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1

The use of biochar-amended composting to improve the humification and degradation of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Wood biochar (6%, 12% and 18% of fresh sludge weight) adding to a sludge-and-straw composting system was investigated to assess the potential of biochar as a composting amendment. Organic degradation efficiency, temporal humification profile of the water-extractable organic fraction and solid organic matter, through spectroscopic, microscopic and elementary analysis were monitored. Fluorescent excitation and emission matrix indicated that concentrations of aqueous fulvic-acid-like and humic-acid-like compounds were, respectively, 13-26% and 15-30% higher in the biochar-amended treatments, than those in the control without biochar-amended. On the first day of sludge aerobic incubation, the presence of biochar resulted in increased oxygen uptake rates of 21-37% due to its higher nano-porosity and surface area. SEM indicated that, in the biochar-amended sludge, the dense microstructure on the sludge surface disintegrated into fragments with organic fraction degraded and water lost. Results indicated that 12-18%w/w addition of wood biochar to sludge composting was recommended. PMID:24656550

Zhang, Jining; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

2014-09-01

2

Modification to degradation of hexazinone in forest soils amended with sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Influences of one sewage sludge on degradation of hexazinone and formation of its major metabolites were investigated in four forest soils (A, B, C and D), collected in Zhejiang Province, China. In non-amended forest soils, the degradation half-life of hexazinone was 21.4, 30.4, 19.4 and 32.8 days in forest soil A, B, C and D, respectively. Degradation could start in soil A and C without lag period because the two soils had been contaminated by this herbicide for a long time, possibly leading to completion of acclimation period of hexazinone-degrading bacteria. In forest soils amended with sewage sludge, the degradation rate constant increased by 17.3% in soil A, 48.2% in soil B, 8.1% in soil C and 51.6% in soil D, respectively. The higher degradation rates (soil A and C) in non-amended soils accord with the lower rate increase in sewage sludge-amended soils. Under non-sterile conditions, biological mechanism accounted for 51.8-62.4% of hexazinone degradation in four soils. Under sterile conditions, the four soils had the similar chemical degradation capacity for hexazinone. In non-amended soil B, only one metabolite (B) was detected, while two metabolites (B and C) were found in sewage sludge-amended soil B. Similarly situated in agricultural soils, N-demethylation at 6-position of triazine ring, hydroxylation at the 4-positon of cyclohexyl group, and removal of the dimethylamino group with formation of a carbonyl group at 6-position of triazine ring appear to be the principal mechanism involved in hexazinone degradation in sewage sludge-amended forest soils. These data will improve understanding of the actual pollution risk as a result of forest soil fertilization with sewage sludge. PMID:22112800

Wang, Huili; Wang, Chengjun; Chen, Fan; Ma, Meiping; Lin, Zhenkun; Wang, Wenwei; Xu, Zhengti; Wang, Xuedong

2012-01-15

3

Biological degradation of cyclophosphamide and its occurrence in sewage water.  

PubMed

The mutagenic and cancerogenic antineoplastic agent cyclophosphamide (CP) is released into sewage water by cancer patient excretion. To assess the biological degradability of CP two standardized test systems, the Zahn-Wellens/EMPA test (OECD 302B) and a laboratory scale sewage treatment plant, were used. In both test systems the agent exhibited only poor degradability. To verify the expected occurrence of CP in hospital sewage, water samples were analyzed for CP with GC/MS after enrichment by solid-phase extraction. CP could be detected in concentrations ranging from 20 ng/L to 4.5 micrograms/L. The occurrence of the agent could also be proved in samples from the influent and the effluent of the communal sewage treatment plant into which the hospital's sewage water is shed. Concentrations ranged from 7 to 143 ng/L. In an attempt to assess the contribution of CP to the genotoxicity detected in hospital waste water in a recent study, the effects of CP in the umuC test, a bacterial genotoxicity assay, were investigated. However, no genotoxic effects of CP were found up to concentrations of 1 g/L. PMID:9126435

Steger-Hartmann, T; Kümmerer, K; Hartmann, A

1997-03-01

4

Application of Municipal Sewage Sludge to Forest and Degraded Land  

SciTech Connect

The paper summarizes research done over a decade at the Savannah River Site and elsewhere in the South evaluating the benefits of land application of municipal wastes. Studies have demonstrated that degraded lands, ranging from borrow pits to mine spoils can be successfully revegetated using a mixture of composed municipal sewage sludge and other amendments. The studies have demonstrated a practical approach to land application and restoration.

D.H. Marx, C. R. Berry, and P. P. Kormanik

1995-09-30

5

Enhancement of pentachlorophenol degradation in soil through induced anaerobiosis and bioaugmentation with anaerobic sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of biologically active anaerobic sewage sludge, previously shown to dechlorinate chlorophenols, to soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) resulted in greatly enhanced rates of PCP degradation. The sludge was added to a soil at a rate of 5 g kg⁻¹ (dry weight basis) and the mixture incubated anaerobically. Initial PCP concentrations of 10-30 mg kg⁻¹ (ppm) were completely degraded

Mark D. Mikesell; Stephen A. Boyd

1988-01-01

6

Degradation of 4-nonylphenol in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous mixtures of soil and sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge is frequently applied as fertilizers to cultivated land. However, municipal sewage sludge often contains organic contaminants including nonylphenol (NP), an intermediate from nonionic surfactant degradation. Knowledge about NP degradation in sludge-amended soil is an important prerequisite for adequate risk assessments. In this study, mineralization of 14C-labeled NP in homogenized and nonhomogenized sludge-soil mixtures was investigated. NP was degraded within 38 days in aerobic homogenized mixtures. In nonhomogeneous mixtures containing sludge aggregates, the degradation of NP was retarded and was generally not completed within 3 months (119-126 days). No detectable amounts of NP were transported from the sludge aggregates to the surrounding soil (detection limit: <0.04 mg of NP/kg dw of soil). Oxygen penetration into sludge aggregates was monitored for 50 days with an oxygen microelectrode. An extrapolation of the oxygen data suggested that more than 1 year was required to obtain fully aerobic conditions in a 2-cm sludge aggregate. Since NP is considered persistent in the absence of oxygen, residual amounts of NP may be present in the anaerobic center of aggregates for prolonged periods. The results demonstrate that sludge aggregate size and thus oxygen availability will be a major controlling factor for NP degradation in soil amended with sewage sludge and that the mobility of NP from sludge aggregates to the surrounding soil is negligible. PMID:11783647

Hesselsøe, M; Jensen, D; Skals, K; Olesen, T; Moldrup, P; Roslev, P; Mortensen, G K; Henriksen, K

2001-09-15

7

Microbial degradation of /sup 14/C-diphenylamine in a laboratory model sewage sludge system  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the biodegradation of diphenylamine (DPA) in a laboratory model sewage system. Ten ..mu..Ci /sup 14/C-DPA and 7.5 mg unlabeled DPA in 5 mL acetone were added to 1.5 L sludge mixed liquor in the incubation flask to produce a solution containing DPA at the 5 ppm level. Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Radioactive extracts were counted with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. DPA was degraded in the model sewage sludge system. Results using 3 different 1.5 L batches of sludge were virtually identical. With our extraction procedure, the average recovery of added radioactivity was 82%. When 300 mL of the sludge mixed liquor was boiled for 5 min before 24 h incubation with 5 ppm DPA, 98% of the radioactivity, as unchanged DPA, was recovered. Ninety-seven percent of the radioactivity, as unchanged DPA, was recovered from 300 mL of nutrient medium alone after 24 h incubation with DPA. These data indicate that the sludge microorganisms alone caused the degradation of DPA. (JMT)

Gardner, A.M.; Alvarez, G.H.; Ku, Y.

1982-01-01

8

[Artifical improvement of soil fertility in a regraded forest ecosystem by using municipal sewage sludge].  

PubMed

The increasing occurrence of forest ecosystem degradation is a serious problem in tropical and subtropical regions. Field experiments showed that the application of sludge from a sewage treatment plant could not only promote the growth and reproduction of trees, including the increase in the height and diameter of trees and thus being advantageous to the growth of shrub and herb of trees, but also improve soil fertility such as increasing soil organic matter and available nitrogen and phosphorus. The test of residual heavy metals of soil indicated that the application of sludge increased the content of Pb in the soil and the increment of Pb was varied with the increase of sludge usage. There was no significant increase in other heavy metals. PMID:11993117

Li, Guibao; Yin, Chengqing; Lin, Yongbiao; Li, Zhian

2002-02-01

9

Enhancement of pentachlorophenol degradation in soil through induced anaerobiosis and bioaugmentation with anaerobic sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

The addition of biologically active anaerobic sewage sludge, previously shown to dechlorinate chlorophenols, to soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) resulted in greatly enhanced rates of PCP degradation. The sludge was added to a soil at a rate of 5 g kg/sup -1/ (dry weight basis) and the mixture incubated anaerobically. Initial PCP concentrations of 10-30 mg kg/sup -1/ (ppm) were completely degraded within 28-35 days. In anaerobic soil without sludge or aerobic soil with or without sludge, PCP persisted, 55% and 90%, respectively, remaining after 56 days. Higher rates of sludge addition gave small differences in PCP degradation. PCP was degraded by sequential dechlorination, and the products of PCP degradation in soil-sludge mixtures were the same as observed in sludge alone. The sequence of products was PCP ..-->.. 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol ..-->.. 3,4,5-trichlorophenol ..-->.. 3,5-dichlorophenol ..-->.. 3-chlorophenol; 3,4-dichlorophenol was also observed. These results clearly demonstrate that the dechlorinating activity present in sludge could be transferred to soil through bioaugmentation.

Mikesell, M.D.; Boyd, S.A.

1988-12-01

10

Feasibility of bioflocculation in a high-loaded membrane bioreactor for improved energy recovery from sewage.  

PubMed

The feasibility of a high-loaded membrane bioreactor to improve methane recovery from sewage was investigated. Although the process needs further optimization, it already is feasible to recover at least 35% of the sewage COD. Important aspects for further research are the occurrence of membrane fouling, and the optimum process conditions for bioflocculation, i.e. the proper SRT/HRT ratio, dissolved oxygen concentration and shear and overall energy production and consumption under optimised conditions. PMID:20351422

Akanyeti, Ime; Temmink, Hardy; Remy, Maxime; Zwijnenburg, Arie

2010-01-01

11

Soil improvement with coal ash and sewage sludge: a field experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experimental study was carried out successfully to improve the quality of the sandy soil by adding coal ash and sewage\\u000a sludge. One ha of barren sandy soil field was chosen for the experiment in Shanghe County, Shandong Province, China. For soil\\u000a amelioration and tree planting, two formulas of the mixture:coal ash, sewage sludge and soil, in ratios of

Junfeng Shen; Xuewu Zhou; Daisheng Sun; Jianguo Fang; Zhijun Liu; Zhongmin Li

2008-01-01

12

Adsorption and Fenton-like degradation of naphthalene dye intermediate on sewage sludge derived porous carbon.  

PubMed

A sewage sludge derived porous carbon (SC), which was prepared by physicochemical activation and carbonization (600°C), was applied for the adsorption and degradation of 1-diazo-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (1,2,4-Acid) in the presence of H(2)O(2) and the performance was compared to that of pure Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The prepared SC showed mesoporous structure with magnetic property, which made it favorable for solid-liquid separation application. Further experiments revealed that SC had a higher adsorption capacity and degradation efficiency of 1,2,4-Acid than bare Fe(3)O(4). The Langmuir and Freundlich model fitted the isotherm data and illustrated that the equilibrium adsorption amount of 1,2,4-Acid onto SC (95.1 mg g(-1)) was quadruple as large as that on Fe(3)O(4) (26.4 mg g(-1)). The subsequent degradation experiments were conducted at conditions (pH 5.0 in the presence of 15 mM H(2)O(2)) with regard to 1,2,4-Acid degradation efficiency and metal ions leach. The 120 min's treatment in SC/H(2)O(2) system achieved 94% of 1,2,4-Acid (from 150 mg L(-1) after adsorption equilibrium to 9 mg L(-1)) and 48.1% TOC reduction, far higher than the efficiency of 46% and 24.3% by using Fe(3)O(4) MNPs. Further analysis evidenced the co-catalytic effect of iron, carbon, silicon and aluminum, which existed in large quantities in sludge derived SC. The carbonaceous phase along with silica contributes to an increase in the dispersion of catalytic centers and an adsorbent to concentrate organic pollutant whereas the iron oxide as well as alumina provides the catalytic centers for a Haber-Weiss initiated reactions. PMID:23298740

Gu, Lin; Zhu, Nanwen; Guo, Huaqing; Huang, Shouqiang; Lou, Ziyang; Yuan, Haiping

2013-02-15

13

Anaerobic degradation of amino acids generated from the hydrolysis of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The anaerobic degradation of each amino acid that could be generated through the hydrolysis of sewage sludge was evaluated. Stickland reaction as an intermediate reaction between two kinds of amino acids was restricted in order to evaluate each amino acid. Changes in the chemical oxygen demand (COD), T-N, NH4(+)-N, biogas, and CH4 were analysed for the anaerobic digestion process. The initial nitrogen concentration of all amino acids is adjusted as 1000 mg/L. The degradation rate of the amino acids was determined based on the ammonia form of nitrogen, which is generated by the deamination of amino acids. Among all amino acids, such as alpha-alanine, beta-alanine, lysine, arginine, glycine, histidine, cysteine, methionine, and leucine, deamination rates of cysteine, leucine, and methionine were just 61.55%, 54.59%, and 46.61%, respectively, and they had low removal rates of organic matter and showed very low methane production rates of 13.55, 71.04, and 80.77 mL CH4/g CODin, respectively. Especially for cysteine, the methane content was maintained at approximately 7% during the experiment. If wastewater contains high levels of cysteine, leucine, and methionine and Stickland reaction is not prepared, these amino acids may reduce the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion. PMID:24701908

Park, Junghoon; Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

2014-01-01

14

Degradation of vinyl acetate by soil, sewage, sludge, and the newly isolated aerobic bacterium V2.  

PubMed Central

Vinyl acetate is subject to microbial degradation in the environment and by pure cultures. It was hydrolyzed by samples of soil, sludge, and sewage at rates of up to 6.38 and 1 mmol/h per g (dry weight) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Four yeasts and thirteen bacteria that feed aerobically on vinyl acetate were isolated. The pathway of vinyl acetate degradation was studied in bacterium V2. Vinyl acetate was degraded to acetate as follows: vinyl acetate + NAD(P)+----2 acetate + NAD(P)H + H+. The acetate was then converted to acetyl coenzyme A and oxidized through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate bypass. The key enzyme of the pathway is vinyl acetate esterase, which hydrolyzed the ester to acetate and vinyl alcohol. The latter isomerized spontaneously to acetaldehyde and was then converted to acetate. The acetaldehyde was disproportionated into ethanol and acetate. The enzymes involved in the metabolism of vinyl acetate were studied in extracts. Vinyl acetate esterase (Km = 6.13 mM) was also active with indoxyl acetate (Km = 0.98 mM), providing the basis for a convenient spectrophotometric test. Substrates of aldehyde dehydrogenase were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde. The enzyme was equally active with NAD+ or NADP+. Alcohol dehydrogenase was active with ethanol (Km = 0.24 mM), 1-propanol (Km = 0.34 mM), and 1-butanol (Km = 0.16 mM) and was linked to NAD+. The molecular sizes of aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase were 145 and 215 kilodaltons, respectively.

Nieder, M; Sunarko, B; Meyer, O

1990-01-01

15

Degradability of creatinine under sewer conditions affects its potential to be used as biomarker in sewage epidemiology.  

PubMed

Creatinine was proposed to be used as a population normalising factor in sewage epidemiology but its stability in the sewer system has not been assessed. This study thus aimed to evaluate the fate of creatinine under different sewer conditions using laboratory sewer reactors. The results showed that while creatinine was stable in wastewater only, it degraded quickly in reactors with the presence of sewer biofilms. The degradation followed first order kinetics with significantly higher rate in rising main condition than in gravity sewer condition. Additionally, daily loads of creatinine were determined in wastewater samples collected on Census day from 10 wastewater treatment plants around Australia. The measured loads of creatinine from those samples were much lower than expected and did not correlate with the populations across the sampled treatment plants. The results suggested that creatinine may not be a suitable biomarker for population normalisation purpose in sewage epidemiology, especially in sewer catchment with high percentage of rising mains. PMID:24631876

Thai, Phong K; O'Brien, Jake; Jiang, Guangming; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen F

2014-05-15

16

Arthrobacter defluvii sp. nov., 4-chlorophenol-degrading bacteria isolated from sewage.  

PubMed

Two 4-chlorophenol-degrading bacteria, strains 4C1-aT and 4C1-b, were isolated from sewage flowing into Geumho River near the Daegu industrial complex in Korea. Cells of the strains were Gram-positive and non-motile, displayed a rod-coccus life cycle and formed creamy white colonies on R2A agar or peptone-carbohydrate agar. The strains had chemotaxonomic markers that were consistent with classification in the genus Arthrobacter, i.e. MK-9(H2) as the major menaquinone, iso- and anteiso-branched components as the predominant fatty acids, galactose, glucose and rhamnose as cell-wall sugars, peptidoglycan-type A3alpha, and DNA G+C content of 63.5-64.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, showed that the strains were most similar to Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus DSM 12829T, Arthrobacter oxydans DSM 20119T and Arthrobacter scleromae JCM 12642T (with 98.4, 97.8 and 97.8 % similarity, respectively) and formed a separate lineage with A. chlorophenolicus in the genus Arthrobacter. Combined phenotypic data and DNA-DNA hybridization data supported the conclusion that strains 4C1-aT and 4C1-b represent a novel species in the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter defluvii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 4C1-aT (=KCTC 19209T=DSM 18782T). PMID:18676480

Kim, Kwang Kyu; Lee, Keun Chul; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Mi Jeong; Eom, Mi Kyung; Lee, Jung-Sook

2008-08-01

17

Toxicological evaluation of paper mill sewage sediment treated by indigenous dibenzofuran-degrading Pseudomonas sp.  

PubMed

Organic pollutants present in the pulp and paper mill sewage were extracted with dichloromethane/acetone (1:1v/v), and the extract was added to minimal salt medium to study the degrading and detoxifying potential of Pseudomonas sp. strain ISTDF1. GC-MS analysis performed after biodegradation showed removal of chlorinated compounds like dichloroacetic acid, heptadecyl ester (RT=28.99) and formation of simpler compounds like 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde (RT=7.52). Methyltetrazolium (MTT) assay for cytotoxicity, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay for dioxin-like behaviour and alkaline comet assay for genotoxicity were carried out in human hepato-carcinoma cell line HuH7 before and after bacterial treatment. The bacterium reduced toxicity as shown by a 5-fold increase in LC(50) value, 2110-fold reduction in benzo (?) pyrene equivalent value and an 8-fold reduction in Olive Tail Moment after 240h treatment. The EROD assay was found to be a useful method which indicated positive correlation with MTT and comet assay in post-biodegradation toxicity evaluation. PMID:22326333

Das, Mihir Tanay; Budhraja, Varaporn; Mishra, Monika; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

2012-04-01

18

Re-inoculation strategies enhance the degradation of emerging pollutants in fungal bioaugmentation of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The use of Trametes versicolor has been partially successful in the removal of some pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge in laboratory-scale biopile systems. The application of two strategies for the re-inoculation of biomass was assessed during the fungal bioaugmentation of non-sterile sludge (42-d treatment) as an approach to improve the elimination of pharmaceuticals and other groups of emerging pollutants. Globally, the re-inoculation of biopiles with blended mycelium exerted a major effect on the removal of pharmaceuticals (86%), brominated-flame-retardants (81%) and UV filters (80%) with respect to the re-inoculation with additional lignocellulosic substrate colonized by the fungus (69-67-22%). The performance was better than that of the analogous non-re-inoculated systems that were assayed previously for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The results demonstrate the ability of T. versicolor to remove a wide spectrum of emerging micropollutants under non-sterile conditions, while re-inoculation appears to be a useful step to improve the fungal treatment of sludge. PMID:24582425

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Lucas, Daniel; Barón, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Eljarrat, Ethel; Silvia Díaz-Cruz, M; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

2014-09-01

19

Improvement of salinity in sewage sludge compost prior to its utilization as nursery substrate.  

PubMed

Soluble salts are enriched in sewage sludge compost because of their inherent derivation. Accordingly, the content of soluble salt in sludge compost is usually much higher than most seedlings can tolerate. To determine whether sludge compost is suitable for use as a nursery substrate, some experiments were conducted. Reduction of the electrical conductivity (EC) value could improve seed germination in saturated extract from sludge compost. In addition, water elution and mixing dilution with raw soil were all shown to be able to alleviate saline inhibition on seed germination and seedling growth, including stem diameter, seedling height, and above-ground weight. Overall, salinity is a crucial problem when sewage sludge compost is reused as a nursery substrate, and some effective and convenient approaches to reduce salt should be served prior to its reuse. Implications: Sewage sludge after being composted is usually reused as organic fertilizer or plant substrate. However, salt is the main problem during its reclamation. What is the highest salt level the seedling can tolerate? Which types of salts are effective in salinity of sludge-amended substrate? Meanwhile, can the salinity be reduced through water elution or soil mixing dilution? This paper is the first to investigate the salinity and its reduction of sewage sludge compost prior to its use in the development of nursery substrate. PMID:24941702

Liu, Hong-Tao; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-Bin; Cai, Hong; Zheng, Guo-Di

2014-05-01

20

Effect of sulfur-containing compounds on anaerobic degradation of cellulose to methane by mixed cultures obtained from sewage sludge.  

PubMed Central

Tests were made to determine the effects of inorganic and organic sulfur sources on the degradation of cellulose to methane in a chemically defined medium with sulfur-poor inoculum prepared from sewage sludge. The results show that a sulfur source of about a 0.85 mM concentration is essential for the degradation of cellulose to CH4. However, the production of CH4 from CO2 and H2 provided in the headspace occurred with 0.1 mM sulfate or sulfide. At a 9 mM concentration, all inorganic sulfur compounds other than sulfate inhibited both cellulose degradation and methane formation, and this inhibition increased in the order thiosulfate less than sulfite less than sulfide less than H2S. It appears that the degradation of cellulose to CH4 in a sulfate-free medium by inoculum maintained in a low-sulfur medium is inhibited because of the lack of availability of sulfur for growth of bacteria and synthesis of cell materials and sulfur-containing cofactors involved in cellulose degradation and methanogenesis. The reduction of methanogenesis by higher levels of sulfate probably occurs as a result of stimulation of reactions converting acetate and H2 to end products other than CH4.

Khan, A W; Trottier, T M

1978-01-01

21

Microbial degradation of 14 C-diphenylamine in a laboratory model sewage sludge system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the biodegradation of diphenylamine (DPA) in a laboratory model sewage system. Ten ..mu..Ci ¹⁴C-DPA and 7.5 mg unlabeled DPA in 5 mL acetone were added to 1.5 L sludge mixed liquor in the incubation flask to produce a solution containing DPA at the 5 ppm level. Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography\\/mass spectroscopy. Radioactive extracts

Albert M. Gardner; George H. Alvarez; Yuoh Ku

1982-01-01

22

Soil improvement with coal ash and sewage sludge: a field experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field experimental study was carried out successfully to improve the quality of the sandy soil by adding coal ash and sewage sludge. One ha of barren sandy soil field was chosen for the experiment in Shanghe County, Shandong Province, China. For soil amelioration and tree planting, two formulas of the mixture:coal ash, sewage sludge and soil, in ratios of 20:10:70 and 20:20:60, respectively, were used. Poplar trees were planted in pits filled with soils with additives (mixture of ash and sludge) as well as in the original sandy soil. In the 19th months after the trees were planted, the soils with additives were sampled and analyzed. The results show that the barren sandy soil was greatly improved after mixing with coal ash and sludge. The improved soils have remarkably higher nutrient concentrations, better texture, smaller bulk density, higher porosity and mass moisture content, and higher content of fine-grained minerals. During the first 22 months after planting, the annual increase in height of the trees grown in the soil with additives (4.78 m per year) was 55% higher than that of the control group (3.07 m per year), and the annual increase in diameter at the breast height (1.3 m) was 33 % higher (43.03 vs. 32.36 mm). Trees planted in soils with additives appeared healthier and shed leaves later than those in the control group. As the volume of the additives (30-40% in both formulas) is less than that of the sandy soil in and around the tree pits, it appears that the use of coal ash and sludge for tree planting and soil amelioration is environmentally safe even though the additives have relatively high heavy metal concentrations.

Shen, Junfeng; Zhou, Xuewu; Sun, Daisheng; Fang, Jianguo; Liu, Zhijun; Li, Zhongmin

2008-02-01

23

Improvement of mixing patterns in pilot-scale anaerobic ponds treating domestic sewage.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ponds are customarily designed as completely mixed reactors. However, evidence from experiments on full-scale facilities shows large deviations from ideal flow models, which in turn cause a reduced process performance. Thus, modified pilot scale anaerobic ponds receiving domestic sewage were developed and studied in parallel. A factorially designed experiment evaluated horizontal and vertical baffling, ponds fitted with cross-sectional plastic nets and a pond with a mixing pit. The hydrodynamic behaviour and process performance of these modified configurations were monitored for four flow rates (1.0, 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 l/s). The results showed that baffling (vertical and horizontal) and the mixing pit configuration had the best hydrodynamic behaviours and removal efficiencies. Consequently, the development of high-rate anaerobic ponds, through improvements of hydrodynamic behaviour, seems feasible. PMID:14510216

Peña, M R; Mara, D D; Piguet, J M

2003-01-01

24

Improvement of the sediment ecosystem following diversion of an intertidal sewage outfall at the Fraser river estuary, Canada, with emphasis on Corophium salmonis (Amphipoda).  

PubMed

Primary treated sewage effluent from the city of Vancouver, Canada was deposited directly onto the intertidal ecosystem of Sturgeon bank, Fraser river estuary between 1962 and 1988. In response to the degraded sediment conditions an azoic zone developed near the discharge outfall. Effluent discharges into the intertidal zone were almost completely stopped in 1988 with the construction of a submerged outfall. Our studies, conducted between 1994 and 1996, showed considerable improvement in the environment of the mudflat ecosystem, including increased dissolved oxygen, decreased sediment chlorophyll, decreased organic material in the sediment, reduced heavy metals in surficial sediment and increased grain size. The amphipod Corophium salmonis, important in the food web for juvenile salmon and other fish species, recolonized the previously azoic location. At reference stations, C. salmonis density was similar to that observed in previous surveys two decades earlier. Our data strongly suggest that improvement or sediment conditions near the former sewage outfall was a major factor enabling colonization by C. salmonis. PMID:12146834

Arvai, J L; Levings, C D; Harrison, P J; Neill, W E

2002-06-01

25

Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination  

SciTech Connect

As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.

Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

2011-02-01

26

Long-term improvements in water quality due to sewage abatement in the lower Hudson River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-trend trends in dissolved oxygen (DO) and total coliform bacteria concentrations are used to evaluate the impact of almost\\u000a 60 yr of sewage abatement and treatment in the lower Hudson River near New York City. Although some water pollution control\\u000a plants have been in operation in the region since the 1930s, the most significant abatement of untreated sewage in the

Thomas M. Brosnan; Marie L. O’Shea

1996-01-01

27

PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE - IDEAS FOR FURTHER STUDIES TO IMPROVE LEACHING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of methods to recover phosphorus will make handling of sewage sludge more sustainable. In earlier studies sludge incineration ash and SCWO-residues have been leached with acid and base. Acid leaching gives a high degree of recovery but releases besides phosphate also the main part of other metals (including heavy metals). This gives a large separation problem and gives a

E. Levlin; B. Hultman

28

Sewage Monitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

1987-01-01

29

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

1976-01-01

30

Use of Municipal Sewage Sludge for Improvement of Forest Sites in the Southeast  

SciTech Connect

In eight field experiments dried municipal sewage sludge was applied to forest sites before planting of seedlings. In all cases, tree growth was faster on sludge-amended plots than on plots that received fertilizer and lime or no amendment. In all studies, concentrations of total nitrogen in the soil were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots, even on good forest sites. In seven of the eight studies, concentrations of phosphorus also were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots. Nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be higher in foliage from trees growing on sludge plots. Deep subsoiling was beneficial regardless of soil amendment. Where weeds were plentiful at the outset, they became serious competitors on plots receiving sludge.

Charles R. Berry

1987-09-01

31

Photodegradation of lincomycin and diazepam in sewage treatment plant effluent by photo-Fenton process  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, the effect of ferrioxalate or iron nitrate on the photo-Fenton degradation efficiency of the pharmaceuticals lincomycin (LCM) and diazepam (DZP) was evaluated. The degradation of both pharmaceuticals was improved in the presence of ferrioxalate in relation to Fe(NO3), either under black-light or solar irradiation. The degradation of the pharmaceuticals was then evaluated when present in an effluent from sewage

Ivonete Rossi Bautitz; Raquel F. Pupo Nogueira

2010-01-01

32

Population dynamics of an introduced bacterium degrading chlorinated benzenes in a soil column and in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of the ß-Proteobacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain P51, which degrades chlorinated benzenes, to metabolize 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) under environmental conditions was tested by its release into two experimental systems. The first system consisted of laboratory scale microcosms which were operated with and without the addition of TCB and which were inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. The second

Ronen Tchelet; Rainer Meckenstock; Patrick Steinle; Jan Roelof van der Meer

1999-01-01

33

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

1984-01-01

34

Short-term tests with a pilot sewage plant and biofilm reactors for the biological degradation of the pharmaceutical compounds clofibric acid, ibuprofen, and diclofenac  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradation of three active compounds of pharmaceuticals clofibric acid, ibuprofen, and diclofenac was investigated in short-term tests with a pilot sewage plant (PSP) and biofilm reactors (BFR, oxic and anoxic) as model systems for municipal sewage treatment. The PSP was characterized with respect to mixing behavior, the BFR with respect to biofilm content and sorption of the pharmaceutical compounds.

C. Zwiener; F. H. Frimmel

2003-01-01

35

Degradation of UV filters in sewage sludge and 4-MBC in liquid medium by the ligninolytic fungus Trametes versicolor.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet (UV) filters are xenobiotic compounds that can enter the environment through the liquid effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and through adsorption in the sludge by-product because of their high hydrophobicity, as the sludge is subsequently applied as a fertiliser. A solid-state treatment of WWTP sludge with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor is reported in the present work as a feasible method for UV filter degradation, with reductions ranging from 87% in the case of 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC) to 100% for benzophenone-3 (BP3) and its metabolite 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone (4DHB). This study represents a first step in the development of a future fungal treatment for UV filters; thus, it is essential to prove that elimination is due only to the action of the fungus and not that of other microorganisms. To this end, the sludge was sterilised prior to fungal treatment. Biological assays indicate that T. versicolor readily eliminates oestrogenic activity, although it may be inefficient at eliminating other compounds, including some with dioxin-like activity. Degradation studies of 4-MBC in liquid media were also performed, and complete removal was achieved in less than 24 h. The main metabolites were identified, and the first steps of the transformation pathway were elucidated: a mono- or di-hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 and a subsequent conjugation with a pentose. None of 4-MBC transformation products was found to be responsible for increased dioxin-like activity in the sludge. PMID:22487399

Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Olivares, Alba; Piña, Benjamí; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Vicent, Teresa; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria

2012-08-15

36

Enzyme treatment to reduce solids and improve settling of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The effect of microbial enzymes in reducing the disposable solid content of sludge was investigated. A mixture of industrial\\u000a cellulase, protease, and lipase, in equal proportion by weight, reduced total suspended solids (TSS) by 30–50% and improved\\u000a settling of solids. An increase in solid reduction was observed with increasing enzyme concentration. The effect of combinations\\u000a of enzyme treatments indicated that

N Parmar; A Singh; O P Ward

2001-01-01

37

Amendments and mulches improve the biological quality of soils degraded by mining activities in SE Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining and quarrying activities generate negative visual impacts in the landscape and a loss of environmental quality. Substrate properties at the end of mining are in general not suitable for plant growth, even native ones. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, the effect of organic amendment (sewage sludge, compost from the organic fraction of domestic waste or non-amendment) combined or not with two different kind of mulches (fine gravel, chopped forest residue) was tested by triplicate in 5 x 5 m plots with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot 75 native plants (Stipa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. Effects of adding organic amendments and mulches on some soil microbiological and biochemical parameters (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration and different enzymatic activities, such as dehydrogenase, phosphatase, ?-glucosidase and urease) were analyzed 5 years after the start of the experiment. Vegetation growth was also monitored. The two-way ANOVA, using as factors amendment and mulch, showed a significant positive influence of organic amendments on microbial biomass (Cmic), basal respiration and some enzymatic activities related to the cycles of C and N. The highest values of these parameters were obtained with compost. The influence of the mulch factor and its interactions with the amendment factor on the measured variables did not follow a clear trend with respect the measured parameters. Mulching did not improved significantly (p<0.05) the positive effect of organic amendments on Cmic although Cmic values increased with the incorporation of "forest chopped residue" and decreased with gravel incorporation. In general, both type of mulch decreased or have no effect on the microbial activity detected in the amended soils, with the only exception of the forest chopped residue, which increased phosphatase activity in the compost amended soil. Plant growth was significantly higher in amended soils than in the control, but it is remarkable that the mulch type "forest chopped residue" had a negative effect on vegetation growth. The addition of organic amendments, especially compost from the organic fraction of domestic wastes, is beneficial to restore degraded or man-made soils from quarrying areas because they stimulate microbial growth and activity, resulting in mineralization of nutrients necessary for plants and increasing soil fertility and quality. However, after 5 years the effects of the mulch "forest chopped residue", on the improvement of soil or substrate quality are not clear.

Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

2014-05-01

38

Conditioning of sewage sludge with electrolysis: effectiveness and optimizing study to improve dewaterability.  

PubMed

The potential benefits of electrolysis-conditioned sludge dewatering treatment were investigated in this paper. Focuses were placed on effectiveness and factors affecting such novel application of electrolysis process. Experiments have demonstrated that a significant improvement of sludge dewaterability evaluated by capillary suction time (CST) could be obtained at a relative low value of electrolysis voltage. A Box-Behnken experimental design based on the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the optimum of the influencing variables. The optimal values for electrolysis voltage, electrode distance and electrolysis time are 21 V, 5 cm and 12 min, respectively, at which the CST reduction efficiency of 18.8+/-3.1% could be achieved, this agreed with that predicted by an established polynomial model in this study. PMID:20153168

Yuan, Haiping; Zhu, Nanwen; Song, Lijie

2010-06-01

39

Genome Shuffling Improves Degradation of the Anthropogenic Pesticide Pentachlorophenol by Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ATCC 39723  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a highly toxic anthropogenic pesticide, can be mineralized by Sphingobium chlorophenolicum, a gram-negative bacterium isolated from PCP-contaminated soil. However, degradation of PCP is slow and S. chlorophenolicum cannot tolerate high levels of PCP. We have used genome shuffling to improve the degradation of PCP by S. chlorophenolicum. We have obtained several strains that degrade PCP faster and tolerate

MingHua Dai; Shelley D. Copley

2004-01-01

40

Improved water chemistry controls for minimizing degradation of materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Electric Power Research Institute and the Steam Generator Owners Group have sponsored several efforts to develop secondary water chemistry guidelines to minimize pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubing degradation. To develop these guidelines, chemical species known to accelerate corrosion of Alloy 600 were identified, and values for normal and abnormal chemistry situations were established. For example, sodium hydroxide

Sawochka

1986-01-01

41

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

1991-01-01

42

An improved infectivity assay combining cell culture with real-time PCR for rapid quantification of human adenoviruses 41 and semi-quantification of human adenovirus in sewage.  

PubMed

A protocol for the rapid detection and semi-quantification of human enteric adenovirus based on the quantification of viral mRNA during cell culture infectivity assay was developed. Infectivity assays for adenovirus incorporated cell culture and reverse transcription real-time PCR, where viral mRNA detection was used to monitor the progress of adenovirus infection (CC/mRNA qPCR). The cell line used was G293. This specific infectivity assay was calibrated against different initial concentrations of human adenovirus 41. In addition, the expression of the host's housekeeping (HK) gene, GAPDH, served as internal control for the mRNA assays for quality assurance of the mRNA extraction and reverse transcription steps. The concentrations of infectious human adenoviruses in different sewage samples were estimated semi-quantitatively using the CC/mRNA qPCR assay and calibration obtained for adenovirus 41. A linear relationship between concentrations of viral mRNA (hexon gene) and infectious units was observed between 10(7) to 10(1) infectious units per assay (R(2) = 0.97) in samples analyzed 3-5 days post infection. The expressions of host cell GAPDH gene were not significantly affected by infections with different concentrations of human adenovirus 41, and between virus positive and negative cell cultures (p > 0.1). The estimated concentrations of human adenoviruses in sewage samples ranged between 10(2) to 10(3) mRNA-IU/L. Most of the viruses detected in sewage samples were from human adenovirus species F. The CC/mRNA qPCR assay can be used for quantifying infectious human adenovirus 41, estimating the levels of human adenoviruses in sewage samples, and applied to other sample settings. The CC/mRNA qPCR protocol described here represents an improvement in the detection of human enteric adenoviruses by reducing incubation time (5 days); whereas the conventional cell culture method requires longer incubation periods (10-20 days). More importantly, this protocol can be used to more rapidly and semi-quantitatively estimate the levels of infectious human adenoviruses in environmental samples. PMID:23579085

Rodríguez, Roberto A; Polston, Patsy M; Wu, Ming Jing; Wu, Jianyong; Sobsey, Mark D

2013-06-01

43

Assessment of sewage sludge quality in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of sewage sludge produced by two Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (Sparta and Kavala) was studied during the dry (summer?autumn) and wet (winter) periods. Sewage sludge had considerable nitrogen and phosphorus content that enable them to be used as additives to improve soil quality. On the other hand, the concentrations of harmful metals were lower than the limits imposed

M. O. Angelidis; M. Aloupi

1999-01-01

44

Application of an innovative methodology to improve the starting-up of UASB reactors treating domestic sewage.  

PubMed

This study shows the results obtained during the starting-up evaluation of an UASB reactor treating domestic sewage. It is located in the municipality of Ginebra, Valle del Cauca region in Colombia. Its design flow is 7.5 l/s with a maximum capacity of 10 l/s. The reactor was seeded with a deficient quality inoculum which accounted for 20% of the total reactor volume. The starting-up methodology comprised the sequential washing of the sludge (inoculum) by applying three different upflow velocities. This procedure resembles what other authors term the "selective pressure method". Once the sludge was washed, the reactor was started-up with an initial hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24.9 hours, which was steadily reduced down to 6.7 hours in the final stage. Along the starting-up phase, there was a positive evolution in terms of quantity, quality and spatial distribution of the sludge. Consequently, there was a positive evolution in organic matter removal mechanisms. For HRT above 14 hours, the removal mechanisms were mainly physical whilst for HRT below 9 hours the removal mechanisms were mostly biological. Based on the above considerations and on the water quality parameters measured, it may be concluded that the start-up of an UASB reactor for domestic sewage treatment seeded with a low quality inoculum can be done with HRT as low as 15 or 12 hours. In this way, it is possible to reduce the starting-up period of these reactors down to 4 to 6 weeks, provided that the starting-up methodology is properly applied. PMID:11575096

Rodríguez, J A; Peña, M R; Manzi, V

2001-01-01

45

Coating nanothickness degradable films on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite particles to improve the bonding strength between nanohydroxyapatite and degradable polymer matrix.  

PubMed

Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles are similar to bone apatite in size, phase composition, and crystal structure. When compared with micron-size HA particles, nano-HA possesses improved mechanical properties and superior bioactivity for promoting bone growth and regeneration. However, scaffolds fabricated from nano-HA alone cannot meet the mechanical requirements for direct-loading applications. A number of studies suggest that nanostructured composites may offer surface and/or chemical properties of native bone, and therefore represent ideal substrates to support bone regeneration. However, a common problem with nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA)-polymer composites is the weak binding strength between the nano-HA filler and the polymer matrix since they are two different categories of materials and cannot form covalent bonds between them during the mixing process. Often, the mechanical strength of the composite is compromised due to the phase separation of the HA filler from the polymer matrix during the tissue repair process. To overcome this problem, an ultrathin degradable polymer film was grafted onto the surface of nano-HA using a radio-frequency plasma polymerization technology from acrylic acid monomers. The treated nano-HA powders are expected to bind to the polymer matrix via covalent bonds, thus enhancing the mechanical properties of the resultant composites. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) experiments showed that an extremely thin polymer film (2 nm) was uniformly deposited on the surfaces of the nanoparticles. The HRTEM results were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS). Tensile tests performed on the specimens revealed that the degradable coating had improved elastic and strength properties when compared with the nondegradable and uncoated controls. XPS and TOSIMS data revealed that more functional carboxyl groups were formed on degradable coatings than cross-linked nondegradable coatings. Cytocompatibility assay demonstrated that both the degradable and nondegradable coatings are cytocompatible. PMID:17295227

Nichols, Heather L; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Donglu; Bhaduri, Sarit; Wen, Xuejun

2007-08-01

46

[Improvement of municipal sewage sludge dewaterability by bioleaching: a pilot-scale study with sequence batch reaction model].  

PubMed

To observe the bioleaching effect on sewage sludge dewaterability, three consecutive batch bioleaching experiments were conducted through a bioleaching bio-reactor with 700 L of working volume. Subsequently, the bioleached sludge was dewatered by using chamber filter press. The results show that the 1st batch bioleaching process can be finished within 90 hours if the aeration amount was 1.2 m3/h with the 1: 15 mixing ratio of bioleached sludge to raw sludge. The pH of sludge declines from initial 6.11 to 2.33 while ORP increased from initial -134 mV to finial 507 mV. The specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of the tested sludge was decreased from original 1.00 x 10(13) m/kg to final 0.09 x 10(13) m/kg after bioleaching. For the subsequent two batch trials, the bioleaching process can be finished in 40 hours and 46 hours, respectively. Likewise, sludge SRF is also significantly decreased to 0.19 x 10(13) m/kg and 0.36 x 10(13) m/kg if the mixing ratio of bioleached sludge to fresh sludge is 1:1 although the microbial nutrient substance dosage is reduced by 25% and 50% for 2nd, and 3rd batch experiments, respectively. The harvested bioleached sludge from three batch trails is dewatered by chamber filter press with 0.3-0.4 MPa working pressure for 2 hours. It is found that the moisture of dewatered sludge cake can be reduced to 58%, and that the dewatered sludge cake is of khaki appearance and didn't emit any offensive odor. In addition, it is also observes that sludge organic matter only changed a bit from 52.9% to 48.0%, but 58% of sludge-borne Cu and 88% of sludge-borne Zn can be removed from sludge by bioleaching process. Therefore, dual goals for sludge-borne heavy metal removal and sludge dewatering of high efficiency can be achieved simultaneously through the approach mentioned above. Therefore, bioleaching technique is of great engineering application for the treatment of sewage sludge. PMID:21922825

Liu, Fen-Wu; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Feng; Wang, Dian-Zhan

2011-07-01

47

Organic chemicals in sewage sludges.  

PubMed

Sewage sludges are residues resulting from the treatment of wastewater released from various sources including homes, industries, medical facilities, street runoff and businesses. Sewage sludges contain nutrients and organic matter that can provide soil benefits and are widely used as soil amendments. They also, however, contain contaminants including metals, pathogens, and organic pollutants. Although current regulations require pathogen reduction and periodic monitoring for some metals prior to land application, there is no requirement to test sewage sludges for the presence of organic chemicals in the U. S. To help fill the gaps in knowledge regarding the presence and concentration of organic chemicals in sewage sludges, the peer-reviewed literature and official governmental reports were examined. Data were found for 516 organic compounds which were grouped into 15 classes. Concentrations were compared to EPA risk-based soil screening limits (SSLs) where available. For 6 of the 15 classes of chemicals identified, there were no SSLs. For the 79 reported chemicals which had SSLs, the maximum reported concentration of 86% exceeded at least one SSL. Eighty-three percent of the 516 chemicals were not on the EPA established list of priority pollutants and 80% were not on the EPA's list of target compounds. Thus analyses targeting these lists will detect only a small fraction of the organic chemicals in sludges. Analysis of the reported data shows that more data has been collected for certain chemical classes such as pesticides, PAHs and PCBs than for others that may pose greater risk such as nitrosamines. The concentration in soil resulting from land application of sludge will be a function of initial concentration in the sludge and soil, the rate of application, management practices and losses. Even for chemicals that degrade readily, if present in high concentrations and applied repeatedly, the soil concentrations may be significantly elevated. The results of this work reinforce the need for a survey of organic chemical contaminants in sewage sludges and for further assessment of the risks they pose. PMID:16750559

Harrison, Ellen Z; Oakes, Summer Rayne; Hysell, Matthew; Hay, Anthony

2006-08-31

48

[Improvement of municipal sewage sludge dewaterability by bioleaching: a pilot-scale study with a continuous plug flow reaction model].  

PubMed

A plug-flow bio-reactor of 700 L working volume for sludge bioleaching was used in this study. The reactor was operationally divided into six sections along the direction of the sludge movement. Ten duration of continuous operation of sludge bioleaching with Acidibacillus spp. and 1.2 m3 x h(-1) aeration amount was conducted. In this system, sludge retention time was 2.5 d, and the added amount of microbial nutritional substance was 4 g x L(-1). During sludge bioleaching, the dynamic changes of pH, dewaterability (specific resistance to filtration, SRF) of sewage sludge in different sections, the moisture content and moisture evaporation rate of dewatered bioleached sludge cake obtained by chamber filter press were investigated. The results showed that the SRF of sludge significantly decreased from initial 1.50 x 10(13) m x kg(-1) to the final 0.34 x 10(13) m x kg(-1). The wasted bioleached sludge was collected and dewatered by chamber filter press under the following pressures as 0.3 MPa for 4 h (2 h for feeding sludge, 2 h for holding pressure), 3 h (1.5 h for feeding sludge, 1.5 h for holding pressure), 2 h (1 h for feeding sludge, 1 h for holding pressure), and 1 h (0.5 h for feeding sludge, 0.5 h for holding pressure). Correspondingly, the moisture of dewatered sludge was reduced to 57.9%, 59.2%, 59.6%, and 63.4% of initial moisture, respectively. Moreover, the moisture content of bioleached sludge cake was reduced to about 45% and less than 10% if the cake was placed at 25 degrees C for 15 h and 96 h, respectively. Obviously, sludge bioleaching followed by sludge dewatering using chamber filter press is a promising attractive approach for sludge half-dryness treatment in engineering application. PMID:22279914

Liu, Fen-Wu; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Feng

2011-10-01

49

Improvement in anaerobic degradation of olive mill effluent (OME) by chemical pretreatment using batch systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, feasibility of using chemical pretreatment to improve the anaerobic biological degradation of industrial effluents containing high concentrations of phenolic compounds was investigated. For this purpose, chemical pretreatment of the wastewater generated from olive oil production process, namely olive mill effluent (OME), was conducted by means of acid cracking followed by coagulation–flocculation process using one of the coagulating

Nuri Azbar; Tugba Keskin; Ebru Cokay Catalkaya

2008-01-01

50

Improvement of diagnostic techniques and electrical circuit in azo dye degradation by high voltage electrical discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast electrical diagnostics and improvement of electrical circuits for methyl orange (MO) degradation by high voltage pulsed electrical discharge were investigated. To eliminate electromagnetic radiation, several effective methods were employed. RG 218 coaxial cable was substituted for the common transmission lines to transmit high voltage pulses, and multi-lines in parallel were earthed to avoid electromagnetic interference and, additionally, to reduce

Yongjun Shen; Lecheng Lei; Xingwang Zhang; Minghua Zhou; Yi Zhang

2008-01-01

51

Improvement in surface degradation properties of polymer composites due to pre-processed nanometric alumina fillers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulating materials in power apparatus are often exposed to surface discharges in the course of normal operation, resulting in deterioration of the material surface. In an earlier work, the authors have shown that the inclusion of nanometric particles (Al2O3) improves the ability of a polymeric dielectric (epoxy) to resist degradation when exposed to surface discharges. In the current work, the

Parimal Maity; Subramanyam V Kasisomayajula; Venkitanarayanan Parameswaran; Sumit Basu; Nandini Gupta

2008-01-01

52

How to increase microbial degradation in constructed wetlands: influencing factors and improvement measures.  

PubMed

Microorganisms play a vital role in degradation of multiple pollutants in constructed wetlands (CWs). Thus, the search for methods to improve microbial degradation in CWs is crucial. This study provides a review of critical parameters including availability of organic carbon, redox condition, temperature, pH, presence of plants, media characteristics and their influences on microbial processes. Current strategies focusing on regulation of carbon source, redox condition, and choice of substrates to enhance microbial activity in CWs are also described. A special emphasis is given to the application of bioaugmentation to enhance microbial activities in wetland in future research. PMID:24559743

Meng, Panpan; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Shao, Yuanyuan; Li, Zheng

2014-04-01

53

Wastewater discharge degrades coastal waters and reef communities in southern Thailand.  

PubMed

Runoff and sewage discharge from land developments can cause significant changes in water quality of coastal waters, resulting in coral degradation. Coastal waters around Phuket, Thailand are influenced by numerous sewage outfalls associated with rapid tourism development. Water quality and biological monitoring around the Phuket region was undertaken to quantify water quality and biotic characteristics at various distances from sewage outfalls. The surveys revealed strong gradients in water quality and biotic characteristics associated with tourism concentration levels as well as seasonal variability. Water and reef quality tended to decrease with increasing tourist intensity, but improved with increasing distance from sewage discharge within each of the three study locations. In addition, the effect of wastewater discharge was not localised around the source of pollution, but appeared to be transported to non-developed sites by currents, and exacerbated in the wet season. PMID:20044130

Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai; Crossland, C J

2010-06-01

54

Ecophysiological Responses of Plants After Sewage Sludge Compost Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composting is one of the most appropriate methods to recycle sewage sludge. Sewage sludge compost is a suitable solution for\\u000a improving the quality of barren soil at landfill. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of sewage sludge compost\\u000a on plants. Different compost application methods (mixing and scattering over reclaimed soil) on sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima) and Japanese red

Uhram Song; Eun Ju Lee

2010-01-01

55

Antioxidant compounds improved PCB-degradation by Burkholderia xenovorans strain LB400.  

PubMed

Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are toxic and persistent organic pollutants that are widely distributed in the environment. Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 is capable of degrading aerobically an unusually wide range of PCBs. However, during PCB-degradation B. xenovorans LB400 generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that affect its viability. The aim of this study was to increase the efficiency of PCB-degradation of B. xenovorans LB400 by adding antioxidant compounds that could increase tolerance to oxidative stress. The effect of antioxidant compounds on the growth, morphology and PCB-degradation by B. xenovorans LB400 was evaluated. ?-Tocopherol or vitamin E (vitE) and berry extract (BE) increased slightly the growth of strain LB400 on biphenyl, whereas in presence of ascorbic acid or vitamin C (vitC) an inhibition of growth was observed. The growth of B. xenovorans LB400 in glucose was inhibited by the addition of 4-chlorobiphenyl (4-CB). Interestingly, in presence of ?-tocopherol the growth of strain LB400 was less affected by 4-CB. By transmission electronic microscopy it was observed that ?-tocopherol preserved the cell membranes and improved cell integrity of glucose-grown LB400 cells exposed to 4-CB, suggesting a protective effect of ?-tocopherol. Notably, ?-tocopherol increased biphenyl and 4-CB degradation by B. xenovorans LB400 in an aqueous solution. The effect of antioxidants compounds on PCB-bioremediation was evaluated in agricultural soil spiked with 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-CB), 4-CB and 2,4'-chlorobiphenyl (2,4'-CB). For bioaugmentation, LB400 cells grown on biphenyl and subsequently incubated with pyruvate were added to the soil. Native soil microbiota was able to remove PCBs. Bioaugmentation with strain LB400 increased strongly the PCB-degradation rate. Bioaugmentation with strain LB400 and biostimulation with ?-tocopherol or berry extract increased further the PCB degradation. Half-life of 2,4'-CB decreased by bioaugmentation from 24 days to 4 days and by bioaugmentation in presence of ?-tocopherol and berry extract to 2 days. By bioaugmentation with strain LB400, 85% of 2,4'-CB was degraded in 20 days, whereas bioaugmentation with strain LB400 and biostimulation with ?-tocopherol or berry extract reduced the time to less than 13 days. This indicates that antioxidant compounds stimulated PCB-degradation in soil. Therefore, the addition of antioxidant compounds constitutes an attractive strategy for the scale-up of aerobic PCB-bioremediation processes. PMID:22142725

Ponce, Bernardita L; Latorre, Valeria K; González, Myriam; Seeger, Michael

2011-12-10

56

Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.  

PubMed

Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards. PMID:22425275

Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa

2012-05-01

57

Sewage sludge combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current review paper, various issues related to the combustion of sewage sludge are discussed. After briefly explaining the formation and treatment of sewage sludge, current and future sludge production are discussed. Thereafter, the four sludge disposal methods which are currently used, i.e. recycling in agriculture, landfilling, dumping into sea and incineration, are examined, and the future trend presented

J. Werther; T. Ogada

1999-01-01

58

Sewage sludge additive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (inventors)

1980-01-01

59

Partial oxidation of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for the partial oxidation of sewage sludge. It comprises: shearing without heating a concentrated aqueous slurry of sewage sludge obtained from sewage.; dewatering the sheared pumpable aqueous slurry of sewage sludge from (1) to a solids content in the rage of about 25 to 50 wt. %; mixing the pumpable sheared aqueous slurry of sewage sludge with a supplemental solid fuel and reacting the pumpable aqueous sewage sludge-coal and/or petroleum coke slurry in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator at a temperature in the range of about 1800{degrees} F. to 2800{degrees} F.

McMahon, M.A.; Suggitt, R.M.; McKeon, R.J.; Brent, A.

1990-06-12

60

Distribution of Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb in sewage sludge amended soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restoration of degraded soils with organic wastes could be a feasible practice to minimise erosion in the Mediterranean area. Today the use of sewage sludge to improve the nutrient contents of a soil is a common practice. Contamination of soils by potentially toxic elements (e.g. Cd, Ni, Cr, Pb) from amendments of sewage sludge is subject to strict controls within the European Community in relation to total permissible metal concentrations, soil properties and intended use. This study is aimed at ascertaining the chemical partitioning of Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb in agricultural soils repeatedly amended with sludge. Five surface soils (0-15 cm) that were polluted as a result of agricultural activities were used in this experiment. The sewage sludge amended soils were selected for diversity of physicochemical properties, especially pH and carbonate content. The soils are classified as non-calcareous and calcareous soils. The distribution of chemical forms of Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb in five sewage sludge amended soils was studied using a sequential extraction procedure that fractionates the metal into soluble-exchangeable, specifically sorbed-carbonate bound, oxidizable, reducible and residual forms. With regard to the mineralogical composition of the soil clay fraction, the mineralogical association found was: illite, kaolinite and chlorite. This paper provides quantitative evidence regarding the form of the association of metals and indirectly of their bioavailability. It can help to explain the process by which metals are eliminated from sewage sludge and also indicate the impact of the use of sludge on agricultural soils, as amendments. Data obtained showed different metal distribution trend among the fractions in sludge-amended soils. Comparison of distribution pattern of metals in sludge-applied soils shows that there is possible redistribution of metals among the different phases. Detailed knowledge of the soil at the application site, especially pH, CEC, buffering capacity, organic matter and clay content, is essential. The sewage sludge incorporation has modified the soil composition, leading to the increment of heavy metals. The heavy metals in this set of sewage sludge amended soils were mostly and variously associated with residual, reducible and carbonate forms depending on the nature and properties of the soils. Mainly, Ni, Cr and Pb are associated with residual phase. However, Cd is mainly associated with carbonate forms. Use of X-rays diffraction to observe possible associations of heavy metals with soil constituents proved to be unsuccessful due to a combination of the highly dispersed distribution of the heavy metals in the soil matrix.

Sanfeliu, Teófilo

2010-05-01

61

Improving degradation resistance of sisal fiber in concrete through fiber surface treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an ongoing effort to improve the sustainability of reinforced concrete, recycled concrete aggregate is being considered together with natural fibers such as sisal fiber as replacement of synthetic reinforcement. Since natural fibers are known to undergo potential deterioration in the alkaline cement matrix especially in outdoor erosive environment, they need to be treated to improve their durability. This paper describes two such methods (thermal and Na2CO3 treatment) and evaluates their effects on the degradation resistance of sisal fiber and durability of sisal fiber-reinforced concrete with recycled concrete aggregate. Concrete specimens were subjected to cycles of wetting and drying to accelerate aging. The microstructure, tensile strength and Young's modulus of sisal fiber as well as the weight loss of the composite were evaluated. Of primary interest were the effects on compressive and splitting tensile strength of sisal fiber-reinforced concrete. Thermal treatment and Na2CO3 surface treatment were shown to improve the durability of the composite as measured by splitting tensile strength by 36.5% and 46.2% and the compressive strength by 31.1% and 45.4%, respectively. The mechanisms of these two treatment methods were also analyzed. The thermal treatment achieved improvement of cellulose's crystallization, which ensured the initial strength and improved durability of sisal fiber. A layer consisting of calcium carbonate sediments, which protects the internals of a fiber from the strong alkali solution formed in the cement hydration process, was formed and filled in pits and cavities on the Na2CO3 treated sisal fiber's surface to improve their corrosion resistance and durability and reduced the detrimental effects of Na+ ions on concrete.

Wei, Jianqiang; Meyer, Christian

2014-01-01

62

Sewage Facilities Construction 1969.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The annual report of 'Sewage Facilities Construction 1969' is published as one part of the basic data program required and authorized in Public Law 680. The data published in the report provide a continuing and ready source of information and reference as...

K. H. Jenkins J. L. Lewis T. Pandolfi

1974-01-01

63

PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Phosphorus is a growth limiting nutrient that is mined from rock ore, refined, used in fertilizers, and discharged to the environment through municipal sewage. The impacts of phosphorus discharge include severe eutrophication of fresh water bodies. The future sustainable use of...

64

TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

65

Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

66

Improved mechanical properties of chitosan fibers with applications to degradable radar countermeasure chaff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work has been to improve the mechanical properties of wet spun chitosan fibers for applications to a degradable form of radar countermeasure chaff. The first part of the study characterizes the chitosan used for spinning. Three methods for determining the degree of deacetylation (% DDA) were used and they include titration, elemental analysis, and first derivative ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry. The molecular weight of the chitosan was determined in a solvent system of 0.25 M CH3COOH/0.25 M CH3COONa, using viscometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Several samples of chitosan were used with the % DDA varying from 64.3 to 96.0%. The Mark-Houwink-Sakurada constants used for the determination of viscosity average molecular weight and the universal calibration of the HPLC system were K = 1.40 x 10 -4 dL/g and a = 0.83, respectively. A literature review of molecular weight analysis of chitosan is included. Preliminary wet spinning experiments involved a coagulation rate study which demonstrated that 1 M KOH was an effective coagulant for wet spinning and that the rate of coagulation increases with decreasing solvent ratio in the spin dope. A drying study confirmed the effectiveness of a methanol drying bath followed by a heated roller at 50°C. Following these studies, a wet spinning system was constructed and used. A lack of published data exists concerning the subjects of chitosan fiber spinning and mechanical improvements to both wet and dry chitosan fibers. Several post-spinning modification experiments focused on the reaction of the dried as-spun chitosan fibers with aqueous agents including potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4), potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP), glutaraldehyde (GA), and glyoxal (GLY). For the aqueous buffering agents of KH2PO4, and KHP, the highest mechanical properties resulted from solutions containing phthalate ions at pH 5.00, and from solutions containing phosphate ions at pH 5.39. The best time and temperature for these reactions was 25.8°C and 1 hour reaction time. Substantial gains in mechanical properties were witnessed with an aqueous 0.024 mol/dL solution of GA and an aqueous 0.100 mol/dL solution of GLY after 1 hour at 25.8°C. Reaction time shortened with increasing temperature. Chitosan films were subjected to similar treatments in phosphate and phthalate ion solutions, and also aqueous solutions of GA and GLY. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of the films suggest that some interaction is occurring between the phosphate ions and the amine group on the chitosan backbone. IR film spectra indicate the presence of a 'C = N' bond in the cases of GA and GLY reacting with chitosan. Extensive published material is available suggesting that the reaction mechanism between chitosan and GA or GLY is either a Schiff's base or an acetyl type reaction. Evidence presented herein proposes a new reaction mechanism for both GA/chitosan and GLY/chitosan systems. A six week environmental experiment involved all of the chemically reacted fibers, along with unreacted chitosan fibers, and chaff fibers, in soil burial, water immersion, and open air environments. Fibers of chitosan, chitosan reacted with KHP(aq.), and chitosan fibers reacted with KH2PO 4 (aq.) degraded completely from sight after 6 weeks in wet soil kept in light conditions. The chaff, GLY/chitosan, and GA/chitosan fibers did not degrade in any of the environments after 6 weeks.

Knaul, Jonathan Zvi

67

Controlled extracellular matrix degradation in breast cancer tumors improves therapy by trastuzumab.  

PubMed

Extracellular matrix (ECM) in solid tumors affects the effectiveness of therapeutics through blocking of intratumoral diffusion and/or physical masking of target receptors on malignant cells. In immunohistochemical studies of tumor sections from breast cancer patients and xenografts, we observed colocalization of ECM proteins and Her2/neu, a tumor-associated antigen that is the target for the widely used monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin). We tested whether intratumoral expression of the peptide hormone relaxin (Rlx) would result in ECM degradation and the improvement of trastuzumab therapy. As viral gene delivery into epithelial tumors with extensive tumor ECM is inefficient, we used a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-based approach to deliver the Rlx gene to the tumor. In mouse models with syngeneic breast cancer tumors, HSC-mediated intratumoral Rlx expression resulted in a decrease of ECM proteins and enabled control of tumor growth. Moreover, in a model with Her2/neu-positive BT474-M1 tumors and more treatment-refractory tumors derived from HCC1954 cells, we observed a significant delay of tumor growth when trastuzumab therapy was combined with Rlx expression. Our results have implications for antibody therapy of cancer as well as for other anticancer treatment approaches that are based on T-cells or encapsulated chemotherapy drugs. PMID:21081901

Beyer, Ines; Li, Zongyi; Persson, Jonas; Liu, Ying; van Rensburg, Ruan; Yumul, Roma; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Hung, Mien-Chie; Lieber, André

2011-03-01

68

Mechanism of Degradation and Improvement of Stability on Mesogenic-Phthalocyanine-Based Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing the phthalocyanine derivative 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2) and the fullerene derivative 1-(3-methoxy-carbonyl)-propyl-1-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 has been studied. In the same environment, C6PcH2-based cells have shown higher stability than the cells fabricated using the conventional donor material poly(3-hexylthiophene). Furthermore, the degradation mechanisms of these solar cells have been investigated. It was found that the chemical bonds of two pyrrole aza nitrogens as well as the four mesobridging aza nitrogens with neighboring carbons in the C6PcH2 molecule were broken after irradiation with a solar simulator, which affected the device lifetime. To improve the stability, various buffer layers have been deposited between the counterelectrode and the active layer. Obviously, the C60 thin film and the oxidized layer play an important role as blocking layers that prevent the diffusion of metal atoms into the active layer, resulting in the higher stability.

Dao, Quang Duy; Hori, Tetsuro; Masuda, Tetsuya; Fukumura, Kaoru; Kamikado, Toshiya; Nekelson, Fabien; Fujii, Akihiko; Shimizu, Yo; Ozaki, Masanori

2013-01-01

69

Improved AOX Degradation in UV Oxidative Waste Water Treatment by Dialysis with Nanofiltration Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the wastewater treatment by UV oxidation with and without preceding desalination is compared. The influence of different chloride concentrations on the TOC degradation and AOX concentration is analyzed. Nanofiltration membrane dialysis is used to separate the chloride ions from wastewater. It is demonstrated that a reduction of the chloride concentration leads to a faster TOC degradation compared

M. Seiss; A. Gahr; R. Niessner

2001-01-01

70

Sewage sludge treatment system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

1976-01-01

71

Organic chemicals in sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludges are residues resulting from the treatment of wastewater released from various sources including homes, industries, medical facilities, street runoff and businesses. Sewage sludges contain nutrients and organic matter that can provide soil benefits and are widely used as soil amendments. They also, however, contain contaminants including metals, pathogens, and organic pollutants. Although current regulations require pathogen reduction and

Ellen Z. Harrison; Summer Rayne Oakes; Matthew Hysell; Anthony Hay

2006-01-01

72

Sewage treatment works odour measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public concern over odours from sewage treatment works is increasing. More people are being exposed to odours, due to development around existing works or the construction of new works. Raised awareness of both the environment and individual rights has meant people are now more likely to complain. Odour abatement and control is a major issue for sewage works operators. To

P. Gostelow; S. A. Parsons

73

Sewage treatment method  

DOEpatents

The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

Fassbender, Alex G. (4407 Laurel Dr., West Richland, WA 99352)

1995-01-01

74

Elimination of COD, microorganisms and pharmaceuticals from sewage by trickling through sandy soil below leaking sewers.  

PubMed

To simulate the filtration and/or degradation of trickling sewage from leaky sewers through the non-water-saturated underground, sewage was trickled through sand of 0.4-2mm from the Rhine valley in glass columns of 125 cm length. For the same sewage the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was almost independent of low or high trickling rates. The COD removal efficiency varied, however, from 67% to 79%, for sewage from rain and dry weather periods, respectively. The water content of the moist sand increased from initially 80 ml kg(-1) with increasing sewage trickling rates to 108 ml kg(-1) sand. It remained at 108 ml kg(-1) at higher trickling rates higher than 600 ml d(-1). Analyses of effluent of five consecutive 25-cm soil columns revealed that about 50% of the initial COD were filtrated off on top of the sand or degraded in the uppermost 25 cm at varying trickling rates. Another 6-12% of the COD were removed in the following 25-50 cm of sand, whereas almost no further COD removal was seen in the subsequent two or three 25-cm columns. The COD elimination during trickling of sewage through the segmented column (interrupted random flow) was slightly better than that in the non-segmented column. Total and faecal coliform bacteria decreased faster with increasing trickling depth than that of total aerobic or anaerobic bacteria. After a filter/degradation stretch of 125 cm elimination of all bacteria reached 96.2-99.9%. The sewage contained low concentrations of at least 10 different pharmaceuticals or X-ray media. During trickling of sewage through sand, elimination of these compounds by adsorption onto sand and/or biodegradation varied from a complete removal, e.g. Ibuprofen or Naproxen, to almost no removal for several X-ray contrast media. Some of the medicals were removed as effectively as during conventional sewage treatment. PMID:14511710

Hua, Jianmin; An, Pinglin; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

2003-11-01

75

Batchwise mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of secondary sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Residues from forest-industry wastewater-treatment systems are treated as waste at many pulp and paper mills. These organic substances have previously been shown to have potential for production of large quantities of biogas. There is concern, however, that the process would require expensive equipment because of the slow degradation of these substances. Pure non-fibrous sludge from forest industry showed lower specific methane production during mesophilic digestion for 19days, 53±26 Nml/g of volatile solids as compared to municipal sewage sludge, 84±24 Nml/g of volatile solids. This paper explores the possibility of using anaerobic co-digestion with municipal sewage sludge to enhance the potential of methane production from secondary sludge from a pulp and paper mill. It was seen in a batch anaerobic-digestion operation of 19 days that the specific methane production remained largely the same for municipal sewage sludge when up to 50% of the volatile solids were replaced with forest-industry secondary sludge. It was also shown that the solid residue from anaerobic digestion of the forest-industry sludge should be of suitable quality to use for improving soil quality on lands that are not used for food production. PMID:23294534

Hagelqvist, Alina

2013-04-01

76

Improvement of ligninolytic properties in the hyper lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 using a novel gene promoter.  

PubMed

We identified a highly expressed protein (BUNA2) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis from the hyper lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 under wood-rotting conditions. Partial amino acid sequences of BUNA2 were determined by LC-MS/MS analysis, and BUNA2 gene (bee2) and promoter region were PCR-cloned and sequenced. The bee2 promoter was used to drive the expression of the manganese peroxidase gene (mnp4) in P. sordida YK-624. Eighteen mnp4-expressing clones were obtained, with most showing higher ligninolytic activity and selectivity than wild-type YK-624. Examination of the ligninolytic properties of the most effective lignin-degrading transformant, BM-65, cultured on wood meal revealed that this strain exhibited higher lignin degradation and MnP activities than those of wild type. Transcriptional analysis confirmed the increased expression of recombinant mnp4 in the transformant. These results indicate that use of the bee2 promoter to drive the expression of ligninolytic enzymes may be an effective approach for improving the lignin-degrading properties of white-rot fungi. PMID:22506973

Sugiura, Tatsuki; Mori, Toshio; Kamei, Ichiro; Hirai, Hirofumi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Kondo, Ryuichiro

2012-06-01

77

Improved determination of tributyl phosphate degradation products (mono- and dibutyl phosphates) by ion chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is a very important compound in the nuclear industry, particularly in the area of nuclear fuel reprocessing. This compound is used in the PUREX (plutonium and uranium refining extraction) process which consists of the extraction of uranium and plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid phase, for the purpose of recycling. But TBP may be degraded to dibutyl

A Dodi; G Verda

2001-01-01

78

An efficiency restoration method for turbulence-degraded image base on improved SeDDaRA method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulence-degraded image restoration is an important part in detection system which based on image. Most of current researches on turbulence-degraded image were focus on getting perfect image and not very care about processing speed. They are not acceptable when they apply on a real-time detection system. In order to restore degraded image clearly and rapidly, in this paper we introduce an efficiency restoration method for turbulence-degraded image base on improved SeDDaRA (self-deconvolving data reconstruction algorithm) method. SeDDaRA transform the image data form space field to spectrum field and smooth image's spectrum data and use a power law relation applied to the smoothed spectrum data to extract a filter function. This filter function can be used to restore and enhance higher-frequency content and get the system's Point Spread Function (PSF). The PSF can be used for deconvolution filter such as Winner and nonnegative least squares to restore the image. There are three major contributions in this paper. Firstly, we add a pre-denoise process to remove the noise which introduced by system such as period noise and Gauss noise. This step can significant improve the restore image's quality. Secondly we use an optimum method to extract the filter function which responded to PSF. The method, based on spectrum's power law characteristic, only need compute 8-direction date of the whole data to get the parameter. Compared with normal SeDDaRA method which need compute all data in spectrum field the new method can significant reduce the compute complication. Thirdly we utilize image's inherent characteristic and introduce a novel method to estimation deconvolution filter's SNR. The accurate SNR can efficiently improve the restoration quality. Compared with other restoration method, our method is noniterative and requires only that the point-spread function be space invariant and the transfer function be real. These mean that our method can work efficiently and requires little knowledge of the original data or the degradation. Experiments on real turbulence-degraded image indicate that the proposed method is very fast and can get quality restore image, which demonstrates the feasibility and validity of the proposed method.

Zuo, Haorui; Zhang, Qihen; Zhao, Rujin

2009-07-01

79

Effects of earthworm activity on fertility and heavy metal bioavailability in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for using earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to improve fertility and reduce copper and cadmium availability in sewage sludge was tested by laboratory incubation experiments. Results comparing sewage sludge with and without earthworm treatment showed that earthworm activity decreased the contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, but increased the contents of available nitrogen and phosphorus and had no significant effect

Xiaoli Liu; Chengxiao Hu; Shuzhen Zhang

2005-01-01

80

Starch degradation and nutrition value improvement in corn grits by solid state fermentation technique with Coriolus versicolor.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to evaluate effect of Coriolus versicolor mycelia on degrading starch and improving nutrition value in corn grits through solid state fermentation technique. The results showed that using soybean meal as a nitrogen source, ?-amylase secreted from C. versicolor expressed 407.25U/g of activity, leading to 45.15% of starch degraded. The activity grew with fermentation time until the 15(th) day, after that the amylase was deactivated rapidly. An orthogonal experiment designed for the study illustrated that degradation rate of starch in corn grits attained to maximum, 50.51%, when 100g of corn grits, added 16g of soybean meal, were fermented by C. versicolor for 12 days, in an initial pH 5.5. After fermenting, compared to the nonfermented control, contents of amino acids, total sugar, crude fat and crude protein were increased by 21.00%, 38.45%, 55.56%, 69.15% respectively. The significant improvement of nutrition value in corn grits is probably attributed to the intense metabolism of C. versicolor. PMID:24031762

Huang, Mian; Zhang, Song

2011-10-01

81

Starch degradation and nutrition value improvement in corn grits by solid state fermentation technique with Coriolus versicolor  

PubMed Central

The study was conducted to evaluate effect of Coriolus versicolor mycelia on degrading starch and improving nutrition value in corn grits through solid state fermentation technique. The results showed that using soybean meal as a nitrogen source, ?-amylase secreted from C. versicolor expressed 407.25U/g of activity, leading to 45.15% of starch degraded. The activity grew with fermentation time until the 15th day, after that the amylase was deactivated rapidly. An orthogonal experiment designed for the study illustrated that degradation rate of starch in corn grits attained to maximum, 50.51%, when 100g of corn grits, added 16g of soybean meal, were fermented by C. versicolor for 12 days, in an initial pH 5.5. After fermenting, compared to the nonfermented control, contents of amino acids, total sugar, crude fat and crude protein were increased by 21.00%, 38.45%, 55.56%, 69.15% respectively. The significant improvement of nutrition value in corn grits is probably attributed to the intense metabolism of C. versicolor.

Huang, Mian; Zhang, Song

2011-01-01

82

SORPTION AND DEGRADATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sorption and degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by two alkaline and one acid soil was studied in the presence and absence of sewage sludge. he PCP concentrations used (0.1-10 mg kg-1) included PCP rates expected with land application of normal municipal sewage sludges. orptio...

83

Unchanged prevalence of shell disease in the edible crab Cancer pagurus four years after decommissioning of a sewage outfall at Langland Bay, UK.  

PubMed

Shell disease is a bacteria-associated degradative disease of the crustacean exoskeleton that leads to formation of extensive lesions in the cuticle with ultimate involvement of haemocoelic septicaemia. Field surveys of edible crabs Cancer pagurus from Langland Bay, Gower, UK, from February 1997 to March 1998 had revealed unusually high prevalence (ca. 55%) of this disease amongst the population, and it was suggested that one of the predisposing factors might have been the presence of raw sewage in this area. Since February 1999, a local raw sewage outfall affecting this area has been decommissioned, raising the possibility that the prevalence and severity of this disease could have become reduced as a result of the cessation of sewage exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and severity of shell disease in edible crabs from Langland Bay pre- and post-sewage discharge. The overall prevalence of shell disease from February 2003 to March 2004 was 59.2%, and in only 1 size class (80-99 mm carapace width, males) was the prevalence higher in 2003-04 than in 1997-98. In terms of severity, only smaller crabs (60-199 mm width) showed a significant reduction in 2003-04 compared with 1997-98. No changes were found in the severity of the disease in different regions of the exoskeleton of infected crabs between the 1997-98 survey and the present work. Overall, it is concluded that no significant changes in the occurrence of shell disease have resulted from the improvement in water quality (in terms of faecal pollution) at this site, suggesting that sewage pollution is probably not a major contributory factor to this disease. PMID:16465837

Powell, Adam; Rowley, Andrew F

2005-12-30

84

1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

85

Partial oxidation of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

A process is described comprising: (1) splitting a stream of dewatered sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 17-40 wt.% into a first stream and a second stream; (2) drying the first stream of dewatered sewage sludge to produce a stream of dried sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 75-99 wt.%: (3) grinding the dried sewage sludge from (2) to a particle size so that 100 wt% passes through ASTM E11 Standard Sieve Designation 1.40 mm; (4) mixing about 2-8 parts by dry weight aqueous slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel having a solids content of about 50-70 wt. % with each part by weight of said second stream of dewatered sewage sludge from (1); (5) heating the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry from (4) to a temperature of about 140-212 F; and mixing together 3-9 parts by dry weight of the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage sludge slurry from (4) with each part by weight of dried sewage sludge from (2) to produce a pumpable fuel slurry comprising sewage sludge and solid carbonaceous fuel and having a solids content in the range of about 45-70 wt. %; and (6) reacting the fuel slurry from (5) in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator at a temperature in the range of about 1800-3500 F and a pressure in the range of about 1-35 atmospheres, and in the presence of free-oxygen containing gas, thereby producing a hot raw effluent gas stream of synthesis gas, reducing gas or fuel gas; (7) cooling, cleaning and purifying said raw effluent gas stream to produce a stream of fuel gas; (8) burning the fuel gas from (7) with air in a combustor of a gas turbine, and passing the hot exhaust gas through an expansion turbine which drives an electric generator; and (9) passing the hot exhaust gas from (8) in indirect heat exchange with water to produce steam for use in drying said first stream of dewatered sewage sludge in (2) and/or for heating said solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry is (5) by indirect heat exchange.

McMahon, M.A.; Martin, M.C.; McKenzie, K.W.

1993-07-27

86

Degradation of sulphamethazine by means of an improved photo-Fenton process involving a hydrogen peroxide systematic dosage.  

PubMed

Despite being acknowledged as an emerging contaminant, sulphamethazine (SMT) degradation has received scarce attention in the advanced oxidation processes field. Thus, this work addresses the degradation of SMT in water solutions (12 L of 25mgL-1 samples) by means of a photo-Fenton process and a systematic H202 dosage protocol that enhances its performance. A conventional photo-Fenton process led to 86% mineralization after 120 min treatment when adding the Fenton reactants at once (initial concentrations were 10mgL-1 Fe(II) and 200mgL-1 H2O2). Conversely, the process achieved the total mineralization of the samples in less than 75 min when the same amount of H202 was continuously dosed according to a conveniently tuned dosage protocol. In both cases, total SMT degradation was achieved within 10 min. Hence, this work's aim is to determine the efficient dosage conditions of H2O2. The results show that a significant improvement of the photo-Fenton mineralization of SMT solutions is possible by adjusting the dosage of H2O2. PMID:24956760

Yamal-Turbay, Evelyn; González, Lydia Pérez; Graells, Moisès; Pérez-Moya, Montserrat

2014-08-01

87

The use of sewage sludge and horticultural waste to develop artificial soil for plant cultivation in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse pot experiments were performed with Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) to evaluate artificial soil produced from poor fertility subsoil, horticultural compost, and sewage sludge. The addition of horticultural compost and sewage sludge to subsoil substantially improved plant growth, improved the physical properties of subsoil and enriched subsoil by essential nutrients for plants. The effect was enhanced when the two ingredients

O. Stabnikova; W.-K. Goh; H.-B. Ding; J.-H. Tay; J.-Y. Wang

2005-01-01

88

Dual Delivery of Hepatocyte and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors via a Protease-Degradable Hydrogel Improves Cardiac Function in Rats  

PubMed Central

Acute myocardial infarction (MI) caused by ischemia and reperfusion (IR) is the most common cause of cardiac dysfunction due to local cell death and a temporally regulated inflammatory response. Current therapeutics are limited by delivery vehicles that do not address spatial and temporal aspects of healing. The aim of this study was to engineer biotherapeutic delivery materials to harness endogenous cell repair to enhance myocardial repair and function. We have previously engineered poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels to present cell adhesive motifs and deliver VEGF to promote vascularization in vivo. In the current study, bioactive hydrogels with a protease-degradable crosslinker were loaded with hepatocyte and vascular endothelial growth factors (HGF and VEGF, respectively) and delivered to the infarcted myocardium of rats. Release of both growth factors was accelerated in the presence of collagenase due to hydrogel degradation. When delivered to the border zones following ischemia-reperfusion injury, there was no acute effect on cardiac function as measured by echocardiography. Over time there was a significant increase in angiogenesis, stem cell recruitment, and a decrease in fibrosis in the dual growth factor delivery group that was significant compared with single growth factor therapy. This led to an improvement in chronic function as measured by both invasive hemodynamics and echocardiography. These data demonstrate that dual growth factor release of HGF and VEGF from a bioactive hydrogel has the capacity to significantly improve cardiac remodeling and function following IR injury.

Boopathy, Archana V.; Che, Pao-lin; Brown, Milton; Garcia, Andres J.; Davis, Michael E.

2012-01-01

89

Solvent effects and improvements in the deoxyribose degradation assay for hydroxyl radical-scavenging.  

PubMed

The deoxyribose degradation assay is widely used to evaluate the hydroxyl (OH) radical-scavenging ability of food or medicines. We compared the hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity of 25 antioxidant samples prepared in ethanol solution with samples prepared after removing the ethanol (residue). The data suggested that there was an approximately 9-fold difference between assay results for the ethanol solution and residue samples. This indicated a strong alcoholic interference. To further study the mechanism, the scavenging activities of 18 organic solvents (including ethanol) were measured by the deoxyribose assay. Most pure organic solvents (especially alcohols) could effectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. As hydroxyl radicals have extremely high reactivities, they will quickly react with surrounding solvent molecules. This shows that any organic solvent should be completely evaporated before measurement. The proposed method is regarded as a reliable hydroxyl radical-scavenging assay, suitable for all types of antioxidants. PMID:23870931

Li, Xican

2013-12-01

90

Sewage reflects the distribution of human faecal Lachnospiraceae  

PubMed Central

Summary Faecal pollution contains a rich and diverse community of bacteria derived from animals and humans, many of which might serve as alternatives to the traditional enterococci and Escherichia coli faecal indicators. We used massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize microbial communities from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent sewage from 12 cities geographically distributed across the USA. We examined members of the Clostridiales, which included the families Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae for their potential as sewage indicators. Lachnospiraceae was one of the most abundant groups of faecal bacteria in sewage, and several Lachnospiraceae high-abundance sewage pyrotags occurred in at least 46 of 48 human faecal samples. Clone libraries targeting Clostridium coccoides (C. coccoides) in sewage samples demonstrated that Lachnospiraceae-annotated V6 pyrotags encompassed the previously reported C. coccoides group. We used oligotyping to profile the genus Blautia within Lachnospiraceae and found oligotypes comprised of 24 entropy components that showed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that indicators based on Blautia might have the capacity to discriminate between different faecal pollution sources. Development of source-specific alternative indicators would enhance water quality assessments, which leads to improved ecosystem health and reduced human health risk due to waterborne disease.

McLellan, Sandra L.; Newton, Ryan J.; Vandewalle, Jessica L.; Shanks, Orin C.; Huse, Susan M.; Eren, A. Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L.

2014-01-01

91

Natural Wetlands Utilization for Un-Collected Village Sewage Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pre-research was conducted to validate the availability of using nuatral wetland to control village sewage and improving water quallity in reservior. Removal of COD, TP, TN, NH4-N, As, Cd and Hg by tested natural wetland both in growing period and decaying period was tested. Characteristics of soil and plant in tested wetland were also analyzed. The results showed that

Zheng Lei; Ding Ai-zhong; Wang Jin-sheng; Teng Yan-guo; Hao Fang-hua

2008-01-01

92

Improving acidogenic performance in anaerobic degradation of solid organic waste using a rotational drum fermentation system.  

PubMed

The effects of leachate from a methanogenic process on acidogenic performance of a solid recycle (SR) process by a rotational drum fermentation (RDF) system were evaluated under mesophilic condition and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days. Two SR process configurations, SR1 and SR2, were evaluated, using fresh soybean meal or Okara as substrates. An apparent first-order hydrolysis rate constant of 5.0 x 10(-3)/d for SR1 at pH values of 4.4 and 14.4 x 10(-3)/d for SR2 at pH of 5.0, were obtained. The apparent volatile solids (VS) degradation ratio ranged from 9.6% to 19.4% and total volatile acid (as acetic acid) from 10.8 to 14.9 g/L. Occupying ratios for ionized volatile acid (VA) increased from 30.6% to 63.4% after recycling the leachate to process. However, occupying ratios of acetic acid decreased from 93.3% to 42.0% whereas propionic acid and butyric acid ratios increased in SR2. Integrating the VA production with the hydrolysis rate constants, it is clear that the recirculation of leachate considerably enhanced acidogenic performance of solid recycle process. PMID:15978985

Jiang, Wei Zhong; Kitamura, Yutaka; Li, Baoming

2005-09-01

93

Improved mannan-degrading enzymes' production by Aspergillus niger through medium optimization.  

PubMed

The effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources on the production of mannan-degrading enzymes, focussing on ?-mannanase, by Aspergillus niger was investigated using shake flask culture. The ?-mannanase activity obtained during growth of A. niger on guar gum (GG, 1495 nkat mL(-1)) was much higher than those observed on other carbon substrates, locust bean gum (1148 nkat mL(-1)), ?-cellulose (10.7 nkat mL(-1)), glucose (8.8 nkat mL(-1)) and carboxymethylcellulose (4.6 nkat mL(-1)). For fermentation using GG as a carbon source, bacteriological peptone gave the highest ?-mannanase activity (1744 nkat mL(-1)) followed by peptone from meat (1168 nkat mL(-1)), yeast extract (817 nkat mL(-1)), ammonium sulphate (241 nkat mL(-1)), ammonium nitrate (113 nkat mL(-1)) and ammonium chloride (99 nkat mL(-1)) when used as a nitrogen source. The composition of bacteriological peptone and initial pH of the medium were further optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Medium consisted of 21.3 g L(-1) GG and 57 g L(-1) peptone with initial culture pH of 5.5 was optimum for ?-mannanase production (2063 nkat mL(-1)) by A. niger. The ?-mannanase production obtained in this study using A. niger was significantly higher than those reported in the literature. PMID:20970530

Mohamad, Siti Norita; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Ariff, Arbakariya B

2011-02-28

94

Nomination Guidance: Beneficial Sewage Sludge Use Awards Program for Operating Projects, Technology Development, Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the awards program is to encourage the development and use of cost-effective and environmentally safe sewage sludge beneficial use practices which recycle nutrients, improve soil conditions or otherwise conserve valuable natural resources. ...

1990-01-01

95

Sono-alkalization pretreatment of sewage sludge containing phthalate acid esters.  

PubMed

This work experimentally elucidates the efficiencies of sono-alkalization treatment on municipal sewage sludge. The total solids (TS) concentration of the sewage sludge was pre-adjusted at 29.7 g/L. Two parameters such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) dosage and sonication time were considered by the central composite design (CCD) program to investigate the effect on the degradation of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) and solubilization of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD). The mean concentrations of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) in the sewage sludge were 718, 41 and 8 mg/kg dry weight sludge, respectively. Sono-alkalization process was effective on the degradation of DBP but worthless for DEHP and BBP. Overall degradation of DBP in sewage sludge was estimated to be 100% at the NaOH dosage of 68 m Mand sonication time of 2.2 min. Sono-alkalization was responsible for 6,000 mg/L increase of SCOD based on the decrease of volatile solids in sewage sludge. PMID:21847788

Ma, Ying-Shih; Lin, Jih-Gaw

2011-01-01

96

Dewatering behavior of sewage screenings.  

PubMed

Screenings from municipal sewage treatment plants have increased in importance in recent years, particularly in Germany, where laws prohibit depositing of screenings in landfill. This paper presents basic investigations of sewage screenings, especially the structure and dewatering behavior. Two standard experiments are conducted. First, the relationship between pressure and water content is determined. Secondly the flow resistance as a function of pressure is evaluated. The results help to derive simulation models in order to understand how the material behaves inside a wash press. PMID:23374399

Gregor, H; Rupp, W; Janoske, U; Kuhn, M

2013-04-01

97

Anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature.  

PubMed

The results of research concerning the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature are summarized in this article. The batch tests demonstrated a high biodegradability of domestic sewage at 20 degrees C (74%). Both batch and continuous experiments for the treatment of domestic sewage showed that the removal of SS prior to anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage not only provides a stable reactor performance but also improves the removal of both colloidal (CODcol) and dissolved COD (CODdis). The results of the pre-treatment of domestic sewage in an anaerobic filter (AF) and an anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor showed that the AF reactor is an efficient process for the removal of suspended COD (CODss), viz. 82%, at an HRT of 4 h and 13 degrees C. The novel AF reactor consists of vertical sheets of reticulated polyurethane foam with knobs, where the biomass was only in attached form. For the treatment of pre-settled sewage at 13 degrees C, the AH reactor, with granular sludge, showed a higher total COD (CODt) removal than the UASB reactor as a result of higher CODcol removal. Therefore, the performance of a two-step system, AF + AH (with granular sludge) reactor, was investigated with different HRTs at 13 degrees C. For optimization of CODss and CODdis an HRT of 4 + 4 h is needed, while for optimization of CODcol removal an HRT of 4 + 8 h is required. A CODt removal of 71% was achieved with 60% conversion to methane from the removed CODt when the AF + AH system was operated at an HRT of 4 + 8 h at 13 degrees C. PMID:11575098

Elmitwalli, T; Zeenan, G; Lettinga, G

2001-01-01

98

Biomaterial-Mediated Delivery of Degradative Enzymes to Improve Meniscus Integration and Repair  

PubMed Central

Endogenous repair of fibrous connective tissues is limited, and there exist few successful strategies to improve healing after injury. As such, new methods that advance repair by promoting cell growth, extracellular matrix (ECM) production, and tissue integration would represent a marked clinical advance. Using the meniscus as a test platform, we sought to develop an enzyme-releasing scaffold that enhances integrative repair. We hypothesized that the high ECM density and low cellularity present physical and biologic barriers to endogenous healing, and that localized collagenase treatment might expedite cell migration to the wound edge and tissue remodeling. To test this hypothesis, we fabricated a delivery system in which collagenase was stored inside electrospun poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofibers and released upon hydration. In vitro results showed that partial digestion of the wound interface improved repair by creating a microenvironment that facilitated cell migration, proliferation, and matrix deposition. Specifically, treatment with high-dose collagenase led to a 2-fold increase in cell density at the wound margin and a 2-fold increase in integrative tissue compared to untreated controls at 4 weeks (p?0.05). Furthermore, when composite scaffolds containing both collagenase-releasing and structural fiber fractions were placed inside meniscal tears in vitro, enzyme release acted locally and resulted in a positive cellular response similar to that of global treatment with aqueous collagenase. This innovative approach of targeted enzyme delivery may aid the many patients that exhibit meniscal tears by promoting integration of the defect, thereby circumventing the pathologic consequences of partial meniscus removal, and may find widespread application in the treatment of injuries to a variety of dense connective tissues.

Qu, Feini; Lin, Jung-Ming G.; Esterhai, John L.; Fisher, Matthew B.; Mauck, Robert L.

2013-01-01

99

Improving stability of a novel dextran-degrading enzyme from marine Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11.  

PubMed

Dextranases can hydrolyze dextran, so they are used in the sugar industry to mitigate the milling problems associated with dextran contamination. Few studies have been carried out on the storage stability of dextranase, let alone the dextranase of Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 isolated from sea mud samples. This study improved the storage stability of dextranase from marine A. oxydans KQ11 by adding enzymatic protective reagents (stabilizer and antiseptic). Initially, the conditions (55 °C and 30 min) for maintaining 50% dextranase activity were obtained. Then, the best stabilizers of dextranase were obtained, namely, glycerol (16%), sodium acetate (18%) and sodium citrate (20%). Results showed that p-hydroxybenzoic acid compound sodium acetate (0.05%), D-sodium isoascorbiate (0.03%), and potassium sorbate (0.05%) were the best antiseptics. Subsequent validation experiment showed that dextranase with enzymatic protective reagents maintained 70.8% and 28.96% activities at the 13th week at 25 and 37 °C, respectively. PMID:24528732

Wang, Delong; Lu, Mingsheng; Wang, Xiaobei; Jiao, Yuliang; Fang, Yaowei; Liu, Zhaopu; Wang, Shujun

2014-03-15

100

Sewage and Water Works Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annual report of 'Sewage and Water Works Construction 1966' is published to provide a continuing and ready source of information and reference as to how successfully the national needs in municipal water supply and pollution control are being met thr...

1966-01-01

101

Use of Sewage in Agriculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research has shown that industrial sewage, as a rule, can be used for irrigation and that the limits to its use are dictated not so much by its content as by the absence of the necessary treatment as well as by natural-geographic and organizational-techni...

V. M. Novikov K. K. Bityukov V. T. Dodolina L. B. Doliva-Dobrovolskii A. I. Efimova

1975-01-01

102

Application of microwaves for sewage sludge conditioning.  

PubMed

The article focuses on the effect of microwave treatment on the de-waterability of sewage sludge. The specific resistance to filtration, capillary suction time, and dry matter content in centrifuged sludge cake were measured. The quality of sludge liquor obtained after microwave processing was also analysed. It was found out that microwaves improve sludge de-waterability. The quantitative improvement depends on sludge type-better effect of microwave processing were observed in the primary sludge compared to mixed or digested sludges. If microwave treatment is followed by polyelectrolyte conditioning, the effects are considerably better than while these conditioning methods are used separately. Microwave conditioning increased burden of organic matter (BOD(5), COD) in the sludge liquor. PMID:16278005

Wojciechowska, Ewa

2005-11-01

103

Characterization of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge-amended oxisols by electron paramagnetic resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tropical soils, the high turnover rate and mineralization of organic matter (OM) associated with intensive agricultural use, generally leads to faster soil degradation than that observed in temperate climatic zones. The application of sewage sludge to the soils is one proposed method of maintaining soil organic matter, and is also an alternative method of disposing of this waste product.

Martha González-Pérez; Ladislau Martin-Neto; Luiz Alberto Colnago; Débora M. B. P. Milori; Otávio Antonio de Camargo; Ronaldo Berton; Wagner Bettiol

2006-01-01

104

Influence of sewage sludge application on physical and chemical properties of Gypsisols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundant gypsiferous soils of the semi-arid central Ebro valley are very sensitive to environmental change. Poor land management practices have caused severe degradation of the soils near the city of Zaragoza, leading to loss of productivity and of ecological function and badland formation on the slopes. The use of sewage sludge for land rehabilitation is increasingly being considered as

A Navas; F Bermúdez; J Mach??n

1998-01-01

105

Impact of Lead and Sewage Sludge on Soil Microbial Biomass and Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge disposal on arable land is viewed as a method to reduce waste accumulation and to enrich soil fertility. However, such disposal can degrade soil ecosystems due to the presence of potentially harmful substances, such as heavy metals. Pb has assumed greater significance because currently its dispersal through anthropogenic activities has exceeded the inputs from natural sources by about

G. H. Dar

1997-01-01

106

Codigestion of olive oil mill wastewaters with manure, household waste or sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined anaerobic digestion of oil mill effluent(OME) together with manure, household waste (HHW) orsewage sludge was investigated. In batch experimentsit was shown that OME could be degraded into biogaswhen codigested with manure. In codigestion with HHWor sewage sludge, OME dilution with water (1:5) wasrequired in order to degrade it. Using continuouslystirred lab-scale reactors it was shown thatcodigestion of OME with

I. Angelidaki; B. K. Ahring

1997-01-01

107

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic material with fungi capable of higher lignin degradation and lower carbohydrate degradation improves substrate acid hydrolysis and the eventual conversion to ethanol.  

PubMed

Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus,and fungal isolates RCK-1 and RCK-3 were tested for their lignin degradation abilities when grown on wheat straw (WS) and Prosopis juliflora (PJ) under solid-state cultivation conditions. Fungal isolate RCK-1 degraded more lignin in WS (12.26% and 22.64%) and PJ (19.30% and 21.97%) and less holocellulose in WS (6.27% and 9.39%) and PJ (3.01% and 4.58%) after 10 and 20 days, respectively, than other fungi tested. Phanerochaete chrysosporium caused higher substrate mass loss and degraded more of holocellulosic content (WS: 55.67%; PJ: 48.89%) than lignin (WS: 18.89%; PJ: 20.20%) after 20 days. The fungal pretreatment of WS and PJ with a high-lignin-degrading and low-holocellulose-degrading fungus (fungal isolate RCK-1) for 10 days resulted in (i) reduction in acid load for hydrolysis of structural polysaccharides (from 3.5% to 2.5% in WS and from 4.5% to 2.5% in PJ), (ii) an increase in the release of fermentable sugars (from 30.27 to 40.82 g L(-1) in WS and from 18.18 to 26.00 g L(-1) in PJ), and (iii) a reduction in fermentation inhibitors (total phenolics) in acid hydrolysate of WS (from 1.31 to 0.63 g L(-1)) and PJ (from 2.05 to 0.80 g L(-1)). Ethanol yield and volumetric productivity from RCK-1-treated WS (0.48 g g(-1) and 0.54 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively) and PJ (0.46 g g(-1) and 0.33 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively) were higher than untreated WS (0.36 g g(-1) and 0.30 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively) and untreated PJ (0.42 g g(-1) and 0.21 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively). PMID:18389003

Kuhar, Sarika; Nair, Lavanya M; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

2008-04-01

108

Inoculation of Pinus halepensis Mill. with selected ectomycorrhizal fungi improves seedling establishment 2 years after planting in a degraded gypsum soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetative inoculum of Amanita ovoidea (Bull.) Link and three isolates of Suillus collinitus (Fr.) Kuntze, as well as spore inoculum of Rhizopogon roseolus (Corda) Th. M. Fr. and S. collinitus, were evaluated for the production of Pinus halepensis Mill. in nursery and for the establishment of seedlings in a degraded gypsum soil. In nursery, most of the fungi significantly\\u000a improved

Ana Rincón; M. R. de Felipe; M. Fernández-Pascual

2007-01-01

109

Smurf2-mediated degradation of EZH2 enhances neuron differentiation and improves functional recovery after ischaemic stroke  

PubMed Central

EZH2 plays an important role in stem cell renewal and maintenance by inducing gene silencing via its histone methyltransferase activity. Previously, we showed that EZH2 downregulation enhances neuron differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs); however, the underlying mechanisms of EZH2-regulated neuron differentiation are still unclear. Here, we identify Smurf2 as the E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for the polyubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of EZH2, which is required for neuron differentiation. A ChIP-on-chip screen combined with gene microarray analysis revealed that PPAR? was the only gene involved in neuron differentiation with significant changes in both its modification and expression status during differentiation. Moreover, knocking down PPAR? prevented cells from undergoing efficient neuron differentiation. In animal model, rats implanted with intracerebral EZH2-knocked-down hMSCs or hMSCs plus treatment with PPAR? agonist (rosiglitazone) showed better improvement than those without EZH2 knockdown or rosiglitazone treatment after a stroke. Together, our results support Smurf2 as a regulator of EZH2 turnover to facilitate PPAR? expression, which is specifically required for neuron differentiation, providing a molecular mechanism for clinical applications in the neurodegenerative diseases.

Yu, Yung-Luen; Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Wu, Chen-Shiou; Chiang, Shu-Ya; Chang, Wei-Jung; Chen, Jia-Ni; Tseng, Yen-Ju; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Wei; Yeh, Su-Peng; Hsu, Jennifer L; Yang, Cheng-Chieh; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Hung, Mien-Chie

2013-01-01

110

Effects on Ni and Cd speciation in sewage sludge during composting and co-composting with steel slag.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge and industrial steel slag (SS) pose threats of serious pollution to the environment. The experiments aimed to improve the stabilizing effects of heavy metal Ni and Cd morphology in composting sludge. The total Ni and Cd species distribution and chemical forms in the compost sewage sludge were investigated with the use of compost and co-compost with SS, including degradation. The carbon/nitrogen ratio of piles was regulated with the use of sawdust prior to batch aerobic composting experiments. Results indicated that the co-composting with SS and organic matter humification can contribute to the formation of Fe and Mn hydroxides and that the humus colloid significantly changed Ni and Cd species distribution. The decreased content of Ni and Cd in an unstable state inhibited their biological activity. Conclusions were drawn that an SS amount equal to 7% of the dry sludge mass was optimal value to guarantee the lowest amount of Cd in an unstable state, whereas the amount was 14% for Ni. PMID:24616342

Zeng, Zheng-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Gou, Jian-Feng; Zhang, He-Fei; Wang, Hou-Cheng; Nan, Zhong-Ren

2014-03-01

111

Protecting effect of recycled urban wastes (sewage sludge and wastewater) on ryegrass against the toxicity of pesticides at high concentrations.  

PubMed

Degraded landscapes, like those from abandoned mine areas, could be restored by revegetating them with appropriate plant species, after correction for acidity and improvement by adding exogenous organic material. Application of urban wastes to large areas of derelict land helps in the sustainable development of this landscape. However, the development of plant species in these soils could require in the future the management of possible pests or diseases by pesticide applications which could also affect plant yield. Therefore, ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was planted in a limed soil from the mining area of Riotinto (SW Spain), using an indoor pot experiment and the effects of amendment with sewage sludge, as well as irrigation with urban wastewater on plant uptake of the insecticide thiacloprid and the fungicide fenarimol were examined. Ryegrass biomass was reduced up to 3-fold by pesticide application. Fenarimol residues were the highest in soil, while those of thiacloprid were lower in soil and higher in ryegrass. Addition of sewage sludge and irrigation with wastewater led to a reduction of pesticide translocation to the aerial plant parts, representing a lower hazard to ryegrass quality grown in this mine soil. PMID:24797639

Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, M Dolores; Guzmán, Ignacio; Sánchez, Lourdes; Fernández-Espinosa, Antonio J; Valdés, Benito; Rossini-Oliva, Sabina

2014-09-01

112

Proposal of a new degradation mechanism of enalapril maleate and improvement of enalapril maleate stability in tablet formulation with different stabilizers.  

PubMed

Enalapril maleate (EM) is unstable in poorly designed tablet formulations. To improve the stability of EM, the degradation mechanism should be elucidated. In this study, we found that several commonly used excipients promoted the degradants of EM, particularly a diketopiperazine derivative (DKP). We propose two degradation pathways in which both acid and alkali can promote the formation of DKP, although previous reports suggested that DKP is produced mainly in acidic media. Based on the degradation pathways, we believe that subtle control of the microenvironmental pH can inhibit the formation of DKP. This was confirmed by the observation that the degradation rate became slower when certain organic acids were added to the binary mixtures of EM and excipient. The data showed that the stability of EM in the ternary mixtures was much higher than that in binary mixtures. It was further proved that tablets containing these organic acids produced less DKP after the accelerated test. We also found that the formation of DKP in tablets varied with different ratios of tartaric acid, which was used as a model organic acid. This illustrated that an optimum ratio of tartaric acid is required. These results indicated that the stability of EM in tablet formulation is closely associated with microenvironmental pH and the addition of a suitable organic acid based on the reaction mechanism is an effective strategy for improving the stability of EM. PMID:24791591

Chen, J; Zhang, L H; Xu, R J; Bu, N J; Zhang, L

2014-04-01

113

Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants  

MedlinePLUS

Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and ... Careful work habits can help protect you. Some Biological Hazards That May Be in Sewage Or Wastewater ...

114

National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) (SAS Transport Version).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) consists of two tapes: the Analytical Assessment of Sewage Sludge at Final Disposal and the 1988 Sewage Sludge Use and Disposal Questionnaire Survey. The Analytical Assessment tape contains data from samples collec...

C. White

1989-01-01

115

1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF STORAGE SHED (BLDG 773). SECURITY FENCE EAST OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Sewage Treatment Plant, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

116

Activated carbons from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons of different characteristics have been prepared from dried sewage sludge using CO2, air and KOH as activating agents. The adsorption capacity of the resulting materials has been checked using 4-chlorophenol as a target compound in aqueous solution. CO2 and air-activation led to carbons of low BET area which increased with the activation temperature but did not reach 100m2\\/g

Victor Manuel Monsalvo; Angel Fernandez Mohedano; Juan Jose Rodriguez

2011-01-01

117

Nonionic surfactants in municipal sewage in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonionic surfactants are a significant factor in the municipal sewages profile, which, in turn, affects the efficiency of\\u000a sewage-treatment processes and determines the possibility of sewage-water reuse. Hard (nonbiodegradable), nonionic surfactants\\u000a are the most commonly used nonionics in Israel, which probably has no parallel in other western industrial countries. In view\\u000a of the increased share of nonionic surfactants at the

U. Zoller; R. Romano

1984-01-01

118

The production, use and quality of sewage sludge in Denmark  

SciTech Connect

In Denmark, the production of municipal sewage sludge decreased from approximately 170,000 ton d.m. in 1994 to 140,000 ton d.m. in 2002. The sludge is handled and treated in a number of ways. The quality of Danish sludge has steadily improved since the middle of the 1980s, when the first set of quality criteria for heavy metals was introduced. In 1997, cut-off criteria for the organic pollutants, LAS, DEHP, nonylphenol and PAHs were introduced. Effective control from authorities, voluntary phasing out agreements with industry, improved source identification tools, better handling and after-care methods have in combination with higher waste duties led to a significant reduction in the sludge level of especially cadmium, mercury, chromium, LAS and nonylphenol. The increased quality demand has, nevertheless, also led to a minor reduction in the use of sewage sludge as organic fertiliser on agricultural land.

Jensen, John [National Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark)]. E-mail: john.jensen@dmu.dk; Jepsen, Svend-Erik [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Strandgade 29, DK-1401 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

2005-07-01

119

Positive role of incorporating P-25 TiO2 to mesoporous-assembled TiO2 thin films for improving photocatalytic dye degradation efficiency.  

PubMed

In this work, a simple and effective strategy to improve the photocatalytic dye degradation efficiency of the mesoporous-assembled TiO2 nanoparticle thin films by incorporating small contents of commercial P-25 TiO2 during the thin film preparation was developed. The mesoporous-assembled TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a sol-gel method with the aid of a mesopore-directing surfactant, followed by homogeneously mixing with P-25 TiO2 prior to the thin film coating on glass substrate. The mesoporous-assembled TiO2 film with 5wt.% P-25 TiO2 incorporation and calcined at 400°C provided an improved photocatalytic Acid Black (AB) dye degradation efficiency. The increase in number of coated layers to the optimum four layers of the aforementioned film was found to further improve the degradation efficiency. The recyclability test of this 5wt.% P-25 TiO2-incorporated mesoporous-assembled TiO2 film with four coated layers revealed that it can be reused for multiple cycles without a requirement of post-treatment while the degradation efficiency was retained. PMID:24998072

Sreethawong, Thammanoon; Ngamsinlapasathian, Supachai; Yoshikawa, Susumu

2014-09-15

120

A Study on Internal Flow in a New Type of Sewage Pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sewage pumps are designed with a wide flow channel by, for example, sacrificing some efficiency and reducing the number of blades, in order to prevent plugging with foreign bodies. Authors have been proposing a new type of sewage pump impeller designed to further improve pump efficiency and performance in passing foreign bodies. This sewage pump impeller has a structure in which the suction flow channel of closed type non-clog pump is wound in a helical spiral. The focus of this research was to investigate internal flow in this single blade sewage pump impeller by LDV measurement and CFD. As a result of having examined influence of impeller blade loading and volute casing, it clearly indicated the following facts. As well as influence of impeller blade middle loading and influence of the secondary flow, by increase of slip by influence of volute casing, static pressure and total pressure suddenly decrease together towards the end from impeller blade middle neighborhood.

Nishi, Yasuyuki; Matsuo, Nobuaki; Fukutomi, Junichiro

121

Factors favoring a degradation or an improvement in activities of daily living (ADL) performance among nursing home (NH) residents: a survival analysis.  

PubMed

Different factors influence ADL performance among nursing home (NH) residents in long term care. The aim was to investigate which factors were associated with a significant change of ADL performance in NH residents, and whether or not these factors were gender-specific. The design was a survival analysis. The 10,199 participants resided in ninety Swiss NHs. Their ADL performance had been assessed by the Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Data Set (RAI-MDS) in the period from 1997 to 2007. Relevant change in ADL performance was defined as 2 levels of change on the ADL scale between two successive assessments. The occurrence of either an improvement or a degradation of the ADL status) was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The analysis included a total of 10,199 NH residents. Each resident received between 2 and 23 assessments. Poor balance, incontinence, impaired cognition, a low BMI, impaired vision, no daily contact with proxies, impaired hearing and the presence of depression were, by hierarchical order, significant risk factors for NH residents to experience a degradation of ADL performance. Residents, who were incontinent, cognitively impaired or had a high BMI were significantly less likely to improve their ADL abilities. Male residents with cancer were prone to see their ADL improve. The year of NH entry was significantly associated with either degradation or improvement of ADL performance. Measures aiming at improving balance and continence, promoting physical activity, providing appropriate nourishment and cognitive enhancement are important for ADL performance in NH residents. PMID:23022056

Bürge, Elisabeth; von Gunten, Armin; Berchtold, André

2013-01-01

122

Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals in a municipal sewage treatment system in the south of Sweden.  

PubMed

The occurrence and removal rate of seven pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, fluoxetine, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin), two metabolites (norfluoxetine, clofibric acid), one degradation product (4-isobutylacetophenone) and 3 estrogens (17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 17beta-estradiol, estrone) were studied in the inlet and outlet of a tertiary sewage treatment plant (STP) in Sweden as well as between different treatment steps in the STP which includes a conventional activated sludge step. Pharmaceuticals in raw household and raw hospital sewage streams leading to the STP were as well investigated. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) of each treatment step was considered for sampling and for the calculation of the removal rates. These rates were above 90%, except for diclofenac, clofibric acid, estrone and ofloxacin. However, only diclofenac and naproxen showed significant effluent loads (>145 mg/d/1000 inh). Diclofenac was not eliminated during the treatment and in fact even higher concentrations were found at the effluent than in the inlet of the STP. 17alpha-Ethinylestradiol was not detected in any of the samples. Results indicate that a STP such as the one in Kristianstad, Sweden, with a tertiary treatment is sufficient to remove significantly most of the investigated pharmaceuticals. The chemical treatment improved the removal of several pharmaceuticals especially the antibiotics, which showed step removal rates between 55 and 70%. The expected concentration levels of the pharmaceuticals in the surface water (dilution 1 to 10) close to the outlet of the STP are below the no-observed effect-concentration (NOEC). However, despite that this would imply no important effects in the aquatic environment one cannot rule out negative consequences nearby the STP because most of the NOEC values are derived from acute toxicity data. This may underestimate the real impact of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic ecosystem. PMID:19157523

Zorita, Saioa; Mårtensson, Lennart; Mathiasson, Lennart

2009-04-01

123

Agronomic value of sewage sludge and corn cob biochar in an infertile Oxisol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of sewage sludge and other agricultural waste materials has become increasingly difficult in urban environments with limited land space. Carbonization of the hazardous waste produces biochar as a soil amendment with potential to improve soil quality and productivity. A series of greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to assess the agrnomic value of two biochars made from domestic wastewater sludge and corn cob waste. The ash component of the sewage sludge biochar was very high (65.5%) and high for the corn cob (11.4%) biochars. Both biochars contained low concentrations of heavy metals and met EPA land application criteria. The sewage sludge biochar was a better liming material and source of mineral nutrients than the corn cob biochar, but the corn cob biochar showed the greatest increase in soil carbon and total nitrogen. Both biochar materials increased soil pH compared with soils not receiving biochar, but the sewage sludge biochar was a more effective liming material maintaining elevated soil pH throughout the 3 planting cycles. The sewage sludge biochar also showed the greatest increase in extractable soil P and base cations. In the first planting cycle, both biochars in combination with conventional fertilizers produced significantly higher corn seedling growth than the fertilized control. However, the sewage sludge biochar maintained beneficial effects corn seedling growth through the third planting cycle showing 3-fold increases in biomass production compared with the control in the third planting. The high ash content and associated liming properties and mineral nutrient contributions in the sewage sludge biochar explain benefits to plant growth. Conversion of sewage sludge waste into biochar has the potential to effectively address several environmental issues: 1) convert a hazardous waste into a valuable soil amendment, 2) reduce land and water contamination, and 3) improve soil quality and productivity.

Deenik, J. L.; Cooney, M. J.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

2013-12-01

124

Growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants amended with two sanitized sewage sludges.  

PubMed

Organic wastes such as sewage sludge have been successfully used to increase crop productivity of horticultural soils. Nevertheless, considerations of the impact of sludges on vegetable and fruit quality have received little attention. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to investigate the impact of two sanitized sewage sludges, autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) and compost sludge, on the growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants ( Capsicum annuum L. cv. Piquillo) grown in the greenhouse. Two doses of ATAD (15 and 30% v/v) and three of composted sludge (15, 30, and 45%) were applied to a peat-based potting mix. Unamended substrate was included as control. ATAD and composted sludge increased leaf, shoot, and root dry matter, as well as fruit yield, mainly due to a higher number of fruits per plant. There was no effect of sludge on fruit size (dry matter per fruit and diameter). The concentrations of Zn and Cu in fruit increased with the addition of sewage sludges. Nevertheless, the levels of these elements remained below toxic thresholds. Pepper fruits from sludge-amended plants maintained low concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, thus indicating low pungency level, in accordance with the regulations prescribed by the Control Board of "Lodosa Piquillo peppers" Origin Denomination. The application of sludges did not modify the concentration of vitamin C (ASC) in fruit, whereas the highest doses of composted sludge tended to increase the content of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, without change in the GSH/GSSG ratio. There were no effects of sludge on the transcript levels of enzymes involved in the synthesis of vitamin C, l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) or in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), and glutathione reductase (GR). Results suggest that the synthesis and degradation of ASC and GSH were compensated for in most of the treatments assayed. The application of sanitized sludges to pepper plants can improve pepper yield without loss of food nutritional quality, in terms of fruit size and vitamin C, glutathione, and capsaicinoid contents. PMID:20450196

Pascual, Immaculada; Azcona, Iñaki; Aguirreolea, Jone; Morales, Fermín; Corpas, Francisco Javier; Palma, José Manuel; Rellán-Alvarez, Rubén; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

2010-06-01

125

Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

Ayotamuno, M. J.

1993-01-01

126

Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of

Yoshizo Suzuki; Tomoyuki Nojima; Akihiko Kakuta; Hiroshi Moritomi

2004-01-01

127

Treatment and reuse of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was treated using composting, fixed-bed and stirred anaerobic digesters. The treatment performance in terms of the physico chemical parameters, bacterial indicators and pathogenic forms were assessed. In addition, the biogas production rate was recorded in the case of anaerobic digesters. Composting of the sewage sludge increased its total solids from 39 to 93% after 6 weeks, while the

Fayza A. Nasr

1997-01-01

128

My Town, My Creek, My Sewage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After summarizing the ecology of polluted streams as well as the technology and biology of sewage treatment methods, and considering the economic and social aspects of introducing advanced sewage treatment, comments on the role of biology teachers in providing public information are made. (AL)

Woodburn, John H.

1972-01-01

129

Virological Investigations on Irradiated Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The virusinactivating activity of a Co sub 60 -irradiation pilot plant at Geiselbullach/Munich was to be examined. We investigated 16 impure sewage water, 15 purified sewage water, 32 raw sladge samples, 62 digested sludge samples before irradiation, 52 d...

C. Epp

1980-01-01

130

Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory

Renuka Gupta; V. K. Garg

2008-01-01

131

Occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical and personal care products in a sewage treatment works.  

PubMed

The occurrence and fate of eight pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) during sewage treatment has been studied in a pilot-scale treatment plant, comprising a primary settler (2.85 m(3)), an aeration tank (1.845 m(3)) and a secondary clarifier (0.5 m(3)), placed on site at a wastewater treatment works in the north west of the UK. It was fed both with raw sewage and the return liquor produced after sludge centrifugation, thus representing the most common configuration for a municipal sewage treatment plant based on the activated sludge process. Samples were taken at six different locations, including the return liquor stream, and analysed for musk fragrances and pharmaceutically active compounds belonging to various therapeutic groups such as anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and antiepileptics. Mass balances were conducted for those PPCPs that were quantifiable. The fate of the PPCPs was found to differ according to their physical-chemical characteristics. Anti-inflammatories underwent a degradation process and were almost completely removed from sewage during the biological treatment step. Musk fragrances were only partially removed, through adsorption onto the primary suspended solids and the biomass in the aerobic process, due to their strong lipophilic characteristics. The results of this study provide increasing evidence that the partial removal of these substances through the sewage treatment process contribute to the environmental occurrence of PPCPs. Consequently, existing STPs should be upgraded in order to attenuate the release of these substances into the aquatic environment. PMID:21057683

Reif, Rubén; Santos, Ana; Judd, Simon J; Lema, Juan M; Omil, Francisco

2011-01-01

132

PEM fuel cell degradation  

SciTech Connect

The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. While significant progress has been made in understanding degradation mechanisms and improving materials, further improvements in durability are required to meet commercialization targets. Catalyst and electrode durability remains a primary degradation mode, with much work reported on understanding how the catalyst and electrode structure degrades. Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) are used to rapidly evaluate component degradation, however the results are sometimes easy, and other times difficult to correlate. Tests that were developed to accelerate degradation of single components are shown to also affect other component's degradation modes. Non-ideal examples of this include ASTs examining catalyst degradation performances losses due to catalyst degradation do not always well correlate with catalyst surface area and also lead to losses in mass transport.

Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

133

Boston Harbor sewage stack (for microcomputers). Software  

SciTech Connect

The Boston Harbor Sewage Stack is interactive educational computer program about how municipalities deal with sewage, how sewage systems work, non point pollution, and what citizens can do to help - focusing on Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Cleanup. The program is written at a level accessible to middle-school students, but with enough depth for adults. Schools and environmental organizations, especially in coastal areas, will find this program a useful addition to their environmental education offerings. The program shows what happens to sewage - from the moment of flush to its passage through the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's sewage system and into Boston Harbor - now and as the cleanup proceeds. Users encounter topics for exploration, including storm sewers and combined sewer overflows (CSOs); non point pollution from pets, spilled waste oil, lawn and garden chemicals, and other sources; what not to flush and why; how officials can tell if water is polluted; and why it all matters.

Not Available

1992-12-01

134

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01

135

Nutrient sequestration, biomass production by microalgae and phytoremediation of sewage water.  

PubMed

The present work was aimed at analysing the role of inoculated microalgae in nutrient dynamics, bioremediation and biomass production of sewage water. Preliminary microscopic analyses of sewage water revealed the presence of different algal groups, with predominance of Cyanophyta. Among the inoculated strains, Calothrix showed highest dry cell weight (916.67 mg L(-1)), chlorophyll and carotenoid content in tap water + sewage water (1:1) treatment. Significant removal of NO3-N ranging from 57-78% and PO4-P (44-91%) was recorded in microalgae inoculated tap water + sewage water. The total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity of tap water + sewage water after incubation with Calothrix sp. decreased by 28.5 and 28.0%, accompanied by an increase in dissolved oxygen from 4.4 to 6.4 mg L(-1) on the 20th day. Our investigation revealed the robustness of Calothrix sp. in sequestering nutrients (N and P), improving water quality and proliferating in sewage water. PMID:23819275

Renuka, N; Sood, A; Ratha, S K; Prasanna, R; Ahluwalia, A S

2013-01-01

136

Characterization of sewage sludge organic matter using solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Six sewage sludges from five sewage treatment plants in Australia were characterized using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Spectra were acquired both before and after removal of mineral components through treatment with hydrofluoric acid (HF). Carbon mass balance indicated that little organic matter was lost on HF treatment, which significantly improved NMR sensitivity and spectral resolution, and decreased acquisition time and hence cost of NMR analysis. Two NMR techniques were used, the standard cross polarization (CP) technique and Bloch decay (BD). The BD technique had not been applied previously to the analysis of sewage sludge. For each sludge sample, both before and after HF treatment, the BD spectrum contained significantly more alkyl carbon. Spin counting, another technique applied to sewage sludge here for the first time, showed that the BD spectra of the HF-treated sludges were quantitative, while approximately 30% of the CP NMR signal went undetected. The discrepancy between CP and BD spectra was attributed to the presence of alkyl carbon with such high molecular mobility that the efficiency of cross polarization is affected. This study shows that sewage sludge organic matter is significantly different in chemistry to soil organic matter and has implications for the application of sewage sludge to agricultural land. PMID:12931909

Smernik, Ronald J; Oliver, Ian W; Merrington, Graham

2003-01-01

137

Inoculation with a mixed degrading culture improves the pesticide removal of an on-farm biopurification system.  

PubMed

To investigate whether the pesticide removal in on-farm biopurification systems (BPS) filled with two different types of substrata (biomix and plastic carriers) is affected by inoculation with a pesticide-degrading strain or mixed culture, lab-scale BPS used to treat chloropropham point source contaminations were bioaugmented with either a specialized chloropropham-degrading strain or a chloropropham-degrading enrichment culture. Application of both inoculum types leads to an accelerated degradation activity in the columns filled with plastic carriers. For both substratum types, inoculation with the mixed culture resulted in a lower breakthrough of the toxic intermediate 3-chloroaniline at high hydraulic loads, compared to inoculation with the pure isolate and no inoculation. This study suggests that the use of plastic carrier materials could be a proficient alternative to the use of a conventional biomix as a substratum in on-farm BPS and that inoculation with a mixed degrading culture can reduce the leaching of more mobile toxic intermediates. PMID:23708426

Verhagen, Pieter; De Gelder, Leen; Boon, Nico

2013-10-01

138

Amelioration of groundwater nitrate contamination following installation of a central sewage system in two Israeli villages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study traces both the long-term deterioration of the ground water supply in two neighboring villages that had relied upon cesspits/cesspools for waste disposal, as well as the subsequent progressive improvement to original water quality levels. The rapid improvement is attributed to the replacement of the cesspits by a central sewage disposal network. In each of the villages of Kefar Bara and Kefar Kassem, a single, relatively deep, community well supplies drinking water. These wells were drilled into the underlying carbonate Judea Group aquifer that initially provided very high quality potable water. Over time, large increases in the nitrate contamination, reaching to as high as 67 mg/L nitrate, paralleled the population growth. The higher dissolved nitrate concentrations were also marked by enrichments in the ?15 N (approximately +8 ‰(air)) values above those of the surrounding and regional uncontaminated background ?15 N values (in the range of +3 to +6 ‰ (air)). Within several years after the cesspit disposal was terminated the nitrate values declined to concentrations that were reported (approximately 25 mg/L-NO3) decades prior, when the water quality monitoring had just commenced. This study demonstrates not only how water quality can degrade but also how it can be restored once the problem is identified and countered. This simple method of ameliorating a water quality problem that was tending towards reaching serious proportions would seem to be quite efficacious for any area lacking economic alternative water resources.

Avisar, Dror; Kronfeld, Joel; Siep Talma, A.

2009-08-01

139

Biogas production from Sludge of Sewage Treatment Plant at Haridwar (Uttarakhand)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, a source of non-conventional energy is produced by fermentation of sludges. The sewage have collected through sewage pumping stations and treated in the primary and secondary treatment steps in sewage treatment plant at Jagjitpur, Hardwar. The Sewage Treatment Plant receives approximately 40 mld sewage from different pumping stations and 18 mld sewage is used for treatment at sewage treatment

D. S. Malik; Umesh Bharti

140

ENERGETYCZNE WYKORZYSTANIE OSADÓWCIEKOWYCH THERMAL UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work explores thermal methods to sewage sludge utilization. Author prepares review of existing thermal methods of sewage sludge utilization. Nowadays, the most popular way to sewage sludge utilization is neutralization by storage and agriculture utilization. European Union legislation is going to limit this way of sewage sludge neutralization. Thermal methods are going to be the best alternative way

Sebastian Werle; Ryszard K. Wilk

141

Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation  

SciTech Connect

Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO[sub 2] evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans.

Black, W.; Zamora, J. (Middle Tennessee State Univ., Murfreesboro (United States))

1993-04-01

142

Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

143

Improved degradation and bioactivity of amorphous aerosol derived tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles in poly(lactide-co-glycolide)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The industrially used flame synthesis of silica polymer fillers was extended to amorphous tricalcium phosphate (a-TCP) nanoparticles and resulted in a similar morphology as the traditionally used polymer fillers. Doping of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with such highly agglomerated a-TCP was investigated for mechanical properties, increased in vitro biodegradation and the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the nanocomposite. PLGA films with particle loadings ranging from 0 to 30 wt% were prepared by solvent casting. Degradation in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C under sterile conditions for up to 42 days was followed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis and tensile tests. The presence of nanoparticles in the PLGA matrix slightly increased the Young's modulus up to 30% compared to pure polymer reference materials. The nanoparticle doped films showed a significantly increased loss of polymer mass during degradation. Scanning electron microscopy images of doped films showed that the SBF degraded the PLGA by corrosion as facilitated by the incorporation of nanoparticulate calcium phosphate. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the deposition of about 10 nm sized hydroxyapatite crystallites on the surface of doped PLGA films was strongly increased by the addition of tricalcium phosphate fillers. The combination of increased hydroxyapatite formation and enhanced polymer degradation may suggest the use of such amorphous, aerosol derived a-TCP fillers for applications in non-load-bearing implant sites.

Loher, Stefan; Reboul, Valentine; Brunner, Tobias J.; Simonet, Marc; Dora, Claudio; Neuenschwander, Peter; Stark, Wendelin J.

2006-04-01

144

Improved ex vivo expansion of adult hematopoietic stem cells by overcoming CUL4-mediated degradation of HOXB4  

PubMed Central

Direct transduction of the homeobox (HOX) protein HOXB4 promotes the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) without induction of leukemogenesis, but requires frequent administration to overcome its short protein half-life (?1 hour). We demonstrate here that HOXB4 protein levels are post-translationally regulated by the CUL4 ubiquitin ligase, and define the degradation signal sequence (degron) of HOXB4 required for CUL4-mediated destruction. Additional HOX paralogs share the conserved degron in the homeodomain and are also subject to CUL4-mediated degradation, indicating that CUL4 likely controls the stability of all HOX proteins. Moreover, we engineered a degradation-resistant HOXB4 that conferred a growth advantage over wild-type HOXB4 in myeloid progenitor cells. Direct transduction of recombinant degradation-resistant HOXB4 protein to human adult HSCs significantly enhanced their maintenance in a more primitive state both in vitro and in transplanted NOD/SCID/IL2R-?null mice compared with transduction with wild-type HOXB4 protein. Our studies demonstrate the feasibility of engineering a stable HOXB4 variant to overcome a major technical hurdle in the ex vivo expansion of adult HSCs and early progenitors for human therapeutic use.

Lee, Jennifer; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Zhang, Jianxuan; Liu, Liren; Zhang, Yue; Eom, Jae Yong; Morrone, Giovanni; Moore, Malcolm A. S.

2013-01-01

145

Improved ex vivo expansion of adult hematopoietic stem cells by overcoming CUL4-mediated degradation of HOXB4.  

PubMed

Direct transduction of the homeobox (HOX) protein HOXB4 promotes the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) without induction of leukemogenesis, but requires frequent administration to overcome its short protein half-life (?1 hour). We demonstrate here that HOXB4 protein levels are post-translationally regulated by the CUL4 ubiquitin ligase, and define the degradation signal sequence (degron) of HOXB4 required for CUL4-mediated destruction. Additional HOX paralogs share the conserved degron in the homeodomain and are also subject to CUL4-mediated degradation, indicating that CUL4 likely controls the stability of all HOX proteins. Moreover, we engineered a degradation-resistant HOXB4 that conferred a growth advantage over wild-type HOXB4 in myeloid progenitor cells. Direct transduction of recombinant degradation-resistant HOXB4 protein to human adult HSCs significantly enhanced their maintenance in a more primitive state both in vitro and in transplanted NOD/SCID/IL2R-?(null) mice compared with transduction with wild-type HOXB4 protein. Our studies demonstrate the feasibility of engineering a stable HOXB4 variant to overcome a major technical hurdle in the ex vivo expansion of adult HSCs and early progenitors for human therapeutic use. PMID:23520338

Lee, Jennifer; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Zhang, Jianxuan; Liu, Liren; Zhang, Yue; Eom, Jae Yong; Morrone, Giovanni; Moore, Malcolm A S; Zhou, Pengbo

2013-05-16

146

Improvement of RNA-SIP by pyrosequencing to identify putative 4-n-nonylphenol degraders in activated sludge.  

PubMed

Nonylphenols (NP) have estrogenic potential because of their phenolic ring, but the organisms involved in the degradation of this alkylated phenol remain unidentified. Using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-based stable isotope probing (SIP) and a new method based on pyrosequencing, we identified the bacteria involved in the degradation of the aromatic ring of [U-ring-(13)C] 4-n-NP in aerobic sludge. The first order degradation rate of 4-n-NP was 5.5d(-1). Single strand conformation polymorphism of density-separated labeled and unlabeled 16S rRNA showed significant differences and enabled selection of four representative fractions for pyrosequencing. Nineteen phylotypes showed a significant enrichment in the heavy fraction in the labeled pulse. The relative abundances of these phylotypes were combined with the RNA concentration of each fraction to yield a simple model of the distribution of each phylotype across the gradient. This model was used to estimate the percentage of labeling for each phylotype. The sequences showing the highest labeling (11%) were closely related to Afipia sp. but represented only 2 % of the RNA in the heavy fraction of the labeled pulse. The sequences representing the largest proportion of the RNA in the heavy fraction were related to Propionibacterium acnes and Frateuria aurantia, which are known to possess enzymes for phenol degradation. The model shows that despite Afipia having the highest (13)C enrichment, other species encoding phenol degradation pathways are responsible for more (13)C incorporation. Last, we showed that some species represent 12% of the total RNA but contain only 1% (13)C above natural abundance. PMID:22154106

Zemb, O; Lee, M; Gutierrez-Zamora, M L; Hamelin, J; Coupland, K; Hazrin-Chong, N H; Taleb, I; Manefield, M

2012-03-01

147

Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

2014-05-01

148

Improvement of ethanol productivity and energy efficiency by degradation of inhibitors using recombinant Zymomonas mobilis (pHW20a-fdh).  

PubMed

Toxic compounds, such as formic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) generated during pretreatment of corn stover (CS) at high temperature and low pH, inhibit growth of Zymomonas mobilis and lower the conversion efficiency of CS to biofuel and other products. The inhibition of toxic compounds is considered as one of the major technical barriers in the lignocellulose bioconversion. In order to detoxify and/or degrade these toxic compounds by the model ethanologenic strain Z. mobilis itself in situ the fermentation medium, we constructed a recombinant Z. mobilis ZM4 (pHW20a-fdh) strain that is capable of degrading toxic inhibitor, formate. This is accomplished by cloning heterologous formate dehydrogenase gene (fdh) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and by coupling this reaction of NADH regeneration reaction system with furfural and HMF degradation in the recombinant Z. mobilis strain. The NADH regeneration reaction also improved both the energy efficiency and cell physiological activity of the recombinant organism, which were definitely confirmed by the improved cell growth, ethanol yield, and ethanol productivity during fermentation with CS hydrolysate. PMID:23475631

Dong, Hong-Wei; Fan, Li-Qiang; Luo, Zichen; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Ryu, Dewey D Y; Bao, Jie

2013-09-01

149

Concentrations and specific loads of UV filters in sewage sludge originating from a monitoring network in Switzerland.  

PubMed

Many substances related to human activities end up in wastewater and accumulate in sewage sludge. The present study focuses on the analysis of widely used UV filters 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC), octocrylene (OC) and octyl-triazone (OT) in sewage sludge originating from a monitoring network in Switzerland. Mean concentrations in stabilised sludge from 14 wastewater treatment plants were 1780, 110, 4840 and 5510 microg/kg dry matter for 4-MBC, OMC, OC and OT, respectively. Specific loads in sewage sludge show that UV filters originate mainly from private households, but surface runoff and industries may be considered as additional sources. This indicates that besides use for sunscreens and cosmetics UV filters might occur in plastics and other materials and be released to the environment by volatilization or leaching. Differences between the modeled per capita loads of UV filters in sewage sludge and the observed specific loads in sewage sludge are probably due to erroneous figures of production volumes, degradation and sorption during wastewater treatment as well as degradation processes during transport in the sewer or sludge treatment. Thus, further research is needed to elucidate the fate of UV filters after application and release into the environment. Other compounds used as UV filters should be included in future studies. PMID:15996716

Plagellat, Cécile; Kupper, Thomas; Furrer, Reinhard; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Grandjean, Dominique; Tarradellas, Joseph

2006-02-01

150

Flow Characteristics of the Raw Sewage for the Design of Sewage-Source Heat Pump Systems  

PubMed Central

The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

2014-01-01

151

Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.  

PubMed

The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

2014-01-01

152

Impact of food industrial waste on anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and pig manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an anaerobic digestion process is much dependent on the type and the composition of the material to be digested. The effects on the degradation process of co-digesting different types of waste were examined in two laboratory-scale studies. In the first investigation, sewage sludge was co-digested with industrial waste from potato processing. The co-digestion resulted in a low

M Murto; L Björnsson; B Mattiasson

2004-01-01

153

Sewage and the fuel cell  

SciTech Connect

This article very briefly describes a phosphoric-acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant installed by the New York Power Authority at a wastewater treatment plant. The facility is the first in the world to use anaerobic digester gas (ADG), a natural byproduct of sewage treatment, as fuel. ADG is partially utilized and partially flared at the plant. The PAFC captures a portion of the otherwise flared ADG and uses it as fuel to produce approximately 200kW of electricity and heat for plant use. The U.S. Department of Energy, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Electric Power Research Institute are helping the power authority finance the project.

Zelingher, S. [New York Power Authority`s Energy Efficiency Unit, NY (United States); Kishinevsky, Y.

1998-01-01

154

Effect of particle dimensions and pre-processing of nanoparticles in improving surface degradation characteristics of nanodielectrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusion of nano-sized alumina and titania fillers in epoxy resin has been found to increase the resistance of the material to surface degradation, when exposed to surface discharges. In this paper, the work was extended to include Alumina platelets as opposed to spherical gamma-alumina nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with diameter of range 40-47 nm and platelets 200 nm in thickness and 5-10

P. Maity; S. V. Kasisomayajula; S. Basu; V. Parameswaran; Nandini Gupta

2007-01-01

155

Land Application of Sewage Sludge Landfill Leachate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This investigation evaluated the feasibility of the 'living filter' concept as an alternative method of heavy metal leachate disposal to prevent contamination of groundwaters. Leachate collected from a simulated sewage sludge landfill was applied at rates...

W. R. Wright H. J. Brown

1982-01-01

156

Actinomycetes of Sewage-Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In some activated sludge sewage treatment plants a thick foam rich in Nocardia may be formed at the surface of the secondary aeration and settling tanks. It had previously been observed that the supernatant from anaerobic digesters contained suspended sol...

H. A. Lechevalier M. P. Lechevalier P. E. Wyszkowski

1977-01-01

157

Sewage Disposal at Point Barrow, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the Middle Salt Lagoon, Point Barrow, Alaska, the sewage depository of the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory, was initiated. Microbial analyses were carried out on runoff, lagoon water, and bottom sediments throughout the summer. The lagoon as a...

W. L. Boyd B. P. Klubek J. W. Boyd

1972-01-01

158

Lightweight aggregate from flyash and sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of treating flyash and sewage sludge. It comprises: mixing flyash with sewage sludge having a high fuel value; agglomerating the mixture; drying the agglomerated mixture; heating the agglomerated mixture to a temperature less than the melting point of the mixture in a rotary kiln using the agglomerated mixture as the principal source of fuel in the kiln to form a porous nodular product; and recovering the nodular product from the kiln.

Nechvatal, T.M.; Heian, G.A.

1991-10-15

159

Clean and Efficient Utilization of Sewage Sludge  

SciTech Connect

This is the Final Report for the DOE SBIR Phase II project (Grant No. DE-FG03-98ER82573). This report summarizes accomplishments and results for the entire program. In this program an innovative technology has been devised for transforming sewage sludge into a high quality fuel and recovering its energy content. The technology being developed is generally applicable to nearly all municipal sewage sludge management facilities and coal-fired boilers. It will provide economic and environmental benefits.

Zamansky, Vladimir; Rizeq, George

2002-09-12

160

A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge  

PubMed Central

The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended.

Connop, Peter J.

1983-01-01

161

Characteristics of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge co-composting.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to study the characteristics of the co-composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) and sewage sludge (SS). Four main influencing factors (aeration pattern, proportion of MSW and SS, aeration rate and mature compost (MC) recycling) were systematically investigated through changes of temperature, oxygen consumption rate, organic matters, moisture content, carbon, nitrogen, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, nitrogen loss, sulphur and hydrogen. We found that a continuous aeration pattern during composting was superior to an intermittent aeration pattern, since the latter delayed the composting process. A 3:1 (v:v) mixture of MSW and SS was most beneficial to composting. It maintained the highest temperature for the longest duration and achieved the fastest organic matter degradation and highest N content in the final composting product. A 0.5L/minkgVS aeration rate best ensured rapid initiation and maintained moderate moisture content for microorganisms. After the mature MC was recycled to the fresh materials as a bulking agent, the structure and moisture of the initial materials were improved. A higher proportion of MC resulted in quicker decrease of the temperature, oxygen consumption rate and moisture. Therefore a 3:1:1 (v:v:v) proportion of MSW: SS: MC is recommended. PMID:18783931

Lu, Yanjun; Wu, Xingwu; Guo, Jifeng

2009-03-01

162

Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

Mark R. Cole

2013-12-01

163

Characterization of Malaysian sewage sludge and nitrogen mineralization in three soils treated with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to determine the chemical composition of sewage sludges produced in Malaysia and the potentially mineralizable nitogen (No) and mineralization rate constant (k) of sewage sludge in three Malaysian soils are reported. Analyses of the sludges collected from 10 wastewater treatment plants in Malaysia are acidic in nature and the N. P, Ca, K and Mg contents is variable. The

A. B. Rosenani; D. R. Kala; C. I. Fauziah

164

Liposomes containing glycocholate as potential oral insulin delivery systems: preparation, in vitro characterization, and improved protection against enzymatic degradation  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral delivery of insulin is challenging and must overcome the barriers of gastric and enzymatic degradation as well as low permeation across the intestinal epithelium. The present study aimed to develop a liposomal delivery system containing glycocholate as an enzyme inhibitor and permeation enhancer for oral insulin delivery. Methods: Liposomes containing sodium glycocholate were prepared by a reversed-phase evaporation method followed by homogenization. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of recombinant human insulin (rhINS)-loaded sodium glycocholate liposomes can be easily adjusted by tuning the homogenization parameters, phospholipid:sodium glycocholate ratio, insulin:phospholipid ratio, water:ether volume ratio, interior water phase pH, and the hydration buffer pH. Results: The optimal formulation showed an insulin entrapment efficiency of 30% ± 2% and a particle size of 154 ± 18 nm. A conformational study by circular dichroism spectroscopy and a bioactivity study confirmed the preserved integrity of rhINS against preparative stress. Transmission electron micrographs revealed a nearly spherical and deformed structure with discernable lamella for sodium glycocholate liposomes. Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed better protection of insulin against enzymatic degradation by pepsin, trypsin, and ?-chymotrypsin than liposomes containing the bile salt counterparts of sodium taurocholate and sodium deoxycholate. Conclusion: Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed promising in vitro characteristics and have the potential to be able to deliver insulin orally.

Niu, Mengmeng; Lu, Yi; Hovgaard, Lars; Wu, Wei

2011-01-01

165

Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (? 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant ? 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The ? 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant flora indicated that sewage N extended further from the creek mouths than shrimp N. The combination of physical/chemical and biological indicators used in this study was effective in distinguishing the composition and subsequent impacts of aquaculture and sewage effluent on the receiving waters.

Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

2001-01-01

166

Mechanism of red mud combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning.  

PubMed

Red mud was evaluated as an alternative skeleton builder combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning. The results show that red mud combined with Fenton's reagent showed good conditioning capability with the pH of the filtrate close to neutrality, indicating that red mud acted as a neutralizer as well as a skeleton builder when jointly used with Fenton's reagent. Through response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal dosages of Fe(2+), H2O2 and red mud were proposed as 31.9, 33.7 and 275.1 mg/g DS (dry solids), respectively. The mechanism of the composite conditioner could be illuminated as follows: (1) extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), including loosely bound EPS and tightly bound EPS, were degraded into dissolved organics, e.g., proteins and polysaccharides; (2) bound water was released and converted into free water due to the degradation of EPS; and (3) morphology of the conditioned sludge exhibited a porous structure in contrast with the compact structure of raw sludge, and the addition of red mud formed new mineral phases and a rigid lattice structure in sludge, allowing the outflow of free water. Thus, sludge dewatering performance was effectively improved. The economic assessment for a wastewater treatment plant of 370,000 equivalent inhabitants confirms that using red mud conditioning, combined with Fenton's reagent, leads to a saving of approximately 411,000 USD/y or 50.8 USD/t DS comparing with using lime and ordinary Portland cement combined with Fenton's reagent, and approximately 612,000 USD/y or 75.5 USD/t DS comparing with the traditional treatment. PMID:24810740

Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jiakuan; Yu, Wenbo; Luo, Sen; Peng, Li; Shen, Xingxing; Shi, Yafei; Zhang, Shinan; Song, Jian; Ye, Nan; Li, Ye; Yang, Changzhu; Liang, Sha

2014-08-01

167

Influence of forced air volume on water evaporation during sewage sludge bio-drying.  

PubMed

Mechanical aeration is critical to sewage sludge bio-drying, and the actual water loss caused by aeration can be better understood from investigations of the relationship between aeration and water evaporation from the sewage sludge bio-drying pile based on in situ measurements. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of forced air volume on the evaporation of water from a sewage sludge bio-drying pile. Dewatered sewage sludge was bio-dried using control technology for bio-drying, during which time the temperature, superficial air velocity and water evaporation were measured and calculated. The results indicated that the peak air velocity and water evaporation occurred in the thermophilic phase and second temperature-increasing phase, with the highest values of 0.063 ± 0.027 m s(-1) and 28.9 kg ton(-1) matrix d(-1), respectively, being observed on day 4. Air velocity above the pile during aeration was 43-100% higher than when there was no aeration, and there was a significantly positive correlation between air volume and water evaporation from day 1 to 15. The order of daily means of water evaporation was thermophilic phase > second temperature-increasing phase > temperature-increasing phase > cooling phase. Forced aeration controlled the pile temperature and improved evaporation, making it the key factor influencing water loss during the process of sewage sludge bio-drying. PMID:23648285

Cai, Lu; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Zheng, Guo-Di; Liu, Hong-Tao; Pan, Tian-Hao

2013-09-01

168

A control system based on field programmable gate array for papermaking sewage treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sewage treatment control system is designed to improve the efficiency of papermaking wastewater treatment system. The automation control system is based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), coded with Very-High-Speed Integrate Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL), compiled and simulated with Quartus. In order to ensure the stability of the data used in FPGA, the data is collected through temperature sensors, water level sensor and online PH measurement system. The automatic control system is more sensitive, and both the treatment efficiency and processing power are increased. This work provides a new method for sewage treatment control.

Zhang, Zi Sheng; Xie, Chang; Qing Xiong, Yan; Liu, Zhi Qiang; Li, Qing

2013-03-01

169

Enhancement in characteristics of sewage sludge and anaerobic treatability by electron beam pre-treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron beam was studied to enhance the biodegradability of sewage sludge. Changes in physicochemical characteristics of the sludge were examined with various irradiation doses, sludge thicknesses and exposure times. Irradiation thickness was suggested as the key factor affecting the efficiency of solublization of solid organic matter, whereas exposure time would be the most critical parameter in inducing cell lysis in sewage sludge. In addition, biogas production was improved as much as 22% when the sludge thickness was 0.5 cm with a dose of 7 kGy.

Park, Wooshin; Hwang, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Myun-Joo; Kim, In S.

2009-02-01

170

Pulverized fuel ash products solve the sewage sludge problems of the wastewater industry  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge recycling has become one of the predominant problems of the water industry. Not all types of sewage sludges are able to be recycled to farm land or into composting processes. Pulverized fuel ash is used as a major ingredient in a product called Rhenipal which is used to stabilize sewage sludge for recycling into a material for land reclamation, as a soil conditioner, as cover material for landfill and as a landfill engineering material. This article deals with the results achieved when applying rhenipal in a post-stabilization process to prepare landfill engineering material. The process is currently developed further and can be operated in a pre-stabilization mode, which will further improve the economical results shown for the post-stabilization method in this paper.

Dirk, G. [Rhenipal UK Ltd., Birkenhead (United Kingdom)] [Rhenipal UK Ltd., Birkenhead (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

171

Mineralization of soil and legume nitrogen in soils treated with metal-contaminated sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty percent of urban sewage sludge in southeastern Australia is destined to be reused on agricultural land to improve soil fertility. However, this sludge is usually contaminated with industrial pollutants, in particular with heavy metals. As heavy metals are known to be toxic to microorganisms, concern has been raised that treating soils with these sludges may adversely affect the mineralization

K. J Munn; J Evans; P. M Chalk

2000-01-01

172

Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully converted SS to AC and further modified it to improve absorption. SSMAC has large specific surface areas based on the BET technique. Batch adsorption results indicate that metal adsorption for SSMAC > SSAC, with adsorption occurring within the first 5 minutes of contact. Comparison of the adsorptivity of various sorbents such as commercial activated carbon (CAC), mineral sorbents such as perlite, clinoptilolite and illite indicates that SSMAC × CAC × clinoptilolite > kaolite.

Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

2013-04-01

173

Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

Robson, Stanley G.

1977-01-01

174

Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease

W. Black; J. Zamora

1993-01-01

175

Enzymology of cellulose degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years there has been a considerable improvement in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the microbial degradation of cellulose, but there are still many uncertainties. As presently understood, it would appear that different mechanisms may operate in the various types of microorganism. Thus degradation of crystalline cellulose is effected by anaerobic bacteria by large Ca-dependent

Thomas M. Wood; Vicenta Garcia-Campayo

1990-01-01

176

Chlorinated Sewage Effluents and Avoidance of Stream Fish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The behavioral responses of the blacknose dace to domestic sewage effluents and their toxic constituents, free chlorine, chloramine, and ammonia were investigated. The degrees of the fish avoidance to chlorinated sewage effluents were identical with those...

C. Tsai J. A. Fava

1975-01-01

177

Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

2007-01-01

178

21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall be disposed of in a safe and sanitary...

2013-04-01

179

JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

1976-01-01

180

Sanitary and bacteriological aspects of sewage treatment.  

PubMed

A study into the removal of contamination load and indicator bacteria was carried out in 1992-1996 in the mechanical, biological and chemical waste-water treatment plant WTP in Lezany, in the County of Reszel, in the Province of Warmia and Mazury in Poland. The results of chemical analyses found a high efficiency of removal of carbon compounds, COD (90%) and BOD (98%), in the process of purification of household sewage. In addition, a high effectiveness of total nitrogen, on average 71%, and unsatisfactory removal of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus compounds were found. The results of microbiological analyses confirmed the high efficiency of removal of indicator bacteria in the process of sewage treatment from 94 to 97%. In the sewage after the final phase of purification in stabilization ponds, the following pathogenic bacteria were identified with the use of the EPL 21tests: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter georgoriae, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella ozaenae, Ervinia herbicola, Edwardsiella tarda, Serratia odoriefra, Serratia marcescens, Providencia alcalifaciens, Hafnia alvei, Yersina pestis, Yersina pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia fredericksenii, Salmonella spp., Shigella dysenteriae, Aeromons hydrophila, Pseudomonas aerulginosa. The obtained results show that although the sewage purification system is efficient and reduces the contamination load to the level required by the regulations (Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry from 20 September 1991) and removes a great percentage of indicator bacteria, the purified sewage may be a source of pathogenic bacteria in inland waters. PMID:15058814

Filipkowska, Zofia

2003-01-01

181

Preparing Sewage Sludge for Land Application or Surface Disposal: A Guide for Preparers of Sewage Sludge on the Monitoring, Record Keeping, and Reporting Requirements of the Federal Standards for the Use of Disposal of Sewage Sludge, 40 CFR Part 503.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general resp...

1993-01-01

182

NHD INDEXED LOCATIONS FOR SEWAGE NO DISCHARGE ZONES  

EPA Science Inventory

Locations where vessel sewage discharge is prohibited. Sewage no discharge zone (NDZ) locations are coded onto route.drain (Transport and Coastline Reach) feature of NHD to create Point Events and Linear Events. Sewage no discharge zone locations are coded onto region.rch (Wat...

183

Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

Anderson, Stephen P.

184

Agronomic characterisation of different types of sewage sludge: Policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spain is one of the main municipal sewage sludge producers of Europe. This paper aims to agronomically characterise different types of sewage sludge stabilised by different methods (anaerobically digested, composted, and pelletised) and deliver policy recommendations from the results of this characterisation. Anaerobic sewage sludge quality is found to be better in plants with a lower volume of water processing.

M. R. Mosquera-Losada; N. Muñoz-Ferreiro; A. Rigueiro-Rodríguez

2010-01-01

185

Study of the pyrolysis liquids obtained from different sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis of sewage sludge in fluidized bed to produce bio-oil is under study as a useful way to valorise this waste. Sewage sludge is the waste produced in the wastewater treatment plants. Its composition may change due to the origin and to the non-standardized treatments in the wastewater treatment plants. The pyrolysis of three samples of anaerobically digested sewage sludge

I. Fonts; M. Azuara; G. Gea; M. B. Murillo

2009-01-01

186

Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the

Baruch Weber; Yoram Avnimelech; Marcelo Juanico

1996-01-01

187

Sorption and Degradation of Pentachlorophenol in Sludge-Amended Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sorption and degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by two alkaline and one acid soil was studied in the presence and absence of sewage sludge. The PCP concentrations used (0.1-10 mg/kg) included PCP rates expected with land application of normal municipa...

C. A. Bellin G. A. O'Connor Y. Jin

1989-01-01

188

Degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms and helminths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms, fungi, and helminths is reviewed. Azo dyes are used in a wide variety of products and can be found in the effluent of most sewage treatment facilities. Substantial quantities of these dyes have been deposited in the environment, particularly in streams and rivers. Azo dyes were shown to affect microbial activities and

King-Thom Chung; S. Edward Stevens

1993-01-01

189

Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants.

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

190

Degradation of Fibrillar Collagen in a Human Melanoma Xenograft Improves the Efficacy of an Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oncolytic viral therapy provides a promising approach to treat certain human malignancies. These vectors improve on replication-deficient vectors by increasing the viral load within tumors through preferential viral replication within tumor cells. However, the inability to efficiently propagate throughout the entire tumor and infect cells distant from the injection site has limited the capacity of oncolytic viruses to achieve consistent

Trevor D. McKee; Paola Grandi; Wilson Mok; George Alexandrakis; John P. Zimmer; Moungi G. Bawendi; Yves Boucher; Xandra O. Breakefield; Rakesh K. Jain

2006-01-01

191

Estimation of amphetamine and methamphetamine uses in Beijing through sewage-based analysis.  

PubMed

Sewage epidemiology has been proven as an effective approach to estimate the use of illicit drugs by a population. In this study, sewage analysis was applied to examine the patterns of amphetamine (AMP) and methamphetamine (METH) uses in the urban area of Beijing. Influent and effluent samples were collected from all the thirteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the urban area during two sampling campaigns. METH concentrations in influents were found to range from several tens to several hundred ng·L(-1), whereas AMP concentrations ranged from several to several tens ng·L(-1). The concentration ratios between AMP and METH in influents at most STPs were close to the rate of AMP excretion following METH ingestion, indicating that AMP in sewage in Beijing was predominately from the metabolism of METH. Much higher METH loads were observed in the center part of the urban area in Beijing, indicating a strong correlation between METH use and economic level and entertainment activities. Seasonal variation in METH loads was significant, with greater use in summer than in winter. Significant difference in METH loads between weekdays and weekend days were observed in winter but not in summer. No clear trend in diurnal variation of METH use was observed. Nearly complete removal of METH occurred at the STPS in Beijing. Apparent removal rates of AMP were lower than those of METH, likely due to degradation of METH into AMP during the wastewater treatment processes. In summary, this study represents the first application of sewage epidemiology to the entire urban population of a metropolitan in mainland China and provided an overview of METH and AMP uses in the city. PMID:24907608

Li, Jing; Hou, Linlin; Du, Peng; Yang, Jun; Li, Kaiyang; Xu, Zeqiong; Wang, Congcong; Zhang, Huafang; Li, Xiqing

2014-08-15

192

Genome Sequence of Citrobacter sp. Strain A1, a Dye-Degrading Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Citrobacter sp. strain A1, isolated from a sewage oxidation pond, is a facultative aerobe and mesophilic dye-degrading bacterium. This organism degrades azo dyes efficiently via azo reduction and desulfonation, followed by the successive biotransformation of dye intermediates under an aerobic environment. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Citrobacter sp. A1.

Chan, Giek Far; Gan, Han Ming

2012-01-01

193

Chlorination of Indicator Bacteria and Viruses in Primary Sewage Effluent  

PubMed Central

Wastewater disinfection is used in many countries for reducing fecal coliform levels in effluents. Disinfection is therefore frequently used to improve recreational bathing waters which do not comply with microbiological standards. It is unknown whether human enteric viruses (which are responsible for waterborne disease) are simultaneously inactivated alongside fecal coliforms. This laboratory study focused on the chlorination of primary treated effluent with three doses (8, 16, and 30 mg/liter) of free chlorine as sodium hypochlorite. Seeding experiments showed that inactivation (>5 log10 units) of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis was rapid and complete but that there was poor inactivation (0.2 to 1.0 log10 unit) of F+-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophage (MS2) (a potential virus indicator) at all three doses. However, seeded poliovirus was significantly more susceptible (2.8 log10 units) to inactivation by chlorine than was the FRNA bacteriophage. To ensure that these results were not artifacts of the seeding process, comparisons were made between inactivation rates of laboratory-seeded organisms in sterilized sewage and inactivation rates of organisms occurring naturally in sewage. Multifactorial analysis of variance showed that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the inactivation rates for seeded and naturally occurring FRNA bacteriophage. However, laboratory-grown poliovirus was inactivated much more rapidly than were naturally occurring, indigenous enteroviruses (P < 0.001). This may reflect differences in the way indigenous virus is presented to the disinfectant. Inactivation rates for indigenous enteroviruses were quite similar to those seen for FRNA bacteriophage at lower doses of chlorine. These results have significance for the effectiveness of chlorination as a sewage treatment process, particularly where virus contamination is of concern, and suggest that FRNA bacteriophage would be an appropriate indicator of such viral inactivation under field conditions.

Tree, Julia A.; Adams, Martin R.; Lees, David N.

2003-01-01

194

?-Hydroxy ?-Methylbutyrate Improves Dexamethasone-Induced Muscle Atrophy by Modulating the Muscle Degradation Pathway in SD Rat  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle atrophy results from various conditions including high levels of glucocorticoids, and ?–hydroxy ?–methylbutyrate (HMB; a metabolite of leucine) is a potent therapeutical supplement used to treat various muscle disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated that HMB inhibits dexamethasone-induced atrophy in cultured myotubes, but its effect on dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy has not been determined in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HMB on dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in rats. Treatment with dexamethasone weakened grip strengths and increased muscle damage as determined by increased serum creatine kinase levels and by histological analysis. Dexamethasone treatment also reduced both soleus and gastrocnemius muscle masses. However, HMB supplementation significantly prevented reductions in grip strengths, reduced muscle damage, and prevented muscle mass and protein concentration decrease in soleus muscle. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that dexamethasone markedly increased levels of MuRF1 protein, which causes the ubiquitination and degradation of MyHC. Indeed, dexamethasone treatment decreased MyHC protein expression and increased the ubiquitinated-MyHC to MyHC ratio. However, HMB supplementation caused the down-regulations of MuRF1 protein and of ubiquitinated-MyHC. Furthermore, additional experiments provided evidence that HMB supplementation inhibited the nuclear translocation of FOXO1 induced by dexamethasone, and showed increased MyoD expression in the nuclear fractions of soleus muscles. These findings suggest that HMB supplementation attenuates dexamethasone-induced muscle wasting by regulating FOXO1 transcription factor and subsequent MuRF1 expression. Accordingly, our results suggest that HMB supplementation could be used to prevent steroid myopathy.

Choi, Yeon Ja; Park, Min Hi; Jang, Eun Ji; Park, Chan Hum; Yoon, Changshin; Kim, Nam Deuk; Kim, Mi Kyung; Chung, Hae Young

2014-01-01

195

Electricity generation from bio-treatment of sewage sludge with microbial fuel cell.  

PubMed

A two-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) with potassium ferricyanide as its electron acceptor was utilized to degrade excess sewage sludge and to generate electricity. Stable electrical power was produced continuously during operation for 250 h. Total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) of sludge was reduced by 46.4% when an initial TCOD was 10,850 mg/l. The MFC power output did not significantly depend on process parameters such as substrate concentration, cathode catholyte concentration, and anodic pH. However, the MFC produced power was in close correlation with the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of sludge. Furthermore, ultrasonic pretreatment of sludge accelerated organic matter dissolution and, hence, TCOD removal rate in the MFC was increased, but power output was insignificantly enhanced. This study demonstrates that this MFC can generate electricity from sewage sludge over a wide range of process parameters. PMID:19615894

Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Zhang, Jinna; Zhang, Guodong; Lee, Duu-Jong

2009-12-01

196

Meta-pathway degradation of phenolics by thermophilic Bacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermophilic bacteria capable of degrading phenol as the sole carbon source were isolated from sewage effluent. The isolates were aerobic, sporulating, motile rod-shaped bacteria characterized as Bacillus species with growth temperature optima of 50–60°C. The enzyme catalyzing the second step in the phenol degradation meta-cleavage pathway, catechol-2,3-dioxygenase, was detected in all isolates grown in the presence of phenol. One strain,

Saiqa Ali; Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente; Don A Cowan

1998-01-01

197

Effect of experimental conditions on gas quality and solids produced by sewage sludge cogasification. 1. Sewage sludge mixed with coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cogasification of sewage sludge mixed with coal showed that the amount of sewage sludge supplied to the gasifier, depending on its availability, could vary without affecting the gasifier performance; however, it had an influence on the syngas composition. The use of sewage sludge during coal gasification gave rise to an increasing gas yield and energy conversion, mainly because the gas

Filomena Pinto; Helena Lopes; Mario Dias; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita

2007-01-01

198

Improvement of degraded physical properties of a saline-sodic soil by reclamation with kallar grass ( Leptochloa fusca )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of growing salt tolerant plants to improve the physical characteristics of a saline-sodic soil. Kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth], a species tolerant to salinity, sodicity and alkalinity, was irrigated for five years with poor quality ground water (EC = 0.14 S m-1, SARadj=19.3, RSC = 9.7 meq L-1). The soil physical properties of

J. Akhter; R. Murray; K. Mahmood; K. A. Malik; S. Ahmed

2004-01-01

199

Improved purity and immunostimulatory activity of ?-(1?3)(1?6)-glucan from Pleurotus sajor-caju using cell wall-degrading enzymes.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to improve the purity of ?-(1?3)(1?6)-glucan in the native triple helical structure from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus sajor-caju for effective biological function using cell wall-degrading enzymes. A crude carbohydrate was extracted with hot water, then treated with crude xylanase and cellulase from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6. ?-Glucan in the extract was purified to homogeneity with a single and symmetrical peak using 650M DEAE Toyopearl and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. The purity of ?-glucan was confirmed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography. Purified ?-glucan was obtained at a purity of up to 90.2%. The Congo red reaction and atomic force microscopy indicated that the purified ?-glucan exhibited a triple helix conformation. Purified ?-glucan was able to effectively up-regulate the functions of macrophages such as nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) production. PMID:22563990

Satitmanwiwat, Saranya; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Laohakunjit, Natta; Chao, Louis Kuoping; Chen, Shui-Tein; Pason, Patthra; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Kyu, Khin Lay

2012-05-30

200

Oxisol decapitated recovery with green manure and sewage sludge: Effect on growth of Astronium fraxinifolium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorrect use of land and large buildings in rural areas are causing changes to it, making them less productive and thus increasing the degraded areas. Techniques aimed at ecological restoration of degraded soils have been investigated. In recovery planning a degraded area, the great challenge to be achieved is the establishment of a A horizon, so that from then on, the process is catalyzed by the biosphere, and there may be other horizons, as the natural conditioning. In this sense the positive changes were investigated in an environment of decapitated Savannah Oxisol, which was removed a layer 8.5 m thick to build a hydroelectric power plant. For recovery, we used a native tree species, green manure, sewage sludge and grass. The studied soil is under human intervention techniques for recovery for seven years. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were: 1-Control- bare soil (without management), 2-Astronium fraxinifolium Schott; 3-A. fraxinifolium + Canavalia ensiformis; 4- A. fraxinifolium + Raphanus sativus by 2005 was replaced in 2006 by Crotalaria juncea; 5- A. fraxinifolium + Brachiaria decumbens + sewage sludge (60 t ha-1, dry basis). We studied in 2010 and 2011 the development of tree species (stem diameter and plant height), the fresh and dry matter of green manures and B. decumbens. The results were analyzed by performing the variance analysis and Tukey test at 5% probability to compare averages. The rate of plant growth during the periods studied in the treatment with sewage sludge was higher than other treatments, so this is the most appropriate management for the recovery of degraded soil under study.

Souto Filho, S. N.; Marchini, D. C.; de Arruda, O. G.; Giácomo, R. G.; Alves, M. C.

2012-04-01

201

Characterization and lytic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens phages from sewage  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas fluorescens phages from sewage were tested against P. fluorescens isolates of soil and sewage. The phages were characterized as to host range, morphology, structural proteins and genome fingerprint. Of the seven phages isolated, one was found to be abundant in sewage (5.9×107 pfu/mL), having broad host range, and distinct protein and DNA profile when compared to the other six phages. DNA restriction and protein profiles of the phages and their morphology indicate the diversity in the sewage environment. None of the isolates from the rhizosphere regions of various cultivated soils were susceptible to phages isolated from sewage.

Radhakrishnan, Ananthi; Ananthasubramanian, M.

2012-01-01

202

Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in Swedish sewage treatment plants.  

PubMed

The levels, distribution, and possible sources of 12 organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers, some of which are reported to be toxic to aquatic organisms, were investigated in samples of influents, effluents, and sludge from 11 Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs). The organophosphorus compounds (OPs) studied were poorly removed from the wastewater; especially the chlorinated OPs tended to pass through the STPs without being removed or degraded, while alkyl-OPs, such as tributyl phosphate (TBP), were more successfully removed. In both influents and effluents, tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate and TBP were the most prominent substances followed by tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP). The highest concentration of any individual OP detected in the influents was 52 microg L(-1) (TBP). Ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate and TCPP dominated in all sludge samples. A budget calculation comparing the annual amount of OPs in the influent received by Swedish STPs with the known amount of OPs imported indicated that approximately 15% is emitted to STPs. Of the total amount of OPs reaching the STPs annually, 49% is degraded, 50% (27 tons) is emitted to the recipients, and only 1% ends up in the sludge. The concentrations of most OPs were quite similar among the sampled STPs, indicating that the data may be applicable in other STPs. PMID:16245811

Marklund, Anneli; Andersson, Barbro; Haglund, Peter

2005-10-01

203

Microwave-induced pyrolysis of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new method for pyrolyzing sewage sludge using a microwave furnace. It was found that if just the raw wet sludge is treated in the microwave, only drying of the sample takes place. However, if the sludge is mixed with a small amount of a suitable microwave absorber (such as the char produced in the pyrolysis itself)

J. A Menéndez; M Inguanzo; J. J Pis

2002-01-01

204

COMPARISON OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested by using the Salmonella/microsome reverse mutation ...

205

Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water.  

PubMed

Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification. PMID:23315366

Zhai, Yunbo; Wang, Chang; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei

2013-04-01

206

HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An epidemiology study which included environmental samples and clinical specimens within a three mile radius of a new sewage treatment plant near Chicago, Illinois was carried out. Evaluations were made before and after plant start-up to determine if operations resulted in any ad...

207

Water recovery from sewage using forward osmosis.  

PubMed

This research is part of the Sewer Mining project aimed at developing a new technological concept by extracting water from sewage by means of forward osmosis (FO). FO, in combination with a reconcentration system, e.g. reverse osmosis (RO) is used to recover high-quality water. Furthermore, the subsequent concentrated sewage (containing an inherent energy content) can be converted into a renewable energy (RE) source (i.e. biogas). The effectiveness of FO membranes in the recovery of water from sewage has been evaluated. Stable FO water flux values (>4.3 LMH) were obtained with primary effluent (screened, not treated) used as the feed solution. Fouling of the membrane was also induced and further investigated. Accumulated fouling was found to be apparent, but not irreversible. Sewer Mining could lead to a more economical and sustainable treatment of wastewater, facilitating the extraction of water and energy from sewage and changing the way it is perceived: not as waste, but as a resource. PMID:22179641

Lutchmiah, Kerusha; Cornelissen, Emile R; Harmsen, Danny J H; Post, Jan W; Lampi, Keith; Ramaekers, Hans; Rietveld, Luuk C; Roest, Kees

2011-01-01

208

Desinfeccion de efluentes residuales. (Disinfection of sewage).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory studies at IPEN and SEDAPAL have shown the effectiveness disinfection of sewage by means of ionizing radiations. A dose of 1 Kilo Gray reduces the coliforms and salmonella under the permissible levels. This method should allow to use again the ...

J. Arenas

1984-01-01

209

Fresh Water from Sewage on Long Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small sewage purification systems adequate for about 250 homes are being tested for the return of drinking quality fresh water to the local water table. One system consists of a grass meadow which slopes into a planted marsh which merges into a pond which...

M. M. Small

1976-01-01

210

SEWAGE SLUDGE PATHOGEN TRANSPORT MODEL PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, raw or anaerobically digest...

211

SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT  

EPA Science Inventory

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

212

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOEpatents

This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

Carlson, L.W.

1985-08-30

213

Co-digestion of primary sewage sludge and industrial wastewater under anaerobic sulphate reducing conditions: enzymatic profiles in a recycling sludge bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first stage in the degradation and recycling of primary sewage sludge and particulate organic matter is the solubilisation and enhanced hydrolysis of complex polymeric organic carbon structures associated with the anaerobic sulphidogenic environment. Solubilization of complex carbon substrates provides the primary reaction in the BioSURE Process, and is effected in the recycling sludge bed reactor (RSBR). During the process

C. G. Whiteley; G. Enongene; B. I. Pletschke; P. Rose; K. Whittington-Jones

214

Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This shows the fundamental importance of rapid processing. Rapid thermal conditioning may be incorporated into a wastewater treatment plant where biological treatment is used. For purposes of a concrete example, flow-sheets for the incorporation of the RTC process into the New York City Wards Island WPCP were prepared, and experimental data from the laboratory scale RTC test facility were used to set design parameters. A design incorporating nitrogen removal into the RTC flow sheet was also examined. ASPEN software was used to design the proposed processes and perform economic analyses. Cost estimates for these alternatives show a substantial advantage to implement RTC in comparison to present plant operation. About one third of the current sludge processing cost can be saved by incorporation of RTC into the Wards Island Plant. With nitrogen removal, the economics are even more attractive.

Zheng, Jianhong

215

Removal and factors influencing removal of sulfonamides and trimethoprim from domestic sewage in constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Twelve pilot-scale constructed wetlands with different configurations were set up in the field to evaluate the removal and factors that influence removal of sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfacetamide, sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole) and trimethoprim from domestic sewage. The treatments included four flow types, three substrates, two plants and three hydraulic loading rates across two seasons (summer and winter). Most target antibiotics were efficiently removed by specific constructed wetlands; in particular, all types of constructed wetlands performed well for the degradation of sulfapyridine. Flow types were the most important influencing factor in this study, and the best removal of sulfonamides was achieved in vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands; however, the opposite phenomenon was found with trimethoprim. Significant relationships were observed between antibiotic degradation and higher temperature and redox potential, which indicated that microbiological pathways were the most probable degradation route for sulfonamides and trimethoprim in constructed wetlands. PMID:23954243

Dan A; Yang, Yang; Dai, Yu-nv; Chen, Chun-xing; Wang, Su-yu; Tao, Ran

2013-10-01

216

Photodegradation of the pharmaceuticals amoxicillin, bezafibrate and paracetamol by the photo-Fenton process—Application to sewage treatment plant effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodegradation of the pharmaceuticals amoxicillin (AMX), bezafibrate (BZF) and paracetamol (PCT) in aqueous solutions via the photo-Fenton process was investigated under black-light and solar irradiation. The influences of iron source, initial H2O2 concentration and matrix (distilled water and sewage treatment plant effluent) on degradation efficiency were discussed in detail. The results showed that (i) the degradation of the drugs was

Alam Gustavo Trovó; Silene Alessandra Santos Melo; Raquel Fernandes Pupo Nogueira

2008-01-01

217

Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description (SYS 27)  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank.

PITKOFF, C.C.

1999-07-02

218

The use of sewage sludge and horticultural waste to develop artificial soil for plant cultivation in Singapore.  

PubMed

Greenhouse pot experiments were performed with Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) to evaluate artificial soil produced from poor fertility subsoil, horticultural compost, and sewage sludge. The addition of horticultural compost and sewage sludge to subsoil substantially improved plant growth, improved the physical properties of subsoil and enriched subsoil by essential nutrients for plants. The effect was enhanced when the two ingredients were added to subsoil together. The highest yield of biomass of I. aquatica was observed in artificial soil prepared by mixing subsoil with 4% (wet weight/wet weight) of horticultural compost and 2% (dry weight/wet weight) of sewage sludge. The contents of heavy metals in plants, grown in the artificial soil, were significantly lower than toxic levels. The artificial soil could be recommended for urban landscaping and gardening in Singapore. PMID:15668204

Stabnikova, O; Goh, W-K; Ding, H-B; Tay, J-H; Wang, J-Y

2005-06-01

219

High Prevalence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Swedish Sewage  

PubMed Central

In Europe the use of the growth promoter avoparcin is considered to have selected for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Sweden ceased using avoparcin in 1986, and only occasional cases of VRE from hospitals have been reported since 1995. Within the framework of a European study, samples from urban raw sewage, treated sewage, surface water, and hospital sewage in Sweden (n = 118) were screened for VRE. Surprisingly, VRE were isolated from 21 of 35 untreated sewage samples (60%), from 5 of 14 hospital sewage samples (36%), from 6 of 32 treated sewage samples (19%), and from 1 of 37 surface water samples. Thirty-five isolates from 33 samples were further characterized by geno- and phenotyping, MIC determination, and PCR analysis. Most isolates (30 of 35) carried the vanA gene, and the majority (24 of 35) of the isolates were Enterococcus faecium. Most of the VRE were multiresistant. The typing revealed high diversity of the isolates. However, one major cluster with seven identical or similar isolates was found. These isolates came from three different sewage treatment plants and were collected at different occasions during 1 year. All VRE from hospital sewage originated from one of the two hospitals studied. That hospital also had vancomycin consumption that was 10-fold that of the other. We conclude that VRE were commonly found in sewage samples in Sweden. The origin might be both healthy individuals and individuals in hospitals. Possibly, antimicrobial drugs or chemicals released into the sewage system may sustain VRE in the system.

Iversen, Aina; Kuhn, Inger; Franklin, Anders; Mollby, Roland

2002-01-01

220

Rethinking sewage treatment by enhancing primary settling with low-dosage lime.  

PubMed

This work presents a thorough fractionation of COD in raw sewage, followed by pilot plant coagulation tests with low-dosage lime (pH 9). Through a physical separation (sieving and crossflow filtration) total COD in the raw sewage was partitioned among eight size fractions in the range of 150-0.02 microm. In addition, respirometric tests were performed to measure the biodegradability of the different size fractions. More than 60% of COD was associated with settleable and supracolloidal particles (size > 1 microm), which are characterised by slow biodegradability. Coagulation with lime increased COD removal efficiencies in the primary treatment from typical 30-35%, up to 65-70%, suggesting that lime may induce the almost complete removal of the slowly settling, slowly biodegradable supracolloidal particles in the primary treatment. On the basis of these results a non-conventional sewage treatment scheme is proposed, considering that there is plenty of space for improving primary treatment efficiency through sewage coagulation. Higher primary treatment efficiency may present several advantages, including lower aeration energy in the subsequent biological unit and higher energy recovery from sludge digestion. PMID:16459791

Ramadori, R; Marani, D; Renzi, V; Passino, R; DiPinto, A C

2005-01-01

221

A Study on Internal Flow in a New Type of Sewage Pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sewage pumps are designed with a wide flow channel by, for example, sacrificing some efficiency and reducing the number of blades, in order to prevent plugging with foreign bodies. Authors have been proposing a new type of sewage pump impeller designed to further improve pump efficiency and performance in passing foreign bodies. This sewage pump impeller has a structure in which the suction flow channel of closed type non-clog pump is wound in a helical spiral. The focus of this research was to investigate internal flow in this single blade sewage pump impeller. The results clearly indicated the following facts. As a result of having compared experimental results by LDV with calculated results by CFD, there is the difference about the radial component of absolute velocity, but agrees about pump performance and the tangential component comparatively well. A flow to circulate through in the impeller again is accepted by an experiment, and the sign is accepted by CFD in a specific impeller position.

Nishi, Yasuyuki; Matsuo, Nobuaki; Fukutomi, Junichiro

222

Evolutionary parameter optimization of a fuzzy controller which is used to control a sewage treatment plant.  

PubMed

In order to meet new environmental standards, sewage treatment plants may need to be redesigned or extended. Instead of reconstructing large parts of a sewage treatment plant, which can be very costly, it is in many cases sufficient to install relatively inexpensive equipment, which controls parts of the plant in a new way. Fuzzy controllers are often used for this task. Use of these controllers often leads to an improved water quality. Such fuzzy controllers contain a number of parameters which are determined by a human expert. With this contribution, a dedicated multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is developed to optimize these parameters. The evolutionary algorithm is based on the successful strength pareto evolutionary algorithm 2 (SPEA2). The fuzzy control parameters, which are optimized are continuous parameters. Therefore, an evolution strategy was employed which uses the multi-objective ranking as used by the SPEA2 algorithm. Optimal parameters were first evolved on simulated sewage treatment plants. One set of parameters was also tested on an actual plant. Owing to the enormous computational demands of simulating a sewage treatment plant, it is only possible to work with small population sizes. Nevertheless, it was possible to evolve parameters which were equally well as those found by a human expert indicating that the parameter tuning can be automized. PMID:20057091

Ebner, Marc; Stalph, Patrick; Michel, Martin; Benz, Roland

2010-01-01

223

Degradation of tetracycline by photo-Fenton process—Solar irradiation and matrix effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of the antibiotic tetracycline (TC) by the photo-Fenton process was evaluated under black-light and solar irradiation. The influences of iron source (Fe(NO3)3 or ferrioxalate), hydrogen peroxide and matrix (pure water, surface water and a sewage treatment plant effluent—STP) were evaluated. Under black-light irradiation, TC degradation was favored in the presence of Fe(NO3)3, achieving total degradation after 1min irradiation,

Ivonete Rossi Bautitz; Raquel F. Pupo Nogueira

2007-01-01

224

Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in digested sewage sludge (1993-2012).  

PubMed

The analysis of temporal trends is a key tool to assess the success of national and international regulations on chemical pollution. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are chemical pollutants, which are not only harmful, but also because of their slow environmental degradation they pose a long-time risk. In this study, concentrations of selected POPs were measured between 1993 and 2012 in digested sewage sludge from eight municipal waste water treatment plants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), which have been banned or restricted for decades, exhibited decreasing trends with apparent half-lives between 9 and 12years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and long-chain perfluorinated acids showed no clear trend, which reflects the recent introduction of regulations. The analysis of octabromodiphenyl ethers did not reveal indications for reductive debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether; however the analysis of total bromine showed that up to 14% of the total bromine load in sewage sludge originated from PBDEs (average 2%). This is the first study to report temporal trends for more than 20years of series POPs in sewage sludge. PMID:24071021

Zennegg, Markus; Munoz, Maria; Schmid, Peter; Gerecke, Andreas C

2013-10-01

225

Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not change so much except for the one of the sludges, which experienced an important reduction. According to the results, and from a point of view of future soil applications, the balance of the drying process could be considered as positive. It is using a free, renewable and clean energy, which reduces the water content and odours of sludge, thereby improving their management. Except for the water content, there was little modification of the behaviour in soil of greenhouse dried sludges compared to the dehydrated sludges, maintaining its large amount of available nitrogen after drying. Acknowledgements: Jose. M. Soriano-Disla gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Culture for a research fellowship (AP2005-0320).

Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

2009-04-01

226

Is There Sewage in My Sample?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the relationship between sediment sampling and ocean pollution as they discover how scientists collect and study sediment on the bottom of the ocean. They will also find out if the sediment sampling methods used by scientists can be used to detect pollution. They will learn about the proximity of the Hudson Shelf Valley and the Hudson Canyon to the New York City metropolitan region, one of the most populated areas in the United States; and will learn that formerly two dumpsites in the Hudson Shelf Valley and Hudson Canyon were used to dispose of sewage sludge. Students will also learn how scientists collect and use core samples to study seafloor sediments and what are some of the impacts of dumping sewage in the ocean.

227

Bacterial removal of mercury from sewage  

SciTech Connect

Mercury-resistant bacteria, which are able to reduce mercuric ion (Hg/sup 2 +/) to metallic mercury (Hg/sup 0/), were examined for their ability to remove mercury from wastewater aerobically. Growth studies in artificial medium indicated that mercury increases the lag phase, but does not effect the growth rate of these bacteria. Further studies demonstrated that growth was minimal during a phase of rapid mercury removal, after which growth resumed. Small but significant amounts of carbohydrates are required for the mercuric ion reduction. Prolonged periods of bacterial growth under nonsterile conditions was accomplished without the loss of the mercuric reducing ability of the culture. A continuous culture of the resistant organism was maintained on raw sewage for two weeks, during which time relatively high concentrations of mercury (70 mg/L) were removed from the sewage at a rate of 2.5 mg/L h and at efficiencies exceeding 98%.

Hansen, C.L.; Zwolinski, G.; Martin, D.; Williams, J.W.

1984-11-01

228

40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? 60.4775...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability... § 60.4775 What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?...

2013-07-01

229

40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability...Authority § 60.4780 What sewage sludge incineration units are...

2013-07-01

230

40 CFR 60.4770 - Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit? 60.4770...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability... Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?...

2013-07-01

231

78 FR 34918 - Direct Final Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9821-1] Direct Final Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated...control air pollutants from ``Sewage Sludge Incinerators'' (SSI). The...as any device that combusts sewage sludge for the purpose of reducing...

2013-06-11

232

33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...graywater mixture. (c) Each entry in the Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book shall...Whether the effluent is treated or untreated sewage, graywater, or a sewage and graywater mixture and type of treatment used; (4) Time...

2010-07-01

233

33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...graywater mixture. (c) Each entry in the Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book shall...Whether the effluent is treated or untreated sewage, graywater, or a sewage and graywater mixture and type of treatment used; (4) Time...

2009-07-01

234

Detection of Human Sewage in Urban Stormwater Using DNA Based Methods and Stable Isotope Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban stormwater is a major source of fecal indicator bacteria in the Milwaukee River Basin, a major watershed draining to Lake Michigan. Much of the watershed is in highly urbanized areas and Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels have been found to be 20,000 CFU per 100 ml in the estuary leading to Lake Michigan. Aging infrastructure and illicit cross connections may allow sewage to infiltrate the stormwater system and could contribute both fecal indicator bacteria and human pathogens to these waters. We conducted extensive sampling of stormwater outfalls in the lower reaches of three major tributaries. Three outfalls along the heavily urbanized Kinnickinnick (KK) were found to have geometric mean E. coli and enterococci levels of 16,200 and 28,700 CFU/100 ml, respectively. Four outfalls along the Menomonee River, draining both suburban and urban areas, had geometric mean E. coli and enterococci levels of 14,700 and 12,800 CFU/100 ml, respectively. These seven outfalls had more than 60% of the samples positive for human specific Bacteroides genetic marker (n=46), suggesting the presence of human sources. In addition, two outfalls on Lincoln Creek, a smaller tributary of the Milwaukee River, had geometric mean E. coli and enterococci levels of 16,700 and 14,900 CFU per 100 ml, respectively. The human specific Bacteroides marker was positive in nearly 90% of the samples (n=24). Subsequent virus testing at one of these outfalls confirmed human pathogens were present with adenovirus detected at 1.3 x 10E3 genomic equivalents (ge)/L, enterovirus at 1.9 x 10E4 ge/L and G1 norovirus at 1.5 x 10E3 ge/L; these values are similar to concentrations found in sewage. Stable isotope studies were conducted in the three tributaries to investigate the relationship between delta C and delta N isotopic composition and microbiological quality of this urban freshwater system. This work is based on the premise that the organic matter of the stormwater will have a stable isotopic signature related to the mixed organic matter sources in polluted stormwater runoff, and that this signal will distinct from untreated sanitary sewage. Stable isotope signatures of stormwater and untreated sewage were determined and compared with the rivers. Isotopic values of stormwater was delta 15N = 1.1 ± 2 %; delta 13C = -25.5 ± 3 % and sewage was delta 15N = -1.9 ± 0.2 %; delta 13C = -23.6 ± 0.3. Suspended particular organic matter (SPOM) of Milwaukee River showed depleted delta 13C (-28.6 ± 1.6 %) and enriched delta 15N (7.7 ± 1.9 %) values. SPOM of the KK River exhibited the most depleted delta 15N (0.2 ± 1.6 %) and enriched delta 13C (-24.8 ± 1.8 %) isotopic values. Menomonee River SPOM showed intermediate isotopic values. The delta 13C values of each river and the estuary enriched significantly throughout the summer storm periods. The isotope signals in the KK and Menomonee were indicative of stormwater runoff and sewage contamination. These results suggest that unrecognized sewage inputs are chronically present and may be delivered through urban stormwater systems. DNA based methods combined with isotope analysis may provide a useful tool for urban watershed assessments and to identify sewage inputs. Delineating the relative contribution of stormwater and sewage to overall degraded water quality might give the first indication of the impact of these sources on the Michigan Lake waters.

McLellan, S. L.; Malet, N.; Sauer, E.; Mueller-Spitz, S.; Borchardt, M.

2008-12-01

235

Production of long ceramic sewage pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

shaped from the plastic bodies using screw presses of high capacity (rigid construction) which permit one to obtain pipes from the bodies having a low moisture content (13-14%). At the Soviet ceramic plants, sewage pipes are made from the bodies having a moisture content of 17.5-18.5% which restricts the possibility of increasing the length of the pipes. The studies conducted

V. S. Radyukhin; B. V. Lebedev; V. M. Kraev; Yu. F. Mikhailov

1986-01-01

236

Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

1976-01-01

237

Toxicity Evaluation of Sewage Sludge Before and After Composting Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge and the compost were evaluated through chemical characterization and toxicity testing to determine their suitability for land application. The application of sewage sludge\\/compost, slightly acidic with pH rang of 6.4-6.5, decreased the soil pH. The higher the sewage sludge\\/compost rates, the higher the mixed soil contents of electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P),

Qiang Liu; Ling Chen; You Huang; Wuliang Cheng; Jianfu Zhao

2008-01-01

238

[The hygienic evaluation of a local unit for sewage treatment].  

PubMed

A complex of hygienic criteria was proposed to assess a Bioclere local unit for sewage treatment. These included: the effects of the organoleptic properties of sewage, better sanitary and chemical parameters, lower levels of inorganic and organic chemicals, surfactants, microbiological parameters, stability of treatment regimens. The Bioclere unit has some advantages over the similar ones and may be useful when an object cannot be connected to the sewage network. PMID:9190350

Zholdakova, Z I; Kustova, E V; Sinitsyna, O O; Nedachin, A E; Sidorenko, S G

1997-01-01

239

Enhanced power generation and energy conversion of sewage sludge by CEA-microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

The production of methane from sewage sludge through the use of anaerobic digestion has been able to effectively offset energy costs for wastewater treatment. However, significant energy reserves are left unrecovered and effluent standards are not met necessitating secondary processes such as aeration. In the current study a novel cloth-electrode assembly microbial fuel cell (CEA-MFC) was used to generate electricity from sewage sludge. Fermentation pretreatment of the sludge effectively increased the COD of the supernatant and improved reactor performance. Using the CEA-MFC design, a maximum power density of 1200mWm(-2) was reached after a fermentation pre-treatment time of 96h. This power density represents a 275% increase over those previously observed in MFC systems. Results indicate continued improvements are possible and MFCs may be a viable modification to existing wastewater treatment infrastructure. PMID:24912141

Abourached, Carole; Lesnik, Keaton Larson; Liu, Hong

2014-08-01

240

Ammonia sanitisation of sewage sludge using urea.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to develop a simple, low-cost treatment for sewage sludge using urea as a sanitising agent. Sewage sludge was spiked with Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium, treated with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% w/w urea at laboratory scale, and the viability was monitored during 4 months of storage at 4, 10 and 22 °C (only 0.5%). A linear relationship was identified between Salmonella spp. inactivation rate and ammonia (NH3) concentration. Temperature had a positive impact on Salmonella spp. inactivation at higher temperatures, but in the range 4-10 °C temperature influenced this inactivation merely by its impact on the ammonia equilibrium. Enterococcus spp. was more persistent and a lag phase of up to 11 weeks was observed. Higher temperature and ammonia concentration reduced the lag phase duration significantly, and also had a clear effect on the inactivation rate for the treatments with 0.5% urea at 22 °C and 2% urea at 4 and 10 °C. Urea sanitisation of sewage sludge can give a 2 log10 reduction of Enterococcus spp. and more than a 5 log10 reduction of Salmonella spp. within 6 weeks with either 0.5% w/w urea at 22 °C or 2% urea at 10 °C. PMID:24185072

Fidjeland, Jørgen; Lalander, Cecilia; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

2013-01-01

241

Using biomarkers in sewage to monitor community-wide human health: isoprostanes as conceptual prototype.  

PubMed

Timely assessment of the aggregate health of small-area human populations is essential for guiding the optimal investment of resources needed for preventing, avoiding, controlling, or mitigating exposure risks. Seeking those interventions yielding the greatest benefit with respect to allocation of resources is essential for making progress toward community sustainability, promoting social justice, and maintaining or improving health and well-being. More efficient approaches are needed for revealing cause-effect linkages between environmental stressors and human health and for measuring overall aggregate health of small-area populations. A new concept is presented--community health assessment via Sewage Chemical Information Mining (SCIM)--for quickly gauging overall, aggregate health status or trends for entire small-area populations. The approach--BioSCIM--would monitor raw sewage for specific biomarkers broadly associated with human disease, stress, or health. A wealth of untapped chemical information resides in raw sewage, a portion comprising human biomarkers of exposure and effects. BioSCIM holds potential for capitalizing on the presence of biomarkers in sewage for accomplishing any number of objectives. One of the many potential applications of BioSCIM could use various biomarkers of stress resulting from the collective excretion from all individuals in a local population. A prototype example is presented using a class of biomarkers that measures collective, systemic oxidative stress--the isoprostanes (prostaglandin-like free-radical catalyzed oxidation products from certain polyunsaturated fatty acids). Sampling and analysis of raw sewage hold great potential for quickly determining aggregate biomarker levels for entire communities. Presented are the basic principles of BioSCIM, together with its anticipated limitations, challenges, and potential applications in assessing community-wide health. Community health assessment via BioSCIM could allow rapid assessments and intercomparisons of health status among distinct populations, revealing hidden or emerging trends or disparities and aiding in evaluating correlations (or hypotheses) between stressor exposures and disease. PMID:22425170

Daughton, Christian G

2012-05-01

242

Assessment of enteric viruses in a sewage treatment plant located in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In order to verify the microbial quality of the influents and effluents of one STP from southern Brazil, an eight-month survey was conducted to examine the presence of total and fecal coliforms and of adenovirus (HAdV), enterovirus (EV), genogroup A rotaviruses (GARV) and Torque teno virus (TTV), in treated effluent samples from São João/Navegantes STP, Porto Alegre (Brazil). A total of 16 samples were collected, eight of influent (raw sewage, prior to treatment), and the other eight of the effluent (post-treatment sewage). Total and fecal coliform levels ranging from 3.6 × 10(4) to 4.4 × 10(7) MPN/100 mL and 2.9 × 10(3) to 1.7 × 10(7) MPN/100 mL, were detected in all samples. In raw sewage, HAdV (25%) and GARV (28.6%) viral genomes were detected. The analysis of effluent samples revealed the presence of HAdV (50%), EV (37.5%), and TTV (12.5%) genomic fragments. All samples, regardless of the month analysed, presented detection of a least one virus genus, except for in April. Higher virus detection rates were observed in treated sewage samples (62.5%), and in 80% of them (effluent positive samples) HAdV was detected. Results showed that improvements in sewage monitoring and treatment processes are necessary to reduce the viral and bacterial load on the environment in southern Brazil. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study showing the monitoring of viral genomes in influent and effluent samples from a STP located in Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), southern Brazil. PMID:23295512

Vecchia, A D; Fleck, J D; Kluge, M; Comerlato, J; Bergamaschi, B; Luz, R B; Arantes, T S; Silva, J V S; Thewes, M R; Spilki, F R

2012-11-01

243

Combustion Characteristics of Sewage Sludge Using a Pressurized Fluidized Bed Incinerator with Turbocharger  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A new type of sewage sludge incinerator that combines a pressurized fluidized bed combustor and a turbocharger driven by flue\\u000a gas was proposed. This plant has four main advantages. (l) The combustion rate can be improved since the oxygen partial pressure\\u000a in the combustor is increased by the pressurization. The incinerator volume can be substantially smaller than that of an

T. Murakami; A. Kltajlma; Y. Suzuki; H. Nagasawa; T. Yamamoto; T. Koseki; H. Hirose; S. Okamoto

2010-01-01

244

Gaseous emissions from ceramics manufactured with urban sewage sludge during firing processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The re-use of sewage sludge without any treatment as primary material—mixed with clays—in order to obtain structural ceramics for buildings has been successfully improved. In the Ecobrick1 project, the firing of a mixture of specific percentages of three components (clays, sludges and forest debris) resulted in a lighter and more thermal and acoustic insulating brick, compared with conventional clay-bricks. Volatile

J. A. Cusido; L. V. Cremades; M. Gonzalez

2003-01-01

245

Co-digestion to support low temperature anaerobic pretreatment of municipal sewage in a UASB-digester.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to demonstrate that co-digestion improves soluble sewage COD removal efficiency in treatment of low temperature municipal sewage by a UASB-digester system. A pilot scale UASB-digester system was applied to treat real municipal sewage, and glucose was chosen as a model co-substrate. Co-substrate was added in the sludge digester to produce additional methanogenic biomass, which was continuously recycled to inoculate the UASB reactor. Soluble sewage COD removal efficiency increased from 6 to 23%, which was similar to its biological methane potential (BMP). Specific methanogenic activity of the UASB and of the digester sludge at 15°C tripled to a value respectively of 43 and 39 mg CH4-COD/(g VSS d). Methane production in the UASB reactor increased by more than 90% due to its doubled methanogenic capacity. Therefore, co-digestion is a suitable approach to support a UASB-digester for pretreatment of low temperature municipal sewage. PMID:24080295

Zhang, Lei; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Kampman, Christel; Temmink, Hardy; Zeeman, Grietje

2013-11-01

246

An improved and fast UHPLC-PDA methodology for determination of L-ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids in fruits and vegetables. Evaluation of degradation rate during storage.  

PubMed

This study provides a versatile validated method to determine the total vitamin C content, as the sum of the contents of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), in several fruits and vegetables and its degradability with storage time. Seven horticultural crops from two different origins were analyzed using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographic-photodiode array (UHPLC-PDA) system, equipped with a new trifunctional high strength silica (100% silica particle) analytical column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 ?m particle size) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid as mobile phase, in isocratic mode. This new stationary phase, specially designed for polar compounds, overcomes the problems normally encountered in HPLC and is suitable for the analysis of large batches of samples without L-AA degradation. In addition, it proves to be an excellent alternative to conventional C18 columns for the determination of L-AA in fruits and vegetables. The method was fully validated in terms of linearity, detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits, accuracy, and inter/intra-day precision. Validation experiments revealed very good recovery rate of 96.6 ± 4.4% for L-AA and 103.1 ± 4.8 % for total vitamin C, good linearity with r(2)-values >0.999 within the established concentration range, excellent repeatability (0.5%), and reproducibility (1.6%) values. The LOD of the method was 22 ng/mL whereas the LOQ was 67 ng/mL. It was possible to demonstrate that L-AA and DHAA concentrations in the different horticulture products varied oppositely with time of storage not always affecting the total amount of vitamin C during shelf-life. Locally produced fruits have higher concentrations of vitamin C, compared with imported ones, but vegetables showed the opposite trend. Moreover, this UHPLC-PDA methodology proves to be an improved, simple, and fast approach for determining the total content of vitamin C in various food commodities, with high sensitivity, selectivity, and resolving power within 3 min of run analysis. PMID:22222913

Spínola, Vítor; Mendes, Berta; Câmara, José S; Castilho, Paula C

2012-05-01

247

Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those of Zn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; A ntirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum; Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves of B. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum, however, it significantly affected the uptake of heavy metals by D. morifolium. PMID:17294948

Dai, Jia-yin; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jian-fu; Ma, Na

2006-01-01

248

Tracers of sewage sludge in the marine environment: a review.  

PubMed

A review of the available and potential tracers of the movement and distribution of sewage sludge ('sludge') in and on marine sediments is presented. A brief review of 'active' sludge tracers is followed by a more extensive review of 'passive' sludge tracers. These can be broken down into five categories: Natural organic components of sludge--organic carbon, faecal steroids, carbohydrate/TOC ratio, tomato seeds. Synthetic organic compounds--silicones, chlorinated hydrocarbons, non-ionic surfactants and their degradation products, linear alkylbenzenes. Stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulphur. Inorganic substances and their properties--minerals, paint pigments, trace elements, magnetic properties. Biological/Microbiological--faecal bacteria, Clostridium welchii spores, amoebae, viruses, nitrogen-fixing enterobacteriaceae. A wide variety of sludge tracers are available with the choice of suitable tracers in an individual situation governed by the available equipment and expertise, cost considerations, ease of sampling requirements and determination, and the nature of other pollutant inputs in the vicinity of the input of interest. Ideally, the sludge tracers chosen should be unique to the input of interest, but this will rarely be achievable in practice. In areas of gross sludge contamination, a marine geophysical survey technique can be used to delineate the area affected and this provides a rapid cost-effective method for large areas. PMID:3529389

Vivian, C M

1986-08-01

249

Process for degrading hypochlorite  

SciTech Connect

It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved means and method for the degradation of hypochlorite in alkali waste solutions. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a more effective and less costly method for the degradation of hypochlorite. The foregoing objects and others are accomplished in accordance with the present invention, generally speaking, by providing a process to degrade hypochlorite into chloride and oxygen which includes contacting an aqueous hypochlorite basic solution with a catalyst comprising about 1--10 w/w % cobalt oxide and about 1--15 w/w % molybdenum oxide on a suitable substrate. In another embodiment a similar process for degrading lithium hypochlorite is provided in which waste solution concentration is lowered in order to minimize carbonate precipitation. 6 tabs.

Huxtable, W.P.; Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.

1989-05-12

250

Adaptation of mesophilic anaerobic sewage fermentor populations to thermophilic temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Thermophilic (50/sup 0/ ) and obligately thermophilic (60/sup 0/C) anaerobic carbohydrate- and protein-digesting and methanogenic bacterial populations were enumerated in a mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) fermentor anaerobically digesting municipal primary sludge. Of the total population in the mesophilic fermentor, 9% were thermophiles and 1% were obligate thermophiles. Of these 10%, the percentages of bacteria (thermophiles and obligate thermophiles, respectively) able to use specific substrates were as follows: bacteria able to digest albumin, casein, starch, and mono- and disaccharides, 30 and 10%; pectin degraders, 10 and 0.2%; cellulose degraders, 2 and 0.06%; methanogens that grow with H/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/, methanol, and dimethylamine, 9 and 1%; methanogens that grow with formate, 8 and 5%; and methanogens that grow with acetate, 25 and less than 0.8%. Shortly after the temperature was elevated from 35 to 50 or 60 degrees C, the digestion of albumin, casein, starch, and mono- and disaccharides was detected, and methane was produced from H/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/. Methane produced from acetate was not delayed at 50 degrees C, but was delayed by 29 days at 60 degrees C. Methane produced from formate was delayed by 3 days, from methanol by 7 days, and from dimethylamine by 5 days at 50 and 60 degrees C. A 10- and 20-day acclimation period was required for hydrolysis of pectin and cellulose, respectively, at 50 degrees C. Digestion of pectin required 20 days and cellulose longer than 85 days when the temperature was elevated abruptly from 35 to 60 degrees C. The acclimation period for the digestion of pectin and cellulose at 60 degrees C was shortened to 3 and 15 days, respectively, by seeding with a small amount of a culture acclimated to 50 degrees C. The data suggest that enrichment of cellulolytic, pectinolytic, and acetate-utilizing bacteria is crucial for the digestion of sewage sludge at 60 degrees C. (Refs. 17).

Chen, M.

1983-04-01

251

Chemical composition of sewage-grown Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Spirulina platensis has been grown in an outdoor pilot production unit, with an exposed surface area of 450 m2, on a medium consisting of raw domestic sewage supplemented with sodium bicarbonate and nitrate or urea fertilizer. The chemical composition and yield of the biomass grown on sewage-nitrate was comparable to that grown on synthetic medium. The protein content was

P. N. Saxena; M. R. Ahmad; R. Shyam; P. S. Misra

1982-01-01

252

FUEL EFFICIENT INCINERATION FOR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...

253

Survival and Activity of Sewage Micoorganisms in Acid Mine Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numbers and types of bacteria decrease if the pH of sewage is lowered by addition of acid mine water. A rapid decrease occurs at 4 C and 22 C, but at 22 C microbial numbers increese after the initial decrease. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of sewage...

R. C. Kralovic H. A. Wilson

1969-01-01

254

Antibiotic resistance of E. coli in sewage and sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is the evaluation of resistance patterns of E. coli in wastewater treatment plants without an evaluation of basic antibiotic resistance mechanisms.Investigations have been done in sewage, sludge and receiving waters from three different sewage treatment plants in southern Austria. A total of 767 E. coli isolates were tested regarding their resistance to 24 different antibiotics.

F. F Reinthaler; J Posch; G Feierl; G Wüst; D Haas; G Ruckenbauer; F Mascher; E Marth

2003-01-01

255

Study on the characteristics and utilization of urban sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to propose an effective method for the reclamation of sewage sludge, sewage sludge from three waste water treatment plants were sampled and analyzed. The results show that the digested sludge samples are alkalescent, and the undigested sludge samples are acidic. The moisture content ranged from 78% to 83%. The samples have plenty of organic matter, N, P, K,

Niu Junling; Liu Lei; Zheng Binguo

2011-01-01

256

[Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].  

PubMed

"Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one. PMID:23705396

Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai

2013-02-01

257

Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In urban areas such as Berlin (Germany) with high municipal sewage water discharges and low surface water flows there is a potential risk of drinking water contamination by polar organic compounds when groundwater recharge is used in drinking water production. Thus, some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are not eliminated completely in the municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they are

Thomas Heberer

2002-01-01

258

Influence of sewage sludge addition on coal ash fusion temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ash fusion characteristics of three types of bituminous coal (A, B, and C), one type of sewage sludge (W), and the corresponding coal-sewage sludge blends (10 and 50 wt % of sludge) were studied. The ash fusibility temperatures of samples in oxidizing atmosphere were measured, and their chemical and mineralogical compositions were determined. The addition of sludge to coal

M. Belen Folgueras; R. Maria Diaz; Jorge Xiberta; M. Purificacion Garcia; J. Juan Pis

2005-01-01

259

Cogasification of sewage sludge in an updraft gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge is the residue produced by the domestic or industrial wastewaters treatment plants. According to the principles of sustainability, several restrictions have been imposed on the conventional methods currently adopted for its disposal. The consequent need to develop alternative processes for the use of sewage sludge for energy purposes such as gasification requires experimental tests in order to quantify

M. Seggiani; S. Vitolo; M. Puccini; A. Bellini

260

Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) biomass production in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge compost and irrigated with sewage water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy use is one of the most important current global issues. Traditional energetic resources are limited and its use generates environmental problems, i.e. Global Warming, thus it is necessary to find alternative ways to produce energy. Energy crops represent one step towards sustainability but it must be coupled with appropriate land use and management adapted to local conditions. Moreover, positive effects like soil conservation; economical improvement of rural areas and CO2 storage could be achieved. Treated sewage water and sewage sludge compost were used as low-cost inputs for nutrition and irrigation, to cultivate cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) a perennial Mediterranean crop. The aim of the present field experiment was to ascertain the optimum dose of compost application to obtain maximum biomass production. Four compost treatments were applied by triplicate (D1=0; D2=30; D3=50; D4=70 ton/ha) and forty eight cardoon plants were placed in each plot, 12 per treatment, in a calcareous soil (CLfv; WRB, 2006) plot, located in the South East of Spain, in semi-arid conditions. The experiment was developed for one cardoon productive cycle (one year); soil was sampled three times (October, April and July). Soil, compost and treated sewage irrigation water were analyzed (physical and chemical properties). Stalk, capitula and leave weight as well as height and total biomass production were the parameters determined for cardoon samples. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) at p=0,05 significance level were performed to detect differences among treatments for each sampling/plot and to study soil parameters evolution and biomass production for each plot/dose. Several statistical differences in soil were found between treatments for extractable zinc, magnesium and phosphorus; as well as Kjeldahl nitrogen and organic carbon due to compost application, showing a gradual increase of nutrients from D1 to D4. However, considering the evolution of soil parameters along time, pH was the only with marked and significant decreasing trend from the first to the last sampling period. Mean cardoon biomass production in D1subplot was 13 ton/ha which differed significantly from D4 production, which was about 20 ton/ha. Hence, the maximum biomass production was obtained with the maximum compost dose. The results show that compost amendment increased cardoon biomass production, probably due to the improvement of soil properties, especially plant nutrient availability. No significant differences were found in soil parameters along time, with the exception of pH. However, longer test time is needed to evaluate long term effects in soil and to check the maintenance of biomass productivity. References Fernadez J., Curt, M.D., Aguado P.L. Industrial applications of Cynara cardunculus for energy and other uses. Industrial Crops and Product 24 (2006) pp 222-229. WRB (2006). World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2nd ed.). World Soil Resources Report 103, FAO, Rome, Italy (2006) 133 pp. Casado, J.; Sellés, S.; Navarro, J.; Bustamante, M.A.; Mataix, J.; Guerrero, C.; Gomez, I. Evaluation of composted sewage sludge as nutricional source for horticulturals soils. Waste Management 26 (2006). pp 946-952. Acknowledgements: The author gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Science for a research fellowship (AP2007-01641).

Lag, A.; Gomez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Melendez, I.; Perez Gimeno, A.; Soriano-Disla, J. M.

2010-05-01

261

Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay occurs before it can reach the public however, incineration, which is done in winter months, directly releases the 131I from sewage sludge to the atmosphere, and even though exposures to both workers and the public were found to be considerably lower than 1% of natural background, incineration of sludge in a pathway for public exposure. Although 131I was readily measurable in sewage sludge, only about 1% of the radioione administered to patients was found in the sludge. The fate of the remaining radioactivity has not been established; some may be in secondary and tertiary residuals, but it is quite likely that most passed through the plant and was discharged in dilute concentrations in plant emissions. The behavior of radioiodine and other radioactive materials released into municipal seweage systems, such as those from large medical facilities, is not yet well understood.

Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

1997-01-01

262

The study of the cumulative effects of the application of urban sewage sludge on an eroded soil cultivated in the Algerian steppe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the seventies, desertification is one of the major problems faced by the Mediterranean climate regions. These problems are inherent in the soil and climate characteristics of these regions, but their magnitude and acuity depend mainly on human activities. The process of desertification that affects more and more land is more pronounced as soil degradation, which accelerates constantly reduced resources farmland and pasture. Especially in areas bordering the Sahara, as the Algerian steppe, a real belt between the Sahara and the Algerian tell As part of the study of the cumulative effect of the application of urban sewage sludge on sandy soil and culture that is a cereal (barley), we had results that enabled us to identify some precepts,. The short-term effects studied in this experiment indicate that the amendment of the sewage sludge had a beneficial effect on the fertilizing qualities of the soil and therefore the performance of barley. To observations of Culture (barley), indicate that the best grain yield was obtained with D3 (28.76 quintals / ha) and D2 (33.91 quintals / ha). This is due to the effect of the sludge by the addition of required nutrients crop production. The lowest yield (24.11 quintals / ha) being obtained for the control (D0). It is the same for straw yield, with 47.5 quintals / ha in D2. The D3 treatment (30 t / ha) has previously presented the best results, but after 3 years we noticed that the best yields are obtained with D2 (10 t / ha). Except the pH and the rate of limestone that are related to changes in the characteristics of the site, there was an improvement in some physical and chemical properties of the soil. The contributions of sewage sludge amended greater quality soil biology D2 (number and effective species collected). Increasing the organic matter content (1.45%) and electrical conductivity (0.18 microseconds / cm) in the soil is only significant for the highest dose (30t/ha), although a tendency to enrichment in proportion to the dose appears clearly (except for nitrogen with a maximum of 0.066% in D3). The content of nitrogen increases less than organic carbon, which results in an increase of the C/N in the processing D2, justifying a biological activity which allows a soil structure, ensuring protection against leaching and challenging creating conditions favorable for crop development. So opportunities for agricultural use of sewage sludge exist for the rehabilitation of degraded sites (revegetation), while remaining in an application under controlled and regulated. These pathways underused in Algeria may comprise an interesting alternative to overcome the lack of organic matter, and even conserve soil areas subject has often destructive climatic and anthropogenic conditions.

Boutmedjet, Ahmed; Boukkaya, Nassira; Houyou, zohra; Ouakid, Mohamed; Bielders, Charles

2014-05-01

263

A simple model for the fate of the cytokinesis midbody remnant: implications for remnant degradation by autophagy: modeling remnant production and degradation enables re-interpretation of published data and improves design of future experiments.  

PubMed

When a cell divides, it produces two daughter cells initially connected by a cytokinesis bridge, which is eventually cut through abscission. One of the two daughter cells inherits a bridge "remnant", which has been proposed to be degraded by autophagy. The fate and function of remnants is attracting increasing attention, as their accumulation appears to influence proliferation versus differentiation of the daughter cells. Here, we present a simple model for bridge and remnant turnover in a dynamic cell population. We demonstrate that remnant proportions depend on the ratio of remnant and bridge lifetimes to the cell population doubling time. Our results yield new alternative interpretations for published experimental data, leading us to believe that autophagy-independent pathways for remnant degradation may exist. In addition, using the model, we determined experimentally inaccessible parameters such as remnant lifetime. Our model proves to be a useful tool for studying bridge and remnant populations. PMID:23450621

Crowell, Elizabeth Faris; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Echard, Arnaud

2013-05-01

264

Reductive hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The United States and the European Union each generate around 6900 million dry tons of sewage sludge annually. This is disposed of by land application, landfilling, incineration and other approaches. Reductive hydrothermal (HT) treatment refers here to simple aqueous systems heated and pressurized above 300 degrees C/100 bar under anoxic and/or reducing conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the HT treatment of municipal sewage sludge and infectious fecal microbial cultures with respect to waste volume reduction, biological sterilization, and the generation of usable hydrocarbon product mixtures. These endpoints from HT treatment also were compared to those from pyrolysis. HT at 400 degrees C/150 bar transformed sewage sludge solids into complex gas phase (4%) and liquid (6%) hydrocarbon mixtures (approximately 11% combined yield), along with similar amounts (5%) of solid residues. HT products in the aqueous phase (e.g., alcohols) were present but not analysed. Viable mixed fecal cultures (10(9) colony forming units/mL) were completely sterilized by HT treatment, and a hydrocarbon mixture also was generated from the cells, but it was markedly different from that resulting from HT of the sludge. The hydrocarbon assemblage generated from the sludge included n-hydrocarbons (C9-C20) and alkyl substituted benzenes, phenols, and related compound series of higher mass (e.g., indanes, naphthalenes). Light aromatic parent compounds were significantly less abundant than their substituted C1-C5 alkyl series and there was a paucity of N-, O- and S-heterocycles and polycyclic systems with more than three fused rings. This was different from the products of pyrolysis which were dominated by a relatively simple mixture of linear and branched hydrocarbons and their oxidized homologues (e.g., aldehydes). PMID:18065219

Catallo, W J; Comeaux, J L

2008-11-01

265

Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and orange peel waste.  

PubMed

Mesophilic anaerobic digestion is a treatment that is widely applied for sewage sludge management but has several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability and nutrient imbalance. In this paper, we propose orange peel waste as an easily biodegradable co-substrate to improve the viability of the process. Sewage sludge and orange peel waste were mixed at a proportion of 70:30 (wet weight), respectively. The stability was maintained within correct parameters throughout the process, while the methane yield coefficient and biodegradability were 165 L/kg volatile solids (VS) (0 degrees C, 1 atm) and 76% (VS), respectively. The organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.4 to 1.6kg VS/m3 d. Nevertheless, the OLR and methane production rate decreased at the highest loads, suggesting the occurrence of an inhibition phenomenon. PMID:24645472

Serrano, Antonio; Siles López, José Angel; Chica, Arturo Francisco; Martín, M Angeles; Karouach, Fadoua; Mesfioui, Abdelaziz; El Bari, Hassan

2014-01-01

266

Gaseous emissions from ceramics manufactured with urban sewage sludge during firing processes.  

PubMed

The re-use of sewage sludge without any treatment as primary material-mixed with clays-in order to obtain structural ceramics for buildings has been successfully improved. In the Ecobrick project, the firing of a mixture of specific percentages of three components (clays, sludges and forest debris) resulted in a lighter and more thermal and acoustic insulating brick, compared with conventional clay-bricks. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission from the manufacturing of ceramics is the most important aspect to control. In the Ecobrick project VOC emissions were monitored by using a bench-scale furnace. The study was conducted using an EPA recommended sampling train and portable sampling tubes that were thermally desorbed and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Drying of raw sewage-sludge and firing processes were considered separately. In this paper, we present VOC emissions coming from the firing step of the Ecobrick production. PMID:12737969

Cusidó, J A; Cremades, L V; González, M

2003-01-01

267

Challenge of urban sewage disposal in a karst region: Mérida, Yucátan, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four hydrogeologic factors influence urban sewage management on the northern Yucátan (Mexico) Peninsula: 1) lack of rivers capable of transporting and/or oxidizing sewage, 2) near-surface flat-lying, porous, permeable limestone and dolomite with shallow layers of variable permeability but without major subsurface aquitards, 3) rapid groundwater transmission, penetration of seawater inland beneath a fresh water lens, and a flat water table only a few meters below land surface and controlled by sea level, 4) near absence of soil cover. Mérida, Yucátan (population approaching one million, approximately the world's 450th most populous city) has no central sewage system. The water table beneath the city is consistently only 7-9 m below land surface, and the 40 m-thick fresh water lens, which is the sole source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water, directly overlies a marine intrusion of modified seawater composition. The old city has an estimated 130,000 drains feeding untreated household waste directly into the permeable karst aquifer. Numerous storm drains send street runoff directly to the aquifer. In addition, industries, hotels, and some subdivisions have unmonitored injection wells that pump untreated wastewater into the underlying saline intrusion. Some injection wells have flow problems possibly because of low aquifer permeability within the saline intrusion. Deep injection is also problematic because density contrast with saline intrusion water can produce a gravity imbalance, and high sulfate water can react with organic waste to produce H2S. Some city water supply wells are reportedly affected by inflation of the water table beneath the city, by local upconing of saline water, and by nitrate contamination. Paradoxically, Mérida with an abundant, easily contaminated source of fresh water, lacks streams to transport sewage off-site, and thus shares some water supply/sewage treatment problems with cities in arid regions. Recently, compact, efficient systems that provide almost tertiary-level sewage treatment have been developed and installed in various localities worldwide. Fitting the old parts of Mérida with several such systems would be less disruptive than blasting a monolithic sewer network through the city's rocky base, and it would minimize the problem of pumping sewage in an almost completely flat-lying area. Appropriate reuse of water from such local treatment facilities would be more flexible than from a single central system. Furthermore, injecting water into the aquifer after secondary or tertiary treatment would be a huge improvement over pumping of untreated "aguas negras" into the saline intrusion. Finally, there is a renaissance of sorts in sewage treatment technology, and it would be much easier to upgrade a number of individual systems as they became obsolete than to replace a monolithic central system. Safe, effective operation and monitoring of the suggested of sewage system would be challenging. Yet, as more cities join those 500 world-wide that now have populations approaching or exceeding one million, use of streams to export pollution may become infeasible. Perhaps Mérida can become a model to demonstrate that people can safely process and reuse their own wastewater.

Perry, E. C.; Villasuso, M.

2013-05-01

268

Anaerobic degradation of benzoate to methane by a microbial consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stabilized consortium of microbes which anaerobically degraded benzoate and produced CH4 was established by inoculation of a benzoate-mineral salts medium with sewage sludge; the consortium was routinely subcultured anaerobically in this medium for 3 years. Acetate, formate, H2 and CO2 were identified as intermediates in the overall conversion of benzoate to CH4 by the culture. Radioactivity was equally divided

J. G. Ferry; R. S. Wolfe

1976-01-01

269

An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants.  

PubMed

Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean. Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1 ng L(-1) to 7.6 ?g L(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary treatments. From the present study it can be concluded that constructed wetlands may provide a complementary sewage treatment option, especially where other treatment is lacking today. To fully remove micro-pollutants from sewage effluent, however, other more advanced treatment technologies are likely needed. PMID:22192709

Breitholtz, Magnus; Näslund, Maria; Stråe, Daniel; Borg, Hans; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

2012-04-01

270

A comparative study of anaerobically digested and undigested sewage sludges in preparation of activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of sewage sludge is an increasingly expensive and environmentally sensitive problem throughout the world. Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge offers an attractive re-use alternative to the traditional disposal routes. The objective of this research work was to compare anaerobically digested sewage sludge (DS) and undigested sewage sludge (US) as source materials in the preparation of activated carbons.

J. H Tay; X. G Chen; S Jeyaseelan; N Graham

2001-01-01

271

SURFACE DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE (EPA/625/R-95/002)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sewage sludge and domestic septage may be applied to the land as a soil conditioner and partial fertilizer, incinerated, or placed on land (surface disposal). Placement refers to the act of putting sewage sludge on an active sewage sludge unit (land on which only sewage sludge is...

272

Quality requirements for irrigation with sewage water  

SciTech Connect

Irrigation is an excellent use for sewage effluent because it is mostly water with nutrients. For small flows, the effluent can be used on special, well-supervised sewage farms, where forage, fiber, or seed crops are grown that can be irrigated with standard primary or secondary effluent. Large-scale use of the effluent requires special treatment so that it meets the public health, agronomic, and aesthetic requirements for unrestricted use. Crops in the unrestricted-use category include those that are consumed raw or brought raw into the kitchen. Most state or government standards deal only with public health aspects, and prescribe the treatment processes or the quality parameters that the effluent must meet before it can be used to irrigate a certain category of crops. However, agronomic aspects related to crops and soils must also be taken into account. Quality parameters to be considered include bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens; total salt content and sodium adsorption ratio of the water; nitrogen; phosphorus; chloride and chlorine; bicarbonate; heavy metals, boron, and other trace elements; pH; and synthetic organics. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

Bouwer, H.; Idelovitch, E. (Agricultural Research Service, Phoenix, AZ (USA))

1987-11-01

273

Improving the firing processes of ceramic sewage pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ity products. However, we note that at our plant, the number of the pipes rejected after firing continued to be high for a long time. The main difficulty in firing the pipes is due to their excessive length (exceeding 1300 mm); when placed vertically in the furnace cars, they are subjected to nonuniform firing. The fact that the differences in

V. D. Kizaev

1986-01-01

274

Cultivation and characterization of bacterial isolates capable of degrading pharmaceutical and personal care products for improved removal in activated sludge wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) discharged with wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are an emerging surface water quality concern. Biological transformation has been identified as an important removal mechanism during wastewater treatment. The aim of this research was the identification of bacteria with characteristics for potential bioaugmentation to enhance PPCP removal. We report here the cultivation and characterization of bacteria capable of degrading PPCPs to ng/L concentrations. An isolation approach was developed using serial enrichment in mineral medium containing 1 mg/L of an individual PPCP as the sole organic carbon source available to heterotrophs until the original activated sludge inocula was diluted to ~10(-8) of its initial concentration, followed by colony growth on solid R2A agar. Eleven bacteria were isolated, eight that could remove triclosan, bisphenol A, ibuprofen, or 17?-estradiol to below 10 ng/L, one that could remove gemfibrozil to below 60 ng/L, and two that could remove triclosan or E2, but not to ng/L concentrations. Most bacterial isolates degraded contaminants during early growth when grown utilizing rich carbon sources and were only able to degrade the PPCPs on which they were isolated. Seven of the bacterial isolates were sphingomonads, including all the triclosan and bisphenol A degraders and the ibuprofen degrader. The study results indicate that the isolated bacteria may have a positive influence on removal in WWTPs if present at sufficient concentrations and may be useful for bioaugmentation. PMID:23455956

Zhou, Nicolette A; Lutovsky, April C; Andaker, Greta L; Gough, Heidi L; Ferguson, John F

2013-11-01

275

Improved degradation of organophosphorus nerve agents and p-nitrophenol by Pseudomonas putida JS444 with surface-expressed organophosphorus hydrolase.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas putida JS444, isolated from p-nitrophenol (PNP) contaminated waste sites, was genetically engineered to simultaneously degrade organophosphorus pesticides (OP) and PNP. A surface anchor system derived from the ice-nucleation protein (INP) from Pseudomonas syringae was used to target the organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) onto the surface of Pseudomonas putida JS444, reducing the potential substrate uptake limitation. Engineered cells were capable of targeting OPH onto the cell surface as demonstrated by western blotting, cell fractionation, and immunofluorescence microscopy. The engineered P. putida JS444 degraded organophosphates as well as PNP rapidly without instability problems associated with the engineered Moraxella sp. The initial hydrolysis rate was 7.90, 3.54, and 1.53 micromol/h/mg dry weight for paraoxon, parathion, and methyl parathion, respectively. The excellent stability in combination with the rapid degradation rate for organophosphates and PNP make this engineered strain an ideal biocatalyst for complete mineralization of organophosphates. PMID:15932242

Lei, Yu; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

2005-01-01

276

Complete Genome Sequence of the Chloromethane-Degrading Hyphomicrobium sp. Strain MC1  

PubMed Central

Hyphomicrobium sp. strain MC1 is an aerobic methylotroph originally isolated from industrial sewage. This prosthecate bacterium was the first strain reported to grow with chloromethane as the sole carbon and energy source. Its genome, consisting of a single 4.76-Mb chromosome, is the first for a chloromethane-degrading bacterium to be formally reported.

Vuilleumier, Stephane; Nadalig, Thierry; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Lajus, Aurelie; Roselli, Sandro; Muller, Emilie E. L.; Gruffaz, Christelle; Barbe, Valerie; Medigue, Claudine; Bringel, Francoise

2011-01-01

277

CHLOROPHYLL DEGRADATION.  

PubMed

Although the loss of green color in senescent leaves and ripening fruits is a spectacular natural phenomenon, research on chlorophyll breakdown has been largely neglected until recently. This review summarizes knowledge about the fate of chlorophyll in degreening tissues that has been gained during the past few years. Structures of end- and intermediary products of degradation as well as the biochemistry of the porphyrin-cleaving reaction have been elucidated. The intracellular localization of the catabolic pathway is particularly important in the regulation of chlorophyll breakdown. None of the genes encoding the related catabolic enzymes has so far been isolated, which makes chlorophyll degradation an area of opportunity for future research. PMID:15012204

Matile, Philippe; Hortensteiner, Stefan; Thomas, Howard

1999-06-01

278

Medically-derived 131I in municipal sewage effluent.  

PubMed

This work presents (131)I (t(½) = 8.04 d) concentrations in sewage effluent from the Stony Brook Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP), a small plant serving a regional thyroid cancer treatment facility in Stony Brook, NY, USA. The concentrations detected in sewage effluent ranged from 1.8 ± 0.3 to 227 ± 2 Bq L(-1). The primary source of (131)I is excreta from thyroid cancer inpatients treated at the Stony Brook University Medical Center. Based on several time series measurements following known inpatient treatments, the mean sewage half-life (T(s)) of iodine is 3 d in this plant. The T(s), analogous to a radioactive half-life, describes the time it takes for half of a wastewater component to be removed from a WPCP. Flow recycling, or activated sludge, used to maintain bacterial populations necessary for sewage treatment causes iodine to remain in this plant far longer than its hydraulic retention time. The experimental results suggest that most (131)I entering the Stony Brook WPCP leaves in sewage effluent, not in sewage sludge. Patient treatments can result in continuous discharges of (131)I to surface waters where it can be used as a tracer of sewage-derived material and to understand the behavior of (131)I in aquatic environments. PMID:22925394

Rose, Paula S; Swanson, R Lawrence; Cochran, J Kirk

2012-11-01

279

Occurrence and removal of organic pollutants in sewages and landfill leachates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewages of different composition and the effluents of four sewage treatment plants (STPs), plus sewage sludges were analysed for semivolatile organic priority pollutants. Furthermore, 11 landfill leachates were analysed to evaluate their contribution to sewage pollutants when co-treated. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the pollutant occurring at highest concentrations (up to 122 ?g\\/l) and it was present in all sewages and

Sanna K Marttinen; Riitta H Kettunen; Jukka A Rintala

2003-01-01

280

Combustion Characteristics of Sewage Sludge Using a Pressurized Fluidized Bed Incinerator with Turbocharger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of sewage sludge incinerator that combines a pressurized fluidized bed combustor and a turbocharger driven by flue gas was proposed. This plant has four main advantages. (l) The combustion rate can be improved since the oxygen partial pressure in the combustor is increased by the pressurization. The incinerator volume can be substantially smaller than that of an atmospheric incinerator with the same incineration capacity. Thus, the amount of supplementary fuel can be reduced because the heat loss from the incinerator can be decreased. (2) Because the maximum operating pressure is O.3 MPa (absolute pressure), which matches the pressure required for the turbocharger, a pressure vessel is unnecessary. (3) An energy savings of more than 40% can be achieved compared with a conventional plant since the FDF and the IDF are unnecessary. (4) Because steam in the flue gas becomes the working fluid of the turbocharger, the turbocharger can generate surplus air in addition to the combustion air. The surplus air can be used in other processes, such as aeration, in sewage works. We constructed a demonstration plant (4.32 tid scale) at a sewage works in Japan. The operation and combustion characteristics of the plant were clarified, and the design data of a commercial plant was obtained.

Murakami, T.; Kltajlma, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Nagasawa, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Koseki, T.; Hirose, H.; Okamoto, S.

281

Enhanced microbial adaptation to pNitrophenol using activated sludge retained in porous carrier particles and simultaneous removal of nitrite released from degradation of pNitrophenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the microbial degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) by a mixed culture system and simultaneous removal of nitrite released via the degradation, an activated sludge retained in porous carrier particles and a suspension culture as a control were acclimated to artificial sewage containing PNP as the sole carbon source. The adaptation of microbes retained in porous carrier particles

Xin-Hui Xing; Tomoyuki Inoue; Yasunori Tanji; Hajime Unno

1999-01-01

282

Spectroscopic study of the humification process during sewage sludge treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the free radical transition of organic materials during the sewage treatment process. Investigations of sludge from biologic-mechanical sewage treatment plant in Sosnowiec Zagórze were carried out. The course of the humification processes during sewage treatment was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The concentration of free radicals at each process stage and the value g were determined. Sludge samples and extracted fractions of humic acids were examined. Humic acids were extracted from sludge by means of conventional methods elaborated by Stevenson. For study of humic acids structures, besides EPR, the UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy were used.

Paj?czkowska, J.; Su?kowska, A.; Su?kowski, W. W.; J?drzejczyk, M.

2003-06-01

283

Comparison of sewage sludge- and pig manure-derived biochars for hydrogen sulfide removal.  

PubMed

Biochars derived from pig manure and sewage sludge were evaluated for their abilities to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas phase. The pig manure biochar had higher capacities for H2S sorption than sewage sludge biochar in both dynamic and static systems, and moisture improves H2S removal. Increasing the biochar moisture to 25 wt% and 100 wt% in the static system increased the pig manure biochar removal capacities by 15.9% and 58.9%, respectively, compared to the dry biochar (0 wt% moisture). The sewage sludge biochar similarly increased the removal by 1.04 and 3.30 times for 25 wt% and 100 wt% moisture, respectively. The catalytic conversion to elemental S(0) and SO4(2)(-) was the main route of H2S removal. The complete oxidation of H2S into SO4(2)(-) mainly occurred on the biochar surface, while H2S underwent incomplete oxidation into elemental S(0) in the biochar pores. The SO4(2)(-) was the dominant form in both biochars, especially for the pig manure biochar which contained 53.9% of the total sulfur at 100 wt% moisture. The SO4(2)(-) was mainly present as CaSO4 precipitate in the sewage sludge biochar, while SO4(2)(-) in the pig manure biochar was mostly soluble (K, Na)2SO4. The results indicated the waste biomass can be converted into value-added biochar as a sorbent for H2S, especially at high moisture that promotes complete oxidation of H2S into SO4(2)(-). Strong alkalinity and rich inorganic minerals originated in the biochar play an important role in its high H2S sorption ability and the final sulfur forms. PMID:24997932

Xu, Xiaoyun; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Sun, Tonghua

2014-09-01

284

Isolation of azo-dye-degrading microorganisms and their application to white discharge printing of fabric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three bacterial strains, which degraded azo dyes, were isolated from soil and sewage samples. The strains were identified as Bacillus sp. OY1-2, Xanthomonas sp. NR25-2 and Pseudomonas sp. PR41-1. The bacteria produced azo-dyes-degrading enzymes. That catalyzed the reduction of methyl red and produced dimethyl p-phenylenediamine and o-aminobenzoic acid. The enzymes could thus be applied to white discharge printing of azo-dyed

Wataru Sugiura; Toshio Miyashita; Tadashi Yokoyama; Motoo Arai

1999-01-01

285

Creating wetlands for the improvement of water quality and landscape restoration in semi-arid zones degraded by intensive agricultural use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing interest in restoring wetlands within a multipurpose approach is observed in degraded lands submitted to intensive human uses. This study evaluates the effectiveness of constructed and natural wetlands in removing nutrients from agricultural wastewater and their potential contribution to landscape heterogeneity in semiarid Monegros area, NE Spain. To achieve the first aim, wetland plots of differing sizes (50, 200,

David Moreno; César Pedrocchi; Francisco A. Comín; Mercedes García; Alvaro Cabezas

2007-01-01

286

Metabolites and biodegradation pathways of fatty alcohol ethoxylates in microbial biocenoses of sewage treatment plants  

SciTech Connect

The biodegradation of fatty alcohol polyglycol ethers was studied by analyzing the /sup 14/C-labeled intermediates isolated from the effluent of a model continuous-flow sewage treatment plant after dosage of either alkyl- or heptaglycol-labeled stearyl alcohol ethoxylate (SA-7EO). In each case, uncharged and carboxylated (mainly dicarboxylated) polyethylene glycols constituted the most prominent metabolites. The results indicate that there is a faster degradation of the alkyl than the polyethylene glycol moiety and that there are two distinct primary degradation mechanisms acting simultaneously in microbial biocenoses: intramolecular scission of the surfactant as well as omega- and beta-oxidation of the alkyl chain. Characterization of the bulk of /sup 14/C-labeled metabolites as a homologous series of neutral and acidic polyglycol units and identification of several C2-fragments accounted for the depolymerization of the hydrophilic part of the surfactant by stepwise cleavage of ether-bound EO units; from additional degradation studies employing either neutral or carboxylated /sup 14/C-labeled polyethylene glycols as model metabolites, it was concluded that hydrolytic as well as oxidative cleavage of C2-units is involved. The simultaneous action of different degradation mechanisms indicates the involvement of several distinct bacterial groups in the biodegradation of fatty alcohol ethoxylates under environmental conditions.

Steber, J.; Wierich, P.

1985-03-01

287

Transformation products and human metabolites of triclocarban and triclosan in sewage sludge across the United States.  

PubMed

Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (? = 0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2'-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r = 0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (? = 0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37-74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4-2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge. PMID:24932693

Pycke, Benny F G; Roll, Isaac B; Brownawell, Bruce J; Kinney, Chad A; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Halden, Rolf U

2014-07-15

288

Plasma chemical gasification of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The possibility for plasma gasification of sewage sludge is investigated. Water steam is used as the plasma generating gas and as a chemical reagent. The experiments are carried out at a sludge to water steam ratio of 1 to 1.5 by weight, and at a plasma torch temperature of up to 2600 degrees C. The calculated average temperature in the reactor after mixing with the sludge particles is up to 1700 degrees C. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the sludge are given. The resulting gases are analysed by gas chromatography. High calorific gas containing mainly carbon monoxide (48% volume) and hydrogen (46% volume), as well as glass-like slag, is obtained. No water-soluble substances are detected within it. The amount of carbon dioxide produced is under 4% mass. No hydrocarbons are observed within the gas. The investigated process is environmentally safe, compact and shows a high rate of conversion. PMID:12667017

Balgaranova, Janetta

2003-02-01

289

Silver nanoparticles tolerant bacteria from sewage environment.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticle (SNP) is a threat to soil, water and human health. Protection of environment from silver nanoparticles is a major concern. A sewage isolate, Bacillus pumilus treated with SNPs showed similar growth kinetics to that without nanoparticles. A reduction in the amount of exopolysaccharides was observed after SNPs--B. pumilus culture supernatant interaction. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) peaks for the exopolysaccharides extracted from the bacterial culture supernatant and the interacted SNPs were almost similar. The exopolysaccharide capping of the SNPs was confirmed by UV-Visible, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction analysis. The study of bacterial exopolysaccharides capped SNPs with E. coli, S. aureus and M. luteus showed less toxicity compared to uncoated SNPs. Our studies suggested that the capping of nanoparticles by bacterially produced exopolysaccharides serve as the probable mechanism of tolerance. PMID:21517011

Khan, Sudheer; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

2011-01-01

290

Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge  

PubMed Central

The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model.

2014-01-01

291

Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

Trávní?ek, Petr; Junga, Petr

2014-01-01

292

Identification of asbestos and glass fibers in municipal sewage sludges  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results of the analysis of municipal sewage sludges from five large American cities for the presence of asbestos fibers. The possible toxicologic significance of the findings for specific occupational groups is discussed.

Bishop, K.; Ring, S.J.; Zoltai, T.; Manos, C.G.; Ahrens, D.V.; Lisk, D.J.

1985-03-01

293

13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

294

Use of Coal to Enhance Metabolic Treatment of Sewage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A newly proposed sewage treatment process in which coal particulates are suspended in mixed liquor and recirculated with activated sludge has been investigated. The premise that the suspended coal particles concentrate nutrients and organic matter by phys...

1969-01-01

295

TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI  

EPA Science Inventory

Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

296

Restoration of Failing On-Lot Sewage Disposal Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to evaluate two rehabilitative techniques-water conservation and absorption bed resting--for restoration of failing on-site sewage disposal areas. Eleven homes with failing absorption areas were characterized and baseline...

D. D. Fritton W. E. Sharpe A. R. Jarrett C. A. Cole G. W. Peterson

1984-01-01

297

First Report on the WRC Sewage Sludge Pumping Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes experiments carried out over a two year period to investigate the effect of sewage sludge on rotodynamic pump and pipeline performance. Pump performance has been correlated with sludge rheology, and ragging up and gas bubbles within ...

M. Johnson

1981-01-01

298

Onshore Treatment System for Sewage from Watercraft Retention Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the program an evaporative waste treatment system for onshore treatment of sewage from watercraft retention systems was developed and demonstrated. Wastes and chemical additives associated with recreational watercraft holding tanks were characteriz...

A. J. Glueckert P. A. Saigh

1975-01-01

299

Irradiation Effects on the Physical Characteristics of Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, i...

M. J. Lee J. K. Lee D. H. Yoo

2005-01-01

300

IDENTIFYING COMPOUNDS DESPITE CHROMATOGRAPHY LIMITATIONS: ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN TREATED SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Highly concentrated extracts of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents contain detectable levels of dozens of compounds resulting from human activities. Recent concern over use and disposal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPS) (1) has stimulated interest ...

301

CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTORS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge and septage destined for land application or surface disposal. t also provides guidance for meeting those requirements. he chapters of this document discuss why pathogen control is necessary, t...

302

40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system...habitations) from the collection system will be for waste waters originating from the community (habitations) in...

2013-07-01

303

Costs of Air Pollution Abatement Systems for Sewage Sludge Incinerators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet s...

G. Annamraju Y. M. Shah M. L. Arora

1986-01-01

304

USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

305

Absence of asbestos in municipal sewage sludge ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier studies, asbestos was found in sewage sludges in several cities in the United States using x-ray diffraction, high power light optical microscopy, polarized light microscopy or electron microscopy. In a number of cities in the United States, sewage sludge is incinerated at temperatures up to 1,000°C. Temperatures of 550°C or higher dehydroxylate the asbestos lattice resulting in alteration

Kusum J. Patel-Mandlik; Charles G. Manos; Donald J. Lisk

1988-01-01

306

Combustion kinetics of sewage sludge and combustible wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimated the kinetics of the mono- and co-combustion of sewage sludge pellets and combustible wastes such as municipal\\u000a solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Sewage sludge was manufactured into pellets with a diameter of 8, 12, or\\u000a 16 mm and a length of 30 mm. The RDF was composed of paper and plastics and was formed into

Ho-Soo Lee; Sung-Keun Bae

2009-01-01

307

Effect of Antarctic solar radiation on sewage bacteria viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of coastal Antarctic research stations discard untreated sewage waste into the near-shore marine environment. However, Antarctic solar conditions are unique, with ozone depletion increasing the proportion of potentially damaging ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the marine environment. This study assessed the influence of Antarctic solar radiation on the viability of Escherichia coli and sewage microorganisms at Rothera Research Station,

Kevin A. Hughes

2005-01-01

308

Monitoring sewage sludge using heterotrophic nitrogen fixing microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was studied using free-living N2-fixing bacteria in two types of soil amended with six types of municipal sewage sludges and cow and pig manures, respectively. Sludge and manure treatments were as follows: no addition, Swedish recommended rates of 5 t dry wt ha?1, twice the standard rate of addition (2RR), and 10 times the standard rate (10RR). The

A. M. Mårtensson; L. Torstensson

1996-01-01

309

Aerobic thermophilic treatment of sewage sludge contaminated with 4-nonylphenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) occurs in sewage sludge as a result of the breakdown of detergents which contains nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs). 4-NP is of environmental concern because of its toxicity to biological systems. The present paper reports results of aerobic treatment under thermophilic conditions of sewage sludge artificially contaminated with 4-NP. Experiments were carried out using three parallel laboratory-scale batch reactors operating

Fawzi A Banat; Stephan Prechtl; Franz Bischof

2000-01-01

310

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve reestablishment of Leymus chinensis in bare saline-alkaline soil: Implication on vegetation restoration of extremely degraded land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinization and alkalinization are increasing problems in the world. Some land has been degraded to bare saline-alkaline soil where vegetation restoration is difficult because high toxic ionic content and pH are harmful to the survival of introduced plants. We grew Leymus chinensis with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae and G. geosporum) in either pots filled with soil from bare

Y. F. Zhang; P. Wang; Y. F. Yang; Q. Bi; S. Y. Tian; X. W. Shi

2011-01-01

311

Impact of lead and sewage sludge on soil microbial biomass and carbon and nitrogen mineralization  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge disposal on arable land is viewed as a method to reduce waste accumulation and to enrich soil fertility. However, such disposal can degrade soil ecosystems due to the presence of potentially harmful substances, such as heavy metals. Pb has assumed greater significance because currently its dispersal through anthropogenic activities has exceeded the inputs from natural sources by about 17 fold. Several soil variables such as texture, organic matter content, clay, cation exchange capacity, soil pH, and CaCO{sub 3} content influence the toxic effects of heavy metals on sol microbes and their activities. Microbes have an essential function in cycling of nutrients through mineralization activities. However, the addition of 375 and 1500 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1} soil in sandy loam and clay loam has been reported to cause a 15% decrease in soil microbial respiration. Contrarily, in an organic soil microbial respiration and enzyme activities were observed to remain unaltered by the addition of 1000 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1} soil. While the nitrification process in a sandy loam soil has been reported to be significantly inhibited at 100 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1} soil, the addition of similar amount of Pb to alluvial and clay loam had no effect on nitrification and ammonifying and nitrifying bacteria. This study assesses the effects of lead and sewages sludge on microbial biomass and mineralization processes in soils of varied texture and organic matter content. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

Dar, G.H. [Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hisar (India)] [Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hisar (India)

1997-02-01

312

Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503  

SciTech Connect

The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

Not Available

1993-08-01

313

Degradation of substituted indoles by an indole-degrading methanogenic consortium.  

PubMed Central

Degradation of indole by an indole-degrading methanogenic consortium enriched from sewage sludge proceeded through a two-step hydroxylation pathway yielding oxindole and isatin. The ability of this consortium to hydroxylate and subsequently degrade substituted indoles was investigated. Of the substituted indoles tested, the consortium was able to transform or degrade 3-methylindole and 3-indolyl acetate. Oxindole, 3-methyloxindole, and indoxyl were identified as metabolites of indole, 3-methylindole, and 3-indolyl acetate degradation, respectively. Isatin (indole-2,3-dione) was produced as an intermediate when the consortium was amended with oxindole, providing evidence that degradation of indole proceeded through successive hydroxylation of the 2- and 3-positions prior to ring cleavage between the C-2 and C-3 atoms on the pyrrole ring of indole. The presence of a methyl group (-CH3) at either the 1- or 2-position of indole inhibited the initial hydroxylation reaction. The substituted indole, 3-methylindole, was hydroxylated in the 2-position but not in the 3-position and could not be further metabolized through the oxindole-isatin pathway. Indoxyl (indole-3-one), the deacetylated product of 3-indolyl acetate, was not hydroxylated in the 2-position and thus was not further metabolized by the consortium. When an H atom or electron-donating group (i.e., -CH3) was present at the 3-position, hydroxylation proceeded at the 2-position, but the presence of electron-withdrawing substituent groups (i.e., -OH or -COOH) at the 3-position inhibited hydroxylation.

Gu, J D; Berry, D F

1991-01-01

314

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix A to...

2009-01-01

315

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix A to...

2010-07-01

316

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Llll of... - Summary of Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 5 Table...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60...Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a...

2013-07-01

317

Occurrence and elimination of antibiotics at four sewage treatment plants in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China.  

PubMed

In this paper, the occurrence and elimination of eight selected antibiotics mainly for human use, including chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolone, sulfonamide and macrolide groups, were investigated at four sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China. The most frequently detected antibiotics in the present study were ofloxacin, norfloxacin, roxithromycin, erythromycin-H(2)O (the main degradation product of erythromycin) and sulfamethoxazole. The concentrations of these compounds in raw influents and final effluents at the four STPs ranged from 10 to 1978 ngL(-1) and from 9 to 2054 ngL(-1), respectively. The other analytes were detected only in a few samples from the four STPs. Antibiotics could not be eliminated completely at the four STPs, with the highest elimination efficiency reaching to 81%. Analysis of the dissolved daily mass flow showed that fluoroquinolones were mostly eliminated from the sewage, and high concentrations of these compounds were found in secondary sludge. Therefore, it can be concluded that the observed elimination of fluoroquinolones in the STPs was due to their sorption to the sludge, but not biodegradation. Macrolides, especially erythromycin-H(2)O, were stable in sewage during the treatment process, and in fact even higher concentrations were found in the final effluents than in the raw sewages. Sulfamethoxazole was also found in raw influent and final effluent, indicating that it could withstand different treatment processes in the STPs. Remarkable differences in the daily environmental loads (the sum of the amounts in the final effluent and sludge) of the five most frequently detected antibiotic compounds were found in the range of 0.5-828 g at the four STPs. PMID:17631935

Xu, Weihai; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong; Zou, Shichun; Li, Ping; Hu, Zhaohui; Li, Jun

2007-11-01

318

Organic matter transformations and kinetics during sewage sludge composting in a two-stage system.  

PubMed

The use of different proportions of rape straw and grass as amendments in the composting of dewatered sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was tested in a two-stage system (first stage, an aerated bioreactor and second stage, a periodically turned windrow). The composition of feedstock affected the temperature and organic matter degradation in the bioreactor and the formation of humic substances, especially humic acids (HA), during compost maturation in the windrow. The total HA content (the sum of labile and stable HA) increased according to first-order kinetics, whereas labile HA content was constant and did not exceed 12% of total HA. ?logK of 1.0-1.1 indicated that HA was of R-type, indicating a low degree of humification. Temperature during composting was the main factor affecting polymerization of fulvic acids to HA and confirmed the value of the degree of polymerization, which increased only when thermophilic conditions were obtained. PMID:21978622

Kulikowska, Dorota; Klimiuk, Ewa

2011-12-01

319

Effect of adsorbent composition on H 2S removal on sewage sludge-based materials enriched with carbonaceous phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the carbonaceous phase content in sewage sludge derived adsorbents, dewatered sludge was physically mixed with polystyrene sulfonic acid-co maleic acid sodium salt with the following ratios of polymer to sludge: 10:90, 30:70, 50:50 and 70:30. The samples, along with the pure precursors, were carbonized at 950°C and then washed in water to remove the excess of

Adil Ansari; Andrey Bagreev; Teresa J. Bandosz

2005-01-01

320

Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products as water-soluble molecular markers of sewage.  

PubMed

We examined the utility of 13 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as molecular markers of sewage contamination in riverine, groundwater, and coastal environments. The PPCPs were crotamiton, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, mefenamic acid, thymol, triclosan, propyphenazone, carbamazepine, diethyltoluamide, ethenzamide, and caffeine. Measurements in 37 Japanese rivers showed positive correlations of riverine flux of crotamiton (r2 = 0.85), carbamazepine (r2 = 0.84), ibuprofen (r2 = 0.73), and mefenamic acid (r2 = 0.67) with the population in the catchments. In three surveys in the Tamagawa estuary, crotamiton, carbamazepine, and mefenamic acid behaved conservatively across seasons within a salinity range of 0.4-29 per thousand, suggesting their utility as molecular markers in coastal environments. Removal of ketoprofen and naproxen in the estuary was ascribed to photodegradation. Ibuprofen and thymol were removed from estuarine waters in summer by microbial degradation. Triclosan was removed by a combination of microbial degradation, photodegradation, and adsorption. These results were consistent with those of river water incubated for 8 d at 25 degrees C in the dark in order to examine the effects of biodegradation and photodegradation. Crotamiton was detected in groundwater from the Tokyo metropolitan area (12 out of 14 samples), suggesting wastewater leakage from decrepit sewers. Carbamazepine, ketoprofen, and ibuprofen (5/14), caffeine (4/14), and diethyltoluamide (3/14) were also detected in the groundwater, whereas the other carboxylic and phenolic PPCPs were not detected and were thought to be removed during their passage through soil. All the data demonstrated the utility of crotamiton and carbamazepine as conservative markers in freshwater and coastal environments. We recommend combining these conservative markers with labile PPCPs to detect inputs of poorly treated sewage. PMID:18800500

Nakada, Norihide; Kiri, Kentaro; Shinohara, Hiroyuki; Harada, Arata; Kuroda, Keisuke; Takizawa, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige

2008-09-01

321

Tracking sewage derived contamination in riverine settings by analysis of synthetic surfactants.  

PubMed

A study has been made of the presence and reactivity of the most commonly used surfactants, both anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, LAS, and alkyl ethoxysulfates, AES) and non-ionic (alcohol polyethoxylates, AEOs, and nonylphenol polyethoxylates, NPEOs), in water and surface sediments from the middle stretch of the Guadalete River in SW Spain (12 stations). Average values were between 0.1 and 3.7 mg kg(-1) in sediment, and between 0.2 and 37 ?g L(-1) in water. The sorption of surfactants was dominated by hydrophobic mechanisms, so those homologues having longer alkyl chains (e.g. C(18)AEO) showed higher relative percentages and concentrations in sediments compared with water. Local and sharply higher concentrations of these compounds were observed at three sampling stations (7, 9 and 12), indicating the occurrence of wastewater discharges into the river. By analysing the distributions of different surfactant homologues and their metabolites we were able to distinguish between sewage contamination from sources discharging treated and untreated wastewaters. Upstream (stations 1-2), LAS concentrations were below 30 ?g L(-1) and the composition of their degradation intermediates (sulfophenyl carboxylic acids, SPCs) (160 ?g L(-1)) was dominated by short-chain homologues (C(6)-C(9)SPCs), indicating that the degradation of this surfactant is at an advanced stage. The highest concentration (487 ?g L(-1)) of SPCs was detected near the effluent outlet of a sewage treatment plant (STP) (station 12). Sampling stations (7 and 9) affected by untreated wastewater discharges were the only ones showing the presence of the most reactive and biodegradable SPC isomers and homologues (e.g. C(11)SPC). Here, LAS reached the highest concentration values measured (>2 mg L(-1)), and showed a homologue distribution closer to that of commercial mixtures than LAS found at the other stations. PMID:21625728

Corada-Fernández, Carmen; Lara-Martín, Pablo A; Candela, Lucila; González-Mazo, Eduardo

2011-07-01

322

Polysaccharide Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

323

Norovirus pathway in water environment estimated by genetic analysis of strains from patients of gastroenteritis, sewage, treated wastewater, river water and oysters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, Norovirus (NV) capsid gene was detected from patients of gastroenteritis, domestic sewage, treated wastewater, river water and cultivated oysters in geographically close areas where all of samples were collected. In order to improve recovery efficiency of NVs from oysters, a new method using a spallation apparatus was developed. As a result, 18 of 30 oysters (60%) were

You Ueki; Daisuke Sano; Toru Watanabe; Kazuo Akiyama; Tatsuo Omura

2005-01-01

324

Effects of compost produced from town wastes and sewage sludge on the physical properties of a loamy and a clay soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic fertilizer produced by composting 62% town wastes, 21% sewage sludge and 17% sawdust by volume, was applied at the rates of 0 (control), 75, 150 and 300 m3 ha?1 to loamy and clay soils, in order to investigate its potential for soil improvement. The experiments were conducted in areas characterised by a semi-arid climate. The chemical properties of the

S. M. Aggelides; P. A. Londra

2000-01-01

325

Enhanced compositing of radiation disinfected sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on isothermal composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge and liquid chromatography of water extracts of the products were carried out. The optimum temperature and pH were around 50 °C and 7-8, respectively. The repeated use of products as seeds increased the rate of CO 2 evolution. The rate reached a maximum within 10 hours and decreased rapidly, and the CO 2 evolution ceased after about 3 days. The conversion of organic carbon to carbon dioxide attained to about 40% for the repeated use of products as seeds at the optimum conditions. As long as seeds in available were used, no remarkable difference was found in the composting of unirradiated and irradiated sludges. The composting process using radiation, however, can be carried out at the optimum conditions and is expected to shorten the composting period, because it is not necessary to keep fermentation temperature higher to reduce pathogen in sludge. Liquid chromatographic studies of the products showed that low molecular components decreased and higher molecular ones increased with fermentation. An index expressing the degree of reduction of easily decomposable organics was presented. The index also showed that the optimum temperature for fermentation was 50 °C, and that the easily decomposable organics disappeared above 30% of the conversion of organic carbon.

Kawakami, W.; Hashimoto, S.

326

Metabolites and biodegradation pathways of fatty alcohol ethoxylates in microbial biocenoses of sewage treatment plants.  

PubMed

The biodegradation of fatty alcohol polyglycol ethers was studied by analyzing the 14C-labeled intermediates isolated from the effluent of a model continuous-flow sewage treatment plant after dosage of either alkyl- or heptaglycol-labeled stearyl alcohol ethoxylate (SA-7EO). In each case, uncharged and carboxylated (mainly dicarboxylated) polyethylene glycols constituted the most prominent metabolites. The results indicate that there is a faster degradation of the alkyl than the polyethylene glycol moiety and that there are two distinct primary degradation mechanisms acting simultaneously in microbial biocenoses: intramolecular scission of the surfactant as well as omega- and beta-oxidation of the alkyl chain. Characterization of the bulk of 14C-labeled metabolites as a homologous series of neutral and acidic polyglycol units and identification of several C2-fragments accounted for the depolymerization of the hydrophilic part of the surfactant by stepwise cleavage of ether-bound EO units; from additional degradation studies employing either neutral or carboxylated 14C-labeled polyethylene glycols as model metabolites, it was concluded that hydrolytic as well as oxidative cleavage of C2-units is involved. Most of the identified low-molecular-weight 14C-labeled acids suggest an ultimate degradation of EO monomers by the oxidative dicarbonic acid cycle or the glycerate pathway or both. In addition, the finding of considerable amounts of oxalic and formic acids allow consideration of an additional mineralization route via glyoxylic, oxalic, and formic acids. The simultaneous action of different degradation mechanisms indicates the involvement of several distinct bacterial groups in the biodegradation of fatty alcohol ethoxylates under environmental conditions. PMID:3994363

Steber, J; Wierich, P

1985-03-01

327

Renewable Energy Production from Waste to Mitigate Climate Change and Counteract Soil Degradation - A Spatial Explicit Assessment for Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste production from urban areas is growing faster than urbanization itself, while at the same time urban areas are increasingly contributing substantial emissions causing climate change. Estimates indicate for urban residents a per capita solid waste (MSW) production of 1.2 kg per day, subject to further increase to 1.5 kg beyond 2025. Waste water and sewage production is estimated at about 260 liters per capita and day, also at increasing rates. Based on these figures, waste - including e.g. MSW, sewage and animal manure - can generally be assumed as a renewable resource with varying organic components and quantity. This paper demonstrates how new and innovative technologies in the field of Waste-to-Green Products can help in various ways not only to reduce costs for waste treatment, reduce the pressure on largely overloaded dump sites, and reduce also the effect of toxic materials at the landfill site and by that i.e. protect the groundwater. Moreover, Waste-to-Green Products can contribute actively to mitigating climate change through fossil fuel substitution and carbon sequestration while at the same time counteracting negative land use effects from other types of renewable energy and feedstock production through substitution. At the same time, the co-production and recycling of fertilizing elements and biochar can substantially counteract soil degradation and improve the soil organic carbon content of different land use types. The overall objective of this paper is to assess the total climate change mitigation potential of MSW, sewage and animal manure for Japan. A techno-economic approach is used to inform the policy discussion on the suitability of this substantial and sustainable mitigation option. We examine the spatial explicit technical mitigation potential from e.g. energy substitution and carbon sequestration through biochar in rural and urban Japan. For this exercise, processed information on respective Japanese waste production, energy demand (population density) and transport infrastructure is used as input data to an engineering model (BeWhere) for optimizing scale and location of waste treatment plants with potential energy and fertilizer co-generation. Finally, this paper quantifies the economic dimension of mitigation through innovative waste treatment while considering the additional business-feasibility and potential benefits from waste treatment co-products such as energy generation, fertilizer and biochar production for counteracting soil degradation.

Kraxner, Florian; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Leduc, Sylvain; Fuss, Sabine; Aoki, Kentaro; Yamagata, Yoshiki

2014-05-01

328

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2013-01-01 true Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning...1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners entering...

2014-01-01

329

33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable...79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel certified to carry more than 10...

2010-07-01

330

33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable...79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel certified to carry more than 10...

2013-07-01

331

33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable...79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel certified to carry more than 10...

2009-07-01

332

78 FR 34973 - Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0372; FRL-9820-9] Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and...Indiana's State Plan to control air pollutants from Sewage Sludge Incinerators (SSI). The Indiana Department of...

2013-06-11

333

Volatilization, Plant Uptake and Mineralization of Nitrogen in Soils Treated with Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify the amount of ammonia volatilization taking place after application of sewage sludge to the soil surface, evaluate the movement of nitrogen and plant uptake from soils treated with sewage sludge,...

L. E. Sommers C. F. Parker G. J. Meyers

1981-01-01

334

33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable...79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel certified to carry more than 10...

2012-07-01

335

33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable...79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel certified to carry more than 10...

2011-07-01

336

Energy Production and Pollution Prevention at Sewage Treatment Plants Using Fuel Cell Power Plants  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses energy production and pollution prevention at sewage treatment plants using fuel cell power plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at waste water treatment plants during the anaerobic treatment of sewage to reduce solids. Fue...

R. J. Spiegel, J. L. Preston

1999-01-01

337

26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stage in sewage treatment in which a bacterial process (or an equivalent process) consumes the organic parts of wastes, usually by trickling filters or an activated sludge process. (viii) Sewage sludge is defined...

2009-04-01

338

26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stage in sewage treatment in which a bacterial process (or an equivalent process) consumes the organic parts of wastes, usually by trickling filters or an activated sludge process. (viii) Sewage sludge is defined...

2010-04-01

339

Macrobenthos response to sewage pollution in a tropical inshore area.  

PubMed

Organic sewage pollution is the major stressor that affects benthic communities in the coastal waters. In the present study involving a once-off sampling (July-August 2003) of a sewage treatment plant (STP) outfall and areas 6 km farther into the sea, we tried to estimate the severity of organic pollution on marine macrobenthos over a pollution gradient in the inshore waters (station depths, 5-30 m) off a heavily urbanized tropical city, on the east coast of India. Multivariate ordination analyses revealed two different groups of faunal assemblages. Group I is associated with sites impacted by the sewage outfall and group II with the locations 3-6 km away in the open sea. Polychaetes and amphipods were the predominant fauna with significant taxonomic differences between the assemblages. Despite the homogeneity in sediment texture, the two-fold increase in sediment organic matter near the sewage outfall area supported r-strategists, while group II locations favoured K-strategists. Approximation through benthic opportunistic polychaetes amphipods (BOPA) index and information on the key taxa responsible for the observed assemblage patterns corroborated these findings. Thus, the present findings revealed how organic sewage pollution influences benthic diversity in coastal waters by supporting communities of opportunistic characteristics. We advocate inclusion of community traits and compatible analytical tools (statistical approaches) in studies of similar nature so that the observations could be compared and broad remedial measures could be evolved. PMID:24464401

Ganesh, T; Rakhesh, M; Raman, A V; Nanduri, Sateesh; Moore, Shonda; Rajanna, B

2014-06-01

340

Enhanced soil sorption of methidathion using sewage sludge and surfactants.  

PubMed

Batch experiments were carried out to examine the partitioning of an organophosphorus insecticide, methidathion, in non-amended agricultural soil and soil amended with urban sewage sludge and/or different types of surfactant. Kinetic data showed that sewage sludge significantly reduced adsorption rate, whereas amendment of the soil with the cationic surfactant tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TDTMA) at 10 x CMC (critical micellar concentration) increased the adsorption rate by a factor of 10. The adsorption isotherms were evaluated using the Freundlich model. The soil adsorption capacity for methidathion was enhanced by amendment with sewage sludge and even more significantly with TDTMA at 10 x CMC or combined with sewage sludge. TDTMA conferred a high hydrophobic character to the soil, enhancing the adsorption capacity of the rather hydrophobic methidathion. The amendment of soil both with sewage sludge and TDTMA combines the increased hydrophobicity with a higher surfactant retention by organic matter, due to an increase in cation exchange capacity, which promotes even more the adsorption capacity for the insecticide. An anionic surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, and the non-ionic Tween 80 only induced a slight modification in the kinetics and adsorption of methidathion. PMID:12916766

Sánchez, Lourdes; Romero, Esperanza; Sánchez-Rasero, Francisco; Dios, Gonzalo; Peña, Aránzazu

2003-08-01

341

Risk of hepatitis A infection in sewage workers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection among sewage workers from occupational exposure to raw sewage. METHODS: An analytical cross sectional study of 241 company employees with possible occupational exposure to sewage in a large water and sewerage company was carried out. Previous exposure to hepatitis A virus infection was assessed, as were its associations with possible risk factors. RESULTS: Frequent occupational exposure to raw sewage was a significant risk factor for HAV infection, independently of other known risk factors (odds ratio 3.73, 95% confidence interval 1.48 to 9.37). Of 50 employees who reported occupational exposure to raw sewage most of the time, 30 (60%) had had HAV infection. CONCLUSION: Employees who are likely to be at risk of frequent exposure should have their immunity ensured. The salivary assay for IgG anti-HAV used in the study was highly specific and would be suitable for prevaccination testing of older employees, who are more likely to be immune.  

Brugha, R.; Heptonstall, J.; Farrington, P.; Andren, S.; Perry, K.; Parry, J.

1998-01-01

342

Sewage sludge dumping and contamination of Liverpool Bay sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of four MAFF surveys (1975-1980) of the sediments in and around the sewage sludge dumping site in Liverpool Bay are presented. Sediments were analysed for particle size distribution, organic carbon concentrations and concentrations of Hg, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cr. Concentrations of organic carbon and metals were found to be elevated in the fine ( < 90 ?m) fraction in areas associated with the major inputs of these substances to the bay—near the mouth of the Mersey, near the sewage sludge dumping site and at the dredged spoil dumping site. In an attempt to determine any temporal trends between surveys, stations were grouped into four 8×8 km areas from offshore of the dumping ground to the mouth of the Mersey. Changes in the metal concentrations in sediments in the square nearest the sewage sludge dumping site were larger than in the other squares including that nearest the Mersey. Comparison of temporal trends near the sewage sludge site with the quantities actually dumped showed a correlation between the two, consistent with sewage sludge dumping being a major contributor to the metal levels in fine sediments near the dumping ground.

Norton, M. G.; Rowlatt, S. M.; Nunny, R. S.

1984-07-01

343

Hepatitis A in workers exposed to sewage: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To assess whether the scientific literature supports the hypothesis that workers exposed to sewage are at higher risk of hepatitis A (HA).?METHODS—All original papers reporting epidemiological studies published in English, French, or German which reported on the risk of HA infection in workers exposed to sewage were eligible. They were identified by several methods and each original paper was assessed independently with a checklist by two people. Studies were classified according to the strength of their design. Non-eligible studies were also examined to assess the impact of publication bias. If the risk estimates diverged widely, causes for heterogeneity were assessed. A distinction was made between seroprevalence studies based on subclinical HA (defined only by the presence of anti-HA antibodies) and clinical HA.?RESULTS—17 eligible studies were identified. No indication of an increased risk of clinical HA could be found. For seroprevalence the studies with the strongest design suggested a slightly increased risk of subclinical HA with an odds ratio (OR) <2.5. Heterogeneity was considerable and precluded a meta-analysis. Considering non-eligible studies would still decrease the OR.?CONCLUSIONS—The systematic review does not confirm an increased risk of clinical HA in workers exposed to sewage. An increased risk of subclinical HA cannot be excluded but the association between seropositivity and exposure to sewage was not strong and became still weaker if publication bias was taken into account.???Keywords: hepatitis A; sewage; systematic review

Glas, C; Hotz, P; Steffen, R

2001-01-01

344

Factors impacting on pharmaceutical leaching following sewage application to land.  

PubMed

Sewage effluent application to land is a treatment technology that requires appropriate consideration of various design factors. Soil type, level of sewage pre-treatment and irrigation rate were assessed for their influence on the success of soil treatment in removing pharmaceuticals remaining after conventional sewage treatment. A large scale experimental site was built to assess treatment performance in a realistic environment. Of the factors investigated, soil type had the biggest impact on treatment performance. In particular, carbamazepine was very efficiently removed (>99%) when irrigated onto a volcanic sandy loam soil. This was in contrast to irrigation onto a sandy soil where no carbamazepine removal occurred after irrigation. Differences were likely caused by the presence of allophane in the volcanic soil which is able to accumulate a high level of organic matter. Carbamazepine apparent adsorption distribution coefficients (K(d)) for both soils when irrigated with treated sewage effluent were determined as 25 L kg(-1) for the volcanic soil and 0.08 L kg(-1) for the sandy soil. Overall, a volcanic soil was reasonably efficient in removing carbamazepine while soil type was not a major factor for caffeine removal. Removal of caffeine, however, was more efficient when a partially treated rather than fully treated effluent was applied. Based on the investigated pharmaceuticals and given an appropriate design, effluent irrigation onto land, in conjunction with conventional sewage treatment may be considered a beneficial treatment for pharmaceutical removal. PMID:18996568

Gielen, Gerty J H P; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Clinton, Peter W; Greenfield, Laurie G

2009-01-01

345

Pharmaceuticals as indictors of sewage-influenced groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of human pharmaceuticals enables identification of groundwater that is influenced by sewage and provides information on the time of recharge. As the consumption rates of the investigated pharmaceuticals have changed over time, so too has the composition of the sewage. At the study area, south of Berlin (Germany), irrigation was performed as a method of wastewater clean-up at sewage irrigation farms until the early 1990s. Today, treated wastewater is discharged into the surface-water-stream Nuthegraben. Groundwater and surface-water samples were analyzed for the pharmaceutical substances clofibric acid, bezafibrate, diclofenac, carbamazepine and primidone, the main ions and organic carbon. The pharmaceutical substances were detected at concentrations up to microgram-per-liter level in groundwater and surface-water samples from the Nuthegraben Lowland area and from the former irrigation farms. Concentrations detected in groundwater are generally much lower than in surface water and there is significant variation in the distribution of pharmaceutical concentrations in groundwater. Groundwater influenced by the irrigation of sewage water shows higher primidone and clofibric-acid concentrations. Groundwater influenced by recent discharge of treated sewage water into the surface water shows high carbamazepine concentrations while concentrations of primidone and clofibric acid are low.

Müller, Beate; Scheytt, Traugott; Asbrand, Martin; de Casas, Andrea Mross

2012-09-01

346

Prevalence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in raw and treated municipal sewage.  

PubMed Central

Municipal sewage was screened for DNA encoding Shiga-like Toxin (SLT) II, a key protein involved in the virulence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. PCR analysis of sewage concentrates showed that DNA encoding SLT II was present in a single sample of untreated sewage and absent in all other samples tested (n = 6). Thermotolerant E. coli cultured from the sewage (n = 1,520) also tested negative for SLT II by colony hybridization.

Grant, S B; Pendroy, C P; Mayer, C L; Bellin, J K; Palmer, C J

1996-01-01

347

Co-composting as an oxygen stabilization of an organic fraction of municipal solid waste and industrial sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to study the characteristics of the co-composting of municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge, grass and sawdust. Differing proportions of biodegradable waste were investigated through changes of temperature, oxygen consumption, organic matters, moisture content, carbon, nitrogen, C/N ratio as well as heavy metals and pathogen microorganisms content. The present study has shown that addition of MSW above 10% had a negative impact on the composting process. The initial C/N of the mixtures with a higher MSW content was below 18. Lower losses of organic matter occurred during composting for the mixture with the highest addition of MSW. Although studies have shown that composting is a good method for the disposal of organic waste additional research is required in order to optimize the organic and nitrogen compounds degradation during the co-composting process. In conclusion, a 1:4:4:1 mixture of MSW:sewage sludge:grass:sawdust is recommended because it can achieve high temperature as well as the highest organic matter degradation and highest N content in the final composting product. The concentration of heavy and light metals in all composts was within the limits of regulation of the Polish Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development. PMID:24185049

Milczarek, M; Neczaj, E; Parkitna, K

2013-01-01

348

Functionality improvement of fungal lignin peroxidase by DNA shuffling for 2,4-dichlorophenol degradability and H 2O 2 stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems of wild-type lignin peroxidase (LiP) is its inactivity at the presence of excess H2O2 and high concentration of aromatic compounds. Little is known about the substrate-binding site of LiP, and functionality improvement of LiP was not actively tried by genetic engineering and directed evolution. In order to improve LiPs functionality, we performed directed evolution with

Kang Ryu; Sang Youn Hwang; Ki Hyung Kim; Jung Hye Kang; Eun Kyu Lee

2008-01-01

349

THE LOADS OF PAHS IN WASTEWATER AND SEWAGE SLUDGE OF MUNICIPAL TREATMENT PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage and sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant were analyzed for 16 EPA-PAHs. This plant is a classic mechanical-biological treatment plant, consisting of activated sludge technology with additional chemical treatment for the removal of phosphorus compounds. The process of sewage sludge treatment is carried out in closed as well as open sludge digesters. Primary and mechanically thickened sludge

Maria Wlodarczyk-Makula

2005-01-01

350

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-12-01

351

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 226 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-08-01

352

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 230 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

353

Performance of Biological-Ecological Process for Rural Domestic Sewage Treatment in Taihu Lake Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural domestic sewage is one of the main pollution sources of Taihu Lake. To seek suitable sewage treatment technology, investigation and pilot research was conducted in rural places in Taihu Lake region. Field investigation was done by questionnaire and sewage sampling analysis. Demonstration project was built with a biological-ecological process consisting of anaerobic hydrolysis, waterfall aeration contact oxidation and constructed

Zhaoqian Jing; Zheng Wang; Xiwu Lu; Xianning Li

2009-01-01

354

The effects of sewage discharge on shallow hard substrate sessile assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

On rocky shores, sewage discharges can modify natural distribution patterns of sessile organisms. The impact of sewage on shallow hard substrate assemblages has been assessed along SW Apulian coast (Ionian Sea, Italy), providing a framework to evaluate the benefits of future sewage displacement to deeper waters. Four locations (three controls and one putatively impacted) were selected and three sites were

A Terlizzi; S Fraschetti; P Guidetti; F Boero

2002-01-01

355

Effectiveness of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Quick Evaluation of Nitrogen Content in Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main uses of sewage sludge is the incorporation into agricultural soils, the application dose being based on the specific composition of the waste according to the established normative. However, a full analytical characterization of sewage sludge is time?consuming and expensive. Thus, many times, sewage sludge is applied to soils without this information. Therefore, the use of near

Raul Moral; Maria Angeles Bustamante; Concepcion Paredes

2009-01-01

356

Treatment of sewage sludge with lime and zeolite in relation to its application to agricultural soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progressive implementation of Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91\\/271\\/EEC results in increasing quantities of sewage sludge requiring safe disposal. Due to high content of nutrients, the use of sewage sludge in agriculture is encouraged, but only in a way which prevents its harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man. The risks associated with agricultural use of sewage sludge

J. Venglovský

357

Physical and chemical properties study of the activated carbon made from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge is a promising way to produce a useful adsorbent for pollutants removal as well as to dispose of sewage sludge. The objective of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the activated carbon made from sewage sludge so as to give a basic understanding of its structure. The activated

Xiaoge Chen; S Jeyaseelan; N Graham

2002-01-01

358

Work-related Helicobacter pylori infection among sewage workers in municipal wastewater treatment plants in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionMost studies among sewage workers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have found a higher prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms than among non-sewage exposed workers. Waterborne transmission of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) has been hypothesised, as the bacteria can survive into an aqueous environment and has been detected in sewage. A health and hygiene questionnaire has demonstrated a higher prevalence of peptic

Wim Van Hooste; Anne-Marie Charlier; Paul Rotsaert; Simon Bulterys; Guido Moens; Marc van Sprundel; Antoon De Schryver

2010-01-01

359

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost?effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

360

Absence of asbestos in municipal sewage sludge ashes  

SciTech Connect

In earlier studies, asbestos was found in sewage sludges in several cities in the United States using x-ray diffraction, high power light optical microscopy, polarized light microscopy or electron microscopy. In a number of cities in the United States, sewage sludge is incinerated at temperatures up to 1,000{degree}C. Temperatures of 550{degree}C or higher dehydroxylate the asbestos lattice resulting in alteration or even destruction of the mineral. Since refractive index and other key parameters used to identify asbestos minerals change above 550{degree}C, it was of interest to analyze for the presence of asbestos in typically produced municipal sludge ashes. In the work reported here, sewage sludge ashes from 10 American cities were obtained and analyzed for the presence of asbestos.

Patel-Mandlik, K.J.; Manos, C.G. (Environmental Science and Engineering, Inc., Gainesville, FL (USA)); Lisk, D.J. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1988-06-01

361

Work-related symptoms and inflammation among sewage plant operatives.  

PubMed

Sewage operatives at five sewage treatment plants (n = 59) and controls not exposed to sewage (n = 55) were examined to determine work-related symptoms and inflammatory responses. Symptoms were elicited using a questionnaire, and spirometry was performed. Inflammatory markers were determined in blood and nasal lavage. Workplace endotoxin and hydrogen sulfide were measured and adeno- and enterovirus antibodies were evaluated in blood. Gastrointestinal and airway symptoms, joint pains, unusual tiredness, and toxic pneumonitis were more common among operatives, and the proportion of blood neutrophils was higher among operatives as compared with controls. A relationship was found between several reported symptoms and the inflammatory markers. Hydrogen sulfide levels were very low. Endotoxin levels were generally low, but high at some work sites. PMID:15070030

Thorn, Jörgen; Beijer, Lena

2004-01-01

362

Neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure on sewage treatment workers  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen Sewage Treatment Workers (STWs) exposed to industrial sewage that contained benzene, toluene, and other organic solvents at a primary sewage treatment plant in New York City (Plant A) were examined for evidence of solvent toxicity. Fourteen (74%) complained of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms consistent with solvent exposure, including lightheadedness, fatigue, increased sleep requirement, and headache. The majority of these symptoms resolved with transfer from the plant. Men working less than 1 yr at Plant A were more likely to complain of two or more CNS symptoms than men who were working there longer than 1 yr (p = .055). Objective abnormalities in neurobehavioral testing were found in all 4 men working longer than 9 yr at this plant, but in only 5 of 15 employed there for a shorter period (p = .03). These results are consistent with the known effects of solvent exposure. Occupational health personnel must be aware that STWs can be exposed to solvents and other industrial wastes.

Kraut, A.; Lilis, R.; Marcus, M.; Valciukas, J.A.; Wolff, M.S.; Landrigan, P.J.

1988-07-01

363

Health among municipal sewage and water treatment workers.  

PubMed

Municipal sewage treatment plant workers are potentially exposed to a multitude of industrial chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms. A questionnaire survey of working habits, lifestyle and symptoms of illness was conducted among 189 municipal sewage treatment plant workers processing between three and ten million gallons of wastewater daily in 16 plants in New York State between March and July of 1984. Water treatment plant workers in the same cities comprised the comparison group. Sewage workers reported a significantly higher frequency of headache, dizziness, sore throat, skin irritation and diarrhea within the month immediately preceding receipt of the questionnaire, after controlling for various possible confounders. Eye and skin irritation were significantly associated with exposure to mutagens. The health significance of these findings and possible sources of error in assessing risk are discussed. PMID:3686535

Scarlett-Kranz, J M; Babish, J G; Strickland, D; Lisk, D J

1987-09-01

364

Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was isolated from sewage sludge using the incubation in the Waksman liquor medium and the inoculation in Waksman solid plate. It was found that the optimum conditions of the bioleaching included solid concentration 2%, sulfur concentration 5 g.L-1 and cell concentration 10%. The removal efficiency of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zh in sewage sludge, which was obtained from waste treatment plant, Jinshan, Fuzhou, was 43.65%, 96.24%, 41.61% and 96.50% in the period of 4~10 days under the optimum conditions, respectively. After processing using the proposed techniques, the heavy metals in sewage sludge did meet the requirement the standards of nation.

Wen, Ye-Ming; Lin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Qing-Ping; Chen, Zu-Liang

2010-11-01

365

Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of dewatered, anaerobically digested sewage sludge were determined from soil laboratory tests. The sludge material is largely composed of organic clay sized-particles, a sizable fraction of which is in an active state of biological digestion which can continue over many years under field conditions. Moderately digested sludge material was found to have a typical specific gravity of solids value of 1.55, and loss on ignition (LOI) value of 70% dry mass. Strongly digested sludge, produced by digesting the liquid sludge further at 35 degrees C in the laboratory, was found to have a lower LOI value of 55% dry mass, and a higher specific gravity of solids value of about 1.72. The maximum dry density of 0.56 tonne/m3 for the dried sludge material was produced using standard Proctor compaction at roughly 85% moisture content (54% solids content). Air-dried, compacted sludge material was tested in quick-undrained triaxial compression and vane shear. Undrained shear strength-moisture content plots are presented. Shear strength values measured in triaxial compression and vane shear were consistent. The effective angle of shearing resistance (phi') was determined from consolidated-undrained, triaxial compression tests on pasteurized, normally consolidated samples of the sludge material. The mechanical properties of the sludge material changed with the level of sludge digestion. The phi' value increased from 32 degrees for moderately digested sludge, to 37 degrees for strongly digested sludge. The effective cohesion of the sludge material remained zero throughout. The shrinkage, swelling and adhesion properties of the sludge material were also studied. Significant shrinkage occurred as the compacted material dried. The sludge material lost its adhesion below about 95% moisture content (51% solids content). Re-hydration of the dry material caused the bulk volume to double. PMID:15681178

O'Kelly, Brendan C

2005-01-01

366

Variovorax defluvii sp. nov., isolated from sewage.  

PubMed

A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out on 2C1-b(T) and 2C-21, two strains isolated from sewage flowing into River Geumho in Korea. Cells of the two strains were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, motile and oval or rod-shaped. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed a clear affiliation of these two isolates with members of the Betaproteobacteria; they were most closely related to Variovorax boronicumulans KCTC 22010(T), Variovorax dokdonensis KCTC 12544(T), Variovorax ginsengisoli KCTC 12583(T), Variovorax paradoxus ATCC 17713(T) and Variovorax soli KACC 11579(T) showing 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.4-98.8% with these strains and shared 100% similarity with each other. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C1-21 were 65.5 and 65.2 mol%, respectively. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data [Q-8 as the major ubiquinone; C(16:0), summed feature 4 (C(16:1)?7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH), C(17:0) cyclo and summed feature 7 (C(18:1)?7c and/or ?9t and/or ?12t) as major fatty acids] supported the affiliation of strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C-21 to the genus Variovorax. Based on evidence derived from this polyphasic analysis, it is proposed that strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C1-21 represent a novel species for which the name Variovorax defluvii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 2C1-b(T) (?=?KCTC 12768(T)?=?JCM 17804(T)). PMID:21948092

Jin, Long; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock

2012-08-01

367

Microbial hydrogen production with immobilized sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Municipal sewage sludge was immobilized to produce hydrogen gas under anaerobic conditions. Cell immobilization was essentially achieved by gel entrapment approaches, which were physically or chemically modified by addition of activated carbon (AC), polyurethane (PU), and acrylic latex plus silicone (ALSC). The performance of hydrogen fermentation with a variety of immobilized-cell systems was assessed to identify the optimal type of immobilized cells for practical uses. With sucrose as the limiting carbon source, hydrogen production was more efficient with the immobilized-cell system than with the suspended-cell system, and in both cases the predominant soluble metabolites were butyric acid and acetic acid. Addition of activated carbon into alginate gel (denoted as CA/AC cells) enhanced the hydrogen production rate (v(H2)) and substrate-based yield (Y((H2)/sucrose)) by 70% and 52%, respectively, over the conventional alginate-immobilized cells. Further supplementation of polyurethane or acrylic latex/silicone increased the mechanical strength and operation stability of the immobilized cells but caused a decrease in the hydrogen production rate. Kinetic studies show that the dependence of specific hydrogen production rates on the concentration of limiting substrate (sucrose) can be described by Michaelis-Menten model with good agreement. The kinetic analysis suggests that CA/AC cells may contain higher concentration of active biocatalysts for hydrogen production, while PU and ALSC cells had better affinity to the substrate. Acclimation of the immobilized cells led to a remarkable enhancement in v(H2) with a 25-fold increase for CA/AC and ca. 10- to 15-fold increases for PU and ALSC cells. However, the ALSC cells were found to have better durability than PU and CA/AC cells as they allowed stable hydrogen production for over 24 repeated runs. PMID:12363341

Wu, Shu-Yii; Lin, Chi-Num; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lee, Kuo-Shing; Lin, Ping-Jei

2002-01-01

368

The Effect of paper mill waste and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, Mediterranean soils have low organic matter content, due to the climate characteristics of this region and inadequate land management. Traditionally, organic wastes such as manure are used as amendment in order to improve the soil quality, increasing soil fertility by the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients in the soil. In the last decade, other anthropogenic organic wastes such as sewage sludge or paper waste materials have been studied as soil amendments to improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of waste from a paper mill and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter. For this reason, soil organic matter evolution was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the derivative (dTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal analytical techniques have the advantage of using full samples without pre-treatments and have been extensively used to study the evolution of organic matter in soils, to evaluate composting process or to study the evolution of organic matter of growing media.

Méndez, Ana; Barriga, Sandra; Guerrero, Francisca; Gascó, Gabriel

2013-04-01

369

Removal and environmental exposure of alcohol ethoxylates in US sewage treatment.  

PubMed

Alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are a common nonionic surfactant employed in consumer and industrial detergents worldwide. Commercial AE are typically complex mixtures composed of > 100 homologous compounds with varying alkyl chain lengths and varying numbers of ethylene oxide (EO) units. Recent improvements in analytical methodology have enabled accurate measurement of the entire AE mixture in sewage treatment plant (STP) influents and effluents, including alkyl chain lengths from 12 to 18 carbons with a range of ethoxylation from 0 to 18 EO units. These improved analytical methods were used to measure AE concentrations at nine sites representative of sewage treatment processes and geographical locations. These new data will make possible a more accurate assessment of environmental risk for AE in the United States. The results indicate that all AE homologues are effectively removed (> 99%) in the most common treatment types. Individual STP total AE effluent concentrations ranged from a low of 0.92 microg/L for activated sludge to a high of 15.6 microg/L for a trickling filter process. For the purpose of representing a national average distribution, an average-flow-weighted wastewater treatment plant effluent concentration was determined for each AE component. The total-flow-weighted average AE effluent concentration was 3.64 microg/L. PMID:16140378

Morrall, S W; Dunphy, J C; Cano, M L; Evans, A; McAvoy, D C; Price, B P; Eckhoff, W S

2006-05-01

370

Inhibitory effect of metal ions on the poly-phosphate release from sewage sludge during thermal treatment.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was aimed at identifying the influence of metal cations such as Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+ and Fe3+ on poly-phosphate (poly-P) and total phosphate (T-P) release from sewage sludge collected from wastewater treatment plant during thermal treatment at 70 degrees C for 80 min. With the addition of chelating reagent such as EDTA, release of poly-P and T-P was improved obviously during thermal treatment. Inhibitory effect of metal cations on phosphorus release was apparent by adding metal cations into sludge sample. Most of Ca, Al and Fe inside of cell could be released into the supernatant, but captured in extracellular polymeric substance (EPS); oppositely, large quantity of Mg could be released into the supernatant directly and not concentrated in EPS. Performance of sewage sludge on phosphorus release in summer and winter was different; different precipitation and temperature possibly result in this phenomenon. PMID:24701911

Zhang, Ming Yang; Kuba, Takahiro

2014-01-01

371

Virus movement in soil columns flooded with secondary sewage effluent.  

PubMed

Secondary sewage effluent containing about 3 X 10(4) plaque-forming units of polio virus type 1 (LSc) per ml was passed through columns 250 cm in length packed with calcareous sand from an area in the Salt River bed used for ground-water recharge of secondary sewage effluent. Viruses were not detected in 1-ml samples extracted from the columns below the 160-cm level. However, viruses were detected in 5 of 43 100-ml samples of the column drainage water. Most of the viruses were adsorbed in the top 5 cm of soil. Virus removal was not affected by the infiltration rate, which varied between 15 and 55 cm/day. Flooding a column continuosly for 27 days with the sewage water virus mixture did not saturate the top few centimeters of soil with viruses and did not seem to affect virus movement. Flooding with deionized water caused virus desorption from the soil and increased their movement through the columns. Adding CaCl2 to the deionized water prevented most of the virus desorption. Adding a pulse of deionized water followed by sewage water started a virus front moving through the columns, but the viruses were readsorbed and none was detected in outflow samples. Drying the soil for 1 day between applying the virus and flooding with deionized water greatly reduced desorption, and drying for 5 days prevented desorption. Large reductions (99.99% or more) of virus would be expected after passage of secondary sewage effluent through 250 cm of the calcareous sand similar to that used in our laboratory columns unless heavy rains fell within 1 day after the application of sewage stopped. Such virus movement could be minimized by the proper management of flooding and drying cycles. PMID:185960

Lance, J C; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

1976-10-01

372

Virus movement in soil columns flooded with secondary sewage effluent.  

PubMed Central

Secondary sewage effluent containing about 3 X 10(4) plaque-forming units of polio virus type 1 (LSc) per ml was passed through columns 250 cm in length packed with calcareous sand from an area in the Salt River bed used for ground-water recharge of secondary sewage effluent. Viruses were not detected in 1-ml samples extracted from the columns below the 160-cm level. However, viruses were detected in 5 of 43 100-ml samples of the column drainage water. Most of the viruses were adsorbed in the top 5 cm of soil. Virus removal was not affected by the infiltration rate, which varied between 15 and 55 cm/day. Flooding a column continuosly for 27 days with the sewage water virus mixture did not saturate the top few centimeters of soil with viruses and did not seem to affect virus movement. Flooding with deionized water caused virus desorption from the soil and increased their movement through the columns. Adding CaCl2 to the deionized water prevented most of the virus desorption. Adding a pulse of deionized water followed by sewage water started a virus front moving through the columns, but the viruses were readsorbed and none was detected in outflow samples. Drying the soil for 1 day between applying the virus and flooding with deionized water greatly reduced desorption, and drying for 5 days prevented desorption. Large reductions (99.99% or more) of virus would be expected after passage of secondary sewage effluent through 250 cm of the calcareous sand similar to that used in our laboratory columns unless heavy rains fell within 1 day after the application of sewage stopped. Such virus movement could be minimized by the proper management of flooding and drying cycles.

Lance, J C; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

1976-01-01

373

[Environmental effects of combined sewage detention tank in central Shanghai].  

PubMed

Through measuring the processes of precipitation, discharge and pollutant concentration over 20 times from 2006 to 2008 in Chendulu combined sewerage system (CSS) along Suzhou Creek in central Shanghai, the environmental effects of Chendulu combined sewage detention tank (CSDT), the first running CSDT in China, were studied. The results show that CSDT could improve CSS discharge capacity effectively with promoted interception ratio from 3.87 to 6.90-9.92. The mean annual combined sewer overflow (CSO) reduction and reduction rate are 9.10 x 10(4) m3 and 9.00%, respectively, and those of sanitary waste discharged directly to Suzhou Creek in non-rain-weather are 8.37 x 10(4) m(3) and 100% , respectively. The mean annual pollutants decrease rate of COD, BOD5, SS, NH4+ -N and TP of CSO are 13.76%, 19.69%, 15.29%, 18.24% and 15.10%, respectively, and those CSO pollutants decrease 41.21 t, 12.37 t, 50.10 t, 2.12 t and 0.29 t annually, respectively. The CSDT also could decrease sanitary waste discharged to Suzhou Creek totally, and those decreased pollutants are 20.75 t, 4.87 t, 14.90 t, 4.49 t and 0.30 t annually, respectively. The analysis shows that the CSDT design standard, running models and rainfall characteristics are the important influencing factors to realize the environmental effects of CSDT. PMID:19799280

Cheng, Jiang; Lü, Yong-peng; Huang, Xiao-fang; Guo, Sheng

2009-08-15

374

Environmental Degradation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview: This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Resources and Human Impact SciPack. It explores how human activities, such as reducing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount and variety of chemicals that enter the atmosphere, intensive farming and fishing, and consuming fossil fuels have changed Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. Although the land, atmosphere, and the oceans have a limited capacity to absorb wastes and recycle materials naturally, humans have disrupted these natural cycles. Fresh water, limited in supply, is essential for life and most industrial processes. Overuse and pollution of rivers, lakes, oceans, and groundwater reduces the availability and suitability of these resources for all organisms. Technology used in the extraction and consumption of fossil fuels needed to meet the growing human demand has increased the depletion of nonrenewable energy resources such as fossil fuels, and degraded or altered the environment, both locally and globally. Learning Outcomes: Compare and contrast ways in which different technologies have impacted the environmental system. Differentiate between examples of renewable resources and non-renewable (finite) resources. Summarize how the burning of fossil fuels is affecting the environment. Assess both local and global environmental impacts when given examples of human resource use. Identify ways in which one human-based environmental change can have a domino-effect on the rest of the ecosystem (when given a scenario).

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2008-09-30

375

Land application of chemically treated sewage sludge. II. Effects on soil and plant heavy metal content  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobically digested sewage sludges resulting from treatment of sewage with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/, or FeCl/sub 3/ for phosphorus precipitation were applied to corn (Zea mays L.) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyess) grown on a soil having an initial pH of 7.3. Rates of sludge supplied 200, 400, 800, and and 1,600 kg N/ha each year for 5 years. Treatments with NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ supplying 0, 100, 20, and 400 kg N/ha were included for comparison. Plant tissue was analyzed for Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb. No toxicity or deficiency symptoms were noted. Soil Zn, Cd, and Ni extracted by NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid) were increased by continued sludge application. The NTA-extractable Zn and Cd were positively correlated with the Zn and Cd concentrations in corn stover. Soil pH was reduced by the Fe-sludge application, slightly affected by the Al-sludge, and increased by the Ca-sludge. Increases in Cu concentrations in bromegrass and corn stover were associated with increases in the N content rather than the source of N, and plant Cu concentrations remained relatively constant across years. Sewage sludge application increased Zn, Cd, and Ni concentrations in bromegrass and corn stover, and Zn and Ni concentrations in corn grain, particularly at the higher metal loadings from sludge application. Zinc and Cd concentrations, especially in corn stover, increased with continued sludge application during the 5-year period. The inclusion of soil pH as a factor, in addition to cummulative amounts of Zn or Cd added as a constituent of sludge, improved the regression equations predicting Zn or Cd uptake.

Soon, Y.K.; Bates, T.E.; Moyer, J.R.

1980-07-01

376

The application of potassium ferrate for sewage treatment.  

PubMed

The comparative performance of potassium ferrate(VI), ferric sulphate and aluminium sulphate for the removal of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour (as Vis400-abs) and bacteria in sewage treatment was evaluated. For coagulation and disinfection of sewage, potassium ferrate(VI) can remove more organic contaminants, COD and bacteria in comparison with the other two coagulants for the same doses used. Also, potassium ferrate(VI) produces less sludge volume and removes more contaminants, which should make subsequent sludge treatment easier. PMID:16182439

Jiang, Jia-Qian; Panagoulopoulos, Alex; Bauer, Mike; Pearce, Pete

2006-04-01

377

Minimization Method for Combined Sewage Overflow of Urban Drainage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the overflow of combined sewage is concerned with in this paper. The sewer's discrete state-space model of the hydraulics and predictive model are established to predict the future output at sampling time. Firstly, the model is corrected by the errors between value of observation and prediction. Secondly a quadratic function by comparing the predicted output with the reference trajectory is introduced to calculate the best flow rate. Finally, the minimal overflow of combined sewage is obtained in urban hydraulic system.

Liqun, Cao; Jianzhong, Wang; Renquan, Lu

2009-09-01

378

Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

1995-06-01

379

The detection of enteroviruses in sewage using Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

The work presented here demonstrates the utility of Caco-2 cells to detect enteroviruses in sewage. Viruses were concentrated by beef extract elution and organic flocculation prior to analysis by cell culture assays and RT-PCR. Enteroviruses were detected in all sewage samples, but only one sample was positive solely in RT-PCR assay. We proved that Caco-2 cells were more effective than RD and L20B cells in enterovirus isolation, depending on procedures used in the inoculation process. PMID:23829085

Wieczorek, Magdalena; Kuryk, ?ukasz; Witek, Agnieszka; Diuwe, Anna; Litwi?ska, Bogumi?a

2013-01-01

380

Targeted rapid amplification of cDNA ends (T-RACE)--an improved RACE reaction through degradation of non-target sequences  

PubMed Central

Amplification of the 5? ends of cDNA, although simple in theory, can often be difficult to achieve. We describe a novel method for the specific amplification of cDNA ends. An oligo-dT adapter incorporating a dUTP-containing PCR primer primes first-strand cDNA synthesis incorporating dUTP. Using the Cap finder approach, another distinct dUTP containing adapter is added to the 3? end of the newly synthesized cDNA. Second-strand synthesis incorporating dUTP is achieved by PCR, using dUTP-containing primers complimentary to the adapter sequences incorporated in the cDNA ends. The double-stranded cDNA-containing dUTP serves as a universal template for the specific amplification of the 3? or 5? end of any gene. To amplify the ends of cDNA, asymmetric PCR is performed using a single gene-specific primer and standard dNTPs. The asymmetric PCR product is purified and non-target transcripts containing dUTP degraded by Uracil DNA glycosylase, leaving only those transcripts produced during the asymmetric PCR. Subsequent PCR using a nested gene-specific primer and the 3? or 5? T-RACE primer results in specific amplification of cDNA ends. This method can be used to specifically amplify the 3? and 5? ends of numerous cDNAs from a single cDNA synthesis reaction.

Bower, Neil I.; Johnston, Ian A.

2010-01-01

381

In vitro characterization of the effectiveness of enhanced sewage treatment processes to eliminate endocrine activity of hospital effluents.  

PubMed

Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems is related to sewage effluents. Due to the possible adverse effects on wildlife and humans, degradation and removal of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites during wastewater treatment is an increasingly important task. The present study was part of a proof of concept study at a medium sized country hospital in western Germany that investigated efficiency of advanced treatment processes to remove toxic potencies from sewage. Specifically, the efficiency of treatment processes such as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and ozonation to remove endocrine disruptive potentials was assessed. Estrogenic effects were characterized by use of two receptor-mediated in vitro transactivation assays, the Lyticase Yeast Estrogen Screen (LYES) and the Estrogen Receptor mediated Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (ER CALUX(®)). In addition, the H295R Steroidogenesis Assay (H295R) was utilized to detect potential disruption of steroidogenesis. Raw sewage contained measurable estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated potency as determined by use of the LYES (28.9 ± 8.6 ng/L, 0.33× concentration), which was reduced after treatment by MBR (2.3 ± 0.3 ng/L) and ozone (1.2 ± 0.4 ng/L). Results were confirmed by use of ER CALUX(®) which measured concentrations of estrogen equivalents (EEQs) of 0.2 ± 0.11 ng/L (MBR) and 0.01 ± 0.02 ng/L (ozonation). In contrast, treatment with ozone resulted in greater production of estradiol and aromatase activity at 3× and greater concentrations in H295R cells. It is hypothesized that this is partly due to formation of active oxidized products during ozonation. Substance-specific analyses demonstrated efficient removal of most of the measured compounds by ozonation. A comparison of the ER-mediated responses measured by use of the LYES and ER CALUX(®) with those from the chemical analysis using a mass-balance approach revealed estrone (E1) to be the main compound that caused the estrogenic effects. Overall, treatment of sewage by use of MBR successfully reduced estrogenicity of hospital effluents as well as substances that are able to alter sex steroid production. However, after ozonation, effluents should undergo further investigations regarding the formation of endocrine active metabolites. The results obtained as part of this study demonstrated applicability of in vitro assays for monitoring of endocrine-modulating potency of treated sewage. PMID:23305681

Maletz, Sibylle; Floehr, Tilman; Beier, Silvio; Klümper, Claudia; Brouwer, Abraham; Behnisch, Peter; Higley, Eric; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus; Gebhardt, Wilhelm; Linnemann, Volker; Pinnekamp, Johannes; Hollert, Henner

2013-03-15

382

From sewage water treatment to wastewater reuse. One century of Paris sewage farms history.  

PubMed

The irrigation fields of Paris have been used for 100 years. Their soils mainly contain heavy metals in the topmost layer. Metals come from raw sewage as well as from digested sludge of biological treatment plants which have been diluted for years in raw water. Vegetables that are cultivated in the irrigation fields concentrate metals but their average contents, however, are lower than the recommended limit values. Some vegetables concentrate more specifically one type of metal. Corn seeds accumulate less metal than green vegetables. The SIAAP keeps operating irrigation fields by delivering clariflocculated water with a low metal content from the new Seine Centre plant, with the purpose of keeping some 2,000 ha of green zone in an otherwise heavily constructed area and to prevent a metal release from the soil should irrigation be interrupted. Maintaining irrigation fields also relieves the biological treatment plant and then contributes to preserve the quality of the Seine river, especially in summer. PMID:11436768

Védry, B; Gousailles, M; Affholder, M; Lefaux, A; Bontoux, J

2001-01-01

383

Detection of pump degradation  

SciTech Connect

There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed.

Casada, D.

1994-12-31

384

The improvement of solar photocatalytic activity of ZnO by doping with Er3+:Y3Al5O12 during dye degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Er3+:Y3Al5O12, an upconversion luminescence agent, which is able to transform the visible light to ultraviolet light, was synthesized by nitrate-citric acid method. And then, a novel photocatalyst, Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO composites, was prepared by ultrasonic dispersing and liquid boil method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structural morphology and surface properties of the Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO. Azo Fuchsine dye was selected as target organic pollutant to inspect the photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO. The key parameters affecting the photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO, such as Er3+:Y3Al5O12 content, heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time, were studied. In addition, the effects of dye initial concentration, Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO amount and solar light irradiation time were also reviewed, as well as the photocatalytic activity in degradation of other organic dyes were compared. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO was much superior to pure ZnO under the same conditions. Thus, the Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZnO is a useful photocatalyst for the wastewater treatment because it can efficiently utilize solar light by converting visible light into ultraviolet light.

Yin, L. N.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Kong, Y. M.; Zhai, Y.; Wang, B. X.; Li, K.; Zhang, X. D.

2012-12-01

385

Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroidales Alternative Fecal Indicators Reveal Chronic Human Sewage Contamination in an Urban Harbor?†  

PubMed Central

The complexity of fecal microbial communities and overlap among human and other animal sources have made it difficult to identify source-specific fecal indicator bacteria. However, the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies now provides increased sequencing power to resolve microbial community composition within and among environments. These data can be mined for information on source-specific phylotypes and/or assemblages of phylotypes (i.e., microbial signatures). We report the development of a new genetic marker for human fecal contamination identified through microbial pyrotag sequence analysis of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence analysis of 37 sewage samples and comparison with database sequences revealed a human-associated phylotype within the Lachnospiraceae family, which was closely related to the genus Blautia. This phylotype, termed Lachno2, was on average the second most abundant fecal bacterial phylotype in sewage influent samples from Milwaukee, WI. We developed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for Lachno2 and used it along with the qPCR-based assays for human Bacteroidales (based on the HF183 genetic marker), total Bacteroidales spp., and enterococci and the conventional Escherichia coli and enterococci plate count assays to examine the prevalence of fecal and human fecal pollution in Milwaukee's harbor. Both the conventional fecal indicators and the human-associated indicators revealed chronic fecal pollution in the harbor, with significant increases following heavy rain events and combined sewer overflows. The two human-associated genetic marker abundances were tightly correlated in the harbor, a strong indication they target the same source (i.e., human sewage). Human adenoviruses were routinely detected under all conditions in the harbor, and the probability of their occurrence increased by 154% for every 10-fold increase in the human indicator concentration. Both Lachno2 and human Bacteroidales increased specificity to detect sewage compared to general indicators, and the relationship to a human pathogen group suggests that the use of these alternative indicators will improve assessments for human health risks in urban waters.

Newton, Ryan J.; VandeWalle, Jessica L.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Gorelick, Marc H.; McLellan, Sandra L.

2011-01-01

386

Sewage influence in a macrotidal estuary: Fatty acid and sterol distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuarine surface sediment and suspended matter from the Morlaix River estuary were analysed for fatty acids and sterols by HPLC and GC. This estuary represents a typical example of a coastal river estuary subjected to strong tides and receiving domestic wastes in its upper reaches. Wastewater fatty acid and sterol distribution patterns have been used to estimate the anthropogenic matter influx and its behaviour as an estuarine organic matter component. The 5 ?-stanols, specific to fecal material and relatively persistent in the environment, provide a spatial view of sewage dispersion in estuarine waters and sediments and are used to calculate the relative importance of anthropogenic inputs in the degradable organic matter. Their distribution at high and low water indicates that anthropogenic particles are distributed throughout the estuary and may reach the coastal areas. However, owing to the dilution and the sedimentation processes, the anthropogenic matter contribution to the total organic matter is low in the outer estuary. By contrast, sediments from the upper estuary are strongly influenced by fresh anthropogenic inputs which may be detected by fatty acid fingerprint. The 18:1( n- 7)/18:1( n- 9) ratio which indicates the ability of the sediment to degrade the anthropogenic fresh material demonstrates a perturbation all along the narrow upper estuary.

Quemeneur, Michelle; Marty, Yanic

1992-04-01

387

The effect of composting on the organic colloidal fraction from domestic sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the frequent use of domestic sewage sludges as organic additives to soils with low humus content, the chemical characteristics of the extractable polymers from composted and uncomposted sludges were described. The alkali-soluble, acid-insoluble sludge fraction (humic-like) was isolated after exhaustive lipid extraction, and analyzed by chemical degradation followed by combined gas chromatography mass spectrometry. It was observed that this sludge fraction contained an important amount of lipid compounds (more than 40% by weight). Most of this lipid material can be physically removed, but the residual polymer fractions were also found to be highly aliphatic in nature. The high yields upon degradation of several types of alkanoic acids and the relatively high proportion of polypeptides (30% by weight), as well as carbohydrates, suggested that the humic-like fractions from both the composted and uncomposted sludges consisted of slightly altered microbial and residual biopolymers. The effects of composting sludge mainly concern the selective biodegradation of the less resistant moieties. The great differences between the chemical nature of the humic-like fraction of the composted sludge and that of the soil humic acids are considered to reflect the low proportion of lignified materials in the original sludge.

Almendros, Gonzalo; Leal, Juan A.; Martin, Francisco; Gonzalez-Vila, Francisco J.

388

Degradation monitoring using probabilistic inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to increase safety and improve economy and performance in a nuclear power plant (NPP), the source and extent of component degradations should be identified before failures and breakdowns occur. It is also crucial for the next generation of NPPs, which are designed to have a long core life and high fuel burnup to have a degradation monitoring system in order to keep the reactor in a safe state, to meet the designed reactor core lifetime and to optimize the scheduled maintenance. Model-based methods are based on determining the inconsistencies between the actual and expected behavior of the plant, and use these inconsistencies for detection and diagnostics of degradations. By defining degradation as a random abrupt change from the nominal to a constant degraded state of a component, we employed nonlinear filtering techniques based on state/parameter estimation. We utilized a Bayesian recursive estimation formulation in the sequential probabilistic inference framework and constructed a hidden Markov model to represent a general physical system. By addressing the problem of a filter's inability to estimate an abrupt change, which is called the oblivious filter problem in nonlinear extensions of Kalman filtering, and the sample impoverishment problem in particle filtering, we developed techniques to modify filtering algorithms by utilizing additional data sources to improve the filter's response to this problem. We utilized a reliability degradation database that can be constructed from plant specific operational experience and test and maintenance reports to generate proposal densities for probable degradation modes. These are used in a multiple hypothesis testing algorithm. We then test samples drawn from these proposal densities with the particle filtering estimates based on the Bayesian recursive estimation formulation with the Metropolis Hastings algorithm, which is a well-known Markov chain Monte Carlo method (MCMC). This multiple hypothesis testing algorithm using MCMC in particle filtering helps the filter to explore the state space more effectively in the direction of the degradations. We extended this algorithm for degradation detection and isolation to complete the degradation monitoring framework. We successfully tested our algorithms in degradation monitoring of balance of plant of a boiling water reactor.

Alpay, Bulent

389

The kinetics of combustion of chars derived from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have been conducted to determine the combustion characteristics of sewage sludge chars in electrically heated beds of silica sand fluidised by air. The effects of the initial size of the char particles, the temperature of the bed and [O2] in the fluidising gas were investigated. Also, the temperatures of burning particles were measured with embedded thermocouples. The kinetics of

J. S. Dennis; R. J. Lambert; A. J. Milne; S. A. Scott; A. N. Hayhurst

2005-01-01

390

Exergy analysis of methanol from the sewage sludge process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns a new method of sewage sludge treatment that contributes more than traditional methods to the sustainable technology by achieving a higher rational efficiency of sludge processing. This is obtained by preserving the chemical exergy present in the sludge and transforming it into a chemical one––methanol. The proposed method combines a sludge gasification process and a modified methanol

K. J. Ptasinski; C. Hamelinck; P. J. A. M. Kerkhof

2002-01-01

391

Combustible gas production from sewage sludge with a downdraft gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, sewage sludge has particularly become an important problem all over the world because of its harmful impacts on the environment and living beings. It should be converted to combustible gas or useful energy in order to remove all its negative effects and to contribute to a significant portion of the power generation. In this study, combustible gas production from

Adnan Midilli; Murat Dogru; Colin R. Howarth; Mike J. Ling; Teoman Ayhan

2001-01-01

392

Plantago Psyllium Mucilage For Sewage and Tannery Effluent Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

he ability of low cost flocculating material, plantago psyllium mucilage, for removal of suspended solid (SS) from sewage and tannery has been successfully investi- gated. Jar test method has been used for flocculation studies. The effects of poly- mer dose, pH and contact time on percent removal of solid wastes are reported. Increase in solid wastes removal was observed with

A. Mishra; M. Agarwal; M. Bajpai; S. Rajani; R. P. Mishra

393

Less-costly activated carbon for sewage treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lignite-aided sewage treatment is based on absorption of dissolved pollutants by activated carbon. Settling sludge is removed and dried into cakes that are pyrolyzed with lignites to yield activated carbon. Lignite is less expensive than activated carbon previously used to supplement pyrolysis yield.

Ingham, J. D.; Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.

1977-01-01

394

Surface area development of sewage sludge during pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies on surface area and pore structure development during pyrolysis of digested sewage sludge were carried out. Surface area and pore structure characterization of the resultant chars was evaluated using an accelerated surface area and porosimetry system (ASAP 2000). The effects of process parameters, temperature and hold time were found to be significant. Generally, the surface area of the

G. Q. Lu; J. C. F. Low; C. Y. Liu; A. C. Lua

1995-01-01

395

Characterization of sewage sludges by primary and secondary pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus formed by the combination of a primary pyrolyzer (Pyroprobe 1000) and a secondary reactor was used to study the thermal decomposition of three different chemical sewage sludges, using temperatures in the secondary reactor between 290 and 650°C and 700°C in the primary pyrolzer. Yields of 12 pyrolysis products were determined (methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, methanol, acetic acid,

J. A. Caballero; R. Front; A. Marcilla; J. A. Conesa

1997-01-01

396

USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Results of 8 field studies of long-term use of digested sewage on agricultural and disturbed lands are presented. The studies included: (1) response of corn grown on 3 soil types previously amended with annual sludge applications; (2) response of corn grown annually on Blount sil...

397

COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...

398

Frost Protection of Buried Water and Sewage Pipes. Three Articles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two of the articles in this report discuss frost prevention for privately owned water and sewage pipes laid shallow (above the frost penetration level) in bedrock type terrain. The third article contains frost load data in tabular form for all communities...

P. Gunderson

1978-01-01

399

Baghouse Efficiency on a Multiple Hearth Incinerator Burning Sewage Sludge,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot-scale fabric filter (baghouse) was evaluated for its removal performance for 23 metals and for sulfur as well as for total particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale baghouse was installed to take...

R. C. Adams L. E. Keller E. V. Robb M. C. Vancil J. B. Farrell

1989-01-01

400

Plasma gasification of sewage sludge: Process development and energy optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma gasification process has been demonstrated in many of the most recent studies as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization. This method is applied here to the treatment of sewage sludge. Results are presented for a case study concerning the Athens’ Central Wastewater Treatment Plant, at Psittalia Island. An

A. Mountouris; E. Voutsas; D. Tassios

2008-01-01

401

TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI  

EPA Science Inventory

The increase in resistance rates to trimehtoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in isolates of Escherichia coli has become a matter of increasing concern. This has been particularly true in reference to community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). This study utilized sewage i...

402

Isolation of Candida albicans from freshwater and sewage.  

PubMed Central

The isolation and identification of Candida albicans from polluted aquatic environments were facilitated by the inclusion of a selective medium and a differential screening medium to detect the reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. C. albicans occurred commonly in low numbers in sewage influents, rivers, and streams.

Cook, W L; Schlitzer, R L

1981-01-01

403

The Effects of Sewage on a Lake Champlain Wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stevens Brook wetland is presently receiving partially treated sewage from the City of St. Albans, Vermont. The water quality in St. Albans Bay is deteriorating. There is conflicting evidence for the theory that wetlands act as a nutrient sink or as a biotic nutrient filter. This research is an investigation into the productivity and trophic food chain relationships of Stevens

Larry N. Schwartz; Gerhard K. Gruendling

1985-01-01

404

EFFECTS OF USING SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The accumulative effects of annual use of sewage sludge on composition of soils, plants, water, and animals that consume the plants is presented. Plant yields were increased and no evidence of phototoxicity from trace elements was observed. Phosphorus toxicity in soybeans develop...

405

SEWAGE SLUDGE ENTRENCHMENT SYSTEM FOR USE BY SMALL MUNICIPALITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A method of disposing of dewatered sewage sludge by entrenching it into soil was developed for small communities. Readily available and relatively inexpensive equipment was used. Included were a tractor equipped with a loader and backhoe, and dump truck or concrete mixer truck. A...

406

Polish experience with sewage sludge utilization in reed beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of utilization and management of sewage sludge originating from small wastewater treatment plants is still unsolved in Poland. One of the waste-free technologies of sludge utilization is the reed bed method. Two experimental facilities of this type have been operating for four years in the Gdansk Region: a reed bed in Darzlubie and a reed lagoon in Swarzewo.

W. Zwara; H. Obarska-Pempkowiak

407

Possibilities of using sewage sludge as nitrogen fertilizer for maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of nitrogen fertilizer sources of ammonium sulphate and municipal sewage sludge on yield, N content and uptake of the maize (Zea mays L.). Nutrient and heavy metals were determined in soil and plant. The experiment with three sludge rates (256, 513 and 1026 kg total N ha or 9.5, 18.0

Mehmet Ali Bozkurt; Hakki Akdeniz; Bilal Keskin; Ibrahim Hakki Yilmaz

2006-01-01

408

Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91\\/271\\/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related

J. M. Soriano-Disla; S. Houot; M. Imhoff; N. Valentin; I. Gómez; J. Navarro-Pedreño

2009-01-01

409

Sewage sludge effects on soybean growth and nitrogen fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sewage sludge application, as a source of phosphorus, on dinitrogen symbiotic fixation in soybean was evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse and included eight different treatments: (1) no fertilization, (2) complete fertilization, (3) inoculation with rhizobia plus phosphate fertilization (IS+P), (4) inoculation with rhizobia without phosphate fertilization (IS-P), (5) inoculation plus dose 1 of

R. F. Vieira

2001-01-01

410

Organic markers in the lipidic fraction of sewage sludges.  

PubMed

The lipidic organic fraction of 48 sewage sludges that originated from food-processing, paper-mill and domestic (urban, small urban, and rural) wastewater-treatment plants of the Lorraine region (Northeast of France) was characterised by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS). This study enables us to define an average organic composition typical of each group of sewage sludges. Linear alkyl benzenes (LABs) are only present in domestic sludges, sterols in food-processing and domestic sludges. Paper-mill sludges are characterised by the specific distribution of n-alkanes. Besides, all the domestic sludges, whatever the size of the wastewater catchment, are characterised by the same distribution of polar compounds. Differences can be evidenced in the distribution of the aliphatic compounds of some domestic sewage sludges and are attributed to the important contribution of petroleum products in their sewer system. Moreover, this study highlights the correlation between abundance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aromatic fraction of some sewage sludges and a distribution of n-alkanes characteristic of heavy petroleum products into the corresponding aliphatic fraction. This might be a clue for the determination of punctual sources of PAHs. PMID:15862322

Jardé, Emilie; Mansuy, Laurence; Faure, Pierre

2005-04-01

411

Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge with high solids content.  

PubMed

The treatment performance of thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of sewage sludge with high solids content was investigated with two laboratory-scale thermophilic anaerobic reactors (R1 and R2) with a feeding of pre-centrifuged sewage sludge. Reactor R1 was fed with sludge of 3.7% total solids (TS). The volatile solids (VS) removal ratio and methane yield in the stable state were 54.9% and 0.29 NL CH(4)/g VS(added), respectively. For reactor R2, when the TS content of fed sludge was 7.4%, the VS removal ratio and methane yield in the stable state were 73.2% and 0.38 NL CH(4)/g VS(added), respectively. When the TS content was increased to 9.5%, the VS removal ratio and methane yield slightly decreased to 69.3% and 0.32 NL CH(4)/g VS(added), respectively, but the reactor was stably operated. An increase of ammonia concentration was observed, but it was in the safe range without severe inhibition on the methane production. The result indicated that thermophilic AD could support sewage sludge with high TS content (9.5%) without abrupt deterioration of the treatment performance. The high-solids AD process is an economical method for centralized sewage sludge treatment with lower transport cost. PMID:24804672

Wang, Feng; Hidaka, Taira; Uchida, Tsutomu; Tsumori, Jun

2014-01-01

412

DEMONSTRATION PHYSICAL CHEMICAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT UTILIZING BIOLOGICAL NITRIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This demonstration project in a small residential community in Kentucky was initiated to show the feasibility of treating sewage with a physical-chemical type of wastewater treatment plant with a biological process for nitrification. The 50,000 gallon per day system had unit proc...

413

Ultrafiltration of Raw Sewage Using an Immobilized Enzyme Membrane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ultrafiltration of raw sewage was performed using multiple-enzymes immobilized on non-cellulosic, ultrafiltration membranes. An increase of 12% in the permeate flux rate at quasi-steady state was observed due to the action of the immobilized enzymes. Enzy...

S. S. Wang B. Davidson C. Y. Jeng

1979-01-01

414

FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

415

SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION AT NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used for operating the incine...

416

Dried, Irradiated Sewage Solids as Supplemental Feed for Cattle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sewage solids were collected as primary settled solids and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using exp 60 Co or exp 137 Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one megarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays wi...

G. S. Smith H. E. Kiesling E. E. Ray R. Orcasberro P. Trujillo

1979-01-01

417

BAGHOUSE EFFICIENCY ON A MULTIPLE HEARTH INCINERATOR BURNING SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot-scale fabric filter (baghouse) was evaluated for its removal performance for 23 metals and for sulfur as well as for total particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale baghouse was installed to take a slipstream of about th...

418

The dirty work of promoting "recycling" of America's sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Serious illnesses, including deaths, and adverse environmental impacts have been linked to land application of sewage sludge. EPA and the wastewater treatment industry have worked with Congress to fund wastewater trade associations to promote land application, supporting industry-friendly scientists and discouraging independent research, to prevent local governments from restricting land application and to thwart litigation against municipalities and the industry. PMID:16350476

Snyder, Caroline

2005-01-01

419

RESTORATION OF FAILING ON-LOT SEWAGE DISPOSAL AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to evaluate two rehabilitative techniques-water conservation and absorption bed resting--for restoration of failing on-site sewage disposal areas. Eleven homes with failing absorption areas were characterized and baseline water flow and septic ta...

420

EVALUATION OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested using the Salmonella/microsomal activation assay, t...

421

Monitoring and assessing variation of sewage quality and microbial functional groups in a trunk sewer line.  

PubMed

In this study, the variation of sewage quality was investigated and the active fraction of different microbial functional groups in biofilm was quantified in a 5.6-km trunk sewer line. The sewage quality including suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, total chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen were measured and compared with the values in literatures. The results indicated that since the wastewater treatment plant was not operated at its full capacity, the concentrations of different compounds were lower compared with the values in literatures. The values of heterotrophic growth rate constant lay between 5.6 and 8.6 day(-1). Its average value was 7.7 day(-1). The values of heterotrophic lysis rate constant lay between 0.2 and 0.4 day(-1). The active heterotrophic biomass in biofilm varied from 240 to 800 mg COD m(-2) and average value was 497 mg COD m(-2). The biofilm mass varied from 880 to 1,080 mg m(-2). The percentage of heterotroph to biofilm mass fall within the range of 24.0-90.9% and average value was 52.9%. In the oxygen uptake rate batch tests, the biomass, growth rate constant, and lysis rate constant of autotroph could not be determined because the fraction of autotroph in biofilm was relatively few. It revealed that the degradation of organic matters, nitrification, and denitrification occurred in the trunk sewer line. But the results indicate that the condition seem favorable for nitrification. PMID:20069450

Pai, Tzu-Yi; Chen, C L; Chung, H; Ho, H H; Shiu, T W

2010-12-01

422

Foamed lightweight materials made from mixed scrap metal waste powder and sewage sludge ash.  

PubMed

The porous properties and pozzolanic effects of sewage sludge ash (SSA) make it possible to produce lightweight materials. This study explored the effects of different metallic foaming agents, made from waste aluminium products, on the foaming behaviours and engineering characteristics, as well as the microstructure of sewage sludge ash foamed lightweight materials. The results indicated that aluminium powder and mixed scrap metal waste powder possessed similar chemical compositions. After proper pre-treatment, waste aluminium products proved to be ideal substitutes for metallic foaming agents. Increasing the amount of mixed scrap metal waste by 10-15% compared with aluminium powder would produce a similar foaming ratio and compressive strength. The reaction of the metallic foaming agents mainly produced pores larger than 10 microm, different from the hydration reaction of cement that produced pores smaller than 1 microm mostly. To meet the requirements of the lightweight materials characteristics and the compressive strength, the amount of SSA could be up to 60-80% of the total solids. An adequate amount of aluminium powder is 0.5-0.9% of the total solids. Increasing the fineness of the mixed scrap metal waste powder could effectively reduce the amount required and improve the foaming ratio. PMID:15560443

Wang, Kuen-Sheng; Chiou, Ing-Jia

2004-10-01

423

Growth, chemical composition and soil properties of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings irrigated with sewage effluent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out at a greenhouse of Sabahia Horticulture Research Station, Alexandria, Egypt, to study the effect of sewage effluent on the growth and chemical composition of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings as well as on soil properties for three stages. The irrigation treatments were primary-treated wastewater and secondary-treated wastewater, in addition to tap water as control. Therefore, the treated wastewater was taken from oxidation ponds of New Borg El-Arab City. Results of these study revealed that the primary effluent treatment explored the highest significant values for vegetative growth and biomass, compared to the other treatments. In addition, the higher significant concentration and uptake of chemical composition in different plant parts were obtained from the primary effluent treatment during the three stages of irrigation. It was found that the concentration of heavy metals in either plant or soil was below as compared to the world-recommended levels. These findings suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating T. speciosa seedlings grown in calcareous soil was beneficial for the improvement of soil properties and production of timber trees, and also important for the safe manner of disposal of wastewater.

Ali, Hayssam M.; Khamis, Mohamed H.; Hassan, Fatma A.

2012-06-01

424

Marine meiobenthic and nematode community structure in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong upon recovery from sewage pollution.  

PubMed

Sediment quality, meiofaunal and nematode communities were monitored across six time points at two inside-harbour and three outside-harbour sites over a three-year period in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong, after the implementation of a sewage treatment project. Twenty-one meiofaunal groups comprising mainly free-living nematodes and harpacticoid copepods and 188 species of free-living nematodes were identified. The outside-harbour area had a more diverse and significantly different nematode community structure as compared to that in the inside-harbour area. Such spatial difference was highly correlated with the total Kjeldahl nitrogen content of the sediments. Over the study period, there was no significant improvement in sediment quality within the harbour. However, in the last sampling time, an increase in meiofaunal abundance and a closer similarity in nematode composition between one of the inside- and outside-harbour sites suggested signs of recovery of the meiofauna as a response to abatement of sewage pollution. PMID:21474152

Liu, Xiao-Shou; Xu, Wen-Zhe; Cheung, Siu Gin; Shin, Paul K S

2011-01-01

425

A study of the effectiveness of sewage treatment plants in Delhi region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a conventional kind of monitoring study. The objective of the study was to assess and monitor the physicochemical parameters in wastewater at inlet and outlet of sewage treatment plant (STP) and also to study the effectiveness of the STPs. The average concentration of parameters at inlet sampling site pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, are 7.16, 2,169 ?S/cm, 766.06 mg/l, and major ions bicarbonate, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, chloride, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium values 515.88, 4.28, 82.85, 15.17, 7.01, 23.08, 29.34, 4.14 and 84.31 mg/l. While the average concentration of these parameters, after treatment shows following values 7.47, 2,161.43 (?S/cm), 695.81, 436.52, 1.25, 99.22, 12.69, 6.83, 23.18, 29.07, 4.40 and 82.65 mg/l, respectively. Further, to check the Na % and sodium absorption ratio at inlet and outlet which 27.89 %, 0.67 and 28.19 %, 0.68, respectively, for the suitability of the wastewater. Finally, the agglomerative hierarchical clustering techniques were used to study the similarity in the sewage treatment plants. The result suggests that there is considerable improvement in the wastewater quality after treatment except at the Pappankalan and Coronation Pillar, Timarpur.

Gautam, Sandeep Kumar; Sharma, Divya; Tripathi, Jayant Kumar; Ahirwar, Saroj; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2013-03-01

426

Salt Enrichment of Municipal Sewage: New Prevention Approaches in Israel  

PubMed

Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the water-softening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCl solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery. PMID:8661617

Weber; Avnimelech; Juanico

1996-07-01

427

Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the watersoftening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCI solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery.

Weber, Baruch; Avnimelech, Yoram; Juanico, Marcelo

1996-07-01

428

Mucosal and cutaneous human papillomaviruses detected in raw sewages.  

PubMed

Epitheliotropic viruses can find their way into sewage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and genetic diversity of Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) in urban wastewaters. Sewage samples were collected from treatment plants distributed throughout Italy. The DNA extracted from these samples was analyzed by PCR using five PV-specific sets of primers targeting the L1 (GP5/GP6, MY09/MY11, FAP59/64, SKF/SKR) and E1 regions (PM-A/PM-B), according to the protocols previously validated for the detection of mucosal and cutaneous HPV genotypes. PCR products underwent sequencing analysis and the sequences were aligned to reference genomes from the Papillomavirus Episteme database. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to assess the genetic relationships among the different sequences and between the sequences of the samples and those of the prototype strains. A broad spectrum of sequences related to mucosal and cutaneous HPV types was detected in 81% of the sewage samples analyzed. Surprisingly, sequences related to the anogenital HPV6 and 11 were detected in 19% of the samples, and sequences related to the "high risk" oncogenic HPV16 were identified in two samples. Sequences related to HPV9, HPV20, HPV25, HPV76, HPV80, HPV104, HPV110, HPV111, HPV120 and HPV145 beta Papillomaviruses were detected in 76% of the samples. In addition, similarity searches and phylogenetic analysis of some sequences suggest that they could belong to putative new genotypes of the beta genus. In this study, for the first time, the presence of HPV viruses strongly related to human cancer is reported in sewage samples. Our data increases the knowledge of HPV genomic diversity and suggests that virological analysis of urban sewage can provide key information useful in supporting epidemiological studies. PMID:23341898

La Rosa, Giuseppina; Fratini, Marta; Accardi, Luisa; D'Oro, Graziana; Della Libera, Simonetta; Muscillo, Michele; Di Bonito, Paola

2013-01-01

429

Removal of viruses from sewage, effluents, and waters  

PubMed Central

All sewage and water treatment processes remove or destroy viruses. Some treatment methods are better than others, but none is likely to remove all of the viruses present in sewage or in raw water. Primary settling of solids probably removes a great many of the viruses in sewage because viruses are largely associated with the solids. Long storage of effluents or water is destructive to viruses. Activated sludge is the best biological method for removing viruses from sewage. Trickling filters and oxidation ponds are erratic, the latter probably because of short-circuiting. Coagulation with metal ions is the most effective single treatment method for removing viruses from sewage and from raw waters, according to laboratory studies at least. Lime is the best coagulant for these purposes in the rapidly virucidal high pH range. Polyelectrolytes also can sediment viruses. Rapid filtration through clean sand does not remove viruses, but filtration of coagulated effluents does, probably because the layering floc itself adsorbs viruses. Clays and carbon adsorb viruses to some extent, but the process is not efficient. Ultimately, disinfection should help to produce virus-free waters for drinking and virus-free effluents for discharge into waters with which man may come into contact. Because disinfection is not a simple matter, disinfectants must be selected according to need. Effluents and waters containing solids can probably be disinfected only by heat or by penetrating radiation, waters discharged into streams should not be disinfected with anything that will injure or kill aquatic life (unless the toxic products can be neutralized), and drinking-waters should carry a disinfecting residue.

Berg, Gerald

1973-01-01

430

Removal mechanisms and kinetics of trace tetracycline by two types of activated sludge treating freshwater sewage and saline sewage.  

PubMed

Understanding the removal mechanisms and kinetics of trace tetracycline by activated sludge is critical to both evaluation of tetracycline elimination in sewage treatment plants and risk assessment/management of tetracycline released to soil environment due to the application of biosolids as fertilizer. Adsorption is found to be the primary removal mechanism while biodegradation, volatilization, and hydrolysis can be ignored in this study. Adsorption kinetics was well described by pseudo-second-order model. Faster adsorption rate (k? = 2.04 × 10(-2)?g min(-1) ?g(-1)) and greater adsorption capacity (qe = 38.8 ?g g(-1)) were found in activated sludge treating freshwater sewage. Different adsorption rate and adsorption capacity resulted from chemical properties of sewage matrix rather than activated sludge surface characteristics. The decrease of tetracycline adsorption in saline sewage was mainly due to Mg(2+) which significantly reduced adsorption distribution coefficient (Kd) from 12,990 ± 260 to 4,690 ± 180 L kg(-1). Species-specific adsorption distribution coefficients followed the order of Kd???>Kd???>Kd???. Contribution of zwitterionic tetracycline to the overall adsorption was >90 % in the actual pH range in aeration tank. Adsorption of tetracycline in a wide range of temperature (10 to 35 °C) followed the Freundlich adsorption isotherm well. PMID:23054779

Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

2013-05-01

431

Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation of sewage disposal.  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens, a marker of domestic sewage contamination, was enumerated in sediment samples obtained from the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site 1 month and 1 year after cessation of sewage disposal at this site. C. perfringens counts in sediments collected at the disposal site and from stations 26 nautical miles (ca. 48 km) and 50 nautical miles (ca. 92 km) to the southwest of the site were, in general, more than 10-fold higher than counts from an uncontaminated reference site. C. perfringens counts at the disposal site were not significantly different between 1992 and 1993, suggesting that sewage sludge had remained in the benthic environment at this site. At stations where C. perfringens counts were elevated (i.e., stations other than the reference station), counts were generally higher in the top 1 cm and decreased down to 5 cm. In some cases, C. perfringens counts in the bottom 4 or 5 cm showed a trend of higher counts in 1993 than in 1992, suggesting bioturbation. We conclude that widespread sludge contamination of the benthic environment has persisted for at least 1 year after cessation of ocean sewage disposal at the 106-Mile Site.

Hill, R T; Straube, W L; Palmisano, A C; Gibson, S L; Colwell, R R

1996-01-01

432

Improvement of manganese peroxidase production by the hyper lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 by recombinant expression of the 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase gene.  

PubMed

The manganese peroxidase (MnP) gene (mnp4) promoter of Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 was used to drive expression of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (als), which is a key heme biosynthesis enzyme. The expression plasmid pMnP4pro-als was transformed into P. sordida YK-624 uracil auxotrophic mutant UV-64, and 14 recombinant als expressing-transformants were generated. Average cumulative MnP activities in the transformants were 1.18-fold higher than that of control transformants. In particular, transformants A-14 and A-61 showed significantly higher MnP activity (approximately 2.8-fold) than wild type. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the increased MnP activity was caused by elevated recombinant als expression. These results suggest that the production of MnP is improved by high expression of als. PMID:23884595

Hirai, Hirofumi; Misumi, Kenta; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

2013-12-01

433

Degradation of inhibitory substances in sludge by Galactomyces sp. Z3 and the role of its extracellular polymeric substances in improving bioleaching.  

PubMed

This study sought to elucidate the effect and mechanism of Galactomyces sp. Z3 in improving the bioleaching of heavy metals from sludge. Results showed that co-inoculation of Galactomyces sp. Z3 and two Acidithiobacillus strains (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5 and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TS6) reduced the period required for sludge bioleaching by 4.5days compared to Acidithiobacillus alone. Further, removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn and oxidation rate of Fe(2+) and S(0) were higher in co-inoculation system than the Acidithiobacillus alone. Galactomyces sp. Z3 consumed the acetate, propionate, iso-butyrate, butyrate, and iso-valerate in sludge from the initial concentrations of 109.50, 28.80, 7.70, 34.30, and 18.40mg/L to 10.20, 0.61, 0.63, 19.40 and 1.30mg/L, respectively, after 12h in the co-inoculation system, significantly lower than the concentrations observed in the Acidithiobacillus alone. Meanwhile, the surfactant properties of the extracellular polymeric substances produced by the Galactomyces accelerated the rate of sulfur oxidization by A. thiooxidans. PMID:23411451

Zhou, Jun; Zheng, Guanyu; Wong, Jonathan W C; Zhou, Lixiang

2013-03-01

434

Determination of pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, and endocrine-disrupting personal care products in sewage sludge by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive method has been developed and validated for the determination of diverse groups of pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, and hormone-like personal care products in sewage sludge. Samples were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction followed by solid-phase extraction cleanup. For determination of estrogens and hormone-like phenolic compounds, sample extracts were further derivatized with dansyl chloride and purified with silica gel column chromatography to improve the analytical sensitivity. The chemicals were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Recoveries ranged mostly from 63% to 119% with relative standard deviations within 15%. Method quantification limits were 0.1-3 ng?g(-1) dry weight (dw) for sewage sludge. The method was applied to a preliminary investigation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in sewage sludge and sediment in the Pearl River Delta, South China. Triclosan, triclocarban, 2-phenylphenol, bisphenol A, and parabens were ubiquitously detected at 3.6-5088.2 ng?g(-1) dw in sludge and 0.29-113.1 ng?g(-1) dw in sediment samples, respectively. Estrone, carbamazepine, metoprolol, and propranolol were also frequently quantified in the sludge and sediment samples. The dewatering process caused no significant losses of these PPCPs in sewage sludge. PMID:21046090

Yu, Yiyi; Huang, Qiuxin; Cui, Jianlan; Zhang, Kun; Tang, Caiming; Peng, Xianzhi

2011-01-01

435

Assessment of an Enterovirus Sewage Surveillance System by Comparison of Clinical Isolates with Sewage Isolates from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Collected August 1994 to December 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantity and serotypes of enteroviruses (EVs) in the influent of a local sewage treatment plant were compared to local clinical EV cases to determine if testing of sewage is adequate for an EV surveillance system. The study was carried out from August 1994 to December 2002. Monthly influent specimens were processed by organic flocculation, and dilutions of concentrate were

Gerald Sedmak; David Bina; Jeffrey MacDonald

2003-01-01

436

The Reclamation of Drinking Water from Sewage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Indirect reuse of wastewaters in drinking water supplies is common practice in industrialized states today. The investigations reported upon have been directed towards improvements upon existing techniques more applicable to the tropical and savanna devel...

M. G. McGarry

1975-01-01

437

Characterisation of raw sewage and performance assessment of primary settling tanks at Firle Sewage Treatment Works, Harare, Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for more stringent effluent discharge standards as prescribed by the Environmental Management Act 20:27 to protect the environment can be sustainably achieved with the aid of Activated Sludge Models. Thus, the researchers believe it is time to re-evaluate wastewater characteristics at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW) and make use of activated sludge simulators to address pollution challenges caused by the sewage plant. Therefore, this paper characterizes raw sewage and assesses settled and unsettled sewage in order to evaluate the performance of the primary treatment system and the suitability of the settled sewage for treatment by the subsequent Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system at Firle STW. Parameters studied included COD, BOD, TKN, TP, NH3, TSS, pH and Alkalinity. Composite samples were collected over a 9-day campaign period (27 June to 6 July 2012), hourly grab samples over 24 hrs and composite samples on 6 March 2012 which were then analysed in the lab in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater to support the City of Harare 2004-2012 lab historical records. Concentrations for unsettled sewage in mg/L were COD (527 ± 32), BOD (297 ± 83) TKN (19.0 ± 2.0), TP (18 ± 3), NH3 (24.0 ± 12.9), TSS (219 ± 57), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 266 ± 36 mg/L. For settled sewage the corresponding values in mg/L were COD (522 ± 15), BOD (324 ± 102), TKN (21.0 ± 3.0), TP (19.0 ± 2.0), NH3 (25.6 ± 11.2), TSS (250 ± 66), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 271 ± 17 mg/L. The plant design values for raw sewage are COD (650 mg/L), BOD (200 mg/L), TKN (40 mg/L) and TP (11 mg/L). Thus, COD and nitrogen were within the plant design range while BOD and TP were higher. Treatability of sewage in BNR systems is often inferred from the levels of critical parameters and also the ratios of TKN/COD and COD/TP. The wastewater average settled COD/BOD, COD/TP and TKN/COD ratio were 1.7 ± 0.5, 27.1 ± 3.1 and 0.04 ± 0.01 respectively and corresponding unsettled ratios were 1.8 ± 0.5, 30.77 ± 6.8 and 0.04 ± 0 respectively. Thus, treatability by the 3-stage BNR system appears highly feasible for nitrogen and is likely to be complex for phosphorous. Fractionation of COD, TP and TN is recommended to appropriately advise further steps to optimise the plant operations.

Muserere, Simon Takawira; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Nhapi, Innocent

438

Evaluation of enterococcal surface protein genes as markers of sewage contamination in tropical recreational waters.  

PubMed

A molecular monitoring strategy was developed to detect prevalence of two enterococcal surface protein genes (esp-1 gene and esp-2 gene) in isolates of enterococci from recreational waters in Hawaii as evidence of human sewage contamination. The sensitivity and specificity of the methods were evaluated in selected environmental samples including human sewage, ocean water samples near a sewage outfall, shoreline coastal beach waters, ambient soil samples and ambient streams not known to be contaminated with sewage. The results of this study show that the esp-1 and esp-2 genes are highly associated with enterococci from sewage sources as compared to non-point sources. Therefore these esp genes show promise as good indicators of sewage contamination. However, more sensitivity and specificity of esp genes are needed. Moreover, a more specific enumeration method for E. faecium and E. faecalis is needed so that subsequent test for the esp genes will be reliable and feasible. PMID:19587423

Betancourt, W Q; Fujioka, R S

2009-01-01

439

[Effects of sewage sludge vermicompost on the growth of marigold].  

PubMed

The 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1, and 1:0 mixtures of sewage sludge and cattle dung were treated with earthworm Eisenia foetida, and then, mixed with black soil in the proportions of 10%, 20%, and 30% (dry mass) to investigate the effects of the vermicompost on the marigold plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, branch number, aboveground biomass, underground biomass, ratio of root to shoot, flower bud number, flower yield, flower diameter, and flower biomass. An obvious promotion effect of the vermicompost was observed on the growth of marigold. The smaller the ratio of sewage sludge to cattle dung, the better the growth of marigold; while a higher proportion of the vermicompost to soil would inhibit the marigold growth. In this study, a proportion of 20% vermicompost to soil was the best for the growth of marigold. PMID:20707124

Ma, Li; Yin, Xiu-qin

2010-05-01

440

Effects of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on an aphid population  

SciTech Connect

Survival and fecundity of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, were markedly reduced when they were fed on collard plants grown in pots of soil treated with chemically contaminated sewage sludge, as compared to populations on potted plants grown in uncontaminated sludge or on fertilized soil (control). Calculated demographic parameters differed significantly between the contaminated sludge and uncontaminated sludge populations and between the contaminated sludge and control populations. No significant differences were detected between the uncontaminated sludge and control populations. The ecological effects on the aphids suggest that plant uptake and translocation of chemicals from the contaminated sludge affected aphid fitness through direct toxicity and/or reduced nutritional value of the plant. These results indicate that phytophagous insects may be affected by chemical contaminants in sewage sludge used in agriculture.

Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

1986-12-01

441

Direct determination of molecular hydrogen sulfide in sewage effluents  

SciTech Connect

In this work, the direct determination of H{sub 2}S in sewage samples was determined using a method which involves bubbling nitrogen through the aqueous sulfide solution to strip all the H{sub 2}S which could escape to the gas phase and measure it by and H{sub 2}S-gas detector. The amount of molecular H{sub 2}S was determined from the calculation of the total area under the curve relating the volume of nitrogen (L) and H{sub 2}S concentration (mg/L) in the gas phase. The area was calculated using the Trapezoidal Numerical Method. The H{sub 2}S for the same sewage sample was also determined by using the standard iodine method.

Abdul-Wahab, S.A. (Ministry of Public Health, Safat (Kuwait)); Al-Haddad, A.A.; Abdo, M.S.E. (Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait))