Sample records for improving sewage degradation

  1. The use of biochar-amended composting to improve the humification and degradation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jining; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2014-09-01

    Wood biochar (6%, 12% and 18% of fresh sludge weight) adding to a sludge-and-straw composting system was investigated to assess the potential of biochar as a composting amendment. Organic degradation efficiency, temporal humification profile of the water-extractable organic fraction and solid organic matter, through spectroscopic, microscopic and elementary analysis were monitored. Fluorescent excitation and emission matrix indicated that concentrations of aqueous fulvic-acid-like and humic-acid-like compounds were, respectively, 13-26% and 15-30% higher in the biochar-amended treatments, than those in the control without biochar-amended. On the first day of sludge aerobic incubation, the presence of biochar resulted in increased oxygen uptake rates of 21-37% due to its higher nano-porosity and surface area. SEM indicated that, in the biochar-amended sludge, the dense microstructure on the sludge surface disintegrated into fragments with organic fraction degraded and water lost. Results indicated that 12-18%w/w addition of wood biochar to sludge composting was recommended. PMID:24656550

  2. Simulation of substrate degradation in composting of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jun [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Gao Ding, E-mail: gaod@igsnrr.ac.c [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Chen Tongbin; Zheng Guodi; Chen Jun; Ma Chuang; Guo Songlin [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Du Wei [Beijing GreenTech Environmental Engineering Company, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2010-10-15

    To simulate the substrate degradation kinetics of the composting process, this paper develops a mathematical model with a first-order reaction assumption and heat/mass balance equations. A pilot-scale composting test with a mixture of sewage sludge and wheat straw was conducted in an insulated reactor. The BVS (biodegradable volatile solids) degradation process, matrix mass, MC (moisture content), DM (dry matter) and VS (volatile solid) were simulated numerically by the model and experimental data. The numerical simulation offered a method for simulating k (the first-order rate constant) and estimating k{sub 20} (the first-order rate constant at 20 {sup o}C). After comparison with experimental values, the relative error of the simulation value of the mass of the compost at maturity was 0.22%, MC 2.9%, DM 4.9% and VS 5.2%, which mean that the simulation is a good fit. The k of sewage sludge was simulated, and k{sub 20}, k{sub 20s} (first-order rate coefficient of slow fraction of BVS at 20 {sup o}C) of the sewage sludge were estimated as 0.082 and 0.015 d{sup -1}, respectively.

  3. Strategies to improve energy efficiency in sewage treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Mau Teng; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Chua, Kok Hua

    2013-06-01

    This paper discusses on strategies to improve energy efficiency in Sewage Treatment Plant (STP). Four types of STP; conventional activated sludge, extended aeration, oxidation ditch, and sequence batch reactor are presented and strategized to reduce energy consumption based on their influent flow. Strategies to reduce energy consumption include the use of energy saving devices, energy efficient motors, automation/control and modification of processes. It is envisaged that 20-30% of energy could be saved from these initiatives.

  4. Eucalyptus development in degraded soil fertilized with sewage sludge and mineral fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, R. A. F.; Santos, E. B.; Alves, M. C.; Arruda, O. G.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the development of eucalyptus in a degraded Oxisol with mineral fertilizer and sewage sludge. The study was conducted in Selviria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. The culture of eucalyptus was planted in 2003 at 2.0 m x 1.5 m spacing, with application of 60 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (dry basis) and mineral fertilizer. After five years (2008) the area received biosolids and mineral fertilizer, and after five months, were evaluated for height and diameter at breast height of Eucalyptus. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments: T1 - control (without addition of inputs), T2 - Mineral fertilization (30 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 60 kg ha-1 K2O), T3 - Reapplication of 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis, T4 - Reapplication of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis. Before reapplication the biosolids plant height was higher in the eucalyptus with treatment 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (8.03 m) compared to control (5.75 m) and mineral fertilizer (5.91 m) and that treatment 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (6.34 m) did not differ from the previous three. For the diameter at breast height was the highest value for treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 (7.78 cm) compared to control (5.23 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm), and that of mineral fertilizer (5.96 cm) did not differ from all treatments. After reapplication of sludge plant height was higher in the eucalyptus treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (11.21 m) compared with control (7.51 m), mineral fertilizer (7.77 m) and 4 64 Mg ha-1 (8.07 m), which did not differ. The diameter at breast height had the same behavior before the application of biosolids in the highest value observed being 9.28 Mg ha-1 (8.46 cm) compared with control (5.75 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm) and that of mineral fertilizer (6.34 cm) did not differ from the others. Reapplication of the dose of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge in degraded Oxisol provided greater height and diameter at breast height from eucalyptus trees.

  5. Durability Improvements Through Degradation Mechanism Studies

    E-print Network

    Durability Improvements Through Degradation Mechanism Studies Fuel Cell Technologies 2009 Kickoff and fundamental characterization · Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) ­ Integrated comprehensive degradation model, component interactions, and stack materials · Ion Power ­ Specialized membranes, Ionomer and MEAs · Lawrence

  6. Sewage sludge effects on soil and plant quality in a degraded, semiarid grassland. [Bouteloua gracilis; Hilaria jamesii; Sitanion hystrix (Nutt. )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Fresquez; R. E. Francis; G. L. Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A major problem affecting grassland productivity in the semiarid southwestern USA is the low quantity of soil organic matter and plant-available N. In this study, dried, anaerobically digested sewage sludge was applied at three rates (22.5, 45, and 90 Mg Ha⁻¹) to a degraded semiarid grassland site to determine the effects of sludge on soil chemical and heavy metal properties,

  7. Toxicological evaluation of paper mill sewage sediment treated by indigenous dibenzofuran-degrading Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Das, Mihir Tanay; Budhraja, Varaporn; Mishra, Monika; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2012-04-01

    Organic pollutants present in the pulp and paper mill sewage were extracted with dichloromethane/acetone (1:1v/v), and the extract was added to minimal salt medium to study the degrading and detoxifying potential of Pseudomonas sp. strain ISTDF1. GC-MS analysis performed after biodegradation showed removal of chlorinated compounds like dichloroacetic acid, heptadecyl ester (RT=28.99) and formation of simpler compounds like 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde (RT=7.52). Methyltetrazolium (MTT) assay for cytotoxicity, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay for dioxin-like behaviour and alkaline comet assay for genotoxicity were carried out in human hepato-carcinoma cell line HuH7 before and after bacterial treatment. The bacterium reduced toxicity as shown by a 5-fold increase in LC(50) value, 2110-fold reduction in benzo (?) pyrene equivalent value and an 8-fold reduction in Olive Tail Moment after 240h treatment. The EROD assay was found to be a useful method which indicated positive correlation with MTT and comet assay in post-biodegradation toxicity evaluation. PMID:22326333

  8. Re-inoculation strategies enhance the degradation of emerging pollutants in fungal bioaugmentation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Lucas, Daniel; Barón, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Eljarrat, Ethel; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    The use of Trametes versicolor has been partially successful in the removal of some pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge in laboratory-scale biopile systems. The application of two strategies for the re-inoculation of biomass was assessed during the fungal bioaugmentation of non-sterile sludge (42-d treatment) as an approach to improve the elimination of pharmaceuticals and other groups of emerging pollutants. Globally, the re-inoculation of biopiles with blended mycelium exerted a major effect on the removal of pharmaceuticals (86%), brominated-flame-retardants (81%) and UV filters (80%) with respect to the re-inoculation with additional lignocellulosic substrate colonized by the fungus (69-67-22%). The performance was better than that of the analogous non-re-inoculated systems that were assayed previously for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The results demonstrate the ability of T. versicolor to remove a wide spectrum of emerging micropollutants under non-sterile conditions, while re-inoculation appears to be a useful step to improve the fungal treatment of sludge. PMID:24582425

  9. Feasibility of bioleaching combined with Fenton oxidation to improve sewage sludge dewaterability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changgeng; Zhang, Panyue; Zeng, Chenghua; Zeng, Guangming; Xu, Guoyin; Huang, Yi

    2015-02-01

    A novel joint method of bioleaching with Fenton oxidation was applied to condition sewage sludge. The specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and moisture of sludge cake (MSC) were adopted to evaluate the improvement of sludge dewaterability. After 2-day bioleaching, the sludge pH dropped to about 2.5 which satisfied the acidic condition for Fenton oxidation. Meanwhile, the SRF declined from 6.45×10(10) to 2.07×10(10) s2/g, and MSC decreased from 91.42% to 87.66%. The bioleached sludge was further conditioned with Fenton oxidation. From an economical point of view, the optimal dosages of H2O2 and Fe2+ were 0.12 and 0.036 mol/L, respectively, and the optimal reaction time was 60 min. Under optimal conditions, SRF, volatile solids reduction, and MSC were 3.43×10(8) s2/g, 36.93%, and 79.58%, respectively. The stability and settleability of sewage sludge were both improved significantly. Besides, the results indicated that bioleaching-Fenton oxidation was more efficient in dewatering the sewage sludge than traditional Fenton oxidation. The sludge conditioning mechanisms by bioleaching-Fenton oxidation might mainly include the flocculation effects and the releases of extracellular polymeric substances-bound water and intercellular water. PMID:25662236

  10. Soil improvement with coal ash and sewage sludge: a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Junfeng; Zhou, Xuewu; Sun, Daisheng; Fang, Jianguo; Liu, Zhijun; Li, Zhongmin

    2008-02-01

    A field experimental study was carried out successfully to improve the quality of the sandy soil by adding coal ash and sewage sludge. One ha of barren sandy soil field was chosen for the experiment in Shanghe County, Shandong Province, China. For soil amelioration and tree planting, two formulas of the mixture:coal ash, sewage sludge and soil, in ratios of 20:10:70 and 20:20:60, respectively, were used. Poplar trees were planted in pits filled with soils with additives (mixture of ash and sludge) as well as in the original sandy soil. In the 19th months after the trees were planted, the soils with additives were sampled and analyzed. The results show that the barren sandy soil was greatly improved after mixing with coal ash and sludge. The improved soils have remarkably higher nutrient concentrations, better texture, smaller bulk density, higher porosity and mass moisture content, and higher content of fine-grained minerals. During the first 22 months after planting, the annual increase in height of the trees grown in the soil with additives (4.78 m per year) was 55% higher than that of the control group (3.07 m per year), and the annual increase in diameter at the breast height (1.3 m) was 33 % higher (43.03 vs. 32.36 mm). Trees planted in soils with additives appeared healthier and shed leaves later than those in the control group. As the volume of the additives (30-40% in both formulas) is less than that of the sandy soil in and around the tree pits, it appears that the use of coal ash and sludge for tree planting and soil amelioration is environmentally safe even though the additives have relatively high heavy metal concentrations.

  11. [Improvement of disintegration and anaerobic digestion for sewage sludge with ultrasonic generator].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Qun-Fang; Chen, Mao-Zhe; Du, Xue-Juan

    2008-10-01

    Ultrasonic generating trough was applied to study the impact of ultrasonic on conditioning of sewage sludge. There are few ultrasonic generators for sludge treatment specifically, so we designed a double-frequency ultrasonic generating trough which could adjust frequency, energy density and treating time flexibly. In the research characteristics of sewage sludge treated by single-frequency and double-frequency ultrasonic were compared. According to the results, the digestion biogas of the sewage sludge treated by ultrasonic increase obviously, and the digestion biogas increment of the sewage sludge treated by single-frequency is 40.93%, higher than that treated by double-frequency. But the SCOD of the sewage sludge treated by double-frequency is 23.5%, more than that treated by single-frequency. PMID:19143377

  12. Antiviral Oseltamivir Is not Removed or Degraded in Normal Sewage Water Treatment: Implications for Development of Resistance by Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H.; Tysklind, Mats; Haemig, Paul D.; Waldenström, Jonas; Wallensten, Anders; Olsen, Björn

    2007-01-01

    Oseltamivir is the main antiviral for treatment and prevention of pandemic influenza. The increase in oseltamivir resistance reported recently has therefore sparked a debate on how to use oseltamivir in non pandemic influenza and the risks associated with wide spread use during a pandemic. Several questions have been asked about the fate of oseltamivir in the sewage treatment plants and in the environment. We have assessed the fate of oseltamivir and discuss the implications of environmental residues of oseltamivir regarding the occurrence of resistance. A series of batch experiments that simulated normal sewage treatment with oseltamivir present was conducted and the UV-spectra of oseltamivir were recorded. Findings: Our experiments show that the active moiety of oseltamivir is not removed in normal sewage water treatments and is not degraded substantially by UV light radiation, and that the active substance is released in waste water leaving the plant. Our conclusion is that a ubiquitous use of oseltamivir may result in selection pressures in the environment that favor development of drug-resistance. PMID:17912363

  13. Improved degradation resistance of (AlGa)As lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kressel, H.; Ladany, J.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous doping with Ge and Zn improves degradation resistance of short-wavelength (AlGa)As lasers. Method opens up prospects for greatly increased reliability in lasers and LED's operating at 7,500 angstroms or below.

  14. Predicting phosphorus concentrations in British rivers resulting from the introduction of improved phosphorus removal from sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Bowes, Michael J; Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P; Smith, Jim T; Davies, Helen N

    2010-09-01

    Phosphorus (P) concentration and flow data gathered during the 1990s for a range of British rivers were used to determine the relative contributions of point and diffuse inputs to the total P load, using the Load Apportionment Model (LAM). Heavily urbanised catchments were dominated by sewage inputs, but the majority of the study catchments received most of their annual phosphorus load from diffuse sources. Despite this, almost 80% of the study sites were dominated by point source inputs for the majority of the year, particularly during summer periods when eutrophication risk is greatest. This highlights the need to reduce sewage P inputs to improve the ecological status of British rivers. These modelled source apportionment estimates were validated against land-use data and boron load (a chemical marker for sewage). The LAM was applied to river flow data in subsequent years, to give predicted P concentrations (assuming no change in P source inputs), and these estimates were compared with observed concentration data. This showed that there had been significant reductions in P concentration in the River Thames, Aire and Ouse in the period 1999 to 2002, which were attributable to the introduction of P stripping at sewage treatment works (STW). The model was then used to forecast P concentrations resulting from the introduction of P removal at STW to a 2 or 1mgl(-1) consent limit. For the urbanised rivers in this study, the introduction of phosphorus stripping to a 1mgl(-1) consent level at all STW in the catchment would not reduce P concentrations in the rivers to potentially limiting concentrations. Therefore, further sewage P stripping will be required to comply with the Water Framework Directive. Diffuse P inputs may also need to be reduced before some of the highly nutrient-enriched rivers achieve good ecological status. PMID:20547413

  15. A Study About Improvement of Efficiency of a Sewage Heat Utilization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayakawa, Tomoaki; Hihara, Eiji; Hanazaki, Hirotaka

    On the basis of the data analysis of operational performance at the DHC plant in Makuhari HB area, it is examined how the properties of the sewage used as a heat source affect the effectiveness of the system. The result of this study suggests that a sewage heat utilization system is able to perform higher efficiency when it is designed as a distributed system that has separate heat sources than a central system.

  16. A Study About Improvement of Efficiency of a Sewage Heat Utilization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayakawa, Tomoaki; Hihara, Eiji; Hanazaki, Hirotaka

    In order to acquire the basis of technical information that will be required for the design and operation of a sewage heat utilization system, this paper discusses the data analysis of operational performance at the DHC plant in Makuhari HB area. The methodology used in this study is to clarify the characteristics of a sewage heat utilization system from compound characteristics of the DHC plant that consists of various heating systems, and evaluate them.

  17. Improving sewage sludge ultrasonic pretreatment under pressure by changing initial pH.

    PubMed

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour, Carine; Ratsimba, Berthe; Delmas, Henri

    2013-10-15

    This work aimed at understanding the combined effect of sludge pH, temperature, and external pressure on the efficiency of sewage sludge ultrasound (US) pretreatment. Based on the evolution of both the degree of sludge disintegration (DDCOD) and pH, application of 40 mgNaOH/gTS during 30 min was selected for chemical pretreatment. Mechanical and thermal effects induced by cavitation contributed in similar proportion to sludge disruption, but the role of the latter effect tended to be weakened after mild alkalisation of sludge. When applying external pressure, DDCOD was always improved, by about 10% at the optimal value of 2 bar. The optimal combination was an addition of 40 mgNaOH/gTS prior to adiabatic sonication at 2 bar, resulting in a DDCOD value of about 46% at 75,000 kJ/kgTS (as compared to 35% for sole US) for the investigated mixed sludge. Very short time US application yielded a drastic reduction of the volume mean particle size, mainly due to the erosion and disruption of large flocs (>90 ?m), yet this was not sufficient to initiate significant subsequent COD solubilisation under stirring. PMID:23831677

  18. PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE - IDEAS FOR FURTHER STUDIES TO IMPROVE LEACHING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Levlin; B. Hultman

    Development of methods to recover phosphorus will make handling of sewage sludge more sustainable. In earlier studies sludge incineration ash and SCWO-residues have been leached with acid and base. Acid leaching gives a high degree of recovery but releases besides phosphate also the main part of other metals (including heavy metals). This gives a large separation problem and gives a

  19. Biodrying of sewage sludge: kinetics of volatile solids degradation under different initial moisture contents and air-flow rates.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Manuel; Huiliñir, Cesar

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on the kinetics of the biodegradation of volatile solids (VS) of sewage sludge for biodrying under different initial moisture contents (Mc) and air-flow rates (AFR). For the study, a 3(2) factorial design, whose factors were AFR (1, 2 or 3L/minkgTS) and initial Mc (59%, 68% and 78% w.b.), was used. Using seven kinetic models and a nonlinear regression method, kinetic parameters were estimated and the models were analyzed with two statistical indicators. Initial Mc of around 68% increases the temperature matrix and VS consumption, with higher moisture removal at lower initial Mc values. Lower AFRs gave higher matrix temperatures and VS consumption, while higher AFRs increased water removal. The kinetic models proposed successfully simulate VS biodegradation, with root mean square error (RMSE) between 0.007929 and 0.02744, and they can be used as a tool for satisfactory prediction of VS in biodrying. PMID:25463779

  20. Sewage Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  1. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  2. Use of Municipal Sewage Sludge for Improvement of Forest Sites in the Southeast

    SciTech Connect

    Charles R. Berry

    1987-09-01

    In eight field experiments dried municipal sewage sludge was applied to forest sites before planting of seedlings. In all cases, tree growth was faster on sludge-amended plots than on plots that received fertilizer and lime or no amendment. In all studies, concentrations of total nitrogen in the soil were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots, even on good forest sites. In seven of the eight studies, concentrations of phosphorus also were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots. Nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be higher in foliage from trees growing on sludge plots. Deep subsoiling was beneficial regardless of soil amendment. Where weeds were plentiful at the outset, they became serious competitors on plots receiving sludge.

  3. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  4. Amendments and mulches improve the biological quality of soils degraded by mining activities in SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Mining and quarrying activities generate negative visual impacts in the landscape and a loss of environmental quality. Substrate properties at the end of mining are in general not suitable for plant growth, even native ones. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, the effect of organic amendment (sewage sludge, compost from the organic fraction of domestic waste or non-amendment) combined or not with two different kind of mulches (fine gravel, chopped forest residue) was tested by triplicate in 5 x 5 m plots with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot 75 native plants (Stipa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. Effects of adding organic amendments and mulches on some soil microbiological and biochemical parameters (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration and different enzymatic activities, such as dehydrogenase, phosphatase, ?-glucosidase and urease) were analyzed 5 years after the start of the experiment. Vegetation growth was also monitored. The two-way ANOVA, using as factors amendment and mulch, showed a significant positive influence of organic amendments on microbial biomass (Cmic), basal respiration and some enzymatic activities related to the cycles of C and N. The highest values of these parameters were obtained with compost. The influence of the mulch factor and its interactions with the amendment factor on the measured variables did not follow a clear trend with respect the measured parameters. Mulching did not improved significantly (p<0.05) the positive effect of organic amendments on Cmic although Cmic values increased with the incorporation of "forest chopped residue" and decreased with gravel incorporation. In general, both type of mulch decreased or have no effect on the microbial activity detected in the amended soils, with the only exception of the forest chopped residue, which increased phosphatase activity in the compost amended soil. Plant growth was significantly higher in amended soils than in the control, but it is remarkable that the mulch type "forest chopped residue" had a negative effect on vegetation growth. The addition of organic amendments, especially compost from the organic fraction of domestic wastes, is beneficial to restore degraded or man-made soils from quarrying areas because they stimulate microbial growth and activity, resulting in mineralization of nutrients necessary for plants and increasing soil fertility and quality. However, after 5 years the effects of the mulch "forest chopped residue", on the improvement of soil or substrate quality are not clear.

  5. Improving anaerobic and aerobic degradation by ultrasonic disintegration of biomass.

    PubMed

    Neis, Uwe; Nickel, Klaus; Lundén, Anna

    2008-11-01

    Biological cell lysis is known to be the rate-limiting step of anaerobic biosolids degradation. Due to the slow pace by which this reaction occurs, it is necessary to equip treatment plants with large digesters or alternatively incorporate technological aids. High-power ultrasound used to disintegrate bacterial cells has been utilized as a pre-treatment process prior to anaerobic digestion. Through this application, as seen on pilot- and full-scales, it is possible to attain up to 30% more biogas, an increase in VS-destruction of up to 30% and a reduced sludge mass for disposal. Utilizing ultrasound technology in aerobic applications is a new and innovative approach. Improved denitrification through a more readily available internal carbon source, and less excess sludge mass can be traced to the positive effects that sonication of sludge has on the overall biological wastewater treatment process. Reference full-scale installations suggest that the technology is both technically feasible and economically sound. PMID:18821241

  6. Improved water chemistry controls for minimizing degradation of materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sawochka

    1986-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute and the Steam Generator Owners Group have sponsored several efforts to develop secondary water chemistry guidelines to minimize pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubing degradation. To develop these guidelines, chemical species known to accelerate corrosion of Alloy 600 were identified, and values for normal and abnormal chemistry situations were established. For example, sodium hydroxide

  7. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  8. Improved Degradation of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents and p-Nitrophenol by Pseudomonas putida JS444 with

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wilfred

    Improved Degradation of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents and p-Nitrophenol by Pseudomonas putida JS444, and chemical warfare agents (1-3), and their widespread contamination of soil, sedi- ments, and groundwater

  9. Ultrasonic disintegration of biosolids for improved biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Klaus; Neis, Uwe

    2007-04-01

    Biological cell lysis is known to be the rate-limiting step of anaerobic biosolids degradation. Shear forces generated by low frequency ultrasound can be used to disintegrate bacterial cells in sewage sludge. Thus, the quantity of dissolved organic substrate is increased. Consequently, the degradation rate and the biodegradability of organic biosolids mass are improved. Fundamental pilot-studies showed a significantly accelerated biosolids degradation with less digested sludge being produced and increased biogas production being attained. A full-scale ultrasound reactor system was developed for continuous operation under real life conditions on sewage treatment plants (STP). PMID:17289422

  10. Sintering effect on cement bonded sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Ho Chen; Ing-Jia Chiou; Kuen-Sheng Wang

    2006-01-01

    Through foaming reaction, hydration reaction and pozzolanic effect, sewage sludge ash (SSA) was used as main material to produce a sewage sludge ash foamed lightweight material (SSAFLM). Firing tests were conducted at different temperatures. This was to study how the use of sewage sludge ash (SSA) improved the thermal properties and sintering effects of cement-base materials, and to evaluate the

  11. Improving the mining soil quality for a vegetation cover after addition of sewage sludges: inorganic ions and low-molecular-weight organic acids in the soil solution.

    PubMed

    Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Guzmán-Carrizosa, Ignacio; Fernández-Espinosa, Antonio J

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effects of applying stabilized sewage sludge (SSL) and composted sewage sludge (CLV), at 5 and 10% to an acid mining soil. Limed soil (NCL) amended or not with SSL and CLV was incubated for 47 days. We studied the cations and organic and inorganic anions in the soil solution by means of ion chromatography. Liming led to big increases in Ca(2+) and SO4(2-) and to significant decreases in K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+) and NO3(-). Addition of both organic amendments increased some cations (NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Na(+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO3(-) only with CLV and PO4(3-) only with SSL) and provided a greater amount of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) (SSL more than CLV). Incubation led to decreases in all cations, particularly remarkable for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in SSL-10. A decrease in NH4(+) was associated with variations in NO2(-) and NO3(-) resulting from nitrification reactions. During incubation the LMWOAs content tended to decrease similarly to the cations, especially in SSL-10. Chemometric tools revealed a clear discrimination between SSL, CLV and NCL. Furthermore, treatment effects depended upon dose, mainly in SSL. Amendment nature and dose affect the quality of a mining soil and improve conditions for plant establishment. PMID:25506677

  12. Coating nanothickness degradable films on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite particles to improve the bonding strength between nanohydroxyapatite and degradable polymer matrix.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Heather L; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Donglu; Bhaduri, Sarit; Wen, Xuejun

    2007-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles are similar to bone apatite in size, phase composition, and crystal structure. When compared with micron-size HA particles, nano-HA possesses improved mechanical properties and superior bioactivity for promoting bone growth and regeneration. However, scaffolds fabricated from nano-HA alone cannot meet the mechanical requirements for direct-loading applications. A number of studies suggest that nanostructured composites may offer surface and/or chemical properties of native bone, and therefore represent ideal substrates to support bone regeneration. However, a common problem with nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA)-polymer composites is the weak binding strength between the nano-HA filler and the polymer matrix since they are two different categories of materials and cannot form covalent bonds between them during the mixing process. Often, the mechanical strength of the composite is compromised due to the phase separation of the HA filler from the polymer matrix during the tissue repair process. To overcome this problem, an ultrathin degradable polymer film was grafted onto the surface of nano-HA using a radio-frequency plasma polymerization technology from acrylic acid monomers. The treated nano-HA powders are expected to bind to the polymer matrix via covalent bonds, thus enhancing the mechanical properties of the resultant composites. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) experiments showed that an extremely thin polymer film (2 nm) was uniformly deposited on the surfaces of the nanoparticles. The HRTEM results were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS). Tensile tests performed on the specimens revealed that the degradable coating had improved elastic and strength properties when compared with the nondegradable and uncoated controls. XPS and TOSIMS data revealed that more functional carboxyl groups were formed on degradable coatings than cross-linked nondegradable coatings. Cytocompatibility assay demonstrated that both the degradable and nondegradable coatings are cytocompatible. PMID:17295227

  13. Degradation and responses of coprostanol and selected sterol biomarkers in sediments to a simulated major sewage pollution event: A microcosm experiment under sub-tropical estuarine conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Pratt; Jan Warnken; Rhys Leeming; Michael J. Arthur; Darren I. Grice

    2008-01-01

    A microcosm experiment was conducted to investigate the degradation of coprostanol and related sterol biomarkers and Escherichia coli in ‘natural’ sediments from a highly mixed (marine and estuarine) sub-tropical environment following a simulated pollution event. This experiment revealed that sterols are synthesised and degraded over time by auto- and hetero trophic organisms within the sediment matrix from a onetime addition

  14. Sawdust and natural zeolite as a bulking agent for improving quality of a composting product from anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Loizidou, Maria

    2008-11-01

    This study has dealt with the production of compost from dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) and sawdust (SWD). SWD is added in order to increase the humic substances in the final product. The DASPSS is mixed with clinoptilolite (Cli), which is used as a bulking agent at 20% w/w, and the mixture is amended with sawdust at 10%, 30% and 40% (w/w). The final results have indicated that by increasing the sawdust concentration in the initial mixture, the humic substances in the final product increase too. The natural zeolite that was added in the initial mixture takes up a significant amount of heavy metals. In order to observe the maturity of the final product, the germination index is used in oat cultivation. The results indicate that the substrate appears to be non-phytotoxic after 75 d of maturity. Also, in order to estimate the metal leachability of the final compost product, the generalized acid neutralization capacity procedure is applied, and it is found that by increasing the pH values, the heavy metal concentrations decrease. PMID:18439819

  15. Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa

    2012-05-01

    Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards. PMID:22425275

  16. Sewage sludge combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Werther; T. Ogada

    1999-01-01

    In the current review paper, various issues related to the combustion of sewage sludge are discussed. After briefly explaining the formation and treatment of sewage sludge, current and future sludge production are discussed. Thereafter, the four sludge disposal methods which are currently used, i.e. recycling in agriculture, landfilling, dumping into sea and incineration, are examined, and the future trend presented

  17. Sewage sludge additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ingham, J.D.; Kalvinskas, J.J.; Mueller, W. A.

    1980-06-24

    A raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage is discussed. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank, for the purposes mentioned. Because the sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage, it is necessary to add carbon to the process. In accordance with this invention, instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  18. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  19. Sewage impacts coral reefs at multiple levels of ecological organization.

    PubMed

    Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Schlacher, Thomas A; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai

    2009-09-01

    Against a backdrop of rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification which pose global threats to coral reefs, excess nutrients and turbidity continue to be significant stressors at regional and local scales. Because interventions usually require local data on pollution impacts, we measured ecological responses to sewage discharges in Surin Marine Park, Thailand. Wastewater disposal significantly increased inorganic nutrients and turbidity levels, and this degradation in water quality resulted in substantial ecological shifts in the form of (i) increased macroalgal density and species richness, (ii) lower cover of hard corals, and (iii) significant declines in fish abundance. Thus, the effects of nutrient pollution and turbidity can cascade across several levels of ecological organization to change key properties of the benthos and fish on coral reefs. Maintenance or restoration of ecological reef health requires improved wastewater management and run-off control for reefs to deliver their valuable ecosystems services. PMID:19515390

  20. Usage of pumice as bulking agent in sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuandong; Li, Weiguang; Wang, Ke; Li, Yunbei

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the impacts of reused and sucrose-decorated pumice as bulking agents on the composting of sewage sludge were evaluated in the lab-scale reactor. The variations of temperature, pH, NH3 and CO2 emission rate, moisture content (MC), volatile solid, dissolved organic carbon, C/N and the water absorption characteristics of pumice were detected during the 25days composting. The MC of pumice achieved 65.23% of the 24h water absorptivity within the first 2h at the mass ratio of 0.6:1 (pumice:sewage sludge). Reused pumice increased 23.68% of CO2 production and reduced 21.25% of NH3 emission. The sucrose-decorated pumice reduced 43.37% of nitrogen loss. These results suggested that adding pumice and sucrose-decorated pumice in sludge composting matrix could not only adjust the MC of materials, but also improve the degradation of organic matters and reduce nitrogen loss. PMID:25913030

  1. Lockport Sewage Lagoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

  2. Improving degradation resistance of sisal fiber in concrete through fiber surface treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jianqiang; Meyer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to improve the sustainability of reinforced concrete, recycled concrete aggregate is being considered together with natural fibers such as sisal fiber as replacement of synthetic reinforcement. Since natural fibers are known to undergo potential deterioration in the alkaline cement matrix especially in outdoor erosive environment, they need to be treated to improve their durability. This paper describes two such methods (thermal and Na2CO3 treatment) and evaluates their effects on the degradation resistance of sisal fiber and durability of sisal fiber-reinforced concrete with recycled concrete aggregate. Concrete specimens were subjected to cycles of wetting and drying to accelerate aging. The microstructure, tensile strength and Young's modulus of sisal fiber as well as the weight loss of the composite were evaluated. Of primary interest were the effects on compressive and splitting tensile strength of sisal fiber-reinforced concrete. Thermal treatment and Na2CO3 surface treatment were shown to improve the durability of the composite as measured by splitting tensile strength by 36.5% and 46.2% and the compressive strength by 31.1% and 45.4%, respectively. The mechanisms of these two treatment methods were also analyzed. The thermal treatment achieved improvement of cellulose's crystallization, which ensured the initial strength and improved durability of sisal fiber. A layer consisting of calcium carbonate sediments, which protects the internals of a fiber from the strong alkali solution formed in the cement hydration process, was formed and filled in pits and cavities on the Na2CO3 treated sisal fiber's surface to improve their corrosion resistance and durability and reduced the detrimental effects of Na+ ions on concrete.

  3. Comparing different methods of analysing sewage sludge, dewatered sewage sludge and sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaston Hoffmann; Daniel Schingnitz; Bernd Bilitewski

    2010-01-01

    The following article compares different ways of characterising sewage sludge. Against the background of sludge recycling in agriculture as well as treatment with subsequent phosphorus recovery in mind, the article starts by collating and evaluating the levels of phosphorus, heavy metals, chlorine and sulphur in sludge as reported in the literature. Sewage sludge from the sewage treatment plant at Kaditz

  4. Modification of soil porosity after application of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Sort; J. M. Alcañiz

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the application of sewage sludge on soil porosity over 28 months is discussed here. Anaerobic sludges of urban refuse waters were applied on a degraded limestone soil in a mining land by two ways. First, a previous mixture of sludge and soil was carried out; this was then applied to the target land. Second, a direct application

  5. Improved chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of ten phenylurea herbicides and some of their degradation products in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Berger

    1997-01-01

    A new analytical method is presented for the simultaneous determination of ten phenylureas and six degradation products. This is the first multiresidue method for these herbicides that includes the most prominent metabolites in soil, the monodesalkyl derivatives and, therefore, complements and improves existing methods. After extraction, the compounds are separated on two coupled columns with Nucleosil-100 C18, 3 ?m with

  6. TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

  7. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  8. PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SEWAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosphorus is a growth limiting nutrient that is mined from rock ore, refined, used in fertilizers, and discharged to the environment through municipal sewage. The impacts of phosphorus discharge include severe eutrophication of fresh water bodies. The future sustainable use of...

  9. Improved removal of estrogenic and pharmaceutical compounds in sewage effluent by full scale granular activated carbon: impact on receiving river water.

    PubMed

    Grover, D P; Zhou, J L; Frickers, P E; Readman, J W

    2011-01-30

    Sewage effluents are widely recognised as the main source of emerging contaminants, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals in surface waters. A full-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) plant has been installed as an advanced technology for the removal of these contaminants, in a major sewage treatment works (STW) in South-West England as part of the UK National Demonstration Programme for EDCs. This study presented for the first time, an assessment of the impact of a recently commissioned, post-tertiary GAC plant in the removal of emerging contaminants in a working STW. Through regular sampling followed by solid-phase extraction and analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), a significant reduction in the concentrations of steroidal estrogens was observed (>43-64%). In addition, significant reductions were observed for many of the pharmaceutical compounds such as mebeverine (84-99%), although the reduction was less dramatic for some of the more widely used pharmaceuticals analysed, including carbamazepine and propranolol (17-23%). PMID:21035257

  10. Controlled extracellular matrix degradation in breast cancer tumors improves therapy by trastuzumab.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Ines; Li, Zongyi; Persson, Jonas; Liu, Ying; van Rensburg, Ruan; Yumul, Roma; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Hung, Mien-Chie; Lieber, André

    2011-03-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) in solid tumors affects the effectiveness of therapeutics through blocking of intratumoral diffusion and/or physical masking of target receptors on malignant cells. In immunohistochemical studies of tumor sections from breast cancer patients and xenografts, we observed colocalization of ECM proteins and Her2/neu, a tumor-associated antigen that is the target for the widely used monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin). We tested whether intratumoral expression of the peptide hormone relaxin (Rlx) would result in ECM degradation and the improvement of trastuzumab therapy. As viral gene delivery into epithelial tumors with extensive tumor ECM is inefficient, we used a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-based approach to deliver the Rlx gene to the tumor. In mouse models with syngeneic breast cancer tumors, HSC-mediated intratumoral Rlx expression resulted in a decrease of ECM proteins and enabled control of tumor growth. Moreover, in a model with Her2/neu-positive BT474-M1 tumors and more treatment-refractory tumors derived from HCC1954 cells, we observed a significant delay of tumor growth when trastuzumab therapy was combined with Rlx expression. Our results have implications for antibody therapy of cancer as well as for other anticancer treatment approaches that are based on T-cells or encapsulated chemotherapy drugs. PMID:21081901

  11. Mechanism of Degradation and Improvement of Stability on Mesogenic-Phthalocyanine-Based Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duy Dao, Quang; Hori, Tetsuro; Masuda, Tetsuya; Fukumura, Kaoru; Kamikado, Toshiya; Nekelson, Fabien; Fujii, Akihiko; Shimizu, Yo; Ozaki, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    The stability of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing the phthalocyanine derivative 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2) and the fullerene derivative 1-(3-methoxy-carbonyl)-propyl-1-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 has been studied. In the same environment, C6PcH2-based cells have shown higher stability than the cells fabricated using the conventional donor material poly(3-hexylthiophene). Furthermore, the degradation mechanisms of these solar cells have been investigated. It was found that the chemical bonds of two pyrrole aza nitrogens as well as the four mesobridging aza nitrogens with neighboring carbons in the C6PcH2 molecule were broken after irradiation with a solar simulator, which affected the device lifetime. To improve the stability, various buffer layers have been deposited between the counterelectrode and the active layer. Obviously, the C60 thin film and the oxidized layer play an important role as blocking layers that prevent the diffusion of metal atoms into the active layer, resulting in the higher stability.

  12. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  13. Sewage treatment method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fassbender; Alex G

    1995-01-01

    The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating

  14. Antisense suppression of proline degradation improves tolerance to freezing and salinity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tokihiko Nanjo; Masatomo Kobayashi; Yoshu Yoshiba; Yoshitaka Kakubari; Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki; Kazuo Shinozaki

    1999-01-01

    Synthesis, degradation, and transport of proline (Pro) are thought to cooperatively control its endogenous levels in higher plants in response to environmental conditions. To evaluate the function of Pro degradation in the regulation of the levels of Pro and to elucidate roles of Pro in stress tolerance, we generated antisense transgenic Arabidopsis plants with an AtProDH cDNA encoding proline dehydrogenase

  15. Improvement of hot-electron-induced degradation in MOS capacitors by repeated irradiation-then-anneal treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenn-Gwo Hwu; Jen-Te Chen

    1990-01-01

    Improvement of the SiO2\\/Si interface degradation due to hot-electron injections from silicon by repeated irradiation-then-anneal treatments is described. Each treatment includes an irradiation of Co-60 with a total dose of 106 rd (SiO2) and an anneal in N2 for 10 min successively. It is found that the sensitivity to hot-electron induced damage decreases gradually as the number of irradiation-then-anneal treatments

  16. Analysis of coral mucus as an improved medium for detection of enteric microbes and for determining patterns of sewage contamination in reef environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipp, Erin K.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional fecal indicator bacteria are often subject to a high degree of die-off and dilution in tropical marine waters, particularly in offshore areas such as coral reefs. Furthermore, these microbes are often not associated with human waste, and their presence may not be indicative of health risk. To address the offshore extent of wastewater contamination in the Florida Keys reef tract, we assayed coral surfaces for the presence of human-specific enteric viruses. The overlying water column and surface mucopolysaccharide (mucus) layers from scleractinian corals were sampled from three stations along a nearshore-to-offshore transect beginning at Long Key in the middle Florida Keys, USA. Samples were assayed for standard bacterial water quality indicators (fecal coliform bacteria and enterococci) and for human enteroviruses by direct reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The concentration of the bacterial indicators was greatest at the nearshore station in both the water column and corals, and decreased with distance from shore; no indicator bacteria were detected at the offshore station. Whereas human enteroviruses were not detected in any of the water column samples, they were detected in 50–80% of coral mucus samples at each station. These data provide evidence that human sewage is impacting the reef tract up to ~6.5 km from shore in the middle Florida Keys and that coral mucus is an efficient trap for viral markers associated with anthropogenic pollution.

  17. Elimination of COD, microorganisms and pharmaceuticals from sewage by trickling through sandy soil below leaking sewers.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jianmin; An, Pinglin; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2003-11-01

    To simulate the filtration and/or degradation of trickling sewage from leaky sewers through the non-water-saturated underground, sewage was trickled through sand of 0.4-2mm from the Rhine valley in glass columns of 125 cm length. For the same sewage the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was almost independent of low or high trickling rates. The COD removal efficiency varied, however, from 67% to 79%, for sewage from rain and dry weather periods, respectively. The water content of the moist sand increased from initially 80 ml kg(-1) with increasing sewage trickling rates to 108 ml kg(-1) sand. It remained at 108 ml kg(-1) at higher trickling rates higher than 600 ml d(-1). Analyses of effluent of five consecutive 25-cm soil columns revealed that about 50% of the initial COD were filtrated off on top of the sand or degraded in the uppermost 25 cm at varying trickling rates. Another 6-12% of the COD were removed in the following 25-50 cm of sand, whereas almost no further COD removal was seen in the subsequent two or three 25-cm columns. The COD elimination during trickling of sewage through the segmented column (interrupted random flow) was slightly better than that in the non-segmented column. Total and faecal coliform bacteria decreased faster with increasing trickling depth than that of total aerobic or anaerobic bacteria. After a filter/degradation stretch of 125 cm elimination of all bacteria reached 96.2-99.9%. The sewage contained low concentrations of at least 10 different pharmaceuticals or X-ray media. During trickling of sewage through sand, elimination of these compounds by adsorption onto sand and/or biodegradation varied from a complete removal, e.g. Ibuprofen or Naproxen, to almost no removal for several X-ray contrast media. Some of the medicals were removed as effectively as during conventional sewage treatment. PMID:14511710

  18. Vermitechnology for sewage sludge recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meena Khwairakpam; Renu Bhargava

    2009-01-01

    The present paper is aimed at safe reuse and recycling of sewage sludge (SS) and production of good quality compost using vermicomposting. Three different earthworm species Eiseniafetida (E. fetida), Eudrilus eugeniae (E. eugeniae), Perionyx excavatus (P. excavatus) in individual and combinations were utilized to compare the suitability of worm species for composting of sewage sludge as well as the quality

  19. Reduction of entanglement degradation and teleportation improvement in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    E-print Network

    Bahram Nasr Esfahani; Mahmoud Shamirzai; Morteza Soltani

    2010-10-25

    Bipartite entanglement for states of a non-interacting bosonic or fermionic field in the spacetime of a spherically symmetric black hole of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, is investigated. Although the initial state is chosen to be maximally entangled as the Bell states, the Hawking-Unruh effect causes the state to be mixed and the entanglement degrades, but with different asymptotic behaviors for the fermionic and bosonic fields. The Gauss-Bonnet term with positive $\\alpha$ can play an anti-gravitation role and so this causes to decrease the Hawking-Unruh effect and consequently reduces the entanglement degradation. On the other hand, the suggested higher dimensions for the spacetime, lead to more entanglement degradation by increasing the dimension. There is a dramatic difference between the behaviors of the entanglement in terms of the radius of the horizon for a five-dimensional black hole and that for higher dimensional black holes.

  20. Fermentative degradation of resorcinol and resorcylic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Tschech; Bernhard Schink

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentative degradation of resorcinol and resorcylates was studied in enrichment cultures inoculated with marine or freshwater sediments or digested sludge. a-Resorcylate (3,5-dihydroxybenzoate) was degraded very rapidly to acetate and methane by enrichment cultures inoculated with freshwater sediment or sewage sludge, but degradation was slow in enrichments from marine habitats. The freshwater cultures did not degrade any other related phenolic

  1. Sewage treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alex G. (4407 Laurel Dr., West Richland, WA 99352)

    1995-01-01

    The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

  2. Starch degradation and nutrition value improvement in corn grits by solid state fermentation technique with Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mian; Zhang, Song

    2011-10-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate effect of Coriolus versicolor mycelia on degrading starch and improving nutrition value in corn grits through solid state fermentation technique. The results showed that using soybean meal as a nitrogen source, ?-amylase secreted from C. versicolor expressed 407.25U/g of activity, leading to 45.15% of starch degraded. The activity grew with fermentation time until the 15(th) day, after that the amylase was deactivated rapidly. An orthogonal experiment designed for the study illustrated that degradation rate of starch in corn grits attained to maximum, 50.51%, when 100g of corn grits, added 16g of soybean meal, were fermented by C. versicolor for 12 days, in an initial pH 5.5. After fermenting, compared to the nonfermented control, contents of amino acids, total sugar, crude fat and crude protein were increased by 21.00%, 38.45%, 55.56%, 69.15% respectively. The significant improvement of nutrition value in corn grits is probably attributed to the intense metabolism of C. versicolor. PMID:24031762

  3. Starch degradation and nutrition value improvement in corn grits by solid state fermentation technique with Coriolus versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mian; Zhang, Song

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate effect of Coriolus versicolor mycelia on degrading starch and improving nutrition value in corn grits through solid state fermentation technique. The results showed that using soybean meal as a nitrogen source, ?-amylase secreted from C. versicolor expressed 407.25U/g of activity, leading to 45.15% of starch degraded. The activity grew with fermentation time until the 15th day, after that the amylase was deactivated rapidly. An orthogonal experiment designed for the study illustrated that degradation rate of starch in corn grits attained to maximum, 50.51%, when 100g of corn grits, added 16g of soybean meal, were fermented by C. versicolor for 12 days, in an initial pH 5.5. After fermenting, compared to the nonfermented control, contents of amino acids, total sugar, crude fat and crude protein were increased by 21.00%, 38.45%, 55.56%, 69.15% respectively. The significant improvement of nutrition value in corn grits is probably attributed to the intense metabolism of C. versicolor. PMID:24031762

  4. Improving mobile database access over wide-area networks without degrading consistency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niraj Tolia; Mahadev Satyanarayanan; Adam Wolbach

    2007-01-01

    We report on the design, implementation, and evaluation of a sys- tem called Cedar that enables mobile database access with good performance over low-bandwidth networks. This is accomplished without degrading consistency. Cedar exploits the disk storage and processing power of a mobile client to compensate for weak con- nectivity. Its central organizing principle is that even a stale client replica

  5. Integrated odour modelling for sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Gostelow, P; Parsons, S A; Lovell, M

    2004-01-01

    Odours from sewage treatment works are a significant source of environmental annoyance. There is a need for tools to assess the degree of annoyance caused, and to assess strategies for mitigation of the problem. This is the role of odour modelling. Four main stages are important in the development of an odour problem. Firstly, the odorous molecules must be formed in the liquid phase. They must then transfer from the liquid to the gaseous phase. They are then transported through the atmosphere to the population surrounding the odour source, and are then perceived and assessed by that population. Odour modelling as currently practised tends to concentrate on the transportation of odorants through the atmosphere, with the other areas receiving less attention. Instead, odour modelling should consider each stage in an integrated manner. This paper describes the development of integrated odour models for annoyance prediction. The models describe the liquid-phase transformations and emission of hydrogen sulphide from sewage treatment processes. Model output is in a form suitable for integration with dispersion models, the predictions of which can in turn be used to indicate the probability of annoyance. The models have been applied to both hypothetical and real sewage treatment works cases. Simulation results have highlighted the potential variability of emission rates from sewage treatment works, resulting from flow, quality and meteorological variations. Emission rate variations can have significant effects on annoyance predictions, which is an important finding, as they are usually considered to be fixed and only meteorological variations are considered in predicting the odour footprint. Areas for further development of integrated odour modelling are discussed, in particular the search for improved links between analytical and sensory measurements, and a better understanding of dose/response relationships for odour annoyance. PMID:15484758

  6. The effectiveness of sewage treatment processes to remove faecal pathogens and antibiotic residues

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Rahzia; Pool, Edmund John

    2012-01-01

    Pathogens and antibiotics enter the aquatic environment via sewage effluents and may pose a health risk to wild life and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of faecal bacteria, and selected antibiotic residues in raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sewage treatment plant 1 and 2 use older technologies, while sewage treatment plant 3 has been upgraded and membrane technologies were incorporated in the treatment processes. Coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were used as bioindicators for faecal bacteria. A chromogenic test was used to screen for coliforms and E. coli. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole are commonly used antibiotics and were selected to monitor the efficiency of sewage treatment processes for antibiotic removal. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were used to quantitate antibiotic residues in raw and treated sewage. Raw intake water at all treatment plants contained total coliforms and E. coli. High removal of E. coli by treatment processes was evident for treatment plant 2 and 3 only. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole were detected in raw wastewater from all sewage treatment plants. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the fluoroquinolone concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced the fluoroquinolone concentration by 21% and 31%, respectively. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the sulfamethoxazole concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced sulfamethoxazole by 34% and 56%, respectively. This study showed that bacteria and antibiotic residues are still discharged into the environment. Further research needs to be undertaken to improve sewage treatment technologies, thereby producing a better quality treated sewage effluent. PMID:22242882

  7. Endocannabinoid degradation inhibition improves neurobehavioral function, blood-brain barrier integrity, and neuroinflammation following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Katz, Paige S; Sulzer, Jesse K; Impastato, Renata A; Teng, Sophie X; Rogers, Emily K; Molina, Patricia E

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an increasingly frequent and poorly understood condition lacking effective therapeutic strategies. Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are critical components of injury, and targeted interventions to reduce their contribution to injury should improve neurobehavioral recovery and outcomes. Recent evidence reveals potential protective, yet short-lived, effects of the endocannabinoids (ECs), 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine (AEA), on neuroinflammatory and OS processes after TBI. The aim of this study was to determine whether EC degradation inhibition after TBI would improve neurobehavioral recovery by reducing inflammatory and oxidative damage. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a 5-mm left lateral craniotomy, and TBI was induced by lateral fluid percussion. TBI produced apnea (17±5?sec) and a delayed righting reflex (479±21?sec). Thirty minutes post-TBI, rats were randomized to receive intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (alcohol, emulphor, and saline; 1:1:18) or a selective inhibitor of 2-AG (JZL184, 16?mg/kg) or AEA (URB597, 0.3?mg/kg) degradation. At 24?h post-TBI, animals showed significant neurological and -behavioral impairment as well as disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Improved neurological and -behavioral function was observed in JZL184-treated animals. BBB integrity was protected in both JZL184- and URB597-treated animals. No significant differences in ipsilateral cortex messenger RNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX2) and protein expression of COX2 or NOX2 were observed across experimental groups. Astrocyte and microglia activation was significantly increased post-TBI, and treatment with JZL184 or URB597 blocked activation of both cell types. These findings suggest that EC degradation inhibition post-TBI exerts neuroprotective effects. Whether repeated dosing would achieve greater protection remains to be examined. PMID:25166905

  8. Degradation of sulphamethazine by means of an improved photo-Fenton process involving a hydrogen peroxide systematic dosage.

    PubMed

    Yamal-Turbay, Evelyn; González, Lydia Pérez; Graells, Moisès; Pérez-Moya, Montserrat

    2014-08-01

    Despite being acknowledged as an emerging contaminant, sulphamethazine (SMT) degradation has received scarce attention in the advanced oxidation processes field. Thus, this work addresses the degradation of SMT in water solutions (12 L of 25mgL-1 samples) by means of a photo-Fenton process and a systematic H202 dosage protocol that enhances its performance. A conventional photo-Fenton process led to 86% mineralization after 120 min treatment when adding the Fenton reactants at once (initial concentrations were 10mgL-1 Fe(II) and 200mgL-1 H2O2). Conversely, the process achieved the total mineralization of the samples in less than 75 min when the same amount of H202 was continuously dosed according to a conveniently tuned dosage protocol. In both cases, total SMT degradation was achieved within 10 min. Hence, this work's aim is to determine the efficient dosage conditions of H2O2. The results show that a significant improvement of the photo-Fenton mineralization of SMT solutions is possible by adjusting the dosage of H2O2. PMID:24956760

  9. Complete survey of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

    2014-10-21

    The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers. PMID:25265150

  10. Sewage reflects the distribution of human faecal Lachnospiraceae

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, Sandra L.; Newton, Ryan J.; Vandewalle, Jessica L.; Shanks, Orin C.; Huse, Susan M.; Eren, A. Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Faecal pollution contains a rich and diverse community of bacteria derived from animals and humans, many of which might serve as alternatives to the traditional enterococci and Escherichia coli faecal indicators. We used massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize microbial communities from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent sewage from 12 cities geographically distributed across the USA. We examined members of the Clostridiales, which included the families Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae for their potential as sewage indicators. Lachnospiraceae was one of the most abundant groups of faecal bacteria in sewage, and several Lachnospiraceae high-abundance sewage pyrotags occurred in at least 46 of 48 human faecal samples. Clone libraries targeting Clostridium coccoides (C. coccoides) in sewage samples demonstrated that Lachnospiraceae-annotated V6 pyrotags encompassed the previously reported C. coccoides group. We used oligotyping to profile the genus Blautia within Lachnospiraceae and found oligotypes comprised of 24 entropy components that showed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that indicators based on Blautia might have the capacity to discriminate between different faecal pollution sources. Development of source-specific alternative indicators would enhance water quality assessments, which leads to improved ecosystem health and reduced human health risk due to waterborne disease. PMID:23438335

  11. [Enhancement of sewage sludge anaerobic digestibility by thermal hydrolysis pretreatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-jun; Wang, Wei

    2005-01-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments of thermo-hydrolyzed sewage sludge are carried out to investigate the effects of thermal hydrolysis on the digestibility of sewage sludge. The results show that thermal hydrolysis pretreatment can facilitate the dissolving of organic solid in sludge, and soluble organics hydrolyzed into low molecular organics, in which volatile fat acids accounted for 30% - 40 % of soluble COD, so the digestibility of sewage sludge remarkably improved. The optimum pretreatment temperature and holding time were 170 degrees C and 30 minutes, under which the total COD removal rate enhanced from original 38.11% to 56.78%, and biogas production rate of COD in feeding sludge from 160mL/g to 250mL/g. PMID:15859411

  12. EVALUATION OF METHODS TO MEASURE THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was undertaken to determine whether improvements were needed to increase the reliability of acute toxicity methodologies for mysid and juvenile Atlantic silverside waste characterization tests for municipal sewage sludge. Three new acute bioassays using mysids, larval fi...

  13. Science impact of MODIS C5 calibration degradation and C6+ improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Xiong, X.; Meister, G.; Platnick, S.; Levy, R.; Franz, B.; Korkin, S.; Hilker, T.; Tucker, J.; Hall, F.; Sellers, P.; Wu, A.; Angal, A.

    2014-07-01

    The Collection 6 (C6) MODIS land and atmosphere datasets are scheduled for release in 2014. C6 contains significant revisions of the calibration approach to account for sensor aging. This analysis documents the presence of systematic temporal trends in the visible and near-infrared (500 m) bands of the Collection 5 (C5) MODIS Terra, and to lesser extent, in MODIS Aqua geophysical datasets. Sensor degradation is largest in the Blue band (B3) of the MODIS sensor on Terra and decreases with wavelength. Calibration degradation causes negative global trends in multiple MODIS C5 products including the dark target algorithm's aerosol optical depth over land and Ångström Exponent over the ocean, global liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness, as well as surface reflectance and vegetation indices, including the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). As the C5 production will be maintained for another year in parallel with C6, one objective of this paper is to raise awareness of the calibration-related trends for the broad MODIS user community. The new C6 calibration approach removes major calibrations trends in the Level 1B (L1B) data. This paper also introduces an enhanced C6+ calibration of the MODIS dataset which includes an additional polarization correction (PC) to compensate for the increased polarization sensitivity of MODIS Terra since about 2007, as well as de-trending and Terra-Aqua cross-calibration over quasi-stable desert calibration sites. The PC algorithm, developed by the MODIS ocean biology processing group (OBPG), removes residual scan angle, mirror side and seasonal biases from aerosol and surface reflectance (SR) records along with spectral distortions of SR. Using the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm over deserts, we have also developed a de-trending and cross-calibration method which removes residual decadal trends on the order of several tenths of one percent of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance in the visible and near-infrared MODIS bands B1-B4, and provides a good consistency between the two MODIS sensors. MAIAC analysis over the southern USA shows that the C6+ approach removed an additional negative decadal trend of Terra ?NDVI ~ 0.01 as compared to Aqua data. This change is particularly important for analysis of vegetation dynamics and trends in the tropics, e.g., Amazon rainforest, where the morning orbit Terra provides considerably more cloud-free observations compared to the afternoon Aqua measurements.

  14. Characterization of 26 miniSTR loci for improved analysis of degraded DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Hill, Carolyn R; Kline, Margaret C; Coble, Michael D; Butler, John M

    2008-01-01

    An additional 20 novel mini-short tandem repeat (miniSTR) loci have been developed and characterized beyond the six previously developed by our laboratory for a total of 26 non-CODIS miniSTR markers. These new markers produce short PCR products in the target range of 50-150 base pairs (bp) by moving the primer sequences as close as possible-often directly next to the identified repeat region. These candidate loci were initially screened based on their small amplicon sizes and locations on chromosomes currently unoccupied by the 13 CODIS STR loci or at least 50 Mb away from them on the same chromosome. They were sequenced and evaluated across more than 600 samples, and their population statistics were determined. The heterozygosities of the new loci were compared with those of the 13 CODIS loci and all were found to be comparable. Only five of the new loci had lower values than the CODIS loci; however, all of these were much smaller in size. This data suggests that these 26 miniSTR loci will serve as useful complements to the CODIS loci to aid in the forensic analysis of degraded DNA, as well as missing persons work and parentage testing with limited next-of-kin reference samples. PMID:18005005

  15. Abdominal symptoms among sewage workers.

    PubMed

    Friis, L; Agréus, L; Edling, C

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal symptoms and the abdominal medical history among sewage workers. 142 male sewage workers and 137 male referents in 11 Swedish municipalities were addressed with a questionnaire about abdominal symptoms, medical history, occupational history and life style factors. The sewage workers suffered less from nausea [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.04-0.84] than the referents. There was no significant difference in the three months prevalence of diarrhoea (adjOR = 1.7, 95% Cl = 0.79-3.4), dyspepsia (adjOR = 0.85, 95% Cl = 0.49-1.5) or irritable bowel syndrome (adjOR = 1.4, 95% Cl = 0.53-3.5). The sewage workers were affected more often by peptic ulcers during their present jobs than the referents, although the increased risk was not significant (adjOR = 1.4, 95% Cl = 0.31-6.1). The odds ratios were adjusted for age, use of tobacco products and alcohol consumption. The conclusion of this study was that sewage workers are less affected by nausea than comparable referents. PMID:9800423

  16. On-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    for conventional on-site systems. Introduction Inadequate disposal of residential sewage creates prob- lems,000 Virginia households rely on on-site methods for sewage disposal. About 700,000 of these homes use. Inadequate sewage disposal, due to failing or nonexistent on-site treatment, is a problem in many Vir- ginia

  17. Heavy rains cause a sewage overflow.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Epic rainfall fell around Atlanta, Georgia on Sept. 21, 2009. The resulting runoff overwhelmed many of the combined storm/sewage systems, resulting in sewage overflows coming out of the sewers and flowing directly into rivers. This picture shows a sewage overflow occuring in Roswell, Georgia, just ...

  18. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation...Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable...

  19. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85...Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed...nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage retention...

  20. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation...Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable...

  1. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85...Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed...nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage retention...

  2. Theoretical basis for dewatering of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leino Reinola

    2007-01-01

    Sewage sludge is formed as a by-product of the treatment of raw sewage from domestic households, but may also include industrial and commercial effluent. There is currently substantial interest in generating energy from sewage sludges. Compare to the fossil fuels, the biomass energy has been experiencing a surge in interest in many countries of the world. Water is the main

  3. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in a wastewater treatment plant by means of mechanical and thermal pre-treatments: Performance, energy and economical assessment.

    PubMed

    Ruffino, Barbara; Campo, Giuseppe; Genon, Giuseppe; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Novarino, Daniel; Scibilia, Gerardo; Zanetti, Mariachiara

    2014-10-22

    Performances of mechanical and low-temperature (<100°C) thermal pre-treatments were investigated to improve the present efficiency of anaerobic digestion (AD) carried out on waste activated sludge (WAS) in the largest Italian wastewater treatment plant (2,300,000p.e.). Thermal pre-treatments returned disintegration rates of one order of magnitude higher than mechanical ones (about 25% vs. 1.5%). The methane specific production increased by 21% and 31%, with respect to untreated samples, for treatment conditions of respectively 70 and 90°C, 3h. Thermal pre-treatments also decreased WAS viscosity. Preliminary energy and economic assessments demonstrated that a WAS final total solid content of 5% was enough to avoid the employment of auxiliary methane for the pre-treatment at 90°C and the subsequent AD process, provided that all the heat generated was transferred to WAS through heat exchangers. Moreover, the total revenues from sale of the electricity produced from biogas increased by 10% with respect to the present scenario. PMID:25459836

  4. Steam explosion pretreatment of wheat straw to improve methane yields: investigation of the degradation kinetics of structural compounds during anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Theuretzbacher, Franz; Lizasoain, Javier; Lefever, Christopher; Saylor, Molly K; Enguidanos, Ramon; Weran, Nikolaus; Gronauer, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Wheat straw can serve as a low-cost substrate for energy production without competing with food or feed production. This study investigated the effect of steam explosion pretreatment on the biological methane potential and the degradation kinetics of wheat straw during anaerobic digestion. It was observed that the biological methane potential of the non steam exploded, ground wheat straw (276 l(N) kg VS(-1)) did not significantly differ from the best steam explosion treated sample (286 l(N) kg VS(-1)) which was achieved at a pretreatment temperature of 140°C and a retention time of 60 min. Nevertheless degradation speed was improved by the pretreatment. Furthermore it was observed that compounds resulting from chemical reactions during the pretreatment and classified as pseudo-lignin were also degraded during the anaerobic batch experiments. Based on the rumen simulation technique, a model was developed to characterise the degradation process. PMID:25549903

  5. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals in a municipal sewage treatment system in the south of Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saioa Zorita; Lennart Mårtensson; Lennart Mathiasson

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence and removal rate of seven pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, fluoxetine, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin), two metabolites (norfluoxetine, clofibric acid), one degradation product (4-isobutylacetophenone) and 3 estrogens (17?-ethinylestradiol, 17?-estradiol, estrone) were studied in the inlet and outlet of a tertiary sewage treatment plant (STP) in Sweden as well as between different treatment steps in the STP which includes a conventional

  6. Biomaterial-Mediated Delivery of Degradative Enzymes to Improve Meniscus Integration and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Feini; Lin, Jung-Ming G.; Esterhai, John L.; Fisher, Matthew B.; Mauck, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous repair of fibrous connective tissues is limited, and there exist few successful strategies to improve healing after injury. As such, new methods that advance repair by promoting cell growth, extracellular matrix (ECM) production, and tissue integration would represent a marked clinical advance. Using the meniscus as a test platform, we sought to develop an enzyme-releasing scaffold that enhances integrative repair. We hypothesized that the high ECM density and low cellularity present physical and biologic barriers to endogenous healing, and that localized collagenase treatment might expedite cell migration to the wound edge and tissue remodeling. To test this hypothesis, we fabricated a delivery system in which collagenase was stored inside electrospun poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofibers and released upon hydration. In vitro results showed that partial digestion of the wound interface improved repair by creating a microenvironment that facilitated cell migration, proliferation, and matrix deposition. Specifically, treatment with high-dose collagenase led to a 2-fold increase in cell density at the wound margin and a 2-fold increase in integrative tissue compared to untreated controls at 4 weeks (p?0.05). Furthermore, when composite scaffolds containing both collagenase-releasing and structural fiber fractions were placed inside meniscal tears in vitro, enzyme release acted locally and resulted in a positive cellular response similar to that of global treatment with aqueous collagenase. This innovative approach of targeted enzyme delivery may aid the many patients that exhibit meniscal tears by promoting integration of the defect, thereby circumventing the pathologic consequences of partial meniscus removal, and may find widespread application in the treatment of injuries to a variety of dense connective tissues. PMID:23376132

  7. Fermentation of cellulose and fatty acids with enrichments from sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef U. Winter; Charles L. Cooney

    1980-01-01

    A mixed culture enriched from sewage sludge and anaerobic digestor effluent was able to degrade cellulose and acetate rapidly and quantitatively to methane and carbon dioxide. The maximum specific rate of gas production was 87 ml\\/gm cell-h, corresponding to a rate of cellulose utilization of 0.1 g\\/g cells-h. Acetate, an intermediate in cellulose degradation, was fermented much more rapidly than

  8. Ozone treatment of organic micro-pollutants in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lahnsteiner, J; Vranitzky, R

    2010-01-01

    Organic micro-pollutants accumulate to a certain extent in sewage sludge and are therefore ecologically relevant if the sludge is to be reused in both agriculture and landscaping applications. This paper describes the degradation of endocrine-disrupting compounds and other micro-contaminants by means of ozone and ultrasonic treatment. One of the findings is that, as expected, aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be degraded easily by ozone. Thus it could be shown that, apart from enhanced VSS reduction and increased biogas production, sludge disintegration processes using ozone provide an additional benefit, i.e. the degradation of micro-pollutants, which is practically unattainable with ultrasonic treatment. PMID:20489266

  9. Malachite Green-INT (MINT)MethodforDetermining Active Bacteria inSewage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. DUTTON; G. BITTON; B. KOOPMAN

    1983-01-01

    tetrazo- liumchloride (INT)and,after fixation, passed through membrane filters. Filters were counterstained withmalachite greenandthen were examined bybright-field microscopy. Thecontrast between bacteria andthefilter background was greatly improved bydrying andthenclearing thefilter before counterstaining. Bythis method, itwas found that active bacterial fractions inraw sewage,settled sewage, andsecondary effluent were 40,29,and58%,respectively, whereas thepropor- tion ofrespiring bacteria inchlorinated secondary effluent was 6.1%.Theactive bacterial fraction ofactivated sludge was

  10. Protecting effect of recycled urban wastes (sewage sludge and wastewater) on ryegrass against the toxicity of pesticides at high concentrations.

    PubMed

    Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Guzmán, Ignacio; Sánchez, Lourdes; Fernández-Espinosa, Antonio J; Valdés, Benito; Rossini-Oliva, Sabina

    2014-09-01

    Degraded landscapes, like those from abandoned mine areas, could be restored by revegetating them with appropriate plant species, after correction for acidity and improvement by adding exogenous organic material. Application of urban wastes to large areas of derelict land helps in the sustainable development of this landscape. However, the development of plant species in these soils could require in the future the management of possible pests or diseases by pesticide applications which could also affect plant yield. Therefore, ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was planted in a limed soil from the mining area of Riotinto (SW Spain), using an indoor pot experiment and the effects of amendment with sewage sludge, as well as irrigation with urban wastewater on plant uptake of the insecticide thiacloprid and the fungicide fenarimol were examined. Ryegrass biomass was reduced up to 3-fold by pesticide application. Fenarimol residues were the highest in soil, while those of thiacloprid were lower in soil and higher in ryegrass. Addition of sewage sludge and irrigation with wastewater led to a reduction of pesticide translocation to the aerial plant parts, representing a lower hazard to ryegrass quality grown in this mine soil. PMID:24797639

  11. The production, use and quality of sewage sludge in Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, John [National Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark)]. E-mail: john.jensen@dmu.dk; Jepsen, Svend-Erik [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Strandgade 29, DK-1401 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    In Denmark, the production of municipal sewage sludge decreased from approximately 170,000 ton d.m. in 1994 to 140,000 ton d.m. in 2002. The sludge is handled and treated in a number of ways. The quality of Danish sludge has steadily improved since the middle of the 1980s, when the first set of quality criteria for heavy metals was introduced. In 1997, cut-off criteria for the organic pollutants, LAS, DEHP, nonylphenol and PAHs were introduced. Effective control from authorities, voluntary phasing out agreements with industry, improved source identification tools, better handling and after-care methods have in combination with higher waste duties led to a significant reduction in the sludge level of especially cadmium, mercury, chromium, LAS and nonylphenol. The increased quality demand has, nevertheless, also led to a minor reduction in the use of sewage sludge as organic fertiliser on agricultural land.

  12. Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    MedlinePLUS

    Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and ... Careful work habits can help protect you. Some Biological Hazards That May Be in Sewage Or Wastewater ...

  13. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121 Section...Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which it is...

  14. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121 Section...Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which it is...

  15. Anaerobic Pretreatment of Strong Sewage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Halalsheh

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of applying low cost anaerobic technology for the treatment of relatively high strength sewage of Jordan using two-stage and one-stage UASB reactors operated at ambient temperatures. The wastewater produced in Jordan is characterised by a high concentration of COD tot<\\/sub> with averages higher than 1200 mg\\/l and with a

  16. Sewage-sludge incineration: An overview of the technology

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkmann, W.K.; Forbess, R.G.

    1988-10-01

    Incineration is becoming more attractive as a way to dispose of sewage sludge. Technological advances make it possible to reduce sludge volume, maintain air quality, and often generate electricity to offset the cost of treatment. Both are described. The paper also describes auxiliary equipment: input subsystems, heat recovery, air emissions control, and ash handling. Recent advances which are described include feed sludge preparation, design improvements, air distribution systems, and pyrolysis technology.

  17. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals in a municipal sewage treatment system in the south of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Zorita, Saioa; Mårtensson, Lennart; Mathiasson, Lennart

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence and removal rate of seven pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, fluoxetine, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin), two metabolites (norfluoxetine, clofibric acid), one degradation product (4-isobutylacetophenone) and 3 estrogens (17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 17beta-estradiol, estrone) were studied in the inlet and outlet of a tertiary sewage treatment plant (STP) in Sweden as well as between different treatment steps in the STP which includes a conventional activated sludge step. Pharmaceuticals in raw household and raw hospital sewage streams leading to the STP were as well investigated. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) of each treatment step was considered for sampling and for the calculation of the removal rates. These rates were above 90%, except for diclofenac, clofibric acid, estrone and ofloxacin. However, only diclofenac and naproxen showed significant effluent loads (>145 mg/d/1000 inh). Diclofenac was not eliminated during the treatment and in fact even higher concentrations were found at the effluent than in the inlet of the STP. 17alpha-Ethinylestradiol was not detected in any of the samples. Results indicate that a STP such as the one in Kristianstad, Sweden, with a tertiary treatment is sufficient to remove significantly most of the investigated pharmaceuticals. The chemical treatment improved the removal of several pharmaceuticals especially the antibiotics, which showed step removal rates between 55 and 70%. The expected concentration levels of the pharmaceuticals in the surface water (dilution 1 to 10) close to the outlet of the STP are below the no-observed effect-concentration (NOEC). However, despite that this would imply no important effects in the aquatic environment one cannot rule out negative consequences nearby the STP because most of the NOEC values are derived from acute toxicity data. This may underestimate the real impact of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic ecosystem. PMID:19157523

  18. Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent

    E-print Network

    Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent: Significant Energy Savings over Traditional Activated Sludge Treatment This report presents results for an anaerobic digestion system operated;Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office

  19. My Town, My Creek, My Sewage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodburn, John H.

    1972-01-01

    After summarizing the ecology of polluted streams as well as the technology and biology of sewage treatment methods, and considering the economic and social aspects of introducing advanced sewage treatment, comments on the role of biology teachers in providing public information are made. (AL)

  20. Treatment of sewage sludge using electrokinetic geosynthetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Glendinning; John Lamont-Black; Colin J. F. P. Jones

    2007-01-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most problematical issues affecting wastewater treatment in the developed world. The traditional outlets for sewage sludge are to spread it on agricultural land, or to form a cake for deposit to landfill or incineration. In order to create a sludge cake, water must be removed. Existing dewatering technology based

  1. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  2. Nutrient sequestration, biomass production by microalgae and phytoremediation of sewage water.

    PubMed

    Renuka, N; Sood, A; Ratha, S K; Prasanna, R; Ahluwalia, A S

    2013-01-01

    The present work was aimed at analysing the role of inoculated microalgae in nutrient dynamics, bioremediation and biomass production of sewage water. Preliminary microscopic analyses of sewage water revealed the presence of different algal groups, with predominance of Cyanophyta. Among the inoculated strains, Calothrix showed highest dry cell weight (916.67 mg L(-1)), chlorophyll and carotenoid content in tap water + sewage water (1:1) treatment. Significant removal of NO3-N ranging from 57-78% and PO4-P (44-91%) was recorded in microalgae inoculated tap water + sewage water. The total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity of tap water + sewage water after incubation with Calothrix sp. decreased by 28.5 and 28.0%, accompanied by an increase in dissolved oxygen from 4.4 to 6.4 mg L(-1) on the 20th day. Our investigation revealed the robustness of Calothrix sp. in sequestering nutrients (N and P), improving water quality and proliferating in sewage water. PMID:23819275

  3. Occurrence and elimination of antibiotics at four sewage treatment plants in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weihai Xu; Gan Zhang; Xiangdong Lib; Shichun Zou; Ping Li; Zhaohui Hua; Jun Li

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the occurrence and elimination of eight selected antibiotics mainly for human use, including chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolone, sulfonamide and macrolide groups, were investigated at four sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China. The most frequently detected antibiotics in the present study were ofloxacin, norfloxacin, roxithromycin, erythromycin-H2O (the main degradation product of erythromycin) and sulfamethoxazole.

  4. The sfe Maize Mutant: Reduced Ferulate Cross Linking Improves Rumen Cell Wall Degradability and Milk Production by Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A putative mutant has been identified in maize that reduces ferulate cross linking of lignin to arabinoxylan in mature stover, increases in vitro rumen cell wall degradability, and increases milk production by cows. The seedling ferulate ester (sfe) mutant was discovered in a Mu transposon-mutated p...

  5. Microalgae cultured by sewage and organic constituents.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kenichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

    2013-10-01

    The microalgae could be multiplied by supplying only sewage influent or effluent without any additional microalgal stock or nutrient salt. In a semicontinuous culture, the N:P weight ratios consumed were 14:1 and 18:1 for the sewage influent and effluent, respectively. The total cell number and green algae ratio of microalgae cultivated by semicontinuous culture exceeded those of batch culture. No cyanobacterial cells were observed in the semicontinuous culture using the sewage effluent. The organic components in the cultured microalgae using sewage effluent, eluted by n-hexane, were determined. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acid exceeded that of saturated fatty acid, which was possibly attributable to the fluidity of the cell membrane. The squalene was also obtained by the culture using sewage alone, free of any external stock or nutrient salt. The higher heating value of the microalgae of semicontinuous culture using the sewage influent was 25 MJ kg(-1), corresponding to the heating value of lignite and showing the potential of the sewage culture microalgae as a means of power generation and combustion aid. PMID:24059978

  6. Impact of food industrial waste on anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and pig manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Murto; L Björnsson; B Mattiasson

    2004-01-01

    The performance of an anaerobic digestion process is much dependent on the type and the composition of the material to be digested. The effects on the degradation process of co-digesting different types of waste were examined in two laboratory-scale studies. In the first investigation, sewage sludge was co-digested with industrial waste from potato processing. The co-digestion resulted in a low

  7. Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

  8. Influence of soil fertilization by sewage sludge on the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crops.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Baran, Stanis?aw

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was an evaluation of the influence of the addition of different sewage sludge doses on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from fertilized soil. Sewage sludge was introduced into the soil in the following doses: 30, 75, 150, 300, and 600 Mg/ha. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was determined by means of HPLC-UV method. The addition of increasing doses of sludge into the soil resulted in a gradual increase in the amount of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contained therein. During the period of the study, continuous changes in the content of all the compounds studied were found in all the experimental variants. Finally, on the last day of the study, the highest degree of degradation (73%) of 16 PAHs' sum (US EPA) was noted for sludge doses of 30 and 300 Mg/ha. In the case of individual PAHs, the change in their content differed and clearly depended on the sewage sludge dose. The introduction of sewage sludge into the soil influenced the increase of the sum of 16 PAHs in the plants grown in this soil. The influence mentioned above depended on the sewage sludge dose and the plant species grown, as well as the PAH content in the soil. The evaluation of individual PAHs in plants showed an increase in their content with the increase of the amount of sewage sludge. A statistically significant increase in their content was most often observed for sewage sludge doses above 150 Mg/ha. Moreover, it was found that fertilization of the soil with sewage sludge resulted in pollution of the plants with PAHs of high molecular weight. PMID:16287643

  9. Improvement of 3Y-TZP hydrothermal degradation resistance by surface modification with ceria without impairing mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marro, F. G.; Valle, J.; Mestra, A.; Anglada, M.

    2009-09-01

    Surface modification with cerium oxide of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals stabilised with 3% molar yttria (3Y-TZP) has been investigated in order to avoid low temperature degradation. The surface modification was performed by annealing 3Y-TZP with surface coated CeO2 powder at temperatures of 1400 °C and 1500 °C for periods of time up to 10 hours. These heat-treatments diffused cerium up to about 10 ?m depth. The bulk fracture toughness, Vickers hardness and Young modulus of the surface modified specimens showed no significant deviation as compared to the non-treated original material. Even the surface mechanical properties measured by penetration curves corresponding to nanoindentations of up to 2 ?m depth, did not show significant differences after surface modification. All heat-treatments produced an increase in the surface grain size and a large increase in resistance to degradation.

  10. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

  11. Global hepatic gene expression in rainbow trout exposed to sewage effluents: a comparison of different sewage treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Cuklev, Filip; Gunnarsson, Lina; Cvijovic, Marija; Kristiansson, Erik; Rutgersson, Carolin; Björlenius, Berndt; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2012-06-15

    Effluents from sewage treatment plants contain a mixture of micropollutants with the potential of harming aquatic organisms. Thus, addition of advanced treatment techniques to complement existing conventional methods has been proposed. Some of the advanced techniques could, however, potentially produce additional compounds affecting exposed organisms by unknown modes of action. In the present study the aim was to improve our understanding of how exposure to different sewage effluents affects fish. This was achieved by explorative microarray and quantitative PCR analyses of hepatic gene expression, as well as relative organ sizes of rainbow trout exposed to different sewage effluents (conventionally treated, granular activated carbon, ozonation (5 or 15 mg/L), 5 mg/L ozone plus a moving bed biofilm reactor, or UV-light treatment in combination with hydrogen peroxide). Exposure to the conventionally treated effluent caused a significant increase in liver and heart somatic indexes, an effect removed by all other treatments. Genes connected to xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome p450 1A, were differentially expressed in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluents, though only effluent treatment with granular activated carbon or ozone at 15 mg/L completely removed this response. The mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 kDa was induced in all three groups exposed to ozone-treated effluents, suggesting some form of added stress in these fish. The induction of estrogen-responsive genes in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluent was effectively reduced by all investigated advanced treatment technologies, although the moving bed biofilm reactor was least efficient. Taken together, granular activated carbon showed the highest potential of reducing responses in fish induced by exposure to sewage effluents. PMID:22575374

  12. Tracking the composition and transformation of humic and fulvic acids during vermicomposting of sewage sludge by elemental analysis and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Sewage sludge (T1) and the mixture of sewage sludge and cattle dung (T2) were vermicomposted with Eisenia fetida, respectively. The transformation of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) extracted from these two treatments were evaluated by a series of chemical and spectroscopic methods. Results indicated that the vermicomposting decreased pH, TOC, and C/N ratio, and increased EC, total extractable C, and HA contents. The FA content in treatment T1 was increased significantly, and only slight increasing was observed in treatment T2. Moreover, vermicomposting decreased H content, C/N ratio, proteinaceous and carbohydrates components, and increased the N content, C/H ratio, aromatic compounds and polycondensation structures in HA and FA. In addition, fluorescence spectra and fluorescence regional integration indicated that protein-like groups were degraded and HA compounds were formed. Furthermore, the addition of cattle dung enhanced the humification process and improved the HA quality in spite of no significant effect on the FA. PMID:25736580

  13. Enzymology of cellulose degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Wood; Vicenta Garcia-Campayo

    1990-01-01

    In the last few years there has been a considerable improvement in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the microbial degradation of cellulose, but there are still many uncertainties. As presently understood, it would appear that different mechanisms may operate in the various types of microorganism. Thus degradation of crystalline cellulose is effected by anaerobic bacteria by large Ca-dependent

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentration changes in sewage sludge and organic municipal waste mixtures during composting and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Siebielska, Izabela; Side?ko, Robert

    2015-05-01

    We determined the changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in a mixture of sewage sludge and the organic fraction of municipal waste during composting and during anaerobic digestion. The processes were carried out on a laboratory scale. The PCBs were analyzed in the waste samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We evaluated the rates at which the PCB concentrations decreased during composting and during anaerobic digestion and compared the PCB degradation kinetics during these processes. The most important conclusion of this work is that anaerobic digestion is much more effective than composting at removing PCBs from a mixture of sewage sludge and the organic fraction of municipal waste. PMID:25618191

  15. Sewage Reflects the Microbiomes of Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; McLellan, Sandra L.; Dila, Deborah K.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Eren, A. Murat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. PMID:25714718

  16. A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Connop, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended. PMID:21283298

  17. Lightweight aggregate from flyash and sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Nechvatal, T.M.; Heian, G.A.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes a method of treating flyash and sewage sludge. It comprises: mixing flyash with sewage sludge having a high fuel value; agglomerating the mixture; drying the agglomerated mixture; heating the agglomerated mixture to a temperature less than the melting point of the mixture in a rotary kiln using the agglomerated mixture as the principal source of fuel in the kiln to form a porous nodular product; and recovering the nodular product from the kiln.

  18. Glass-ceramic from sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S SUZUKI; M. TANAKA; T KANEKO

    1997-01-01

    Glass-ceramic was produced by adding limestone to sewage sludge incinerated ash. Black glass was produced by melting a blended\\u000a ash batch at 1450C. For nucleation, this glass was reheated at 800C for 1 h, and reheated at 1100C for 2 h to form glass-ceramic.\\u000a The main components of sewage sludge incinerated ash are SiO2 and Al2O3. Because small amounts of

  19. Mechanism of red mud combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jiakuan; Yu, Wenbo; Luo, Sen; Peng, Li; Shen, Xingxing; Shi, Yafei; Zhang, Shinan; Song, Jian; Ye, Nan; Li, Ye; Yang, Changzhu; Liang, Sha

    2014-08-01

    Red mud was evaluated as an alternative skeleton builder combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning. The results show that red mud combined with Fenton's reagent showed good conditioning capability with the pH of the filtrate close to neutrality, indicating that red mud acted as a neutralizer as well as a skeleton builder when jointly used with Fenton's reagent. Through response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal dosages of Fe(2+), H2O2 and red mud were proposed as 31.9, 33.7 and 275.1 mg/g DS (dry solids), respectively. The mechanism of the composite conditioner could be illuminated as follows: (1) extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), including loosely bound EPS and tightly bound EPS, were degraded into dissolved organics, e.g., proteins and polysaccharides; (2) bound water was released and converted into free water due to the degradation of EPS; and (3) morphology of the conditioned sludge exhibited a porous structure in contrast with the compact structure of raw sludge, and the addition of red mud formed new mineral phases and a rigid lattice structure in sludge, allowing the outflow of free water. Thus, sludge dewatering performance was effectively improved. The economic assessment for a wastewater treatment plant of 370,000 equivalent inhabitants confirms that using red mud conditioning, combined with Fenton's reagent, leads to a saving of approximately 411,000 USD/y or 50.8 USD/t DS comparing with using lime and ordinary Portland cement combined with Fenton's reagent, and approximately 612,000 USD/y or 75.5 USD/t DS comparing with the traditional treatment. PMID:24810740

  20. Changes in soil quality indicators under long-term sewage irrigation in a sub-tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masto, Reginald Ebhin; Chhonkar, Pramod K.; Singh, Dhyan; Patra, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    Though irrigation with sewage water has potential benefits of meeting the water requirements, the sewage irrigation may mess up to harm the soil health. To assess the potential impacts of long-term sewage irrigation on soil health and to identify sensitive soil indicators, soil samples were collected from crop fields that have been irrigated with sewage water for more than 20 years. An adjacent rain-fed Leucaena leucocephala plantation system was used as a reference to compare the impact of sewage irrigation on soil qualities. Soils were analyzed for different physical, chemical, biological and biochemical parameters. Results have shown that use of sewage for irrigation improved the clay content to 18-22.7%, organic carbon to 0.51-0.86% and fertility status of soils. Build up in total N was up to 2,713 kg ha-1, available N (397 kg ha-1), available P (128 kg ha-1), available K (524 kg ha-1) and available S (65.5 kg ha-1) in the surface (0.15 m) soil. Long-term sewage irrigation has also resulted a significant build-up of DTPA extractable Zn (314%), Cu (102%), Fe (715%), Mn (197.2), Cd (203%), Ni (1358%) and Pb (15.2%) when compared with the adjacent rain-fed reference soil. Soils irrigated with sewage exhibited a significant decrease in microbial biomass carbon (-78.2%), soil respiration (-82.3%), phosphatase activity (-59.12%) and dehydrogenase activity (-59.4%). An attempt was also made to identify the sensitive soil indicators under sewage irrigation, where microbial biomass carbon was singled out as the most sensitive indicator.

  1. Liposomes containing glycocholate as potential oral insulin delivery systems: preparation, in vitro characterization, and improved protection against enzymatic degradation

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Mengmeng; Lu, Yi; Hovgaard, Lars; Wu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral delivery of insulin is challenging and must overcome the barriers of gastric and enzymatic degradation as well as low permeation across the intestinal epithelium. The present study aimed to develop a liposomal delivery system containing glycocholate as an enzyme inhibitor and permeation enhancer for oral insulin delivery. Methods: Liposomes containing sodium glycocholate were prepared by a reversed-phase evaporation method followed by homogenization. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of recombinant human insulin (rhINS)-loaded sodium glycocholate liposomes can be easily adjusted by tuning the homogenization parameters, phospholipid:sodium glycocholate ratio, insulin:phospholipid ratio, water:ether volume ratio, interior water phase pH, and the hydration buffer pH. Results: The optimal formulation showed an insulin entrapment efficiency of 30% ± 2% and a particle size of 154 ± 18 nm. A conformational study by circular dichroism spectroscopy and a bioactivity study confirmed the preserved integrity of rhINS against preparative stress. Transmission electron micrographs revealed a nearly spherical and deformed structure with discernable lamella for sodium glycocholate liposomes. Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed better protection of insulin against enzymatic degradation by pepsin, trypsin, and ?-chymotrypsin than liposomes containing the bile salt counterparts of sodium taurocholate and sodium deoxycholate. Conclusion: Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed promising in vitro characteristics and have the potential to be able to deliver insulin orally. PMID:21822379

  2. Nilotinib reverses loss of dopamine neurons and improves motor behavior via autophagic degradation of ?-synuclein in Parkinson's disease models

    PubMed Central

    Hebron, Michaeline L.; Lonskaya, Irina; Moussa, Charbel E.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a movement disorder characterized by death of dopaminergic substantia nigra (SN) neurons and brain accumulation of ?-synuclein. The tyrosine kinase Abl is activated in neurodegeneration. Here, we show that lentiviral expression of ?-synuclein in the mouse SN leads to Abl activation (phosphorylation) and lentiviral Abl expression increases ?-synuclein levels, in agreement with Abl activation in PD brains. Administration of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib decreases Abl activity and ameliorates autophagic clearance of ?-synuclein in transgenic and lentiviral gene transfer models. Subcellular fractionation shows accumulation of ?-synuclein and hyper-phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) in autophagic vacuoles in ?-synuclein expressing brains, but nilotinib enhances protein deposition into the lysosomes. Nilotinib is used for adult leukemia treatment and it enters the brain within US Food and Drug Administration approved doses, leading to autophagic degradation of ?-synuclein, protection of SN neurons and amelioration of motor performance. These data suggest that nilotinib may be a therapeutic strategy to degrade ?-synuclein in PD and other ?-synucleinopathies. PMID:23666528

  3. Occurrence of multiclass UV filters in treated sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2011-08-01

    Many substances related to human activities end up in wastewater and accumulate in sewage sludge. So far, there is only one extensive survey on the occurrence of UV filter residues in sewage sludge. However, more data are required to draw a reliable picture of the fate and effects of these compounds in the environment. This study attempts to fill this gap through the determination of selected UV filters and derivatives namely 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor, benzophenone-3, octocrylene, ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate, ethylhexyldimethyl PABA, 4-hydroxybenzophenone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, and 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone in treated sewage sludge. The target compounds were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction and after this, determined by ultra high resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The determination was fast and sensitive, affording limits of detection lower than 19 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) except for 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (60 ng g(-1) dw). Good recovery rates, especially given the high complexity of sludge matrix (between 70% and 102% except for 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (30%)) were achieved. The application of developed method allowed reporting for the first time the occurrence of two major degradation products of benzophenone-3 that have estrogenic activity in sewage sludge: 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone (in 5/15 WWTPs) and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (in 1/15 WWTPs). Results revealed the presence of UV filters in 15 wastewater treatment plants in Catalonia (Spain) at concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 9.17 ?g g(-1) dw. PMID:21530995

  4. Bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent using man-made biofilms: effects of some variables.

    PubMed

    Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

    2014-11-01

    Biofilm samples were established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for a month. In batch cultures, such biofilms were effective in removing crude oil, pure n-hexadecane, and pure phenanthrene contaminating sewage effluent. The amounts of the removed hydrocarbons increased with increasing biofilm surface area exposed to the effluent. On the other hand, addition of the reducing agent thioglycollate dramatically inhibited the hydrocarbon bioremediation potential of the biofilms. The same biofilm samples removed contaminating hydrocarbons effectively in three successive batch bioremediation cycles but started to become less effective in the cycles thereafter, apparently due to mechanical biofilm loss during successive transfers. As major hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, the biofilms harbored species belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Zavarzinia, Mycobacterium, Microbacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Gordonia, Bosea, Sphingobium, Brachybacterium, and others. The nitrogen fixer Azospirillum brasilense and the microalga Ochromonas distigma were also present; they seemed to enrich the biofilms, with nitrogenous compounds and molecular oxygen, respectively, which are known to enhance microbiological hydrocarbon degradation. It was concluded that man-made biofilms based upon sewage microflora are promising tools for bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent. PMID:25146193

  5. Elimination of beta-blockers in sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Maurer, M; Escher, B I; Richle, P; Schaffner, C; Alder, A C

    2007-04-01

    beta-Blockers are used to treat high blood pressure as well as patients recovering from heart attacks. In several studies, they were detected in surface water, thus indicating incomplete degradability of these substances in sewage treatment plants (STPs). In this study, we determined the sorption coefficients (K(D)) and degradation rates of the four beta-blockers sotalol, atenolol, metoprolol and propranolol in sludge from an STP operating with municipal wastewater. The sorption coefficients (K(D), standard deviations in brackets) were determined as 0.04(+/-0.035), 0.04(+/-0.033), 0.00(+/-0.023) and 0.32(+/-0.058) Lg(-1)(COD), and the pseudo-first-order degradation rate constants were estimated to be 0.29(+/-0.02), 0.69(+/-0.05), 0.58(+/-0.05) and 0.39(+/-0.07) Ld(-1)g(-1)(COD) for sotalol, atenolol, metoprolol and propranolol, respectively. These values translate into a typical elimination in STPs (sludge concentrations of 4g(COD)L(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 6h) of 25%, 37%, 44% and 50% for sotalol, propranolol, metoprolol and atenolol, respectively. These results are also confirmed by measurements in two municipal STPs for atenolol, sotalol and propranolol. The estimated eliminations are slightly too high for metoprolol. PMID:17303212

  6. Heavy metal speciation an uptake to durum wheat from sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, L.H.; Frost, H.L.

    1998-07-01

    This project focused on detection of heavy metal accumulation in durum wheat from sewage sludge or commercial phosphate fertilizer application, using Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Four parts of the durum wheat plants were separated and analyzed (i.e., root, stem, leaves, and grain). Studies compared the metal uptake resulting from sewage sludge application and from commercial fertilizer. Sludges and fertilizers were applied in one application, except for one study which considered the effect of the same sludge dosage, except in two applications. The main objective of this research is to improve the grain quality by minimizing the accumulation of toxic elements in durum wheat.

  7. Effect of organic calcium compounds on combustion characteristics of rice husk, sewage sludge, and bituminous coal: thermogravimetric investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihui; Duan, Feng; Huang, Yaji

    2015-04-01

    Experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer to assess the enhancement of combustion characteristics of different solid fuels blended with organic calcium compounds (OCCs). Rice husk, sewage sludge, and bituminous coal, and two OCC were used in this study. Effect of different mole ratios of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S ratio) on the combustion characteristics were also investigated. Results indicated that combustion performance indexes for bituminous coal impregnated by OCC were improved, however, an inverse trend was found for sewage sludge because sewage sludge has lower ignition temperature and higher volatile matter content compared to those of OCC. For rice husk, effect of added OCC on the combustion characteristics is not obvious. Different solid fuels show different combustion characteristics with increases of Ca/S ratio. The maximum combustion performance indexes appear at Ca/S ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 for OCC blended with Shenhua coal, rice husk, and sewage sludge, respectively. PMID:25638405

  8. Effect of fly ash/sewage sludge mixtures and application rates on biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Sajwan, K.S. [Savannah State College, GA (United States); Ornes, W.H.; Youngblood, T. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to assess the use of a sewage sludge/fly ash mixture in soils for increased growth and uptake of nutrients by Sorghum vulgaris var. sudanense Hitchc. (`sorgrass`), a sorghum-sundangrass hybrid plant. This experiment was conducted by using four sewage sludge-to-fly ash ratios (4:1, 4:2, 4:3, and 4:4) and six application rates of sewage sludge/fly ash mixtures to soil (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 400 tons/acre). The data in this study indicated that the availability of elements to plants varied depending on the mixture ratios and the application rates. All ratios of sewage sludge amended with fly ash generally improved plant growth and enhanced yield at application rates of 50-100 tons/acre but showed reduced growth and yield at higher application rates. The decrease in yield at higher application rates was probably due to the assimilation of high levels of boron which is phytotoxic. These various treatments of sewage sludge/fly ash ratios and rates of application often resulted in elevated concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, B, Cu, and Zn in both soil and plants. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Stabilization treatment of soft subgrade soil by sewage sludge ash and cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Chen; Deng-Fong Lin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) is mixed with cement in a fixed ratio of 4:1 for use as a stabilizer to improve the strength of soft, cohesive, subgrade soil. Five different ratios (in wt%: 0%, 2%, 4%, 8%, and 16%) of ISSA\\/cement admixture are mixed with cohesive soil to make soil samples. In order to understand the

  10. Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertiliser: Variables influencing heavy metal removal during thermochemical treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mattenberger; G. Fraissler; T. Brunner; P. Herk; L. Hermann; I. Obernberger

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge ash by a thermochemical process. The resulting detoxified ash was intended for use as a raw material rich in phosphorus (P) for inorganic fertiliser production. The thermochemical treatment was performed in a rotary kiln where the evaporation of relevant heavy metals was enhanced by

  11. Pulverized fuel ash products solve the sewage sludge problems of the wastewater industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk, G. [Rhenipal UK Ltd., Birkenhead (United Kingdom)] [Rhenipal UK Ltd., Birkenhead (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Sewage sludge recycling has become one of the predominant problems of the water industry. Not all types of sewage sludges are able to be recycled to farm land or into composting processes. Pulverized fuel ash is used as a major ingredient in a product called Rhenipal which is used to stabilize sewage sludge for recycling into a material for land reclamation, as a soil conditioner, as cover material for landfill and as a landfill engineering material. This article deals with the results achieved when applying rhenipal in a post-stabilization process to prepare landfill engineering material. The process is currently developed further and can be operated in a pre-stabilization mode, which will further improve the economical results shown for the post-stabilization method in this paper.

  12. Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

    2013-04-01

    Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully converted SS to AC and further modified it to improve absorption. SSMAC has large specific surface areas based on the BET technique. Batch adsorption results indicate that metal adsorption for SSMAC > SSAC, with adsorption occurring within the first 5 minutes of contact. Comparison of the adsorptivity of various sorbents such as commercial activated carbon (CAC), mineral sorbents such as perlite, clinoptilolite and illite indicates that SSMAC × CAC × clinoptilolite > kaolite.

  13. Isolation and identification of phytate-degrading rhizobacteria with activity of improving growth of poplar and Masson pine.

    PubMed

    Li, Gui-E; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Ye, Jian-Ren; Hou, Liang; Zhou, Ai-Dong; Zhao, Liu

    2013-11-01

    A number of soil microorganisms can convert insoluble forms of phosphorus (P) to an accessible form to increase plant yields. Phytate is such a large kind of insoluble organic phosphorus that plants cannot absorb directly in soil, so the objectives of this study were to isolate, screen phytate-degrading rhizobacteria (PDRB), and to select potential microbial inocula that could increase the P uptake by plants. In this study, a total of 24 soil samples were collected from natural habitats of eight poplar and pine planting areas from the eastern to southern China. 17 PDRB strains were preliminarily screened from the rhizosphere soil of poplars and pines by the visible decolorization in the phytate selective medium. The highest ratio of the total diameter (colony + halo zone) to the colony diameter of the isolates was JZ-GX1, 3.85. Afterward, 17 PDRB strains were further determined for their abilities to degrade sodium phytate based on the amount of liberated inorganic P in liquid phytate specific medium. The results showed that the phytase ability of the three highest PDRB strains: JZ-GX1, JZ-DZ1 and JZ-ZJ1 were up to 2.58, 2.36 and 2.24 U/mL, respectively, much better than most of the bacteria reported in previous studies. In the soil-plant experiment, compared to CK, the best three strains of PDRB all could significantly promote growth of poplar and Masson pine under container growing. The three efficient PDRB strains were identified as follow: JZ-GX1, Rahnella aquatilis, both JZ-DZ1 and JZ-ZJ1 being autofluorescent, Pseudomonas fluorescens, by 16S rDNA gene sequencing technology, Biolog Identification System and biological characterization. The present study suggests that the three screened PDRB strains would have great potential application as biological fertilizers in the future. PMID:23709169

  14. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  15. Sewage and Waste Technologies Department of Civil Engineering

    E-print Network

    Siegen, Universität

    Research Institute for Water and Environment Section Sewage and Waste Technologies EFFICIENT practical of system components sewerage ­ sewage plants - water bodies · Sewerage and rainwater management, drainage (certification to waste management companies, waste management concepts) · Consulting in land recycling

  16. The Composition of Fertilizing Value of Sewage Sludge. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1932-01-01

    LIBRARY, A & hl COLLEGE. CAAYFUS. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS 3ULLETIN NO. 445 APRIL, 1932 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Composition and Fertilizing Value of Sewage Sludge... of Agriculture. - - - - - - - ian nologist ent dent Y' dry sbandry Sewage sludge is a by-product from the purification of the . sew-age at several hundred towns and cities of Texas. Two types of sewage sludge are produced: the digested sludge...

  17. Fate of conjugated natural and synthetic steroid estrogens in crude sewage and activated sludge batch studies.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Rachel L; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Lester, John N

    2009-05-15

    Steroids are excreted from the human body in the conjugated form but are present in sewage influent and effluent as the free steroid, the major source of estrogenic activity observed in water courses. The fate of sulfate and glucuronide conjugated steroid estrogens was investigated in batch studies using activated sludge grown on synthetic sewage in a laboratory-scale Husmann simulation and crude sewage from the field. A clear distinction between the fate of sulfate and glucuronide conjugates was observed in both matrices, with sulfated conjugates proving more recalcitrant and glucuronide deconjugation preferential in crude sewage. For each conjugate, the free steroid was observed in the biotic samples. The degree of free steroid formation was dependent on the conjugate moiety, favoring the glucuronide. Subsequent degradation of the free steroid (and sorption to the activated sludge solid phase) was evaluated. Deconjugation followed the first order reaction rate with rate constants for 17alpha-ethinylestradiol 3-glucuronide, estriol l6alpha-glucuronide, and estrone 3-glucuronide determined as 0.32, 0.24, and 0.35 h respectively. The activated sludge solid retention time over the range of 3-9 days had 74 to 94% of sulfate conjugates remaining after 8 h. In contrast, a correlation between increasing temperature and decreasing 17alpha-ethinylestradiol 3-glucuronide concentrations in the activated sludge observed no conjugate present in the AS following 8 h at 22 degrees C Based on these batch studies and literature excretion profiles, a hypothesis is presented on which steroids and what form (glucuronide, sulfate, or free) will likely enter the sewage treatment plant. PMID:19544862

  18. Estimation of amphetamine and methamphetamine uses in Beijing through sewage-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Hou, Linlin; Du, Peng; Yang, Jun; Li, Kaiyang; Xu, Zeqiong; Wang, Congcong; Zhang, Huafang; Li, Xiqing

    2014-08-15

    Sewage epidemiology has been proven as an effective approach to estimate the use of illicit drugs by a population. In this study, sewage analysis was applied to examine the patterns of amphetamine (AMP) and methamphetamine (METH) uses in the urban area of Beijing. Influent and effluent samples were collected from all the thirteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the urban area during two sampling campaigns. METH concentrations in influents were found to range from several tens to several hundred ng·L(-1), whereas AMP concentrations ranged from several to several tens ng·L(-1). The concentration ratios between AMP and METH in influents at most STPs were close to the rate of AMP excretion following METH ingestion, indicating that AMP in sewage in Beijing was predominately from the metabolism of METH. Much higher METH loads were observed in the center part of the urban area in Beijing, indicating a strong correlation between METH use and economic level and entertainment activities. Seasonal variation in METH loads was significant, with greater use in summer than in winter. Significant difference in METH loads between weekdays and weekend days were observed in winter but not in summer. No clear trend in diurnal variation of METH use was observed. Nearly complete removal of METH occurred at the STPS in Beijing. Apparent removal rates of AMP were lower than those of METH, likely due to degradation of METH into AMP during the wastewater treatment processes. In summary, this study represents the first application of sewage epidemiology to the entire urban population of a metropolitan in mainland China and provided an overview of METH and AMP uses in the city. PMID:24907608

  19. NHD INDEXED LOCATIONS FOR SEWAGE NO DISCHARGE ZONES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Locations where vessel sewage discharge is prohibited. Sewage no discharge zone (NDZ) locations are coded onto route.drain (Transport and Coastline Reach) feature of NHD to create Point Events and Linear Events. Sewage no discharge zone locations are coded onto region.rch (Wat...

  20. Study of the pyrolysis liquids obtained from different sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Fonts; M. Azuara; G. Gea; M. B. Murillo

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis of sewage sludge in fluidized bed to produce bio-oil is under study as a useful way to valorise this waste. Sewage sludge is the waste produced in the wastewater treatment plants. Its composition may change due to the origin and to the non-standardized treatments in the wastewater treatment plants. The pyrolysis of three samples of anaerobically digested sewage sludge

  1. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James T. Bachmaier; Kevin Aiello; Robert K. Bastian; Jing Jy Cheng; Weihsueh A. Chiu; Jenny Goodman; Rosemary Hogan; Andrea R. Jones; Sunita Kamboj; Thomas Lenhart; William R. Ott; Allan B. Rubin; Stephen N. Salomon; Duane W. Schmidt; Loren W. Setlow; C. Yu; A. B. Wolbarst

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee

  2. Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen P.

    Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

  3. Sewage Treatment Control System Design Based on Industry Ethernet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Hongwei; Wang Xinhuan; Yan Youyun; Zhang Tao

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing attention has been paid to environment protection by government, sewage treatment works is becoming more and more concerned. There are many equipments and complicated process in the project of sewage disposal. The paper discussed the application of PLC and network in the sewage treatment plant. Through the combination of the industrial automatic control technology, computer technology, network

  4. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food...PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the...

  5. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food...PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the...

  6. LOW-TEMPERATURE MICROWAVE PYROLYSIS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Wahi; A. Idris; M. A. Mohd; K. Khalid

    Microwave pyrolysis is proposed as one of several optional technologies for disposing and recycling sewage waste in Malaysia. In this study, sewage sludge was dried and pyrolyzed at low temperature (maximum 650ºC) in a single process at laboratory scale. Sewage sludge was placed in a quartz reactor, which was placed in a microwave cavity oven. The modified household microwave oven

  7. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

  8. Improved purity and immunostimulatory activity of ?-(1?3)(1?6)-glucan from Pleurotus sajor-caju using cell wall-degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Satitmanwiwat, Saranya; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Laohakunjit, Natta; Chao, Louis Kuoping; Chen, Shui-Tein; Pason, Patthra; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Kyu, Khin Lay

    2012-05-30

    The objective of this work was to improve the purity of ?-(1?3)(1?6)-glucan in the native triple helical structure from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus sajor-caju for effective biological function using cell wall-degrading enzymes. A crude carbohydrate was extracted with hot water, then treated with crude xylanase and cellulase from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6. ?-Glucan in the extract was purified to homogeneity with a single and symmetrical peak using 650M DEAE Toyopearl and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. The purity of ?-glucan was confirmed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography. Purified ?-glucan was obtained at a purity of up to 90.2%. The Congo red reaction and atomic force microscopy indicated that the purified ?-glucan exhibited a triple helix conformation. Purified ?-glucan was able to effectively up-regulate the functions of macrophages such as nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) production. PMID:22563990

  9. ?–Hydroxy ?–Methylbutyrate Improves Dexamethasone-Induced Muscle Atrophy by Modulating the Muscle Degradation Pathway in SD Rat

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeon Ja; Park, Min Hi; Jang, Eun Ji; Park, Chan Hum; Yoon, Changshin; Kim, Nam Deuk; Kim, Mi Kyung; Chung, Hae Young

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy results from various conditions including high levels of glucocorticoids, and ?–hydroxy ?–methylbutyrate (HMB; a metabolite of leucine) is a potent therapeutical supplement used to treat various muscle disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated that HMB inhibits dexamethasone-induced atrophy in cultured myotubes, but its effect on dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy has not been determined in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HMB on dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in rats. Treatment with dexamethasone weakened grip strengths and increased muscle damage as determined by increased serum creatine kinase levels and by histological analysis. Dexamethasone treatment also reduced both soleus and gastrocnemius muscle masses. However, HMB supplementation significantly prevented reductions in grip strengths, reduced muscle damage, and prevented muscle mass and protein concentration decrease in soleus muscle. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that dexamethasone markedly increased levels of MuRF1 protein, which causes the ubiquitination and degradation of MyHC. Indeed, dexamethasone treatment decreased MyHC protein expression and increased the ubiquitinated-MyHC to MyHC ratio. However, HMB supplementation caused the down-regulations of MuRF1 protein and of ubiquitinated-MyHC. Furthermore, additional experiments provided evidence that HMB supplementation inhibited the nuclear translocation of FOXO1 induced by dexamethasone, and showed increased MyoD expression in the nuclear fractions of soleus muscles. These findings suggest that HMB supplementation attenuates dexamethasone-induced muscle wasting by regulating FOXO1 transcription factor and subsequent MuRF1 expression. Accordingly, our results suggest that HMB supplementation could be used to prevent steroid myopathy. PMID:25032690

  10. ?-Hydroxy ?-methylbutyrate improves dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy by modulating the muscle degradation pathway in SD rat.

    PubMed

    Noh, Kyung Kyun; Chung, Ki Wung; Choi, Yeon Ja; Park, Min Hi; Jang, Eun Ji; Park, Chan Hum; Yoon, Changshin; Kim, Nam Deuk; Kim, Mi Kyung; Chung, Hae Young

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy results from various conditions including high levels of glucocorticoids, and ?-hydroxy ?-methylbutyrate (HMB; a metabolite of leucine) is a potent therapeutical supplement used to treat various muscle disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated that HMB inhibits dexamethasone-induced atrophy in cultured myotubes, but its effect on dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy has not been determined in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HMB on dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in rats. Treatment with dexamethasone weakened grip strengths and increased muscle damage as determined by increased serum creatine kinase levels and by histological analysis. Dexamethasone treatment also reduced both soleus and gastrocnemius muscle masses. However, HMB supplementation significantly prevented reductions in grip strengths, reduced muscle damage, and prevented muscle mass and protein concentration decrease in soleus muscle. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that dexamethasone markedly increased levels of MuRF1 protein, which causes the ubiquitination and degradation of MyHC. Indeed, dexamethasone treatment decreased MyHC protein expression and increased the ubiquitinated-MyHC to MyHC ratio. However, HMB supplementation caused the down-regulations of MuRF1 protein and of ubiquitinated-MyHC. Furthermore, additional experiments provided evidence that HMB supplementation inhibited the nuclear translocation of FOXO1 induced by dexamethasone, and showed increased MyoD expression in the nuclear fractions of soleus muscles. These findings suggest that HMB supplementation attenuates dexamethasone-induced muscle wasting by regulating FOXO1 transcription factor and subsequent MuRF1 expression. Accordingly, our results suggest that HMB supplementation could be used to prevent steroid myopathy. PMID:25032690

  11. Improved production of fatty acid ethyl esters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through up-regulation of the ethanol degradation pathway and expression of the heterologous phosphoketolase pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to an increasing demand of transportation fuels, a lower availability of cheap crude oil and a lack of sustainability of fossil fuels, a gradual shift from petroleum based fuels towards alternative and renewable fuel resources will be required in the near future. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) have properties similar to current crude diesel and could therefore form an important contribution to the development of sustainable transportation fuels in future. It is important to develop novel cell factories for efficient production of FAEEs and their precursors. Results Here, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell factory expressing a heterologous wax ester synthase (ws2) from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus was used to produce FAEEs from ethanol and acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA). The production of acyl-CoA requires large amounts of NADPH and acetyl-CoA. Therefore, two metabolic engineering strategies for improved provision of NADPH and acetyl-CoA were evaluated. First, the ethanol degradation pathway was employed to re-channel carbon flow towards the synthesis of acetyl-CoA. Therefore, ADH2 and ALD6 encoding, respectively, alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase were overexpressed together with the heterologous gene acsSEL641P encoding acetyl-CoA synthetase. The co-overexpression of ADH2, ALD6 and acsSEL641P with ws2 resulted in 408?±?270 ?g FAEE gCDW?1, a 3-fold improvement. Secondly, for the expression of the PHK pathway two genes, xpkA and ack, both descending from Aspergillus nidulans, were co-expressed together with ws2 to catalyze, respectively, the conversion of xylulose-5-phosphate to acetyl phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and acetyl phosphate to acetate. Alternatively, ack was substituted with pta from Bacillus subtilis, encoding phosphotransacetylase for the conversion of acetyl phosphate to acetyl-CoA. Both PHK pathways were additionally expressed in a strain with multiple chromosomally integrated ws2 gene, which resulted in respectively 5100?±?509 and 4670?±?379 ?g FAEE gCDW?1, an up to 1.7-fold improvement. Conclusion Two different strategies for engineering of the central carbon metabolism for efficient provision of acetyl-CoA and NADPH required for fatty acid biosynthesis and hence FAEE production were evaluated and it was found that both the ethanol degradation pathway as well as the phosphoketolase pathway improve the yield of FAEEs. PMID:24618091

  12. Removal of surfactants nonylphenol ethoxylates from municipal sewage-comparison of an A/O process and biological aerated filters.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dawen; Li, Zhe; Guan, Junxue; Li, Yifan; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPnEO, n=1 to 2) and nonylphenol (NP) in water and sludge samples were measured from a full scale sewage treatment plant (STP) with an Anaerobic/Oxic (A/O) and a Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) process. The A/O process was found to exhibit improved performance in comparison to the BAF process. Mean values of NP, NP1EO and NP2EO concentrations in influents from the STP were similar, ranging from 1.8 to 2.0×10(3)ngL(-1). In the A/O process, the removal efficiency of NP, NP1EO and NP2EO from the aqueous phase was 78%, 84%, and 89%, respectively. In contrast, the removal efficiencies of NP, NP1EO, and NP2EO were relatively lower for the BAF process, at 55%, 76%, and 79%, respectively. High concentrations of NP, NP1EO and NP2EO detected in the sludge samples had a maximum value of 2.7?gg(-1) dw, which indicates that improvement in the overall elimination of NP, NP1EO and NP2EO may be associated with adsorption by the sludge. To further investigate the fate of NP, NP1EO and NP2EO in the STP, our research assessed the degradation characteristics of NP by calculating its transformational loss in the STP. The results demonstrate that the quantity of NP measured in the effluent from the oxic unit increased by 32%, which indicates that NP1EO and NP2EO may undergo degradation in the oxic conditions. PMID:24268176

  13. Investigation of effects of background water on upwelled reflectance spectra and techniques for analysis of dilute primary-treated sewage sludge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Farmer, F. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    In an effort to improve understanding of the effects of variations in background water on reflectance spectra, laboratory tests were conducted with various concentrations of sewage sludge diluted with several types of background water. The results from these tests indicate that reflectance spectra for sewage-sludge mixtures are dependent upon the reflectance of the background water. Both the ratio of sewage-sludge reflectance to background-water reflectance and the ratio of the difference in reflectance to background-water reflectance show spectral variations for different turbid background waters. The difference in reflectance is the only parameter considered.

  14. Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Milivoj

    1954-01-01

    The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation. PMID:13160760

  15. Occurrence, growth, and suppression of salmonellae in composted sewage sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, D; Burge, W D; Enkiri, N K

    1985-01-01

    Composted sewage sludge may be used to improve soil quality, but there remains some doubt concerning the microbiological safety of the product. Sewage sludge composts from 30 municipalities were sampled, and four samples (12%) contained salmonellae (two contained fewer than 0.3/g, and the other two had 21/g and 1.7 X 10(4)/g). All 30 composts were inoculated with salmonellae; the populations decreased at a specific death rate of about 0.15 h-1 over 24 h at 36 degrees C. In irradiation-sterilized composts inoculated with salmonellae, the salmonellae grew at a rate of 0.65 doublings per h for over 24 h. Growth and death rates were found to be moisture and flora associated. The growth or death rates for antibiotic-resistant salmonellae were not different from those of nonresistant strains. It was concluded that the active indigenous flora of compost establishes a homeostatic barrier to colonization by salmonellae, and in the absence of competing flora, reinoculated salmonellae may grow to potentially hazardous densities. The active microflora of moist composts eliminated contaminating salmonellae (10(5)/g) after 6 weeks. PMID:3909966

  16. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  17. Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Franz

    2008-01-01

    Ashes from sewage sludge incineration are rich in phosphorus content, ranging between 4% and 9%. Due to the current methods of disposal used for these ashes, phosphorus, which is a valuable plant nutrient, is removed from biological cycling. This article proposes the possible three-stage processing of SSA, whereby more than 90% of phosphorus can be extracted to make an adequate

  18. Chemical fixation of sewage sludge derived ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farhana Mohamed; I. Y. Sam Cheng; Ruey S. Huang; Evelyn C. Santos

    1991-01-01

    Los Angeles processes sewage sludge by dehydration and combustion at its Hyperion Treatment Plant. The ash product is usually classified as hazardous because of its heavy metal content, and four readily?available fixing agents have been evaluated for possible use as stabilizers. The ash leachability was assessed before and after fixation using the California Waste Extraction Test. The leaching characteristics of

  19. SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

  20. Potential priority pollutants in sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Eriksson; Nina Christensen; Jens Ejbye Schmidt; Anna Ledin

    2008-01-01

    Sewage sludge has been used as fertilizer for agricultural land over a long time. This is part of a sustainable practice utilizing and recycling the macronutrients back to land. During the last decades, questions have been raised concerning the risks related to heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) present in the sludge. Application on land used for agriculture is,

  1. FUEL SAVINGS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a result of a demonstration project partly sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, realized a 34% fuel savings for sewage sludge incineration. At the sa...

  2. SEWAGE SLUDGE PATHOGEN TRANSPORT MODEL PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, raw or anaerobically digest...

  3. Energy minimization at Metro Denver Sewage District

    SciTech Connect

    Korbitz, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Metro Denver Sewage District energy minimization includes adjustment of treatment operations to maximize use of high purity oxygen treatment with 31 percent reduction in electric power and replacement of sludge incineration with land disposal at 23 percent energy reduction. Future sludge utilization as fertilizer and minor energy reduction efforts in areas of illumination, heating and employee transportation offer additional benefits.

  4. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This shows the fundamental importance of rapid processing. Rapid thermal conditioning may be incorporated into a wastewater treatment plant where biological treatment is used. For purposes of a concrete example, flow-sheets for the incorporation of the RTC process into the New York City Wards Island WPCP were prepared, and experimental data from the laboratory scale RTC test facility were used to set design parameters. A design incorporating nitrogen removal into the RTC flow sheet was also examined. ASPEN software was used to design the proposed processes and perform economic analyses. Cost estimates for these alternatives show a substantial advantage to implement RTC in comparison to present plant operation. About one third of the current sludge processing cost can be saved by incorporation of RTC into the Wards Island Plant. With nitrogen removal, the economics are even more attractive.

  5. Protease-degradable PEG-maleimide coating with on-demand release of IL-1Ra to improve tissue response to neural electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Stacie M; Shoemaker, James T; Templeman, Kellie L; Wei, Yang; Latour, Robert A; Bellamkonda, Ravi V; LaPlaca, Michelle C; García, Andrés J

    2015-03-01

    Neural electrodes are an important part of brain-machine interface devices that can restore functionality to patients with sensory and movement disorders. Chronically implanted neural electrodes induce an unfavorable tissue response which includes inflammation, scar formation, and neuronal cell death, eventually causing loss of electrode function. We developed a poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel coating for neural electrodes with non-fouling characteristics, incorporated an anti-inflammatory agent, and engineered a stimulus-responsive degradable portion for on-demand release of the anti-inflammatory agent in response to inflammatory stimuli. This coating reduces in vitro glial cell adhesion, cell spreading, and cytokine release compared to uncoated controls. We also analyzed the in vivo tissue response using immunohistochemistry and microarray qRT-PCR. Although no differences were observed among coated and uncoated electrodes for inflammatory cell markers, lower IgG penetration into the tissue around PEG+IL-1Ra coated electrodes indicates an improvement in blood-brain barrier integrity. Gene expression analysis showed higher expression of IL-6 and MMP-2 around PEG+IL-1Ra samples, as well as an increase in CNTF expression, an important marker for neuronal survival. Importantly, increased neuronal survival around coated electrodes compared to uncoated controls was observed. Collectively, these results indicate promising findings for an engineered coating to increase neuronal survival and improve tissue response around implanted neural electrodes. PMID:25617126

  6. Improving the quality of Laminaria japonica-based diet for Apostichopus japonicus through degradation of its algin content with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WB1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xitao; Wang, Lili; Che, Jian; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jiancheng; Li, Xiaoyu; Hu, Weiqing; Xu, Yongping

    2015-07-01

    Laminaria japonica feedstuff is used as a substitute for Sargassum thunbergii in the small-scale culturing of Apostichopus japonicus (sea cucumber) because of its abundant sources and low price in China. However, the difficulty associated with the degradation of algin by A. japonicus and, hence, its utilization have limited the practical value of L. japonica feedstuff in sea cucumber farming. In this study, A. japonicus individuals were fed with L. japonica feedstuff pretreated, via fermentation with the algin-degrading bacterial strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WB1, and their growth performance, nonspecific immune responses, and resistance against Vibrio infection were then determined over a 60-day period. Growth performance of these individuals was similar to those fed with a commercial feedstuff made from S. thunbergii (mean weight gain of 5.79 versus 5.69 g on day 60), but was significantly (P?degraded by B. amyloliquefaciens WB1 could improve the growth performance of A. japonicus as well its resistance to bacterial infection. It could therefore act as an alternative to S. thunbergii and is economical at the same time. PMID:25895094

  7. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  8. Aerobic biodegradation of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in wastewater sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Stiborova, Hana; Vrkoslavova, Jana; Lovecka, Petra; Pulkrabova, Jana; Hradkova, Petra; Hajslova, Jana; Demnerova, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Due to widespread accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in our surroundings, it is important to clarify their fate in the environment and the options of their elimination. The aim of this study was to monitor the biodegradation of the most frequent congeners (BDE 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) under aerobic condition by indigenous microflora in 2 industrially contaminated sewage sludge samples. BDE 209 was detected as the predominating congener in concentrations 685 ng/g and 1403 ng/g dry weight in sewage sludge from WWTPs (waste water treatment plants) Hradec Kralove and Brno, respectively. The total amount of 10 lower PBDEs was 605 and 205 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The aerobic degradation was significantly enhanced by the addition of yeast extract and 4-bromobiphenyl. The total concentrations of all 11 PBDE congeners were lowered and their elimination was detected reaching 62–78% of their initial amounts after 11 months of cultivation. The degradation of most abundant congener BDE 209 followed the first-order kinetics with constant detected between 2.77 × 10(?3) d(?1) and 3.79 × 10?(3)d(?1) and the half-lives of BDE 209 degradation ranged between 6.0 and 8.2 months. This work clearly demonstrates that both lower brominated PBDEs as well as the major representative BDE 209 could be successfully removed from municipally contaminated sludge under aerobic conditions. PMID:25463256

  9. Determination of carbon/nitrogen ratio and heavy metals in bulking agents used for sewage composting.

    PubMed

    Alidadi, H; Najafpoor, A A; Parvaresh, A

    2007-11-15

    Improving the soil quality with organic matter and N, P and K contents are some of sewage sludge benefits. Adjusting carbonaceous materials such as plant wastes to dewatered sludge compost results in increasing the moisture content and improving C/N ratio. This study was conduced for three months in 2005, in Laboratory of Chemistry of Water and Wastewater in the School of Public Health of Isfahan University of Medical Science, to determine the C/N ratio and heavy metals concentration of bulking agents in sawdust, leaves, rice hulls and dewatered sewage sludge. Dewatered sludge was collected from Isfahan sewage treatment plant. Sawdust was collected from sawmills. Leaves were collected from municipality of Isfahan and rice hull from rice mills, then in samples determined C/N ratio and heavy metal according to standard methods. The results showed that concentrations of chromium and cadmium in the mixture of dewatered sewage sludge and bulking agents were lower them those of the standard level. Means of cobalt (115.44 mg kg(-1)), nickel (57.44 mg kg(-1)) and zinc (273.48 mg kg(-1)) concentrations were maximum in dewatered sludge but mean concentration of cobalt (25.66 mg kg(-1)) in rice hull samples and mean zinc (8.99 mg kg(-1)) and nickel (5.106 mg kg(-1)) concentrations in sawdust samples were minimum. The optimal conditions sewage sludge composting, each kilogram of sludge needs 350 g of saw dust, 470 g of leaves and 388 g of rice hull. Amount of heavy metals present in the bulking agents is lower than the amount mentioned for the compost. PMID:19090306

  10. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description (SYS 27)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank.

  11. Antibiotic Resistome and Its Association with Bacterial Communities during Sewage Sludge Composting.

    PubMed

    Su, Jian-Qiang; Wei, Bei; Ou-Yang, Wei-Ying; Huang, Fu-Yi; Zhao, Yi; Xu, Hui-Juan; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-06-16

    Composting is widely used for recycling of urban sewage sludge to improve soil properties, which represents a potential pathway of spreading antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes to soils. However, the dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the underlying mechanisms during sewage sludge composting were not fully explored. Here, we used high-throughput quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene based illumina sequencing to investigate the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities during a lab-scale in-vessel composting of sewage sludge. A total of 156 unique ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were detected encoding resistance to almost all major classes of antibiotics. ARGs were detected with significantly increased abundance and diversity, and distinct patterns, and were enriched during composting. Marked shifts in bacterial community structures and compositions were observed during composting, with Actinobacteria being the dominant phylum at the late phase of composting. The large proportion of Actinobacteria may partially explain the increase of ARGs during composting. ARGs patterns were significantly correlated with bacterial community structures, suggesting that the dynamic of ARGs was strongly affected by bacterial phylogenetic compositions during composting. These results imply that direct application of sewage sludge compost on field may lead to the spread of abundant ARGs in soils. PMID:26018772

  12. Comparison between the conventional anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and its combination with a chemical or thermal pre-treatment concerning the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Carballa, M; Omil, F; Alder, A C; Lema, J M

    2006-01-01

    Many novel treatment technologies, usually representing a pre-treatment prior to the biological degradation process, have been developed in order to improve the recycling and reuse of sewage sludge. Among all the methods available, a chemical (alkaline) and a thermal treatment have been considered in this study. The behaviour of 13 substances belonging to different therapeutic classes (musks, tranquillisers, antiepileptic, anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, X-ray contrast media and estrogens) has been studied during the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge combined with these pre-treatments (advanced operation) in comparison with the conventional process. Two parameters have been analysed: the temperature (mesophilic and thermophilic conditions) and the sludge retention time. While organic matter solubilization was higher with the alkaline process (55-80%), no difference between both pre-treatments was observed concerning volatile solids solubilization (up to 20%). The removal efficiencies of solids and organic matter during anaerobic digestion ranged from 40-70% and 45-75%, respectively. The higher removal efficiencies of pharmaceuticals and personal care products were achieved for the antibiotics, Naproxen and the natural estrogens (>80%). For the other compounds, the values were in the range 20-70%, except for Carbamazepine, which was not removed at any condition tested. PMID:16784195

  13. Environmental response to sewage treatment strategies: Hong Kong's experience in long term water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Lee, Joseph H W; Yin, Kedong; Liu, Hongbin; Harrison, Paul J

    2011-11-01

    In many coastal cities around the world, marine outfalls are used for disposal of partially treated wastewater effluent. The combined use of land-based treatment and marine discharge can be a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable sewage strategy. Before 2001, screened sewage was discharged into Victoria Harbour through many small outfalls. After 2001, the Hong Kong Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS) was implemented to improve the water quality in Victoria Harbour and surrounding waters. Stage I of HATS involved the construction of a 24 km long deep tunnel sewerage system to collect sewage from the densely populated urban areas of Hong Kong to a centralized sewage treatment plant at Stonecutters Island. A sewage flow of 1.4 million m3 d(-1) receives Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) followed by discharge via a 1.2 km long outfall 2 km west of the harbor. The ecosystem recovery in Victoria Harbour and the environmental response to sewage abatement after the implementation of HATS was studied using a 21-year data set from long term monthly water quality monitoring. Overall, the pollution control scheme has achieved the intended objectives. The sewage abatement has resulted in improved water quality in terms of a significant reduction in nutrients and an increase in bottom DO levels. Furthermore, due to the efficient tidal mixing and flushing, the impact of the HATS discharge on water quality in the vicinity of the outfall location is relatively limited. However, Chl a concentrations have not been reduced in Victoria Harbour where algal growth is limited by hydrodynamic mixing and water clarity rather than nutrient concentrations. Phosphorus removal in the summer is suggested to reduce the risk of algal blooms in the more weakly-flushed and stratified southern waters, while nutrient removal is less important in other seasons due to the pronounced role played by hydrodynamic mixing. The need for disinfection of the effluent to reduce bacterial (E. coli) concentrations to acceptable levels is also confirmed and has recently been implemented. PMID:21871638

  14. SOIL DEGRADATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil degradation can be defined as loss in the quality or productivity of soil, and is often the result of human activities, such as agriculture, deforestation, mining, waste disposal, or chemical spills. Degradation is attributed to changes in soil nutrient status, biota, loss of organic matter, d...

  15. Cutting improves the productivity of lucerne-rich stands used in the revegetation of degraded arable land in a semi-arid environment

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zi-Qiang; Yu, Kai-Liang; Wang, Bin-Xian; Zhang, Wang-Yun; Zhang, Xu-Long; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Stefanova, Katia; Turner, Neil C.; Li, Feng-Min

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between vegetative and environmental variables is important for revegetation and ecosystem management on the Loess Plateau, China. Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) has been widely used in the region to improve revegetation, soil and water conservation, and to enhance livestock production. However, there is little information on how environmental factors influence long-term succession in lucerne-rich vegetation. Our objective was to identify the main environmental variables controlling the succession process in lucerne-rich vegetation such that native species are not suppressed after sowing on the Loess Plateau. Vegetation and soil surveys were performed in 31 lucerne fields (three lucerne fields without any management from 2003–2013 and 28 fields containing 11-year-old lucerne with one cutting each year). Time after planting was the most important factor affecting plant species succession. Cutting significantly affected revegetation characteristics, such as aboveground biomass, plant density and diversity. Soil moisture content, soil organic carbon, soil available phosphorus and slope aspect were key environmental factors affecting plant species composition and aboveground biomass, density and diversity. Long-term cutting can cause self-thinning in lucerne, maintain the stability of lucerne production and slow its degradation. For effective management of lucerne fields, phosphate fertilizer should be applied and cutting performed. PMID:26166449

  16. Cutting improves the productivity of lucerne-rich stands used in the revegetation of degraded arable land in a semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zi-Qiang; Yu, Kai-Liang; Wang, Bin-Xian; Zhang, Wang-Yun; Zhang, Xu-Long; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Stefanova, Katia; Turner, Neil C; Li, Feng-Min

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between vegetative and environmental variables is important for revegetation and ecosystem management on the Loess Plateau, China. Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) has been widely used in the region to improve revegetation, soil and water conservation, and to enhance livestock production. However, there is little information on how environmental factors influence long-term succession in lucerne-rich vegetation. Our objective was to identify the main environmental variables controlling the succession process in lucerne-rich vegetation such that native species are not suppressed after sowing on the Loess Plateau. Vegetation and soil surveys were performed in 31 lucerne fields (three lucerne fields without any management from 2003-2013 and 28 fields containing 11-year-old lucerne with one cutting each year). Time after planting was the most important factor affecting plant species succession. Cutting significantly affected revegetation characteristics, such as aboveground biomass, plant density and diversity. Soil moisture content, soil organic carbon, soil available phosphorus and slope aspect were key environmental factors affecting plant species composition and aboveground biomass, density and diversity. Long-term cutting can cause self-thinning in lucerne, maintain the stability of lucerne production and slow its degradation. For effective management of lucerne fields, phosphate fertilizer should be applied and cutting performed. PMID:26166449

  17. Is There Sewage in My Sample?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson students investigate the relationship between sediment sampling and ocean pollution as they discover how scientists collect and study sediment on the bottom of the ocean. They will also find out if the sediment sampling methods used by scientists can be used to detect pollution. They will learn about the proximity of the Hudson Shelf Valley and the Hudson Canyon to the New York City metropolitan region, one of the most populated areas in the United States; and will learn that formerly two dumpsites in the Hudson Shelf Valley and Hudson Canyon were used to dispose of sewage sludge. Students will also learn how scientists collect and use core samples to study seafloor sediments and what are some of the impacts of dumping sewage in the ocean.

  18. 33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309 Section 159... Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a cruise vessel...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4770 - Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit? 60.4770...SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability...4770 Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?...

  20. 33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309 Section 159... Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a cruise vessel...

  1. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  2. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ashes for phosphorus recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Adam; B. Peplinski; M. Michaelis; G. Kley; F.-G. Simon

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all living organisms and cannot be replaced. Municipal sewage sludge is a carrier of phosphorus, but also contains organic pollutants and heavy metals. A two-step thermal treatment is suggested, including mono-incineration of sewage sludge and subsequent thermochemical treatment of the ashes. Organic pollutants are completely destroyed by mono-incineration. The resulting sewage sludge ashes

  3. Influence of the fineness of sewage sludge ash on the mortar properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih-Cheng Pan; Dyi-Hwa Tseng; Chih-Chiang Lee; Chau Lee

    2003-01-01

    Sewage sludge ash (SSA) is a recycled material and can be used in cement mortar as pozzolan. To improve the mortar properties, this research utilized mechanical grinding to adjust the fineness of SSA. Finely ground SSA with Blaine fineness of 500–1000 m2\\/kg was added to mortar to replace 20% of portland cement. The initial and final setting times of SSA–cement

  4. Urban energy mining from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kwon, E E; Yi, H; Kwon, H H

    2013-01-01

    This work showed that sewage sludge could be a strong candidate for biodiesel production. High lipid content (18-20%) with C(16-18)-carbon range was experimentally identified and measured. These lipids from sewage sludge were converted into biodiesel via the transesterification reaction with MgO-CaO/Al(2)O(3) derived from magnesium slag, and biodiesel conversion was ~98%. The experimental work enabled explaining that temperature is the main driving force for the transesterification reaction, which can be enhanced in the presence of CO(2). This also enables combination of esterification of free fatty acids and transesterification of triglycerides into a single process within 1 min in the temperature range of 350-500°C. Sewage sludge residue after extracting lipids was also a good feedstock for recovering energy via thermo-chemical processes. The impact of CO(2) co-feed on the pyrolysis/gasification process of SS residue was also investigated in this work. The CO(2) injected into the thermo-chemical process remarkably increased the generation of CO by a factor of 2. Moreover, the introduction of CO(2) into the pyrolysis/gasification process enabled reducing condensable hydrocarbons (tar) by expediting cracking; thus, utilizing CO(2) as chemical feedstock for the gasification process not only leads to higher thermal efficiency but also has environmental benefits. PMID:23017593

  5. Sensitivity of amphipods to sewage pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J. A.; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Y.; Giménez-Casalduero, F.; Sánchez-Lizaso, J. L.; Dauvin, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Amphipods are considered a sensitive group to pollution but here different levels of sensitivity were detected among species, by analysing the impact of five sewage outfalls, with different flow and treatment levels, on amphipod assemblages from the Castellon coast (NE Spain). Sewage pollution produced a decrease in the abundance and richness of amphipods close to the outfalls. Most of the species showed high sensitivity, particularly species such as Bathyporeia borgi, Perioculodes longimanus and Autonoe spiniventris, whereas other species appeared to be more tolerant to the sewage input, such as Ampelisca brevicornis. These different responses could be related to burrowing behaviour, with fossorial species being more sensitive and domicolous species being less affected. Benthic amphipods, which live in direct contact with sediment, are widely used for bioassay and numerous species are usually employed in ecotoxicology tests for diverse contaminants. In order to consider amphipods for monitoring and biodiversity programmes, it is important to establish the degree of sensitivity of each species to different sources of pollution.

  6. Occurrence of cytophagas in sewage plants.

    PubMed

    Güde, H

    1980-04-01

    With the application of plate count methods and of the KOH-flexirubin test, bacteria belonging to the Cytophaga group were proved to occur regularly in samples from biological sewage treatment facilities. Generally, the percentage of Cytophaga colonies of the total heterotrophic colonies was lowest in the inflow sewage water as compared with the values found in activated sludge, trickling filter, and effluent samples. During an observation period of 16 months, the highest percentages of cytophagas were found in winter samples from activated sludge and trickling filters. Furthermore, cytophagas were shown to have high percentages of the bacteria lytic to polymeric substrates such as cellulose, chitin, dextran, pectin, xylan, and gelatin. Thus, it is suggested that cytophagas may contribute to sewage purification, especially at cold temperatures and by polymer breakdown. Cytophaga strains isolated were shown to have gliding motility, flexirubin pigmentation, and a low guanine plus cytosine base ratio in common. The strains were roughly subdivided into a spreading, a nonspreading, and a cellulolytic group. PMID:16345539

  7. The economics of the disposal of sewage and trade effluents*

    PubMed Central

    Townend, C. B.

    1959-01-01

    In this review of the economics of the disposal of sewage and trade wastes, the author touches on all aspects of the subject, from the annual costs of sewerage and sewage-disposal services in England and Wales, and what he terms the “uneconomics” of pollution of natural waters, to the financing of capital expenditure on the construction of new sewage works and equipment and on alterations to existing works. He discusses the purposes and relative costs of the various processes in the treatment of domestic sewage and outlines the special problems involved in the disposal of trade wastes. PMID:13839093

  8. The ecology of solar sewage drying beds in the Pirana Sewage Farm at Ahmedabad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Ganapati; I. P. S. Prasadarao; S. H. Godbole; V. Kothandaraman; Thomas Koshy

    1965-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Impounding of sewage in holding and percolating ponds, called solar drying beds, of less than one acre to 1.7 acres in area\\u000a and with depths of 1 to 2 feet, has been practised as a distinct treatment process since 1932 for a portion of the sewage\\u000a admixture with textile mill wastes in Ahmedabad.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The solar drying beds

  9. The study of the cumulative effects of the application of urban sewage sludge on an eroded soil cultivated in the Algerian steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutmedjet, Ahmed; Boukkaya, Nassira; Houyou, zohra; Ouakid, Mohamed; Bielders, Charles

    2014-05-01

    Since the seventies, desertification is one of the major problems faced by the Mediterranean climate regions. These problems are inherent in the soil and climate characteristics of these regions, but their magnitude and acuity depend mainly on human activities. The process of desertification that affects more and more land is more pronounced as soil degradation, which accelerates constantly reduced resources farmland and pasture. Especially in areas bordering the Sahara, as the Algerian steppe, a real belt between the Sahara and the Algerian tell As part of the study of the cumulative effect of the application of urban sewage sludge on sandy soil and culture that is a cereal (barley), we had results that enabled us to identify some precepts,. The short-term effects studied in this experiment indicate that the amendment of the sewage sludge had a beneficial effect on the fertilizing qualities of the soil and therefore the performance of barley. To observations of Culture (barley), indicate that the best grain yield was obtained with D3 (28.76 quintals / ha) and D2 (33.91 quintals / ha). This is due to the effect of the sludge by the addition of required nutrients crop production. The lowest yield (24.11 quintals / ha) being obtained for the control (D0). It is the same for straw yield, with 47.5 quintals / ha in D2. The D3 treatment (30 t / ha) has previously presented the best results, but after 3 years we noticed that the best yields are obtained with D2 (10 t / ha). Except the pH and the rate of limestone that are related to changes in the characteristics of the site, there was an improvement in some physical and chemical properties of the soil. The contributions of sewage sludge amended greater quality soil biology D2 (number and effective species collected). Increasing the organic matter content (1.45%) and electrical conductivity (0.18 microseconds / cm) in the soil is only significant for the highest dose (30t/ha), although a tendency to enrichment in proportion to the dose appears clearly (except for nitrogen with a maximum of 0.066% in D3). The content of nitrogen increases less than organic carbon, which results in an increase of the C/N in the processing D2, justifying a biological activity which allows a soil structure, ensuring protection against leaching and challenging creating conditions favorable for crop development. So opportunities for agricultural use of sewage sludge exist for the rehabilitation of degraded sites (revegetation), while remaining in an application under controlled and regulated. These pathways underused in Algeria may comprise an interesting alternative to overcome the lack of organic matter, and even conserve soil areas subject has often destructive climatic and anthropogenic conditions.

  10. Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) biomass production in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge compost and irrigated with sewage water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lag, A.; Gomez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Melendez, I.; Perez Gimeno, A.; Soriano-Disla, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    Energy use is one of the most important current global issues. Traditional energetic resources are limited and its use generates environmental problems, i.e. Global Warming, thus it is necessary to find alternative ways to produce energy. Energy crops represent one step towards sustainability but it must be coupled with appropriate land use and management adapted to local conditions. Moreover, positive effects like soil conservation; economical improvement of rural areas and CO2 storage could be achieved. Treated sewage water and sewage sludge compost were used as low-cost inputs for nutrition and irrigation, to cultivate cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) a perennial Mediterranean crop. The aim of the present field experiment was to ascertain the optimum dose of compost application to obtain maximum biomass production. Four compost treatments were applied by triplicate (D1=0; D2=30; D3=50; D4=70 ton/ha) and forty eight cardoon plants were placed in each plot, 12 per treatment, in a calcareous soil (CLfv; WRB, 2006) plot, located in the South East of Spain, in semi-arid conditions. The experiment was developed for one cardoon productive cycle (one year); soil was sampled three times (October, April and July). Soil, compost and treated sewage irrigation water were analyzed (physical and chemical properties). Stalk, capitula and leave weight as well as height and total biomass production were the parameters determined for cardoon samples. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) at p=0,05 significance level were performed to detect differences among treatments for each sampling/plot and to study soil parameters evolution and biomass production for each plot/dose. Several statistical differences in soil were found between treatments for extractable zinc, magnesium and phosphorus; as well as Kjeldahl nitrogen and organic carbon due to compost application, showing a gradual increase of nutrients from D1 to D4. However, considering the evolution of soil parameters along time, pH was the only with marked and significant decreasing trend from the first to the last sampling period. Mean cardoon biomass production in D1subplot was 13 ton/ha which differed significantly from D4 production, which was about 20 ton/ha. Hence, the maximum biomass production was obtained with the maximum compost dose. The results show that compost amendment increased cardoon biomass production, probably due to the improvement of soil properties, especially plant nutrient availability. No significant differences were found in soil parameters along time, with the exception of pH. However, longer test time is needed to evaluate long term effects in soil and to check the maintenance of biomass productivity. References Fernadez J., Curt, M.D., Aguado P.L. Industrial applications of Cynara cardunculus for energy and other uses. Industrial Crops and Product 24 (2006) pp 222-229. WRB (2006). World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2nd ed.). World Soil Resources Report 103, FAO, Rome, Italy (2006) 133 pp. Casado, J.; Sellés, S.; Navarro, J.; Bustamante, M.A.; Mataix, J.; Guerrero, C.; Gomez, I. Evaluation of composted sewage sludge as nutricional source for horticulturals soils. Waste Management 26 (2006). pp 946-952. Acknowledgements: The author gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Science for a research fellowship (AP2007-01641).

  11. Sewage Sludge ElectroDewatering Treatment—A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pham-Anh Tuan; Sillanpää Mika; Isosaari Pirjo

    2012-01-01

    Purification of municipal wastewater generates huge amounts of sewage sludge, which contains large quantities of water, biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances. It is widely known that sewage sludge usually has a poor dewaterability. A large amount of water in sludge directly translates into high transport and handling costs; therefore, sludge treatment and disposal usually requires over 50% of the operation

  12. Metal transfer in vermicomposting of sewage sludge and plant wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Frank; Carl Klauck; Kohzoh I. Stonefield

    1983-01-01

    Sewage sludge is an urban waste that has a potential nutrient value for recycling into food production. A set of guidelines has been developed that prescribes the quality of sludge suitable for utilization on foodlands. A number of sewage sludges do not meet the criteria and are therefore not acceptable for direct foodland application. One of the options available for

  13. Coliform Bacteria in Sediments Around Three Marine Sewage Outfalls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SYDNEY C. RITTENBERG; TOD MITTWER; DANIEL IVLER

    The distribution of coliforms in the sediments around three marine sewage outfalls was investigated. It was found that coliform fields extended for considerable distances around the two outfalls discharging unchlorinatcd primary treatment effluent and that a less ex- tensive field existed around the outfall discharging more highly treated sewage. In general, the coliforms in the sediments were found in areas

  14. Lightweight aggregate made from sewage sludge and incinerated ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ing-Jia Chiou; Kuen-Sheng Wang; Ching-Ho Chen; Ya-Ting Lin

    2006-01-01

    In this study, sewage sludge ash (SSA), with similar characteristics to expansive clay, was used as the principal material and sewage sludge (SS) as the admixture to sinter lightweight aggregate and to study the influences of raw material composition on pelletising, sintering effect and aggregate properties. Results showed that both SS and SSA could be sintered to produce synthetic aggregates

  15. Mechanisms of Phosphorus Control in Urban Streams Receiving Sewage Effluent

    E-print Network

    David, Mark B.

    Mechanisms of Phosphorus Control in Urban Streams Receiving Sewage Effluent Paul D. Bedore & Mark B of phosphorus (P) to rivers, primarily due to large inputs of sewage effluent. A good example of this is Chicago are the dominant chemical controls on P chemistry in this P enriched system. Keywords Phosphorus . Streams . Urban

  16. Integration of NIRS and PCA techniques for the process monitoring of a sewage sludge anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Reed, James P; Devlin, Desmond; Esteves, Sandra R R; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan J

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the use of Hotelling's T(2) control charts as the basis of a process monitor for sewage sludge anaerobic digestion. Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy was used to produce partial least squares regression models of volatile fatty acids, bicarbonate alkalinity and volatile solids. These were utilised in a series of principle component analysis models along with spectral data from digestate and feedstock samples to produce a pseudo steady state model, which was then used with an independent test set to evaluate the system. The system was able to identify disturbances to the digester due to a temporary alteration of the type of feedstock to the digester and separately, halving of the hydraulic retention time of the digester. It could also provide advance warning of disturbances to the digester. This technique could be used to improve the performance of sewage sludge anaerobic digesters by enabling optimisation of the process. PMID:23454801

  17. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and orange peel waste.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonio; Siles López, José Angel; Chica, Arturo Francisco; Martín, M Angeles; Karouach, Fadoua; Mesfioui, Abdelaziz; El Bari, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion is a treatment that is widely applied for sewage sludge management but has several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability and nutrient imbalance. In this paper, we propose orange peel waste as an easily biodegradable co-substrate to improve the viability of the process. Sewage sludge and orange peel waste were mixed at a proportion of 70:30 (wet weight), respectively. The stability was maintained within correct parameters throughout the process, while the methane yield coefficient and biodegradability were 165 L/kg volatile solids (VS) (0 degrees C, 1 atm) and 76% (VS), respectively. The organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.4 to 1.6kg VS/m3 d. Nevertheless, the OLR and methane production rate decreased at the highest loads, suggesting the occurrence of an inhibition phenomenon. PMID:24645472

  18. Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay occurs before it can reach the public however, incineration, which is done in winter months, directly releases the 131I from sewage sludge to the atmosphere, and even though exposures to both workers and the public were found to be considerably lower than 1% of natural background, incineration of sludge in a pathway for public exposure. Although 131I was readily measurable in sewage sludge, only about 1% of the radioione administered to patients was found in the sludge. The fate of the remaining radioactivity has not been established; some may be in secondary and tertiary residuals, but it is quite likely that most passed through the plant and was discharged in dilute concentrations in plant emissions. The behavior of radioiodine and other radioactive materials released into municipal seweage systems, such as those from large medical facilities, is not yet well understood. PMID:9258296

  19. Challenge of urban sewage disposal in a karst region: Mérida, Yucátan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, E. C.; Villasuso, M.

    2013-05-01

    Four hydrogeologic factors influence urban sewage management on the northern Yucátan (Mexico) Peninsula: 1) lack of rivers capable of transporting and/or oxidizing sewage, 2) near-surface flat-lying, porous, permeable limestone and dolomite with shallow layers of variable permeability but without major subsurface aquitards, 3) rapid groundwater transmission, penetration of seawater inland beneath a fresh water lens, and a flat water table only a few meters below land surface and controlled by sea level, 4) near absence of soil cover. Mérida, Yucátan (population approaching one million, approximately the world's 450th most populous city) has no central sewage system. The water table beneath the city is consistently only 7-9 m below land surface, and the 40 m-thick fresh water lens, which is the sole source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water, directly overlies a marine intrusion of modified seawater composition. The old city has an estimated 130,000 drains feeding untreated household waste directly into the permeable karst aquifer. Numerous storm drains send street runoff directly to the aquifer. In addition, industries, hotels, and some subdivisions have unmonitored injection wells that pump untreated wastewater into the underlying saline intrusion. Some injection wells have flow problems possibly because of low aquifer permeability within the saline intrusion. Deep injection is also problematic because density contrast with saline intrusion water can produce a gravity imbalance, and high sulfate water can react with organic waste to produce H2S. Some city water supply wells are reportedly affected by inflation of the water table beneath the city, by local upconing of saline water, and by nitrate contamination. Paradoxically, Mérida with an abundant, easily contaminated source of fresh water, lacks streams to transport sewage off-site, and thus shares some water supply/sewage treatment problems with cities in arid regions. Recently, compact, efficient systems that provide almost tertiary-level sewage treatment have been developed and installed in various localities worldwide. Fitting the old parts of Mérida with several such systems would be less disruptive than blasting a monolithic sewer network through the city's rocky base, and it would minimize the problem of pumping sewage in an almost completely flat-lying area. Appropriate reuse of water from such local treatment facilities would be more flexible than from a single central system. Furthermore, injecting water into the aquifer after secondary or tertiary treatment would be a huge improvement over pumping of untreated "aguas negras" into the saline intrusion. Finally, there is a renaissance of sorts in sewage treatment technology, and it would be much easier to upgrade a number of individual systems as they became obsolete than to replace a monolithic central system. Safe, effective operation and monitoring of the suggested of sewage system would be challenging. Yet, as more cities join those 500 world-wide that now have populations approaching or exceeding one million, use of streams to export pollution may become infeasible. Perhaps Mérida can become a model to demonstrate that people can safely process and reuse their own wastewater.

  20. Influence of the Application of Sewage Sludge and Presence of Pesticides on the Development of the Microbial Population of the Soil and on the Transformation of Organic Carbon and Nutrient Elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Sánchez; I. B. Estrada; O. Martínez; A. Aller; A. Morán

    The laboratory trial consisted in incubating sampl es of soil and soil treated with sewage sludge, with the application of organophosphate pes ticides with different active ingredients under controlled conditions of temperature and moisture. On the basis of a previous study of the influence o f the application of sludge on the degradation of pes ticides in the soil, a

  1. Microwave oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kwang V; Srinivasan, Asha; Liao, Ping H; Bailey, Sam

    2015-07-01

    Microwave-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge using various oxidants was studied. Two treatment schemes with a combination of hydrogen peroxide and ozone were examined: hydrogen peroxide and ozone were introduced into the sludge simultaneously, followed by microwave heating. The other involved the ozonation first, and then the resulting solution was subjected to microwave and hydrogen peroxide treatment. The set with ozonation followed by hydrogen peroxide plus microwave heating yielded higher soluble materials than those of the set with hydrogen peroxide plus ozone first and then microwave treatment. No settling was observed for all treatments in the batch operation, except ozone/microwave plus hydrogen peroxide set at 120°C. The pilot-scale continuous-flow 915 MHz microwave study has demonstrated that microwave-oxidation process is feasible for real-time industrial application. It would help in providing key data for the design of a full-scale system for treating sewage sludge and the formulation of operational protocols. PMID:26030695

  2. Quality requirements for irrigation with sewage water

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwer, H.; Idelovitch, E. (Agricultural Research Service, Phoenix, AZ (USA))

    1987-11-01

    Irrigation is an excellent use for sewage effluent because it is mostly water with nutrients. For small flows, the effluent can be used on special, well-supervised sewage farms, where forage, fiber, or seed crops are grown that can be irrigated with standard primary or secondary effluent. Large-scale use of the effluent requires special treatment so that it meets the public health, agronomic, and aesthetic requirements for unrestricted use. Crops in the unrestricted-use category include those that are consumed raw or brought raw into the kitchen. Most state or government standards deal only with public health aspects, and prescribe the treatment processes or the quality parameters that the effluent must meet before it can be used to irrigate a certain category of crops. However, agronomic aspects related to crops and soils must also be taken into account. Quality parameters to be considered include bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens; total salt content and sodium adsorption ratio of the water; nitrogen; phosphorus; chloride and chlorine; bicarbonate; heavy metals, boron, and other trace elements; pH; and synthetic organics. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

  3. Treatment of sewage sludge using electrokinetic geosynthetics.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, Stephanie; Lamont-Black, John; Jones, Colin J F P

    2007-01-31

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most problematical issues affecting wastewater treatment in the developed world. The traditional outlets for sewage sludge are to spread it on agricultural land, or to form a cake for deposit to landfill or incineration. In order to create a sludge cake, water must be removed. Existing dewatering technology based on pressure can only remove a very limited amount of this water because of the way in which water is bound to the sludge particles or flocs. Several researchers have shown that electrokinetic dewatering of sludge is more efficient than conventional hydraulically driven methods. This involves the application of a dc voltage across the sludge, driving water under an electrical gradient from positive (anode) electrode to negative (cathode) electrode. However, there have been several reasons why this technique has not been adopted in practice, not least because the, normally metallic, anode rapidly dissolves due to the acidic environment created by the electrolysis of water. This paper will describe experimentation using electrokinetic geosynthetics (EKG): polymer-based materials containing conducting elements. These have been used to minimise the problem of electrode corrosion and create a sludge treatment system that can produce dry solids contents in excess of 30%. It will suggest different options for the treatment of sludges both in situ in sludge lagoons and windrows, and ex situ as a treatment process. PMID:16635546

  4. Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Renuka; Garg, V K

    2008-05-30

    In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory scale experiments. Two approaches investigated in the study were: (1) evaluation of vermistabilization of PSS and CD mixtures after 15 weeks in terms of fertilizer quality of the products and; (2) growth and reproduction of Eisenia foetida up to 11 weeks in different vermireactors. In all the PSS and CD mixtures, a decrease in pH, TOC and C:N ratio, but increase in EC, TKN, TK and TP was recorded. The heavy metals' content in the vermicomposts was higher than initial mixtures. Maximum worm biomass was attained in 10% PSS+90% CD mixture while, the worm growth rate was highest in 30% PSS+70% CD feed mixture. It was inferred from the study that addition of 30-40% of PSS with CD had no adverse effect on the fertilizer value of the vermicompost as well as growth of Eisenia foetida. The results indicated that PSS could be converted into good quality manure by vermicomposting if mixed in appropriate ratio (30-40%) with cow dung. PMID:17950995

  5. Drift Degradation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    D. Kicker

    2004-09-16

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA code, which determines structurally controlled key-block failure, is not applicable for stress-controlled failure in the lithophysal units. To address these limitations, additional numerical codes have been included that can explicitly apply seismic and thermal loads, providing significant improvements to the analysis of drift degradation and extending the validity of drift degradation models.

  6. Do concentrations of pharmaceuticals in sewage reflect prescription figures?

    PubMed

    van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Covaci, Adrian; Beyers, Herman; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Verpooten, Gert; Neels, Hugo; Jorens, Philippe G

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, it has been demonstrated that sewage-based epidemiology can deliver interesting information on trends in illicit drug consumption. However, until now, no real evidence exists that the measured concentrations of drugs in sewage can be exactly correlated with the amounts of drugs used by a specific population. This study aimed therefore at correlating detailed monthly prescription figures of 11 pharmaceuticals (atenolol, bisoprolol, citalopram, fluoxetine, venlafaxine, losartan, telmisartan, valsartan, carbamazepine, metformin, and tramadol) with measured concentrations of these compounds in influent sewage from five sewage treatment plants in Belgium. For 7 out of the 11 substances, a ratio between loads calculated from the prescription figures and loads calculated from measured concentrations in the range of 0.30-3.00 was observed. For four pharmaceuticals (atenolol, bisoprolol, telmisartan, and venlafaxine), the observed relationship was less pronounced. The manuscript gives an overview of the possible uncertainties that are related with the calculated correlations. This study highlights the need for gathering all the necessary information regarding sewage sampling, stability of substances in sewage, pharmacokinetics, and analytical method performance when sewage-based epidemiology studies are performed. PMID:25874419

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with shredded grass from public green spaces.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Taira; Arai, Sayuri; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

    2013-02-01

    Adding greenery from public spaces to the co-digestion process with sewage sludge was evaluated by shredding experiments and laboratory-scale batch and continuous mesophilic anaerobic fermentation experiments. The ratio of the shredded grass with 20mm or less in length by a commercially available shredder was 93%. The methane production was around 0.2NL/gVS-grass in the batch experiment. The continuous experiment fed with sewage sludge and shredded grass was stably operated for 81days. The average methane production was 0.09NL/gVS-grass when the TS ratio of the sewage sludge and the grass was 10:1. This value was smaller than those of other reports using grass silage, but the grass species in this study were not managed, and the collected grass was just shredded and not ensiled before feeding to the reactor for simple operation. The addition of grass to a digester can improve the carbon/nitrogen ratio, methane production and dewaterability. PMID:23334025

  8. Degradation of 17beta-estradiol in aqueous solution by ozonation in the presence of manganese(II) and oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liying; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Jianmeng; Ji, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Natural estrogens, such as 17beta-estradiol (E2), are the main substances responsible for estrogenic activity found in domestic sewage. In the work described herein, the degradation of E2 has been investigated by single ozonation and catalytic ozonation in the presence of manganese ion (Mn2+) and oxalic acid. The presence of Mn2+ and oxalic acid in the ozonation processes significantly improved the E2 degradation and, hence, the reduction of estrogenic activity in aqueous solution. The addition of Mn2+ and oxalic acid produced many more hydroxyl radicals in the catalytic ozonation system than in the single ozonation system. Oxidation products formed during ozonation of E2 have been identified by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), on the basis of which a possible reaction pathway for E2 degradation by ozonation is proposed. E2 was first oxidized to hydroxyl-semiquinone isomers, and these were subsequently degraded to low molecular weight compounds such as oxalic acid and malonic acid. The latter were easily oxidized by ozone to form carbon dioxide (CO2). The results demonstrate that the ozonation-Mn(2+)-oxalic acid system may serve as a powerful tool for removing E2, and the addition of Mn2+ and oxalic acid is favourable for the complete removal of estrogenic activity induced by steroid estrogens in aqueous solution. PMID:23530323

  9. Occurrence and removal of organic pollutants in sewages and landfill leachates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanna K Marttinen; Riitta H Kettunen; Jukka A Rintala

    2003-01-01

    Sewages of different composition and the effluents of four sewage treatment plants (STPs), plus sewage sludges were analysed for semivolatile organic priority pollutants. Furthermore, 11 landfill leachates were analysed to evaluate their contribution to sewage pollutants when co-treated. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the pollutant occurring at highest concentrations (up to 122 ?g\\/l) and it was present in all sewages and

  10. Comparison of sewage sludge- and pig manure-derived biochars for hydrogen sulfide removal.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Sun, Tonghua

    2014-09-01

    Biochars derived from pig manure and sewage sludge were evaluated for their abilities to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas phase. The pig manure biochar had higher capacities for H2S sorption than sewage sludge biochar in both dynamic and static systems, and moisture improves H2S removal. Increasing the biochar moisture to 25 wt% and 100 wt% in the static system increased the pig manure biochar removal capacities by 15.9% and 58.9%, respectively, compared to the dry biochar (0 wt% moisture). The sewage sludge biochar similarly increased the removal by 1.04 and 3.30 times for 25 wt% and 100 wt% moisture, respectively. The catalytic conversion to elemental S(0) and SO4(2)(-) was the main route of H2S removal. The complete oxidation of H2S into SO4(2)(-) mainly occurred on the biochar surface, while H2S underwent incomplete oxidation into elemental S(0) in the biochar pores. The SO4(2)(-) was the dominant form in both biochars, especially for the pig manure biochar which contained 53.9% of the total sulfur at 100 wt% moisture. The SO4(2)(-) was mainly present as CaSO4 precipitate in the sewage sludge biochar, while SO4(2)(-) in the pig manure biochar was mostly soluble (K, Na)2SO4. The results indicated the waste biomass can be converted into value-added biochar as a sorbent for H2S, especially at high moisture that promotes complete oxidation of H2S into SO4(2)(-). Strong alkalinity and rich inorganic minerals originated in the biochar play an important role in its high H2S sorption ability and the final sulfur forms. PMID:24997932

  11. Metal transfer in vermicomposting of sewage sludge and plant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario); Klauck, C.; Stonefield, K.I.

    1983-12-01

    Sewage sludge is an urban waste that has a potential nutrient value for recycling into food production. A set of guidelines has been developed that prescribes the quality of sludge suitable for utilization on foodlands. A number of sewage sludges do not meet the criteria and are therefore not acceptable for direct foodland application. One of the options available for such sludges is the production of compost and one of these composting processes involves worms (vermicomposting). This study looks at a pilot vermicomposting operation and follows metal concentrations by batch lot from the sewage sludge to the final commercial product.

  12. Anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and glycerol, focusing on process kinetics, microbial dynamics and sludge dewaterability.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P D; Astals, S; Lu, Y; Devadas, M; Batstone, D J

    2014-12-15

    Anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) is a proven option to significantly boost biogas production while utilizing existing digesters and infrastructure. The aim of the present research was to conduct an exhaustive study regarding anaerobic codigestion of mixed sewage sludge and crude glycerol considering impacts on organic load, hydraulic load, process performance and microbial community. The methane potential of crude glycerol varied from 370 mL CH4·g(-1) VS to 483 mL CH4·g(-1) VS for different samples tested. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of crude glycerol was 1.01 g VS L(-1), and the primary mechanism of inhibition was through overload from rapid fermentation rather than the presence of toxic compounds in the crude glycerol. In continuous operation over 200 days, feeding glycerol at up to 2% v/v, increased organic load by up to 70% and resulted in a 50% increase in methane production. Glycerol dosing resulted in no change in apparent dewaterability, with both codigestion and control reactors returning values of 22%-24%. Members of the phylum Thermotogae emerged as a niche population during AcoD of sewage sludge and glycerol; however there was no gross change in microbial community structure and only minimal changes in diversity. AcoD did not result in synergisms between sewage sludge and crude glycerol. Actually, at dose rate up to 2% v/v glycerol dosing is still an effective strategy to increase the organic loading rate of continuous anaerobic digesters with minimal impact of the hydraulic retention time. Nonetheless, the dose rate must be managed to: (i) prevent process inhibition and (ii) ensure sufficient degradation time to produce a stable biosolids product. PMID:25459224

  13. Transformation Products and Human Metabolites of Triclocarban and Triclosan in Sewage Sludge Across the United States

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (? = 0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2?-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r = 0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (? = 0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37–74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4–2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge. PMID:24932693

  14. Transformation products and human metabolites of triclocarban and triclosan in sewage sludge across the United States.

    PubMed

    Pycke, Benny F G; Roll, Isaac B; Brownawell, Bruce J; Kinney, Chad A; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Halden, Rolf U

    2014-07-15

    Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (?=0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2'-hydroxy-TCC (r=0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r=0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (?=0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37-74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4-2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge. PMID:24932693

  15. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  16. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that the viral universe is far more vast and diverse than previously suspected. PMID:21972239

  17. Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho

    2012-11-01

    In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L-1, respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17?-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation.

  18. Application of Pseudomonas flava WD-3 for sewage treatment in constructed wetland in winter.

    PubMed

    Tang, Meizhen; Zhang, Fengfeng; Yao, Shumin; Liu, Yuling; Chen, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    Recently, constructed wetland was applied for sewage treatment globally due to its high efficiency and relatively low investment. However, operation of many constructed wetlands in cold winter is quite difficult due to the inhibition effect of low temperature. The objective of this experiment is to study the sewage treatment efficiency of Pseudomonas flava WD-3 in the integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) during winter with different dosages (bacterial suspension concentration: 4.575?×?10(8?)mL(-1)). Two treatments were designed, inoculation of P. flava WD-3 with different dosages and the control without bacterium incubation. A simplified Monod model was applied to simulate and evaluate the pollutant removal efficiency of this bacterial strain with respect to its dosages. Results indicated that P. flava WD-3 could degrade organic pollutants, nitrogen, and phosphorus nutrients from wastewater effectively. The optimal dosage of this strain was 6.0%, and the removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), and total phosphorous (TP) were 85.82-87.00%, 73.91-84.18%, and 82.04-87.00%, respectively. Furthermore, the average removal efficiencies of COD, [Formula: see text], and TP were 1.46, 1.49, and 1.76 times, respectively, than the control. The simplified Monod model accurately predicted the pollutant removal efficiency of P. flava WD-3 in the IVCW system in winter. PMID:25384718

  19. Sandis irradiator for dried sewage solids. Final safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.

    1980-07-01

    Analyses of the hazards associated with the operation of the Sandia irradiator for dried sewage solids, as well as methods and design considerations to minimize these hazards, are presented in accordance with DOE directives.

  20. USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

  1. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01

    The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Using the efficiency-number of transfer units method ( ), the heat-transfer efficiencies of the parallel-flow ...

  2. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  3. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  4. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  5. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  6. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  7. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  8. CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTORS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge and septage destined for land application or surface disposal. t also provides guidance for meeting those requirements. he chapters of this document discuss why pathogen control is necessary, t...

  9. POTENTIAL EMISSIONS OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...

  10. WINDROW AND STATIC PILE COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted on composting anaerobically digested and centrifuge dewatered sewage sludge from 1975 through 1980. Windrow and static pile composting processes were evaluated; new methods were employed using deeper windrows and aerated static piles were constructed withou...

  11. Improved photocatalytic degradation rates of phenol achieved using novel porous ZrO2-doped TiO2 nanoparticulate powders.

    PubMed

    McManamon, Colm; Holmes, Justin D; Morris, Michael A

    2011-10-15

    This paper studies the photocatalytic degradation of phenol using zirconia-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles. ZrO(2) was chosen due to its promising results during preliminary studies. Particles smaller than 10nm were synthesised and doped with quantities of ZrO(2) ranging from 0.5 to 4% (molar metal content). Particles were calcined at different temperatures to alter the TiO(2) structure, from anatase to rutile, in order to provide an ideal ratio of the two phases. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis was used to examine the transformation between anatase and rutile. Degradation of phenol was carried out using a 40 W UV bulb at 365 nm and results were measured by UV-vis spectrometry. TEM images were obtained and show the particles exhibit a highly ordered structure. TiO(2) doped with 1% ZrO(2) (molar metal content) calcined at 700 °C proved to be the most efficient catalyst. This is due to an ideal anatase:rutlie ratio of 80:20, a large surface area and the existence of stable electron-hole pairs. ZrO(2) doping above the optimum loading acted as an electron-hole recombination centre for electron-hole pairs and reduced photocatalytic degradation. Synthesised photocatalysts compared favourably to the commercially available photocatalyst P25. The materials also demonstrated the ability to be recycled with similar results to those achieved on fresh material after 5 uses. PMID:21813241

  12. Naproxen degradation test to monitor Trametes versicolor activity in solid-state bioremediation processes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Caminal, Gloria

    2010-07-15

    The white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor has been studied as a potential agent for the removal of environmental pollutants. For long-time solid-phase bioremediation systems a test is required to monitor the metabolic status of T. versicolor and its degradation capability at different stages. A biodegradation test based on the percentage of degradation of a spiked model pharmaceutical (anti-inflammatory naproxen) in 24 h (ND24) is proposed to monitor the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in sewage sludge. ND24 is intended to act as a test complementary to ergosterol quantification as specific fungal biomarker, and laccase activity as extracellular oxidative capacity of T. versicolor. For samples collected over 45 d, ND24 values did not necessarily correlate with ergosterol or laccase amounts but in most cases, they were over 30% degradation, indicating that T. versicolor may be suitable for bioremediation of sewage sludge in the studied period. PMID:20347219

  13. Absence of asbestos in municipal sewage sludge ashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kusum J. Patel-Mandlik; Charles G. Manos; Donald J. Lisk

    1988-01-01

    In earlier studies, asbestos was found in sewage sludges in several cities in the United States using x-ray diffraction, high power light optical microscopy, polarized light microscopy or electron microscopy. In a number of cities in the United States, sewage sludge is incinerated at temperatures up to 1,000°C. Temperatures of 550°C or higher dehydroxylate the asbestos lattice resulting in alteration

  14. Organic markers in the lipidic fraction of sewage sludges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilie Jardé; Laurence Mansuy; Pierre Faure

    2005-01-01

    The lipidic organic fraction of 48 sewage sludges that originated from food-processing, paper-mill and domestic (urban, small urban, and rural) wastewater-treatment plants of the Lorraine region (Northeast of France) was characterised by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS).This study enables us to define an average organic composition typical of each group of sewage sludges. Linear alkyl benzenes (LABs) are

  15. The application of potassium ferrate for sewage treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-Qian Jiang; Alex Panagoulopoulos; Mike Bauer; Pete Pearce

    2006-01-01

    The comparative performance of potassium ferrate(VI), ferric sulphate and aluminium sulphate for the removal of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour (as Vis400-abs) and bacteria in sewage treatment was evaluated. For coagulation and disinfection of sewage, potassium ferrate(VI) can remove more organic contaminants, COD and bacteria in comparison with the other two coagulants for the same doses used. Also, potassium

  16. Behavior of fluorescent whitening agents during sewage treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Poiger; Jennifer A. Field; Thomas M. Field; Hansruedi Siegrist; Walter Giger

    1998-01-01

    Fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are contained in most modern laundry detergents and are thus discharged in substantial quantities with household wastewater. To determine the mass flows and fate of the predominant detergent FWAs, a field study was conducted at a full-scale mechanical–biological sewage treatment plant at Zürich-Glatt, Switzerland. Samples of wastewater (raw sewage, and primary and secondary effluent) and sludge

  17. Evaluation of bangkok sewage sludge for possible agricultural use.

    PubMed

    Pasda, Nuanjun; Panichsakpatana, Supamard; Limtong, Pitayakon; Oliver, Robert; Montange, Denis

    2006-04-01

    Bangkok (Thailand) covers more than 1500 km2 and has 10 million inhabitants. The disposal of wastewater is creating huge problems of pollution. The estimated amount of sewage sludge was estimated to be around 108 tonnes dry matter (DM) per day in 2005. In order to find a lasting way of disposal for this sewage sludge, the suitability of the sludge produced from three waste-water treatment plants for use as fertilizing material was investigated. Monthly samplings and analysis of sewage sludge from each plant showed that the composition of sludge varied according to the area of collection and period of sampling, and there was no link to rainfall cycle. Plant nutrient content was high (i.e. total N from 19 to 38 g kg(-1) DM) whereas organic matter content was low. The concentrations of heavy metals varied between sludge samples, and were sometimes higher than the E.U. or U.S. regulations for sewage sludge use in agriculture. Faecal coliforms were present in the sludge from one of the plants, indicating a possible contamination by night soil. In order to decrease this potentially pathogenic population the sewage sludge should be heated by composting. As the C/N ratio of sewage sludge was low (around 6) some organic by-products with high carbon content could be added as structural material to enhance the composting. PMID:16634231

  18. Pretreatment followed by anaerobic digestion of secondary sludge for reduction of sewage sludge volume.

    PubMed

    Abe, Naoki; Tang, Yue-Qin; Iwamura, Makoto; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    The influence of two pretreatment methods, thermal treatment and low-pressure wet oxidation, on the sludge digestion efficiency was examined. Batch thermophilic anaerobic digestion was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the pretreatment methods in terms of volatile suspended solids (VSS) digestion efficiency and gas production. The results showed that the gas production was not proportional to the VSS degradation efficiency of either thermal treatment or low-pressure wet oxidation. Low-pressure wet oxidation treatment at 150 °C along with 40% of the theoretical oxygen required to oxidize organic carbon gave the highest gas production and the VSS digestion efficiency of 77% at a VSS loading rate of 8 g l(-1) d(-1). The digestion efficiency was about 30% higher than that of thermophilic anaerobic digestion without sludge pretreatment. Sewage sludge could be treated effectively at a high VSS digestion efficiency with this pretreatment followed by thermophilic anaerobic digestion. PMID:23752385

  19. The Phytotoxicity Changes of Sewage Sludge-Amended Soils.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Malara, Anna; Jo?ko, Izabela; Lesiuk, Adam

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was the estimation of changes in the phytotoxicity of soils amended with sewage sludge with relation to Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum. The study was realised in the system of a plot experiment for a period of 29 months. Samples for analyses were taken at the beginning of the experiment, and then after 5, 17 and 29 months. Two kinds of sewage sludge, with varying properties, were added to a sandy soil (soil S) or a loamy soil (soil L) at the dose of 90 t/ha. The addition of sewage sludge to the soils at the start of the experiment caused a significant reduction of both seed germination capacity and root length of the test plants, the toxic effect being distinctly related to the test plant species. With the passage of time the negative effect of sewage sludge weakened, the extent of its reduction depending both of the kind of sewage sludge applied and on the type of soil. Phytotoxicity of the soils amended with the sewage sludges was significantly lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning. The species of the plants grown on the soils also had a significant effect on their phytotoxicity. The greatest reduction of toxicity was observed in the soil on which no plants were grown (sandy soil) and in the soil under a culture of willow (loamy soil). Solid phase of sewage sludge-amended soils was characterised by higher toxicity than their extracts. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11270-012-1248-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23002312

  20. Sewage coliphages studied by electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, H W; Nguyen, T M

    1983-01-01

    Sewage was enriched with 35 Escherichia coli strains, and sediments of enrichment cultures were studied in the electron microscope. They contained up to 10 varieties of morphologically different particles. T-even-type phages predominated in 14 samples. Thirteen phages were enriched, representing the families Myoviridae (seven), Styloviridae (two), Podoviridae (three), and Microviridae (one). Twelve of these corresponded to known enterobacterial phage species, namely, 121, K19, FC3-9, O1, 9266, T2, 16-19, kappa, beta 4, N4, T7, and phi X174. Cubic RNA phages and filamentous phages were not detected. Types 121 and 9266 have previously been observed only in Romania and South Africa. Identification by morphology is usually simple. Our investigative technique is qualitative and will not detect all phages present. Most enrichment strains are polyvalent, and electron microscopy is always required for phage identification. In a general way, electron microscopy seems to be the method of choice for investigation of phage geography and ecology. Images PMID:6847179

  1. Detection of pump degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1994-12-31

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed.

  2. Environmental Degradation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2008-09-30

    Overview: This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Resources and Human Impact SciPack. It explores how human activities, such as reducing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount and variety of chemicals that enter the atmosphere, intensive farming and fishing, and consuming fossil fuels have changed Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. Although the land, atmosphere, and the oceans have a limited capacity to absorb wastes and recycle materials naturally, humans have disrupted these natural cycles. Fresh water, limited in supply, is essential for life and most industrial processes. Overuse and pollution of rivers, lakes, oceans, and groundwater reduces the availability and suitability of these resources for all organisms. Technology used in the extraction and consumption of fossil fuels needed to meet the growing human demand has increased the depletion of nonrenewable energy resources such as fossil fuels, and degraded or altered the environment, both locally and globally. Learning Outcomes: Compare and contrast ways in which different technologies have impacted the environmental system. Differentiate between examples of renewable resources and non-renewable (finite) resources. Summarize how the burning of fossil fuels is affecting the environment. Assess both local and global environmental impacts when given examples of human resource use. Identify ways in which one human-based environmental change can have a domino-effect on the rest of the ecosystem (when given a scenario).

  3. Redistribution of sewage-nitrogen in estuarine food webs following sewage treatment upgrades.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Kylie A; Connolly, Rod M; Maxwell, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopes were used to assess the effects of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) upgrades on the utilisation of sewage-N by estuarine biota in Moreton Bay, Australia. We measured delta(15)N of filamentous algae, mangrove leaves and shore crabs at the Brisbane and Logan Rivers before and after scheduled WWTP upgrades, and at two reference rivers where WWTPs had been upgraded >4 years previously. The total N discharged into Brisbane River decreased by >80% after the upgrades had occurred, but N loads remained similar at Logan River despite the upgrade. In Brisbane River, delta(15)N values of algae and crabs decreased and were comparable to the reference rivers within 1-2 years but no changes occurred at Logan River. The delta(15)N of mangrove leaves remained elevated in all rivers, indicating that sewage-N remained a major source to mangroves either from residual WWTP discharges or from N accumulated in the sediments over many years. PMID:19138774

  4. HAZARDOUS WASTE DEGRADATION BY WOOD DEGRADING FUNGI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The persistence and toxicity of many hazardous waste constituents indicates that the environment has limited capacity to degrade such materials. he competence and presence of degrading organisms significantly effects our ability to treat and detoxify these hazardous waste chemica...

  5. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

  6. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

  7. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

  8. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

  9. Water/Wastewater Engineering Report (Storm Sewer/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation-M1 Model) 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Z.; Brumbelow, K.; Haberl, J. S.

    2006-10-30

    on the buried sewer lines infiltration. Therefore, separating the storm water/infiltration and sanitary sewage reduces the possibility of sewage discharge during heavy rain periods, and saves energy....

  10. Water/Wastewater Engineering Report (Storm Sewer/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation-M1 Model)

    E-print Network

    Liu, Z.; Brumbelow, K.; Haberl, J. S.

    2006-10-30

    In some cities, the municipal sewer system collects both storm water and sanitary sewage in the same pipes. During dry weather these sewers carry all the sanitary sewage to the wastewater treatment plant for treatment. However, when rainstorms...

  11. Macrobenthos response to sewage pollution in a tropical inshore area.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, T; Rakhesh, M; Raman, A V; Nanduri, Sateesh; Moore, Shonda; Rajanna, B

    2014-06-01

    Organic sewage pollution is the major stressor that affects benthic communities in the coastal waters. In the present study involving a once-off sampling (July-August 2003) of a sewage treatment plant (STP) outfall and areas 6 km farther into the sea, we tried to estimate the severity of organic pollution on marine macrobenthos over a pollution gradient in the inshore waters (station depths, 5-30 m) off a heavily urbanized tropical city, on the east coast of India. Multivariate ordination analyses revealed two different groups of faunal assemblages. Group I is associated with sites impacted by the sewage outfall and group II with the locations 3-6 km away in the open sea. Polychaetes and amphipods were the predominant fauna with significant taxonomic differences between the assemblages. Despite the homogeneity in sediment texture, the two-fold increase in sediment organic matter near the sewage outfall area supported r-strategists, while group II locations favoured K-strategists. Approximation through benthic opportunistic polychaetes amphipods (BOPA) index and information on the key taxa responsible for the observed assemblage patterns corroborated these findings. Thus, the present findings revealed how organic sewage pollution influences benthic diversity in coastal waters by supporting communities of opportunistic characteristics. We advocate inclusion of community traits and compatible analytical tools (statistical approaches) in studies of similar nature so that the observations could be compared and broad remedial measures could be evolved. PMID:24464401

  12. Pharmaceuticals as indictors of sewage-influenced groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Beate; Scheytt, Traugott; Asbrand, Martin; de Casas, Andrea Mross

    2012-09-01

    A set of human pharmaceuticals enables identification of groundwater that is influenced by sewage and provides information on the time of recharge. As the consumption rates of the investigated pharmaceuticals have changed over time, so too has the composition of the sewage. At the study area, south of Berlin (Germany), irrigation was performed as a method of wastewater clean-up at sewage irrigation farms until the early 1990s. Today, treated wastewater is discharged into the surface-water-stream Nuthegraben. Groundwater and surface-water samples were analyzed for the pharmaceutical substances clofibric acid, bezafibrate, diclofenac, carbamazepine and primidone, the main ions and organic carbon. The pharmaceutical substances were detected at concentrations up to microgram-per-liter level in groundwater and surface-water samples from the Nuthegraben Lowland area and from the former irrigation farms. Concentrations detected in groundwater are generally much lower than in surface water and there is significant variation in the distribution of pharmaceutical concentrations in groundwater. Groundwater influenced by the irrigation of sewage water shows higher primidone and clofibric-acid concentrations. Groundwater influenced by recent discharge of treated sewage water into the surface water shows high carbamazepine concentrations while concentrations of primidone and clofibric acid are low.

  13. Degradation monitoring using probabilistic inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpay, Bulent

    In order to increase safety and improve economy and performance in a nuclear power plant (NPP), the source and extent of component degradations should be identified before failures and breakdowns occur. It is also crucial for the next generation of NPPs, which are designed to have a long core life and high fuel burnup to have a degradation monitoring system in order to keep the reactor in a safe state, to meet the designed reactor core lifetime and to optimize the scheduled maintenance. Model-based methods are based on determining the inconsistencies between the actual and expected behavior of the plant, and use these inconsistencies for detection and diagnostics of degradations. By defining degradation as a random abrupt change from the nominal to a constant degraded state of a component, we employed nonlinear filtering techniques based on state/parameter estimation. We utilized a Bayesian recursive estimation formulation in the sequential probabilistic inference framework and constructed a hidden Markov model to represent a general physical system. By addressing the problem of a filter's inability to estimate an abrupt change, which is called the oblivious filter problem in nonlinear extensions of Kalman filtering, and the sample impoverishment problem in particle filtering, we developed techniques to modify filtering algorithms by utilizing additional data sources to improve the filter's response to this problem. We utilized a reliability degradation database that can be constructed from plant specific operational experience and test and maintenance reports to generate proposal densities for probable degradation modes. These are used in a multiple hypothesis testing algorithm. We then test samples drawn from these proposal densities with the particle filtering estimates based on the Bayesian recursive estimation formulation with the Metropolis Hastings algorithm, which is a well-known Markov chain Monte Carlo method (MCMC). This multiple hypothesis testing algorithm using MCMC in particle filtering helps the filter to explore the state space more effectively in the direction of the degradations. We extended this algorithm for degradation detection and isolation to complete the degradation monitoring framework. We successfully tested our algorithms in degradation monitoring of balance of plant of a boiling water reactor.

  14. The Effect of paper mill waste and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, Ana; Barriga, Sandra; Guerrero, Francisca; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    In general, Mediterranean soils have low organic matter content, due to the climate characteristics of this region and inadequate land management. Traditionally, organic wastes such as manure are used as amendment in order to improve the soil quality, increasing soil fertility by the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients in the soil. In the last decade, other anthropogenic organic wastes such as sewage sludge or paper waste materials have been studied as soil amendments to improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of waste from a paper mill and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter. For this reason, soil organic matter evolution was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the derivative (dTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal analytical techniques have the advantage of using full samples without pre-treatments and have been extensively used to study the evolution of organic matter in soils, to evaluate composting process or to study the evolution of organic matter of growing media.

  15. Odorous Compounds Hazards and Health Risk Assessment of Urban Sewage Pumping Station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Q. Lu; M. D. Li

    2011-01-01

    According to the secondary pollution problem of odorous compounds which produced by urban sewage pumping station, the odorous compounds hazards and health risk were assessed. Taking 6 urban sewage pumping stations in north China as an example, firstly, the main components of odorous compounds in different positions of sewage pumping stations was monitored and analyzed. Secondly, the odorous compounds strength

  16. Effect of Alkaline Fly Ash on Heavy Metal Speciation in Stabilized Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongling Zhang; Lina Sun; Guofeng Ma

    2011-01-01

    Mixing sewage sludge with coal fly ash could reduce the mobility of heavy metals in stabilized sewage sludge. In order to access the mobility and bioavailability of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni) in stabilized sewage sludge, five-step sequential extraction method was performed according to the modified Tessier method. The results showed that application of coal fly ash to

  17. Physical and chemical properties study of the activated carbon made from sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoge Chen; S Jeyaseelan; N Graham

    2002-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge is a promising way to produce a useful adsorbent for pollutants removal as well as to dispose of sewage sludge. The objective of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the activated carbon made from sewage sludge so as to give a basic understanding of its structure. The activated

  18. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from...SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability...Delegation of Authority § 60.4780 What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt...

  19. Further insights into the activation process of sewage sludge-based precursors by alkaline hydroxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Angeles Lillo-Ródenas; Anna Ros; Enrique Fuente; Miguel A. Montes-Morán; María J. Martin; Angel Linares-Solano

    2008-01-01

    The present work extends previous activation results obtained with a sewage sludge to others and deepens into the study and characterisation of sewage sludge-based sorbents prepared by alkaline hydroxide activation. Results obtained show that different sewage sludges, whose compositions and treatments vary from each other, can be successfully activated by KOH. A wide range of porosities are achieved, being remarkable

  20. Isotopic and microbial indicators of sewage pollution from Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania

    E-print Network

    Harvell, Catherine Drew

    l e i n f o Keywords: Coral Sewage pollution Enterococcus d15 N Zanzibar Human health a b s t r a c the health risks to humans, sewage pollution also threatens community structure, biodiversity, and services, 1985). Such deleterious effects of sewage pollution on coral reefs can have a strong impact

  1. Evolutionary parameter optimization of a fuzzy controller which is used to control a sewage treatment plant

    E-print Network

    Ebner, Marc

    , sewage treatment plants may need to be redesigned or extended. Instead of reconstructing large parts of a sewage treatment plant, which can be very costly, it is in many cases sufficient to install relatively computational demands of simulating a sewage treatment plant, it is only possible to work with small population

  2. Basic Study of Concrete Made Using Ash Derived from the Incinerating Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobutaka Sasaoka; Katsunori Yokoi; Takashi Yamanaka

    2006-01-01

    Sewage sludge incinerated ash is discharged as waste. Those are increasing with progress of a sewage enterprise every year. However, the reservation of the last disposal place for reclaiming the generated incineration ash is becoming quickly difficult. In this situation of sewage sludge processing, it is very important to promote more reducing and development of new reusing method. Recently, in

  3. Heavy metal water pollution associated with the use of sewage sludge compost and limestone outcrop residue for soil restoration: effect of saline irrigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Gimeno, Ana; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Gómez, Ignacio; Belén Almedro-Candel, María; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    The use of composted sewage sludge and limestone outcrop residue in soil restoration and technosol making can influence the mobility of heavy metals into groundwater. The use of compost from organic residues is a common practice in soil and land rehabilitation, technosol making, and quarry restoration (Jordán et al. 2008). Compost amendments may improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils (Jordão et al. 2006; Iovieno et al. 2009). However, the use of compost and biosolids may have some negative effects on the environment (Karaca 2004; Navarro-Pedreño et al. 2004). This experiment analyzed the water pollution under an experimental design based on the use of columns (0-30 cm) formed by both wastes. Two waters of different quality (saline and non-saline) were used for irrigation. The presence of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the leachates was checked under controlled conditions inside a greenhouse (mean values: 20°±5°C and around 60% relative humidity). Sixteen 30-cm tall columns made of PVC pipe with internal diameters of 10.5 cm were prepared. The columns were filled with one of these materials: either sewage sludge compost (SW) or limestone outcrop residue (LR), fraction (<4 mm). The columns were irrigated with 2000 mL/week (230 mm) for twelve weeks (April to July). Half of them were irrigated with non-saline water (NS) and the others were so with saline water (S) from the beginning of the experiment. Four treatments combining the quality of the irrigation water (saline and non-saline) and wastes were studied: SW-NS, SW-S, LR-NS, and LR-S. After 24 hours of irrigation on the first day of each week, the leachates were taken and analyzed the heavy metal content (AAS-ES espectometer). The environmental risk due to the presence of heavy metals associated with the use of these materials was very low in general (under 0.1 mg/L). The use of sewage sludge favoured the presence of these metals in the lecheates and no effect was observed in the case of limestone residue. The presence of metals in SW was the main source (although the composition was under the UE legislation for its use in agricultural purpouses). Cu, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were detected in leachates from SW and salinity slightly favoured their presence. Cd was not detected in any of the treatments (concentration under 0,01 mg/L). The combination of saline water for irrigation with the compost has to be considered as a source of pollution for surface and ground waters and the main factor controlling the heavy metal pollution is the composition of the sewage sludge compost. Future long time experiments will determine if the accumulation of heavy metals in waters may be determinant for future pollution. References: Iovieno P, Morra L, Leone A, Pagano L, Alfani A (2009) Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on soil respiration and enzyme activities of two Mediterranean horticultural soils. Biol Fert Soils doi:10.1007/s00374-009-0365-z. Jordán MM, Pina S, García-Orenes F, Almendro-Candel MB, García-Sánchez E (2008) Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries. Environ Geol doi:10.1007/s00254-007-0991-4. Jordão CP, Nascentes CC, Cecon PR, Fontes RLF, Pereira JL (2006) Heavy metal availability in soil amended with composted urban solid wastes. Environ Monit Assess doi:10.1007/s10661-006-1072-y. Karaca A (2004) Effect of organic wastes on the extractability of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in soil. Geoderma doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.01.016. Navarro-Pedreño J, Almendro-Candel MB, Jordán-Vidal MM, Mataix-Solera J, García-Sánchez E (2004) Risk areas in the application of sewage sludge on degraded soils in Alicante province (Spain). In: Martin JF, Brebbia CA, Godfrey AE, Díaz de Terán JR (eds) Geo-Environment. WIT Press, Southampton, pp 293-302.

  4. Useful Ingredients Recovery from Sewage Sludge by using Hydrothermal Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Moriyama, Mika; Yamasaki, Yuki; Takahashi, Yui; Inoue, Chihiro

    2006-05-01

    Hydrothermal treatment of sludge from a sewage treatment plant was conducted to obtain useful ingredients for culture of specific microbes which can reduce polysulfide ion into sulfide ion and/or hydrogen sulfide. Several additives such as acid, base, and oxidizer were added to the hydrothermal reaction of excess sludge to promote the production of useful materials. After hydrothermal treatment, reaction solution and precipitation were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and estimated the availability as nutrition in cultural medium. From the results of product analysis, most of organic solid in sewage was basically decomposed by hydrothermal hydrolysis and transformed into oily or water-soluble compounds. Bacterial culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) showed the good results in multiplication with medium which was obtained from hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge with magnesium or calcium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

  5. Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ye-Ming; Lin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Qing-Ping; Chen, Zu-Liang

    2010-11-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was isolated from sewage sludge using the incubation in the Waksman liquor medium and the inoculation in Waksman solid plate. It was found that the optimum conditions of the bioleaching included solid concentration 2%, sulfur concentration 5 g?L-1 and cell concentration 10%. The removal efficiency of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zh in sewage sludge, which was obtained from waste treatment plant, Jinshan, Fuzhou, was 43.65%, 96.24%, 41.61% and 96.50% in the period of 4˜10 days under the optimum conditions, respectively. After processing using the proposed techniques, the heavy metals in sewage sludge did meet the requirement the standards of nation.

  6. Neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure on sewage treatment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kraut, A.; Lilis, R.; Marcus, M.; Valciukas, J.A.; Wolff, M.S.; Landrigan, P.J.

    1988-07-01

    Nineteen Sewage Treatment Workers (STWs) exposed to industrial sewage that contained benzene, toluene, and other organic solvents at a primary sewage treatment plant in New York City (Plant A) were examined for evidence of solvent toxicity. Fourteen (74%) complained of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms consistent with solvent exposure, including lightheadedness, fatigue, increased sleep requirement, and headache. The majority of these symptoms resolved with transfer from the plant. Men working less than 1 yr at Plant A were more likely to complain of two or more CNS symptoms than men who were working there longer than 1 yr (p = .055). Objective abnormalities in neurobehavioral testing were found in all 4 men working longer than 9 yr at this plant, but in only 5 of 15 employed there for a shorter period (p = .03). These results are consistent with the known effects of solvent exposure. Occupational health personnel must be aware that STWs can be exposed to solvents and other industrial wastes.

  7. Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Sanitary Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

  8. [Novel phosphorus and nitrogen removal process for municipal sewage treatment: performance evaluation and design optimization].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Zhou, Xue-fei; Ren, Nan-qi

    2008-06-01

    A novel modified A2/O process (MMAO) was developed for nitrogen and phosphorus removal of municipal sewage. Bench-scale study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the MMAO process treating practical municipal sewage at normal temperature. Activated sludge model (ASM2D) was used to simulate the MMAO process and optimize its design and operation. It was found that the average treatment efficiency of COD, TN, NH4+-N and TP achieved by MMAO were up to 85.7%, 66.8%, 97.35% and 78.1%, respectively. When influent COD concentration of the system was more than 300 mg/L, a better nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency of 70% and 90% were achieved. After being calibrated and validated by the experimental results, the activated sludge model of MMAO could simulate the biological reactions occurred in the systems excellently. Optimization design and operational parameters could be accomplished by the mechanical activated sludge modeling. Furthermore, the model could also evaluate the process performance under peak load and low temperature and presented a whole scheme toward the unit combination and operation control. The effluent quality of MMAO process under stable operating could reach the first (B) standard of Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant Pollutants Discharge Standards (GB 18918-2002). The effluent of anaerobic unit was pumped directly into the anoxic unit to supply carbon source for denitrification instead of internal recirculation of mixture liquid, which would save operation cost significantly. The total hydraulic retention time of MMAO was lower than traditional biological organic removal system, so it was very suitable for the improvement of existing plant. PMID:18763494

  9. Real-Time PCR for Quantification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Environmental Water Samples and Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Rebecca A.; Payment, Pierre; Krull, Ulrich J.; Horgen, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    The protozoan pathogens Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are major causes of waterborne enteric disease throughout the world. Improved detection methods that are very sensitive and rapid are urgently needed. This is especially the case for analysis of environmental water samples in which the densities of Giardia and Cryptosporidium are very low. Primers and TaqMan probes based on the ?-giardin gene of G. lamblia and the COWP gene of C. parvum were developed and used to detect DNA concentrations over a range of 7 orders of magnitude. It was possible to detect DNA to the equivalent of a single cyst of G. lamblia and one oocyst of C. parvum. A multiplex real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for simultaneous detection of G. lamblia and C. parvum resulted in comparable levels of detection. Comparison of DNA extraction methodologies to maximize DNA yield from cysts and oocysts determined that a combination of freeze-thaw, sonication, and purification using the DNeasy kit (Qiagen) provided a highly efficient method. Sampling of four environmental water bodies revealed variation in qPCR inhibitors in 2-liter concentrates. A methodology for dealing with qPCR inhibitors that involved the use of Chelex 100 and PVP 360 was developed. It was possible to detect and quantify G. lamblia in sewage using qPCR when applying the procedure for extraction of DNA from 1-liter sewage samples. Numbers obtained from the qPCR assay were comparable to those obtained with immunofluorescence microscopy. The qPCR analysis revealed both assemblage A and assemblage B genotypes of G. lamblia in the sewage. No Cryptosporidium was detected in these samples by either method. PMID:12957899

  10. Behavior of PAHs from sewage sludge incinerators in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Min; Lee, Sang Bo; Kim, Jin Pil; Kim, Min Jung; Kwon, Oh Sang; Jung, Dong Il

    2009-02-01

    Although production of sewage sludge increases every year, its proper treatment has only been recently raised as a new issue, as current landfill and ocean dumping arrangements are expected to become increasingly difficult to manage in the future. The Korean Ministry of Environment plans to diversify its processing facilities and expand its processing systems by 2011, with the purpose of processing all sludge produced in Korea. According to this plan, incineration (including incineration of municipal wastes) will process 30% of the entire sewage sludge throughout the country in 2011. This study reviews the characteristics of PAH, which is one of the organic substances found in sewage sludge during the incinerating process. The total amount of PAH produced from sewage sludge incineration was found to be 6.103 mg/kg on average, and investigation performed on 16 PAHs of inlets and outlets of the air control devices at five full-scale incineration facilities showed that concentrations of the PAHs on the inlet and on the outlet ranged from 3.926 to 925.748 microg/m(3) and from 1.153 to 189.449 microg/m(3), respectively. In the case of the incineration facility fed with municipal waste (95%) and sewage sludge (5%), the total of the PAH emissions concentration was higher than that found at the incineration facilities used exclusively to treat sewage. The combustion of waste vinyl and plastics contained in municipal waste fed into the facility might contribute to the high levels of PAHs in the stack gas. However more investigation is needed on the production mechanism of PAHs at different operating conditions of the incineration facilities, such as the types of waste, and other relevant factors. PMID:18951779

  11. UP3005, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba, Improves Pain Sensitivity and Cartilage Degradations in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Rat OA Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Tae-Woo; Moore, Breanna; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Oh, Jin-Sun; Cleveland, Sabrina; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease primarily noted by cartilage degradation in association with inflammation that causes significant morbidity, joint pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Present-day management of OA is inadequate due to the lack of principal therapies proven to be effective in hindering disease progression where symptomatic therapy focused approach masks the actual etiology leading to irreversible damage. Here, we describe the effect of UP3005, a composition containing a proprietary blend of two standardized extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba, in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced rat OA disease model. Pain sensitivity, micro-CT, histopathology, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) level analysis were conducted. Diclofenac at 10?mg/kg was used as a reference compound. UP3005 resulted in almost a complete inhibition in proteoglycans degradation, reductions of 16.6% (week 4), 40.5% (week 5), and 22.0% (week 6) in pain sensitivity, statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity, minimal visual subchondral bone damage, and statistically significant increase in bone mineral density when compared to the vehicle control with MIA. Therefore, UP3005 could potentially be considered as an alternative therapy from natural sources for the treatment of OA and/or its associated symptoms. PMID:25802546

  12. Continuous degradation of maltose: improvement in stability and catalytic properties of maltase (?-glucosidase) through immobilization using agar-agar gel as a support.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Karim, Asad; Aman, Afsheen; Marchetti, Roberta; Qader, Shah Ali Ul; Molinaro, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Maltose degrading enzyme was immobilized within agar-agar support via entrapment method due to its industrial utilization. The maximum immobilization efficiency (82.77%) was achieved using 4.0% agar-agar keeping the diameter of bead up to 3.0 mm. The matrix entrapment showed maximum catalytic activity at pH 7.0 and temperature 65 °C. Substrate saturation kinetics showed that the K m of immobilized enzyme increased from 1.717 to 2.117 mM ml(-1) where as Vmax decreased from 8,411 to 7,450 U ml(-1 )min(-1) as compared to free enzyme. The immobilization significantly increased the stability of maltase against various temperatures and immobilized maltase retain 100% of its original activity after 2 h at 50 °C, whereas the free maltase only showed 60% residual activity under same condition. The reusability of entrapped maltase showed activity up to 12 cycles and retained 50% of activity even after 5th cycle. Storage stability of agar entrapped maltase retain 73% of its initial activity even after 2 months when stored at 30 °C while free enzyme showed only 37% activity at same storage conditions. PMID:25326060

  13. Constructed Landscaping Combination Constructed Wetlands System Used for Sewage Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Yong-hua; Wu Xiao-fu; Chen Ming-li; Yao Jing; Li Ke-lin; Wang Zhong-cheng; Lei Dian

    2010-01-01

    We constructed a combinant landscape constructed wetland for sewage treatment based on landscape plants in this study. The results are summerized as follows: the system uses model as: A(biological pretreatment pond)-B(biochemistry pond)- C(subsurface flow wetland)-D(surface flow wetland)-E(the third level vertical-flow wetland)-F(second-level vertical-flow wetland) -G(landscape surface flow wetland)-H(biology pond), this combination craft sewage treatment is performed effectively, and the system outcome

  14. Sewage outflow impact and temporal variation of butyltins in an intermittent French River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahinian, Nanée.; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Brunel, Victor; Aubert, Gabriel; Saarbach, Bruno; Tournoud, Marie-George; Perrin, Jean-Louis

    2010-05-01

    Organotins (OTs) are anthropogenic molecules used in many industrial applications for their thermoresistant and biocidal properties. Because of their toxicity and widespread use these molecules are on the EU water directive's list of prioritary substances. Organotins are prone to adsorption, can bond easily to particulate matter and "migrate" from the water column unto the sediments where their half-life can extend to a few decades. Recent surveys in various EU countries have indicated the presence of OTs in surface and sewage waters. The objective of this work is to study the temporal evolution of butyl, octyl and phenyl tins in contrasted flow conditions, in the sediments and water column of an intermittent river reach located to the right of an extensive sewage treatment plant (STP). The study zone is a reach of the Vène river located in southern France. The Vène is a major tributary of the Thau lagoon which is an important shellfish farming site and thus very vulnerable to OT contamination. Butyltin, trace metal and DOC concentrations were measured on water and sediment samples collected during two consecutive and contrasted hydrological years. The input and output of the STW was sampled in order to assess its impact on butyltin degradation and transformation. The results revealed the presence of butyltins at concentrations exceeding the EU and French pollution limits regularly. Very low concentrations of phenyltins were found in the water samples thus indicating that there is little use of OTs based pesticides in the area. The OTs concentrations were systematically higher during the wetter year, probably because of higher and more frequent wash off contribution to the reach and minimal dilution along the rivercourse. By contrast, the STW's impact in terms of OTs flux is more important during dry periods when there is less dilution in the river. Although the STW's outflows contained less OTs than the inputs, its efficiency in terms of OTs degradation could not be quantified from the available data as no information was available on the OTs concentrations in the deposited sediments of the lagoons. Future efforts will concentrate on a thorough analysis of OTs degradation within the STW.

  15. Seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass in Victoria Harbour and its vicinity before and after sewage abatement.

    PubMed

    Ho, Alvin Y T; Xu, Jie; Yin, Kedong; Yuan, Xiangcheng; He, Lei; Jiang, Yuelu; Lee, Joseph H W; Anderson, Donald M; Harrison, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass at 12 stations in Hong Kong (HK) waters during a three year period from 2004 to 2006 after upgraded sewage treatment and compared these results to observations before sewage treatment. Pearl River estuary (PRE) discharge significantly increased NO(3) and SiO(4) concentrations, particularly in western and southern waters when rainfall and river discharge was maximal in summer. Continuous year round discharge of sewage effluent resulted in high NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbour (VH) and its vicinity. In winter, spring and fall, the water column at all stations was moderately mixed by winds and tidal currents, and phytoplankton biomass was relatively low compared to summer. In summer, the mean surface phytoplankton chl biomass was generally > 9 microL(-1) in most areas as a result of thermohaline stratification, and high nutrients, light, and water temperature. In summer, the potential limiting nutrient is PO(4) in the most productive southern waters and it seldom decreased to limiting levels ( approximately 0.1 microM), suggesting that phytoplankton growth may be only episodically limiting. The mean bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) remained > 3.5 mg L(-1) at most stations, indicating that the eutrophication impact in HK waters was not as severe as expected for such a eutrophic area. After the implementation of chemically enhanced primary sewage treatment in 2001, water quality in VH improved as indicated by a significant decrease in NH(4) and PO(4) and an increase in bottom DO. In contrast, there were an increase in chl a and NO(3), and a significant decrease in bottom DO in southern waters in summer, suggesting that hypoxic events are most likely to occur in this region if phytoplankton biomass and oxygen consumption keep increasing and exceed the buffering capacity of HK waters maintained by monsoon winds, tidal mixing and zooplankton grazing. Therefore, future studies on the long-term changes in nutrient loading from PRE and HK sewage discharge will be crucial for developing future strategies of sewage management in HK waters. PMID:18514234

  16. Degradation and Improvement of Argiudolls in Centre Santa Fe (Argentina): Changes in Physical and Chemical Soil Properties and in its Productive Capacity Using a sSmulation Model of Crop Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilatti, M. A.; Marano, R.; Felli, O.; Alesso, A.; Carrizo, M. E.; Miretti, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Traditional tillage without adequate crop rotation and restoration of nutrients had generated degradation of the soils in Santa Fe. For this reason, it is important to find alternative systems to improve them. The A horizon of a typical Argiudoll of the centre of Santa Fe was chosen in 1983 and 2003 to evaluate: (to) physical and chemical properties of the natural soil (SN), (b) level of deterioration or improvement of those properties due to the management system (LC: traditional till during 50 years with the last 15 years of wheat-soya; RAG: crop-grass rotation under no-till with partial reposition of N, P and S), (c) productive capacity (CP) of the SN and the soil changes according to its management (LC and RAG). Soil data were introduced into a model of crop production (FitoSim), using corn as pattern and 30 years of meteorological data, to evaluate the effect of the soil use on the productive capacity. LC and RAG significantly differ from SN. The former have smaller values of CO, Nt, P e, pH, Ca, K, soil bulk density, relative aggregates stability, least limiting water range and crust infiltration. However the indexes are worse in LC. RAG has greater values of P, Nt and particulate N. The mean potential yield was 16200 kg/ha. The index of production capacity of SN was 75%, i.e. the limitations of the soil and rain only allow taking advantage of 75% of the environment potential capacity. In LC that loss reached 72%. The loss of productive capacity of the evaluated management systems was 21 and 69% for RAG and LC, standing out that although RAG is degraded with regard to the SN, however it is a more conservationist management system that LC. Subsidiado por CA+ID 2009 (UNL) 12/C114; SECTEI- Ley23877-09-04; INTA PNECO-093012

  17. Autochthonous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis from a degraded Mediterranean area can be used to improve physiological traits and performance of a plant of agronomic interest under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Armada, Elisabeth; Azcón, Rosario; López-Castillo, Olga M; Calvo-Polanco, Mónica; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that some microorganisms autochthonous from stressful environments are beneficial when used with autochthonous plants, but these microorganisms rarely have been tested with allochthonous plants of agronomic interest. This study investigates the effectiveness of drought-adapted autochthonous microorganisms [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi] from a degraded Mediterranean area to improve plant growth and physiology in Zea mays under drought stress. Maize plants were inoculated or not with B. thuringiensis, a consortium of AM fungi or a combination of both microorganisms. Plants were cultivated under well-watered conditions or subjected to drought stress. Several physiological parameters were measured, including among others, plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency, nutrients content, oxidative damage to lipids, accumulation of proline and antioxidant compounds, root hydraulic conductivity and the expression of plant aquaporin genes. Under drought conditions, the inoculation of Bt increased significantly the accumulation of nutrients. The combined inoculation of both microorganisms decreased the oxidative damage to lipids and accumulation of proline induced by drought. Several maize aquaporins able to transport water, CO2 and other compounds were regulated by the microbial inoculants. The impact of these microorganisms on plant drought tolerance was complementary, since Bt increased mainly plant nutrition and AM fungi were more active improving stress tolerance/homeostatic mechanisms, including regulation of plant aquaporins with several putative physiological functions. Thus, the use of autochthonous beneficial microorganisms from a degraded Mediterranean area is useful to protect not only native plants against drought, but also an agronomically important plant such as maize. PMID:25813343

  18. 68 FR 75531 - Standards for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge; Final Agency Response to the National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-12-31

    ...new sewage sludge treatment...methods for analysis of sewage sludge matrices...sewage sludge samples, calling...limited data are available...incineration pathway analysis (USEPA 2003c...in sewage sludge) for the...source of data for use in...waterbody (a pond) and...

  19. A study of the effectiveness of sewage treatment plants in Delhi region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Sandeep Kumar; Sharma, Divya; Tripathi, Jayant Kumar; Ahirwar, Saroj; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2013-03-01

    This is a conventional kind of monitoring study. The objective of the study was to assess and monitor the physicochemical parameters in wastewater at inlet and outlet of sewage treatment plant (STP) and also to study the effectiveness of the STPs. The average concentration of parameters at inlet sampling site pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, are 7.16, 2,169 ?S/cm, 766.06 mg/l, and major ions bicarbonate, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, chloride, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium values 515.88, 4.28, 82.85, 15.17, 7.01, 23.08, 29.34, 4.14 and 84.31 mg/l. While the average concentration of these parameters, after treatment shows following values 7.47, 2,161.43 (?S/cm), 695.81, 436.52, 1.25, 99.22, 12.69, 6.83, 23.18, 29.07, 4.40 and 82.65 mg/l, respectively. Further, to check the Na % and sodium absorption ratio at inlet and outlet which 27.89 %, 0.67 and 28.19 %, 0.68, respectively, for the suitability of the wastewater. Finally, the agglomerative hierarchical clustering techniques were used to study the similarity in the sewage treatment plants. The result suggests that there is considerable improvement in the wastewater quality after treatment except at the Pappankalan and Coronation Pillar, Timarpur.

  20. Compiled data on the vascular aquatic plant program, 1975 - 1977. [for sewage lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of a single cell, facultative sewage lagoon was significantly improved with the introduction of vascular aquatic plants. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was the dominant plant from April to November; duckweed (Lemna spp.) and (Spirodela spp.) flourished from December to March. This 2 ha lagoon received approximately 475 cu m/day of untreated sewage and has a variable COD sub 5 loading rate of 22-30 kg/ha/day. During the first 14 months of operation with aquatic plants, the average influent BOD sub 5 was reduced by 95% from 110 mg/l to an average of 5 mg/l in the effluent. The average influent suspended solids were reduced by 90% from 97 mg/l to 10 mg/l in the effluent. Significant reductions in nitrogen and phosphorus were effected. The monthly kjeldahl nitrogen for influent and effluent averaged 12.0 and 3.4 mg/l, respectively, a reduction of 72%. The total phosphorus was reduced on an average of 56% from 3.7 mg/l influent to 1.6 mg/l effluent.

  1. Anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage in modified septic tanks at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Qinxue; Guan, Huabin; Bakke, Rune; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-01-01

    Three laboratory-scale septic tanks, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)-septic tank (R1), a Yuhuan drawing three-dimensional-carrier-septic tank (R2) and a conventional septic tank (R3), were operated in parallel over half a year under hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 36, 24 and 12 h, with a sewage temperature of 16 degrees C. The removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand (CODtot) achieved in R1 and R2 increased by 14%, 21% and 12% and 18%, 3% and 16%, respectively, under three different HRTs, as compared to those in R3. The total nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies were negligible. R1 sludges had a higher specific methane production rate as compared to that of R2 and R3 sludges. The results indicated that the two modified septic tanks can improve the performance in terms of COD and total solids removal, both were suitable technologies for domestic sewage (pre) treatment at low temperature in northern China. PMID:25145163

  2. Effects of sewage sludge compost application on crops and cropland in a 3-year field study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yongjie; Liu, Yangsheng

    2005-06-01

    Composted sewage sludge can be applied to cropland to supply nutrients and improve soil physical properties. However, farmers are much concerned about heavy metal accumulation in cropland and heavy metal availability for crops. A 3-year field study was carried out in this study to investigate the effects of sewage sludge compost (SSC) application on the heavy metal accumulation in cropland soil, rapeseed germination and plumelet development, and yields of barley and Chinese cabbage, compared with conventional mineral fertilization. In addition, the availability of heavy metals for barley and Chinese cabbage was examined. Experimental results showed that SSC application produced little effects on rapeseed germination and stimulated the rape plumelet development at lower application rates (<150 ton ha(-1)). Heavy metals (Cu and Zn) were accumulated in the topsoil (0-20 cm), the barley grains and the cabbage leaves. The yields of barley and Chinese cabbage generated positive response to the SSC application. Addition of mineral N-P-K fertilizers into SSC could further increase the crop yield. Considering the heavy metals accumulation in cropland soil and their availability for crops, SSC should be applied to cropland at a limited application rate (<150 ton ha(-1)). PMID:15857637

  3. Combined effects of Fenton peroxidation and CaO conditioning on sewage sludge thermal drying.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Peng; Hu, Hongyun; Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Zhenyu; Yang, Jiakuan; Yao, Hong

    2014-12-01

    Joint application of Fenton's reagent and CaO can dramatically enhance sludge dewaterability, thus are also likely to affect subsequent thermal drying process. This study investigated the synergistic effects of the two conditioners on the thermal drying behavior of sewage sludge and the emission characteristics of main sulfur-/nitrogen-containing gases. According to the results, Fenton peroxidation combined with CaO conditioning efficiently promoted sludge heat transfer, reduced the amounts of both free and bound water, and created porous structure in solids to provide evaporation channels, thus producing significant positive effects on sludge drying performance. In this case, the required time for drying was shortened to one-third. Additionally, joint usage of Fenton's reagent and CaO did not increase the losses of organic matter during sludge drying process. Meanwhile, they facilitated the formation of sulfate and sulfonic acid/sulfone, leading to sulfur retention in dried sludge. Both of Fenton peroxidation and CaO conditioning promoted the oxidation, decomposition, and/or dissolution of protein and inorganic nitrogen in sludge pre-treatment. As a consequence, the emissions of sulfurous and nitrogenous gases from dewatered sludge drying were greatly suppressed. These indicate that combining Fenton peroxidation with CaO conditioning is a promising strategy to improve drying efficiency of sewage sludge and to control sulfur and nitrogen contaminants during sludge thermal drying process. PMID:25289973

  4. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ashes for phosphorus recovery.

    PubMed

    Adam, C; Peplinski, B; Michaelis, M; Kley, G; Simon, F-G

    2009-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all living organisms and cannot be replaced. Municipal sewage sludge is a carrier of phosphorus, but also contains organic pollutants and heavy metals. A two-step thermal treatment is suggested, including mono-incineration of sewage sludge and subsequent thermochemical treatment of the ashes. Organic pollutants are completely destroyed by mono-incineration. The resulting sewage sludge ashes contain P, but also heavy metals. P in the ashes exhibits low bioavailability, a disadvantage in farming. Therefore, in a second thermochemical step, P is transferred into mineral phases available for plants, and heavy metals are removed as well. The thermochemical treatment was investigated in a laboratory-scale rotary furnace by treating seven different sewage sludge ashes under systematic variation of operational parameters. Heavy metal removal and the increase of the P-bioavailability were the focus of the investigation. The present experimental study shows that these objectives have been achieved with the proposed process. The P-bioavailability was significantly increased due to the formation of new mineral phases such as chlorapatite, farringtonite and stanfieldite during thermochemical treatment. PMID:19036571

  5. EFFECTS OF USING SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accumulative effects of annual use of sewage sludge on composition of soils, plants, water, and animals that consume the plants is presented. Plant yields were increased and no evidence of phototoxicity from trace elements was observed. Phosphorus toxicity in soybeans develop...

  6. Textile mill effluent decolorization using crude dehydrated sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Dhaouadi; F. M’Henni

    2008-01-01

    Crude dehydrated sewage sludge issued from an urban wastewater treatment plant (High-rate aeration, activated sludge process, Monastir, Tunisia) is used as an adsorbent for the decolorization of a textile mill effluent. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the crude material adsorption capability of the dye contained in wastewater. No treatment to modify any of the adsorbent properties

  7. PRODUCTION OF NON-FOOD-CHAIN CROPS WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Feasibility and market potential were determined for non-food-chain crops cultivated using sewage sludge. Non-food-chain crops that are currently being sold on the open market or that have a good potential for marketability were selected. From a list of 20 crops, 3 were selected ...

  8. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer

    E-print Network

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01

    The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Using the efficiency-number of transfer units method ( ), the heat-transfer efficiencies of the parallel-flow and reverse-flow TDTH...

  9. DEMONSTRATION PHYSICAL CHEMICAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT UTILIZING BIOLOGICAL NITRIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This demonstration project in a small residential community in Kentucky was initiated to show the feasibility of treating sewage with a physical-chemical type of wastewater treatment plant with a biological process for nitrification. The 50,000 gallon per day system had unit proc...

  10. Pretreatment to produce ultrapure water from reclaimed sewage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kee Kean Chin

    1996-01-01

    Reclaiming sewage for industrial process water has been a routine practice since the Jurong Industrial Water Work was completed in 1965. The current water usage amounts to 45,000 m3d. The quality of the reclaimed water in general meets with the quality requirements for general washing and process applications of industries such as paper and textile. As demand for ultrapure water

  11. Biodegradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. F. Cheng; S. Y. Chen; J. G. Lin

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in the production of polyvinyl chloride to impart flexibility to the product. Because of its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, the presence of DEHP in sludge limits the application of sludge as a soil fertilizer. In this study, sludges were collected from three sewage treatment plants and thirteen wastewater treatment plants of different

  12. Removal of DEHP in composting and aeration of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanna K Marttinen; Kari Hänninen; Jukka A Rintala

    2004-01-01

    The potential of composting and aeration to remove bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from municipal sewage sludge was studied with two dewatered sludges: raw sludge and anaerobically digested sludge. Composting removed 58% of the DEHP content of the raw sludge and 34% of that of the anaerobically digested sludge during 85 days stabilisation in compost bins. A similar removal for the anaerobically

  13. Properties, microstructure and leaching of sintered sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R Cheeseman; C. J Sollars; S McEntee

    2003-01-01

    Sewage sludge incinerator ash has been compacted and fired at different temperatures to produce a range of sintered ceramic materials. The effects of sintering temperature and pressing pressure on density, water adsorption and shrinkage have been determined and the microstructure of material sintered at 1040°C for 1h characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy. Sintering produces potentially useful

  14. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in municipal sewage sludge ashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia C. Wszolek; Timothy Wachs

    1982-01-01

    Sludge ash residues from four cities that incinerate municipal sewage sludge were analyzed for isolated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Total amounts of PAHs in the ashes were in the range of 0.1–1µg\\/g. The ash containing the highest amount also exhibited the greatest variety of PAHs.

  15. The thermal conductivity mechanism of sewage sludge ash lightweight materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuen-Sheng Wang; Chung-Jen Tseng; Ing-Jia Chiou; Min-Hua Shih

    2005-01-01

    The foaming reactions and the hydration and Pozzolanic effects of processed sewage sludge ash (SSA) allow it to be used as the main ingredient to make lightweight materials. The thermal conductivity of the SSA lightweight materials (SSALM), the SSA properties and how the mixing ratio of the materials influences the heat insulation properties are investigated. The results show that the

  16. RESTORATION OF FAILING ON-LOT SEWAGE DISPOSAL AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate two rehabilitative techniques-water conservation and absorption bed resting--for restoration of failing on-site sewage disposal areas. Eleven homes with failing absorption areas were characterized and baseline water flow and septic ta...

  17. Removal of estrogenicity in Swedish municipal sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Svenson, Anders; Allard, Ann Sofie; Ek, Mats

    2003-11-01

    The human estrogen receptor alpha-test, hosted in a yeast strain, was used to quantify estrogenicity in three-week composite samples of untreated and treated effluents from 20 Swedish municipal sewage treatment plants. The treatment plants were selected to represent different treatment processes regarding chemical precipitation and microbial procedures. The discharge from Swedish domestic sewage treatment plants contained estrogenic compounds corresponding to <0.1-15 ng estradiol equivalents/L. Low levels of estrogenic activity were also found in a river receiving municipal effluents, 3.5-35 km downstream the outlet from a sewage treatment works. The range of estrogenicity in untreated, raw sewage effluents was found to be 1-30 ng estradiol equivalents/L. Generally, wastewater treatment reduced the estrogenicity and extended biological treatment was most effective in its removal. Activated sludge treatment tended to be more effective than trickling filters, whereas chemical precipitation using iron or aluminium salts without biological treatment showed little effectivity. The study showed that treatment methods in current use are able to eliminate or largely reduce estrogenicity in domestic wastewater. PMID:14511714

  18. Removing phosphorus from sewage effluent and agricultural runoff

    E-print Network

    Heal, Kate

    321 14 Removing phosphorus from sewage effluent and agricultural runoff using recovered ochre K © 2004 IWA Publishing. Phosphorus in Environmental Technology: Principles and Applications. Edited by Eugenia Valsami-Jones. ISBN: 1 84339 001 9 #12;322 Phosphorus removal technologies from water and waste

  19. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increase in resistance rates to trimehtoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in isolates of Escherichia coli has become a matter of increasing concern. This has been particularly true in reference to community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). This study utilized sewage i...

  20. Less-costly activated carbon for sewage treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingham, J. D.; Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Lignite-aided sewage treatment is based on absorption of dissolved pollutants by activated carbon. Settling sludge is removed and dried into cakes that are pyrolyzed with lignites to yield activated carbon. Lignite is less expensive than activated carbon previously used to supplement pyrolysis yield.

  1. SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION AT NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used for operating the incine...

  2. SPREADING LAGOONED SEWAGE SLUDGE ON FARMLAND: A CASE HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project demonstrated that land application is feasible and practical for a metropolitan treatment plant for disposal of a large volume (265,000 cu m) of stabilized, liquid sewage sludge stored in lagoons. The project involved transportation of sludge by semi-trailer tankers ...

  3. HELMINTH AND HEAVY METALS TRANSMISSION FROM ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses a study designed to determine the practical survival and transmission of the ova of the nematode worm Ascaris sp. through a modern sewage and sludge treatment process. Four large experiments and three smaller ones involving 178 specific pathogen free (SPF) p...

  4. Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V

    2013-09-01

    Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates. PMID:23404546

  5. Inactivation of bacteria in sewage sludge by gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Pandya, G A; Kapila, S; Kelkar, V B; Negi, S; Modi, V V

    1987-01-01

    The survival of certain bacterial cultures suspended in sewage sludge and exposed to gamma-radiation was studied. The inactivation patterns of most of the organisms were significantly different when irradiation was performed using sewage samples collected in the summer and monsoon seasons. The summer sample collected from the anaerobic digestor afforded significant protection to both Gram negative and Gram positive organisms. This was evident by the increase in dose required to bring about a 6 log cycle reduction in viable count of the bacterial cultures, when suspended in sewage samples instead of phosphate buffer. The observations made using monsoon digestor samples were quite different. This sewage sludge greatly enhanced inactivation by gamma-radiation in most cases. The effects of certain chemicals on the inactivation patterns of two organisms-Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexneri-were examined. Arsenate, mercury and lead salts sensitised S. typhi, while barium acetate and sodium sulphide protected this culture against gamma-radiation. In the case of Sh. flexneri, barium acetate and iodacetamide proved to be radioprotectors. The effects of some chemicals on the inactivation pattern of Sh. flexneri cells irradiated in sludge are also discussed. PMID:15092791

  6. PATHOGEN RISKS FROM APPLYING SEWAGE SLUDGE TO LAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Congress banned ocean dumping of municipal wastes in the late 1980s. In its place, EPA developed guidance (40 CFR Part 503) for land application of processed sewage sludge (biosolids), mainly for agricultural purposes (1). Public health and environmental concerns with processed...

  7. OVERLAND FLOW TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE AT EASLEY, SOUTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overland flow has been demonstrated to be a feasible method for treatment of either comminuted raw sewage or effluent from a facultative lagoon in piedmont South Carolina where mild winters prevail in a region of high rainfall. An overland flow system was operated for three years...

  8. Use of Sewage Sludge Ash as Brick Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deng-Fong Lin; Chih-Huang Weng

    2001-01-01

    Brick manufactured from incinerated sewage sludge ash and clay is investigated. The results of Atterberg limits tests of molded ash-clay mixtures indicated that both plastic index and dry shrinkage decrease with an increasing amount of ash in the mixture. Results of tests indicated that the ash proportion and firing temperature were the two key factors determining the quality of brick.

  9. DIRECT THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE TO FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A disposal method for primary sewage sludge and industrial sludges which generates boiler fuel as a product and is energy self sufficient or energy-generating is described. The method involves direct liquefaction in a mild aqueous alkali above 250 degs. C and was demonstrated for...

  10. SOIL FILTRATION OF SEWAGE EFFLUENT OF A RURAL AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The treatment performance of irrigation using primary lagoon treated municipal sewage is compared to normal stream or ditch water irrigation when applied to mountain meadows and crops in a high altitude climate during summer months. The two irrigation waters are applied at differ...

  11. Membrane fouling controlled by coagulation/adsorption during direct sewage membrane filtration (DSMF) for organic matter concentration.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hui; Jin, Zhengyu; Wang, Xian; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-06-01

    Unlike the role of the membrane in a membrane bioreactor, which is designed to replace a sediment tank, direct sewage membrane filtration (DSMF), with the goal of concentrating organic matters, is proposed as a pretreatment process in a novel sewage treatment concept. The concept of membrane-based pretreatment is proposed to divide raw sewage into a concentrated part retaining most organics and a filtered part with less pollutant remaining, so that energy recovery and water reuse, respectively, could be realized by post-treatment. A pilot-scale experiment was carried out to verify the feasibility of coagulant/adsorbent addition for membrane fouling control, which has been the main issue during this DSMF process. The results showed that continuous coagulant addition successfully slowed down the increase in filtration resistance, with the resistance maintained below 1.0×10(13)m(-1) in the first 70hr before a jump occurred. Furthermore, the adsorbent addition contributed to retarding the occurrence of the filtration resistance jump, achieving simultaneous fouling control and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration improvement. The final concentrated COD amounted to 7500mg/L after 6days of operation. PMID:26040725

  12. Influence of organic and inorganic flocculants on the formation of PCDD/Fs during sewage sludge incineration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoqing; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Wang, Fei; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jianhua

    2014-07-16

    Flocculants are widely used to improve the properties of sludge dewatering in industrial wastewater treatment. However, there have been no studies conducted on the influence of flocculants on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during sewage sludge incineration. This paper selected three typical kinds of flocculants, including polyacrylamide (PAM), poly-ferric chloride (PFC), and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) flocculant, to study their influences on the formation of PCDD/Fs during sewage sludge incineration. The results indicated that PAM flocculant, which is an organic flocculant, inhibited the formation of PCDD/Fs in sewage sludge incineration, while inorganic flocculant, such as PFC and PAC flocculant, promoted the formation. The most probable explanation is that the amino content in the PAM flocculant acted as an inhibitor in the formation of PCDD/Fs, while the chlorine content, especially the metal catalyst in the PFC and PAC flocculants, increased the formation rate. The addition of flocculants nearly did not change the distribution of PCDD/F homologues. The PCDFs contributed the most toxic equivalent (TEQ) value, especially 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-PeCDF. Therefore, the use of inorganic flocculants in industrial wastewater treatment should be further assessed and possibly needs to be strictly regulated if the sludge is incinerated. From this aspect, a priority to the use of organic flocculants should be given. PMID:25028327

  13. Detection and Quantification of Group C Rotaviruses in Communal Sewage?

    PubMed Central

    Meleg, Edina; Bányai, Krisztián; Martella, Vito; Jiang, Baoming; Kocsis, Béla; Kisfali, Péter; Melegh, Béla; Sz?cs, György

    2008-01-01

    Group C rotaviruses have been recognized as a cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans, cattle, and swine, although the true epidemiologic and clinical importance of this virus in these hosts has not yet been fully established. A real-time PCR assay based on a broadly reactive primer pair was developed and used to quantitatively determine the viral load of group C rotaviruses in environmental samples. A total of 35 raw and 35 treated sewage samples collected at the same sampling time in four Hungarian sewage treatment plants during a survey in 2005 were tested for the presence of group C rotaviruses. The overall detection rates were 91% (32 of 35) for the influent and 57% (20 of 35) for the effluent samples. Molecular characterization of the amplified partial VP6 gene revealed the cocirculation of human and animal (i.e., bovine and porcine) strains that were easily distinguishable by melting curve analysis. Human strains yielded relatively high viral loads (mean, 1.2 × 107; median, 6.9 × 105 genome equivalents per liter influent sewage) and appeared to display seasonal activity over the study period, whereas animal strains appeared to circulate throughout the year at much lower average titers (bovine strains mean, 9.9 × 104; median, 3.0 × 104; porcine strains mean, 3.9 × 104; median, 3.1 × 104 genome equivalents per liter influent sewage). Our findings suggest that monitoring of communal sewage may provide a good surrogate for investigating the epidemiology and ecology of group C rotaviruses in humans and animals. PMID:18390677

  14. Mucosal and cutaneous human papillomaviruses detected in raw sewages.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Giuseppina; Fratini, Marta; Accardi, Luisa; D'Oro, Graziana; Della Libera, Simonetta; Muscillo, Michele; Di Bonito, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Epitheliotropic viruses can find their way into sewage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and genetic diversity of Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) in urban wastewaters. Sewage samples were collected from treatment plants distributed throughout Italy. The DNA extracted from these samples was analyzed by PCR using five PV-specific sets of primers targeting the L1 (GP5/GP6, MY09/MY11, FAP59/64, SKF/SKR) and E1 regions (PM-A/PM-B), according to the protocols previously validated for the detection of mucosal and cutaneous HPV genotypes. PCR products underwent sequencing analysis and the sequences were aligned to reference genomes from the Papillomavirus Episteme database. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to assess the genetic relationships among the different sequences and between the sequences of the samples and those of the prototype strains. A broad spectrum of sequences related to mucosal and cutaneous HPV types was detected in 81% of the sewage samples analyzed. Surprisingly, sequences related to the anogenital HPV6 and 11 were detected in 19% of the samples, and sequences related to the "high risk" oncogenic HPV16 were identified in two samples. Sequences related to HPV9, HPV20, HPV25, HPV76, HPV80, HPV104, HPV110, HPV111, HPV120 and HPV145 beta Papillomaviruses were detected in 76% of the samples. In addition, similarity searches and phylogenetic analysis of some sequences suggest that they could belong to putative new genotypes of the beta genus. In this study, for the first time, the presence of HPV viruses strongly related to human cancer is reported in sewage samples. Our data increases the knowledge of HPV genomic diversity and suggests that virological analysis of urban sewage can provide key information useful in supporting epidemiological studies. PMID:23341898

  15. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  16. Sewage contamination of a densely populated coral 'atoll' (Bermuda).

    PubMed

    Jones, Ross; Parsons, Rachel; Watkinson, Elaine; Kendell, David

    2011-08-01

    Bermuda is a densely populated coral 'atoll' located on a seamount in the mid-Atlantic (Sargasso Sea). There is no national sewerage system and the ?20 × 10(6) L of sewage generated daily is disposed of via marine outfalls, cess pits/septic tanks underneath houses and through waste disposal (injection) wells. Gastrointestinal (GI) enterococci concentrations were measured in surface seawater samples collected monthly at multiple locations across the island over a 5-year period. According to the EU Bathing Water Directive microbial classification categories, 18 of the sites were in the 'excellent' category, four sites in the 'good', five sites were in the 'sufficient' and three sites in the 'poor' categories. One of the sites in the 'poor' category is beside a popular swimming beach. Between 20-30% of 58 sub tidal sediment samples collected from creeks, coves, bays, harbours and marinas in the Great Sound complex on the western side of Bermuda tested positive for the presence of the human specific bacterial biomarker Bacteroides (using culture-independent PCR-based methods) and for the faecal biomarker coprostanol (5?-cholestan-3-?-ol, which ranged in concentration from <0.05-0.77 mg kg(?-?1). There was a significant statistical correlation between these two independent techniques for faecal contamination identification. Overall the microbial water quality and sedimentary biomarker surveys suggest sewage contamination in Bermuda was quite low compared with other published studies; nevertheless, several sewage contamination hotpots exist, and these could be attributed to discharge of raw sewage from house boats, from nearby sewage outfalls and leakage from septic tanks/cess pits. PMID:20978839

  17. Estimation of Degradation-Based Reliability in Outdoor Environments

    E-print Network

    degradation of materials or products that are exposed to the outdoor environment. There is a growing need with an example involving the degradation of a solar-reflector material. We will also show how to construct of degradation have been proposed to improve the current state of reliability estimation of the materials exposed

  18. Applications of reliability degradation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vesely, W.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (United States); Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Reliability degradation analysis is the analysis of the occurrences of degradations and the times of maintenance to determine their reliability and risk implications. A program is presented for applying reliability degradation analyses to maintenance data collected at nuclear power plants. As a specific part of the program, time trending of maintenance data is illustrated. Maintenance data on residual heat removal (RHR) pumps and service water (SW) pumps at selected boiling water reactor (BWR) plants are evaluated to show how trends in maintenance data, which generally do not involve failures, can be used to understand effectiveness of maintenance. These trends also are translated to specific impacts on pump unavailability and on core-damage frequency (assuming that the trends in failure rate are the same as those observed for degradation rate). The second application shows the use of reliability degradation analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effect of maintenance, i.e., the quantitative change in component unavailability when no maintenance is performed. Assessment of these impacts are important since they measure the reliability and risk impacts of maintenance and can be fed back to the maintenance program to improve its effectiveness.

  19. Detection and Characterization of Waterborne Gastroenteritis Viruses in Urban Sewage and Sewage-Polluted River Waters in Caracas, Venezuela

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rodriguez-Diaz; L. Querales; L. Caraballo; E. Vizzi; F. Liprandi; H. Takiff; W. Q. Betancourt

    2009-01-01

    The detection and molecular characterization of pathogenic human viruses in urban sewage have been used extensively to derive information on circulating viruses in given populations throughout the world. In this study, a similar approach was applied to provide an overview of the epidemiology of waterborne gastroenteritis viruses circulating in urban areas of Caracas, the capital city of Venezuela in South

  20. Evaluation of sewage sludge and slow pyrolyzed sewage sludge-derived biochar for adsorption of phenanthrene and pyrene.

    PubMed

    Zieli?ska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) by sewage sludges and sewage sludge-derived biochars. The organic carbon normalized distribution coefficient (logKOC for Cw=0.01 Sw) for the sewage sludges ranged from 5.62Lkg(-1) to 5.64Lkg(-1) for PHE and from 5.72Lkg(-1) to 5.75Lkg(-1) for PYR. The conversion of sewage sludges into biochar significantly increased their sorption capacity. The value of logKOC for the biochars ranged from 5.54Lkg(-1) to 6.23Lkg(-1) for PHE and from 5.95Lkg(-1) to 6.52Lkg(-1) for PYR depending on temperature of pyrolysis. The dominant process was monolayer adsorption in the micropores and/or multilayer surface adsorption (in the mesopores), which was indicated by the significant correlations between logKOC and surface properties of biochars. PYR was sorbed better on the tested materials than PHE. PMID:26093256

  1. Synchronous anaerobic and aerobic degradation of DDT by an immobilized mixed culture system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiirgen Beunink; Hans-Jiirgen Rehm

    1988-01-01

    For the investigation of a mixed anaerobic and aerobic degradation of xenobiotics the reductive dechlorination of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) to 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD) and the oxidative degradation of the DDT-conversion product 4,4'-dichlorodiphenylmethane (DDM) were studied. Enrichments from digested sewage sludge led to the isolation of an Enterobacter cloacae-strain which is able to reductive dechlorination of DDT during the fermentation of

  2. Health status and bioremediation capacity of wild freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) exposed to sewage water pollution in a glacial Patagonian lake.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Bieczynski, Flavia; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    Deleterious effects on health and fitness are expected in mussels chronically exposed to sewage water pollution. Diplodon chilensis inhabiting SMA, an area affected by untreated and treated sewage water, shows increased hemocyte number and phagocytic activity, while bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activities in plasma and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes are lower compared to mussels from an unpolluted area (Yuco). There are not differences in cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and total oxygen scavenging capacity between SMA and Yuco mussels' hemocytes. Energetic reserves and digestive gland mass do not show differences between groups; although the condition factor is higher in SMA than in Yuco mussels. Gills of SMA mussels show an increase in mass and micronuclei frequency compared to those of Yuco. Mussels from both sites reduce bacterial loads in polluted water and sediments, improving their quality with similar feeding performance. These findings suggest that mussels exposed to sewage pollution modulate physiological responses by long-term exposure; although, gills are sensitive to these conditions and suffer chronic damage. Bioremediation potential found in D. chilensis widens the field of work for remediation of sewage bacterial pollution in water and sediments by filtering bivalves. PMID:24589503

  3. Comments on "Urbanisation and Environmental Degradation in Pakistan".

    PubMed

    Qutub, S A

    1993-01-01

    The article on environmental degradation in urban Pakistan referenced in this article's critique addresses the problem and some policy solutions but misses identifying causative factors behind urban growth and the much more extensive and serious problem of soil degradation. Urban growth is due to an imbalance between agricultural productivity and industrial productivity and not population growth, which slows urbanization. Rural poverty promotes starvation. Urbanization is inevitable, and the costs are felt in the short term in urban services. The costs of absorbing people in urban areas are four to six times greater than the costs of rural retention. There is a need for a Human Settlements Policy, which is sensitive to the different agro-ecological zones in Pakistan. The carrying density of irrigated lands is 12 persons per hectare and of dry areas is 3 persons per 100 hectares. Out-migration from fragile ecological areas needs to be encouraged. Irrigated areas should have incentives for population to remain in the area. Pollution emission control for water discharges must be controlled better. Environmental impact in localized areas needs to be assessed. The notion of a sustainable city should be promoted and policies established for recycling of water, energy, and materials. Solutions will require imagination and insight. For example, the lack of sufficient operational sewage treatment plants could be compensated for by using sewage on livestock farms. PMID:12346812

  4. Antimisting kerosene: Low temperature degradation and blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavrouian, A.; Parikh, P.; Sarohia, V.

    1988-01-01

    The inline filtration characteristics of freshly blended and degraded antimisting fuels (AMK) at low temperature are examined. A needle valve degrader was modified to include partial recirculation of degraded fuel and heat addition in the bypass loop. A pressure drop across the needle valve of up to 4,000 psi was used. The pressure drop across a 325 mesh filter screen placed inline with the degrader and directly downstream of the needle valve was measured as a function of time for different values of pressure drop across the needle valve. A volume flux of 1 gpm/sq in was employed based on the frontal area of the screen. It was found that, at ambient temperatures, freshly blended AMK fuel could be degraded using a single pass degradation at 4,000 psi pressure drop across the needle valve to give acceptable filterability performance. At fuel temperatures below -20 C, degradation becomes increasingly difficult and a single pass technique results in unacceptable filtration performance. Recirculation of a fraction of the degraded fuel and heat addition in the bypass loop improved low temperature degradation performance. The problem is addressed of blending the AMK additive with Jet A at various base fuel temperatures.

  5. Estrone degradation: does organic matter (quality), matter?

    PubMed

    Tan, David T; Temme, Hanna R; Arnold, William A; Novak, Paige J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the parameters that drive E1 degradation is necessary to improve existing wastewater treatment systems and evaluate potential treatment options. Organic matter quality could be an important parameter. Microbial communities grown from activated sludge seeds using different dissolved organic matter sources were tested for E1 degradation rates. Synthetic wastewater was aged, filter-sterilized, and used as a carbon and energy source to determine if recalcitrant organic carbon enhances E1 degradation. Higher E1 degradation was observed by biomass grown on 8 d old synthetic wastewater compared to biomass grown on fresh synthetic wastewater (P = 0.033) despite much lower concentrations of bacteria. Minimal or no E1 degradation was observed in biomass grown on 2 d old synthetic wastewater. Organic carbon analyses suggest that products of cell lysis or microbial products released under starvation stress stimulate E1 degradation. Additional water sources were also tested: lake water, river water, and effluents from a municipal wastewater treatement plant and a treatment wetland. E1 degradation was only observed in biomass grown in treatment effluent. Nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, and trace element concentrations were not causative factors for E1 degradation. In both experiments, spectrophotometric analyses reveal degradation of E1 is associated with microbially derived organic carbon but not general recalcitrance. PMID:25454582

  6. Characterisation of raw sewage and performance assessment of primary settling tanks at Firle Sewage Treatment Works, Harare, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muserere, Simon Takawira; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Nhapi, Innocent

    The need for more stringent effluent discharge standards as prescribed by the Environmental Management Act 20:27 to protect the environment can be sustainably achieved with the aid of Activated Sludge Models. Thus, the researchers believe it is time to re-evaluate wastewater characteristics at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW) and make use of activated sludge simulators to address pollution challenges caused by the sewage plant. Therefore, this paper characterizes raw sewage and assesses settled and unsettled sewage in order to evaluate the performance of the primary treatment system and the suitability of the settled sewage for treatment by the subsequent Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system at Firle STW. Parameters studied included COD, BOD, TKN, TP, NH3, TSS, pH and Alkalinity. Composite samples were collected over a 9-day campaign period (27 June to 6 July 2012), hourly grab samples over 24 hrs and composite samples on 6 March 2012 which were then analysed in the lab in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater to support the City of Harare 2004-2012 lab historical records. Concentrations for unsettled sewage in mg/L were COD (527 ± 32), BOD (297 ± 83) TKN (19.0 ± 2.0), TP (18 ± 3), NH3 (24.0 ± 12.9), TSS (219 ± 57), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 266 ± 36 mg/L. For settled sewage the corresponding values in mg/L were COD (522 ± 15), BOD (324 ± 102), TKN (21.0 ± 3.0), TP (19.0 ± 2.0), NH3 (25.6 ± 11.2), TSS (250 ± 66), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 271 ± 17 mg/L. The plant design values for raw sewage are COD (650 mg/L), BOD (200 mg/L), TKN (40 mg/L) and TP (11 mg/L). Thus, COD and nitrogen were within the plant design range while BOD and TP were higher. Treatability of sewage in BNR systems is often inferred from the levels of critical parameters and also the ratios of TKN/COD and COD/TP. The wastewater average settled COD/BOD, COD/TP and TKN/COD ratio were 1.7 ± 0.5, 27.1 ± 3.1 and 0.04 ± 0.01 respectively and corresponding unsettled ratios were 1.8 ± 0.5, 30.77 ± 6.8 and 0.04 ± 0 respectively. Thus, treatability by the 3-stage BNR system appears highly feasible for nitrogen and is likely to be complex for phosphorous. Fractionation of COD, TP and TN is recommended to appropriately advise further steps to optimise the plant operations.

  7. An Experimental Investigation of Sewage Sludge Gasification in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, L. F.; García, A. I.; Otero, M.

    2013-01-01

    The gasification of sewage sludge was carried out in a simple atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. Flow and fuel feed rate were adjusted for experimentally obtaining an air mass?:?fuel mass ratio (A/F) of 0.2 < A/F < 0.4. Fuel characterization, mass and power balances, produced gas composition, gas phase alkali and ammonia, tar concentration, agglomeration tendencies, and gas efficiencies were assessed. Although accumulation of material inside the reactor was a main problem, this was avoided by removing and adding bed media along gasification. This allowed improving the process heat transfer and, therefore, gasification efficiency. The heating value of the produced gas was 8.4?MJ/Nm, attaining a hot gas efficiency of 70% and a cold gas efficiency of 57%. PMID:24453863

  8. Chemistry and microbiology of a sewage spill in South San Francisco Bay.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Oremland, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    During September 1979, the breakdown of a waste treatment plant resulted in discharge of 1.5 X 107 m3 of primary- treated sewage into a tributary of South San Francisco Bay. Chemical and microbial changes occurred within the tributary as decomposition and nitrification depleted dissolved oxygen. Associated with anoxia were relatively high concentrations of particulate organic carbon, dissolved CO2, CH4, C2H4, NH4+, and fecal bacteria, and low phytoplankton biomass and photosynthetic oxygen production. South San Francisco Bay experienced only small changes in water quality, presumably because of its large volume and the assimilation of wastes that occurred within the tributary. Water quality improved rapidly in the tributary once normal tertiary treatment resumed. -Authors

  9. Optimizing chemical conditioning for odour removal of undigested sewage sludge in drying processes.

    PubMed

    Vega, Esther; Monclús, Hèctor; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Martin, Maria J

    2015-03-01

    Emission of odours during the thermal drying in sludge handling processes is one of the main sources of odour problems in wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this work was to assess the use of the response surface methodology as a technique to optimize the chemical conditioning process of undigested sewage sludges, in order to improve the dewaterability, and to reduce the odour emissions during the thermal drying of the sludge. Synergistic effects between inorganic conditioners (iron chloride and calcium oxide) were observed in terms of sulphur emissions and odour reduction. The developed quadratic models indicated that optimizing the conditioners dosage is possible to increase a 70% the dewaterability, reducing a 50% and 54% the emission of odour and volatile sulphur compounds respectively. The optimization of the conditioning process was validated experimentally. PMID:25438118

  10. Fate of selected estrogenic hormones in an urban sewage treatment plant in Tunisia (North Africa).

    PubMed

    Belhaj, Dalel; Baccar, Rim; Jaabiri, Ikram; Bouzid, Jalel; Kallel, Moneem; Ayadi, Habib; Zhou, John L

    2015-02-01

    Estrogenic compounds have been monitored for one year at an urban sewage treatment plant (STP) located in Tunisia, to evaluate their fate and seasonal variations. The concentrations of these compounds were determined in both wastewater and sludge phases by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed that the highest removal of all estrogens (?80%) was observed in summer. Mass balance analysis revealed that biodegradation was the predominant removal mechanism. Moreover, the results showed that the removal efficiency of the studied emerging micropollutants and their concentrations in the solid phase of return sludge were much higher in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. These findings were closely related to microbial activity and the concentration of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSSs). Finally, the findings can be used to help with the modifications that could be implemented in that STP for the improved removal of estrogenic contaminants. PMID:25317971

  11. The toxicity to plants of the sewage sludges containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Jo?ko, Izabela; Xing, Baoshan

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sewage sludges containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with an outer diameter <10 nm (CNT10) or 40-60 nm (CNT60) to Lepidium sativum (cress), Sorghum saccharatum (sorgo), Solanum lycopersicon (tomato), Raphanus sativus (radish) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). CNTs were also incubated in sewage sludge for 7 or 31 days to determine the effect of CNT aging on sewage sludge phytotoxicity. The influence of CNTs on 4 different sewage sludges was tested. The CNTs' influence on sludge toxicity varied with respect to the CNTs' outer diameter, type of sewage sludges and the plants tested. No significant influence of CNT concentration on phytotoxicity was noted. In the case of two sludges, a positive influence of CNTs on seed germination and root growth was observed. Depending on the CNTs' outer diameter, CNT aging decreased (CNT10) or increased (CNT60) sewage sludge phytotoxicity. PMID:21145166

  12. Presence of antibiotic resistance genes in a sewage treatment plant in Thibodaux, Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Naquin, Anthony; Shrestha, Arsen; Sherpa, Mingma; Nathaniel, Rajkumar; Boopathy, Raj

    2015-07-01

    Increasing uses and disposals of antibiotics to the environment have increased emergence of various antibiotic resistance. One of the sources for the spread of antibiotic resistance is wastewater treatment plant, where bacteria and antibiotics can come in contact and can acquire antibiotics resistance. There are very few studies on this subject from a small town sewage treatment plant. Therefore, this study was conducted using raw sewage as well as treated sewage from a sewage treatment plant in Thibodaux in rural southeast Louisiana in USA. Samples were collected monthly from the Thibodaux sewage treatment plant and the presence of antibiotic resistance genes was monitored. The study showed the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in both raw and treated sewage in every month of the study period. The genetic transformation assay showed the successful transformation of methicillin resistant gene, mecA to an antibiotic sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, which became antibiotic resistant within 24h. PMID:25662190

  13. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. PMID:23777667

  14. Soil and pasture P concentration in a Fraxinus excelsior L. silvopastoral system fertilised with different types of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Nair, Vimala; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Rosa Mosquera-Losada, María

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using as fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process that is used, sewage sludge has different characteristics, nutrient contents and soil nutrient incorporation rates. Sewage sludge is usually applied on a plant-available N or total metal concentration basic, and therefore, P concentrations can be well above crop needs. Leaching of excess P can threaten surface and ground waters with eutrophication. In this context, recent studies have demonstrated that the implementation of agroforestry systems could reduce the P leaching risk compared with conventional agricultural systems due to the different localisation of tree and crop roots which enhance nutrient uptake. The aim of this study was to evaluate during three consecutive years the effect of municipal sewage sludge stabilised by anaerobic digestion, composting, and pelletisation on concentration of P in soil and pasture compared to control treatments (mineral and no fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system established under Fraxinus excelsior L. in Galicia (Spain). The results showed that at the beginning of the study, the fertilisation with mineral increased more the total and available P in soil than the fertilisation with sewage sludge probably because the sludge nutrient release rate is slower than those from mineral fertilisers. The increment of soil available P caused by the mineral fertiliser implied an improvement of the P concentration in the pasture. However, in the last year of the experiment it was observed a positive effect of the fertilisation with pelletised sludge on the concentration of P in pasture compared with the composted sludge and the mineral fertiliser probably due to the annual application of this type of sludge. Therefore, the establishment of silvopastoral systems and their fertilisation with pelletized sludge should be recommended because the pelletized sludge increases the concentration of P in the pasture and reduces the application and storage costs due to its lower proportion of water than the other types of sludge tested. At the same time, the integration of trees in agricultural areas decreases the problem of environmental impact resulting from addition of organic and inorganic fertilisers on soils.

  15. Residual perfluorochemicals in the biochar from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyo; Ok, Yong Sik; Choi, Geun-Hyoung; Park, Byung-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Biochar has been recently considered as a candidate for soil amendment and soil remediation. Some pollutants have been screened in the biochar for safety purposes except for perfluorochemicals (PFCs). In this study, the contamination of biochars from plant residues and sewage sludge with perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was examined. The total residual concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in the sludge biochar were 15.8-16.9ng/g and these values did not decrease significantly after pyrolysis. On the other hand, these PFCs were not found in the biochar from plant sources. In conclusion, the use of the sludge biochar in the agricultural environment should be re-evaluated, since the concentrations of PFCs in the sewage sludge showed no significant decrease after thermal process. PMID:25989522

  16. [Evaluation of the content of harmful substances in the air of sewage treatment facilities of Astrakhan gas processing plant].

    PubMed

    Bo?ko, V I; Dotsenko, Iu I; Bo?ko, O V

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that the progress in regard to the degree of processing of natural gas and condensate in the Astrakhan gas processing plant is significant, necessary hygienic normalization of working environment on the part of the content of harmful substances in the air of working areas is still unable. Harmful substances were detected in the breathing zone of workers of sewage treatment plant almost constantly. In this connection there is a need in the further joint work hygienists, designers and manufacturers for the development and justification of new, more effective decisions - both on the part of as well technology as hardware design - with the purpose of improvement of working conditions. PMID:24340599

  17. Environmental & economic life cycle assessment of current & future sewage sludge to energy technologies.

    PubMed

    Mills, N; Pearce, P; Farrow, J; Thorpe, R B; Kirkby, N F

    2014-01-01

    The UK Water Industry currently generates approximately 800GWh pa of electrical energy from sewage sludge. Traditionally energy recovery from sewage sludge features Anaerobic Digestion (AD) with biogas utilisation in combined heat and power (CHP) systems. However, the industry is evolving and a number of developments that extract more energy from sludge are either being implemented or are nearing full scale demonstration. This study compared five technology configurations: 1 - conventional AD with CHP, 2 - Thermal Hydrolysis Process (THP) AD with CHP, 3 - THP AD with bio-methane grid injection, 4 - THP AD with CHP followed by drying of digested sludge for solid fuel production, 5 - THP AD followed by drying, pyrolysis of the digested sludge and use of the both the biogas and the pyrolysis gas in a CHP. The economic and environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) found that both the post AD drying options performed well but the option used to create a solid fuel to displace coal (configuration 4) was the most sustainable solution economically and environmentally, closely followed by the pyrolysis configuration (5). Application of THP improves the financial and environmental performance compared with conventional AD. Producing bio-methane for grid injection (configuration 3) is attractive financially but has the worst environmental impact of all the scenarios, suggesting that the current UK financial incentive policy for bio-methane is not driving best environmental practice. It is clear that new and improving processes and technologies are enabling significant opportunities for further energy recovery from sludge; LCA provides tools for determining the best overall options for particular situations and allows innovation resources and investment to be focused accordingly. PMID:24060290

  18. Response of benthic foraminifers to sewage discharge and remediation in Santa Monica Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGann, M.; Alexander, C.R.; Bay, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Examination of a time series of foraminiferal assemblage distributions on the continental shelf and slope of Santa Monica Bay from 1955 to 1997-1998 suggests that the benthic microfauna have been greatly affected by the quality and character of the municipal sludge and wastewater discharged into the bay over the last half-century by the Hyperion Treatment Plant serving the greater Los Angeles area. Five species dominate both the living and dead foraminiferal assemblages of the 1997-1998 surface samples, including Eggerella advena, Trochammina pacifica, Bulimina denudata, Buliminella elegantissima, and Epistominella bradyana. Temporal patterns of relative species abundances for both living and dead assemblages, as well as toxicity tests measuring amphipod survival and sea urchin fertilization success, show improvement since the sewage treatment program was enhanced in 1986. None of these trends are evident 10 years earlier, coincident with the onset of a Pacific Decadal Oscillation warming trend. This fact suggests that remediation, and not climate change, is responsible for the faunal changes observed. Even with remediation, however, all foraminiferal faunal trends have not returned to early-outfall levels. The organic-waste indicating species T. pacifica shows a slow decline in abundance as sewage treatment and sludge disposal activities have improved, whereas a dramatic increase in the abundance of the pioneer colonizer of impacted regions, E. advena, has occurred, often with a reciprocal response by B. denudata. Also evident is a dramatic shift in the abundance of the once-dominant species Nonionella basispinata and Nonionella stella, which were unable to recolonize Santa Monica Bay since the two major outfalls (5- and 7-mile) began discharging. Temporal variations in species abundances, as well as range expansions, contractions, and the inability to recolonize areas previously, or presently, impacted, suggests that foraminifers are a useful tool in defining areas affected by waste discharge.

  19. IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

    2004-10-05

    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  20. Effect of Ultrasound on Dewaterability of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Uk; Kim, Byoung-Il

    2003-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of ultrasound on the dewaterability of sewage sludge. The investigation involves laboratory experiments, which were conducted under a broad range of conditions, including energy levels of ultrasonic waves, treatment time, and pH. Results of the study show that ultrasound enhances dewaterability significantly. The degree of enhancement varies with sonication energy, treatment time, and the amount of treated sludge.

  1. Foam control in biopesticide production from sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A S Vidyarthi; M Desrosiers; R D Tyagi; J R Valéro

    2000-01-01

      Several antifoam agents were evaluated for the ability to control foam in the production of Bacillus thuringiensis-based biopesticides using sewage sludge as a raw material. Experiments were conducted in shake flasks as well as in 15 l\\u000a fermentors with controlled parameters. Polypropylene glycol (PPG), the most commonly used antifoam agent in B. thuringiensis fermentation, inhibited cell growth, sporulation and decreased

  2. New Anabaena and Nostoc cyanophages from sewage settling ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Hu; T. Thiel; Giddings T. H. Jr; C. P. Wolk

    1981-01-01

    We have isolated, from sewage settling ponds, 16 cyanophages for heterocyst forming, filamentous cyanobacteria of the genera Anabaena and Nostoc. These phages fall into three groups based on morphology, host range, one-step growth curves, and restriction digests. On the basis of these criteria they can be distinguished from cyanophages A-1(L), A-4(L), N-1, and AN-10 which we received from other laboratories.

  3. Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash analyzed by thermogravimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Vogel; Christian Adam; Miriam Unger

    2011-01-01

    A high temperature (1000 °C) thermochemical process for heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash via the chloride pathway\\u000a was investigated by thermogravimetry\\/differential thermal analysis (TG\\/DTA). TG and DTA measurements gave information about\\u000a secession and evaporation of water, HCl, and heavy metal chlorides at different temperatures. Additionally, gaseous water\\u000a and hydrochloric acid which occurred in the process were detected by an

  4. Glazed Tiles Manufactured from Incinerated Sewage Sludge Ash and Clay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deng-Fong Lin; Huan-Lin Luo; Yeong-Nain Sheen

    2005-01-01

    Sewage sludge incineration is applied extensively in highly populated cities as a final sludge treatment. In this study, incinerated ash was utilized as an additive to clay to manufacture glaze tiles. Four different amounts of ash (0, 15, 30, and 45%) were added, and five glaze concentrations (0.03, 0.06, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 g\\/cm) were applied on the surface of

  5. Cultivation of Spirulina in sewage for poultry feed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Saxena; M. R. Ahmad; R. Shyam; D. V. Amla

    1983-01-01

    Summary A method for cultivatingSpirulina platensis in domestic raw sewage, coupled with pisciculture and water reclamation in an integrated recycling system, has been standardized. The alga is grown in an indigenously designed open-air pilot production unit consisting of 4 concrete basins with a total surface area of 450 m2. The harvesting and processing methods are based on simple filtration and

  6. Restoration of acidic mine spoils with sewage sludge: I revegetation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Stucky; J. H. Bauer; T. C. Lindsey

    1980-01-01

    An average of 685 dry metric ton\\/ha of sewage sludge containing a mean of 167, 829, 970, 448, 83, 610, and 4,819 kg\\/ha of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively, was incorporated into acidic strip mine spoils at the Palzo tract in southern Illinois. In April 1976, 16 combinations of forages were planted on seven field sites

  7. Treatment of Sewage by Electroflotation: A Pilot Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel A. Palomino-Romero; Giancarlo R. Salazar-Banda; Maria Olímpia de O. Rezende

    2012-01-01

    A study was carried out on the decontamination of domestic sewage effluent by electroflotation in a homemade pilot scale reactor. Different values of current density, conductivity and effluent flow rate were tested to determine the most suitable operating parameters of the system. Applying a current density of 14.18 A m, adding 0.5 g L of NaCl, and using a flow rate of

  8. Domestic source of phosphorus to sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Comber, Sean; Gardner, Michael; Georges, Karyn; Blackwood, David; Gilmour, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is an element essential for life. Concerns regarding long-term security of supply and issues related to eutrophication of surface waters once released into the aquatic environment have led governments to consider and apply measures for reducing the use and discharge of phosphorus. Examples of source control include legislation to reduce phosphorus use in domestic detergents. This research shows that other domestic sources of phosphorus also contribute significantly to the domestic load to sewer and that overall, domestic sources dominate loads to sewage treatment works. Estimates provided here show that although the natural diet contributes 40% of the domestic phosphorus load, other potentially preventable sources contribute significantly to the estimated 44,000 tonnes of phosphorus entering UK sewage treatment works each year. In the UK, food additives are estimated to contribute 29% of the domestic load; automatic dishwashing detergents contribute 9% and potentially increasing; domestic laundry 14%, including contributions from phosphonates, but decreasing; phosphorus dosing to reduce lead levels in tap water 6%; food waste disposed of down the drain 1%; and personal care products 1%. Although UK data is presented here, it is anticipated that similar impacts would be expected for other developed economies. Consideration of alternatives to all preventable sources of phosphorus from these sources would therefore offer potentially significant reductions in phosphorus loads to sewage treatment works and hence to the aquatic environment. Combining all source control measures and applying them to their maximum extent could potentially lead to the prevention of over 22,000 tonnes-P/year entering sewage treatment works. PMID:24191467

  9. Seasonal microbial community shift in a saline sewage treatment plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingmei Yan; Xuxiang Zhang; Tong Zhang; Herbert H. P. Fang

    2011-01-01

    Activated sludge was monthly sampled from a saline sewage treatment plant of Hong Kong (China) during June 2007 to May 2008\\u000a to analyze the microbial community shift along with environmental variations using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis\\u000a of polymerase chain reaction amplified 16S rDNA fragments. Environmental changes resulted into a seasonal microbial community\\u000a shift characterized by alterations in species number and

  10. Sewage sludge treatment using microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gui Q. Yin; Ping H. Liao; Kwang V. Lo

    2008-01-01

    A microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process using hydrogen peroxide (MW\\/H2O2-AOP) was used for the release of nutrients and the destruction of solids from secondary municipal sewage sludge in this study. Using a computer statistical software package for designing experiments and for data analyses, four factors including microwave heating temperature, heating time, hydrogen peroxide dosage, and sludge solids content were examined. Experiments

  11. Sewage contamination of a densely populated coral ‘atoll’ (Bermuda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross Jones; Rachel Parsons; Elaine Watkinson; David Kendell

    2011-01-01

    Bermuda is a densely populated coral ‘atoll’ located on a seamount in the mid-Atlantic (Sargasso Sea). There is no national\\u000a sewerage system and the ?20 × 106 L of sewage generated daily is disposed of via marine outfalls, cess pits\\/septic tanks underneath houses and through waste\\u000a disposal (injection) wells. Gastrointestinal (GI) enterococci concentrations were measured in surface seawater samples collected\\u000a monthly

  12. Analysis of selected emerging contaminants in sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Barceló; M. J. García-Galán; P. Guerra; A. Jelic; C. Postigo; E. Eljarrat; M. Farré; M. J. López de Alda; M. Petrovic

    2009-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals, personal-care products, steroid sex hormones, illicit drugs, flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds are considered environmental emerging contaminants of particular concern, as many of them display endocrine-disrupting properties. These substances released as consequence of human activities enter the wastewater network after use in households and industry. Due to their physico-chemical properties, they tend to accumulate in sewage sludge during wastewater

  13. Disinfection of Sewage Sludge Using Microwave Enhanced Advanced Oxidation Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Yu; K. V. Lo; P. H. Liao

    2009-01-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW\\/H2O2-AOP) was used to treat municipal sewage sludge for pathogen destruction. Two levels of microwave heating temperatures of 55degC and 70degC, and six levels of hydrogen peroxide dosages (0% to 0.1%) were used. Fecal coliform concentrations were found below detection limit (1000 CFU\\/L) immediately after treatment when sludge was treated at 70degC with more

  14. Growth of water hyacinths in treated sewage effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean W. Wooten; John D. Dodd

    1976-01-01

    Two thousand plants of the water hyacinth,Eichornia crassipes Solms., were introduced on April 11, 1971, into a series of five ponds, each 5000 sq. ft. in area and 2.6 ft. deep. Treated waste\\u000a water effluent from the Ames sewage treatment plant filled the ponds and was added to pond 1 at 127 gallons per minute. By\\u000a growth and vegetative reproduction,

  15. Utilization of stabilized and solidified sewage sludge as a daily landfill cover material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ha Ik Chung; Yong Soo Lee

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of stabilized and solidified sewage sludge for use as a daily landfill cover material, unconfined\\u000a compressive strength, CBR (California Bearing Ratio), hydraulic conductivity, rainfall drainage ability, and erosion resistance\\u000a were examined. In addition, material segregation of the solidified sewage sludge was investigated. The experiment results\\u000a showed that the solidified sewage sludge material had enough equipment transportability.

  16. SEWAGE SLUDGE COMPOST FERTILIZER EFFECT ON MAIZE YIELD AND SOIL HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DELGADO ARROYO; Miguel Ángel; PORCEL COTS; Rosario MIRALLES; BELTRÁN RODRÍGUEZ; José Valero; MARTÍN SÁNCHEZ

    2002-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the use of an organic residue (sewage sludge compost) for four years (1996-1999), to study effects of sewage compost on crop yield and chemical proper- ties of soil under field condition. Productivity studies showed that the greatest growth is ob- tained in mixed II treatment (12000 kg\\/ha sewage sludge compost plus 350 kg\\/ha urea) with

  17. Multiple antibiotic resistances of Enterococcus isolates from raw or sand-filtered sewage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junyi Xu; Claudia Gallert; Josef Winter

    2007-01-01

    Fifty antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus strains were isolated from raw sewage of a wastewater treatment plant and from the same sewage after trickling through a\\u000a 25-cm sand column, which retained >99% of the initial population. All 50 Enterococcus isolates were resistant against triple sulfa and trimethoprim\\/sulfamethoxazole and none were resistant against vancomycin.\\u000a Most of the isolates from raw sewage were resistant to

  18. Chemical Changes and Heavy Metal Partitioning in an Oxisol Cultivated with Maize (Zea mays, L.) after 5 Years Disposal of a Domestic and an Industrial Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Alcantara; D. V. Pérez; M. R. A. Almeida; G. M. Silva; J. C. Polidoro; W. Bettiol

    2009-01-01

    The need for solutions to minimize the negative environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities Fhas increased. Sewage sludge\\u000a is composed of predominantly organic matter and can be used to improve soil characteristics, such as fertility. Therefore,\\u000a its application in agriculture is an adequate alternative for its final disposal. However, there is a lack of information\\u000a on its long-term effects on soil

  19. Separation of metals and phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Ito, A; Yamada, K; Ishikawa, N; Umita, T

    2013-01-01

    Microbial acidification of incinerated sewage sludge ash and dissolution of metals from the acidified ash were investigated using a semi-batch reactor at different solid retention times (SRTs). The average pH values ranged from 0.91 to 1.2 at SRTs longer than 10 days, whereas the reduction of SRT to 4 days resulted in an increase in the pH value to about 2. The dissolution efficiencies of Al, As, Cd, Cu and Mn were greater than 60% at a SRT of 4 days. Moreover, the effect of pH on precipitation of metals and P (dissolution of 80%) in the filtrate removed from the acidified sewage ash suspension, and the separation of phosphorus and the other metals in the filtrate using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or ferric ion, were examined. Although neutralisation of the filtrate to a pH of 5 simultaneously precipitated 100% of Al and 80% of P recovered from the acidified sewage ash, the addition of EDTA decreased their precipitation to 70 and 50%, respectively, at the same pH value, which would promote precipitation of P as calcium phosphate. Furthermore, neutralising to a pH of 2.5 after the addition of ferric ion precipitated P separately from Al and heavy metals. PMID:23752380

  20. Sewage contamination in the new york bight. Coprostanol as an indicator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; McGillivary, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Sediments of the New York Bight are analyzed for coprostanol, a fecal steroid, to determine the degree of sewage contamination. Coprostanol, when reported as a percentage of total steroids (% coprostanol), can be quantitatively related to the amount of sewage-derived organic matter. Furthermore, coprostanol is quite persistent in anoxic silts of the Bight and, thus, can be used to delineate historical contamination in these silts. Based on the sediments analyzed, the New York Bight is shown to be highly contaminated with sewage (most likely ocean-dumped sewage sludge), especially in the topographically low areas near the dump site, where black silts have been known to accumulate.

  1. Analysis of Energy and Soft Dirt in an Urban Untreated Sewage Source Heat Pump System 

    E-print Network

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.

    2006-01-01

    (UUSHPS) runs, at first it would wipe off the big filth in the sewage by special equipment, flowing that the sewage with small filth will transfer heat or cool to the intermediary water through the tube-shell sewage heat exchanger, at last the heat... can not get the middle velocity in (2), one must adopt effective methods to wipe off the dirt for ensuring the heat exchanger the effect of heat exchange, such as using the liquid of a high velocity to wash the sewage pipe in a short time reversely...

  2. Effect of the addition of rice straw on microbial community in a sewage sludge digester.

    PubMed

    Nakakihara, E; Ikemoto-Yamamoto, R; Honda, R; Ohtsuki, S; Takano, M; Suetsugu, Y; Watanabe, H

    2014-01-01

    Rice straw was added to a sewage sludge digester and its effects on methane production, dewatering characteristics, and microbial communities in the digested sludge were examined by a continuous digestion experiment under mesophilic conditions (35 °C). Stable gas generation was monitored in all digestion experiments. Methane yield from raw sludge, chopped rice straw and softened rice straw were estimated to be 0.27, 0.18 and 0.26 NL/g total solids load, respectively. The capillary suction time of digested sludge was decreased by the addition of rice straw. Archaeal and bacterial communities in the sludge were elucidated by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction--denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) targeting 16S rRNA genes. The Shannon index of DGGE profiles indicated that bacterial diversity increased with the addition of softened rice straw. DNA sequences of significant bands of the digested sludge were most closely related to Methanosaeta concilii (97.4% identity) and Methanoculleus bourgensis (100% identity). Meanwhile, those in the co-digested sludge with rice straw were most closely related to Methanosarcina barkeri (98.4% identity) and Methanoculleus bourgensis (99.3% identity). Although both Methanosaeta spp. and Methanosarcina spp. metabolize acetate to methane, Methanosarcina spp. have a competitive advantage at acetate concentrations of >70 mg/L. Results suggested that the quantity of acetate produced during rice straw degradation may change the archaeal community. PMID:25225928

  3. Interpreting the synergistic effect in combined ultrasonication-ozonation sewage sludge pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Lin, Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-12-01

    The sequential combination of ultrasonication and ozonation as sewage sludge treatment prior to anaerobic digestion was investigated. Synergistic volatile suspended solids (VSS) solubilization was observed when low energy ultrasonication (?12kJg(-1) TS) was followed by ozonation. 0.048gO3g(-1) TS ozonation induced the maximum VSS solubilization of 41.3% when the sludge was pre-ultrasonicated at 9kJg(-1) TS; while, the same ozone dosage applied without prior ultrasonication only induced 21.1% VSS solubilization. High molecular weight (MW) components (MW>500kDa) were found to be the main solubilization products when sludge was only ozonated. However, solubilization products by ozone were mainly in the form of low MW components (MW<27kDa) when sludge was pre-ultrasonicated. The high MW products generated by ultrasound were effectively degraded in the subsequent ozonation. Anaerobic biodegradability increased by 34.7% when ultrasonication (9kJg(-1) TS) and ozonation (0.036gO3g(-1) TS) were combined sequentially. The maximum methane production rate increased from 3.53 to 4.32, 4.21 and 4.54mL CH4d(-1) after ultrasonication, ozonation and ultrasonication-ozonation pre-treatments, respectively. PMID:25282627

  4. [Effects of sewage discharge on abundance and biomass of meiofauna].

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Shou; Lin, Ming-Xian; Chen, Huai-Pu; Wei, Lian-Ming; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Nan

    2014-10-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of sewage discharge on abundance and biomass of meio- fauna, a seasonal survey was carried out on meiofauna at stations with different distances to a sewage outlet in the middle intertidal zone of No. 1 bathing beach in Huiquan Bay, Qingdao in spring (April), summer (August), autumn (October) and winter (December), 2011. The results showed that the annual average meiofaunal abundance was (1859.9 ± 705.1) ind · 10 cm(-2), with higher values of (2444.9 ± 1220.5) ind · 10 cm(-2) at Station S2 (20 m to the sewage outlet) and (2492.2 ± 1839.9) ind · 10 cm(-2) at Station S3 (40 m to the sewage outlet), while the lowest value of (327.9 ± 183.2) ind · 10 cm(-2) was observed at Station S1 (0 m to the sewage outlet) in terms of horizontal distribution. The annual average biomass was (1513.4 ± 372.7) ?g · 10 cm(-2). Meiofaunal abundance and biomass varied seasonally with the highest values in spring and the lowest values in summer. A total of 11 meiofaunal groups were identified, including nematodes, copepods, polychaetes, oligochaetes, tardigrades, halacaroideans, planarians, ostracods, isopods, crustacean nauplii and others. Free-living marine nematodes were the dominant group constituting 83. 1% of the total abundance, followed by benthic copepods, accounting for 12. 8% of the total abundance. In terms of vertical distribution, most of the meiofauna concentrated in the top 0-2 cm, and the meiofauna abundance decreased with increasing the sediment depth. Meiofauna was also noted to migrate deeper into the sediment in the winter. Pearson correlation analysis showed that meiofaunal abundance and biomass had highly significant negative correlations with sediment median particle diameter and organic matter content. In addition, tourism-induced activities affected meiofaunal abundance and distribution. A comparison with historical data from similar studies was carried out, and the applicability of the ratio of abundance of nematodes to copepods in monitoring organic pollution was discussed. PMID:25796915

  5. Distribution of coliphages against four e. Coli virotypes in hospital originated sewage sample and a sewage treatment plant in bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muntasir; Farzana, Tasmia; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Nessa, Jamalun

    2011-06-01

    The distribution of coliphages infecting different Escherichia coli virotypes (EHEC, EIEC, EPEC, ETEC) and an avirulent strain (K-12) in sewage system of a hospital and a sewage treatment plant (STP) was investigated by culture-based agar overlay methods. Coliphages were found in all the samples except stool dumping site in the sewage system of the hospital and lagoon of the STP. Bacteriophage count (pfu/ml) infecting E. coli strains showed the following ascending pattern (EHEC < EIEC < EPEC < ETEC < E coli K-12) in all the collected samples except one. Phages capable of infecting avirulent E. coli K-12 strains were present in the highest number among all the examined locations. Phages specific for E. coli K-12 presented high diversity in plaque size on the bacterial lawn. Virulent E. coli specific coliphages rarely produced plaques with diameter of 1-2 mm or over. Conventional agar overlay method was found to be not satisfactory for phage community analysis from primary stool dumping site of the hospital, probably due to the presence of high concentration of antimicrobial substances. The gradual decrease seen in the five groups of coliphage quantity with the ongoing treatment process and then the absolute absence of coliphages in the outlet of the examined treatment plant is indicative of the usefulness of the treatment processes practiced there. PMID:22654163

  6. Influence of anaerobic co-digestion of sewage and brewery sludges on biogas production and sludge quality.

    PubMed

    Pecharaply, Athapol; Parkpian, Preeda; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2007-06-01

    This research investigated operating parameters and treatment efficiency for the digestion of sewage and brewery sludge. The prime objective of this study was to enhance the quality of treated sludge for use as agriculture fertilizer and to enhance biogas production, a by-product that can be used as an energy source. Three bench-scale completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) anaerobic digesters were operated at mesophilic condition (36+/-0.2 degrees C). A mixture of sewage and brewery sludge were used as substrates at ratios of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, based on wet weight basis (w/w). For each digester, the solids retention times (SRT) were 20 days. The organic loading and volatile solids loading were between 1.3-2.2 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m3/day and 0.9-1.5 kg/m3/day, respectively. The digester fed with brewery sludge as co-substrate yielded higher treatment efficiency than sewage sludge alone. The removal efficiencies measured in terms of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and total chemical oxygen demands (TCOD) ranged from 40% to 75% and 22% to 35%, respectively. Higher SCOD and TCOD removal efficiencies were obtained when higher fractions of brewery sludge was added to the substrate mixture. Removal efficiency was lowest for sewage sludge alone. Measured volatile solid (VS) reduction ranged from 15% to 20%. Adding a higher fraction of brewery sludge to the mixture increased the VS reduction percentage. The biogas production and methane yield also increased with increase in brewery sludge addition to the digester mixture. The methane content present in biogas of each digester exceeded 70% indicating the system was functioning as an anaerobic process. Likewise the ratio of brewery sewage influenced not only the treatment efficiency but also improved quality of treated sludge by lowering number of pathogen (less than 2 MPN/g of dried sludge) and maintaining a high nutrient concentration of nitrogen (N) 3.2-4.2%, phosphorus (P) 1.9-3.2% and potassium (K) 0.95-0.96%. The heavy metals, chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) remaining in digested sludge were present at relatively high levels (Cr 1,849-4,230 and Cu 930-2,526 mg/kg dried sludge). The metals were present as organic matter-bound and sulfide-bound fractions that are not soluble and available. The digested sludge could be safely applied to soil as a plant nutrient source, without fecal coliforms or heavy metals risk. A sludge mixture ratio of 25:75 (sewage:brewery), which generated the higher nutrient concentrations (N=4.22%, P=3.20% and K=0.95%), biogas production and treatment efficiency meet the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) safety guidelines required for agricultural application. Biogas production and methane at the 25:75 ratio (sewage:brewery) yielded highest amount of VSremoved (0.65 m3/kg) and CODremoved (220 L/kg), respectively. PMID:17558772

  7. Reef degradation and coral biodiversity in indonesia: Effects of land-based pollution, destructive fishing practices and changes over time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan N Edinger; Jamaluddin Jompa; Gino V Limmon; Wisnu Widjatmoko; Michael J Risk

    1998-01-01

    Species-area curves calculated from line-intercept transect surveys on 15 reefs in three regions of Indonesia allow estimation of the relative decrease in within-habitat coral species diversity associated with different types of reef degradation. Reefs subject to land-based pollution (sewage, sedimentation, and\\/or industrial pollution) show 30–50% reduced diversity at 3 m, and 40–60% reduced diversity at 10 m depth relative to

  8. Sensitized photolysis as pretreatment to biological degradation of trichlorobenzenes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae Hyoun.

    1991-01-01

    The role of photolysis as pretreatment process was examined for the biological degradation of trichlorobenzenes (TCBs), namely 1,2,3-, 1,2,4- and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzenes. Initially, direct and indirect photolysis experiments were conducted using aqueous solutions with 1% acetonitrile of the three isomers of trichlorobenzenes with and without sensitizers. The sensitizers used were Fenton's reagent, nitrite, triethylamine, humic acid and TiO{sub 2}. The photochemical experiments were performed using laboratory simulated sunlight and the kinetic rates for these processes were calculated. The effect of photolysis on the biological degradation chlorobenzenes were examined using a chemical activation system (CAS) which consists of EDTA, ferrous sulfate, ascorbic acid, catalase and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in potassium phosphate buffer (monobasic) and a primary sewage effluent. Initially, kinetic rates by CAS biodegradation and primary sewage were obtained and compared. In general, the rates of biodegradation were greater in the test media with catalase. The rate of transformation in CAS was enhanced in the order: monoCB < 1,2,3-TCB < 1,2,4-TCB < 1,3,5-TCB; whereas, when CAS was used as a control, the kinetic rates in the presence of catalase increased in the sequence: 1,2,3-TCB, 1,3,5-TCB < 1,2,4-TCB < MonoCB. Photolysis studied in concert with the biological systems showed significant enhancement of the degradation rate of trichlorobenzenes. The photolysis rates were higher for those with sensitized photolysis. This study shows that photolysis can be used as a pretreatment of enhancing biodegradation of trichlorobenzenes in aqueous systems.

  9. Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKinn, T.

    1985-05-01

    Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms)) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of one year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ day (23.6 dry tons/acre yr). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (27 dry tons/acre yr), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (22 dry tons/acre yr) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. N and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured im primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7% N and 0.94% P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8% N and 0.79% P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nurtrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N/ha yr and 321 to 387 kg P/ha yr, respectively.

  10. Environmental degradation and its health implications for children.

    PubMed

    Shiva, M

    1992-01-01

    Several types of environmental degradation and their philosophical implications are discussed in this essay. Environmental degradation causes chemicalization and degradation of the health of the body and harm to the soul and mind because of the resulting unmet needs of the many and the greedy consumption of the few. Degradation of the water supply is caused by overuse of water for cash crops, contamination of water by night soil, and improper disposal and piping of sewage. The resulting water-borne diseases, such as cholera, are then mistreated by giving children anti-diarrheal drugs that keep the germs in the body. Bottling of mineral water further reduces the supply for the poor. People should instead put bottles of water in the sun or use wood apple or drumstick seeds to purify water. Chemicalization of the environment has resulted in major disasters such as Mina inmates disease, the Bhopal disaster, the Bichri acid drinking water tragedy, crippling of youths in Karnataka by pesticide-poisoned crabs, and poisoning by use of pesticide containers for food. Usually those responsible go free, and socially conscious officers are fired. People have to protect themselves by taking such action as: recycling envelopes, eating non-processed foods, composting instead of burning leaves, and trying to get codes passed for baby food, drugs, vehicle emissions, and factory effluents. PMID:12318352

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Llll of... - Emission Limits and Standards for New Fluidized Bed Sewage Sludge Incineration Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60...Standards for New Fluidized Bed Sewage Sludge Incineration Units For the air...finish. Fugitive emissions from ash handling Visible emissions...

  12. Soil and stream-water impacts of sewage effluent irrigation onto steeply sloping land

    SciTech Connect

    Speir, T.W.; Schaik, A.P. van; Kettles, H.A.; Vincent, K.W.; Campbell, D.J.

    1999-08-01

    In a pilot study, the authors investigated how irrigation of secondary sewage effluent onto steeply sloping land affected soil physical, chemical, and biochemical properties, the composition of soil- and surface-waters and the vegetation of the site. The 3.36-ha site received up to 44 mm effluent/wk for 65 wk. Irrigation significantly improved total- and Olsen-P status of the soils and greatly enhanced nitrification potential. Respiration increased with increasing soil water content, but microbial biomass was not greatly affected by irrigation. Soil phosphatase activity decreased with increasing P fertility. Soil physical properties were not affected by effluent and hydraulic conductivities were sufficient to conduct water into and through the soil profiles. Soil- and surface-water NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations increased markedly, especially in the second half of the trial when soil nitrification rates were also high. However, the streamwater NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations remained well below the drinking water limit concentration of 11.3 g m{sup {minus}3}. In contrast, streamwater NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}-P concentrations remained low and results indicated that concentrations of PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}-P in river water, resulting from a full-scale irrigation scheme, would not exceed the target limit level of 0.0056 g m{sup {minus}3}. Irrigation accelerated natural successional changes in the vegetation, with a decline in undesirable fire-prone and shrubby species and an increase in native trees and tree ferns. These results demonstrated that, in the short term at least, a carefully designed and implemented irrigation scheme on steepland could renovate secondary sewage effluent, without adversely affecting soil properties and surface water quality.

  13. Co-digestion of municipal sewage sludge and solid waste: modelling of carbohydrate, lipid and protein content influence.

    PubMed

    Nielfa, A; Cano, R; Pérez, A; Fdez-Polanco, M

    2015-03-01

    Solid wastes from industrial, commercial and community activities are of growing concern as the total volume of waste produced continues to increase. The knowledge of the specific composition and characteristics of the waste is an important tool in the correct development of the anaerobic digestion process. The problems derived from the anaerobic digestion of sole substrates with high lipid, carbohydrate or protein content lead to the co-digestion of these substrates with another disposed waste, such as sewage sludge. The kinetic of the anaerobic digestion is especially difficult to explain adequately, although some mathematical models are able to represent the main aspects of a biological system, thus improving understanding of the parameters involved in the process. The aim of this work is to evaluate the experimental biochemical methane potential on the co-digestion of sewage sludge with different solid wastes (grease; spent grain and cow manure) through the implementation of four kinetic models. The co-digestion of grease waste and mixed sludge obtained the best improvements from the sole substrates, with additional positive synergistic effects. The Gompertz model fits the experimental biochemical methane potential to an accuracy of 99%, showing a correlation between the percentage of lipid in the substrates and co-digestions and the period of lag phase. PMID:25698789

  14. Degradation of alkyl ethers, aralkyl ethers, and dibenzyl ether by Rhodococcus sp. strain DEE5151, isolated from diethyl ether-containing enrichment cultures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hak; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich

    2004-07-01

    Twenty strains isolated from sewage sludge were found to degrade various ethers, including alkyl ethers, aralkyl ethers, and dibenzyl ether. In Rhodococcus strain DEE5151, induction of ether degradation needed substrates exhibiting at least one unsubstituted Calpha-methylene moiety as the main structural prerequisite. The cleavage reaction observed with anisole, phenetole, and dibenzyl ether indicates that the initial oxidation occurs at such respective Calpha positions. Diethyl ether-induced strain DEE5151 degraded dibenzyl ether via intermediately accumulated benzoic acid. Phenetole seems to be subject also to another ether-cleaving enzyme. Other strains of this group showed different enzymatic activities towards the substrate classes investigated. PMID:15240329

  15. Sewage disposal in the Musi-River, India: water quality remediation through irrigation infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Scott, Christopher

    Sewage disposal in the Musi-River, India: water quality remediation through irrigation + Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract The disposal of untreated urban sewage in to open water bodies is common sustainability. Hyderabad, one of India's largest cities, disposes large amounts of its wastewater untreated

  16. College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension Land Application of Sewage

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    of Sewage Sludge in Pennsylvania Effects of Biosolids on Soil and Crop Quality ENVIRONME NTAL· ISSUES land application of biosolids represents a beneficial reuse alternative to landfill disposal, and adverse environmental effects are minimized. Biosolids (treated municipal sewage sludge) are used

  17. Phosphate recovery from sewage sludge in combination with supercritical water oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Stendahl; S. Jäfverström

    Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) is an innovative and effective destruction method for organics in sewage sludge. The SCWO process leaves a slurry of inorganic ash in a pure water phase free from organic contaminants, which opens possibilities for a simple process to recover components like phosphates from the sewage sludge. In a continuous pilot plant for the SCWO process digested

  18. Geochemical investigation of an offshore sewage sludge deposit, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Kruge; A. Permanyer; J. Serra; D. Yu

    2010-01-01

    For 20 years ending in the 1990s the city of Barcelona discharged the products from a large primary sewage treatment plant directly into the Mediterranean Sea via underwater conduits. About ca. 3 million m3 of relict sewage sludge, rich in organic matter and heavy metals, has spread over an elongated area offshore, due to successive ruptures of the conduits. The

  19. Effect of coal ash residues on the microbiology of sewage sludge composting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fang; J. W. C. Wong; G. X. Li; M. H. Wong

    1997-01-01

    Alkaline coal ash residues (fly ash, FA, and lagoon ash, LA) which have been used as co-composting materials for sewage sludge to reduce the availability of trace metals, may have an adverse impact on the composting process. It is therefore the aim of the present study to evaluate the effect of FA and LA on the microbial activities of sewage

  20. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  1. Efficiency of sewage sludge treatment technologies to eliminating endocrine active compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gehring; D. Vogel; L. Tennhardt; D. Weltin; B. Bilitewski

    Hormonal disturbances caused by environmental pollutants have become one of the most important issues regarding environmental and human health. In order to investigate the efficiency of sewage sludge treatment technologies to eliminating endocrine active compounds (EACs) samplings have been carried out at 13 municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and one co-fermentation facility in Germany. Laboratory experiments have been conducted simulating

  2. Study of cement-based mortars containing spanish ground sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Payá; M. V. Borrachero; A. Bellver; E. Peris-Mora

    1997-01-01

    A study of cement based mortars containing spanish ground sewage sludge ash is presented. The influence of original and ground sewage sludge ash on mortars workability and compressive strength has been studied. An initial decrease of workability is observed when 30% of Portland cement is replaced by original ash. When ash grinding time increases a little increased of workability is

  3. Effect of heating temperature on the sintering characteristics of sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kae-Long Lin; Kung-Yuh Chiang; Deng-Fong Lin

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated and analyzed the effects of the heating temperature on the properties of the sintered sewage sludge ash. The results indicated that the water absorption rate of the sintered sewage sludge ash samples decreased when the firing temperature was increased from 800 to 900°C. When the heating temperature reached 1000°C, the absorption rate decreased significantly. The bulk density

  4. Electrodialytic treatment for metal removal from sewage sludge ash from fluidized bed combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pazos; G. M. Kirkelund; L. M. Ottosen

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge contains several potentially hazardous compounds such as heavy metals, PCBs, PAHs, etc. However, elements with high agricultural value (P, K or Ca) are also present. During the last years, the fluidized bed sludge combustor (FBSC) is considered an effective and novel alternative to treat sewage sludge. By its use, the high amount of sludge is reduced to a

  5. Sewage sludge incinerator ash effects on soil chemical properties and growth of lettuce and corn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Bierman; Carl J. Rosen

    1994-01-01

    Incineration reduces sewage sludge volume, but management of the resulting ash is an important environmental concern. A laboratory incubation study and greenhouse pot experiments with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) were conducted to examine the potential for recycling elements in sewage sludge incinerator ash in agricultural systems. Ash rates in both the laboratory and greenhouse were

  6. Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Work related symptoms among sewage workers: a nationwide survey in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, J; Beijer, L; Rylander, R

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To assess the risk for work related symptoms among sewage workers in Sweden using a postal questionnaire. Methods: All municipalities in Sweden were contacted and asked to provide addresses of sewage workers and controls. Controls were recruited among other municipal workers not exposed to sewage, such as workers in drinking water plants and gardeners. A questionnaire was sent to the subjects and after two reminders, the response rate was 74% among sewage workers and 59% among controls. Results: Significantly increased risks for airway symptoms, chronic bronchitis, and toxic pneumonitis, as well as central nervous system symptoms such as headache, unusual tiredness, and concentration difficulties were found among the sewage workers compared with controls. Furthermore, an increased risk for non-specific work related gastrointestinal symptoms was found among the sewage workers; an increased risk for joint pains, related to pains in more than four joints but not with loading, was also found. Conclusions: The results of this questionnaire survey show an increased risk for airway, gastrointestinal, and general symptoms such as joint pains and central nervous system symptoms among sewage workers. Clinical investigations are needed to determine the cause of the reported symptoms among sewage workers, and further field studies are required to assess the causal agents. PMID:12151615

  9. Prediction of extractable metals (Cd, Pb, Fe Cu, Mn and Zn) in sewage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Ololade

    Sewage sludge are residues resulting from the treatment of wastewater released from various sources including homes, industries, medical facilities, street run off and businesses. It consists of nutrients and organic matter that can provide soil benefits and are widely used as soil amendments. Over several years, the inability to determine metal species in sewage hampers efforts to understand the mobility,

  10. Response of the Spokane River Diatom Community to Primary Sewage Effluenl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond A. Soltero

    Abslract This study examines the effects of the primary sewage eflluent from the City of Spokade, Sgash' iogtoo, on the diatom community in the Spokane River. Both natural and artificial substrates were used at each of three sarnpling stations, one above aod two below the sewage outfall, to determine the impact of the effluent on species composition, species diversity, and

  11. KANEOHE BAY SEWAGE DIVERSION EXPERIMENT: PERSPECTIVES ON ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES TO NUTRITIONAL PERTURBATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, received increasing amounts of sewage from the 1950s through 1977. Most sewage was diverted from the bay in 1977 and early 1978. This investigation, begun in January 1976 and continued through August 1979, described the bay over that period, with particular r...

  12. LONG-TERM USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results from the last 2 years of a 15-year study of the long term use of sewage sludge on agricultural and disturbed lands. The three field studies discussed here include (1) the response of corn to repeated annual applications of sewage sludge, (2) the diffe...

  13. Fate of pharmaceuticals and cosmetic ingredients during the operation of a MBR treating sewage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Reif; S. Suárez; F. Omil; J. M. Lema

    2008-01-01

    Municipal wastewaters contain many organic compounds, among them active ingredients as pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products, which are used in large quantities throughout the world. Most of these compounds come either from domestic sewage or from hospital or industrial discharges and enter municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). Modern STPs can effectively accomplish carbon and nitrogen removal, as well as microbial pollution

  14. Investigations into the characteristics of oils produced from microwave pyrolysis of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Domínguez; J. A. Menéndez; M. Inguanzo; J. J. Pis

    2005-01-01

    GC–MS was used to determine the main components of high temperature oils obtained from the microwave pyrolysis of sewage sludge under different conditions. The effect of a multimode and a singlemode microwave oven and graphite and char as microwave absorbers on the pyrolysis process was investigated. The pyrolysis of sewage sludge was rapid with both absorbers, temperatures of up to

  15. Gasification of sewage sludge and other biomass for hydrogen production in supercritical water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiadong Xu; Michael Jerry Antal

    1998-01-01

    Digested sewage sludge and other biomass such as wood sawdust can be mixed with a corn starch gel to form a viscous paste. The paste can be delivered to a supercritical flow reactor by means of a cement pump. Different types of feedstocks are used in this work sewage sludge (up to 7.69 wt%) mixed in the corn starch paste.

  16. Fate of Triclosan and Triclosan-Methyl in Sewage TreatmentPlants and Surface Waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Bester

    2005-01-01

    The fate of triclosan in diverse stages of two sewage treatment processes has been determined. The elimination process differed considerably depending on the technology applied in the respective sewage treatment plant (STP). The plant operating with a two-stage biologic (activated sludge) process removed triclosan more efficiently than the STP with a combination of physical and activated sludge process. The treatment

  17. Biomonitoring of complex occupational exposures to carcinogens: The case of sewage workers in Paris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamzeh Al Zabadi; Luc Ferrari; Anne-Marie Laurent; Aziz Tiberguent; Christophe Paris; Denis Zmirou-Navier

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sewage workers provide an essential service in the protection of public and environmental health. However, they are exposed to varied mixtures of chemicals; some are known or suspected to be genotoxics or carcinogens. Thus, trying to relate adverse outcomes to single toxicant is inappropriate. We aim to investigate if sewage workers are at increased carcinogenic risk as evaluated by

  18. Developing criteria for small on-site sewage treatment systems: Two case studies. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.P.; Fahmy, H.S.; Blair, A.W.; Jacquez, R.

    1992-10-01

    Two sites in Dona Ana County, the Lyons Country Estates Evapotranspiration (ET) bed and the Mesa Village sewage lagoons, were chosen as case study sites for evaluating the design criteria, operation, and impacts on groundwater of troubled on-site sewage systems.

  19. In-line Pretreatment of Sewage Through a New Green and Economical Technique: the DRAUSY Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grace F. Tjandraatmadja; L. Stewart Burn; CSIRO BCE

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The quality of sewage has a large impact on the operation of treatment plants. In general most sewage pipelines tend to develop anaerobic conditions at some stage. These are associated with a large number of problems. They favour the growth of filamentous bacteria, which easily clog filters in treatment plants. It is also conducive to hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

  20. Principals of Water Pollution Control and Assessing the Impact of Treated Sewage Effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Touw

    Wastewater treatment plants are designed to remove from municipal sewage a wide variety of substances that individuals discard into sanitary sewers. These substances fall into three categories, each of which is treated differently within a sewage treatment plant. Insoluble materials (i.e., grease, fats, sticks, beverage cans, and other assorted materials) are mechanically screened or skimmed from the surface. Suspended substances

  1. Cadmium in sewage sludge in a Swedish region: sources and reduction opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annica Lindqvist-Östblom; Mats Eklund

    2001-01-01

    To create a more sustainable future, one of the Swedish government's aims is to close the eco-cycles between urban consumption areas and arable land. Increasing the use of sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) is one method of achieving this goal. However, the use of sewage sludge is often prohibited due to its high concentrations of cadmium. As

  2. Influence of Seasons and Sampling Strategy on Assessment of Bioaerosols in Sewage Treatment Plants in Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANNE OPPLIGER; SILVIA HILFIKER; TRINH VU DUC

    2005-01-01

    An assessment of sewage workers' exposure to airborne cultivable bacteria, fungi and inhaled endotoxins was performed at 11 sewage treatment plants. We sampled the enclosed and unenclosed treatment areas in each plant and evaluated the influence of seasons (summer and winter) on bioaerosol levels. We also measured personal exposure to endotoxins of workers duringspecialoperationwhereahigherriskofbioaerosolinhalationwasassumed.Resultsshow that only fungi are present in

  3. Effects of the Basicity on the Comelting Conditions of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash and Sewage Sludge Ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kae-Long Lin

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the basicity on the pouring point of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash-sewage sludge ash mixture is investigated. Four kinds of sewage sludge ash, which were collected from several primary and secondary sewage treatment plants and were produced by different processes and sludge conditioning alternatives, were used as modifiers. The results indicate that

  4. Heavy metal content of vegetables irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in Zimbabwe: Implications for human health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Muchuweti; J. W. Birkett; E. Chinyanga; R. Zvauya; M. D. Scrimshaw; J. N. Lester

    2006-01-01

    There is growing public concern in Zimbabwe over the illegal cultivation of vegetables on soils amended with sewage sludge or irrigated with admixtures of sewage and sewage sludge. Excessive accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils may not only result in environmental contamination, but lead to elevated heavy metal uptake by crops, which may affect food quality and safety. The

  5. Response of a seagrass fish assemblage to improved wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ourgaud, M; Ruitton, S; Bell, J D; Letourneur, Y; Harmelin, J G; Harmelin-Vivien, M L

    2015-01-15

    We compared the structure of a seagrass fish assemblage near a sewage outlet before and after improvements to wastewater treatment. To determine whether responses by the fish assemblage were due to changes in water quality or to other factors, comparisons were made with the structure of a fish assemblage from a nearby site unaffected by sewage effluent. Total species richness, density and biomass of fish, decreased at both sites over the 30-year period. An increase in mean trophic level near the sewage outlet following improvements in water quality indicated that wastewater treatment had another important effect. This result is consistent with the reductions in food webs supporting pelagic and benthic fishes that typically accompany decreases in nutrient inputs. Although improvements to wastewater treatment explained much of the variation in the structure of the fish assemblage at PC, our results also suggest that fishing and climate change, at both sites. PMID:25499183

  6. Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Water-quality changes and potential for recovery of injected sewage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.J.; Ehrlich, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Treated sewage with a mean chloride concentration of 170 mg/ml was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4.7 x 105 cubic feet per day. The volume of water injected during the year was 1.7x108 cubic feet. Dissolved oxygen was contained in the sewage prior to injection. Water removed from the injection zone during injection was essentially free of oxygen. Probable growth of denitrifying bacteria and, thus, microbial denitrification, was suggested by bacterial counts in water from two observation wells that were close to the injection well. The volume fraction of treated sewage in water from wells located 35 feet and 733 feet from the injection well and open to the upper part of the injection zone stabilized at about 0.9 and 0.75, respectively. Chloride concentrations stabilized at about 1,900 mg/l in water from the well that was 35 feet from the injection well and stabilized at about 4,000 mg/l in water from the well that was 733 feet from the injection well. These and other data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.

  7. A Degrading Experience

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Seba Sheavly

    2014-05-28

    In this activity, learners perform an experiment to learn about how different types of marine debris degrade and how weather and sunlight affect the rate of degradation. Learners discover that debris made from natural materials, while biodegradable, can still be considered pollutants and can still harm the marine environment.

  8. Assessing pathogen risk to swimmers at non-sewage impacted recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Mary E; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2010-04-01

    The risk of gastrointestinal illness to swimmers from fresh sewage and non-sewage fecal sources at recreational beaches was predicted using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The QMRA estimated the probability of illness for accidental ingestion of recreational water with a specific concentration of fecal indicator bacteria, here the geometric mean enterococci limit of 35 cfu 100 mL(-1), from either a mixture of sources or an individual source. Using seagulls as an example non-sewage fecal source, the predicted median probability of illness was less than the illness benchmark of 0.01. When the fecal source was changed to poorly treated sewage, a relativity small difference between the median probability of illness and the illness benchmark was predicted. For waters impacted by a mixture of seagull and sewage waste, the dominant source of fecal indicator was not always the predicted dominant source of risk. PMID:20201509

  9. Effects of sewage sludge blending on the coal combustion: a thermogravimetric assessment.

    PubMed

    Otero, M; Gómez, X; García, A I; Morán, A

    2007-11-01

    Combustion of urban sewage sludge together with coal in existing infrastructures may be a sustainable management option energetically interesting for these materials, usually considered wastes. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to study the combustion of a semianthracite coal and the modifications undergone when adding a small percentage (2%, 5%, 10%) of sewage sludge. Both Differential Scanning Calorimetric analysis and Differential Thermogravimetry burning profiles showed differences between coal and sewage sludge combustion. However, the effects of adding a percentage of sewage sludge equal or smaller than 10% was hardly noticeable in terms of heat release and weight loss during the coal combustion. This was further proved by non-isothermal kinetic analysis, which was used to evaluate the Arrhenius activation energy corresponding to the co-combustion of the blends. This work shows that thermogravimetric analysis may be used as an easy rapid tool to asses the co-combustion of sewage sludge together with coal. PMID:17624399

  10. [Effects of land utilization of sewage sludge on grass and soils].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qixing; Chen, Tao; Ge, Yinghua; Tai, Peidong

    2003-03-01

    Effects of land disposal of sewage sludge on grass and soil environment were studied. The sewage sludge used was from Northern Shenyang Wastewater Treatment Plant. The results showed that contents of nutrient in the soil were increased after sewage sludge application, especially for organic matter. Grass biomass were increased and the green period were extended with a better growth of the lawn. The heavy metal contents in the soil were increased with Cd contents beyond 2nd grade national environmental quality standard for soils. However, Pb, Cu, Zn contents not accumulated heavily. Poa annua had better ability of absorbing and accumulating Pb from the sewage sludge. When the application rate of sewage sludge capacity was at 25, 30, 60 t.hm-2, Zoysia japonica expressed significant absorption and accumulation of Cd, Cu, Zn. PMID:12800658

  11. Enhancement of methane production in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of secondary sewage sludge by advanced thermal hydrolysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Abelleira-Pereira, Jose M; Pérez-Elvira, Sara I; Sánchez-Oneto, Jezabel; de la Cruz, Roberto; Portela, Juan R; Nebot, Enrique

    2015-03-15

    Studies on the development and evolution of anaerobic digestion (AD) pretreatments are nowadays becoming widespread, due to the outstanding benefits that these processes could entail in the management of sewage sludge. Production of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is becoming an extremely important environmental issue. The work presented in this paper is a continuation of our previous studies with the aim of understanding and developing the advanced thermal hydrolysis (ATH) process. ATH is a novel AD pretreatment based on a thermal hydrolysis (TH) process plus hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition that takes advantage of a peroxidation/direct steam injection synergistic effect. The main goal of the present research was to compare the performance of TH and ATH, conducted at a wide range of operating conditions, as pretreatments of mesophilic AD with an emphasis on methane production enhancement as a key parameter and its connection with the sludge solubilization. Results showed that both TH and ATH patently improved methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP (biochemical methane potential) tests in comparison with BMP control tests (raw secondary sewage sludge). Besides other interesting results and discussions, a promising result was obtained since ATH, operated at temperature (115 °C), pretreatment time (5 min) and pressure (1 bar) considerably below those typically used in TH (170 °C, 30 min, 8 bar), managed to enhance the methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP tests [biodegradability factor (fB) = cumulative CH4production/cumulative CH4production (Control) = 1.51 ± 0.01] to quite similar levels than conventional TH pretreatment [fB = 1.52 ± 0.03]. PMID:25682559

  12. The behaviour of ashes and heavy metals during the co-combustion of sewage sludges in a fluidised bed

    SciTech Connect

    Helena Lopes, M.; Abelha, P.; Lapa, N.; Oliveira, J.S.; Cabrita, I.; Gulyurtlu, I

    2003-07-01

    Co-combustion tests of dry sewage sludges with coal were performed in a pilot bubbling FBC aiming at the characterization of ashes and determining the behaviour of heavy metals in the process. The tests showed compliance with the regulatory levels as far as heavy metal emissions were concerned. The bottom ashes, which accounted for about 70% of the total ash production, were obtained in a granular form, with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm. The heavy metals were distributed in ashes obtained from different locations of the installation and their concentrations were found to vary depending on the location of capture. The increase in heavy metals content in bottom ashes was not found to lead to higher leachability and ecotoxicity compared to sewage sludges, suggesting that there could be opportunities for their further use. Mercury suffered vaporisation inside the reactor, thus leaving bottom ashes free of contamination by it. However, there was observed a strong retention of mercury in cyclone ashes due to the presence of unburned carbon which probably acted as an adsorbent. The effluent mercury was also found to be mostly associated with the particulate fraction, being less than 20% emitted in gaseous forms. The results suggested that the combustion of the sewage sludge could successfully be carried out and the amount of unburned carbon leaving the combustor but captured in cyclone was large enough to ensure substantial retention of mercury at low temperatures, hence could contribute to an improvement of the mercury release which still remains an issue of great concern to resolve during combustion of waste materials.

  13. Comparison of material flows in sewage-free and sewage-generating flue-gas purification systems of municipal waste incineration plants

    SciTech Connect

    Achternbosch, M.; Richers, U.

    1998-07-01

    During incineration of waste in waste incineration plants, polluted flue gases are generated which have to be subjected to flue gas purification. Although the legal requirements are nearly unambiguous, the question of whether wet flue gas purification is to be performed in a sewage-free or sewage-generating manner is discussed controversially by experts in the Federal Republic of Germany. As a contribution to this discussion, material flow studies of sewage-free and sewage-generating flue gas purification processes in waste incineration plants were performed by ITAS in cooperation with ITC-TAB. The study covered three waste incineration plants, two of which were operated in a sewage-generating and one in a sewage-free manner. The data and information submitted by most of the plant operators are not sufficient for a comprehensive balancing of flue gas purification systems in waste incineration plants. For this reason, plant operation often is not optimally tailored to the substances prevailing. During operation, at least temporary strong superstoichiometric dosage of auxiliary chemicals cannot be excluded. By means of plausibility assumptions and model calculations, closed balancing of most plants could be achieved. Moreover, it was demonstrated by the balancing of technical-scale waste incineration plants that the material flows in wet flue gas purification re less dependent on the design of the flue gas purification section (sewage-free/sewage-generating), but considerably affected by the operation of the flue gas purification system (e.g., volume of absorption agents used). Hence, material flows can be controlled in a certain range.

  14. New Anabaena and Nostoc cyanophages from sewage settling ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, N.; Thiel, T.; Giddings, T.H., Jr.; Wolk, C.P.

    1981-10-15

    We have isolated, from sewage settling ponds, 16 cyanophages for heterocyst forming, filamentous cyanobacteria of the genera Anabaena and Nostoc. These phages fall into three groups based on morphology, host range, one-step growth curves, and restriction digests. On the basis of these criteria they can be distinguished from cyanophages A-1(L), A-4(L), N-1, and AN-10 which we received from other laboratories. Certain of the newly described phages are similar in morphology to the short-tailed LPP cyanophages, and others to the long-tailed AS cyanophages.

  15. Thermochemical liquidization and anaerobic treatment of dewatered sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeki Sawayama; Seiichi Inoue; Tatsuo Yagishita; Tomoko Ogi; Shin-Ya Yokoyama

    1995-01-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge was thermochemically liquidized at 175°C and the liquidized sludge was separated by centrifugation to 57.7% (w\\/w) supernatant [moisture, 92.3%; volatile solid (VS), 7.0%] and 42.3% precipitate (moisture, 71.6%; VS, 18.9%). The supernatant was successfully anaerobically digested. Biogas yield from the supernatant at organic loading concentrations of 1.9–2.2 g VS\\/l during 9 days' incubation was 440 ml\\/g-added VS

  16. DEA degradation mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Meisen, A.; Kennard, M.L.

    1982-10-01

    Examines factors that increase diethanolamine (DEA) degradation, which reportedly depends on temperature, pressure, gas composition, amine concentration, pH of the amine solution and the presence of metal ions. Plant operators have tried to solve the problem by changing operating conditions and/or installing activated carbon filters. DEA degradation is frequently experienced in gas plants used for removing acidic gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from light hydrocarbons. Experimental results reveal that degradation is governed by: solubility of CO/sub 2/ in the DEA solution; degree of dissociation of the DEA molecules in solution; interaction of DEA and CO/sub 2/ molecules and/or ionic complexes. Most, or all, these phenomena are affected by temperature, pressure, DEA concentration and pH. A series of tests to determine whether activated carbon is capable of removing impurities from partially degraded DEA solutions showed that this treatment did not remove any major degradation compounds from the solutions.

  17. Degradation Kinetics of VX

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold

    2010-12-01

    O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl)phosphonothiolate (VX) is the most toxic of the conventional chemical warfare agents. It is a persistent compound, an attribute derived from its relative involatility and slow rates of hydrolysis. These properties suggest that VX can linger in an exposed environment for extended periods of time long after the air has cleared. Concern over prolonged risk from VX exposure is exacerbated by the fact that it poses a dermal contact hazard. Hence a detailed understanding of volatilization rates, and degradation pathways and rates occurring in various environments is needed. Historically, volatilization has not been considered to be an important mechanism for VX depletion, but recent studies have shown that a significant fraction of VX may volatilize, depending on the matrix. A significant body of research has been conducted over the years to unravel VX degradation reaction pathways and to quantify the rates at which they proceed. Rigorous measurement of degradation rates is frequently difficult, and thus in many cases the degradation of VX has been described in terms of half lives, while in fewer instances rate constants have been measured. This variable approach to describing degradation kinetics reflects uncertainty regarding the exact nature of the degradation mechanisms. In this review, rates of VX degradation are compared on the basis of pseudo-first order rate constants, in order to provide a basis for assessing likelihood of VX persistence in a given environment. An issue of specific concern is that one VX degradation pathway produces S-2-(diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioic acid (known as EA2192), which is a degradation product that retains much of the original toxicity of VX. Consequently degradation pathways and rates for EA2192 are also discussed.

  18. The real-time method of assessing the contribution of individual sources on visibility degradation in Taichung.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Nai; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Kuo, Chung-Yih; Chou, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Chung-Hao; Huang, Chun-Chieh; Chang, Shih-Yu; Roja Raman, M; Shang, Wen-Lin; Chuang, Tzu-Yao; Liu, Su-Ching

    2014-11-01

    Visibility degradation caused by air pollution has become a serious environmental problem in megacities in Northeast Asia. In general, aerosol chemical compositions are measured by a conventional method of time integrated filter sampling for off-line analysis, which cannot represent temporal and spatial variations in the real atmosphere. The in situ air composition measuring equipment, OCEC carbon aerosol analyzer and a long-path visibility transmissometer-3 were used to collect hourly measurements of the soluble ions, organic/elemental carbon, and ambient visibility, respectively. During the observation, two types of weather conditions were identified: transport and stagnant. Because PM2.5 was identified as the predominant species of light extinction, the sources of PM2.5 were determined and investigated using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. The PMF outputs characterized the six main emission sources (marine/crustal aerosols, secondary nitrate, secondary sulfate, direct vehicle exhaust, coal/incinerator combustion, and local sewage emission) and reconstructed the PM2.5 mass concentrations of each pollutant source in two weather conditions. In addition, the light extinction (bext) was reconstructed using a multivariate linear regression analysis with hourly-reconstructed PM2.5 mass concentrations to determine the contributions of each source to bext. The primary results showed that the extinction coefficient was proportional to the PM2.5 with high value in stagnant weather conditions. The secondary sulfate was the most abundant source of bext contribution during the sampling period. In addition, the bext contributions of direct vehicle exhaust and coal/incinerator combustion significantly increased in the stagnant weather condition. According to the results of hourly measurements, this work further emphasized that the sources of direct vehicle exhaust and coal/incinerator combustion in PM2.5 were the important sources of visibility degradation in the stagnant weather conditions, which suggests that the pollutants derived from direct vehicle exhaust and coal/incinerator combustion should be controlled first to improve visibility in Taichung. PMID:25133995

  19. Improved sustainability of feedstock production with sludge and interacting mycorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Seleiman, Mahmoud F; Santanen, Arja; Kleemola, Jouko; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mäkelä, Pirjo S A

    2013-05-01

    Recycling nutrients saves energy and improves agricultural sustainability. Sewage sludge contains 2.6% P and 3.1% N, so the availability of these nutrients was investigated using four crops grown in either soil or sand. Further attention was paid to the role of mycorrhiza in improvement of nutrient availability. The content of heavy metals and metalloids in the feedstock was analyzed. Sewage sludge application resulted in greater biomass accumulation in ryegrass than comparable single applications of either synthetic fertilizer or digested sludge. Sewage sludge application resulted in more numerous mycorrhizal spores in soil and increased root colonization in comparison to synthetic fertilizer. All plants studied had mycorrhizal colonized roots, with the highest colonization rate in maize, followed by hemp. Sewage sludge application resulted in the highest P uptake in all soil-grown plants. In conclusion, sewage sludge application increased feedstock yield, provided beneficial use for organic wastes, and contributed to the sustainability of bioenergy feedstock production systems. It also improves the soil conditions and plant nutrition through colonization by mycorrhizal fungi as well as reducing leaching and need of synthetic fertilizers. PMID:23481299

  20. Degradation of dioxins by cyclic ether degrading fungus, Cordyceps sinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunichika Nakamiya; Shyunji Hashimoto; Hiroyasu Ito; John S. Edmonds; Akio Yasuhara; Masatoshi Morita

    2005-01-01

    Use of the cyclic ether degrading fungus, Cordyceps sinensis strain A to degrade dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD), 2,3,7-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7-triCDD) and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (octaCDD) has revealed a new degradation pathway for dioxins. Catechols and other possible degradation products were synthesized to facilitate the identification, detection and quantification of these products, and phenylboronate was used for the derivatization and analysis of dihydroxylated degradation products. Degradation

  1. Acetic acid recovery from a hybrid biological-hydrothermal treatment process of sewage sludge - a pilot plant study.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J; Dare, P; Estcourt, G; Gapes, D; Lei, R; McDonald, B; Wijaya, N

    2015-03-01

    A two-stage process consisting of anaerobic fermentation followed by sub-critical wet oxidation was used to generate acetic acid from sewage sludge at pilot scale. Volatile fatty acids, dominated by propionic acid, were produced over 4-6 days in the 2,000 L fermentation reactor, which also achieved 31% solids reduction. Approximately 96% of the carbon was retained in solution over the fermentation stage. Using a 200 L wet oxidation reactor operating in batch mode, the second stage achieved 98% volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction and 67% total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) destruction. Acetic acid produced in this stage was recalcitrant to further degradation and was retained in solution. The gross yield from VSS was 16% for acetic acid and 21% for volatile fatty acids across the process, higher than reported yields for wet oxidation alone. The pilot plant results showed that 72% of the incoming phosphorus was retained in the solids, 94% of the nitrogen became concentrated in solution and 41% of the carbon was converted to a soluble state, in a more degradable form. Acetic acid produced from the process has the potential to be used to offset ethanol requirements in biological nutrient removal plants. PMID:25768220

  2. Solvent degradation and cleanup: a survey and recent ORNL studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper surveys the mechanisms for degradation of the tributyl phosphate and diluent components of Purex solvent by acid and radiation, reviews the problems encountered in plant operations resulting from the presence of these degradation products, and discusses methods for minimizing the formation of degradation products and accomplishing their removal. Scrubbing solutions containing sodium carbonate or hydroxylamine salts and secondary cleanup of solvents using solid sorbents are evaluated. Finally, recommendations for improved solvent cleanup are presented. 50 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Silk structure and degradation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Song, Yu-Wei; Jin, Li; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Pu, De-Yong; Lin, Shao-Qiang; Zhou, Chan; You, Hua-Jian; Ma, Yan; Li, Jin-Min; Yang, Li; Sung, K L Paul; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the structure of silk and its degradation properties, we have monitored the structure of silk using scanning electron microscopy and frozen sections. Raw silk and degummed raw silk were immersed in four types of degradation solutions for 156 d to observe their degradation properties. The subcutaneous implants in rats were removed after 7, 14, 56, 84, 129, and 145 d for frozen sectioning and subsequent staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E.), DAPI, Beta-actin and Collagen I immunofluorescence staining. The in vitro weight loss ratio of raw silk and degummed raw silk in water, PBS, DMEM and DMEM containing 10% FBS (F-DMEM) were, respectively, 14%/11%, 12.5%/12.9%, 11.1%/14.3%, 8.8%/11.6%. Silk began to degrade after 7 d subcutaneous implantation and after 145 d non-degraded silk was still observed. These findings suggest the immunogenicity of fibroin and sericin had no essential difference. In the process of in vitro degradation of silk, the role of the enzyme is not significant. The in vivo degradation of silk is related to phagocytotic activity and fibroblasts may be involved in this process to secrete collagen. This study also shows the developing process of cocoons and raw silk. PMID:25982316

  4. Vat dye sorption onto crude dehydrated sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Dhaouadi, H; M'henni, F

    2009-05-30

    In this work, sewage sludge is used as a textile dye adsorbent. A sample of crude dehydrated sewage sludge issued from an urban wastewater treatment plant (high-rate aeration, activated sludge process, Sahline, Tunisia) is utilized for vat dye retention. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the "efficiency" of the crude material on vat dye sorption. However, no treatment to modify any of the adsorbent properties was considered. Although the relatively low specific surface area (about 3.2m(2)g(-1)) compared to more conventional adsorbents, the used material shows very interesting retention capacities when used with water pollutants. The pseudo, first and second order kinetic models have been used to investigate the retention mechanism. When linearized, the pseudo-second order fit, for the both used dyes, in a better way the obtained experimental results than the pseudo-first order kinetic model. For equilibrium dye uptake amount it is found that the used material has a capacity (Langmuir Freundlich monolayer) of 73.1mg/g to fix the VAT RED 10 and 58.7 mg/g to fix the VAT ORANGE 11. PMID:18809247

  5. Sewage in ground water in the Florida Keys

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    More than 24,000 septic tanks, 5,000 cesspools, and greater than 600 shallow disposal wells introduce sewage effluents into porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To assess the fate of sewage nutrients, 21 2- to 20-m-deep wells were core drilled and completed as water-monitoring wells. The wells were sampled quarterly and analyzed for 17 parameters. including nutrients and bacteria. Nutrients (mainly NH4, - which is 30 to 40 times higher than in surface sea water) were detected in ground water beneath the Keys and offshore coral reefs. Highest levels were beneath reefs 5 to 8 km offshore. Ground waters were generally hypersaline and fecal bacteria (fecal coliform and streptococci) were detected in ground water beneath living coral reefs. Higher sea level on the Florida Bay side of the Keys is proposed as the mechanism for forcing ground water toward offshore coral reefs. Tidal pumping, which is more pronounced near the Keys, causes leakage of ground water where the sediment is thin. Areas lacking sediment cover consist of bare limestone bedrock or permeable coral reefs. These are the areas where coral diseases and algal growth have increased in recent years. Pollutants entering the ground water beneath the Florida Keys are likely to be transported seaward beneath impermeable Holocene sediments and may be upwelling through coral reefs and other hardbottom communities.

  6. Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberer, Thomas

    2002-09-01

    In urban areas such as Berlin (Germany) with high municipal sewage water discharges and low surface water flows there is a potential risk of drinking water contamination by polar organic compounds when groundwater recharge is used in drinking water production. Thus, some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are not eliminated completely in the municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they are discharged as contaminants into the receiving waters. In terms of several monitoring studies carried out in Berlin between 1996 and 2000, PhACs such as clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, propyphenazone, primidone and carbamazepine were detected at individual concentrations up to the ?g/l-level in influent and effluent samples from STPs and in all surface water samples collected downstream from the STPs. Under recharge conditions, several compounds were also found at individual concentrations up to 7.3 ?g/l in samples collected from groundwater aquifers near to contaminated water courses. A few of the PhACs were also identified at the ng/l-level in Berlin tap water samples.

  7. Thermal degradation of DNA.

    PubMed

    Karni, Moshe; Zidon, Dolev; Polak, Pazit; Zalevsky, Zeev; Shefi, Orit

    2013-06-01

    In this article, we investigate the thermal degradation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). We find that under dry conditions, complete DNA degradation occurs at above 190°C. In addition, as the boiling temperature of water is pressure dependent, we have investigated the thermal degradation of the DNA in water for different applied partial pressures. This information is important for fundamental understanding of DNA structure and energetics, and can be useful for biomedical applications such as thermal targeting of DNA in cancer cells, as well as for basic research. PMID:23621849

  8. Improving FTIR imaging speciation of organic compound residues or their degradation products in wall painting samples, by introducing a new thin section preparation strategy based on cyclododecane pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Papliaka, Zoi Eirini; Vaccari, Lisa; Zanini, Franco; Sotiropoulou, Sophia

    2015-07-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging in transmission mode, employing a bidimensional focal plane array (FPA) detector, was applied for the detection and spatially resolved chemical characterisation of organic compounds or their degradation products within the stratigraphy of a critical group of fragments, originating from prehistoric and roman wall paintings, containing a very low concentration of subsisted organic matter or its alteration products. Past analyses using attenuated total reflection (ATR) or reflection FTIR on polished cross sections failed to provide any evidence of any organic material assignable as binding medium of the original painting. In order to improve the method's performance, in the present study, a new method of sample preparation in thin section was developed. The procedure is based on the use of cyclododecane C12H24 as embedding material and a subsequent double-side polishing of the specimen. Such procedure provides samples to be studied in FTIR transmission mode without losing the information on the spatial distribution of the detected materials in the paint stratigraphy. For comparison purposes, the same samples were also studied after opening their stratigraphy with a diamond anvil cell. Both preparation techniques offered high-quality chemical imaging of the decay products of an organic substance, giving clues to the painting technique. In addition, the thin sections resulting from the cyclododecane pre-treatment offered more layer-specific data, as the layer thickness and order remained unaffected, whereas the samples resulting from compression within the diamond cell were slightly deformed; however, since thinner and more homogenous, they provided higher spectral quality in terms of S/N ratio. In summary, the present study illustrates the appropriateness of FTIR imaging in transmission mode associated with a new thin section preparation strategy to detect and localise very low-concentrated organic matter subjected to deterioration processes, when the application of FTIR in reflection mode or FTIR-ATR fails to give any relevant information. Graphical Abstract Visible image of a thin section, C12H24 pre-treated, originating from prehistoric wall paintings at Akrotiri, Thera (Greece). FTIR images representing the spatial distribution of the consolidant, the minerals: wollastonite, riebeckite, and a proteinaceous binder. The size of the FTIR images is 170?×?340 ?m(2). PMID:25925858

  9. Combined ultrasonication and thermal pre-treatment of sewage sludge for increasing methane production.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Lin, Li Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the combination of ultrasonic and thermal treatment of sewage sludge (SS). The combination involved ultrasonicating a fraction of the sludge and thermal treatment at various temperatures and this resulted in solubilization of proteins and carbohydrates, and so contributing to increased COD solubilization. During the treatment, SCOD, soluble proteins and carbohydrates increased from 760 mg L(-1) to 10,200 mg L(-1), 110 mg L(-1) to 2,900 mg L(-1) and 60 mg L(-1) to 630 mg L(-1), respectively. It was found ultrasonication of only a fraction of the sludge (>20%) followed by thermal treatment led to significant improvement compared to thermal and ULS treatments applied on their own. At 65°C, the kinetic of solubilization was improved and the hyper-thermophilic treatment time could be reduced to a few hours when ultrasonication was used first. A linear correlation (R(2) = 95%) was found between the SCOD obtained after ultrasonication pre-treatment and anaerobic biodegradability. The combined treatment resulted in 20% increase in biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of the pre-treated sludge. PMID:25560267

  10. [Effects of different perlite additions on physical and chemical properties of sewage sludge compost and growth of Tagetes patula].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-Tong; Shi, Lian-Hui; Liu, Deng-Min; Tong, Shao-Wei; Wei, Mei-Yan; Sun, Jie

    2014-07-01

    In order to resolve the problem of poor permeability of sewage sludge compost (SSC) which was used as the substitution of peat, perlite was used to regulate the permeability of the sewage. The pure SSC was used as control. The proportions of perlite in the mixtures with SSC were 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% (V/V), respectively. The effects of different perlite ratios on the physical and chemical properties and the growth of Tagetes patula were studied. The bulk density, water holding porosity and water holding porosity to aeration porosity decreased, but the total porosity and aeration porosity increased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. For the chemical properties, the pH increased, and the EC and nutrient contents decreased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. The aboveground biomass and flowers of T. patula were the highest in the 60% perlite treatment, and the lowest in the pure SSC treatment. The root morphology and activity were the best in the 40%, 60% and 80% perlite treatments. Aeration was the strongest factor to impact the maximum root length and average root diameter. Perlite promoted the growth of T. patula mainly through impacting the physical properties of the SSC. The addition of 60% perlite to the SSC could significantly improve the poor aeration and decrease the high salinity greatly in the SSC and regulate the growth of the root and aboveground of T. patula. PMID:25345044

  11. Degradation of filled epoxy resin surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M Hepburn; I. J Kemp; J. M Cooper

    2000-01-01

    Many components manufactured from polymeric materials have fillers incorporated into them, to improve the control of the manufacturing process and to assist with mechanical and electrical properties. Although the mechanical and electrical aspects of the inclusion of the filler material is given great consideration, little thought is given to the possible effects of the filler on the degradation processes. This

  12. Bioassay-derived androgenic and estrogenic activity in municipal sewage in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Leusch, Frédéric D L; Chapman, Heather F; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Tan, Benjamin L L; Gooneratne, S Ravi; Tremblay, Louis A

    2006-11-01

    Raw sewage and sewage at various stages of treatment were sampled from 15 municipal sewage treatment plants in south Queensland (Australia) and Canterbury (New Zealand). Estrogenic and androgenic activities were determined with sheep estrogen receptor and rainbow trout androgen receptor binding assays, respectively. Selected estrogenic chemicals were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The raw sewage influents contained significant levels of both estrogenic (<4-185 ng/L estradiol equivalents) and androgenic (1920-9330 ng/L testosterone equivalents) activity. Subsequent treatment of raw sewage successfully removed most of the activity so that the estrogenicity and androgenicity associated with the final effluents were very low (<1-4.2 ng/L estradiol equivalents and <6.5-736 ng/L testosterone equivalents, respectively). Secondary treatment was the most effective treatment step to remove estrogenic and androgenic activity from sewage water. Activated sludge treatment in particular removed 92% to >99% of the estrogenic activity and 82% to >99% of the androgenic activity in sewage. PMID:16169080

  13. Fate of radiocesium in sewage treatment process released by the nuclear accident at Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Kamei-Ishikawa, Nao; Ito, Ayumi; Tagami, Keiko; Umita, Teruyuki

    2013-10-01

    The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) which occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 resulted in releases of radionuclides such as (134)Cs (half-life:T1/2=2.06 yr), (137)Cs (T1/2=30.04 yr) and (131)I (T1/2=8.05 d) to the environment. For this paper, we observed the monthly variations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) and stable Cs concentrations in influent, effluent, sewage sludge, and sludge ash collected from a sewage treatment plant 280 km north of the FDNPP from July to December, 2011. Using the stable Cs results, we concluded the mass balance of Cs in the sewage treatment plant showed that about 10% of the Cs entering the sewage treatment plant would be transferred to the sewage sludge, and then Cs in the sewage sludge was totally recovered in the sludge ash. The behavior of Cs was similar to that of Rb, but it was not similar to that of K in the sewage treatment process. PMID:23838042

  14. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. PMID:25959614

  15. Sewage contamination in the upper Mississippi River as measured by the fecal sterol, coprostanol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Writer, J.H.; Leenheer, J.A.; Barber, L.B.; Amy, G.L.; Chapra, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    The molecular sewage indicator, coprostanol, was measured in bed sediments of the Mississippi River for the purpose of determining sewage contamination. Coprostanol is a non-ionic, non-polar, organic molecule that associates with sediments in surface waters, and concentrations of coprostanol in bed sediments provide an indication of long-term sewage loads. Because coprostanol concentrations are dependent on particle size and percent organic carbon, a ratio between coprostanol (sewage sources) and cholestanol + cholesterol (sewage and non-sewage sources) was used to remove the biases related to particle size and percent organic carbon. The dynamics of contaminant transport in the Upper Mississippi River are influenced by both hydrologic and geochemical parameters. A mass balance model incorporating environmental parameters such as river and tributary discharge, suspended sediment concentration, fraction of organic carbon, sedimentation rates, municipal discharges and coprostanol decay rates was developed that describes coprostanol concentrations and therefore, expected patterns of municipal sewage effects on the Upper Mississippi River. Comparison of the computed and the measured coprostanol concentrations provides insight into the complex hydrologic and geochemical processes of contaminant transport and the ability to link measured chemical concentrations with hydrologic characteristics of the Mississippi River.

  16. Degradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates by Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01.

    PubMed

    Maki, H; Masuda, N; Fujiwara, Y; Ike, M; Fujita, M

    1994-07-01

    An alkylphenol ethoxylate-degrading bacterium was isolated from activated sludge of a municipal sewage treatment plant by enrichment culture. This organism was found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas; since no corresponding species was identified, we designated it as Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01. This strain had an optimal temperature and pH of 30 degrees C and 7, respectively, for both growth and the degradation of Triton N-101 (a nonylphenol ethoxylate in which the average number of ethylene oxide [EO] units is 9.5). The strain was unable to mineralize Triton N-101 but was able to degrade its EO chain exclusively. The resulting dominant intermediate was identified by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a nonylphenol ethoxylate with 2 mol of EO units. A carboxylated metabolite, [(nonylphenoxy)ethoxy]acetic acid, was detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This bacterium also metabolized alcohol ethoxylates with various numbers of EO units but not polyethylene glycols whatever their degree of polymerization. By oxygen consumption assay, the alkyl group or arene corresponding to the hydrophobic part of alcohol ethoxylates or alkylphenol ethoxylates was shown to contribute to the induction of the metabolic system of the EO chain of Triton N-101, instead of the EO chain itself, which corresponds to its hydrophilic part. Thus, the isolated pseudomonad bacterium has unique substrate assimilability: it metabolizes the EO chain only when the chain linked to bulky hydrophobic groups. PMID:8074508

  17. Degradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates by Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01.

    PubMed Central

    Maki, H; Masuda, N; Fujiwara, Y; Ike, M; Fujita, M

    1994-01-01

    An alkylphenol ethoxylate-degrading bacterium was isolated from activated sludge of a municipal sewage treatment plant by enrichment culture. This organism was found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas; since no corresponding species was identified, we designated it as Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01. This strain had an optimal temperature and pH of 30 degrees C and 7, respectively, for both growth and the degradation of Triton N-101 (a nonylphenol ethoxylate in which the average number of ethylene oxide [EO] units is 9.5). The strain was unable to mineralize Triton N-101 but was able to degrade its EO chain exclusively. The resulting dominant intermediate was identified by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a nonylphenol ethoxylate with 2 mol of EO units. A carboxylated metabolite, [(nonylphenoxy)ethoxy]acetic acid, was detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This bacterium also metabolized alcohol ethoxylates with various numbers of EO units but not polyethylene glycols whatever their degree of polymerization. By oxygen consumption assay, the alkyl group or arene corresponding to the hydrophobic part of alcohol ethoxylates or alkylphenol ethoxylates was shown to contribute to the induction of the metabolic system of the EO chain of Triton N-101, instead of the EO chain itself, which corresponds to its hydrophilic part. Thus, the isolated pseudomonad bacterium has unique substrate assimilability: it metabolizes the EO chain only when the chain linked to bulky hydrophobic groups. PMID:8074508

  18. How do polymers degrade?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Suping

    2011-03-01

    Materials derived from agricultural products such as cellulose, starch, polylactide, etc. are more sustainable and environmentally benign than those derived from petroleum. However, applications of these polymers are limited by their processing properties, chemical and thermal stabilities. For example, polyethylene terephthalate fabrics last for many years under normal use conditions, but polylactide fabrics cannot due to chemical degradation. There are two primary mechanisms through which these polymers degrade: via hydrolysis and via oxidation. Both of these two mechanisms are related to combined factors such as monomer chemistry, chain configuration, chain mobility, crystallinity, and permeation to water and oxygen, and product geometry. In this talk, we will discuss how these materials degrade and how the degradation depends on these factors under application conditions. Both experimental studies and mathematical modeling will be presented.

  19. Climate and Land Degradation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    On the occasion of the Seventh session of the Conference of Parties, The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has prepared this brochure which explains the role of different climatic factors in land degradation and WMO's contribution in addressing this important subject.

  20. Diagnosing Abiotic Degradation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abiotic degradation of chlorinated solvents in ground water can be difficult to diagnose. Under current practice, most of the ?evidence? is negative; specifically the apparent disappearance of chlorinated solvents with an accumulation of vinyl chloride, ethane, ethylene, or ...

  1. MECHANISMS OF PESTICIDE DEGRADATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project was initiated with the overall objective of determining (1) the chemical structures of toxic components of toxaphene, (2) to study anaerobic metabolism to degrade toxaphene and other pesticides, and (3) to understand toxic action mechanism of chlordimeform. ...

  2. A REVIEW ON DEGRADATION MODELS IN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nima Gorjian; Lin Ma; Murthy Mittinty; Prasad Yarlagadda; Yong Sun

    With increasingly complex engineering assets and tight economic requirements, asset reliability becomes more crucial in Engineering Asset Management (EAM). Improving the reliability of systems has always been a major aim of EAM. Reliability assessment using degradation data has become a significant approach to evaluate the reliability and safety of critical systems. Degradation data often provide more information than failure time

  3. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Li; Hongli Yuan; Jinshui Yang

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material. It is degraded and\\u000a modified by bacteria in the natural world, and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.\\u000a Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling, erosion, and cavitation. With the advantages\\u000a of immense environmental

  4. Regulation of pesticide degradation in the detritusphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagel, Holger; Poll, Christian; Ingwersen, Joachim; Ditterich, Franziska; Gebala, Aurelia; Kandeler, Ellen; Streck, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    The detritusphere is a microbial hot spot of C turnover and degradation of pesticides in soils. We aimed at an improved understanding of the regulation mechanisms, which are responsible for stimulated degradation of the herbicide MCPA (2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) in response to increased C availability in the detritusphere. We combined a microcosm experiment with biogeochemical modeling and linked genetic information on abundances of total bacteria, fungi and specific pesticide degraders in soil to the coupled biogeochemical dynamics of C and MCPA. As a result of diffusive and convective C transport from litter into the adjacent soil we found increased dissolved organic C (DOC) in soil up to a 6 mm distance to litter (detritusphere). In the detritusphere, we observed increased microbial C and accelerated MCPA degradation. These dynamics were accurately reproduced by the model. Whereas the observed increase of bacteria and pesticide degrader populations in the detritusphere was simulated satisfactorily, the model could not reproduce the steep increase of fungi indicated by the fungal marker gene. Our simulations suggest that bacterial MCPA degraders mostly benefited from high-quality DOC, whereas fungal activity and growth were specifically stimulated by low-quality DOC. According to the simulations, MCPA was predominantly degraded via fungal co-metabolism. Our study demonstrates that biogeochemical processes in soil hotspots are regulated by the interaction of transport processes and microbial dynamics. It further reveals that mathematical modelling is as powerful tool to gain comprehensive insight into the microbial regulation of matter cycling in soil. Genetic information has a high potential to parameterize and evaluate complex mechanistic models, but model approaches must be improved based on extended information on gene dynamics at the cellular level.

  5. Determination of mercury in sewage sludge by direct slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baralkiewicz, Danuta; Gramowska, Hanka; Kózka, Ma?gorzata; Kanecka, Anetta

    2005-03-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) method was elaborated to the determination of Hg in sewage sludge samples with the use of KMnO 4+Pd modifier. The minimum sample amount required for slurry preparation with respect to sample homogeneity was evaluated by weighting masses between 3 and 30 mg directly into the autosampler cups. Validation of the proposed method was performed with the use of Certified Reference Materials of sewage sludge, CRM 007-040 and CRM 144R. Two sewage sludge samples from Poznañ (Poland) city were analysed using the present direct method and a method with sample digestion, resulting in no difference within statistical error.

  6. Determination of human pharmaceuticals in pre- and post-sewage treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahrim, Nurfaizah Abu; Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; Aziz, Yang Farina Abdul

    2013-11-01

    In this present work, an analytical method based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) in positive electrospray ionisation mode was successfully applied to real samples for the determination of human pharmaceuticals in pre- and post-sewage treatment samples. The ten target compounds selected in this study include acetaminophen, theophylline, caffeine, metoprolol, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, prednisolone, ketoprofen, norgestrel and simvastatin. Acetaminophen, theophylline and caffeine were present at all five raw sewage samples. In addition, this work provides the first report on the investigation and detection of theophylline in sewage treatment plant (STP) samples in Malaysia.

  7. Sustainable sewage management and the inertia to change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, G.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing economic costs and environmental concerns have led to that planners around the world are progressively questioning the prevailing sewage management paradigm, calling for a shift in the hydrosocial contract to embrace more sustainable solutions, to be based on closed-loops rather than linear end-of-pipe solutions. Despite considerable attention to the technical possibilities for delivering sewage services in a more integrated and sustainable fashion, shifts in planning and management have been slow. Based on an extensive study of Australian cities, Brown et al (2009) have developed a model with six transitional stages and argue that "while there may be cognitive changes (best practice thinking such as water sustainable urban design), there has not been sufficient normative and regulative change to support new practice." They contrast three historic transition stages with three successive sustainable stages. Unfortunately, the study ends in a rather vague outline of "the Water Sensitive City", with little sign-posts indicating how one might transition to this seemingly utopian last stage. In the present paper, we discuss the normative tensions created between the different actors in this increasingly complex playing field, who represent different and often competing values. We suggest that cities have difficulties transitioning from the old contract to one of the newer ones because the hydro-social contract promised by these new stages create normative tensions not only between the new and the old, but also between what one might call different types of environmentalists: naturalists and pragmatists. The naturalists, who for example are very voiced in several cities along the North American west coast, tend to embrace the perception of Nature described by environmental historians as Untouched Wilderness, where technology is pinpointed as the root of the problems. In contrast, the other side lean more on the idea of modernity, with a more pragmatic approach to nature, which first and foremost is seen as a provider of material resources and technology is a tool that aids solving the problem with the limited supply. The naturalists' cognitive response points to solutions that are perceived as 'natural' such as composting and constructed wetlands, but do to not easily embrace solutions that are perceived as 'technical', such as smart metering, biogas reactors, and recovery of pelleted phosphorous compounds. We suggest that transition to the 'Water Sensitive City' requires explicit recognition that sewage management is a context-dependent multi-dimensional, multi-objective challenge in which competing objectives must be identified and trade-offs made, which includes recognizing and finding ways to manage the tacit tensions caused by competing normative underpinnings among different types of environmentalism.

  8. Supposed Sewage Disposal Lands Environmentally Aware Band in Trouble

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Dave Matthews Band has delighted audiences around the world for the past 15 years with its Grateful Dead-inspired musical stylings, infused with a passion for vigorously supporting various environmental causes. According to a civil complaint filed this week by the Illinois Attorney General Lisa Madigan, the band's tour bus and its driver apparently shared a bit too much of the band several weeks ago as the bus passed over the Chicago River. The complaint, which was filed this week, states that on August 8, the Dave Matthews Band tour bus driver (Stefan A. Wohl) polluted the Chicago River by dumping liquid waste from the septic tank, effectively unleashing close to 800 pounds of human waste into the river as it passed over the Kinzie Street bridge. Additionally, a number of unsuspecting passengers riding on a vessel as part of a well-known architectural tour were sprayed with the raw sewage. While Chicago Police Superintendent Phil Cline says his department has videotape footage from nearby businesses showing the bus pass over the bridge at the time of the incident, the members of the Dave Matthews Band issued a statement this week noting "Our driver has stated that he was not involved in this incident".The first link leads to an article from this week's venerable Chicago Sun-Times that talks about the complaint filed by the Illinois Attorney General against the band and its tour bus driver. The second link leads to another news report from NBC5 in Chicago that talks about the evidence gathered by the Chicago Police Department that links the bus to the scene of the alleged illegal sewage disposal. The third link leads to a news article from April 2004 from the Virginian Pilot that discusses the many laudatory contributions the band has made to environmental causes through the group's charitable foundation, Bama Works. The fourth link will take visitors to the official press release issued August 24 by the Illinois Attorney General's Office that spells out the exact nature of the alleged sewage dump and its ramifications for public health and the Chicago River. On a somewhat related note, the fifth link leads to a rather interesting article from the Howstuffworks website that provides a detailed answer to the question of how a toilet functions in a commercial airliner. The sixth and final link whisks visitors away to the homepage of the Friends of the Chicago River organization, which works to create new recreational opportunities along the river and to share in the environmental stewardship of this waterway. Visitors may be keen to find out that the organization is opening a river museum at the Michigan Avenue Bridge Towers in 2006.

  9. Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry). PMID:23947711

  10. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash through an electrodialytic process.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Paula; Couto, Nazaré; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2014-05-01

    The electrodialytic separation process (ED) was applied to sewage sludge ash (SSA) aiming at phosphorus (P) recovery. As the SSA may have high heavy metals contents, their removal was also assessed. Two SSA were sampled, one immediately after incineration (SA) and the other from an open deposit (SB). Both samples were ED treated as stirred suspensions in sulphuric acid for 3, 7 and 14 days. After 14 days, phosphorus was mainly mobilized towards the anode end (approx. 60% in the SA and 70% in the SB), whereas heavy metals mainly electromigrated towards the cathode end. The anolyte presented a composition of 98% of P, mainly as orthophosphate, and 2% of heavy metals. The highest heavy metal removal was achieved for Cu (ca. 80%) and the lowest for Pb and Fe (between 4% and 6%). The ED showed to be a viable method for phosphorus recovery from SSA, as it promotes the separation of P from the heavy metals. PMID:24656469

  11. Direct thermochemical conversion of sewage sludge to fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.; Fassbender, A.G.; Brown, M.D.

    1985-08-01

    A disposal method for primary sewage sludge and industrial sludges which generates boiler fuel as a product and is energy self-sufficient or energy-generating is described. The method involves direct liquefaction in a mild aqueous alkali above 250 C and was demonstrated for about 100 hours in a reactor having a 50 pound per hour capacity. The boiler fuels recovered from the process were in the form of a water-insoluble oil, char, and gas and contained up to 73% of the energy from the input sludge. Analytical results show that most of the heavy metals from the sludge are concentrated in the char and remain in the ash residue when the char is burned. Burning the oil and char as fuel will generate gaseous pollutants from sulfur and nitrogen in the sludge which could be a problem in commercial versions of the process.

  12. Influence of sewage sludge addition on coal ash fusion temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    M. Belen Folgueras; R. Maria Diaz; Jorge Xiberta; M. Purificacion Garcia; J. Juan Pis [University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain). Department of Energy and Department of Materials Science

    2005-12-01

    The ash fusion characteristics of three types of bituminous coal (A, B, and C), one type of sewage sludge (W), and the corresponding coal-sewage sludge blends (10 and 50 wt % of sludge) were studied. The ash fusibility temperatures of samples in oxidizing atmosphere were measured, and their chemical and mineralogical compositions were determined. The addition of sludge to coal in certain proportions produces blends whose ashes have lower fusibility temperatures than those of coal and sludge. This is related to the differences in chemical composition and modes of elemental combination in both types of materials. The main differences are associated to the elements P, Fe, and Ca. As the sludge is much richer in Ca than the coals, the compositions of the blend ashes pass through low-temperature eutectic regions of the ternary phase diagrams SiO{sub 2}-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}-CaO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. As a result, for the sludge-coal blend ashes series (one for each coal), the relationships between ash fusibility temperatures and the percentage of sludge ash in blend ashes fit to second-order polynomial functions. The minima of these functions, as well as some sludge-coal blend ashes, are located in the above-mentioned low fusion regions. Differing from coal ashes, in the sludge and 50 wt % blend ashes, the minerals calcium ferrite, larnite, and chloroapatite were found. 17 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Population dynamics and ecology of Arcobacter in sewage.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jenny C; Levican, Arturo; Figueras, María J; McLellan, Sandra L

    2014-01-01

    Arcobacter species are highly abundant in sewage where they often comprise approximately 5-11% of the bacterial community. Oligotyping of sequences amplified from the V4V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed Arcobacter populations from different cities were similar and dominated by 1-3 members, with extremely high microdiversity in the minor members. Overall, nine subgroups within the Arcobacter genus accounted for >80% of the total Arcobacter sequences in all samples analyzed. The distribution of oligotypes varied by both sample site and temperature, with samples from the same site generally being more similar to each other than other sites. Seven oligotypes matched with 100% identity to characterized Arcobacter species, but the remaining 19 abundant oligotypes appear to be unknown species. Sequences representing the two most abundant oligotypes matched exactly to the reference strains for A. cryaerophilus group 1B (CCUG 17802) and group 1A (CCUG 17801(T)), respectively. Oligotype 1 showed generally lower relative abundance in colder samples and higher relative abundance in warmer samples; the converse was true for Oligotype 2. Ten other oligotypes had significant positive or negative correlations between temperature and proportion in samples as well. The oligotype that corresponded to A. butzleri, the Arcobacter species most commonly isolated by culturing in sewage studies, was only the eleventh most abundant oligotype. This work suggests that Arcobacter populations within sewer infrastructure are modulated by temperature. Furthermore, current culturing methods used for identification of Arcobacter fail to identify some abundant members of the community and may underestimate the presence of species with affinities for growth at lower temperatures. Understanding the ecological factors that affect the survival and growth of Arcobacter spp. in sewer infrastructure may better inform the risks associated with these emerging pathogens. PMID:25426103

  14. Population dynamics and ecology of Arcobacter in sewage

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jenny C.; Levican, Arturo; Figueras, María J.; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Arcobacter species are highly abundant in sewage where they often comprise approximately 5–11% of the bacterial community. Oligotyping of sequences amplified from the V4V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed Arcobacter populations from different cities were similar and dominated by 1–3 members, with extremely high microdiversity in the minor members. Overall, nine subgroups within the Arcobacter genus accounted for >80% of the total Arcobacter sequences in all samples analyzed. The distribution of oligotypes varied by both sample site and temperature, with samples from the same site generally being more similar to each other than other sites. Seven oligotypes matched with 100% identity to characterized Arcobacter species, but the remaining 19 abundant oligotypes appear to be unknown species. Sequences representing the two most abundant oligotypes matched exactly to the reference strains for A. cryaerophilus group 1B (CCUG 17802) and group 1A (CCUG 17801T), respectively. Oligotype 1 showed generally lower relative abundance in colder samples and higher relative abundance in warmer samples; the converse was true for Oligotype 2. Ten other oligotypes had significant positive or negative correlations between temperature and proportion in samples as well. The oligotype that corresponded to A. butzleri, the Arcobacter species most commonly isolated by culturing in sewage studies, was only the eleventh most abundant oligotype. This work suggests that Arcobacter populations within sewer infrastructure are modulated by temperature. Furthermore, current culturing methods used for identification of Arcobacter fail to identify some abundant members of the community and may underestimate the presence of species with affinities for growth at lower temperatures. Understanding the ecological factors that affect the survival and growth of Arcobacter spp. in sewer infrastructure may better inform the risks associated with these emerging pathogens. PMID:25426103

  15. Synergistic degradation of chitosan by impinging stream and jet cavitation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongchun; Wang, Pengfei; Yuan, Yuan; Ren, Xian'e; Yang, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Chitosan degradation was investigated using a combination of jet cavitation and impinging stream. Different operating parameters such as the initial concentration (1-5gL(-1)), initial pH (3.2-4.8), solution temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70°C), inlet pressure (0.1-0.45MPa), and treatment time (0-120min) were optimized to achieve the maximum degradation of chitosan. After the optimization of jet cavitation parameters, chitosan degradation was carried out using venturi tubes of different structures (the fluidic generator). The efficiency of the jet cavitation degradation was improved significantly by combining with impinging stream. The structures of the degradation products were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. This study has conclusively established that a combination of jet cavitation and impinging stream can be effectively used for the complete degradation of chitosan. PMID:25934127

  16. Extraction of raw sewage sludge containing iron phosphate for phosphorus recovery.

    PubMed

    Sano, Akira; Kanomata, Makoto; Inoue, Hiroki; Sugiura, Norio; Xu, Kai-Qin; Inamori, Yuhei

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to establish an alkali extraction technology for FePO(4)-containing sewage sludge obtained from a wastewater treatment system that includes phosphorous removal by iron electrolysis. By clarifying the extraction properties of phosphorous, organic matter, and inorganic matter, conditions for alkali extraction were optimized. As a result, it was suggested that unheated phosphorous extraction would be superior for FePO(4)-containing sewage sludge. And, extraction methods and sewage sludge properties were also compared, and the noteworthy result that extraction of metals can be suppressed to extremely low amounts with alkali extraction as compared with acid extraction was obtained. A new insight was also gained that, as compared with the use of incinerated ash reported in previous studies, alkali extraction was more efficient when raw sewage sludge was used. PMID:22921653

  17. Determining the footprint of sewage discharges in a coastal lagoon in South-Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Cravo, Alexandra; Fernandes, Denise; Damião, Tânia; Pereira, Catarina; Reis, Margarida P

    2015-07-15

    Ria Formosa is a highly productive lagoon in South-Western Europe, supporting 90% of Portuguese clam production. Decreases in shellfish production have been ascribed to deterioration of water quality due to sewage discharges. Nevertheless, a thorough study considering their impact on the whole lagoon system has been missing. This work determined the sewage footprint from the major sewage treatment plants (STP) regarding eutrophication and microbial contamination within a two-year monitoring program. This focused on salinity, oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll-a and faecal coliforms. Areas closer to sewage discharges showed an evident impact with maximum effects detected at the major STP. However, globally, the Ria Formosa did not show clear eutrophication problems due to high tidal flushing. Ammonium, oxygen, chlorophyll-a and faecal coliforms, unlike the other parameters, showed no seasonality. Microbiological contamination was of great concern and public health issues could be avoided by settling shellfish beds at least 500m away from discharge points. PMID:26013590

  18. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    During second quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) of Savannah River Plant were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. None of these analytes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria at either sewage sludge site. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Of these constituents, tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well FSS 3D. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well FSS 4D, and manganese exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

  19. Thiosteranes in samples impacted by fecal materials and their potential use as marker of sewage input.

    PubMed

    Biache, Coralie; Frómeta, Amado Enrique Navarro; Czechowski, Franciszek; Lu, Yueming; Philp, R Paul

    2015-01-01

    Sewage impacted soil, sludge and water samples were studied to understand the occurrence and formation of thiosteranes and to determine the relevance of these compounds as tracers for sewage input into the environment. Soils were collected from wastewater irrigation fields (Wroclaw, Poland), water from the Nexapa River Basin (Mexico), which also received wastewater and wastewater treatment plant(WWTP) effluent, and water and sludge from the Norman WWTP (USA) at different treatment stages. Thiosteranes represented a high proportion of the steroid fraction in the Wroclaw irrigation field and the Nexapa River Basin samples. Small amounts of thiosteranes were found in anaerobically digested sludge from the Norman WWTP. A good correlation between coprostanone and thiosterane concentrations suggests thiosteranes were produced by stanone sulphurization under anoxic conditions. Thiosterane stability under anoxic and suboxic conditions indicates their potential use as tracers for environmental input of sewage products or land application of sewage sludge. PMID:25463722

  20. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute secondary-treated sewage sludge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G.; Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), conducted a research program to evaluate the feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge. One aspect of the research program involved the measurements of upwelled spectral signatures for sewage-sludge mixtures of different concentrations in an 11600-liter tank. This paper describes the laboratory arrangement and presents radiance and reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared ranges for concentrations ranging from 9.7 to 180 ppm of secondary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled radiance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations.

  1. EVALUATION OF A FLUIDIZED-BED SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR USING WOOD CHIPS FOR FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An environmental and technical evaluation was conducted on the Western Lake Superior Sanitary District waste treatment plant, which uses wood chips to incinerate sewage sludge in fluidized-bed combustors. The most important environmental factors for evaluation were determined to ...

  2. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute primary-treated sewage sludge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge is evaluated. The laboratory arrangement, solar simulator, and test results from three experiments conducted in the laboratory are described. Radiance and reflectance spectra are presented for primary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled reflectance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Well-defined upwelled reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations. The spectral-reflectance values appeared to be influenced by the type of base water, but this influence was small, especially for the mixtures with low concentrations of sewage sludge.

  3. Proper Sanitization of Sewage Sludge: a Critical Issue for a Sustainable Society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronica Arthurson

    2008-01-01

    To attain the global goal of an environmentally sustainable society in which organic material is successfully recycled back to arable land, it is crucial to develop effective procedures for the treatment of sewage sludge. The term \\

  4. Analysis of Energy and Soft Dirt in an Urban Untreated Sewage Source Heat Pump System

    E-print Network

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.

    2006-01-01

    . REFERENCES [1] Stijemstrom B. Feeding large Heating pumps from sewage water treatment plants [A].Proceedings of the International conference on Applications and Efficiency of heat pump systems[C].Atalanta, 1991, 183-192. [2] Ronghua WU, Chenghu ZHANG...

  5. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (1): Flow Resistance and Energy Analysis 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, G.; Li, X.; Huang, L.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01

    The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Given the schematic diagram of TDHT system, introducing the definition of equivalent fouling roughness height, and using the Niklaus...

  6. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Historically and currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites except iron, lead, and manganese, which occur in elevated concentrations frequently in FSS wells and occasionally in HSS wells. Tritium and aluminum are the primary nonpermit constituents that exceed standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. Other constituents also exceed standards at this site but only sporadically.

  7. MICROBIALLY MEDIATED GROWTH SUPPRESSION AND DEATH OF SALMONELLA IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of compost microflora in the suppression of salmonella regrowth in composted sewage sludge was investigated. Microbial inhibition studies of salmonella growth were conducted on nutrient agar, in composts that had been subjected to different temperatures in compost piles,...

  8. Organic Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Land-Applied Sewage Sludge (Biosolids)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK J. LA GUARDIA; ROBERT C. HALE; ELLEN HARVEY; ELIZABETH O. BUSH; T. MATTESON MAINOR; MICHAEL O. GAYLOR

    2004-01-01

    Modern wastewater treatment greatly ameliorates the release to the aquatic environment of pollutants present in industrial and residential discharges. How- ever, the recycling of sewage sludge (also known as \\

  9. The Real World of Industrial Chemistry: The Use of Oxygen in the Treatment of Sewage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gerhard A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the events leading up to the establishment of oxygen (rather than air) as an important component in the second stage treatment of municipal wastewater in sewage-disposal plants. Advantages, problems, and costs of using oxygen are discussed. (CS)

  10. MARSHLAND UPWELLING SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF SEWAGE DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased coastal development has resulted in increased coastal water degradation due to the release of improperly or untreated domestic wastewaters. While global damage is occurring within the wetlands, quantifiable impacts can be determined by looking at the shellfish industry...

  11. Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKim, T.

    1985-05-01

    Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of 1 year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (23.6 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (27 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (22 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. Nitrogen and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7 percent N and 0.94 percent P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8 percent N and 0.79 percent P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nutrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ and 321 to 387 kg P ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/, respectively.

  12. Impact of treated sewage sludge application on phosphorus release kinetics in some calcareous soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alireza Hosseinpur; Hamed Pashamokhtari

    2008-01-01

    Treated sewage sludge contains significant amount of phosphorus and is widely used in agriculture. Kinetics of P release in\\u000a soils is a subject of importance in soil and environmental sciences. There are few studies about P release kinetics in treated\\u000a sewage sludge amended soils. For this purpose, sludge was mixed with ten soils at a rate equivalent to 100 Mg sludge ha?1,

  13. Feasibility of biohydrogen production by anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Hyoun Kim; Sun-Kee Han; Hang-Sik Shin

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge for hydrogen production was performed in serum bottles under various volatile solids (VS) concentrations (0.5–5.0%) and mixing ratios of two substrates (0:100–100:0, VS basis). Through response surface methodology, empirical equations for hydrogen evolution were obtained. The specific hydrogen production potential of food waste was higher than that of sewage sludge. However, hydrogen

  14. Evaluation for Agricultural Usage with Speciation of Heavy Metals in a Municipal Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özge Hanay; Halil Hasar; Nilüfer Nacar Kocer; Sibel Aslan

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the agricultural usage of an anaerobically digested sludge in the contents and fractions\\u000a of heavy metals. Therefore, a sequential extraction scheme according to the BCR’s (Community Bureau of Reference) guidelines\\u000a and total acid digestion were applied to sewage sludge samples. The results of total heavy metal concentrations in sewage\\u000a sludge showed that the

  15. e-NOSE Response Classification of Sewage Odors by Neural Networks and Fuzzy Clustering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Güleda Önkal-engin; Ibrahim Demir; Seref Naci Engin

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a Each stage of the sewage treatment process emits odor causing compounds and these compounds may vary from one location in\\u000a a sewage treatment works to another. In order to determine the boundaries of legal standards, reliable and efficient odor\\u000a measurement methods need to be defined. An electronic NOSE equipped with 12 different polypyrrole sensors is used for the\\u000a purpose of

  16. Analytical and spectroscopic characterization of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge, manure, and worm compost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Deiana; C. Gessa; B. Manunza; R. Seeber; R. Rausa

    1990-01-01

    Humic acids extracted from sewage sludges, manure, and worm compost have been characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Meaningful differences in the composition were revealed by FTIR, ¹H, ¹³C NMR, and visible spectroscopies. These differences allow a differentiation among the products depending on the source from which they were obtained. Humic acid extracted from sewage sludges contains the highest percentage

  17. Vermistabilization of municipal sewage sludge amended with sugarcane trash using epigeic Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surindra Suthar

    2009-01-01

    Efforts have been made in this study to stabilize the sewage sludge mixed with sugarcane trash in four different proportions: 20% (T1); 40% (T2); 60% (T3) and 80% (T4), under laboratory conditions using epigeic earthworm (Oligochaeta) Eisenia fetida. The composting potential of worm was also evaluated in 100% sewage sludge treatment (T5). The changes in chemical properties of substrate was

  18. ANAEROBIC SEWAGE TREATMENT IN A ONE-STAGE UASB AND A COMBINED UASB-DIGESTER SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nidal Mahmoud; Grietje Zeeman; Huub Gijzen; Gatze Lettinga

    2003-01-01

    The potential of a novel technology consisting of a UASB complemented with a digester (UASB-Digester) for mutual sewage treatment and sludge stabilisation under low temperature conditions was investigated. The performance of the UASB-Digester system was compared with a one stage UASB. The UASB reactor was operated at a HRT of 6 hours and controlled temperature of 15°C, the average sewage

  19. Distribution of arsenic in sewage irrigation area of Pearl River Delta, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guanxing Huang; Jichao Sun; Ying Zhang; Jihong Jing; Yuxi Zhang; Jingtao Liu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the distribution of arsenic (As) in sewage irrigation area, to deduce the migration\\u000a and transformation mechanism of As in soil and groundwater, and to infer the source of As in soil and groundwater. This study\\u000a is carried out in a sewage irrigation area of the Pearl River Delta, China. Surface water

  20. Spinal troubles in sewage workers: epidemiological data and work disability due to low back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Friedrich; T. Cermak; I. Heiller

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of spinal troubles (i.e., neck, upper back and low back pain) in a population of sewage workers,\\u000a and to establish the effect of sociodemographic, work-related, physical, and psychosocial factors on the reported work disability\\u000a due to low back pain (LBP) during the previous 12?months. Methods: Data from 255?sewage workers were obtained by standardized questionnaire, structured

  1. Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge–fly ash mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A. I. Zouboulis

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed

  2. Co-composting of sewage sludge and coal fly ash: nutrient transformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fang; J. W. C. Wong; K. K. Ma; M. H. Wong

    1999-01-01

    Co-composting of sewage sludge with coal fly ash was carried out for evaluating the effect of coal fly ash on nutrient transformations during sludge composting. Dewatered anaerobically-digested sewage sludge was mixed with sawdust used as a bulking agent at 2:1 (w\\/w), and the mixtures were amended with coal fly ash at 0, 10, 25 and 35% (w\\/w) and composted for

  3. Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedikt Nowak; Libor Perutka; Philipp Aschenbrenner; Petra Kraus; Helmut Rechberger; Franz Winter

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate recycling from sewage sludge can be achieved by heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash (SSA) producing a fertilizer product: mixing SSA with chloride and treating this mixture (eventually after granulation) in a rotary kiln at 1000±100°C leads to the formation of volatile heavy metal compounds that evaporate and to P-phases with high bio-availability. Due to economical and ecological

  4. The nuclides in town: Does danger lurk in low-level radioactivity in sewage

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, G.

    1994-10-01

    In 1991 an aerial survey of a formerly contaminated site in Ohio found radioactivity at the Southerly Sewage Treatment Plant in Cleveland. A subsequent NRC investigation turned up potentially dangerous cobalt-60 ash from incinerated sewer sludge. Prior to this NRC had assumed that cobalt-60 in oxide form dispersed readily instead of forming elevated concentrations. This article discusses the problem of radioactive sewage sludge and how much of a threat it represents.

  5. Probabilistic risk assessment for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in sewage sludge used on agricultural soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diederik Schowanek; Helen David; Rosa Francaviglia; Jeremy Hall; Holger Kirchmann; Paul Henning Krogh; Nathalie Schraepen; Stephen Smith; Tanja Wildemann

    2007-01-01

    Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments were developed for commercial LAS in agricultural soil amended with sewage sludge. The procedure done according to ILSI Europe’s Conceptual Framework [Schowanek, D., Carr, R., David, H., Douben, P., Hall, J., Kirchmann, H., Patria, L., Sequi, P., Smith, S., Webb, S.F., 2004. A risk-based methodology for deriving quality standards for organic contaminants in sewage sludge

  6. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage and brewery sludge for biogas production and land application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Babel; J. Sae-Tang

    2009-01-01

    In Thailand, sewage sludge production from the Bangkok metropolitan area can reach up to 63,000 ton\\/y by 2010. The Beer-Thai Company, Thailand, produces beer and generates lots of sludge as waste. Sewage sludge and brewery sludge can be used to generate energy which could be saved on the fossil fuels conventionally used as a source of energy. The possibility was

  7. Gasification of sewage sludge using a throated downdraft gasifier and uncertainty analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murat Dogru; Adnan Midilli; Colin R Howarth

    2002-01-01

    The most important objectives to gasify sewage sludge are to produce a clean gas of acceptable composition for synthesis or combustion, and to convert this solid resource into combustible-clean gas at high efficiency. The experiments of the gasification were conducted using a 5 kWe-throated downdraft gasifier. It was concluded that sewage sludge can be gasified to produce low-quality combustible gas,

  8. Mutagenic potential of plants grown on a soil amended with mutagenic municipal sewage sludge 

    E-print Network

    Fiedler, Daniel Alain

    1988-01-01

    MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF PLANTS GROWN ON A SOIL AMENDED WITH MUTAGENIC MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE A Thesis by DANIEL ALAIN FIEDLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Agronomy MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF PLANTS GROWN ON A SOIL AMENDED WITH MUTAGENIC MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE A Thesis by DANIEL ALAIN FIEDLER Approved as to sty1e and content by; Kirk W. Brown (Chairman...

  9. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, Third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    During third quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for base-neutral/acid semivolatile constituents. None of the analytical results exceeded standards.

  10. Changes in Copper Speciation and Geochemical Fate in Freshwaters Following Sewage Discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando F. Sodré; Marco T. Grassi

    2007-01-01

    The main factors determining the geochemical fate of copper in urban freshwaters affected by raw sewage discharges were investigated\\u000a in this work. Water samples from the Iraí and Iguaçu rivers were collected monthly during a 1-year period at two points located\\u000a upstream and downstream from the city of Curitiba, in Brazil. Results revealed that raw sewage discharges from the heavily

  11. Biodegradability and change of physical characteristics of particles during anaerobic digestion of domestic sewage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarek A Elmitwalli; Jesko Soellner; Arie De Keizer; Harry Bruning; Grietje Zeeman; Gatze Lettinga

    2001-01-01

    At the high-rate anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage, both biological and physical processes play an important role. Therefore, the anaerobic biodegradability of raw, paper-filtered and membrane-filtered sewage and black water has been investigated in batch experiments. Additionally, the effect of anaerobic digestion on physical characteristics, like particle size, surface tension and zeta-potential, of the present particles is studied. The biodegradability

  12. Effects of sewage sludge compost and chemical fertilizer application on microbial biomass and N mineralization rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zaman; H. J. Di; K. Sakamoto; S. Goto; H. Hayashi; K. Inubushi

    2002-01-01

    To determine the effect of sewage sludge compost and chemical fertilizer application on the soil chemical properties, net N mineralization rates, CO2 evolution rates, microbial biomass C and N, a non-leaching experiment was conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25°C) and moisture content (80% wHC) using 2 types of soils that had been previously treated with sewage sludge composts or

  13. The effects of surfactant concentration on grease removal by air flotation in municipal sewage treatment

    E-print Network

    Perry, Larry Eugene

    1978-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF SURFACTANT CONCENTRATION ON GREASE REMOVAL BY AIR FLOTATION IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT A Thesis by LARRY EUGENE PERRY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 'l97B Major Subject: Civil Engineering THE EFFECTS OF SURFACTANT CONCENTRATION ON GREASE REMOVAL BY AIR FLOTATION IN MUNI'CIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT A Thesis LARPY EUGENE PERRY Approved as to styie and content by...

  14. Effects of N-enriched sewage sludge on soil enzyme activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R?dvan K?z?lkaya; Betül Bayrakl?

    2005-01-01

    Sewage sludge is increasingly used as an organic amendment to soil, especially to soil containing little organic matter. However, little is known about utility of this organic amendment with N-enriched or adjusted C:N ratios in soil. We studied the effects of adding of different doses (0, 100, 200 and 300tha?1) and C:N ratios (3:1, 6:1 and 9:1) of sewage sludge

  15. Irradiated sewage sludge for production of fennel plants in sandy soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. El-Motaium; M. A. Abo El-Seoud

    2007-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge applied to sandy soil\\u000a on the productivity of fennel plants (Foeniculum vulgare L.). Four rates of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge application were used (20, 40, 60, and 80 t ha?1). Samples analysis included the biomass production at the vegetative and flowering stages, seed production, volatile oil

  16. Occurrence of emerging contaminants in agricultural soils, sewage sludge and waters in Valencia (E Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boluda, Rafael; Marimon, Lupe; Atzeni, Stefania; Mormeneo, Salvador; Iranzo, María; Zueco, Jesús; Gamón, Miguel; Sancenón, José; Romera, David; Gil, Carlos; Amparo Soriano, Maria; Granell, Clara; Roca, Núria; Bech, Jaume

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, studies into the presence and distribution of emerging contaminants (ECs), like pharmaceutical products, some pesticides and mycotoxins in the natural environment, are receiving considerable attention. Thus, the presence of these compounds in waters, soils and wastes in different locations including agricultural systems has been stressed; very few studies into this matter are available in Spain. The main source of ECs in the environment is wastewater spillage from wastewater treatment plants (WTP), where these compounds arrive from the sewer system network. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of 35 ECs constituted by nine pharmaceutical products, 23 fungicides and three mycotoxins in soils, sewages sludge and waters adjacent to WTP from an agriculture area of Valencia (E Spain) influenced by intense urban and industrial activity. Seven samples from sludge, 13 soil samples and eight samples of waters from the area of influence of WTP were collected. The ECs extraction were performed using 5 g of fresh sample and a mixture of acetonitrile with 1% formic acid and water at the 3:1 ratio by shaking for 45 min and then centrifuging at 4,000 rpm for 5 min. The extract was filtered and determination was done by HPLC system connected to a 3200-Qtrap de triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray ion source. The results showed that soil-ECs concentrations were 10 times lower that in sewage sludge. The smaller number of detections and detected compounds should also be stressed. As in previous cases, fungicides azole (tebuconazole and tricyclazole), along with boscalid, were the most detected compounds with concentrations of between 100 and 400 µg kg-1 dw. In second place, propiconazole and azoxystrobin stood out, followed by carbendazim, dimetomorph, pyraclostrobin and propamocarb. The following drugs and mycotoxins were detected to have a higher to lower concentration (1-40 µg kg-1): telmisartan, irbesartan, venlafaxine, citalopram, azithromycin, fluoxetine and deoxinivalenol. In our case, the presence of these compounds in soils suggests substantial persistence. It is also noteworthy that this presence varied according to soil use. The results also reveal the presence of the majority of these compounds mainly in WTP sludge and, to a lesser extent, in surface waters originating from irrigation channels. This fact demonstrates that we need to verify the effectiveness of wastewater treatment to study these aspects in order to design strategies that enhance and improve their effectiveness. We would like to thank Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, Project AGL2011-29382; we also wish to thank to CINFA laboratories for their help in obtaining the standards of pharmaceuticals.

  17. Application of acidic thermal treatment for one- and two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Takashima, M; Tanaka, Y

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of acidic thermal treatment (ATT) was examined in a 106-day continuous experiment, when applied to one- or two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge (4.3% TS). The ATT was performed at 170 °C and pH 5 for 1 hour (sulfuric acid for lowering pH). The one-stage process was mesophilic at 20 days hydraulic retention time (HRT), and incorporated the ATT as pre-treatment. The two-stage process consisted of a thermophilic digester at 5 days HRT and a mesophilic digester at 15 days HRT, and incorporated the ATT as interstage-treatment. On average, VSS reduction was 48.7% for the one-stage control, 65.8% for the one-stage ATT, 52.7% for the two-stage control and 67.6% for the two-stage ATT. Therefore, VSS reduction was increased by 15-17%, when the ATT was combined in both one- and two-stage processes. In addition, the dewaterability of digested sludge was remarkably improved, and phosphate release was enhanced. On the other hand, total methane production did not differ significantly, and color generation was noted in the digested sludge solutions with the ATT. In conclusion, the anaerobic digestion with ATT can be an attractive alternative for sludge reduction, handling, and phosphorus recovery. PMID:21099053

  18. Sewage pre-concentration for maximum recovery and reuse at decentralized level.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, V; Verstraete, W; Eftaxias, A; Bundervoet, B; Siegfried, V; Melidis, P; Aivasidis, A

    2013-01-01

    Pre-concentration of municipal wastewater by chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) was studied under controlled laboratory conditions. Both iron and aluminium-based coagulants were examined at gradually increasing concentrations (0.23, 0.35, 0.70 and 1.05 mmol/L). The CEPT sludge generated from different coagulation experiments was digested in batch anaerobic reactors, while the supernatant was tested in a dead-end microfiltration setup. The results of the study show that biogas yield was dramatically decreased (from 0.40 to 0.10 m(3)/kg chemical oxygen demand of influent) with increasing coagulant dose. In contrast, supernatant filterability was improved. Based on the laboratory results, a conceptual design was produced for a community of 2000 inhabitant equivalents (IE), using CEPT technology (at low coagulant dose) with anaerobic digestion of the concentrates. According to this, the capital and operational costs were 0.11 and 0.09 €/m(3), respectively. The biogas generated is used for digester heating and the overall process is energy self-sufficient. At a small-scale and in private applications, CEPT technology is preferably operated at higher coagulant dose, followed by membrane filtration for water reuse. Accordingly, sewage purification and reuse is possible without implementing aerobic biological processes. PMID:23508141

  19. Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertiliser: Variables influencing heavy metal removal during thermochemical treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mattenberger, H.; Fraissler, G. [Austrian Bioenergy Centre GmbH, Inffeldgasse 21b, 8010 Graz (Austria); Brunner, T. [Austrian Bioenergy Centre GmbH, Inffeldgasse 21b, 8010 Graz (Austria); BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, Inffeldgasse 21b, 8010 Graz (Austria)], E-mail: thomas.brunner@abc-energy.at; Herk, P. [ARP GmbH, Johann Sacklgasse 65-67, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Hermann, L. [Austrian Bioenergy Centre GmbH, Inffeldgasse 21b, 8010 Graz (Austria); ASH DEC Umwelt AG, Donaufelderstrasse 101/4/5, 1210 Wien (Austria); Obernberger, I. [Austrian Bioenergy Centre GmbH, Inffeldgasse 21b, 8010 Graz (Austria); BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, Inffeldgasse 21b, 8010 Graz (Austria)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to improve the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge ash by a thermochemical process. The resulting detoxified ash was intended for use as a raw material rich in phosphorus (P) for inorganic fertiliser production. The thermochemical treatment was performed in a rotary kiln where the evaporation of relevant heavy metals was enhanced by additives. The four variables investigated for process optimisation were treatment temperature, type of additive (KCl, MgCl{sub 2}) and its amount, as well as type of reactor (directly or indirectly heated rotary kiln). The removal rates of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and of Ca, P and Cl were investigated. The best overall removal efficiency for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn could be found for the indirectly heated system. The type of additive was critical, since MgCl{sub 2} favours Zn- over Cu-removal, while KCl acts conversely. The use of MgCl{sub 2} caused less particle abrasion from the pellets in the kiln than KCl. In the case of the additive KCl, liquid KCl - temporarily formed in the pellets - acted as a barrier to heavy metal evaporation as long as treatment temperatures were not sufficiently high to enhance its reaction or evaporation.

  20. Production of glass-ceramics from sewage sludge and waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenstrauha, I.; Sosins, G.; Petersone, L.; Krage, L.; Drille, M.; Filipenkov, V.

    2011-12-01

    In the present study for recycling of sewage sludge and waste glass from JSC "Valmieras stikla skiedra" treatment of them to the dense glass-ceramic composite material using powder technology is estimated. The physical-chemical properties of composite materials were identified - density 2.19 g/cm3, lowest water absorption of 2.5% and lowest porosity of 5% for the samples obtained in the temperature range of sintering 1120 - 1140 °C. Regarding mineralogical composition of glass-ceramics the following crystalline phases were identified by XRD analysis: quartz (SiO2), anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) and hematite (Fe2O3), which could ensure the high density of materials and improve the mechanical properties of material - compressive strength up to 60.31±5.09 - 52.67±19.18 MPa. The physical-chemical properties of novel materials corresponds to dense glass-ceramics composite which eventually could be used as a building material, e.g. for floor covering, road pavement, exterior tiles etc.