% from unity in most of the regions. In comparison to SCIAMACHY, the largely improved spatial sampling of GOME-2 allows for a better characterisation of formaldehyde distribution at the regional scale and/or at shorter timescales, leading to a better identification of the emission sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds.

De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J.-F.; Lerot, C.; Theys, N.; Valks, P.; Hao, N.; van der A, R.

2012-11-01

168

Is There Sewage in My Sample?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the relationship between sediment sampling and ocean pollution as they discover how scientists collect and study sediment on the bottom of the ocean. They will also find out if the sediment sampling methods used by scientists can be used to detect pollution. They will learn about the proximity of the Hudson Shelf Valley and the Hudson Canyon to the New York City metropolitan region, one of the most populated areas in the United States; and will learn that formerly two dumpsites in the Hudson Shelf Valley and Hudson Canyon were used to dispose of sewage sludge. Students will also learn how scientists collect and use core samples to study seafloor sediments and what are some of the impacts of dumping sewage in the ocean.

169

Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not change so much except for the one of the sludges, which experienced an important reduction. According to the results, and from a point of view of future soil applications, the balance of the drying process could be considered as positive. It is using a free, renewable and clean energy, which reduces the water content and odours of sludge, thereby improving their management. Except for the water content, there was little modification of the behaviour in soil of greenhouse dried sludges compared to the dehydrated sludges, maintaining its large amount of available nitrogen after drying. Acknowledgements: Jose. M. Soriano-Disla gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Culture for a research fellowship (AP2005-0320).

Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

2009-04-01

170

Engineering Properties of Sewage Sludge in Trinidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some physical and engineering properties of five sewage sludges collected from different locations in Trinidad were measured in the laboratory. The properties assessed were dry bulk density, fibrosity, water content, solids content, the Atterberg limits, saturated hydraulic conductivity, density–water relations, penetration resistance, shear strength and compressibility. Air–dry bulk density of the sludges ranged from 0·37 to 0·83 Mg\\/m3while the solids

R. J Stone; E. I Ekwue; R. O Clarke

1998-01-01

171

Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed

Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

2003-04-01

172

Sensitivity of amphipods to sewage pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amphipods are considered a sensitive group to pollution but here different levels of sensitivity were detected among species, by analysing the impact of five sewage outfalls, with different flow and treatment levels, on amphipod assemblages from the Castellon coast (NE Spain). Sewage pollution produced a decrease in the abundance and richness of amphipods close to the outfalls. Most of the species showed high sensitivity, particularly species such as Bathyporeia borgi, Perioculodes longimanus and Autonoe spiniventris, whereas other species appeared to be more tolerant to the sewage input, such as Ampelisca brevicornis. These different responses could be related to burrowing behaviour, with fossorial species being more sensitive and domicolous species being less affected. Benthic amphipods, which live in direct contact with sediment, are widely used for bioassay and numerous species are usually employed in ecotoxicology tests for diverse contaminants. In order to consider amphipods for monitoring and biodiversity programmes, it is important to establish the degree of sensitivity of each species to different sources of pollution.

de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J. A.; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Y.; Giménez-Casalduero, F.; Sánchez-Lizaso, J. L.; Dauvin, J.-C.

2012-01-01

173

Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

1976-01-01

174

78 FR 34918 - Direct Final Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Administrative practice...recordkeeping requirements, Sewage sludge incinerators. Dated...Control of Air Emissions From Sewage Sludge Incinerators Sec. 62...the emission guidelines for Sewage Sludge Incinerators...

2013-06-11

175

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a...

2011-07-01

176

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a...

2012-07-01

177

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a...

2014-07-01

178

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a...

2010-07-01

179

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a...

2013-07-01

180

33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

... 2014-07-01 false Sewage and graywater discharge record...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge record...maintain, in English, a legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge...

2014-07-01

181

Enhanced power generation and energy conversion of sewage sludge by CEA-microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

The production of methane from sewage sludge through the use of anaerobic digestion has been able to effectively offset energy costs for wastewater treatment. However, significant energy reserves are left unrecovered and effluent standards are not met necessitating secondary processes such as aeration. In the current study a novel cloth-electrode assembly microbial fuel cell (CEA-MFC) was used to generate electricity from sewage sludge. Fermentation pretreatment of the sludge effectively increased the COD of the supernatant and improved reactor performance. Using the CEA-MFC design, a maximum power density of 1200 mW m(-2) was reached after a fermentation pre-treatment time of 96 h. This power density represents a 275% increase over those previously observed in MFC systems. Results indicate continued improvements are possible and MFCs may be a viable modification to existing wastewater treatment infrastructure. PMID:24912141

Abourached, Carole; Lesnik, Keaton Larson; Liu, Hong

2014-08-01

182

Co-digestion to support low temperature anaerobic pretreatment of municipal sewage in a UASB-digester.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to demonstrate that co-digestion improves soluble sewage COD removal efficiency in treatment of low temperature municipal sewage by a UASB-digester system. A pilot scale UASB-digester system was applied to treat real municipal sewage, and glucose was chosen as a model co-substrate. Co-substrate was added in the sludge digester to produce additional methanogenic biomass, which was continuously recycled to inoculate the UASB reactor. Soluble sewage COD removal efficiency increased from 6 to 23%, which was similar to its biological methane potential (BMP). Specific methanogenic activity of the UASB and of the digester sludge at 15°C tripled to a value respectively of 43 and 39 mg CH4-COD/(g VSS d). Methane production in the UASB reactor increased by more than 90% due to its doubled methanogenic capacity. Therefore, co-digestion is a suitable approach to support a UASB-digester for pretreatment of low temperature municipal sewage. PMID:24080295

Zhang, Lei; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Kampman, Christel; Temmink, Hardy; Zeeman, Grietje

2013-11-01

183

USE OF SYNCHRONOUS FLUORESCENCE SPECTRA TO ESTIMATE BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) OF URBAN RIVERS AFFECTED BY TREATED SEWAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronous fluorescence spectra and the first derivative spectra of urban rivers affected by treated sewage were studied to find the optimum index for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) estimation. In addition, various sample treatment methods as well as the multiple regression method using available monitoring parameters were examined to improve the BOD estimation capability of the indices. From July to November

J. Hur

2008-01-01

184

Environmental degradation and environmental threats in China.  

PubMed

The article presents a review of environmental degradation and its threats in China. Air pollution, water pollution, deforestation, soil degradation, sand depositing in dams, decaying urban infrastructure, and more and more hazards such as floods, landslides and soil erosion are major consequences of environmental degradation and are making tremendous loss both in life and property. Through investigation, the author found that poor air quality in the large cities; water pollution in the downstream of many rivers; the multiple problems of many mining areas; lack of access to fresh water; decaying sewage systems; and the disastrous impact of these environmental degradations on public health and agricultural products in many provinces is rather serious. Relationship of environmental degradation and natural hazards is close; more attention should be put in environmental degradation that may surpass economy progress if the trend continues. It is therefore imperative that Chinese government undertake a series of prudent actions now that will enable to be in the best possible position when the current environmental crisis ultimately passes. PMID:15887370

Wang, Ying

2004-01-01

185

Anaerobic degradation of benzoate to methane by a microbial consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stabilized consortium of microbes which anaerobically degraded benzoate and produced CH4 was established by inoculation of a benzoate-mineral salts medium with sewage sludge; the consortium was routinely subcultured anaerobically in this medium for 3 years. Acetate, formate, H2 and CO2 were identified as intermediates in the overall conversion of benzoate to CH4 by the culture. Radioactivity was equally divided

J. G. Ferry; R. S. Wolfe

1976-01-01

186

Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay occurs before it can reach the public however, incineration, which is done in winter months, directly releases the 131I from sewage sludge to the atmosphere, and even though exposures to both workers and the public were found to be considerably lower than 1% of natural background, incineration of sludge in a pathway for public exposure. Although 131I was readily measurable in sewage sludge, only about 1% of the radioione administered to patients was found in the sludge. The fate of the remaining radioactivity has not been established; some may be in secondary and tertiary residuals, but it is quite likely that most passed through the plant and was discharged in dilute concentrations in plant emissions. The behavior of radioiodine and other radioactive materials released into municipal seweage systems, such as those from large medical facilities, is not yet well understood. PMID:9258296

Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

1997-01-01

187

Microbial activities in soil amended with sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial populations and enzyme activities in a Light-colored Andosol amended with sewage sludges were studied in relation to the decomposition of the sludges. Six kinds of sewage sludges were mixed with the soil at rates of 5 and 1%. Subsequently, the mineralization of C and N, numbers of soil microorganisms, and activities of soil enzymes were determined during an 8-week

Hiroyuki Hattori

1988-01-01

188

Plant availability of phosphorus in sewage sludge compost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to compare the effectiveness of Blue Plains sewage sludge compost (BLU), Parkway sewage sludge compost (PAR), and triple superphosphate (TSP) as sources of P for corn. These amendments were applied to a Sassafras sandy loam in a field study and to the Sassafras soil and a Christian silty clay loam in a greenhouse study.

J. L. McCoy; L. J. Sikora; R. R. Weil

2009-01-01

189

FUEL EFFICIENT INCINERATION FOR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...

190

Antibiotic resistance of E. coli in sewage and sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is the evaluation of resistance patterns of E. coli in wastewater treatment plants without an evaluation of basic antibiotic resistance mechanisms.Investigations have been done in sewage, sludge and receiving waters from three different sewage treatment plants in southern Austria. A total of 767 E. coli isolates were tested regarding their resistance to 24 different antibiotics.

F. F Reinthaler; J Posch; G Feierl; G Wüst; D Haas; G Ruckenbauer; F Mascher; E Marth

2003-01-01

191

ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADABILITY AND TREATMENT OF EGYPTIAN DOMESTIC SEWAGE  

E-print Network

The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage for four Egyptian villages and four Egyptian cities was determined. The sewage of the Egyptian villages and cities represented a very strong sewage with an average total COD of 1100 and 570 mg/l, respectively. The biodegradability of the Egyptian-villages sewage (73%) was higher than that of the cities (66%). The results of a mathematical-model indicates that at applying a UASB reactor for the treatment of Egyptian villages and cities sewage, an optimum HRT of, respectively, 16 and 8 h is required. At these HRTs, a total COD removal and a conversion to methane of, respectively, 62-70 % and 59-64 % can be achieved for the sewage of Egyptian cities and, respectively, 71-77 % and 67-69 % will be obtained for the villages sewage. The model results show also that at a treatment of villages sewage in a two-step (anaerobic filter + UASB reactor) system a higher total COD removal can be achieved (77-81%) at a short HRT of 10 h (4+6 h).

T. A. Elmitwalli; A. Al-sarawey; M. F. El-sherbiny; G. Zeeman

192

Isolation of Burkholderia cenocepacia and Burkholderia vietnamiensis from human sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh human sewage was examined from a sewage treatment plant for the presence of members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) of bacterial organisms and confirmed the presence of viable B. cenocepacia and B. vietnamiensis, by a combination of cultural, phenotypic and genotypic techniques. Both these organisms are important respiratory pathogens for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Presently, the survival

Damian McNeely; John E. Moore; J. Stuart Elborn; B. Cherie Millar; Jackie Rendall; James S. G. Dooley

2009-01-01

193

Use of composted sewage sludge in growth media for broccoli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the use of composted sewage sludge (CSS) as a binary component with peat (P) in growth media for a horticultural crop, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Botryti cv. Marathon), was evaluated. Four treatments were established, based on the addition of increasing quantities of composted sewage sludge to peat (0%, 15%, 30% and 50%, v\\/v). Physical, physico-chemical and chemical

M. D. Perez-Murcia; R. Moral; J. Moreno-Caselles; A. Perez-Espinosa; C. Paredes

2006-01-01

194

CAUSES OF PAPILLOMAS ON FISH EXPOSED TO CHLORINATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This research was initiated to determine the cause of oral papillomas in black bullheads (Ictalurus melas) from the final oxidation pond of the Tuskegee, Alabama, sewage treatment plant. The water in this pond was chlorinated effluent from the sewage treatment plant. The presence...

195

Analysing of industrial sewages of an oil desalinaion unit in  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil contains salt water and solid materials at the time of extraction, more percentage of the materiales less quality of oil . so oil is transferred to desalination factory, to extract saltwater. The process produces indusrial sewages which contain a lot of water, salt, oil and some heavy metals. To understand rate of reservoir sewage pollution in the studied

Faramarz Tarkian; Masumeh Bostani; Ali Akbar Azimi

196

[Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].  

PubMed

"Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one. PMID:23705396

Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai

2013-02-01

197

Effect of flooding with sewage water on three wetland sedges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of three wetland sedges, Carex vesicaria, C. rostrata, and C. gracilis, were subjected to flooding with diluted pig farm sewage water in a sand-culture experiment lasting for one growing season (20 weeks). Sewage water application altered growth dynamics and accumulation of dry matter in all three species; it shifted the distribution of dry matter in favor of above-ground parts;

Hana Kon?alová; Jan Kv?t; Jan Pokorný; Václav Hauser

1993-01-01

198

Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) biomass production in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge compost and irrigated with sewage water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy use is one of the most important current global issues. Traditional energetic resources are limited and its use generates environmental problems, i.e. Global Warming, thus it is necessary to find alternative ways to produce energy. Energy crops represent one step towards sustainability but it must be coupled with appropriate land use and management adapted to local conditions. Moreover, positive effects like soil conservation; economical improvement of rural areas and CO2 storage could be achieved. Treated sewage water and sewage sludge compost were used as low-cost inputs for nutrition and irrigation, to cultivate cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) a perennial Mediterranean crop. The aim of the present field experiment was to ascertain the optimum dose of compost application to obtain maximum biomass production. Four compost treatments were applied by triplicate (D1=0; D2=30; D3=50; D4=70 ton/ha) and forty eight cardoon plants were placed in each plot, 12 per treatment, in a calcareous soil (CLfv; WRB, 2006) plot, located in the South East of Spain, in semi-arid conditions. The experiment was developed for one cardoon productive cycle (one year); soil was sampled three times (October, April and July). Soil, compost and treated sewage irrigation water were analyzed (physical and chemical properties). Stalk, capitula and leave weight as well as height and total biomass production were the parameters determined for cardoon samples. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) at p=0,05 significance level were performed to detect differences among treatments for each sampling/plot and to study soil parameters evolution and biomass production for each plot/dose. Several statistical differences in soil were found between treatments for extractable zinc, magnesium and phosphorus; as well as Kjeldahl nitrogen and organic carbon due to compost application, showing a gradual increase of nutrients from D1 to D4. However, considering the evolution of soil parameters along time, pH was the only with marked and significant decreasing trend from the first to the last sampling period. Mean cardoon biomass production in D1subplot was 13 ton/ha which differed significantly from D4 production, which was about 20 ton/ha. Hence, the maximum biomass production was obtained with the maximum compost dose. The results show that compost amendment increased cardoon biomass production, probably due to the improvement of soil properties, especially plant nutrient availability. No significant differences were found in soil parameters along time, with the exception of pH. However, longer test time is needed to evaluate long term effects in soil and to check the maintenance of biomass productivity. References Fernadez J., Curt, M.D., Aguado P.L. Industrial applications of Cynara cardunculus for energy and other uses. Industrial Crops and Product 24 (2006) pp 222-229. WRB (2006). World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2nd ed.). World Soil Resources Report 103, FAO, Rome, Italy (2006) 133 pp. Casado, J.; Sellés, S.; Navarro, J.; Bustamante, M.A.; Mataix, J.; Guerrero, C.; Gomez, I. Evaluation of composted sewage sludge as nutricional source for horticulturals soils. Waste Management 26 (2006). pp 946-952. Acknowledgements: The author gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Science for a research fellowship (AP2007-01641).

Lag, A.; Gomez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Melendez, I.; Perez Gimeno, A.; Soriano-Disla, J. M.

2010-05-01

199

Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and orange peel waste.  

PubMed

Mesophilic anaerobic digestion is a treatment that is widely applied for sewage sludge management but has several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability and nutrient imbalance. In this paper, we propose orange peel waste as an easily biodegradable co-substrate to improve the viability of the process. Sewage sludge and orange peel waste were mixed at a proportion of 70:30 (wet weight), respectively. The stability was maintained within correct parameters throughout the process, while the methane yield coefficient and biodegradability were 165 L/kg volatile solids (VS) (0 degrees C, 1 atm) and 76% (VS), respectively. The organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.4 to 1.6kg VS/m3 d. Nevertheless, the OLR and methane production rate decreased at the highest loads, suggesting the occurrence of an inhibition phenomenon. PMID:24645472

Serrano, Antonio; Siles López, José Angel; Chica, Arturo Francisco; Martín, M Angeles; Karouach, Fadoua; Mesfioui, Abdelaziz; El Bari, Hassan

2014-01-01

200

Enzymatic Degradation of (Ligno)cellulose.  

PubMed

Glycoside-degrading enzymes play a dominant role in the biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass into low-price biofuels and high-value-added chemicals. New insight into protein functions and substrate structures, the kinetics of recognition, and degradation events has resulted in a substantial improvement of our understanding of cellulose degradation. PMID:25136976

Bornscheuer, Uwe; Buchholz, Klaus; Seibel, Jürgen

2014-10-01

201

Drift Degradation Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA code, which determines structurally controlled key-block failure, is not applicable for stress-controlled failure in the lithophysal units. To address these limitations, additional numerical codes have been included that can explicitly apply seismic and thermal loads, providing significant improvements to the analysis of drift degradation and extending the validity of drift degradation models.

D. Kicker

2004-09-16

202

Challenge of urban sewage disposal in a karst region: Mérida, Yucátan, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four hydrogeologic factors influence urban sewage management on the northern Yucátan (Mexico) Peninsula: 1) lack of rivers capable of transporting and/or oxidizing sewage, 2) near-surface flat-lying, porous, permeable limestone and dolomite with shallow layers of variable permeability but without major subsurface aquitards, 3) rapid groundwater transmission, penetration of seawater inland beneath a fresh water lens, and a flat water table only a few meters below land surface and controlled by sea level, 4) near absence of soil cover. Mérida, Yucátan (population approaching one million, approximately the world's 450th most populous city) has no central sewage system. The water table beneath the city is consistently only 7-9 m below land surface, and the 40 m-thick fresh water lens, which is the sole source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water, directly overlies a marine intrusion of modified seawater composition. The old city has an estimated 130,000 drains feeding untreated household waste directly into the permeable karst aquifer. Numerous storm drains send street runoff directly to the aquifer. In addition, industries, hotels, and some subdivisions have unmonitored injection wells that pump untreated wastewater into the underlying saline intrusion. Some injection wells have flow problems possibly because of low aquifer permeability within the saline intrusion. Deep injection is also problematic because density contrast with saline intrusion water can produce a gravity imbalance, and high sulfate water can react with organic waste to produce H2S. Some city water supply wells are reportedly affected by inflation of the water table beneath the city, by local upconing of saline water, and by nitrate contamination. Paradoxically, Mérida with an abundant, easily contaminated source of fresh water, lacks streams to transport sewage off-site, and thus shares some water supply/sewage treatment problems with cities in arid regions. Recently, compact, efficient systems that provide almost tertiary-level sewage treatment have been developed and installed in various localities worldwide. Fitting the old parts of Mérida with several such systems would be less disruptive than blasting a monolithic sewer network through the city's rocky base, and it would minimize the problem of pumping sewage in an almost completely flat-lying area. Appropriate reuse of water from such local treatment facilities would be more flexible than from a single central system. Furthermore, injecting water into the aquifer after secondary or tertiary treatment would be a huge improvement over pumping of untreated "aguas negras" into the saline intrusion. Finally, there is a renaissance of sorts in sewage treatment technology, and it would be much easier to upgrade a number of individual systems as they became obsolete than to replace a monolithic central system. Safe, effective operation and monitoring of the suggested of sewage system would be challenging. Yet, as more cities join those 500 world-wide that now have populations approaching or exceeding one million, use of streams to export pollution may become infeasible. Perhaps Mérida can become a model to demonstrate that people can safely process and reuse their own wastewater.

Perry, E. C.; Villasuso, M.

2013-05-01

203

Preparation of new magnetic nanocatalysts based on TiO2 and ZnO and their application in improved photocatalytic degradation of dye pollutant under visible light.  

PubMed

Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) as a model of an organic pollution was accomplished with magnetic and porous TiO(2)/ZnO/Fe(3)O(4)/PANI and ZnO/Fe(3)O(4)/PANI nanocomposites under visible light irradiation. The structures of nanocomposites were characterized by various techniques including UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, XRD, SEM, EDS, BET and TGA. Optical absorption investigations show two ?(max) at 450 and 590 nm for TiO(2)/ZnO/Fe(3)O(4)/PANI nanocomposites respectively possessing optical band gaps about 2.75 and 2.1 eV smaller than that of the neat TiO(2) and ZnO nanoparticles. Due to these optical absorptions, the nanocomposites can be considered promising candidates as visible light photocatalysts to produce more electron-hole pairs. The degradation of MO, extremely increased using polymeric photocatalysts and decolorization in the presence of visible light achieved up to 90% in less than 20 min in comparison with the neat nanoparticles (about 10%). All these advantages promise a bright future for these composites as useful photocatalysts. The degradation efficiency of MO using stable nanocomposites was still over 70% after ten times reusing. The highest decolorizing efficiencies were achieved with 0.75 g L(-1) of catalyst and 10 mg L(-1) of MO at natural pH under visible light irradiation in less than 20 min. PMID:22817280

Nabid, Mohammad Reza; Sedghi, Roya; Gholami, Saeede; Oskooie, Hossein Abdi; Heravi, Majid M

2013-01-01

204

An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants.  

PubMed

Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean. Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1 ng L(-1) to 7.6 ?g L(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary treatments. From the present study it can be concluded that constructed wetlands may provide a complementary sewage treatment option, especially where other treatment is lacking today. To fully remove micro-pollutants from sewage effluent, however, other more advanced treatment technologies are likely needed. PMID:22192709

Breitholtz, Magnus; Näslund, Maria; Stråe, Daniel; Borg, Hans; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

2012-04-01

205

Optimising the preparation of activated carbon from digested sewage sludge and coconut husk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge is a promising way to dispose of sewage sludge as well as to produce a low-cost adsorbent for pollutant removal. This research work aimed to optimise the condition for activated carbon preparation from anaerobically digested sewage sludge with the additive coconut husk. The sewage sludge sample was mixed with the additive coconut husk.

J. H Tay; X. G Chen; S Jeyaseelan; N Graham

2001-01-01

206

SURFACE DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE (EPA/625/R-95/002)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sewage sludge and domestic septage may be applied to the land as a soil conditioner and partial fertilizer, incinerated, or placed on land (surface disposal). Placement refers to the act of putting sewage sludge on an active sewage sludge unit (land on which only sewage sludge is...

207

Polysaccharide Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

208

Garbage + sewage water + coal = electricity. [Lakeland, Fla. 364MW unit cooled by sewage-water effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lakeland, Florida is building a power-generating unit that will burn 80% Kentucky high-sulfur coal and 20% garbage and will be cooled by sewage water effluent. The plant was designed when a proposed new oil-fired unit was rejected in the mid-1970s, although additional capacity was anticipated to keep pace with the area's population and development growth. A coal\\/garbage fuel mixture has

Lesnett

1979-01-01

209

Spectroscopic study of the humification process during sewage sludge treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the free radical transition of organic materials during the sewage treatment process. Investigations of sludge from biologic-mechanical sewage treatment plant in Sosnowiec Zagórze were carried out. The course of the humification processes during sewage treatment was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The concentration of free radicals at each process stage and the value g were determined. Sludge samples and extracted fractions of humic acids were examined. Humic acids were extracted from sludge by means of conventional methods elaborated by Stevenson. For study of humic acids structures, besides EPR, the UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy were used.

Paj?czkowska, J.; Su?kowska, A.; Su?kowski, W. W.; J?drzejczyk, M.

2003-06-01

210

Growth of chrysanthemums in sewage sludge amended media  

E-print Network

(Trifolium r~e ens, L. ) when grown on soil amended with sewage sludge. Reports indicate that sewage sludge applications increased the dry matter yield of several container grown agricultural crops. Giordano et al. (35 ) reported that corn (Zea ~ma s, L... dry matter yield of turnips (Brassica ~ra a, L. ) and white clover (Trifolium r~e ens, L. ) increased with increasing rates of sewage sludge. Kirkham (tg) f d th t th d'ff f h 1 y (H d ~1 L. ) height and final dry weight among four different rates...

Schlutt, Edward Frederick

2012-06-07

211

Transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals during integrated composting-vermicomposting of sewage sludges.  

PubMed

Transformation and availability of nutrients and some heavy metals were assessed during the integrated composting-vermicomposting of both primary sewage sludge (PSS) and waste activated sewage sludge (WAS) using matured vermicompost as indigenous bulking material and employing Eisenia fetida as earthworm species. Vermicomposting resulted in significant increase in total N (TN) (PSS: 41.7-64.6%, F=11.6, P<0.05; WAS: 36.4-58.6%, F=6.4, P<0.05), water soluble N (WSN) (PSS: 37.1-50.5%, F=30.1, P<0.05; WAS: 40.1-53.0%, F=27.6, P<0.05), total P (TP) (PSS: 39.9-69.8%, F=27.1, P<0.05; WAS: 32.2-56.6%, F=21.4, P<0.05) and water soluble P (WSP) (PSS: 25.2-34.3%, F=163.9, P<0.05; WAS: 24.1-34.2%, F=144.3, P<0.05) as compared to the initial compost material depending on different experimental conditions. The study demonstrated that the vermicomposting significantly improved the availability of nutrients in sewage sludges. In addition, vermicomposting considerably reduced the availability of heavy metals except Fe and Mn, presumably by forming organic-bound complexes in spite of several fold increase in their total content. The environmental conditions (i.e., temperature and relative humidity), in general, showed significant effect on the transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals. There was no effect of earthworm density on the transformation and availability of heavy metals and nutrients except N and P, possibly due to prior exposure during acclimation period in sewage sludge. PMID:22277776

Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

2012-05-01

212

Transformation products and human metabolites of triclocarban and triclosan in sewage sludge across the United States.  

PubMed

Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (?=0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2'-hydroxy-TCC (r=0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r=0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (?=0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37-74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4-2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge. PMID:24932693

Pycke, Benny F G; Roll, Isaac B; Brownawell, Bruce J; Kinney, Chad A; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Halden, Rolf U

2014-07-15

213

Plasma chemical gasification of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The possibility for plasma gasification of sewage sludge is investigated. Water steam is used as the plasma generating gas and as a chemical reagent. The experiments are carried out at a sludge to water steam ratio of 1 to 1.5 by weight, and at a plasma torch temperature of up to 2600 degrees C. The calculated average temperature in the reactor after mixing with the sludge particles is up to 1700 degrees C. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the sludge are given. The resulting gases are analysed by gas chromatography. High calorific gas containing mainly carbon monoxide (48% volume) and hydrogen (46% volume), as well as glass-like slag, is obtained. No water-soluble substances are detected within it. The amount of carbon dioxide produced is under 4% mass. No hydrocarbons are observed within the gas. The investigated process is environmentally safe, compact and shows a high rate of conversion. PMID:12667017

Balgaranova, Janetta

2003-02-01

214

Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge  

PubMed Central

The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

2014-01-01

215

High congruence of isotope sewage signals in multiple marine taxa.  

PubMed

Assessments of sewage pollution routinely employ stable nitrogen isotope analysis (?(15)N) in biota, but multiple taxa are rarely used. This single species focus leads to underreporting of whether derived spatial N patterns are consistent. Here we test the question of 'reproducibility', incorporating 'taxonomic replication' in the measurement of ?(15)N gradients in algae, seagrasses, crabs and fish with distance from a sewage outfall on the Adelaide coast (southern Australia). Isotopic sewage signals were equally strong in all taxa and declined at the same rate. This congruence amongst taxa has not been reported previously. It implies that sewage-N propagates to fish via a tight spatial coupling between production and consumption processes, resulting from limited animal movement that closely preserves the spatial pollution imprint. In situations such as this where consumers mirror pollution signals of primary producers, analyses of higher trophic levels will capture a broader ambit of ecological effects. PMID:23602260

Connolly, Rod M; Gorman, Daniel; Hindell, Jeremy S; Kildea, Timothy N; Schlacher, Thomas A

2013-06-15

216

Second review of standards of performance for sewage sludge incinerators  

SciTech Connect

Standards to control emissions from new and existing sewage-sludge incinerators are reviewed. Information on the background and authority regulatory alternatives considered and the economic impacts of the proposed regulations is presented.

Not Available

1984-03-01

217

TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI  

EPA Science Inventory

Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

218

40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system. That...habitations) from the collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...1972; (b) The collection system is...

2010-07-01

219

40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system. That...habitations) from the collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...1972; (b) The collection system is...

2011-07-01

220

40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system. That...habitations) from the collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...1972; (b) The collection system is...

2012-07-01

221

40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system. That...habitations) from the collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...1972; (b) The collection system is...

2013-07-01

222

USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

223

Biological and abiotic losses of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils freshly amended with sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge containing typical indigenous concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was applied to several different soils in glass microcosms. Biologically active and sterilized soils were monitored for PAH content over a period of approximately 205 d. Agricultural soils with and without previous exposure to sewage sludge were tested, together with a forest soil and a soil from a major roadside. Loss of PAHs from a soil spike with a PAH standard solution was also investigated. Results indicate the PAH compounds with less than four benzene rings are susceptible to abiotic loss processes. However, losses by these mechanisms were insignificant for compounds with four or more benzene rings. Half-lives for the sludge-applied PAHs were derived and indicated a strong dependence of persistence on chemical structure. Half-lives for phenanthrene and benzo[ghi]perylene were between 83 and 193 d and 282 and 535 d, respectively. Mean half-lives correlate directly with log K[sub ow] and inversely with log water solubility. Behavior of PAHs was different in each soil, probably due to different soil characteristics and history of PAH exposure. The soil spiked with PAHs provided the lowest half-life values for most PAH compounds, suggesting a higher susceptibility of spiked PAHs to both abiotic and biological degradation.

Wild, S.R.; Jones, K.C. (Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom))

1993-01-01

224

Behavior of fluorescent whitening agents during sewage treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are contained in most modern laundry detergents and are thus discharged in substantial quantities with household wastewater. To determine the mass flows and fate of the predominant detergent FWAs, a field study was conducted at a full-scale mechanical–biological sewage treatment plant at Zürich-Glatt, Switzerland. Samples of wastewater (raw sewage, and primary and secondary effluent) and sludge

Thomas Poiger; Jennifer A. Field; Thomas M. Field; Hansruedi Siegrist; Walter Giger

1998-01-01

225

Mechanism of wet sewage sludge pyrolysis in a tubular furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to develop a preliminary mechanistic understanding of wet sewage sludge decomposition from starting constituents to final products, including intermediates formed during the pyrolysis process. Sewage sludge with a moisture content of 84.2 wt% was pyrolyzed at different temperatures in a tubular furnace, the pyrolysis products (hydrogen-rich fuel gas, tar and solid char) were detected

Beiping Zhang; Sijiang Xiong; Bo Xiao; Dongke Yu; Xiaoyuan Jia

2011-01-01

226

[National survey of urban sewage reuse in China].  

PubMed

On the basis of the national survey of the urban sewage treatment, the survey of 2007 national urban sewage reuse was conducted under the charge of the Ministry of Water Resources. The survey results indicated that the amount of urban sewage reuse was 17.9 x 10(8) m3 x a(-1), mainly used for industry, landscape, agriculture forestry, animal husbandry, urban non-potable water, and groundwater recharge. The urban sewage reuse rate was 5.23%. There were 127 sewage reclaiming plants in China, of which the production capacity of reclaimed water reached 347.75 x 10(4) m3 x d(-1), which produced 5.74 x 10(8) m3 reclaimed water in 2007. The total investment of sewage reclaiming plants was 56.44 x 10(8) Yuan, in which the central government investment, local fiscal investment and other investments accounted for 16%, 26% and 58%, respectively. The reclaimed water price varied greatly with the purposes or areas. PMID:23323420

Guo, Yu-Jie; Wang, Xue-Chao; Zhou, Zhen-Min

2012-11-01

227

Oceanographic effects of the 1992 Point Loma sewage pipe spill  

SciTech Connect

Early in early 1992, 180 million gallons of advanced primarily treated sewage emptied into 10 meters of water from the broken Point Loma sewage pipe, San Diego. For about two months a sewage boil about the size of a football field existed at the surface and within the Point Loma kelp bed. Sampling and observations taken during the spill indicated the surface waters at the spill site were grayish and smelling of sewage. The sewage water had mixed with the marine waters reducing salinity to about one-half normal (or 15 ppt.). The sediment load of the sewage coated the blades of the giant kelp and the kelp was limp and withdrawn from the surface. At the site of the main boil the kelp appeared to have dropped to the bottom. Sediments on the bottom in the boil area were mainly coarse sands as compared to the surrounding sandy-muds. Preliminary results using laboratory analysis suggest: one month into the spill no infauna were observed in the sediments or planktons in the water of the boil area, but were in the surrounding sediments and water; the observed phytoplankton were dominated by dinoflagellates and suggested red tide conditions surrounding the boil. The site has been monitored monthly since the spill to observe further impact and recovery.

Casey, R.; Ciccateri, A.; Dougherty, K.; Gacek, L.; Lane, S.; Liponi, K.; Leeds, R.; Walsh, F. (Ocean Research Inst., San Diego, CA (United States))

1992-01-01

228

Algal bioflocculation and energy conservation in microalgal sewage ponds  

SciTech Connect

Controlled bioflocculation for harvesting of microalgae produced during municipal wastewater treatment in high-rate ponds was investigated. Nonflocculant algal cultures were produced in high-rate ponds operated at very high dilution rates or with poor mixing. Bioflocculation of such cultures was achieved by isolating them in secondary ponds, but isolation periods of up to 29 days were required. In-pond sedimentation of flocculant algal cultures produced by the isolation technique resulted in algal removals consistently exceeding 80%. When high-rate ponds were operated with improved mixing and at moderate-to-high dilution rates, flocculant algal cultures were developed. The settleability of flocculant algal cultures produced in this manner averaged 76 to 80% when measured in 24-h-detention Imhoff cones and 71% when measured in 48-h-detention settling ponds. It is estimated that, under suitable climate conditions, a high-rate pond system employing bioflocculation-sedimentation for algal removal would require less than one-half the direct energy input of an equivalently sized activated sludge or trickling filter plant. This requirement could be provided entirely through complete utilization of biogas produced from anaerobic digestion of primary (sewage) sludge.

Eisenberg, D.M. (Univ. of California, Richmond); Koopman, B.; Benemann, J.R.; Oswald, W.J.

1981-01-01

229

Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503  

SciTech Connect

The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

Not Available

1993-08-01

230

Environmental Degradation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview: This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Resources and Human Impact SciPack. It explores how human activities, such as reducing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount and variety of chemicals that enter the atmosphere, intensive farming and fishing, and consuming fossil fuels have changed Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. Although the land, atmosphere, and the oceans have a limited capacity to absorb wastes and recycle materials naturally, humans have disrupted these natural cycles. Fresh water, limited in supply, is essential for life and most industrial processes. Overuse and pollution of rivers, lakes, oceans, and groundwater reduces the availability and suitability of these resources for all organisms. Technology used in the extraction and consumption of fossil fuels needed to meet the growing human demand has increased the depletion of nonrenewable energy resources such as fossil fuels, and degraded or altered the environment, both locally and globally. Learning Outcomes: Compare and contrast ways in which different technologies have impacted the environmental system. Differentiate between examples of renewable resources and non-renewable (finite) resources. Summarize how the burning of fossil fuels is affecting the environment. Assess both local and global environmental impacts when given examples of human resource use. Identify ways in which one human-based environmental change can have a domino-effect on the rest of the ecosystem (when given a scenario).

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2008-09-30

231

Isolation of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading bacteria and their degradation pathway.  

PubMed

Four strains of biphenyl-degrading bacteria were isolated from a sewage and identified from the Rhodococcus genus (SK-1, SK-3, and SK-4) and Aquamicrobium genus (SK-2) by 16S rRNA sequence. Among these strains, strain SK-2 was most suitable for biphenyl degradation. When 0.65, 1.3, 2.6, or 3.9 mM of biphenyl was used, the biphenyl was completely degraded within 24 and 96 h of culture, respectively. However, in the case of 6.5 and 9.75 mM of biphenyl, the biphenyl degradation yields were about 80 % and 46.7 % after 120 h of culture, respectively. The isolated strains could degrade a broad spectrum of aromatic compounds including high-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the presence of biphenyl. In addition, strain SK-2 could utilize PCB congeners containing one to six chlorine substituents such as 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl. The PCB utilization rate by the strain SK-2 was increased compared to that of other PCB congener-utilizing bacteria. The four isolates metabolized 4-chlorobiphenyl to 4-chlorobenzoic acid and 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-(4'-chlorophenyl)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid. These results suggest the isolated strains might be good candidates for the bioremediation of PCB-contaminated soil, especially high-saline soils. PMID:23529656

Chang, Young-Cheol; Takada, Kazunori; Choi, Dubok; Toyama, Tadashi; Sawada, Ken; Kikuchi, Shintaro

2013-05-01

232

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Llll of... - Summary of Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units...Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a...startup 1. Maximum design dry sewage sludge burning capacity2... 8. Results of initial air pollution control device...

2013-07-01

233

HAZARDOUS WASTE DEGRADATION BY WOOD DEGRADING FUNGI  

EPA Science Inventory

The persistence and toxicity of many hazardous waste constituents indicates that the environment has limited capacity to degrade such materials. he competence and presence of degrading organisms significantly effects our ability to treat and detoxify these hazardous waste chemica...

234

Detection of pump degradation  

SciTech Connect

There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed.

Casada, D.

1994-12-31

235

Renewable Energy Production from Waste to Mitigate Climate Change and Counteract Soil Degradation - A Spatial Explicit Assessment for Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste production from urban areas is growing faster than urbanization itself, while at the same time urban areas are increasingly contributing substantial emissions causing climate change. Estimates indicate for urban residents a per capita solid waste (MSW) production of 1.2 kg per day, subject to further increase to 1.5 kg beyond 2025. Waste water and sewage production is estimated at about 260 liters per capita and day, also at increasing rates. Based on these figures, waste - including e.g. MSW, sewage and animal manure - can generally be assumed as a renewable resource with varying organic components and quantity. This paper demonstrates how new and innovative technologies in the field of Waste-to-Green Products can help in various ways not only to reduce costs for waste treatment, reduce the pressure on largely overloaded dump sites, and reduce also the effect of toxic materials at the landfill site and by that i.e. protect the groundwater. Moreover, Waste-to-Green Products can contribute actively to mitigating climate change through fossil fuel substitution and carbon sequestration while at the same time counteracting negative land use effects from other types of renewable energy and feedstock production through substitution. At the same time, the co-production and recycling of fertilizing elements and biochar can substantially counteract soil degradation and improve the soil organic carbon content of different land use types. The overall objective of this paper is to assess the total climate change mitigation potential of MSW, sewage and animal manure for Japan. A techno-economic approach is used to inform the policy discussion on the suitability of this substantial and sustainable mitigation option. We examine the spatial explicit technical mitigation potential from e.g. energy substitution and carbon sequestration through biochar in rural and urban Japan. For this exercise, processed information on respective Japanese waste production, energy demand (population density) and transport infrastructure is used as input data to an engineering model (BeWhere) for optimizing scale and location of waste treatment plants with potential energy and fertilizer co-generation. Finally, this paper quantifies the economic dimension of mitigation through innovative waste treatment while considering the additional business-feasibility and potential benefits from waste treatment co-products such as energy generation, fertilizer and biochar production for counteracting soil degradation.

Kraxner, Florian; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Leduc, Sylvain; Fuss, Sabine; Aoki, Kentaro; Yamagata, Yoshiki

2014-05-01

236

Biotests for environmental quality assessment of composted sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The quality of sewage sludge-based products, such as composts and growth media, is affected by the contamination of sewage sludge with, potentially, hundreds of different substances. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve the reliable environmental quality assessment of sewage sludge-based products solely based on chemical analysis. In the present work, we demonstrate the use of the kinetic luminescent bacteria test (ISO 21338) to evaluate acute toxicity and the Vitotox™ test to monitor genotoxicity of sewage sludge and composted sewages sludge. In addition, endocrine-disrupting and dioxin-like activity was studied using yeast-cell-based assays. The relative contribution of industrial waste water treated at the Waste Water Treatment Plants led to elevated concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) in sewage sludge. The effect of elevated amounts of organic contaminants could also be identified with biotests able to demonstrate higher acute toxicity, genotoxicity, and potential for endocrine-disruptive properties. Additional extraction steps in kinetic luminescent bacteria test with DMSO and hexane increased the level of toxicity detected. Composting in a pilot-scale efficiently reduced the amounts of linear alkylbenzensulphonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenolethoxylates (NPE/NPs) and PAH with relative removal efficiencies of 84%, 61% and 56%. In addition, decrease in acute toxicity, genotoxicity and endocrorine-disrupting and dioxin-like activity during composting could be detected. However, the biotests did have limitations in accessing the ecotoxicity of test media rich with organic matter, such as sewage sludge and compost, and effects of sample characteristics on biotest organisms must be acknowledged. The compost matrix itself, however, which contained a high amount of nutrients, bark, and peat, reduced the sensitivity of the genotoxicity tests and yeast bioreporter assays. PMID:23540356

Kapanen, Anu; Vikman, Minna; Rajasärkkä, Johanna; Virta, Marko; Itävaara, Merja

2013-06-01

237

The Phytotoxicity Changes of Sewage Sludge-Amended Soils.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was the estimation of changes in the phytotoxicity of soils amended with sewage sludge with relation to Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum. The study was realised in the system of a plot experiment for a period of 29 months. Samples for analyses were taken at the beginning of the experiment, and then after 5, 17 and 29 months. Two kinds of sewage sludge, with varying properties, were added to a sandy soil (soil S) or a loamy soil (soil L) at the dose of 90 t/ha. The addition of sewage sludge to the soils at the start of the experiment caused a significant reduction of both seed germination capacity and root length of the test plants, the toxic effect being distinctly related to the test plant species. With the passage of time the negative effect of sewage sludge weakened, the extent of its reduction depending both of the kind of sewage sludge applied and on the type of soil. Phytotoxicity of the soils amended with the sewage sludges was significantly lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning. The species of the plants grown on the soils also had a significant effect on their phytotoxicity. The greatest reduction of toxicity was observed in the soil on which no plants were grown (sandy soil) and in the soil under a culture of willow (loamy soil). Solid phase of sewage sludge-amended soils was characterised by higher toxicity than their extracts. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11270-012-1248-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23002312

Oleszczuk, Patryk; Malara, Anna; Jo?ko, Izabela; Lesiuk, Adam

2012-09-01

238

The improvement of solar photocatalytic activity of ZnO by doping with Er3+:Y3Al5O12 during dye degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Er3+:Y3Al5O12, an upconversion luminescence agent, which is able to transform the visible light to ultraviolet light, was synthesized by nitrate-citric acid method. And then, a novel photocatalyst, Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO composites, was prepared by ultrasonic dispersing and liquid boil method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structural morphology and surface properties of the Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO. Azo Fuchsine dye was selected as target organic pollutant to inspect the photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO. The key parameters affecting the photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO, such as Er3+:Y3Al5O12 content, heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time, were studied. In addition, the effects of dye initial concentration, Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO amount and solar light irradiation time were also reviewed, as well as the photocatalytic activity in degradation of other organic dyes were compared. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO was much superior to pure ZnO under the same conditions. Thus, the Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO is a useful photocatalyst for the wastewater treatment because it can efficiently utilize solar light by converting visible light into ultraviolet light.

Yin, L. N.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Kong, Y. M.; Zhai, Y.; Wang, B. X.; Li, K.; Zhang, X. D.

2012-12-01

239

Macrobenthos response to sewage pollution in a tropical inshore area.  

PubMed

Organic sewage pollution is the major stressor that affects benthic communities in the coastal waters. In the present study involving a once-off sampling (July-August 2003) of a sewage treatment plant (STP) outfall and areas 6 km farther into the sea, we tried to estimate the severity of organic pollution on marine macrobenthos over a pollution gradient in the inshore waters (station depths, 5-30 m) off a heavily urbanized tropical city, on the east coast of India. Multivariate ordination analyses revealed two different groups of faunal assemblages. Group I is associated with sites impacted by the sewage outfall and group II with the locations 3-6 km away in the open sea. Polychaetes and amphipods were the predominant fauna with significant taxonomic differences between the assemblages. Despite the homogeneity in sediment texture, the two-fold increase in sediment organic matter near the sewage outfall area supported r-strategists, while group II locations favoured K-strategists. Approximation through benthic opportunistic polychaetes amphipods (BOPA) index and information on the key taxa responsible for the observed assemblage patterns corroborated these findings. Thus, the present findings revealed how organic sewage pollution influences benthic diversity in coastal waters by supporting communities of opportunistic characteristics. We advocate inclusion of community traits and compatible analytical tools (statistical approaches) in studies of similar nature so that the observations could be compared and broad remedial measures could be evolved. PMID:24464401

Ganesh, T; Rakhesh, M; Raman, A V; Nanduri, Sateesh; Moore, Shonda; Rajanna, B

2014-06-01

240

Water/Wastewater Engineering Report (Storm Sewer/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation-M1 Model)  

E-print Network

In some cities, the municipal sewer system collects both storm water and sanitary sewage in the same pipes. During dry weather these sewers carry all the sanitary sewage to the wastewater treatment plant for treatment. However, when rainstorms...

Liu, Z.; Brumbelow, K.; Haberl, J. S.

2006-10-30

241

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing...63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners...

2011-01-01

242

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing...63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners...

2013-01-01

243

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing...63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners...

2012-01-01

244

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

...2013-01-01 true Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning...1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners entering...

2014-01-01

245

Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extracted organic matter from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung.  

PubMed

The chemical changes of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from five different substrates of sewage sludge enriched with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida were investigated using various analytical approaches. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and C/N ratio of the substrates decreased significantly after vermicomposting process. The aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates enhanced considerably, and the amount of volatile fatty acids declined markedly, especially for the cow dung substrate. Gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the molecular weight fraction between 10(3) and 10(6) Da became the main part of WEOM in the final product. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the proportion of H moieties in the area of 0.00-3.00 ppm decreased, while increasing at 3.00-4.25 ppm after vermicomposting. Fluorescence spectra indicated that vermicomposting caused the degradation of protein-like groups, and the formation of fulvic and humic acid-like compounds in the WEOM of the substrates. Overall results indicate clearly that vermicomposting promoted the degradation and transformation of liable WEOM into biological stable substances in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, and testing the WEOM might be an effective way to evaluate the biological maturity and chemical stability of vermicompost. PMID:22230755

Xing, Meiyan; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong; Lu, Yongsen

2012-02-29

246

Treatability study of industrial waste using sanitary sewage to supply nutrients  

E-print Network

and settling Trickling filters degree of treating the waste. In 1951, Helmers, Frame, Greenberg and Sawyer (14) used sanitary sewage to supply nutrients to cotton kiering waste, rag rope pulping waste and brewery waste. The joint treatment of the sewage... and settling Trickling filters degree of treating the waste. In 1951, Helmers, Frame, Greenberg and Sawyer (14) used sanitary sewage to supply nutrients to cotton kiering waste, rag rope pulping waste and brewery waste. The joint treatment of the sewage...

Ferguson, James Ritchie

2012-06-07

247

Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of dewatered, anaerobically digested sewage sludge were determined from soil laboratory tests. The sludge material is largely composed of organic clay sized-particles, a sizable fraction of which is in an active state of biological digestion which can continue over many years under field conditions. Moderately digested sludge material was found to have a typical specific gravity of solids value of 1.55, and loss on ignition (LOI) value of 70% dry mass. Strongly digested sludge, produced by digesting the liquid sludge further at 35 degrees C in the laboratory, was found to have a lower LOI value of 55% dry mass, and a higher specific gravity of solids value of about 1.72. The maximum dry density of 0.56 tonne/m3 for the dried sludge material was produced using standard Proctor compaction at roughly 85% moisture content (54% solids content). Air-dried, compacted sludge material was tested in quick-undrained triaxial compression and vane shear. Undrained shear strength-moisture content plots are presented. Shear strength values measured in triaxial compression and vane shear were consistent. The effective angle of shearing resistance (phi') was determined from consolidated-undrained, triaxial compression tests on pasteurized, normally consolidated samples of the sludge material. The mechanical properties of the sludge material changed with the level of sludge digestion. The phi' value increased from 32 degrees for moderately digested sludge, to 37 degrees for strongly digested sludge. The effective cohesion of the sludge material remained zero throughout. The shrinkage, swelling and adhesion properties of the sludge material were also studied. Significant shrinkage occurred as the compacted material dried. The sludge material lost its adhesion below about 95% moisture content (51% solids content). Re-hydration of the dry material caused the bulk volume to double. PMID:15681178

O'Kelly, Brendan C

2005-01-01

248

Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Sanitary Engineering

1995-12-31

249

Concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in tropical soils amended with sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge may be used as an agricultural fertilizer, but the practice has been criticized because sludge may contain trace elements and pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of total and pseudototal extractants of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn, and to compare the results with the bioavailable concentrations of these elements to maize and sugarcane in a soil that was amended with sewage sludge for 13 consecutive years and in a separate soil that was amended a single time with sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge. The 13-year amendment experiment involved 3 rates of sludge (5, 10, and 20 t ha(-1)). The one-time amendment experiment involved treatments reflecting 50, 100, and 200 % of values stipulated by current legislation. The metal concentrations extracted by aqua regia (AR) were more similar to those obtained by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 3052 than to those obtained by EPA3051, and the strongest correlation was observed between pseudo(total) concentrations extracted by AR and EPA3052 and bioavailable concentrations obtained by Mehlich III. An effect of sewage sludge amendment on the concentrations of heavy metals was only observed in samples from the 13-year experiment. PMID:22810380

Nogueirol, Roberta Corrêa; de Melo, Wanderley José; Bertoncini, Edna Ivani; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

2013-04-01

250

Improvement of manganese peroxidase production by the hyper lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 by recombinant expression of the 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase gene.  

PubMed

The manganese peroxidase (MnP) gene (mnp4) promoter of Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 was used to drive expression of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (als), which is a key heme biosynthesis enzyme. The expression plasmid pMnP4pro-als was transformed into P. sordida YK-624 uracil auxotrophic mutant UV-64, and 14 recombinant als expressing-transformants were generated. Average cumulative MnP activities in the transformants were 1.18-fold higher than that of control transformants. In particular, transformants A-14 and A-61 showed significantly higher MnP activity (approximately 2.8-fold) than wild type. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the increased MnP activity was caused by elevated recombinant als expression. These results suggest that the production of MnP is improved by high expression of als. PMID:23884595

Hirai, Hirofumi; Misumi, Kenta; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

2013-12-01

251

Drug Resistance of Coliform Bacteria in Hospital and City Sewage  

PubMed Central

The number and properties of drug-resistant coliform bacteria in hospital and city sewage were compared. There was little difference in the counts of organisms with nontransferable resistance to one or more of 13 commonly used drugs. An average of 26% of coliforms in hospital waste water had transferable resistance to at least one of the drugs ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, or tetracycline as compared to an average of 4% in city sewage. R+ bacteria in the hospital discharge were also resistant to a broader spectrum of drugs than those in city sewage. In both effluents, the occurrence of fecal Escherichia coli among R+ coliforms was twice as high as among coliforms with nontransferable resistance. Resistance was transferable to Salmonella typhi, and such drug-resistant pathogens in the water environment could be of particular concern. The significance of the results with regard to environmental pollution with R+ bacteria and the dissemination of these organisms is discussed. PMID:4597713

Grabow, W. O. K.; Prozesky, O. W.

1973-01-01

252

Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was isolated from sewage sludge using the incubation in the Waksman liquor medium and the inoculation in Waksman solid plate. It was found that the optimum conditions of the bioleaching included solid concentration 2%, sulfur concentration 5 g?L-1 and cell concentration 10%. The removal efficiency of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zh in sewage sludge, which was obtained from waste treatment plant, Jinshan, Fuzhou, was 43.65%, 96.24%, 41.61% and 96.50% in the period of 4˜10 days under the optimum conditions, respectively. After processing using the proposed techniques, the heavy metals in sewage sludge did meet the requirement the standards of nation.

Wen, Ye-Ming; Lin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Qing-Ping; Chen, Zu-Liang

2010-11-01

253

Isotopic and microbial indicators of sewage pollution from Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania  

E-print Network

the health risks to humans, sewage pollution also threatens community structure, biodiversity, and services, 1985). Such deleterious effects of sewage pollution on coral reefs can have a strong impactIsotopic and microbial indicators of sewage pollution from Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania Molly A

Harvell, Catherine Drew

254

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-12-01

255

Changes in Macroalgal Communities in the Vicinity of a Mediterranean Sewage  

E-print Network

of pollution (Table 1). The sewage ¯owing into the sea is mainly carried westwards along the coast by currentsChanges in Macroalgal Communities in the Vicinity of a Mediterranean Sewage Outfall After of the Marseille (Mediterranean, France) sewage outfall, 8 years after the setting up of a wastewater treatment

Boudouresque, Charles F.

256

Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

1993-01-01

257

Sewage and industrial pollution in and around Thane Creek, Mumbai using high resolution IRS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution in the coastal waters of the Mumbai, India was analyzed the spectral signature with high resolution IRS?L3 data at the sewage discharge points in the Thane creek. The sewage distribution pattern was studied with reference to local tide on 21 February 2002 and 29 October 2002. The sewage plumes were identified off the discharge points in Thane Creek, Mumbai

S. K. Sasamal; K. H. Rao; U. M. Suryavansi

2007-01-01

258

The response of estuarine fish and benthos to an increasing discharge of sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tyne Estuary is one of the most anthropogenically impacted estuaries on the east coast of England. Since 1974, some 200 major sewage discharges to the estuary have been intercepted and redirected to Howdon Sewage Treatment Works for primary treatment. This study examines trends in the benthic fauna and fish populations in the vicinity of the sewage works discharge in

J. A. Hall; C. L. J. Frid; M. E. Gill

1997-01-01

259

Fish bile used to detect estrogenic substances in treated sewage water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting effects on fish associated with sewage treatment effluents have been demonstrated in several studies. To investigate if the effluents from two modern Swedish sewage treatment plants contained estrogenic substances, juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to sewage water before and after the last treatment step which is a sand filter. As a biomarker for estrogenic effect, vitellogenin was analysed

Maria Pettersson; Margaretha Adolfsson-Erici; Jari Parkkonen; Lars Förlin; Lillemor Asplund

2006-01-01

260

Work-related Helicobacter pylori infection among sewage workers in municipal wastewater treatment plants in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionMost studies among sewage workers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have found a higher prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms than among non-sewage exposed workers. Waterborne transmission of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) has been hypothesised, as the bacteria can survive into an aqueous environment and has been detected in sewage. A health and hygiene questionnaire has demonstrated a higher prevalence of peptic

Wim Van Hooste; Anne-Marie Charlier; Paul Rotsaert; Simon Bulterys; Guido Moens; Marc van Sprundel; Antoon De Schryver

2010-01-01

261

RADIOTRACER EXPERIMENTS IN THE MOHAWK RIVER, NEW YORK, TO STUDY SEWAGE PATH AND DILUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage from the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory near Schenectady, N. Y., ; was dosed with 4.53 curies of P³² prior to discharge into the Mohawk River. ; Its pattern of diffusion was measured in the river with immersible GM-tubes and ; by sampling. The initial path of sewage was strongly influenced by dlfferences ; in density betveen sewage and river

E. S. Simpson; W. A. Beetem; F. H. Ruggles

1958-01-01

262

The Effect of paper mill waste and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, Mediterranean soils have low organic matter content, due to the climate characteristics of this region and inadequate land management. Traditionally, organic wastes such as manure are used as amendment in order to improve the soil quality, increasing soil fertility by the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients in the soil. In the last decade, other anthropogenic organic wastes such as sewage sludge or paper waste materials have been studied as soil amendments to improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of waste from a paper mill and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter. For this reason, soil organic matter evolution was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the derivative (dTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal analytical techniques have the advantage of using full samples without pre-treatments and have been extensively used to study the evolution of organic matter in soils, to evaluate composting process or to study the evolution of organic matter of growing media.

Méndez, Ana; Barriga, Sandra; Guerrero, Francisca; Gascó, Gabriel

2013-04-01

263

Removal and environmental exposure of alcohol ethoxylates in US sewage treatment.  

PubMed

Alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are a common nonionic surfactant employed in consumer and industrial detergents worldwide. Commercial AE are typically complex mixtures composed of > 100 homologous compounds with varying alkyl chain lengths and varying numbers of ethylene oxide (EO) units. Recent improvements in analytical methodology have enabled accurate measurement of the entire AE mixture in sewage treatment plant (STP) influents and effluents, including alkyl chain lengths from 12 to 18 carbons with a range of ethoxylation from 0 to 18 EO units. These improved analytical methods were used to measure AE concentrations at nine sites representative of sewage treatment processes and geographical locations. These new data will make possible a more accurate assessment of environmental risk for AE in the United States. The results indicate that all AE homologues are effectively removed (> 99%) in the most common treatment types. Individual STP total AE effluent concentrations ranged from a low of 0.92 microg/L for activated sludge to a high of 15.6 microg/L for a trickling filter process. For the purpose of representing a national average distribution, an average-flow-weighted wastewater treatment plant effluent concentration was determined for each AE component. The total-flow-weighted average AE effluent concentration was 3.64 microg/L. PMID:16140378

Morrall, S W; Dunphy, J C; Cano, M L; Evans, A; McAvoy, D C; Price, B P; Eckhoff, W S

2006-05-01

264

Salmonellosis in wild birds feeding at sewage treatment works.  

PubMed Central

Between June 1976 and August 1977 faeces were collected from 599 wild British birds caught during ringing operations at two sewage treatment works in south-east England. Samples were incubated with selenite-F broth to detect the presence of Salmonella. Salm. anatum was isolated from one bird, a Dunnock Prunella modularis an incidence of 0.17% of the total birds examined and 3.23% of the Dunnocks. Comparisons are drawn with previously reported studies and it is suggested that sewage treatment works play little part in the transmission of Salmonella infections to wild birds feeding there. PMID:690424

Plant, C. W.

1978-01-01

265

Technical support for the incineration of sewage sludge. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The document provides the technical background and justification for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's final regulation (40 CFR Part 503) covering the incineration of sewage sludge. The document summarizes current practices in incineration and presents data supporting the risk assessment methodology used to derive human health and environmental risk-based limits for contaminants in incinerated sewage sludge. The management practices associated with incineration are outlined and the different pathways by which contaminants reach highly-exposed individuals through incineration are discussed.

Not Available

1992-11-01

266

The Composition of Fertilizing Value of Sewage Sludge.  

E-print Network

., 1930. English and German sewage . t. Eng. -Tews Record 105, 162-5. 9. Lipman, J. G. & Blair, A. W., 1918. Twenty years' work on the availability of nitrogen in nitrate of soda, ammonium sulphate, dried blood, and farm manures. Soil Sci. 5:291. 10...., 1930. English and German sewage . t. Eng. -Tews Record 105, 162-5. 9. Lipman, J. G. & Blair, A. W., 1918. Twenty years' work on the availability of nitrogen in nitrate of soda, ammonium sulphate, dried blood, and farm manures. Soil Sci. 5:291. 10...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1932-01-01

267

The application of potassium ferrate for sewage treatment.  

PubMed

The comparative performance of potassium ferrate(VI), ferric sulphate and aluminium sulphate for the removal of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour (as Vis400-abs) and bacteria in sewage treatment was evaluated. For coagulation and disinfection of sewage, potassium ferrate(VI) can remove more organic contaminants, COD and bacteria in comparison with the other two coagulants for the same doses used. Also, potassium ferrate(VI) produces less sludge volume and removes more contaminants, which should make subsequent sludge treatment easier. PMID:16182439

Jiang, Jia-Qian; Panagoulopoulos, Alex; Bauer, Mike; Pearce, Pete

2006-04-01

268

Real-time PCR for quantification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental water samples and sewage.  

PubMed

The protozoan pathogens Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are major causes of waterborne enteric disease throughout the world. Improved detection methods that are very sensitive and rapid are urgently needed. This is especially the case for analysis of environmental water samples in which the densities of Giardia and Cryptosporidium are very low. Primers and TaqMan probes based on the beta-giardin gene of G. lamblia and the COWP gene of C. parvum were developed and used to detect DNA concentrations over a range of 7 orders of magnitude. It was possible to detect DNA to the equivalent of a single cyst of G. lamblia and one oocyst of C. parvum. A multiplex real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for simultaneous detection of G. lamblia and C. parvum resulted in comparable levels of detection. Comparison of DNA extraction methodologies to maximize DNA yield from cysts and oocysts determined that a combination of freeze-thaw, sonication, and purification using the DNeasy kit (Qiagen) provided a highly efficient method. Sampling of four environmental water bodies revealed variation in qPCR inhibitors in 2-liter concentrates. A methodology for dealing with qPCR inhibitors that involved the use of Chelex 100 and PVP 360 was developed. It was possible to detect and quantify G. lamblia in sewage using qPCR when applying the procedure for extraction of DNA from 1-liter sewage samples. Numbers obtained from the qPCR assay were comparable to those obtained with immunofluorescence microscopy. The qPCR analysis revealed both assemblage A and assemblage B genotypes of G. lamblia in the sewage. No Cryptosporidium was detected in these samples by either method. PMID:12957899

Guy, Rebecca A; Payment, Pierre; Krull, Ulrich J; Horgen, Paul A

2003-09-01

269

Land application of chemically treated sewage sludge. II. Effects on soil and plant heavy metal content  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobically digested sewage sludges resulting from treatment of sewage with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/, or FeCl/sub 3/ for phosphorus precipitation were applied to corn (Zea mays L.) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyess) grown on a soil having an initial pH of 7.3. Rates of sludge supplied 200, 400, 800, and and 1,600 kg N/ha each year for 5 years. Treatments with NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ supplying 0, 100, 20, and 400 kg N/ha were included for comparison. Plant tissue was analyzed for Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb. No toxicity or deficiency symptoms were noted. Soil Zn, Cd, and Ni extracted by NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid) were increased by continued sludge application. The NTA-extractable Zn and Cd were positively correlated with the Zn and Cd concentrations in corn stover. Soil pH was reduced by the Fe-sludge application, slightly affected by the Al-sludge, and increased by the Ca-sludge. Increases in Cu concentrations in bromegrass and corn stover were associated with increases in the N content rather than the source of N, and plant Cu concentrations remained relatively constant across years. Sewage sludge application increased Zn, Cd, and Ni concentrations in bromegrass and corn stover, and Zn and Ni concentrations in corn grain, particularly at the higher metal loadings from sludge application. Zinc and Cd concentrations, especially in corn stover, increased with continued sludge application during the 5-year period. The inclusion of soil pH as a factor, in addition to cummulative amounts of Zn or Cd added as a constituent of sludge, improved the regression equations predicting Zn or Cd uptake.

Soon, Y.K.; Bates, T.E.; Moyer, J.R.

1980-07-01

270

Feeding of benthic foraminifera on diatoms and sewage-derived organic matter: an experimental application of lipid biomarker techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraminiferal ecology at sewage outfalls has been investigated in numerous field studies over the last 30 years. Foraminifera have been frequently used as biomonitors of sewage pollution since they are both abundant and ubiquitous. Sewage outfalls have been demonstrated to have both positive and negative effects on adjacent foraminiferal populations, but it has never been shown conclusively why sewage affects

Juliette N Ward; David W Pond; John W Murray

2003-01-01

271

Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroidales Alternative Fecal Indicators Reveal Chronic Human Sewage Contamination in an Urban Harbor?†  

PubMed Central

The complexity of fecal microbial communities and overlap among human and other animal sources have made it difficult to identify source-specific fecal indicator bacteria. However, the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies now provides increased sequencing power to resolve microbial community composition within and among environments. These data can be mined for information on source-specific phylotypes and/or assemblages of phylotypes (i.e., microbial signatures). We report the development of a new genetic marker for human fecal contamination identified through microbial pyrotag sequence analysis of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence analysis of 37 sewage samples and comparison with database sequences revealed a human-associated phylotype within the Lachnospiraceae family, which was closely related to the genus Blautia. This phylotype, termed Lachno2, was on average the second most abundant fecal bacterial phylotype in sewage influent samples from Milwaukee, WI. We developed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for Lachno2 and used it along with the qPCR-based assays for human Bacteroidales (based on the HF183 genetic marker), total Bacteroidales spp., and enterococci and the conventional Escherichia coli and enterococci plate count assays to examine the prevalence of fecal and human fecal pollution in Milwaukee's harbor. Both the conventional fecal indicators and the human-associated indicators revealed chronic fecal pollution in the harbor, with significant increases following heavy rain events and combined sewer overflows. The two human-associated genetic marker abundances were tightly correlated in the harbor, a strong indication they target the same source (i.e., human sewage). Human adenoviruses were routinely detected under all conditions in the harbor, and the probability of their occurrence increased by 154% for every 10-fold increase in the human indicator concentration. Both Lachno2 and human Bacteroidales increased specificity to detect sewage compared to general indicators, and the relationship to a human pathogen group suggests that the use of these alternative indicators will improve assessments for human health risks in urban waters. PMID:21803887

Newton, Ryan J.; VandeWalle, Jessica L.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Gorelick, Marc H.; McLellan, Sandra L.

2011-01-01

272

CAUSES OF PAPILLOMAS ON FISH LIVING IN CHLORINATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This research was initiated to determine the cause of the oral papillomas on black bullheads (Ictalurus melas) from the final oxidation pond of the Tuskegee, Alabama, sewage treatment plant. Ames-test mutagenicity of a pond-water concentrate indicated the presence of a chemical c...

273

Diatom distribution and status of organic pollution in sewage drains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the limnology of various sewage drains meeting the River Yamuna in Delhi suggest that diatom distribution, seasonal\\u000a and total, and concentration of nitrate nitrogen vary with the degree of organic pollution. The significance of such a relationship\\u000a for identifying certain diatoms as water quality indicators is discussed.

K. M. M. Dakshini; J. K. Soni

1982-01-01

274

Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer  

E-print Network

The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Using the efficiency-number of transfer units method ( ), the heat-transfer efficiencies of the parallel-flow and reverse-flow TDTH...

Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.

2006-01-01

275

Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants.  

PubMed

Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates. PMID:23404546

Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V

2013-09-01

276

EVALUATION OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested using the Salmonella/microsomal activation assay, t...

277

SEWAGE LAGOON DESIGN USING WETLANDS AND OTHER UPGRADING TECHNOLOGIES  

E-print Network

#12;L L llF L L L SEWAGE LAGOON DESIGN USING WETLANDS AND OTHER UPGRADING TECHNOLOGIES TO ACHIEVE Environmental Protection Fraser Pollution Abatement Office 224 West Esplanade North Vancouver, B.C. V7M 3H7 under the Fraser River Action Plan through its Fraser Pollution Abatement Office. Environment Canada

278

Sewage pollution impact on Mediterranean rocky-reef fish assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sewage outfalls on subtidal fish assemblages were studied along the NW coasts of Malta (Sicily channel, Mediterranean Sea) by means of underwater visual census. The presence of two spatially distinct outfalls discharging untreated wastewaters allowed to use a balanced symmetrical after control\\/impact (ACI) design that consisted of two putatively impacted locations and two controls, with four sites

Ernesto Azzurro; Marco Matiddi; Emanuela Fanelli; Paolo Guidetti; Gabriele La Mesa; Alfonso Scarpato; Victor Axiak

2010-01-01

279

Land Application of Sewage Effluents and Sludges: Selected Abstracts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains 568 selected abstracts concerned with the land application of sewage effluents and sludges. The abstracts are arranged in chronological groupings of ten-year periods from the l940's to the mid-l970's. The report also includes an author index and a subject matter index to facilitate reference to specific abstracts or narrower…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

280

OVERLAND FLOW TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE AT EASLEY, SOUTH CAROLINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Overland flow has been demonstrated to be a feasible method for treatment of either comminuted raw sewage or effluent from a facultative lagoon in piedmont South Carolina where mild winters prevail in a region of high rainfall. An overland flow system was operated for three years...

281

RESTORATION OF FAILING ON-LOT SEWAGE DISPOSAL AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to evaluate two rehabilitative techniques-water conservation and absorption bed resting--for restoration of failing on-site sewage disposal areas. Eleven homes with failing absorption areas were characterized and baseline water flow and septic ta...

282

DEMONSTRATION PHYSICAL CHEMICAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT UTILIZING BIOLOGICAL NITRIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This demonstration project in a small residential community in Kentucky was initiated to show the feasibility of treating sewage with a physical-chemical type of wastewater treatment plant with a biological process for nitrification. The 50,000 gallon per day system had unit proc...

283

Removal of DEHP in composting and aeration of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of composting and aeration to remove bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from municipal sewage sludge was studied with two dewatered sludges: raw sludge and anaerobically digested sludge. Composting removed 58% of the DEHP content of the raw sludge and 34% of that of the anaerobically digested sludge during 85 days stabilisation in compost bins. A similar removal for the anaerobically

Sanna K Marttinen; Kari Hänninen; Jukka A Rintala

2004-01-01

284

Biodegradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in the production of polyvinyl chloride to impart flexibility to the product. Because of its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, the presence of DEHP in sludge limits the application of sludge as a soil fertilizer. In this study, sludges were collected from three sewage treatment plants and thirteen wastewater treatment plants of different

H. F. Cheng; S. Y. Chen; J. G. Lin

285

SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION AT NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used for operating the incine...

286

Sewage impacts coral reefs at multiple levels of ecological organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against a backdrop of rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification which pose global threats to coral reefs, excess nutrients and turbidity continue to be significant stressors at regional and local scales. Because interventions usually require local data on pollution impacts, we measured ecological responses to sewage discharges in Surin Marine Park, Thailand. Wastewater disposal significantly increased inorganic nutrients and turbidity

Pasinee Reopanichkul; Thomas A. Schlacher; R. W. Carter; Suchai Worachananant

2009-01-01

287

HELMINTH AND HEAVY METALS TRANSMISSION FROM ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses a study designed to determine the practical survival and transmission of the ova of the nematode worm Ascaris sp. through a modern sewage and sludge treatment process. Four large experiments and three smaller ones involving 178 specific pathogen free (SPF) p...

288

Salmonella aberdeen infection in cattle associated with human sewage  

PubMed Central

Salmonella aberdeen was established as the cause of illness in 30 out of a herd of 90 milking cows. The illness was only moderately severe, and all animals responded to treatment. The source of infection was considered to be human sewage effluent overflowing onto grazing land. There was no report of human infection in the area from which the effluent came. PMID:4501833

Bicknell, S. R.

1972-01-01

289

Use of Composted Sewage Sludge on Roadside Vegetation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Composted sewage sludge was evaluated as a surface application for fertiliztion and renovation of deteriorated turfgrass, for incorporation into low-grade soils prior to seeding, and as a mulch and backfill in the planting of shrubs and trees. A one-half ...

R. C. Wakefield, C. D. Sawyer

1986-01-01

290

Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91\\/271\\/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related

J. M. Soriano-Disla; S. Houot; M. Imhoff; N. Valentin; I. Gómez; J. Navarro-Pedreño

2009-01-01

291

DIRECT THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE TO FUEL OIL  

EPA Science Inventory

A disposal method for primary sewage sludge and industrial sludges which generates boiler fuel as a product and is energy self sufficient or energy-generating is described. The method involves direct liquefaction in a mild aqueous alkali above 250 degs. C and was demonstrated for...

292

TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI  

EPA Science Inventory

The increase in resistance rates to trimehtoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in isolates of Escherichia coli has become a matter of increasing concern. This has been particularly true in reference to community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). This study utilized sewage i...

293

[Isolation and characterization of 4 benzene/toluene-degrading bacterial strains and detection of related degradation genes].  

PubMed

Four bacteria with the ability of benzene or toluene degradation were isolated from the active sludge of a life sewage treatment farm, two of which degraded benzene, and named B1 and B2; and other two degraded toluene, and named J2 and J6, respectively. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA showed that strain B1 and J2 belonged to Pseudomonas, and B2, J6 belonged to Acinetobacter. They all well adapted to the circumstances from 18 degrees C to 37 degrees C, 0% to 3% NaCl, and pH 7-10. The isolate J2 showed a high tolerance to organic solvent as it could grow well in the medium containing 70% (V/V) toluene, and degraded 92.4% of 0.1% (V/V) toluene within 72 hrs in a medium with toluene as the sole carbon source; while J6 presented 84.8% degradation under the same conditions to toluene. In the case of B1 and B2, they degraded 67.7% and 94.2% of 0.1% (V/V) benzene within 72 hours, respectively. Moreover, all strains were detected harboring the same benzene dioxygenase gene. In addition, J2 and J6 also had toluene dioxygenase genes which share 86.5% homology from each other. These bacteria are of potential in bio-treatment of benzene and toluene pollutants. PMID:17172023

Wang, Lin; Shao, Zong-Ze

2006-10-01

294

Absorber coatings' degradation  

SciTech Connect

This report is intended to document some of the Los Alamos efforts that have been carried out under the Department of Energy (DOE) Active Heating and Cooling Materials Reliability, Maintainability, and Exposure Testing program. Funding for these activities is obtained directly from DOE although they represent a variety of projects and coordination with other agencies. Major limitations to the use of solar energy are the uncertain reliability and lifetimes of solar systems. This program is aimed at determining material operating limitations, durabilities, and failure modes such that materials improvements can be made and lifetimes can be extended. Although many active and passive materials and systems are being studied at Los Alamos, this paper will concentrate on absorber coatings and degradation of these coatings.

Moore, S.W.

1984-01-01

295

A study of the effectiveness of sewage treatment plants in Delhi region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a conventional kind of monitoring study. The objective of the study was to assess and monitor the physicochemical parameters in wastewater at inlet and outlet of sewage treatment plant (STP) and also to study the effectiveness of the STPs. The average concentration of parameters at inlet sampling site pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, are 7.16, 2,169 ?S/cm, 766.06 mg/l, and major ions bicarbonate, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, chloride, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium values 515.88, 4.28, 82.85, 15.17, 7.01, 23.08, 29.34, 4.14 and 84.31 mg/l. While the average concentration of these parameters, after treatment shows following values 7.47, 2,161.43 (?S/cm), 695.81, 436.52, 1.25, 99.22, 12.69, 6.83, 23.18, 29.07, 4.40 and 82.65 mg/l, respectively. Further, to check the Na % and sodium absorption ratio at inlet and outlet which 27.89 %, 0.67 and 28.19 %, 0.68, respectively, for the suitability of the wastewater. Finally, the agglomerative hierarchical clustering techniques were used to study the similarity in the sewage treatment plants. The result suggests that there is considerable improvement in the wastewater quality after treatment except at the Pappankalan and Coronation Pillar, Timarpur.

Gautam, Sandeep Kumar; Sharma, Divya; Tripathi, Jayant Kumar; Ahirwar, Saroj; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2013-03-01

296

Compiled data on the vascular aquatic plant program, 1975 - 1977. [for sewage lagoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a single cell, facultative sewage lagoon was significantly improved with the introduction of vascular aquatic plants. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was the dominant plant from April to November; duckweed (Lemna spp.) and (Spirodela spp.) flourished from December to March. This 2 ha lagoon received approximately 475 cu m/day of untreated sewage and has a variable COD sub 5 loading rate of 22-30 kg/ha/day. During the first 14 months of operation with aquatic plants, the average influent BOD sub 5 was reduced by 95% from 110 mg/l to an average of 5 mg/l in the effluent. The average influent suspended solids were reduced by 90% from 97 mg/l to 10 mg/l in the effluent. Significant reductions in nitrogen and phosphorus were effected. The monthly kjeldahl nitrogen for influent and effluent averaged 12.0 and 3.4 mg/l, respectively, a reduction of 72%. The total phosphorus was reduced on an average of 56% from 3.7 mg/l influent to 1.6 mg/l effluent.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R.

1977-01-01

297

Combined effects of Fenton peroxidation and CaO conditioning on sewage sludge thermal drying.  

PubMed

Joint application of Fenton's reagent and CaO can dramatically enhance sludge dewaterability, thus are also likely to affect subsequent thermal drying process. This study investigated the synergistic effects of the two conditioners on the thermal drying behavior of sewage sludge and the emission characteristics of main sulfur-/nitrogen-containing gases. According to the results, Fenton peroxidation combined with CaO conditioning efficiently promoted sludge heat transfer, reduced the amounts of both free and bound water, and created porous structure in solids to provide evaporation channels, thus producing significant positive effects on sludge drying performance. In this case, the required time for drying was shortened to one-third. Additionally, joint usage of Fenton's reagent and CaO did not increase the losses of organic matter during sludge drying process. Meanwhile, they facilitated the formation of sulfate and sulfonic acid/sulfone, leading to sulfur retention in dried sludge. Both of Fenton peroxidation and CaO conditioning promoted the oxidation, decomposition, and/or dissolution of protein and inorganic nitrogen in sludge pre-treatment. As a consequence, the emissions of sulfurous and nitrogenous gases from dewatered sludge drying were greatly suppressed. These indicate that combining Fenton peroxidation with CaO conditioning is a promising strategy to improve drying efficiency of sewage sludge and to control sulfur and nitrogen contaminants during sludge thermal drying process. PMID:25289973

Liu, Huan; Liu, Peng; Hu, Hongyun; Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Zhenyu; Yang, Jiakuan; Yao, Hong

2014-12-01

298

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in selected sewage sludge in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Levels of seven major perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) were analyzed for the first time in sludge from wastewater treatment plants from Nigeria. Measurements were performed using an analytical methodology using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS). The method detection limit and method quantification limit was 3pg/g and 9.5pg/g for both analytes (PFCAs and PFSAs) respectively. Typical recoveries ranged from 50% to 104% for spiked mass labeled internal standards of 1ng (absolute value) to 1g of sample. All sludge samples taken from industrial, domestic and hospital wastewater treatment plants contained measurable levels of PFASs. Levels of the quantified perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates concentrations ranged from 10 to 597 and 14 to 540pg/g, respectively. The concentrations were therefore lower compared to sewage sludge samples reported in other regions in the world. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates with carbon chain having ?8 fluorinated carbons were detected in the analyzed sewage sludge samples at higher levels compared to carboxylates with <8 fluorinated carbon chain. The measured concentrations indicate that no PFAS point source for the 10 investigated sewage treatment plants existed. Furthermore the low levels in the four municipal sewage treatment plants in Lagos is a first indication that even in an African megacity like Lagos the PFASs release from households are low until now. The highest PFOS level was found in a hospital sewage sludge (539.6pg/g) possibly indicating (minor) release from medical equipment where some are known to contain PFOS. The PFASs in waste water sludge from a brewery warrant further investigations. PMID:23648329

Sindiku, Omotayo; Orata, Francis; Weber, Roland; Osibanjo, Oladele

2013-07-01

299

Mucosal and Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses Detected in Raw Sewages  

PubMed Central

Epitheliotropic viruses can find their way into sewage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and genetic diversity of Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) in urban wastewaters. Sewage samples were collected from treatment plants distributed throughout Italy. The DNA extracted from these samples was analyzed by PCR using five PV-specific sets of primers targeting the L1 (GP5/GP6, MY09/MY11, FAP59/64, SKF/SKR) and E1 regions (PM-A/PM-B), according to the protocols previously validated for the detection of mucosal and cutaneous HPV genotypes. PCR products underwent sequencing analysis and the sequences were aligned to reference genomes from the Papillomavirus Episteme database. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to assess the genetic relationships among the different sequences and between the sequences of the samples and those of the prototype strains. A broad spectrum of sequences related to mucosal and cutaneous HPV types was detected in 81% of the sewage samples analyzed. Surprisingly, sequences related to the anogenital HPV6 and 11 were detected in 19% of the samples, and sequences related to the “high risk” oncogenic HPV16 were identified in two samples. Sequences related to HPV9, HPV20, HPV25, HPV76, HPV80, HPV104, HPV110, HPV111, HPV120 and HPV145 beta Papillomaviruses were detected in 76% of the samples. In addition, similarity searches and phylogenetic analysis of some sequences suggest that they could belong to putative new genotypes of the beta genus. In this study, for the first time, the presence of HPV viruses strongly related to human cancer is reported in sewage samples. Our data increases the knowledge of HPV genomic diversity and suggests that virological analysis of urban sewage can provide key information useful in supporting epidemiological studies. PMID:23341898

La Rosa, Giuseppina; Fratini, Marta; Accardi, Luisa; D'Oro, Graziana; Della Libera, Simonetta; Muscillo, Michele; Di Bonito, Paola

2013-01-01

300

Dissolved oxygen in the rehabilitation phase of an estuary: influence of sewage pollution abatement and hydro-climatic factors.  

PubMed

Seasonal and inter-annual variations of dissolved oxygen (DO) along the estuary of Bilbao were investigated from 1998 to 2008, during its rehabilitation phase from pollution, to determine whether anthropogenic or natural forcings or both govern DO dynamics and hypoxia. Both seasonal and inter-annual variations of DO were best explained by hydro-climatic factors, sewage pollution and phytoplankton dynamics in the inner, intermediate and outer estuary respectively. The most remarkable intra-decadal improvement in DO occurred in the halocline layer of the intermediate estuary, where the factor that best explained these changes was sewage pollution abatement. However, in the estuarine hotspot for hypoxia, i.e. inner estuary bottom waters, no parallel response to sewage pollution abatement was observed and hydro-climatic factors were the main drivers of inter-annual DO variations. Differences in the degree of stratification and flushing accounted for this differential response of DO to anthropogenic and climate-related forcings at both axial and vertical scales. PMID:23601887

Villate, Fernando; Iriarte, Arantza; Uriarte, Ibon; Intxausti, Lander; de la Sota, Alejandro

2013-05-15

301

Effect of biomass addition on the surface and adsorption characterization of carbon-based adsorbents from sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge with the additive corn cob was used as prescusor to prepare sludge-based carbon adsorbents by pyrolysis method. And then, the carbonizated products were activated with potassium hydroxide. The mixing ratio of the corn cob to sewage sludge was investigated. The surface area and pore size distribution, elemental composition, surface chemistry structure and the surface physical morphology were determined and compared. The results demonstrated that the addition of corn cob into the sewage sludge sample could effectively improve the surface area (from 287 to 591 m2/g) and the microporosity (from 5% to 48%) of the carbon based adsorbent, thus enhancing the adsorption behavior. The sulfur dioxide adsorption capacity was measured according to breakthrough test. It was found that the sulfur dioxide adsorption capacity of the adsorbents was obviously enhanced after the addition of the corn cob. It is presumed that not only highly porous adsorbents, but also a high metallic content of these materials are required to achieve good performances. PMID:23596963

Wu, Changzi; Song, Min; Jin, Baosheng; Wu, Yimin; Huang, Yaji

2013-02-01

302

Quantitative PCR assay of sewage-associated Bacteroides markers to assess sewage pollution in an urban lake in Dhaka, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This paper aimed to assess the magnitude of sewage pollution in an urban lake in Dhaka, Bangladesh, by using quantitative PCR of sewage-associated Bacteroides HF183 markers. PCR was also used for the quantitative detection of ruminant wastewater-associated CF128 markers along with the enumeration of traditional fecal indicator bacteria, namely enterococci. The number of enterococci in lake water samples ranged from 1.1 × 10? to 1.9 × 10? colony-forming units/100 mL water. From the 20 water samples tested, 14 (70%) and 7 (35%) were PCR positive for HF183 and CF128 markers, respectively. The numbers of HF183 and CF128 markers in lake water samples were 3.9 × 10? to 6.3 × 10? and 9.3 × 10³ to 6.3 × 10? genomic units/100 mL water, respectively. The high numbers of enterococci and HF183 markers are indicative of sewage pollution and potential health risks to those who use the lake water for nonpotable purposes such as bathing and washing clothes. This is the first study that investigated the presence of microbial source tracking markers in Dhaka, Bangladesh, where diarrhoeal disease is one of the major causes of childhood mortality. The molecular assay used in this study can provide valuable information on the extent of sewage pollution, thus facilitating the development of robust strategies to minimize potential health risks. PMID:20962907

Ahmed, Warish; Yusuf, Rita; Hasan, Imtiaj; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Gardner, Ted

2010-10-01

303

Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation of sewage disposal.  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens, a marker of domestic sewage contamination, was enumerated in sediment samples obtained from the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site 1 month and 1 year after cessation of sewage disposal at this site. C. perfringens counts in sediments collected at the disposal site and from stations 26 nautical miles (ca. 48 km) and 50 nautical miles (ca. 92 km) to the southwest of the site were, in general, more than 10-fold higher than counts from an uncontaminated reference site. C. perfringens counts at the disposal site were not significantly different between 1992 and 1993, suggesting that sewage sludge had remained in the benthic environment at this site. At stations where C. perfringens counts were elevated (i.e., stations other than the reference station), counts were generally higher in the top 1 cm and decreased down to 5 cm. In some cases, C. perfringens counts in the bottom 4 or 5 cm showed a trend of higher counts in 1993 than in 1992, suggesting bioturbation. We conclude that widespread sludge contamination of the benthic environment has persisted for at least 1 year after cessation of ocean sewage disposal at the 106-Mile Site. PMID:8633872

Hill, R T; Straube, W L; Palmisano, A C; Gibson, S L; Colwell, R R

1996-01-01

304

Research on atmospheric pressure plasma processing sewage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water pollution has become more and more serious with the industrial progress and social development, so it become a worldwide leading environmental management problem to human survival and personal health, therefore, countries are looking for the best solution. Generally speaking, in this paper the work has the following main achievements and innovation: (1) Developed a new plasma device--Plasma Water Bed. (2) At atmospheric pressure condition, use oxygen, nitrogen, argon and helium as work gas respectively, use fiber spectrometer to atmospheric pressure plasma discharge the emission spectrum of measurement, due to the different work gas producing active particle is different, so can understand discharge, different particle activity, in the treatment of wastewater, has the different degradation effects. (3) Methyl violet solution treatment by plasma water bed. Using plasma drafting make active particles and waste leachate role, observe the decolorization, measurement of ammonia nitrogen removal.

Song, Gui-cai; Na, Yan-xiang; Dong, Xiao-long; Sun, Xiao-liang

2013-08-01

305

Isolation and characterization of a pentachlorophenol-degrading bacterium.  

PubMed Central

With a new enrichment protocol, pentachlorophenol (PCP)-degrading bacteria were isolated from soil, water, and sewage. When characterized, all isolates were related and shared characteristics of the genus Arthrobacter. Growth rates for strain NC were determined for a number of substrates, including PCP and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. Changes in PCP concentration affected growth rate and length of the lag phase but not cell yield. Increasing the pH from 6.8 to 7.8 decreased the length of the lag phase for growth on PCP. Cessation of growth, upon incremental addition of PCP, was found to be related to a decrease in pH rather than to a buildup of a toxic metabolite. Degradation of PCP by strain NC was shown to be complete. PMID:7159084

Stanlake, G J; Finn, R K

1982-01-01

306

Degradation of naproxen by UV, VUV photolysis and their combination.  

PubMed

Naproxen is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Recently, this medicine was detected both in natural waters (up to 1.5 ?g L(-1)) and in sewage treatment plant effluents (up to 5.2 ?g L(-1)). Moreover, naproxen is only partly eliminated by classical processes used in sewage treatment plants. Therefore, its degradation is of utmost interest. Advanced oxidation processes proved to be the most suitable methods for the elimination of persistent organic contaminants. In this work ultraviolet (UV, 254 nm), vacuum ultraviolet photolysis (VUV, 172 nm) and their combination (UV/VUV, 254/185 nm) were investigated. The efficiency of the methods increased in the following order: UV < VUV < UV/VUV photolysis. However, VUV irradiation was found to mineralize the contaminant molecule most effectively. The chemical structures of three out of four aromatic by-products and of some aliphatic carboxylic acids were presumed. The effects of dissolved O2 and the initial concentration of naproxen on the degradation were also investigated. PMID:24029532

Arany, Eszter; Szabó, Rita Katalin; Apáti, László; Alapi, Tünde; Ilisz, István; Mazellier, Patrick; Dombi, András; Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina

2013-11-15

307

Antimisting kerosene: Low temperature degradation and blending  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inline filtration characteristics of freshly blended and degraded antimisting fuels (AMK) at low temperature are examined. A needle valve degrader was modified to include partial recirculation of degraded fuel and heat addition in the bypass loop. A pressure drop across the needle valve of up to 4,000 psi was used. The pressure drop across a 325 mesh filter screen placed inline with the degrader and directly downstream of the needle valve was measured as a function of time for different values of pressure drop across the needle valve. A volume flux of 1 gpm/sq in was employed based on the frontal area of the screen. It was found that, at ambient temperatures, freshly blended AMK fuel could be degraded using a single pass degradation at 4,000 psi pressure drop across the needle valve to give acceptable filterability performance. At fuel temperatures below -20 C, degradation becomes increasingly difficult and a single pass technique results in unacceptable filtration performance. Recirculation of a fraction of the degraded fuel and heat addition in the bypass loop improved low temperature degradation performance. The problem is addressed of blending the AMK additive with Jet A at various base fuel temperatures.

Yavrouian, A.; Parikh, P.; Sarohia, V.

1988-01-01

308

Targeting proteins for degradation  

PubMed Central

Protein degradation plays a central role in many cellular functions. Misfolded and damaged proteins are removed from the cell to avoid toxicity. The concentrations of regulatory proteins are adjusted by degradation at the appropriate time. Both foreign and native proteins are digested into small peptides as part of the adaptive immune response. In eukaryotic cells, an ATP-dependent protease called the proteasome is responsible for much of this proteolysis. Proteins are targeted for proteasomal degradation by a two-part degron, which consists of a proteasome binding signal and a degradation initiation site. Here we describe how both components contribute to the specificity of degradation. PMID:19841631

Schrader, Erin K; Harstad, Kristine G; Matouschek, Andreas

2014-01-01

309

Tree vegetation and waste amendments to improve the physical condition of copper mine soils.  

PubMed

Mine soils are often physically degraded, which hinders plants development. The untreated soils at the depleted copper mine in Touro (Galicia, north-west Spain) have no vegetation and are probably physically degraded. These mine soils were reclaimed both by planting trees and amending with waste (sewage sludge and paper mill residues). The purpose was to determine the effect of these treatments on the physical quality of the soils of the Touro mine under field conditions. We evaluated the physical situation of both the settling pond and the mine tailings in Touro, then comparing them with their respective treated areas: vegetated, amended or with both treatments at the same time. We corroborated that the physical degradation of untreated soils was considerable: low porosity, high density and less than 50% of water stable aggregates. The trees that were planted increased porosity, probably due to root activity. The added amendments increased the mean weight diameter (MWD), the percentage of water stable aggregates (WSA) and the stability index (SI) due to the high organic carbon content in the added wastes. We verified that using both treatments at the same time is better than using only one to improve the physical situation of mine soils. PMID:23026161

Asensio, V; Vega, F A; Andrade, M L; Covelo, E F

2013-01-01

310

Assessment of an Enterovirus Sewage Surveillance System by Comparison of Clinical Isolates with Sewage Isolates from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Collected August 1994 to December 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantity and serotypes of enteroviruses (EVs) in the influent of a local sewage treatment plant were compared to local clinical EV cases to determine if testing of sewage is adequate for an EV surveillance system. The study was carried out from August 1994 to December 2002. Monthly influent specimens were processed by organic flocculation, and dilutions of concentrate were

Gerald Sedmak; David Bina; Jeffrey MacDonald

2003-01-01

311

Counting cytopathogenic virus adsorbed to cellulose nitrate membrane filters as a simple method for counting viruses in raw sewage and sewage effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the VIRMETADEN (acronym derived from virus adsorption enumeration) method to count cytopathogenic viruses adsorbed to cellulose nitrate membrane filters from prefiltered and decontaminated sewage samples was shown to be feasible. The numbers of naturally occurring enteroviruses recovered by the VIRMETADEN method were significantly higher than those obtained by standard plaque assay. For prefiltration of sewage samples, low protein binding

Laura Mocé-Llivina; Juan Jofre; Xavier Méndez; Dina Akkelidou; Francisco Lucena; Georgios T Papageorgiou

2002-01-01

312

Determination of pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, and endocrine-disrupting personal care products in sewage sludge by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive method has been developed and validated for the determination of diverse groups of pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, and hormone-like personal care products in sewage sludge. Samples were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction followed by solid-phase extraction cleanup. For determination of estrogens and hormone-like phenolic compounds, sample extracts were further derivatized with dansyl chloride and purified with silica gel column chromatography to improve the analytical sensitivity. The chemicals were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Recoveries ranged mostly from 63% to 119% with relative standard deviations within 15%. Method quantification limits were 0.1-3 ng?g(-1) dry weight (dw) for sewage sludge. The method was applied to a preliminary investigation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in sewage sludge and sediment in the Pearl River Delta, South China. Triclosan, triclocarban, 2-phenylphenol, bisphenol A, and parabens were ubiquitously detected at 3.6-5088.2 ng?g(-1) dw in sludge and 0.29-113.1 ng?g(-1) dw in sediment samples, respectively. Estrone, carbamazepine, metoprolol, and propranolol were also frequently quantified in the sludge and sediment samples. The dewatering process caused no significant losses of these PPCPs in sewage sludge. PMID:21046090

Yu, Yiyi; Huang, Qiuxin; Cui, Jianlan; Zhang, Kun; Tang, Caiming; Peng, Xianzhi

2011-01-01

313

Health status and bioremediation capacity of wild freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) exposed to sewage water pollution in a glacial Patagonian lake.  

PubMed

Deleterious effects on health and fitness are expected in mussels chronically exposed to sewage water pollution. Diplodon chilensis inhabiting SMA, an area affected by untreated and treated sewage water, shows increased hemocyte number and phagocytic activity, while bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activities in plasma and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes are lower compared to mussels from an unpolluted area (Yuco). There are not differences in cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and total oxygen scavenging capacity between SMA and Yuco mussels' hemocytes. Energetic reserves and digestive gland mass do not show differences between groups; although the condition factor is higher in SMA than in Yuco mussels. Gills of SMA mussels show an increase in mass and micronuclei frequency compared to those of Yuco. Mussels from both sites reduce bacterial loads in polluted water and sediments, improving their quality with similar feeding performance. These findings suggest that mussels exposed to sewage pollution modulate physiological responses by long-term exposure; although, gills are sensitive to these conditions and suffer chronic damage. Bioremediation potential found in D. chilensis widens the field of work for remediation of sewage bacterial pollution in water and sediments by filtering bivalves. PMID:24589503

Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Bieczynski, Flavia; Luquet, Carlos M

2014-04-01

314

Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecologic restoration criteria in areas degraded from extraction activities require making use of their mine spoils. These materials do not meet fertility conditions to guarantee restoration success and therefore, need the incorporation of organic amendments to obtain efficient substratum. Reducing the deficiencies in the organic material and restoration material nutrients with the contribution of treated sewage sludge is proposed in this work. This experiment was based on a controlled study using columns. The work was conducted with two mine spoils, both very rich in calcium carbonate. The first mineral, of poor quality, came from the formation of aggregates of crushed limestone ( Z). The other residual material examined originated in limestone extraction, formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils ( D). Two treatments were undertaken (30,000 and 90,000 kg/ha of sewage sludge), in addition to a control treatment. The water contribution was carried out with a device that simulated either short-duration rain or a flooding irrigation system in order to cover the surface and then percolate through the soil. The collection of leached water took place 24 h after the applications. Different parameters of the leached water were determined, including pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate anions, ammonium, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides. The values obtained for each irrigation application are discussed, and the nitrate values obtained were very elevated.

Jordán, M. M.; Pina, S.; García-Orenes, F.; Almendro-Candel, M. B.; García-Sánchez, E.

2008-07-01

315

Effects of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on an aphid population  

SciTech Connect

Survival and fecundity of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, were markedly reduced when they were fed on collard plants grown in pots of soil treated with chemically contaminated sewage sludge, as compared to populations on potted plants grown in uncontaminated sludge or on fertilized soil (control). Calculated demographic parameters differed significantly between the contaminated sludge and uncontaminated sludge populations and between the contaminated sludge and control populations. No significant differences were detected between the uncontaminated sludge and control populations. The ecological effects on the aphids suggest that plant uptake and translocation of chemicals from the contaminated sludge affected aphid fitness through direct toxicity and/or reduced nutritional value of the plant. These results indicate that phytophagous insects may be affected by chemical contaminants in sewage sludge used in agriculture.

Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

1986-12-01

316

Co-digestion of cultivated microalgae and sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment.  

PubMed

In this study two wet microalgae cultures and one dried microalgae culture were co-digested in different proportions with sewage sludge in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The aim was to evaluate if the co-digestion could lead to an increased efficiency of methane production compared to digestion of sewage sludge alone. The results showed that co-digestion with both wet and dried microalgae, in certain proportions, increased the biochemical methane potential (BMP) compared with digestion of sewage sludge alone in mesophilic conditions. The BMP was significantly higher than the calculated BMP in many of the mixtures. This synergetic effect was statistically significant in a mixture containing 63% (w/w VS based) undigested sewage sludge and 37% (w/w VS based) wet algae slurry, which produced 23% more methane than observed with undigested sewage sludge alone. The trend was that thermophilic co-digestion of microalgae and undigested sewage sludge did not give the same synergy. PMID:25203227

Olsson, Jesper; Feng, Xin Mei; Ascue, Johnny; Gentili, Francesco G; Shabiimam, M A; Nehrenheim, Emma; Thorin, Eva

2014-11-01

317

Effect of Ultrasound on Dewaterability of Sewage Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate the effect of ultrasound on the dewaterability of sewage sludge. The investigation involves laboratory experiments, which were conducted under a broad range of conditions, including energy levels of ultrasonic waves, treatment time, and pH. Results of the study show that ultrasound enhances dewaterability significantly. The degree of enhancement varies with sonication energy, treatment time, and the amount of treated sludge.

Kim, Young-Uk; Kim, Byoung-Il

2003-09-01

318

Domestic source of phosphorus to sewage treatment works.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is an element essential for life. Concerns regarding long-term security of supply and issues related to eutrophication of surface waters once released into the aquatic environment have led governments to consider and apply measures for reducing the use and discharge of phosphorus. Examples of source control include legislation to reduce phosphorus use in domestic detergents. This research shows that other domestic sources of phosphorus also contribute significantly to the domestic load to sewer and that overall, domestic sources dominate loads to sewage treatment works. Estimates provided here show that although the natural diet contributes 40% of the domestic phosphorus load, other potentially preventable sources contribute significantly to the estimated 44,000 tonnes of phosphorus entering UK sewage treatment works each year. In the UK, food additives are estimated to contribute 29% of the domestic load; automatic dishwashing detergents contribute 9% and potentially increasing; domestic laundry 14%, including contributions from phosphonates, but decreasing; phosphorus dosing to reduce lead levels in tap water 6%; food waste disposed of down the drain 1%; and personal care products 1%. Although UK data is presented here, it is anticipated that similar impacts would be expected for other developed economies. Consideration of alternatives to all preventable sources of phosphorus from these sources would therefore offer potentially significant reductions in phosphorus loads to sewage treatment works and hence to the aquatic environment. Combining all source control measures and applying them to their maximum extent could potentially lead to the prevention of over 22,000 tonnes-P/year entering sewage treatment works. PMID:24191467

Comber, Sean; Gardner, Michael; Georges, Karyn; Blackwood, David; Gilmour, Daniel

2013-01-01

319

Seasonal microbial community shift in a saline sewage treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated sludge was monthly sampled from a saline sewage treatment plant of Hong Kong (China) during June 2007 to May 2008\\u000a to analyze the microbial community shift along with environmental variations using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis\\u000a of polymerase chain reaction amplified 16S rDNA fragments. Environmental changes resulted into a seasonal microbial community\\u000a shift characterized by alterations in species number and

Qingmei Yan; Xuxiang Zhang; Tong Zhang; Herbert H. P. Fang

2011-01-01

320

Distribution and levels of brominated flame retardants in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and sixteen sewage sludge samples from 22 municipal wastewater treatment plants in Sweden were analysed for brominated flame retardants. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were in the range n.d.–450 ng\\/g wet weight, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) varied between n.d. and 220 ng\\/g wet weight, 2,4,6-tribromophenol was in the range n.d.–0.9 ng\\/g wet weight and polybrominated biphenyls were not detected (except

Karin Öberg; Kristofer Warman; Tomas Öberg

2002-01-01

321

IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

2004-10-05

322

An Experimental Investigation of Sewage Sludge Gasification in a Fluidized Bed Reactor  

PubMed Central

The gasification of sewage sludge was carried out in a simple atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. Flow and fuel feed rate were adjusted for experimentally obtaining an air mass?:?fuel mass ratio (A/F) of 0.2 < A/F < 0.4. Fuel characterization, mass and power balances, produced gas composition, gas phase alkali and ammonia, tar concentration, agglomeration tendencies, and gas efficiencies were assessed. Although accumulation of material inside the reactor was a main problem, this was avoided by removing and adding bed media along gasification. This allowed improving the process heat transfer and, therefore, gasification efficiency. The heating value of the produced gas was 8.4?MJ/Nm, attaining a hot gas efficiency of 70% and a cold gas efficiency of 57%. PMID:24453863

Calvo, L. F.; Garcia, A. I.; Otero, M.

2013-01-01

323

A high-level disinfection standard for land applying sewage sludges (biosolids).  

PubMed Central

Complaints associated with land-applied sewage sludges primarily involve irritation of the skin, mucous membranes, and the respiratory tract accompanied by opportunistic infections. Volatile emissions and organic dusts appear to be the main source of irritation. Occasionally, chronic gastrointestinal problems are reported by affected residents who have private wells. To prevent acute health effects, we recommend that the current system of classifying sludges based on indicator pathogen levels (Class A and Class B) be replaced with a single high-level disinfection standard and that methods used to treat sludges be improved to reduce levels of irritant chemicals, especially endotoxins. A national opinion survey of individuals impacted by or concerned about the safety of land-application practices indicated that most did not consider the practice inherently unsafe but that they lacked confidence in research supported by federal and state agencies. PMID:14754565

Gattie, David K; McLaughlin, Tara J

2004-01-01

324

Data report. The fate of human enteric viruses in a natural sewage recycling system  

SciTech Connect

A two-year study was conducted to determine the virus-removing capacity of two man-made ecosystems designed for the treatment of raw domestic wastewater. The first treatment system consisted of two meadows followed by a marsh-pond unit (M/M/P). The second system contained individual marsh and pond units (M/P). All systems demonstrated moderate virus removal, with the marsh/pond system yielding the most consistent removal rates. Within this system, the greater potential for virus removal appeared to occur in the marsh unit. In addition to the production of system-oriented data, improved techniques for the concentration and enumeration of human viruses from sewage-polluted aquatic systems were developed.

Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

1980-09-01

325

An experimental investigation of sewage sludge gasification in a fluidized bed reactor.  

PubMed

The gasification of sewage sludge was carried out in a simple atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. Flow and fuel feed rate were adjusted for experimentally obtaining an air mass : fuel mass ratio (A/F) of 0.2 < A/F < 0.4. Fuel characterization, mass and power balances, produced gas composition, gas phase alkali and ammonia, tar concentration, agglomeration tendencies, and gas efficiencies were assessed. Although accumulation of material inside the reactor was a main problem, this was avoided by removing and adding bed media along gasification. This allowed improving the process heat transfer and, therefore, gasification efficiency. The heating value of the produced gas was 8.4 MJ/Nm, attaining a hot gas efficiency of 70% and a cold gas efficiency of 57%. PMID:24453863

Calvo, L F; García, A I; Otero, M

2013-01-01

326

Potentials of using nanofiltration to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Due to the depletion of mineral phosphorus resources there is an increasing demand for efficient phosphorus recovery technologies. In this study the potential of nanofiltration to recover phosphorus from pre-treated sewage sludge is investigated. The efficiency of three commercial nanofiltration membranes (Desal 5DK, NP030; MPF34) was tested using model solutions. Desal 5DK showed the best selectivity for phosphorus. A pH of lower than 1.5 was found to be most suitable. Desal 5DK was used on four different sewage sludge ash eluates and on one sewage sludge. In these experiments it was shown that a separation of phosphorus from undesired components such as heavy metals was possible with significant variations in the efficiency for the different ash and sludge types. Additionally the achievable product recovery was investigated with model solutions. A product recovery of 57.1% was attained for pH 1 and 41.4% for pH 1.5. PMID:18401142

Niewersch, C; Koh, C N; Wintgens, T; Melin, T; Schaum, C; Cornel, P

2008-01-01

327

Disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water by electron beam radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of electron beam radiation for the disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water was assessed with\\u000a ILU-6 Accelerator at Radiation Technology Development Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai India. The current\\u000a problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of sewage water. In general,\\u000a sewage water comprises heterogeneous

Y. Avasn Maruthi; N. Lakshmana Das; Kaizar Hossain; K. S. S. Sarma; K. P. Rawat; S. Sabharwal

2011-01-01

328

Incinerated Sewage Sludge Products as Amendments for Agricultural Soils: Leaching and Plant Uptake of Trace Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary leaching column and greenhouse plant uptake studies were conducted in two soils with contrasting characteristics\\u000a amended with varying rates (0 to 148.3 Mg ha?1) of incinerated sewage sludge (ISS) and weathered sewage sludge (WISS) to estimate the leaching losses of trace elements\\u000a from the soils amended with incinerated sewage sludge by products and to evaluate the uptake and accumulation

S. Paramasivam; K. S. Sajwan; A. K. Alva

2006-01-01

329

Changes in physical, chemical and microbial parameters during the composting of municipal sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in physical, chemical and microbial parameters were investigated during the composting of municipal sewage sludge.\\u000a Raw sewage sludge (30% dry matter) was mixed with compost from sewage sludge (85% dry matter) in 3:1 ratio (v\\/v). The mixture\\u000a was divided into 4 windrows which were composted under the same conditions except the turning factor. The turning was every\\u000a 7, 10,

A. I. Khalil; M. S. Hassouna; H. M. A. El-Ashqar; M. Fawzi

330

Long term trends in sewage abatement and water quality in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary  

SciTech Connect

Long-term trends in dissolved oxygen (DO) and coliform bacteria concentrations are used to evaluate the impact of 70 years of sewage abatement and treatment in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary near New York City (NYC). Regional construction of wastewater treatment plants since the 1920`s has reduced discharges of untreated sewage into the estuary from approximately 47 M{sup 3}/S in 1936 to less than 0.1 M{sup 3}/S by 1994. From at least 1922 through the early 1960s, average summer DO percent saturation in the Hudson River varied between 35--50% in surface waters and 25--40% in bottom waters. Beginning in the late 1970s, DO concentrations increased through the 1980s and especially into the 1990s, coinciding with the secondary treatment upgrade of the 7.4 M3/s North River plant in the spring of 1991. Average summer percent saturation in the early 1 990s exceeded 80% in surface waters and 60% in bottom waters. In addition, summer DO minima increased from less than 1.5 mg/L in the early 1970s, to greater than 3.0 mg/L in the 1990s, and the duration of hypoxia during summer months has been reduced. While this general trend has been observed throughout the estuary, some areas have displayed recent declines in DO, possibly due to increasing eutrophication. Total coliforms also display strong decreasing trends from the 1960s into the 1990s, with declines attributed to plant construction and expansion, and improved operation of the sewer system. Metal loadings have also decreased significantly. Signs of improved ecosystem quality include reopened beaches and shellfish beds, re-infestation of woodpilings by marine wood-borers, and the resurgence of wading birds in several areas of the estuary.

Brosnan, T.M.; O`Shea, M.L. [New York City Dept. of Environmental Protection, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

331

Environmental & economic life cycle assessment of current & future sewage sludge to energy technologies.  

PubMed

The UK Water Industry currently generates approximately 800GWh pa of electrical energy from sewage sludge. Traditionally energy recovery from sewage sludge features Anaerobic Digestion (AD) with biogas utilisation in combined heat and power (CHP) systems. However, the industry is evolving and a number of developments that extract more energy from sludge are either being implemented or are nearing full scale demonstration. This study compared five technology configurations: 1 - conventional AD with CHP, 2 - Thermal Hydrolysis Process (THP) AD with CHP, 3 - THP AD with bio-methane grid injection, 4 - THP AD with CHP followed by drying of digested sludge for solid fuel production, 5 - THP AD followed by drying, pyrolysis of the digested sludge and use of the both the biogas and the pyrolysis gas in a CHP. The economic and environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) found that both the post AD drying options performed well but the option used to create a solid fuel to displace coal (configuration 4) was the most sustainable solution economically and environmentally, closely followed by the pyrolysis configuration (5). Application of THP improves the financial and environmental performance compared with conventional AD. Producing bio-methane for grid injection (configuration 3) is attractive financially but has the worst environmental impact of all the scenarios, suggesting that the current UK financial incentive policy for bio-methane is not driving best environmental practice. It is clear that new and improving processes and technologies are enabling significant opportunities for further energy recovery from sludge; LCA provides tools for determining the best overall options for particular situations and allows innovation resources and investment to be focused accordingly. PMID:24060290

Mills, N; Pearce, P; Farrow, J; Thorpe, R B; Kirkby, N F

2014-01-01

332

Shigellosis on Indian reserves in Manitoba, Canada: its relationship to crowded housing, lack of running water, and inadequate sewage disposal.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study compares incidence and hospitalization rates for shigellosis between Indians and the rest of the population in Manitoba, Canada. It examines the relationship between shigellosis and environmental conditions on reserves. METHODS: Rates were calculated with surveillance data and a survey of environmental infrastructure was done. RESULTS: Indians had shigellosis incidence and hospitalization rates that were 29 and 12 times as high, respectively, as those of the rest of the population. Household crowding, lack of piped water, and inadequate sewage disposal were significantly associated with an increased incidence of shigellosis on reserves. CONCLUSIONS: Many cases of shigellosis may be prevented by improving living conditions on Indian reserves. PMID:9314814

Rosenberg, T; Kendall, O; Blanchard, J; Martel, S; Wakelin, C; Fast, M

1997-01-01

333

K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring reports, second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173. This report includes the results of those analyses. None of the analyzed constituents exceeded the Primary Drinking Water Standard or the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria at either the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site or the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site.

Not Available

1992-10-01

334

Sewage contamination in the new york bight. Coprostanol as an indicator  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediments of the New York Bight are analyzed for coprostanol, a fecal steroid, to determine the degree of sewage contamination. Coprostanol, when reported as a percentage of total steroids (% coprostanol), can be quantitatively related to the amount of sewage-derived organic matter. Furthermore, coprostanol is quite persistent in anoxic silts of the Bight and, thus, can be used to delineate historical contamination in these silts. Based on the sediments analyzed, the New York Bight is shown to be highly contaminated with sewage (most likely ocean-dumped sewage sludge), especially in the topographically low areas near the dump site, where black silts have been known to accumulate.

Hatcher, P.G.; McGillivary, P.A.

1979-01-01

335

Chemical Changes and Heavy Metal Partitioning in an Oxisol Cultivated with Maize (Zea mays, L.) after 5 Years Disposal of a Domestic and an Industrial Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for solutions to minimize the negative environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities Fhas increased. Sewage sludge\\u000a is composed of predominantly organic matter and can be used to improve soil characteristics, such as fertility. Therefore,\\u000a its application in agriculture is an adequate alternative for its final disposal. However, there is a lack of information\\u000a on its long-term effects on soil

S. Alcantara; D. V. Pérez; M. R. A. Almeida; G. M. Silva; J. C. Polidoro; W. Bettiol

2009-01-01

336

Effect of the addition of rice straw on microbial community in a sewage sludge digester.  

PubMed

Rice straw was added to a sewage sludge digester and its effects on methane production, dewatering characteristics, and microbial communities in the digested sludge were examined by a continuous digestion experiment under mesophilic conditions (35 °C). Stable gas generation was monitored in all digestion experiments. Methane yield from raw sludge, chopped rice straw and softened rice straw were estimated to be 0.27, 0.18 and 0.26 NL/g total solids load, respectively. The capillary suction time of digested sludge was decreased by the addition of rice straw. Archaeal and bacterial communities in the sludge were elucidated by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) targeting 16S rRNA genes. The Shannon index of DGGE profiles indicated that bacterial diversity increased with the addition of softened rice straw. DNA sequences of significant bands of the digested sludge were most closely related to Methanosaeta concilii (97.4% identity) and Methanoculleus bourgensis (100% identity). Meanwhile, those in the co-digested sludge with rice straw were most closely related to Methanosarcina barkeri (98.4% identity) and Methanoculleus bourgensis (99.3% identity). Although both Methanosaeta spp. and Methanosarcina spp. metabolize acetate to methane, Methanosarcina spp. have a competitive advantage at acetate concentrations of >70 mg/L. Results suggested that the quantity of acetate produced during rice straw degradation may change the archaeal community. PMID:25225928

Nakakihara, E; Ikemoto-Yamamoto, R; Honda, R; Ohtsuki, S; Takano, M; Suetsugu, Y; Watanabe, H

2014-01-01

337

Sensitized photolysis as pretreatment to biological degradation of trichlorobenzenes  

SciTech Connect

The role of photolysis as pretreatment process was examined for the biological degradation of trichlorobenzenes (TCBs), namely 1,2,3-, 1,2,4- and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzenes. Initially, direct and indirect photolysis experiments were conducted using aqueous solutions with 1% acetonitrile of the three isomers of trichlorobenzenes with and without sensitizers. The sensitizers used were Fenton's reagent, nitrite, triethylamine, humic acid and TiO{sub 2}. The photochemical experiments were performed using laboratory simulated sunlight and the kinetic rates for these processes were calculated. The effect of photolysis on the biological degradation chlorobenzenes were examined using a chemical activation system (CAS) which consists of EDTA, ferrous sulfate, ascorbic acid, catalase and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in potassium phosphate buffer (monobasic) and a primary sewage effluent. Initially, kinetic rates by CAS biodegradation and primary sewage were obtained and compared. In general, the rates of biodegradation were greater in the test media with catalase. The rate of transformation in CAS was enhanced in the order: monoCB < 1,2,3-TCB < 1,2,4-TCB < 1,3,5-TCB; whereas, when CAS was used as a control, the kinetic rates in the presence of catalase increased in the sequence: 1,2,3-TCB, 1,3,5-TCB < 1,2,4-TCB < MonoCB. Photolysis studied in concert with the biological systems showed significant enhancement of the degradation rate of trichlorobenzenes. The photolysis rates were higher for those with sensitized photolysis. This study shows that photolysis can be used as a pretreatment of enhancing biodegradation of trichlorobenzenes in aqueous systems.

Kim, Jae Hyoun.

1991-01-01

338

Influence of anaerobic co-digestion of sewage and brewery sludges on biogas production and sludge quality.  

PubMed

This research investigated operating parameters and treatment efficiency for the digestion of sewage and brewery sludge. The prime objective of this study was to enhance the quality of treated sludge for use as agriculture fertilizer and to enhance biogas production, a by-product that can be used as an energy source. Three bench-scale completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) anaerobic digesters were operated at mesophilic condition (36+/-0.2 degrees C). A mixture of sewage and brewery sludge were used as substrates at ratios of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, based on wet weight basis (w/w). For each digester, the solids retention times (SRT) were 20 days. The organic loading and volatile solids loading were between 1.3-2.2 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m3/day and 0.9-1.5 kg/m3/day, respectively. The digester fed with brewery sludge as co-substrate yielded higher treatment efficiency than sewage sludge alone. The removal efficiencies measured in terms of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and total chemical oxygen demands (TCOD) ranged from 40% to 75% and 22% to 35%, respectively. Higher SCOD and TCOD removal efficiencies were obtained when higher fractions of brewery sludge was added to the substrate mixture. Removal efficiency was lowest for sewage sludge alone. Measured volatile solid (VS) reduction ranged from 15% to 20%. Adding a higher fraction of brewery sludge to the mixture increased the VS reduction percentage. The biogas production and methane yield also increased with increase in brewery sludge addition to the digester mixture. The methane content present in biogas of each digester exceeded 70% indicating the system was functioning as an anaerobic process. Likewise the ratio of brewery sewage influenced not only the treatment efficiency but also improved quality of treated sludge by lowering number of pathogen (less than 2 MPN/g of dried sludge) and maintaining a high nutrient concentration of nitrogen (N) 3.2-4.2%, phosphorus (P) 1.9-3.2% and potassium (K) 0.95-0.96%. The heavy metals, chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) remaining in digested sludge were present at relatively high levels (Cr 1,849-4,230 and Cu 930-2,526 mg/kg dried sludge). The metals were present as organic matter-bound and sulfide-bound fractions that are not soluble and available. The digested sludge could be safely applied to soil as a plant nutrient source, without fecal coliforms or heavy metals risk. A sludge mixture ratio of 25:75 (sewage:brewery), which generated the higher nutrient concentrations (N=4.22%, P=3.20% and K=0.95%), biogas production and treatment efficiency meet the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) safety guidelines required for agricultural application. Biogas production and methane at the 25:75 ratio (sewage:brewery) yielded highest amount of VSremoved (0.65 m3/kg) and CODremoved (220 L/kg), respectively. PMID:17558772

Pecharaply, Athapol; Parkpian, Preeda; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

2007-06-01

339

Phototransformation of amlodipine: degradation kinetics and identification of its photoproducts.  

PubMed

Nowadays, monitoring focuses on the primary compounds and does not include degradation products formed during various biological and chemical processes. Transformation products may have the same effects to human health and the environment or sometimes they can be more toxic than the parent compound. Unfortunately, knowledge about the formation of degradation products is still limited, however, can be very important for the environmental risk assessment. Firstly, the photodegradation kinetic of amlodipine was investigated in two experimental conditions: during the exposure to solar radiation and during the exposure to the light emitted by the xenon lamp. In all cases degradation of amlodipine followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. In the next step, identification of transformation products of amlodipine formed during the exposure to xenon lamp irradiation was performed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). As a result sixteen photoproducts were identified, their structures were elucidated and ultimately the transformation pathway was proposed. Fifteen compounds (out of 16 photoproducts) were newly identified and reported here for the first time; some of those compounds were formed from the first photoproduct, amlodipine pyridine derivative. Several analytes were formed only in acidic or basic conditions. Furthermore, the occurrence of amlodipine and its identified degradation products was investigated in environmental waters. Only one out of 16 compounds was found in wastewater effluent. The possibility of the sorption of examined analytes to sewage sludge particles was discussed based on QSAR. PMID:25279815

Jakimska, Anna; Sliwka-Kaszy?ska, Magdalena; Nagórski, Piotr; Namie?nik, Jacek; Kot-Wasik, Agata

2014-01-01

340

Phototransformation of Amlodipine: Degradation Kinetics and Identification of Its Photoproducts  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, monitoring focuses on the primary compounds and does not include degradation products formed during various biological and chemical processes. Transformation products may have the same effects to human health and the environment or sometimes they can be more toxic than the parent compound. Unfortunately, knowledge about the formation of degradation products is still limited, however, can be very important for the environmental risk assessment. Firstly, the photodegradation kinetic of amlodipine was investigated in two experimental conditions: during the exposure to solar radiation and during the exposure to the light emitted by the xenon lamp. In all cases degradation of amlodipine followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. In the next step, identification of transformation products of amlodipine formed during the exposure to xenon lamp irradiation was performed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). As a result sixteen photoproducts were identified, their structures were elucidated and ultimately the transformation pathway was proposed. Fifteen compounds (out of 16 photoproducts) were newly identified and reported here for the first time; some of those compounds were formed from the first photoproduct, amlodipine pyridine derivative. Several analytes were formed only in acidic or basic conditions. Furthermore, the occurrence of amlodipine and its identified degradation products was investigated in environmental waters. Only one out of 16 compounds was found in wastewater effluent. The possibility of the sorption of examined analytes to sewage sludge particles was discussed based on QSAR. PMID:25279815

Jakimska, Anna; Sliwka-Kaszynska, Magdalena; Nagorski, Piotr; Namiesnik, Jacek; Kot-Wasik, Agata

2014-01-01

341

Reef degradation and coral biodiversity in indonesia: Effects of land-based pollution, destructive fishing practices and changes over time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species-area curves calculated from line-intercept transect surveys on 15 reefs in three regions of Indonesia allow estimation of the relative decrease in within-habitat coral species diversity associated with different types of reef degradation. Reefs subject to land-based pollution (sewage, sedimentation, and\\/or industrial pollution) show 30–50% reduced diversity at 3 m, and 40–60% reduced diversity at 10 m depth relative to

Evan N Edinger; Jamaluddin Jompa; Gino V Limmon; Wisnu Widjatmoko; Michael J Risk

1998-01-01

342

A Degrading Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners perform an experiment to learn about how different types of marine debris degrade and how weather and sunlight affect the rate of degradation. Learners discover that debris made from natural materials, while biodegradable, can still be considered pollutants and can still harm the marine environment.

Sheavly, Seba; Reigster, Katie

2014-05-28

343

Increased performance of single-chamber microbial fuel cells using an improved cathode structure  

E-print Network

degradation of substrate sustained by oxygen diffusion through the cathode). Ã? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights], ocean sediments [9], animal wastes [10], and anaerobic sewage sludge [11,12]. Electricity generation,22]. 1388-2481/$ - see front matter Ã? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2006

344

Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent  

SciTech Connect

Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms)) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of one year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ day (23.6 dry tons/acre yr). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (27 dry tons/acre yr), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (22 dry tons/acre yr) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. N and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured im primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7% N and 0.94% P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8% N and 0.79% P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nurtrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N/ha yr and 321 to 387 kg P/ha yr, respectively.

Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKinn, T.

1985-05-01

345

Impact of compost process temperature on organic micro-pollutant degradation.  

PubMed

Aerobic composting has gained considerable attention because of its ability to remove organic micro-pollutants. Compost process temperature is a key parameter controlling degradation rate. Impact of process temperature on removal of 15 key organic micro-pollutants often found in sewage sludge (including two metabolites) during sewage sludge composting was investigated at 18-70°C over 52 days. Removal rates generally depended strongly on temperature and for all compounds an optimal temperature for removal was observed. Optimal temperatures for the 13 parent compounds ranged from 25 to 70°C and relative removal of the 13 parent compounds was as high as 99% across all combinations of compound and temperature with an average removal of 66%. The two metabolites were both formed and removed during the course of composting and the data indicated that metabolites may very well have other optimal removal temperatures than their parent compounds. PMID:25058897

Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

2014-10-01

346

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE...

2013-07-01

347

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE...

2010-07-01

348

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE...

2012-07-01

349

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE...

2011-07-01

350

Degradation Kinetics of VX  

SciTech Connect

O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl)phosphonothiolate (VX) is the most toxic of the conventional chemical warfare agents. It is a persistent compound, an attribute derived from its relative involatility and slow rates of hydrolysis. These properties suggest that VX can linger in an exposed environment for extended periods of time long after the air has cleared. Concern over prolonged risk from VX exposure is exacerbated by the fact that it poses a dermal contact hazard. Hence a detailed understanding of volatilization rates, and degradation pathways and rates occurring in various environments is needed. Historically, volatilization has not been considered to be an important mechanism for VX depletion, but recent studies have shown that a significant fraction of VX may volatilize, depending on the matrix. A significant body of research has been conducted over the years to unravel VX degradation reaction pathways and to quantify the rates at which they proceed. Rigorous measurement of degradation rates is frequently difficult, and thus in many cases the degradation of VX has been described in terms of half lives, while in fewer instances rate constants have been measured. This variable approach to describing degradation kinetics reflects uncertainty regarding the exact nature of the degradation mechanisms. In this review, rates of VX degradation are compared on the basis of pseudo-first order rate constants, in order to provide a basis for assessing likelihood of VX persistence in a given environment. An issue of specific concern is that one VX degradation pathway produces S-2-(diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioic acid (known as EA2192), which is a degradation product that retains much of the original toxicity of VX. Consequently degradation pathways and rates for EA2192 are also discussed.

Gary S. Groenewold

2010-12-01

351

Soil and stream-water impacts of sewage effluent irrigation onto steeply sloping land  

SciTech Connect

In a pilot study, the authors investigated how irrigation of secondary sewage effluent onto steeply sloping land affected soil physical, chemical, and biochemical properties, the composition of soil- and surface-waters and the vegetation of the site. The 3.36-ha site received up to 44 mm effluent/wk for 65 wk. Irrigation significantly improved total- and Olsen-P status of the soils and greatly enhanced nitrification potential. Respiration increased with increasing soil water content, but microbial biomass was not greatly affected by irrigation. Soil phosphatase activity decreased with increasing P fertility. Soil physical properties were not affected by effluent and hydraulic conductivities were sufficient to conduct water into and through the soil profiles. Soil- and surface-water NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations increased markedly, especially in the second half of the trial when soil nitrification rates were also high. However, the streamwater NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations remained well below the drinking water limit concentration of 11.3 g m{sup {minus}3}. In contrast, streamwater NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}-P concentrations remained low and results indicated that concentrations of PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}-P in river water, resulting from a full-scale irrigation scheme, would not exceed the target limit level of 0.0056 g m{sup {minus}3}. Irrigation accelerated natural successional changes in the vegetation, with a decline in undesirable fire-prone and shrubby species and an increase in native trees and tree ferns. These results demonstrated that, in the short term at least, a carefully designed and implemented irrigation scheme on steepland could renovate secondary sewage effluent, without adversely affecting soil properties and surface water quality.

Speir, T.W.; Schaik, A.P. van; Kettles, H.A.; Vincent, K.W.; Campbell, D.J.

1999-08-01

352

Land application of sewage sludge (biosolids) in Australia: risks to the environment and food crops.  

PubMed

Australia is a large exporter of agricultural products, with producers responsible for a range of quality assurance programs to ensure that food crops are free from various contaminants of detriment to human health. Large volumes of treated sewage sludge (biosolids), although low by world standards, are increasingly being recycled to land, primarily to replace plant nutrients and to improve soil properties; they are used in agriculture, forestry, and composted. The Australian National Biosolids Research Program (NBRP) has linked researchers to a collective goal to investigate nutrients and benchmark safe concentrations of metals nationally using a common methodology, with various other research programs conducted in a number of states specific to regional problems and priorities. The use of biosolids in Australia is strictly regulated by state guidelines, some of which are under review following recent research outcomes. Communication and research between the water industry, regulators and researchers specific to the regulation of biosolids is further enhanced by the Australian and New Zealand Biosolids Partnership (ANZBP). This paper summarises the major issues and constraints related to biosolids use in Australia using specific case examples from Western Australia, a member of the Australian NBRP, and highlights several research projects conducted over the last decade to ensure that biosolids are used beneficially and safely in the environment. Attention is given to research relating to plant nutrient uptake, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus (including that of reduced phosphorus uptake in alum sludge-amended soil); the risk of heavy metal uptake by plants, specifically cadmium, copper and zinc; the risk of pathogen contamination in soil and grain products; change to soil pH (particularly following lime-amended biosolids); and the monitoring of faecal contamination by biosolids in waterbodies using DNA techniques. Examples of products that are currently produced in Western Australia from sewage sludge include mesophilic anaerobically digested and dewatered biosolids cake, lime-amended biosolids, alum sludge and compost. PMID:20595753

Pritchard, D L; Penney, N; McLaughlin, M J; Rigby, H; Schwarz, K

2010-01-01

353

Pediatric Emergency Department Visits for Diarrheal Illness Increased After Release of Undertreated Sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT. Contamination of local waterways may occur through release of partially treated sewage. The Environmental Protection Agency has recently reviewed regulatory standards for this practice. However, the health effects of these events have not been well studied. OBJECTIVE. Our goal was to identify any increase in visits to a pediatric emergency department for diarrheal illness after sewage bypass into Lake

Ryan L. Redman; Cheryl A. Nenn; Marc H. Gorelick

354

Cold Climate Phosphorus Uptake by Submerged Aquatic Plants in a Sewage Treatment Free Water Surface Wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 2002, biomass phosphorus (P) of submerged aquatic plants with associated epiphyton was measured using P-32 tracer addition in a treatment wetland receiving tertiary treated municipal sewage. The wetland is situated 120 km west of Stockholm, Sweden receiving tertiary treated municipal sewage. During the experiment, inflow water had a total P concentration of 0.3 and an iron concentration of

BARBRO ULÉN; KARINW S. TONDERSKI

2005-01-01

355

Environmental Contamination with Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci from Hospital Sewage in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were detected in samples of sewage obtained downstream of hos- pitals of the Porto area in Portugal, and in samples from the Douro Estuary. Clonal analysis, Tn1546 typing, and presence of putative virulence traits indicate the clinical origin of these isolates. This observation highlights the importance of hospital sewage in the VRE contamination of the environment.

Carla Novais; Teresa M. Coque; Helena Ferreira; Joao Carlos Sousa; Luisa Peixe

2005-01-01

356

Sustainable Use of Resources Recycling of Sewage Treatment Plant Water in Concrete  

E-print Network

Sustainable Use of Resources ­ Recycling of Sewage Treatment Plant Water in Concrete Marcia Silva1, especially partially processed sewage treatment plant water in concrete. On the basis of identified knowledge. The concrete industry is a significant contributor to air pollution and also a consumer of vast quantities

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

357

Environmental Contamination with Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci from Hospital Sewage in Portugal  

PubMed Central

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were detected in samples of sewage obtained downstream of hospitals of the Porto area in Portugal, and in samples from the Douro Estuary. Clonal analysis, Tn1546 typing, and presence of putative virulence traits indicate the clinical origin of these isolates. This observation highlights the importance of hospital sewage in the VRE contamination of the environment. PMID:15933043

Novais, Carla; Coque, Teresa M.; Ferreira, Helena; Sousa, Joao Carlos; Peixe, Luisa

2005-01-01

358

Analysis of Energy and Soft Dirt in an Urban Untreated Sewage Source Heat Pump System  

E-print Network

When using urban untreated sewage as a cool and heat source of heat pump, it is unavoidable to form soft dirt. Based on the method of exergy, an analysis is given of the impact the dirt growth of a tube-shell sewage heat exchanger will have...

Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.

2006-01-01

359

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in sewage treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in the biological units of various full-scale municipal sewage treatment plants were measured. Samples of influent, primary effluent, aeration tank effluent, final effluent and grab samples of primary, activated, secondary and anaerobically digested sludge were collected by 5 sampling events over one year. The two sewage treatment plants (STPs) selected for

Jing Yu; Jiangyong Hu; Shuhei Tanaka; Shigeo Fujii

2009-01-01

360

Hybrid disposal systems and nitrogen removal in individual sewage disposal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of individual disposal systems in ground-water basins that have adverse salt balance conditions and\\/or geologically unsuitable locations, has become a major problem in many areas of the world. There has been much research in design of systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid

Franks

1993-01-01

361

Prevalence of Respiratory Adenovirus Species B and C in Sewage Sludge  

PubMed Central

Human adenovirus diversity in sewage sludge was assessed by Ion Torrent sequencing and annotation of partial adenovirus hexon genes. The most abundant species identified were HAdV-C (average 78%) and -B (average 20%), which are associated with respiratory infections. These findings reinforce the necessity to consider aerosol exposure to sewage-derived pathogens. PMID:25208697

Bibby, Kyle; Peccia, Jordan

2013-01-01

362

The cost of municipal sewage treatment - structure, origin, minimization - methods of fair cost comparison and allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost comparison in the field of wastewater treatment is a difficult task, particularly concerning sewages charges in different countries. German wastewater management is, for one thing, known to be very efficient, yet, for another, comparatively costly on an international scale. In this context, the marginal conditions typically prevailing in the field of sewage treatment in Germany should be mentioned: dense

H. Bode; T. Grünebaum

363

The use of Collembola avoidance tests to characterize sewage sludges as soil amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecotoxicological characterization of sewage sludge takes into account the additive, antagonistic and synergistic effects that occur as a result of multi-chemical interactions. Such an evaluation therefore is essential to complement the chemical analysis that, although required by law, is clearly insufficient. Using a tiered approach in the toxic evaluation of sewage sludge allows for characterization of toxicity in a

T. Natal-da-luz; S. Tidona; C. A. M. Van Gestel; P. V. Morais; J. P. Sousa

2009-01-01

364

Root Penetration of Sealing Layers Made of Fly Ash and Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash and sewage sludge are suggested materials for constructing sealing layers covering mine tailings impoundments. Little is known, however, of their effect on vegetation or resistance to root penetration. We investigate: (i) the ability of different plant species to grow in seal- ing layers comprising fly ash and sewage sludge, (ii) the impact on plant growth of freshly hardened

Clara Neuschütz; Eva Stoltz; Maria Greger

2006-01-01

365

Fate of pharmaceuticals and cosmetic ingredients during the operation of a MBR treating sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal wastewaters contain many organic compounds, among them active ingredients as pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products, which are used in large quantities throughout the world. Most of these compounds come either from domestic sewage or from hospital or industrial discharges and enter municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). Modern STPs can effectively accomplish carbon and nitrogen removal, as well as microbial pollution

R. Reif; S. Suárez; F. Omil; J. M. Lema

2008-01-01

366

Research papers Tracing the influence of sewage discharge on coastal bays of Southern  

E-print Network

: Eutrophication Dinoflagellate cysts Toxic species Sewage Estuaries British Columbia a b s t r a c t The impact/schwartzii and Dubridinium species, known to reflect areas affected by eutrophication, occur directly adjacent to all three sewage outfalls, as well as in the more stagnant waters of Esquimalt and Victoria Harbours

Pedersen, Tom

367

Flow Rate Measurements in the Sewage Pipeline of the Major Area of Athens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radioisotope techniques for measurement of the flow rate in the sewage central pipeline of the major area of Athens have been used and the eventual correlation of the flow rate to the sewage water level at the pipeline outlet in Keratsini coastal area has...

I. L. Leontiadis, C. P. Dimitroulas

1983-01-01

368

Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms)) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of one year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range

K. R. Reddy; F. M. Hueston; T. McKinn

1985-01-01

369

Biomonitoring of complex occupational exposures to carcinogens: The case of sewage workers in Paris  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sewage workers provide an essential service in the protection of public and environmental health. However, they are exposed to varied mixtures of chemicals; some are known or suspected to be genotoxics or carcinogens. Thus, trying to relate adverse outcomes to single toxicant is inappropriate. We aim to investigate if sewage workers are at increased carcinogenic risk as evaluated by

Hamzeh Al Zabadi; Luc Ferrari; Anne-Marie Laurent; Aziz Tiberguent; Christophe Paris; Denis Zmirou-Navier

2008-01-01

370

KANEOHE BAY SEWAGE DIVERSION EXPERIMENT: PERSPECTIVES ON ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES TO NUTRITIONAL PERTURBATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, received increasing amounts of sewage from the 1950s through 1977. Most sewage was diverted from the bay in 1977 and early 1978. This investigation, begun in January 1976 and continued through August 1979, described the bay over that period, with particular r...

371

Polar drug residues in sewage and natural waters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drug residues of lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories and some drug metabolites have been detected in raw sewage, treated waste water and river water in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These residues are mainly derived from humans via excretion. The median concentrations in the effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) of most drugs investigated in this study ranged from

Marcus Stumpf; Thomas A Ternes; Rolf-Dieter Wilken; Silvana Vianna Rodrigues; Wolfram Baumann

1999-01-01

372

Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01

373

Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

374

The use of municipal sewage sludge for the stabilization of soil contaminated by mining activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of municipal sewage sludge to immobilize Pb, Zn and Cd contained in contaminated soil originating from a former mining area in Lavrion, Greece was investigated. The soil was cured with sewage sludge in various proportions. The stabilization was evaluated primarily by applying chemical tests and complemented by the performance of additional biological tests. Application of the U.S. EPA

Panagiotis Theodoratos; Aggeliki Moirou; Anthimos Xenidis; Ioannis Paspaliaris

2000-01-01

375

Real-Time Estimation of Small-Area Populations with Human Biomarkers in Sewage  

EPA Science Inventory

A totally new approach is conceptualized for measuring small-area human populations by using biomarkers in sewage. The basis for the concept (SCIM: Sewage Chemical-Information Mining) is supported by a comprehensive examination and synthesis of data published across several disc...

376

Methane from partially digested sewage sludge using a steam-injection rapid thermal reactor. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each day, a fleet of barges hauls 300,000 cubic feet of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment facilities in New York City, to an ocean dumping site 106 miles offshore. On January 1, 1992, this ocean dumping site will be officially closed by federal mandate, forcing the city to find alternative disposal methods for its sewage sludge. Researchers at Dynatech and

A. P. Leuschner; M. J. Laquidara

1988-01-01

377

Ecotoxicological evaluation of sewage sludge contaminated with zinc oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to evaluate the ecotoxicological qualitative risk associated with the use of sewage sludge containing Zn oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) as soil amendment. A sludge-untreated soil and two sludge-treated soils were spiked with ZnO-NPs (0-1,000 mg/kg soil). Soil ecotoxicity was assessed with Eisenia fetida (acute and sublethal end points), and the unfilterable and filterable (0.02 ?m) soil leachates were tested with a battery of biomarkers using Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, and the fish cell line RTG-2 (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The production of E. fetida cocoons in sludge-treated soils was lower than that in sludge-untreated soils. The highest effect in the algal growth inhibition test was detected in sludge-untreated soil, most likely caused by the loss of organic matter in these samples. The D. magna results were always negative. Toxic effects (lysosomal cell function and production of reactive oxygen species) in RTG-2 cells were only observed in sludge-treated soils. In general, the toxicity of ZnO-NPs in sludge-treated soils was similar to that of sludge-untreated soil, and the filterable leachate fraction [Zn salt (Zn(2+))] did not produce greater effects than the unfilterable fraction (ZnO-NPs). Thus, after the addition of ZnO-NP-enriched sewage sludge to agricultural soil, the risk of toxic effects for soil and aquatic organisms was shown to be low. These findings are important because repeated use of organic amendments such as sewage sludge may cause more and more increased concentrations of ZnO-NPs in soils over the long-term. PMID:25185842

García-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, María Dolores; Babin, Mar

2014-11-01

378

The role of anaerobic digestion of domestic sewage in closing the water and nutrient cycle at community level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decentralised sewage treatment is more and more considered to be a sustainable way of waste(water) treatment. Three different options for the on-site treatment of sewage in combination with VFY (Vegetable, Fruit and Yard waste) with anaerobic treatment as a central technique are presented. The collection system and therewith the composition and concentration of the sewage will determine the type of

G. Zeeman; G. Lettinga

1999-01-01

379

[Bacteriological control of various methods of sewage sludge hygienization].  

PubMed

As a result of extensive parallel investigations in a water treatment plant it was found that the fresh sludge pasteurization or prepasteurization with ensuing sludge digestion gives a product which is unobjectionable from an epidemiological hygienic point of view. The result were confirmed by investigations in a second plant. Similarly satisfactory results were obtained with the composting of previously desiccated sludge, with the aerobic-thermophilic fermentation of liquid sludge or with the drying of sewage sludge. An alternative to these thermal processes is the application of gamma rays or accelerated electrons. PMID:6649990

Breer, C

1983-09-01

380

Thermochemical liquidization and anaerobic treatment of dewatered sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dewatered sewage sludge was thermochemically liquidized at 175°C and the liquidized sludge was separated by centrifugation to 57.7% (w\\/w) supernatant [moisture, 92.3%; volatile solid (VS), 7.0%] and 42.3% precipitate (moisture, 71.6%; VS, 18.9%). The supernatant was successfully anaerobically digested. Biogas yield from the supernatant at organic loading concentrations of 1.9–2.2 g VS\\/l during 9 days' incubation was 440 ml\\/g-added VS

Shigeki Sawayama; Seiichi Inoue; Tatsuo Yagishita; Tomoko Ogi; Shin-Ya Yokoyama

1995-01-01

381

Assessing pathogen risk to swimmers at non-sewage impacted recreational beaches.  

PubMed

The risk of gastrointestinal illness to swimmers from fresh sewage and non-sewage fecal sources at recreational beaches was predicted using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The QMRA estimated the probability of illness for accidental ingestion of recreational water with a specific concentration of fecal indicator bacteria, here the geometric mean enterococci limit of 35 cfu 100 mL(-1), from either a mixture of sources or an individual source. Using seagulls as an example non-sewage fecal source, the predicted median probability of illness was less than the illness benchmark of 0.01. When the fecal source was changed to poorly treated sewage, a relativity small difference between the median probability of illness and the illness benchmark was predicted. For waters impacted by a mixture of seagull and sewage waste, the dominant source of fecal indicator was not always the predicted dominant source of risk. PMID:20201509

Schoen, Mary E; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

2010-04-01

382

Comparison of material flows in sewage-free and sewage-generating flue-gas purification systems of municipal waste incineration plants  

SciTech Connect

During incineration of waste in waste incineration plants, polluted flue gases are generated which have to be subjected to flue gas purification. Although the legal requirements are nearly unambiguous, the question of whether wet flue gas purification is to be performed in a sewage-free or sewage-generating manner is discussed controversially by experts in the Federal Republic of Germany. As a contribution to this discussion, material flow studies of sewage-free and sewage-generating flue gas purification processes in waste incineration plants were performed by ITAS in cooperation with ITC-TAB. The study covered three waste incineration plants, two of which were operated in a sewage-generating and one in a sewage-free manner. The data and information submitted by most of the plant operators are not sufficient for a comprehensive balancing of flue gas purification systems in waste incineration plants. For this reason, plant operation often is not optimally tailored to the substances prevailing. During operation, at least temporary strong superstoichiometric dosage of auxiliary chemicals cannot be excluded. By means of plausibility assumptions and model calculations, closed balancing of most plants could be achieved. Moreover, it was demonstrated by the balancing of technical-scale waste incineration plants that the material flows in wet flue gas purification re less dependent on the design of the flue gas purification section (sewage-free/sewage-generating), but considerably affected by the operation of the flue gas purification system (e.g., volume of absorption agents used). Hence, material flows can be controlled in a certain range.

Achternbosch, M.; Richers, U.

1998-07-01

383

Improved sustainability of feedstock production with sludge and interacting mycorrhiza.  

PubMed

Recycling nutrients saves energy and improves agricultural sustainability. Sewage sludge contains 2.6% P and 3.1% N, so the availability of these nutrients was investigated using four crops grown in either soil or sand. Further attention was paid to the role of mycorrhiza in improvement of nutrient availability. The content of heavy metals and metalloids in the feedstock was analyzed. Sewage sludge application resulted in greater biomass accumulation in ryegrass than comparable single applications of either synthetic fertilizer or digested sludge. Sewage sludge application resulted in more numerous mycorrhizal spores in soil and increased root colonization in comparison to synthetic fertilizer. All plants studied had mycorrhizal colonized roots, with the highest colonization rate in maize, followed by hemp. Sewage sludge application resulted in the highest P uptake in all soil-grown plants. In conclusion, sewage sludge application increased feedstock yield, provided beneficial use for organic wastes, and contributed to the sustainability of bioenergy feedstock production systems. It also improves the soil conditions and plant nutrition through colonization by mycorrhizal fungi as well as reducing leaching and need of synthetic fertilizers. PMID:23481299

Seleiman, Mahmoud F; Santanen, Arja; Kleemola, Jouko; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mäkelä, Pirjo S A

2013-05-01

384

MECHANISMS OF PESTICIDE DEGRADATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project was initiated with the overall objective of determining (1) the chemical structures of toxic components of toxaphene, (2) to study anaerobic metabolism to degrade toxaphene and other pesticides, and (3) to understand toxic action mechanism of chlordimeform. ...

385

How do polymers degrade?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Materials derived from agricultural products such as cellulose, starch, polylactide, etc. are more sustainable and environmentally benign than those derived from petroleum. However, applications of these polymers are limited by their processing properties, chemical and thermal stabilities. For example, polyethylene terephthalate fabrics last for many years under normal use conditions, but polylactide fabrics cannot due to chemical degradation. There are two primary mechanisms through which these polymers degrade: via hydrolysis and via oxidation. Both of these two mechanisms are related to combined factors such as monomer chemistry, chain configuration, chain mobility, crystallinity, and permeation to water and oxygen, and product geometry. In this talk, we will discuss how these materials degrade and how the degradation depends on these factors under application conditions. Both experimental studies and mathematical modeling will be presented.

Lyu, Suping

2011-03-01

386

Lognormality of trace contaminant concentrations in sewage effluents.  

PubMed

It is important to understand the statistical distribution of monitoring data for them to be of value in determining the parameters of environmental models. No such distributional information has been available for many trace contaminants in sewage effluents. This paper applies the data of a major UK sewage works' effluent monitoring programme to determine the validity of the common assumption that data are lognormally distributed. Effluent quality was monitored at 162 wastewater treatment works over 1 year, generating over 3,000 results for each of over 40 substances, including metals, trace organic substances and pharmaceuticals. It is demonstrated that the lognormal assumption is clearly justified for the great majority of substances in the spatial case-for annual average effluent concentrations across different treatment works. In the site-specific, temporal case-for individual determinations of concentration at a single site over an annual period-lognormality is generally supported but not demonstrated so unequivocally for all site/substance combinations. The principal source of uncertainty was lack of sufficient numbers of observations reported to adequately low reporting limits. PMID:24740389

Gardner, M J

2014-08-01

387

Occurrence and removal of fungicides in municipal sewage treatment plant.  

PubMed

This work reports the occurrence and the removal of widely used fungicides, in municipal sewage treatment plant receiving combined sewage discharges and operating with primary (mechanical), secondary (activated sludge) and tertiary (sand filtration and chlorination) treatments that are commonly applied in Greece. Target analytes included compounds belonging to triazoles and anilino-pyrimidines. Analytical determination in wastewaters and river water samples was carried out by means of solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography equipped with flame thermionic and mass spectrometric detection. The fungicides tebuconazole and cyproconazole were more frequently detected in influent and effluent samples at concentrations up to 1893 and 1735 ng L(-1), respectively. Effluent concentrations were below 691.1 ng L(-1) recorded for tebuconazole. With the exception of triadimefon, all the azole fungicides and pyrimethanil showed relatively low removal efficiencies after secondary and tertiary treatments. Mean removal rates of the fungicides after secondary treatment ranged between 31% for pyrimethanil and 65% for triadimefon. Mean overall removal efficiencies after tertiary treatment ranged between 46% for pyrimethanil and 93% for triadimefon. The findings demonstrate that significant levels of fungicides enter river waterways and that only some of these compounds are being reduced in low levels by municipal wastewater treatment processes. PMID:19942349

Stamatis, N; Hela, D; Konstantinou, I

2010-03-15

388

Glazed tiles manufactured from incinerated sewage sludge ash and clay.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge incineration is applied extensively in highly populated cities as a final sludge treatment. In this study, incinerated ash was utilized as an additive to clay to manufacture glaze tiles. Four different amounts of ash (0, 15, 30, and 45%) were added, and five glaze concentrations (0.03, 0.06, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 g/cm2) were applied on the surface of biscuit tiles to study the effects of ash additive and glaze concentration on properties of fired samples. Sewage sludge was dehydrated and incinerated into ash at 800 degrees C. Subsequently, tile specimens were manufactured and fired at 800 degrees C to make biscuit tiles. Fritted glazes and iron oxide were used as the fundamental glaze and colorant, respectively. Finally, glaze was applied on the surface of biscuit tiles and then fired at 1050 degrees C to sinter them into glazed tile specimens. Tests were performed to analyze properties, including water absorption, firing shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, abrasion resistance, bending resistance, acid-alkali resistance, and aging resistance on specimens of glaze tile. To further understand more about the microstructural behavior of glazed tile specimens, analysis of energy dispersive spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray were carried out in this study. PMID:15796106

Lin, Deng-Fong; Luo, Huan-Lin; Sheen, Yeong-Nain

2005-02-01

389

Sewage in ground water in the Florida Keys  

SciTech Connect

More than 24,000 septic tanks, 5,000 cesspools, and greater than 600 shallow disposal wells introduce sewage effluents into porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To assess the fate of sewage nutrients, 21 2- to 20-m-deep wells were core drilled and completed as water-monitoring wells. The wells were sampled quarterly and analyzed for 17 parameters. including nutrients and bacteria. Nutrients (mainly NH4, - which is 30 to 40 times higher than in surface sea water) were detected in ground water beneath the Keys and offshore coral reefs. Highest levels were beneath reefs 5 to 8 km offshore. Ground waters were generally hypersaline and fecal bacteria (fecal coliform and streptococci) were detected in ground water beneath living coral reefs. Higher sea level on the Florida Bay side of the Keys is proposed as the mechanism for forcing ground water toward offshore coral reefs. Tidal pumping, which is more pronounced near the Keys, causes leakage of ground water where the sediment is thin. Areas lacking sediment cover consist of bare limestone bedrock or permeable coral reefs. These are the areas where coral diseases and algal growth have increased in recent years. Pollutants entering the ground water beneath the Florida Keys are likely to be transported seaward beneath impermeable Holocene sediments and may be upwelling through coral reefs and other hardbottom communities.

Shinn, E.A.

1995-12-31

390

Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In urban areas such as Berlin (Germany) with high municipal sewage water discharges and low surface water flows there is a potential risk of drinking water contamination by polar organic compounds when groundwater recharge is used in drinking water production. Thus, some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are not eliminated completely in the municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they are discharged as contaminants into the receiving waters. In terms of several monitoring studies carried out in Berlin between 1996 and 2000, PhACs such as clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, propyphenazone, primidone and carbamazepine were detected at individual concentrations up to the ?g/l-level in influent and effluent samples from STPs and in all surface water samples collected downstream from the STPs. Under recharge conditions, several compounds were also found at individual concentrations up to 7.3 ?g/l in samples collected from groundwater aquifers near to contaminated water courses. A few of the PhACs were also identified at the ng/l-level in Berlin tap water samples.

Heberer, Thomas

2002-09-01

391

The real-time method of assessing the contribution of individual sources on visibility degradation in Taichung.  

PubMed

Visibility degradation caused by air pollution has become a serious environmental problem in megacities in Northeast Asia. In general, aerosol chemical compositions are measured by a conventional method of time integrated filter sampling for off-line analysis, which cannot represent temporal and spatial variations in the real atmosphere. The in situ air composition measuring equipment, OCEC carbon aerosol analyzer and a long-path visibility transmissometer-3 were used to collect hourly measurements of the soluble ions, organic/elemental carbon, and ambient visibility, respectively. During the observation, two types of weather conditions were identified: transport and stagnant. Because PM2.5 was identified as the predominant species of light extinction, the sources of PM2.5 were determined and investigated using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. The PMF outputs characterized the six main emission sources (marine/crustal aerosols, secondary nitrate, secondary sulfate, direct vehicle exhaust, coal/incinerator combustion, and local sewage emission) and reconstructed the PM2.5 mass concentrations of each pollutant source in two weather conditions. In addition, the light extinction (bext) was reconstructed using a multivariate linear regression analysis with hourly-reconstructed PM2.5 mass concentrations to determine the contributions of each source to bext. The primary results showed that the extinction coefficient was proportional to the PM2.5 with high value in stagnant weather conditions. The secondary sulfate was the most abundant source of bext contribution during the sampling period. In addition, the bext contributions of direct vehicle exhaust and coal/incinerator combustion significantly increased in the stagnant weather condition. According to the results of hourly measurements, this work further emphasized that the sources of direct vehicle exhaust and coal/incinerator combustion in PM2.5 were the important sources of visibility degradation in the stagnant weather conditions, which suggests that the pollutants derived from direct vehicle exhaust and coal/incinerator combustion should be controlled first to improve visibility in Taichung. PMID:25133995

Chen, Wei-Nai; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Kuo, Chung-Yih; Chou, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Chung-Hao; Huang, Chun-Chieh; Chang, Shih-Yu; Roja Raman, M; Shang, Wen-Lin; Chuang, Tzu-Yao; Liu, Su-Ching

2014-11-01

392

Ozone Application for the Improvement of UASB Reactor Effluent I. Physical-Chemical and Biological Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozonation can improve the effluent characteristics of UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactors treating domestic sewage, by removing organic matter, solids, surfactants, color and microorganisms. In Brazil, part of the effluent of a 120 msup3; UASB reactor, fed with screened domestic sewage at an hydraulic retention time of 7 hours, was post-treated in a two-column ozonation system of 300 liters

T. M. T. Gasi; L. A. V. Amaral; C. E. M. Pacheco; A. G. Filho; A. D. Garcia Jr; S. M. M. Vieira; R. Francisco Jr; P. D. Orth; M. Scoparo; M. S. R. de S. Dias; M. L. Magri

1991-01-01

393

A new serovar mogdeni of serogroup Tarassovi of Leptospira interrogans isolated from a sewage plant in England.  

PubMed Central

Among 30 strains of leptospires isolated from samples of sewage taken before and during treatment at two sewage plants in England, only one appeared to belong to Leptospira interrogans, the species that comprises the leptospires that are pathogenic to man and animals. That strain, Compton 746, was isolated from settled sewage, before treatment at a treatment plant that deals mainly with human sewage. It was shown serologically to belong to serogroup Tarassovi and appears to represent a new serovar that has been named mogdeni after the name of the sewage plant, Mogden, from which it was isolated. PMID:3678398

Coghlan, J. D.; Kmety, E.

1987-01-01

394

Fate of radiocesium in sewage treatment process released by the nuclear accident at Fukushima.  

PubMed

The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) which occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 resulted in releases of radionuclides such as (134)Cs (half-life:T1/2=2.06 yr), (137)Cs (T1/2=30.04 yr) and (131)I (T1/2=8.05 d) to the environment. For this paper, we observed the monthly variations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) and stable Cs concentrations in influent, effluent, sewage sludge, and sludge ash collected from a sewage treatment plant 280 km north of the FDNPP from July to December, 2011. Using the stable Cs results, we concluded the mass balance of Cs in the sewage treatment plant showed that about 10% of the Cs entering the sewage treatment plant would be transferred to the sewage sludge, and then Cs in the sewage sludge was totally recovered in the sludge ash. The behavior of Cs was similar to that of Rb, but it was not similar to that of K in the sewage treatment process. PMID:23838042

Kamei-Ishikawa, Nao; Ito, Ayumi; Tagami, Keiko; Umita, Teruyuki

2013-10-01

395

[Full-scale experiments of municipal sewage treated by symbiotic system consisting of tubifex and microbes].  

PubMed

A symbiotic system consisting of tubifex and microbe was formed when tubifex was incubated in the biological contact oxidation process,the tubifex attached to the outer layer of the carriers. When the density of tubifex was about 31.3 g/L, a recycling food chain between corpse of tubifex and excrement and wastewater and microbe and sludge was formed and it could reach balance. The large scale control experimental system for treating 20,000 m3 x d(-1) municipal sewage was carried out for a long time. The result showed that tubifex could improve water quality in the effluent. When the concentration in the influent of COD,NH4+ -N,TP and SS were 130-459, 14.21-27.46, 1.60-6.93, 60-466 mg x L(-1), respectively,the removal rates of COD and SS can be improved by 8.7% and 13.6%. However, tubifex can also increase the concentration of NH4+ -N in the system,but a proper operation can make the effluent concentration of NH4+ -N below 5 mg x L(-1) stably. The symbiotic system consisting of tubifex and microbe has very good phosphorus removal efficiency. The reactor has a high toleration to loading shock and it could keep the effluent quality stable. PMID:20187394

Lou, Ju-qing; Guo, Mao-xin; Sun, Pei-de; Wu, Ge; Song, Ying-qi

2009-12-01

396

Microbial quantities and enzyme activity in soil irrigated with sewage for different lengths of time.  

PubMed

Sewage is widely used on agricultural soils in peri-urban areas of developing countries to meet shortages of water resource. Although sewage is a good source of plant nutrients, it also increases the heavy metals loads to soils. Microbial responses to these contaminants may serve as early warning indicators of adverse effects of sewage irrigation on soil quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of time of sewage irrigation on soil microbial indicators. Soil samples were collected from seven soil sites (S1-S7) irrigated with 0 years, 16 years, 23 years, 25 years, 27 years, 32 years and 52 years, respectively in Shijiazhuang of China and analyzed. For each soil sample, we determined the quantities of bacteria, fungi and actinomycete, and enzyme activities of urease, sucrase, phosphatase, dehydrogenase and catalase. Our results showed that the soils of S2-S7 irrigated with sewage effluents for different times (ranged between 16 and 52 years) exhibited higher densities of bacteria, actinomycete, urease, sucrase and phosphatase but lower densities of fungi when compared with S1 irrigated with sewage effluents for 0 years. The soil S7 irrigated with sewage effluents for longest times (52 years) contained lowest activities of catalase when compared with the soils of S1-S6. The densities of bacteria (R = 0.877, p < 0.01), actinomycete (R = 0.875, p < 0.01), sucrase (R = 0.858, p < 0.01) and phosphatase (R = 0.804, p < 0.05) were significantly correlated in a positive manner with time of sewage irrigation. Soil fungi quantities and urease, dehydrogenase and catalase activities did not change significantly with irrigation time. This study confirms that sewage irrigation had negative effects on microbial properties including fungi, catalase and dehydrogenase in the long term, so there is a need for continuous monitoring for sustainable soil health. PMID:25190356

Guo, Xiaoming; Ma, Teng; Chen, Liuzhu; Cui, Yahui; Du, Peng; Liao, Yuan

2014-12-01

397

Sustainable sewage management and the inertia to change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing economic costs and environmental concerns have led to that planners around the world are progressively questioning the prevailing sewage management paradigm, calling for a shift in the hydrosocial contract to embrace more sustainable solutions, to be based on closed-loops rather than linear end-of-pipe solutions. Despite considerable attention to the technical possibilities for delivering sewage services in a more integrated and sustainable fashion, shifts in planning and management have been slow. Based on an extensive study of Australian cities, Brown et al (2009) have developed a model with six transitional stages and argue that "while there may be cognitive changes (best practice thinking such as water sustainable urban design), there has not been sufficient normative and regulative change to support new practice." They contrast three historic transition stages with three successive sustainable stages. Unfortunately, the study ends in a rather vague outline of "the Water Sensitive City", with little sign-posts indicating how one might transition to this seemingly utopian last stage. In the present paper, we discuss the normative tensions created between the different actors in this increasingly complex playing field, who represent different and often competing values. We suggest that cities have difficulties transitioning from the old contract to one of the newer ones because the hydro-social contract promised by these new stages create normative tensions not only between the new and the old, but also between what one might call different types of environmentalists: naturalists and pragmatists. The naturalists, who for example are very voiced in several cities along the North American west coast, tend to embrace the perception of Nature described by environmental historians as Untouched Wilderness, where technology is pinpointed as the root of the problems. In contrast, the other side lean more on the idea of modernity, with a more pragmatic approach to nature, which first and foremost is seen as a provider of material resources and technology is a tool that aids solving the problem with the limited supply. The naturalists' cognitive response points to solutions that are perceived as 'natural' such as composting and constructed wetlands, but do to not easily embrace solutions that are perceived as 'technical', such as smart metering, biogas reactors, and recovery of pelleted phosphorous compounds. We suggest that transition to the 'Water Sensitive City' requires explicit recognition that sewage management is a context-dependent multi-dimensional, multi-objective challenge in which competing objectives must be identified and trade-offs made, which includes recognizing and finding ways to manage the tacit tensions caused by competing normative underpinnings among different types of environmentalism.

Öberg, G.

2012-12-01

398

Modeling the Radiological Impact of Tritium in Sewage Sludge Being Used as Fertilizer  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to assess the radiological impact on humans via the foodchain resulting from the presence of tritium and C-14 in sewage sludge being used as fertilizer on agricultural land. The key endpoint of the assessment was the annual individual dose to an average member of potential critical groups. As part of the assessment, a model was developed to simulate the distribution of tritium between sewage sludge and effluent in the sewage treatment plant, the release of tritium upon sludge decomposition and subsequent uptake by plants and animals. The modeling assumptions, as well as key parameters and parameter values will be discussed in this paper.

Venter, A.; Smith, G

2005-07-15

399

Emission-factor documentation for AP-42 Section 2. 5, sewage-sludge incineration  

SciTech Connect

The report documents information used in the development of AP-42 Section 2.5, 'Sewage Sludge Incineration.' The document 'Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors,' more commonly known as AP-42, has been published by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency since 1972 to provide emission factors for sources of criteria pollutant emissions. Documentation of AP-42 Section 2.5 describes the sewage sludge incineration process, discusses emissions data collected for this industry, details the development of pollutant emission factors for sewage sludge incineration, and presents the AP-42 Section.

Not Available

1990-08-01

400

Sewage treatment plant NSPS: Responses to comments on April 1986 proposed revisions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

On April 18, 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed revisions to the monitoring, recordkeeping, reporting and testing requirements associated with the new source performance standards (NSPS) for sewage treatment plants. The standard limits atmospheric emissions of particulate matter (PM) from new, modified, or reconstructed sewage sludge incinerators. The April 18, 1986, Federal Register notice proposed additional monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements and additional performance test requirements for owners and operators of existing and future sewage sludge incinerators subject to the NSPS. Public comments were requested on the proposal in the Federal Register notice. The public comments are summarized in the document along with responses to the comments.

Not Available

1988-10-01

401

Microbial degradation of chlorolignins  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate pulping and conventional bleaching of spruce wood, which had been labeled with /sup 14/C in the lignin component, gave rise to /sup 14/C-labeled chlorolignins. High relative molecular mass fractions of both the chlorination (C) and alkali extraction (E) stages were obtained by ultrafiltration (cutoff at 1000 daltons). The degradation of these labeled chlorolignins was studied by measuring evolved /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ using two different bacterial mixtures, isolated from aerated lagoons receiving spent bleach liquors, and the white-rot fungus Sporotrichum pulverulentum. The results obtained showed that the bacterial consortia degraded high molecular mass chlorolignins only very slowly, less than 4% of the /sup 14/C material being converted to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ within 3 months. However, the fungus degraded the same material much more rapidly, 35-45% of available /sup 14/C being converted to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ within 2 months.

Eriksson, K.E.; Kolar, M.C.

1985-11-01

402

Photovoltaic Degradation Risk: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The ability to accurately predict power delivery over the course of time is of vital importance to the growth of the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Important cost drivers include the efficiency with which sunlight is converted into power, how this relationship changes over time, and the uncertainty in this prediction. An accurate quantification of power decline over time, also known as degradation rate, is essential to all stakeholders - utility companies, integrators, investors, and researchers alike. In this paper we use a statistical approach based on historical data to quantify degradation rates, discern trends and quantify risks related to measurement uncertainties, number of measurements and methodologies.

Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

2012-04-01

403

Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash through an electrodialytic process.  

PubMed

The electrodialytic separation process (ED) was applied to sewage sludge ash (SSA) aiming at phosphorus (P) recovery. As the SSA may have high heavy metals contents, their removal was also assessed. Two SSA were sampled, one immediately after incineration (SA) and the other from an open deposit (SB). Both samples were ED treated as stirred suspensions in sulphuric acid for 3, 7 and 14 days. After 14 days, phosphorus was mainly mobilized towards the anode end (approx. 60% in the SA and 70% in the SB), whereas heavy metals mainly electromigrated towards the cathode end. The anolyte presented a composition of 98% of P, mainly as orthophosphate, and 2% of heavy metals. The highest heavy metal removal was achieved for Cu (ca. 80%) and the lowest for Pb and Fe (between 4% and 6%). The ED showed to be a viable method for phosphorus recovery from SSA, as it promotes the separation of P from the heavy metals. PMID:24656469

Guedes, Paula; Couto, Nazaré; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

2014-05-01

404

Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.  

PubMed

The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry). PMID:23947711

Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro

2013-01-01

405

Population dynamics and ecology of Arcobacter in sewage  

PubMed Central

Arcobacter species are highly abundant in sewage where they often comprise approximately 5–11% of the bacterial community. Oligotyping of sequences amplified from the V4V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed Arcobacter populations from different cities were similar and dominated by 1–3 members, with extremely high microdiversity in the minor members. Overall, nine subgroups within the Arcobacter genus accounted for >80% of the total Arcobacter sequences in all samples analyzed. The distribution of oligotypes varied by both sample site and temperature, with samples from the same site generally being more similar to each other than other sites. Seven oligotypes matched with 100% identity to characterized Arcobacter species, but the remaining 19 abundant oligotypes appear to be unknown species. Sequences representing the two most abundant oligotypes matched exactly to the reference strains for A. cryaerophilus group 1B (CCUG 17802) and group 1A (CCUG 17801T), respectively. Oligotype 1 showed generally lower relative abundance in colder samples and higher relative abundance in warmer samples; the converse was true for Oligotype 2. Ten other oligotypes had significant positive or negative correlations between temperature and proportion in samples as well. The oligotype that corresponded to A. butzleri, the Arcobacter species most commonly isolated by culturing in sewage studies, was only the eleventh most abundant oligotype. This work suggests that Arcobacter populations within sewer infrastructure are modulated by temperature. Furthermore, current culturing methods used for identification of Arcobacter fail to identify some abundant members of the community and may underestimate the presence of species with affinities for growth at lower temperatures. Understanding the ecological factors that affect the survival and growth of Arcobacter spp. in sewer infrastructure may better inform the risks associated with these emerging pathogens.

Fisher, Jenny C.; Levican, Arturo; Figueras, María J.; McLellan, Sandra L.

2014-01-01

406

Effect of organic matter oxidation on the fractionation of copper, zinc, lead, and arsenic in sewage sludge and amended soils.  

PubMed

Long-term land application of sewage sludge (SS) has caused concern over the potential release of trace metals into the environment following the degradation of organic matter (OM). This study was performed to assess the impact of OM degradation on the relative distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb, and As in SS and SS-amended soils. Three SSs of different ages and two soils treated with SS were subjected to incubation and direct chemical oxidation using diluted HO, followed by a sequential extraction. The majority of Cu, Pb, and As were bound to OM, whereas the majority of Zn was bound with Fe/Mn oxides for all three SSs. Incubation of SS for 6 mo did not result in a substantial decrease in OM content or a change in the relative distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb, and As. Direct OM oxidation to 30 and 70% by diluted HO resulted in a significant decrease in organically bound Cu but increased its exchangeable, carbonate-bound, and Fe/Mn-bound fractions. Oxidation of OM slightly decreased organically bound Zn but significantly increased exchangeable Zn in all SSs. Oxide- and carbonate-bound Zn also decreased following OM oxidation. Exchangeable fractions of As and Pb were minute before and after OM degradation, indicating that release into the environment would be unlikely. The relative distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb, and As in SS-treated soils was similar to that of SS, suggesting a dominant role of SS properties in controlling metal distribution following OM oxidation. Overall, OM oxidation increased the mobility and bioavailability of Zn and Cu, whereas it had less impact on Pb and As. PMID:21712586

Stietiya, M Hashem; Wang, Jim J

2011-01-01

407

Outdoor PV degradation comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. At the Performance and Energy Rating Testbed (PERT) at the Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) more

D. C. Jordan; R. M. Smith; C. R. Osterwald; E. Gelak; S. R. Kurtz

2010-01-01

408

Thermooxidative degradation of polyacrolein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermooxidative degradation of polyacrolein has been investigated with a derivatograph. It was found that up to 80° a physical process occurs — the evaporation of traces of water and monomer acrolein trapped by the polymer. Exothermic process of dehydration of hydrated aldehyde groups of polyacrolein takes place from 80 to 130°. A very pronounced exothermic process from 130 to 180°

I. V. Andreeva; V. N. Artemyeva; Yu. N. Sazanov; G. N. Fedorova

1976-01-01

409

Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (1): Flow Resistance and Energy Analysis  

E-print Network

The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Given the schematic diagram of TDHT system, introducing the definition of equivalent fouling roughness height, and using the Niklaus...

Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, G.; Li, X.; Huang, L.; Sun, D.

2006-01-01

410

Biohydrogen production from oil palm frond juice and sewage sludge by a metabolically engineered  

E-print Network

of amylase and cellulase. The OPF juice with sewage sludge provided an optimum carbon/nitrogen ratio sinceB) and hydrogenase 2 (hybC ) to prevent hydrogen uptake activity; inactivation of the FHL complex repressor inhibitor

Wood, Thomas K.

411

F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) of Savannah River Plant were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. None of these analytes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria at either sewage sludge site. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Of these constituents, tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well FSS 3D. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well FSS 4D, and manganese exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

Not Available

1992-10-01

412

Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute primary-treated sewage sludge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge is evaluated. The laboratory arrangement, solar simulator, and test results from three experiments conducted in the laboratory are described. Radiance and reflectance spectra are presented for primary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled reflectance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Well-defined upwelled reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations. The spectral-reflectance values appeared to be influenced by the type of base water, but this influence was small, especially for the mixtures with low concentrations of sewage sludge.

Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

1977-01-01

413

Study of Performance of Heat Pump Usage in Sewage Treatment and Fouling Impact on System  

E-print Network

, system performances are simulated. Then the impact of fouling on system performance is emulated in detail. The results show that the novel system is feasible to be utilized in sewage treatment for its energy-saving and high efficient characteristics...

Song, Y.; Yao, Y.; Ma, Z.; Na, W.

2006-01-01

414

Distribution of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus in sewage works, river water, and sediments.  

PubMed Central

Bdellovibrio was found in all liquid phases of the sewage works examined. The predator was also found in all the river sediments and sewage-polluted river waters examined but could not be found in some unpolluted river waters. Bdellovibrio was able to multiply on the high numbers of bacteria present in the aerobic percolating filter film but could not survive in anaerobic sludge. Similarly, the predator was present in the aerobic surface layers of river sediments but not in the anaerobic bottom layers. The major source of Bdellovibrio in the polluted rivers examined were sewage works effluents, and numbers in both river water and sediment were correlated with river water quality. It was unlikely that Bdellovibrio was important in reducing numbers of other bacteria in either sewage or river sediment. PMID:1267445

Fry, J C; Staples, D G

1976-01-01

415

Proper Sanitization of Sewage Sludge: a Critical Issue for a Sustainable Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

To attain the global goal of an environmentally sustainable society in which organic material is successfully recycled back to arable land, it is crucial to develop effective procedures for the treatment of sewage sludge. The term \\

Veronica Arthurson

2008-01-01

416

Sewage effluent as a source of Campylobacter sp. in a surface water catchment.  

PubMed

Campylobacter sp. can regularly be found in wastewater-affected surface waters. The occurrence of Campylobacter sp. in rivers, treated sewage and combined sewer overflows was analysed in a catchment with sparse annual precipitation. During regular treatment the reduction efficacy for Campylobacter sp. varies between 1.75 and 3.5 log(10). However, Campylobacter sp. concentrations do not increase downstream in the river as more sewage treatment plants discharge into it. During rain events, the Campylobacter sp. concentration in the river upstream of any sewage plant rises and in the sewer overflow water it is more than 150-fold higher than the average concentration in the river water at the river mouth. The highest Campylobacter sp. loads and the highest risk of infection occur during summertime after heavy rainfall. Risk management strategies should focus on problems regarding water scarcity, reuse of sewage effluent and the impact of heavy rain events. PMID:20183194

Rechenburg, Andrea; Kistemann, Thomas

2009-08-01

417

F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) of Savannah River Plant were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. None of these analytes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria at either sewage sludge site. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Of these constituents, tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well FSS 3D. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well FSS 4D, and manganese exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

Not Available

1992-10-01

418

33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.79 ...nautical miles of Antarctic land or ice shelves; beyond...

2014-07-01

419

78 FR 34973 - Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan to control air pollutants from Sewage Sludge Incinerators (SSI). The Indiana Department of Environmental Management submitted...Plan meets applicable Clean Air Act requirements for subject SSI units. Once effective, this approval also makes the State...

2013-06-11

420

EVALUATION OF A FLUIDIZED-BED SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR USING WOOD CHIPS FOR FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

An environmental and technical evaluation was conducted on the Western Lake Superior Sanitary District waste treatment plant, which uses wood chips to incinerate sewage sludge in fluidized-bed combustors. The most important environmental factors for evaluation were determined to ...

421

F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report  

SciTech Connect

Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Historically and currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites except iron, lead, and manganese, which occur in elevated concentrations frequently in FSS wells and occasionally in HSS wells. Tritium and aluminum are the primary nonpermit constituents that exceed standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. Other constituents also exceed standards at this site but only sporadically.

Not Available

1993-07-01

422

F- and H-area Sewage Sludge Application Sites: Groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993  

SciTech Connect

Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Tritium and aluminum have been the primary nonpermit constituents exceeding standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. These constituents were not analyzed second quarter 1993. Other constituents also have exceeded standards at this site, but only sporadically, and none of those were analyzed second quarter 1993.

Not Available

1993-10-01

423

Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute secondary-treated sewage sludge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), conducted a research program to evaluate the feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge. One aspect of the research program involved the measurements of upwelled spectral signatures for sewage-sludge mixtures of different concentrations in an 11600-liter tank. This paper describes the laboratory arrangement and presents radiance and reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared ranges for concentrations ranging from 9.7 to 180 ppm of secondary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled radiance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations.

Witte, W. G.; Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

1977-01-01

424

Neurovirulent Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses in Sewage from Highly Immune Populations  

E-print Network

Neurovirulent Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses in Sewage from Highly Immune Populations Lester M Sciences, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel Background. Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) have caused poliomyelitis outbreaks in communities with sub-optimal vaccination. Israeli environmental

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

425

SUMMARY OF EFFECTS OF PARTIALLY-TREATED SEWAGE ON NEARSHORE ENVIRONMENTS OF SOUTHEASTERN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

This project consisted of two simultaneous phases. One phase was the construction and preliminary application of a prototype, experimental wastewater treatment seawater aquaria research facility. This facility, the Sewage Treatment and Bioeffects Laboratory (STABEL), was designed...

426

HEALTH EFFECTS RELATED TO SEWAGE EFFLUENT DISCHARGE INTO FRESH WATER ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between sewage effluent particulates which reach bathing beaches and swimming-associated health effects was examined. A differential filtration procedure was used to quantify the density of particles greater than 3 microns in size carrying viable Escherichia coli...

427

The Real World of Industrial Chemistry: The Use of Oxygen in the Treatment of Sewage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the events leading up to the establishment of oxygen (rather than air) as an important component in the second stage treatment of municipal wastewater in sewage-disposal plants. Advantages, problems, and costs of using oxygen are discussed. (CS)

Cook, Gerhard A.; And Others

1980-01-01

428

Detection of pump degradation  

SciTech Connect

This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

1995-08-01

429

Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent  

SciTech Connect

Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of 1 year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (23.6 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (27 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (22 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. Nitrogen and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7 percent N and 0.94 percent P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8 percent N and 0.79 percent P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nutrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ and 321 to 387 kg P ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/, respectively.

Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKim, T.

1985-05-01

430

Co-pyrolysis of coal\\/biomass and coal\\/sewage sludge mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass and sewage sludge are attracting increasing interest in power plant technology as a source of carbon-dioxide-neutral fuels. A new way to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels could be the co-combustion or co-gasification of coal and biomass or coal and sewage sludge. In both cases, pyrolysis is the first step in the technical process. In order to obtain detailed

C. Storm; H. Ruediger; H. Spliethoff; K. R. G. Hein

1999-01-01

431

Co-composting of sewage sludge and coal fly ash: nutrient transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-composting of sewage sludge with coal fly ash was carried out for evaluating the effect of coal fly ash on nutrient transformations during sludge composting. Dewatered anaerobically-digested sewage sludge was mixed with sawdust used as a bulking agent at 2:1 (w\\/w), and the mixtures were amended with coal fly ash at 0, 10, 25 and 35% (w\\/w) and composted for

M. Fang; J. W. C. Wong; K. K. Ma; M. H. Wong

1999-01-01

432

Sedimentary records of sewage pollution using faecal markers in contrasting peri-urban shallow lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage contamination in shallow lake sediments is of concern because the pathogens, organic matter and nutrients contribute to the deterioration of the water-bodies' health and ecology. Sediment cores from three shallow lakes (Coneries, Church and Clifton Ponds) within Attenborough nature reserve located downstream of sewage treatment works were analysed for TOC, C\\/N, ?13C, ?15N, bacterial coliforms and faecal sterols. 210Pb

C. H. Vane; A. W. Kim; S. McGowan; M. J. Leng; T. H. E. Heaton; C. P. Kendrick; P. Coombs; H. Yang; G. E. A. Swann

2010-01-01

433

Survey of Levels of Phthalate Ester Plasticizers in a Sewage Lagoon Effluent and a Receiving Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, samples from a sewage treatment lagoon and those from a receiving stream were analyzed for their phthalate\\u000a esters content. Knowledge of the distribution of ubiquitous phthalate esters in the sewage lagoon and the receiving stream\\u000a was necessary because of the reports of their subtle toxicity to aquatic biota and humans. Liquid–liquid extraction, Clean-up\\u000a experiment and High Performance

A. O. Ogunfowokan; N. Torto; A. A. Adenuga; E. K. Okoh

2006-01-01

434

The Reactive Light Yellow Dye Wastewater Treatment by Sewage Sludge-Based Activated Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is aim to discuss the dye wastewater treatment by sewage sludge-based adsorbent. The adsorbent derived from sewage sludge , which produced through phosphoric acid-microwave method, and commercia activated carbon (ACC) were tested in the process of the Reactive Light Yellow dye wastewater treatment. The effects of pH value, contact time and the adsorbents' amount on the adsorption efficiency

Yang Lijun; Dai Qunwei

2011-01-01

435

Sorption of phenanthrene by sewage sludge during composting in relation to potentially bioavailable contaminant content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to determine to what degree the sewage sludge sorption capacity to phenanthrene influences on bioavailability of this compound during composting. Sewage sludges were composted for 76 days. The content of the potentially bioavailable phenanthrene fraction was determined by: mild-solvent extraction with n-butanol (BTL) and non-exhaustive extraction technique with hydroxypropyl[?] cyclodextrin (HPCD). Batch experiments

Patryk Oleszczuk

2009-01-01

436

Abundance, diet and Salmonella contamination of gulls feeding at sewage outfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and activity of gulls at sewage outfalls in South Wales and southern England was studied between 1972 and 1999. In winter, the black-headed gull was the most abundant species, followed by herring, common and lesser black-backed gulls. The abundance of black-headed gulls and herring gulls was significantly correlated with the volume of sewage discharged. Sewers supported only a

Peter N. Ferns; Gregory P. Mudge

2000-01-01

437

Fate of natural estrogens in batch mixing experiments using municipal sewage and activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since natural estrogens such as 17?-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) are excreted daily by humans, E2 and E1, which are classified as inevitable endocrine-disrupting chemicals, are always present in sewage wastewater. For several years, the monitoring and removal of natural estrogens at sewage treatment plants have been examined by many investigators. However, little is known regarding the exact behavior of

Y. Suzuki; T. Maruyama

2006-01-01

438

Biodegradability and change of physical characteristics of particles during anaerobic digestion of domestic sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the high-rate anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage, both biological and physical processes play an important role. Therefore, the anaerobic biodegradability of raw, paper-filtered and membrane-filtered sewage and black water has been investigated in batch experiments. Additionally, the effect of anaerobic digestion on physical characteristics, like particle size, surface tension and zeta-potential, of the present particles is studied. The biodegradability

Tarek A Elmitwalli; Jesko Soellner; Arie De Keizer; Harry Bruning; Grietje Zeeman; Gatze Lettinga

2001-01-01

439

Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the composition of the oils obtained from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was pyrolysed in a quartz reactor at 350, 450, 550 and 950°C. The pyrolysis oils from the sewage sludge were characterized in detail by means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Changes in the composition of the oils related to the process conditions were assessed by normalizing the areas of the peaks. It was demonstrated that, as the temperature

M. E. Sánchez; J. A. Menéndez; A. Domínguez; J. J. Pis; O. Martínez; L. F. Calvo; P. L. Bernad

2009-01-01

440

The Research of Sewage Treatment Control System Based on Fuzzy PID  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adoption the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) of high reliability, strong anti-interference ability designs a sewage treatment control system for a certain chemical industry, which realizes the automatic control of the sewage treatment. Fuzzy PID (Piping and Instrument Diagram) controller is designed for the bache of non-linear control in the system, through fuzzy control algorithm on-line adjustment PID parameters, replaces the

Gao Shuangxi; Cao Shufu

2009-01-01

441

Performance of duckweed-covered sewage lagoons—II. Nitrogen and phosphorus balance and plant productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory scale experiments were performed in a non-continuous batch reactor system with 0.8 to 41.2 l with domestic sewage exposed to constant light intensity, temperature and humidity. The contribution of duckweed (L. gibba) to N and P removal in duckweed-covered sewage lagoons (DSL) was studied at NH+4 concentration of 25–96 mg\\/l with 10, 30, 70 and 95 cm deep reactors, and liquid mixing

F Al-Nozaily; G Alaerts; S Veenstra

2000-01-01

442

Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage and brewery sludge for biogas production and land application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thailand, sewage sludge production from the Bangkok metropolitan area can reach up to 63,000 ton\\/y by 2010. The Beer-Thai Company, Thailand, produces beer and generates lots of sludge as waste. Sewage sludge and brewery sludge can be used to generate energy which could be saved on the fossil fuels conventionally used as a source of energy. The possibility was

S. Babel; J. Sae-Tang

2009-01-01

443

Evaluation for Agricultural Usage with Speciation of Heavy Metals in a Municipal Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate the agricultural usage of an anaerobically digested sludge in the contents and fractions\\u000a of heavy metals. Therefore, a sequential extraction scheme according to the BCR’s (Community Bureau of Reference) guidelines\\u000a and total acid digestion were applied to sewage sludge samples. The results of total heavy metal concentrations in sewage\\u000a sludge showed that the

Özge Hanay; Halil Hasar; Nilüfer Nacar Kocer; Sibel Aslan

2008-01-01

444

The effects of surfactant concentration on grease removal by air flotation in municipal sewage treatment  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS OF SURFACTANT CONCENTRATION ON GREASE REMOVAL BY AIR FLOTATION IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT A Thesis by LARRY EUGENE PERRY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 'l97B Major Subject: Civil Engineering THE EFFECTS OF SURFACTANT CONCENTRATION ON GREASE REMOVAL BY AIR FLOTATION IN MUNI'CIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT A Thesis LARPY EUGENE PERRY Approved as to styie and content by...

Perry, Larry Eugene

2012-06-07

445

Vermistabilization of municipal sewage sludge amended with sugarcane trash using epigeic Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts have been made in this study to stabilize the sewage sludge mixed with sugarcane trash in four different proportions: 20% (T1); 40% (T2); 60% (T3) and 80% (T4), under laboratory conditions using epigeic earthworm (Oligochaeta) Eisenia fetida. The composting potential of worm was also evaluated in 100% sewage sludge treatment (T5). The changes in chemical properties of substrate was

Surindra Suthar

2009-01-01

446

Highly divergent type 2 and 3 vaccine-derived polioviruses isolated from sewage in Tallinn, Estonia.  

PubMed

Highly divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) have been isolated from sewage in Tallinn, Estonia, since 2002. Sequence analysis of VDPVs of serotypes 2 and 3 showed that they shared common noncapsid region recombination sites, indicating origination from a single trivalent oral polio vaccine dose, estimated to have been given between 1986 and 1998. The sewage isolates closely resemble VDPVs chronically excreted by persons with common variable immunodeficiency, but no chronic excretors have yet been identified in Estonia. PMID:24049178

Al-Hello, Haider; Jorba, Jaume; Blomqvist, Soile; Raud, Riina; Kew, Olen; Roivainen, Merja

2013-12-01

447

K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, Third quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

During third quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for base-neutral/acid semivolatile constituents. None of the analytical results exceeded standards.

Thompson, C.Y.

1993-01-01

448

Clarification of municipal sewage with ferric chloride: the nature of coagulant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of coagulant species formed in the system ferric chloride\\/municipal sewage was explored with Transmission Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (TEM-EDXS) and Fe K-edge X-ray Absorption spectroscopy. Jar-test data combined with chemical analysis of supernatant (dissolved organic carbon, iron, and phosphorus) and Fourier-Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of freeze-dried sediment, provided a detailed description of sewage clarification. The

A. G. El Samrani; B. S. Lartiges; E. Montargès-Pelletier; V. Kazpard; O. Barrès; J. Ghanbaja

2004-01-01

449

Process flow model of solid oxide fuel cell system supplied with sewage biogas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for a 100kW class solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system running on biogas from a sewage sludge digestion plant was implemented in a process flow scheme using external steam reforming. The model stack consisted of planar anode supported cells operated at 800°C displaying state-of-the-art electrochemical performance (0.15W\\/cm2 at 80% fuel utilisation). Real annual data from an existing sewage

J Van herle; F Maréchal; S Leuenberger; Y Membrez; O Bucheli; D Favrat

2004-01-01

450

Highly Divergent Type 2 and 3 Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses Isolated from Sewage in Tallinn, Estonia  

PubMed Central

Highly divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) have been isolated from sewage in Tallinn, Estonia, since 2002. Sequence analysis of VDPVs of serotypes 2 and 3 showed that they shared common noncapsid region recombination sites, indicating origination from a single trivalent oral polio vaccine dose, estimated to have been given between 1986 and 1998. The sewage isolates closely resemble VDPVs chronically excreted by persons with common variable immunodeficiency, but no chronic excretors have yet been identified in Estonia. PMID:24049178

Al-Hello, Haider; Jorba, Jaume; Blomqvist, Soile; Raud, Riina; Kew, Olen

2013-01-01

451

Restoration of acidic mine spoils with sewage sludge: II measurement of solids applied  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge was incorporated in acidic strip mine spoils at rates equivalent to 0, 224, 336, and 448 dry metric tons (dmt)/ha and placed in pots in a greenhouse. Spoil parameters were determined 48 hours after sludge incorporation, Time Planting (P), and five months after orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) was planted, Time Harvest (H), in the pots. Parameters measured were: pH, organic matter content (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), electrical conductivity (EC) and yield. Values for each parameter were significantly different at the two sampling times. Correlation coefficient values were calculated for all parameters versus rates of applied sewage sludge and all parameters versus each other. Multiple regressions were performed, stepwise, for all parameters versus rates of applied sewage sludge. Equations to predict amounts of sewage sludge incorporated in spoils were derived for individual and multiple parameters. Generally, measurements made at Time P achieved the highest correlation coefficient and multiple correlation coefficient values; therefore, the authors concluded data from Time P had the greatest predictability value. The most important value measured to predict rate of applied sewage sludge was pH and some additional accuracy was obtained by including CEC in equation. This experiment indicated that soil properties can be used to estimate amounts of sewage sludge solids required to reclaim acidic mine spoils and to estimate quantities incorporated.

Stucky, D.J.; Zoeller, A.L.

1980-01-01

452

Comparison of sewage sludge toxicity to plants and invertebrates in three different soils.  

PubMed

Understanding the effect of soil type on the overall toxicity of sewage sludge is one of the most important issues concerning environmental risks associated with the sewage sludge land application. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of different soils (sandy, loamy and OECD soil) on sewage sludges toxicity in relation to plants (Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum, Sinapis alba) and an invertebrate species (Heterocypris incongruens). The most evident negative influence of sewage sludges on root growth was observed in the case of OECD soil. The EC(50) values determined on the basis of the root growth inhibition of all tested plants were in the range 0.1-6.4%, 0.03-9.4% and 6.6-22.1% (% of sewage sludgekg(-1) soil) for OECD, sandy and loamy soil, respectively. Soil type also affects the sewage sludge toxicity in relation to H. incongruens. The LC(50) (mortality) values ranged from 0.26% to 11.5% depending on the sludge tested. For EC(50) (growth inhibition) values ranged from 10.7% to 36.2%. PMID:21236465

Oleszczuk, Patryk; Hollert, Henner

2011-04-01

453

Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site  

SciTech Connect

The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site were tested for the ability to grow under in situ conditions of temperature and pressure. The responses of cultures collected at a DWD-106 station heavily impacted by sewage sludge were compared with those of samples collected from a station at the same depth which was not contaminated by sewage sludge. Significant differences were observed in the ability of mixed bacterial cultures and isolates from the two sites to grow under deep-sea pressure and temperature conditions. The levels of sludge contamination were established by enumerating Clostridium perfringens, a sewage indicator bacterium, in sediment samples from the two sites. (Copyright (c) 1993, American Society for Microbiology.)

Takizawa, M.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

1994-01-01

454

Soil Microbial Functional and Fungal Diversity as Influenced by Municipal Sewage Sludge Accumulation  

PubMed Central

Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H) were calculated to interpret the results. The fungi isolated from the sewage sludge were identified using comparative rDNA sequencing of the LSU D2 region. The MicroSEQ® ID software was used to assess the raw sequence files, perform sequence matching to the MicroSEQ® ID-validated reference database and create Neighbor-Joining trees. Moreover, the genera of fungi isolated from the soil were identified using microscopic methods. Municipal sewage sludge can serve as a habitat for plant pathogens and as a source of pathogen strains for biotechnological applications. PMID:25170681

Frac, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

2014-01-01

455

Distribution and pollutant load of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in sewage treatment plants and water from Japanese Rivers.  

PubMed

Hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers (?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, and ?-HBCD) were investigated in river water, sewage influent, and sewage effluent from the Yodo River basin, Japan. The mean annual values of HBCDs ranged from 0.19 to 14ngL(-1) in river water. We observed that the concentrations of HBCDs in the brackish water area were low compared with that in the fresh water area. It was implied that, when the flow of the river stagnated in the estuarine area, HBCDs settled with suspended matter because of their hydrophobic character. In the sewage treatment plants, HBCDs ranged from 16 to 400ngL(-1) in sewage influent, whereas they ranged from 0.39 to 12ngL(-1) in sewage effluent. Over 90% of HBCDs were removed from the wastewater in the sewage treatment plants. By using these results, we estimated the pollutant load of HBCDs that flows into Osaka Bay from the study area. It was estimated that approximately 15kg of HBCDs flow into Osaka Bay from the study area in a year. This value is five orders of magnitude lower than the 2010 market demand for HBCDs (3019 metrictons) in Japan. PMID:24880602

Ichihara, Makiko; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Takakura, Koh-ichi; Kakutani, Naoya; Sudo, Miki

2014-09-01

456

Application of acidic thermal treatment for one- and two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of acidic thermal treatment (ATT) was examined in a 106-day continuous experiment, when applied to one- or two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge (4.3% TS). The ATT was performed at 170 °C and pH 5 for 1 hour (sulfuric acid for lowering pH). The one-stage process was mesophilic at 20 days hydraulic retention time (HRT), and incorporated the ATT as pre-treatment. The two-stage process consisted of a thermophilic digester at 5 days HRT and a mesophilic digester at 15 days HRT, and incorporated the ATT as interstage-treatment. On average, VSS reduction was 48.7% for the one-stage control, 65.8% for the one-stage ATT, 52.7% for the two-stage control and 67.6% for the two-stage ATT. Therefore, VSS reduction was increased by 15-17%, when the ATT was combined in both one- and two-stage processes. In addition, the dewaterability of digested sludge was remarkably improved, and phosphate release was enhanced. On the other hand, total methane production did not differ significantly, and color generation was noted in the digested sludge solutions with the ATT. In conclusion, the anaerobic digestion with ATT can be an attractive alternative for sludge reduction, handling, and phosphorus recovery. PMID:21099053

Takashima, M; Tanaka, Y

2010-01-01

457

Gasification of dried sewage sludge: status of the demonstration and the pilot plant.  

PubMed

The disposal of sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plants is suffering from raising costs. The gasification is an alternative way of treatment, which can reduce the amount of solid residues that must be disposed from a water treatment plant. The produced gas can be used very flexible to produce electrical energy, to burn it very cleanly or to use it for upgrading. The gasification in the fluidised bed and the gas cleaning with the granular bed filter has shown successful operation. A demonstration plant in Balingen was set up in 2002 and rebuilt to a larger throughput in 2010. As a next step a demonstration plant was built in Mannheim and is now at the end of the commissioning phase. Nowadays the product gas is blended with biogas from sludge fermentation and utilized in a gas engine or combustion chamber to produce heat. In the future the process control for a maximized efficiency and the removal of organic and inorganic impurities in the gas will be further improved. PMID:22284442

Judex, Johannes W; Gaiffi, Michael; Burgbacher, H Christian

2012-04-01

458

Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and primary clarifier skimmings for increased biogas production.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to identify the impact of co-digesting clarifier skimmings on the overall methane generation from the treatment plant and additional energy value of the increased methane production. Biogas production from co-digesting clarifier skimmings and sewage sludge in pilot-scale fed-batch mesophilic anaerobic digesters has been evaluated. The digester was fed with increasing quantities of clarifier skimmings loads: 1.5, 2.6, 3.5 and 7.0 g COD equivalent/(L·d) (COD: chemical oxygen demand). Average volatile solids reduction of 65% was achieved in the scum-fed digester, compared with 51% in the control digester. Average 69% COD removal was achieved at highest scum loading (7 g COD eq/(L·d)) with approximate methane yield of 250 L CH(4)/kg COD fed (4 ft(3)/lb COD fed). The results show that scum as co-substrate in anaerobic digestion systems improves biogas yields while a 29% increase in specific CH(4) yield could be achieved when scum load is 7 g COD eq/(L·d). Based on the pilot-scale study results and full-scale data from South East Water Pollution Control Plant and Northeast Water Pollution Control Plant the expected annual energy recovery would be approximately 1.7 billion BTUs or nearly 0.5 million kWh. PMID:23128636

Alanya, S; Yilmazel, Y D; Park, C; Willis, J L; Keaney, J; Kohl, P M; Hunt, J A; Duran, M

2013-01-01

459

[It is imperative to stop environmental degradation].  

PubMed

Environmental demography deals with socioenvironmental determinants of demographic processes. The fertility decline of recent years in Mexico is not associated with economic transformation, as the economic crisis, poverty, unemployment, and social inequality have been barely mitigated. Mexico is mainly urban: 51% of the population lived in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in 1990 taking an increasing toll on the environment. The metropolitan area of Mexico City has 50% of industrial production with 36,000 industrial plants, 2100 of all 5400 chemical plants, 22% of total population, and 25% of economically active population. There are 3 million cars. 11,000 tons of solid waste is generated daily (75% domestic and 25% industrial), and 5 million tons of contaminants are emitted annually. Sulphur, dioxide, nitrogen, ozone, and suspended particulate levels often exceed international standards. In the federal district more than 1000 squatter colonies are without drainage that affects 5 million people; and 30% of the population is without a sewage network. There are 35 cities with over 100,000 population that cannot meet their needs of drinking water with the result of a high level of gastrointestinal ailments, enteritis, diarrhea, rabies, and dengue fever caused by pathogenic microorganisms, the major cause of mortality. The degradation of the environment produces a pathological environmental emergency from chemical contamination of the air and from exposure to industrial emissions, to agrochemical products and toxic substances, to lead, insecticides, arsenic, and asbestos. Mexico has one of the highest levels of lead in the blood and DDT in mother's milk. In Mexico City lead concentration of 5 mg/cubic meter in the air, 20 mg/100 ml in maternal blood, and 13 mg/100 ml in the umbilical cord was detected associated with retardation of mental development in the 1st year of life and chronic lead poisoning. PMID:12158050

Leff, E

1990-01-01

460

PEM Degradation Investigation Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this paper are: (1) Develop a system capable of measuring current and voltage performance for each membrane in a Polymer Electrolyte Membranes (PEM) fuel cell stack and record the performance of each individual cell; (2) Develop a single cell PEM FC to allow in situ synchrotron x-ray measurements of the cell in operation and to perform spatially resolved x-ray measurements on fuel cell elements before and after degradation; and (3) Perform initial magnetic resonance microimaging experiments on membrane materials. The Montana State University PEM Membrane Degradation program is geared towards determining how and why membranes in fuel cells degrade and fail. By monitoring every individual membrane in a fuel cell 2000 times/sec while the cell is subjected to real-world type use, we hope to: (1) cause the types of degradation users see, but in a controlled environment; (2) determine an electrical signature that will identify what causes failure, or at least warns of impending failure; (3) allows us to perform advanced x-ray and MRI characterization of the degraded membranes to provide information that may result in improvements of the membrane material; and (4) perhaps allow design of electronic control systems that will prevent fuel cells from operating under conditions where damage is likely to occur.

Dan Stevenson; Lee H Spangler

2007-11-02