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Sample records for improving sfr economics

  1. Improving SFR Economics through Innovations from Thermal Design and Analysis Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Per F. Peterson

    2008-06-01

    Achieving economic competitiveness as compared to LWRs and other Generation IV (Gen-IV) reactors is one of the major requirements for large-scale investment in commercial sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) power plants. Advances in R&D for advanced SFR fuel and structural materials provide key long-term opportunities to improve SFR economics. In addition, other new opportunities are emerging to further improve SFR economics. This paper provides an overview on potential ideas from the perspective of thermal hydraulics to improve SFR economics. These include a new hybrid loop-pool reactor design to further optimize economics, safety, and reliability of SFRs with more flexibility, a multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle to improve plant thermal efficiency and reduce safety related overnight and operation costs, and modern multi-physics thermal analysis methods to reduce analysis uncertainties and associated requirements for over-conservatism in reactor design. This paper reviews advances in all three of these areas and their potential beneficial impacts on SFR economics.

  2. Improving SFR Economics Through Innovations from Thermal Design and Analysis Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Per F. Peterson

    2009-06-01

    Achieving economic competitiveness as compared to LWRs and other Generation IV (Gen-IV) reactors is one of the major requirements for large-scale investment in commercial sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) power plants. Advances in R&D for advanced SFR fuel and structural materials provide key long-term opportunities to improve SFR economics. In addition, other new opportunities are emerging to further improve SFR economics. This paper provides an overview on potential ideas from the perspective of thermal hydraulics to improve SFR economics. These include a new hybrid loop-pool reactor design to further optimize economics, safety, and reliability of SFRs with more flexibility, a multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle to improve plant thermal efficiency and reduce safety related overnight and operation costs, and modern multi-physics thermal analysis methods to reduce analysis uncertainties and associated requirements for over-conservatism in reactor design. This paper reviews advances in all three of these areas and their potential beneficial impacts on SFR economics.

  3. RISK-INFORMED BALANCING OF SAFETY, NONPROLIFERATION, AND ECONOMICS FOR THE SFR

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolakis, George; Driscoll, Michael; Golay, Michael; Kadak, Andrew; Todreas, Neil; Aldmir, Tunc; Denning, Richard; Lineberry, Michael

    2011-10-20

    A substantial barrier to the implementation of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) technology in the short term is the perception that they would not be economically competitive with advanced light water reactors. With increased acceptance of risk-informed regulation, the opportunity exists to reduce the costs of a nuclear power plant at the design stage without applying excessive conservatism that is not needed in treating low risk events. In the report, NUREG-1860, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes developmental activities associated with a risk-informed, scenario-based technology neutral framework (TNF) for regulation. It provides quantitative yardsticks against which the adequacy of safety risks can be judged. We extend these concepts to treatment of proliferation risks. The objective of our project is to develop a risk-informed design process for minimizing the cost of electricity generation within constraints of adequate safety and proliferation risks. This report describes the design and use of this design optimization process within the context of reducing the capital cost and levelized cost of electricity production for a small (possibly modular) SFR. Our project provides not only an evaluation of the feasibility of a risk-informed design process but also a practical test of the applicability of the TNF to an actual advanced, non-LWR design. The report provides results of five safety related and one proliferation related case studies of innovative design alternatives. Applied to previously proposed SFR nuclear energy system concepts We find that the TNF provides a feasible initial basis for licensing new reactors. However, it is incomplete. We recommend improvements in terms of requiring acceptance standards for total safety risks, and we propose a framework for regulation of proliferation risks. We also demonstrate methods for evaluation of proliferation risks. We also suggest revisions to scenario-specific safety risk acceptance standards

  4. Recent SFR calibrations and the constant SFR approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerviño, M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Hidalgo, S.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: Star formation rate (SFR) inferences are based on the so-called constant SFR approximation, where synthesis models are required to provide a calibration. We study the key points of such an approximation with the aim to produce accurate SFR inferences. Methods: We use the intrinsic algebra of synthesis models and explore how the SFR can be inferred from the integrated light without any assumption about the underlying star formation history (SFH). Results: We show that the constant SFR approximation is a simplified expression of deeper characteristics of synthesis models: It characterizes the evolution of single stellar populations (SSPs), from which the SSPs as a sensitivity curve over different measures of the SFH can be obtained. As results, we find that (1) the best age to calibrate SFR indices is the age of the observed system (i.e., about 13 Gyr for z = 0 systems); (2) constant SFR and steady-state luminosities are not required to calibrate the SFR; (3) it is not possible to define a single SFR timescale over which the recent SFH is averaged, and we suggest to use typical SFR indices (ionizing flux, UV fluxes) together with untypical ones (optical or IR fluxes) to correct the SFR for the contribution of the old component of the SFH. We show how to use galaxy colors to quote age ranges where the recent component of the SFH is stronger or softer than the older component. Conclusions: Despite of SFR calibrations are unaffected by this work, the meaning of results obtained by SFR inferences does. In our framework, results such as the correlation of SFR timescales with galaxy colors, or the sensitivity of different SFR indices to variations in the SFH, fit naturally. This framework provides a theoretical guide-line to optimize the available information from data and numerical experiments to improve the accuracy of SFR inferences.

  5. Recent SFR calibrations and the constant SFR approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerviño, M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Hidalgo, S.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Star formation rate (SFR) inferences are based on the so-called constant SFR approximation, where synthesis models are required to provide a calibration. We study the key points of such an approximation with the aim to produce accurate SFR inferences. Methods: We use the intrinsic algebra of synthesis models and explore how the SFR can be inferred from the integrated light without any assumption about the underlying star formation history (SFH). Results: We show that the constant SFR approximation is a simplified expression of deeper characteristics of synthesis models: It characterizes the evolution of single stellar populations (SSPs), from which the SSPs as a sensitivity curve over different measures of the SFH can be obtained. As results, we find that (1) the best age to calibrate SFR indices is the age of the observed system (i.e., about 13 Gyr for z = 0 systems); (2) constant SFR and steady-state luminosities are not required to calibrate the SFR; (3) it is not possible to define a single SFR timescale over which the recent SFH is averaged, and we suggest to use typical SFR indices (ionizing flux, UV fluxes) together with untypical ones (optical or IR fluxes) to correct the SFR for the contribution of the old component of the SFH. We show how to use galaxy colors to quote age ranges where the recent component of the SFH is stronger or softer than the older component. Conclusions: Despite of SFR calibrations are unaffected by this work, the meaning of results obtained by SFR inferences does. In our framework, results such as the correlation of SFR timescales with galaxy colors, or the sensitivity of different SFR indices to variations in the SFH, fit naturally. This framework provides a theoretical guide-line to optimize the available information from data and numerical experiments to improve the accuracy of SFR inferences.

  6. Environmental Improvement: The Economic Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockefeller, David

    1974-01-01

    Trade-offs between environmental and economical considerations are discussed. Questions such as: How much am I willing to give up?, are asked. Monies, costs, and long-term implications are considered from both viewpoints. Increased productivity through increased efforts by everyone is suggested to provide for continued environmental improvement.…

  7. An Innovative Hybrid Loop-Pool SFR Design and Safety Analysis Methods: Today and Tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao; Vincent Mousseau

    2008-04-01

    Investment in commercial sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) power plants will become possible only if SFRs achieve economic competitiveness as compared to light water reactors and other Generation IV reactors. Toward that end, we have launched efforts to improve the economics and safety of SFRs from the thermal design and safety analyses perspectives at Idaho National Laboratory. From the thermal design perspective, an innovative hybrid loop-pool SFR design has been proposed. This design takes advantage of the inherent safety of a pool design and the compactness of a loop design to further improve economics and safety. From the safety analyses perspective, we have initiated an effort to develop a high fidelity reactor system safety code.

  8. Trade-off study on the power capacity of a prototype SFR in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, M. H.; Kim, S. J.; Yoo, J.; Bae, I. H.

    2012-07-01

    The major roles of a prototype SFR are to provide irradiation test capability for the fuel and structure materials, and to obtain operational experiences of systems. Due to a compromise between the irradiation capability and construction costs, the power level should be properly determined. In this paper, a trade-off study on the power level of the prototype SFR was performed from a neutronics viewpoint. To select candidate cores, the parametric study of pin diameters was estimated using 20 wt.% uranium fuel. The candidate cores of different power levels, 125 MWt, 250 MWt, 400 MWt, and 500 MWt, were compared with the 1500 MWt reference core. The resulting core performance and economic efficiency indices became insensitive to the power at about 400-500 MWt and sharply deteriorated at about 125-250 MWt with decreasing core sizes. Fuel management scheme, TRU core performance comparing with uranium core, and sodium void reactivity were also evaluated with increasing power levels. It is found that increasing the number of batches showed higher burnup performance and economic efficiency. However, increasing the cycle length showed the trends in lower economic efficiency. Irradiation performance of TRU and enriched TRU cores was improved about 20 % and 50 %, respectively. The maximum sodium void reactivity of 5.2$ was confirmed less than the design limit of 7.5$. As a result, the power capacity of the prototype SFR should not be less than 250 MWt and would be appropriate at {approx} 500 MWt considering the performance and economic efficiency. (authors)

  9. Improving the Teaching of Economics: Achievements and Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, G. L.; Kelley, Allen C.

    Achievements and possible future projects of the American Economic Association's Committee on Economic Education (CEE), whose goal is to improve teaching in college and university economics, are discussed. The Teacher Training Program (TTP) was established by the CEE in the 1970's to develop programs to train economic educators. To date the…

  10. On the [CII]-SFR Relation in High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallini, L.; Gallerani, S.; Ferrara, A.; Pallottini, A.; Yue, B.

    2015-11-01

    After two Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observing cycles, only a handful of [C ii] 158 μm emission line searches in z > 6 galaxies have reported a positive detection, questioning the applicability of the local [C ii]-star formation rate (SFR) relation to high-z systems. To investigate this issue we use the Vallini et al. (V13) model,based on high-resolution, radiative transfer cosmological simulations to predict the [C ii] emission from the interstellar medium of a z ≈ 7 (halo mass Mh = 1.17 × 1011 M⊙) galaxy. We improve the V13 model by including (a) a physically motivated metallicity (Z) distribution of the gas, (b) the contribution of photodissociation regions (PDRs), and (c) the effects of cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the [C ii] line luminosity. We study the relative contribution of diffuse neutral gas to the total [C ii] emission (Fdiff/Ftot) for different SFR and Z values. We find that the [C ii] emission arises predominantly from PDRs: regardless of the galaxy properties, Fdiff/Ftot ≤ 10%, since at these early epochs the CMB temperature approaches the spin temperature of the [C ii] transition in the cold neutral medium (TCMB ˜ {T}s{{CNM}} ˜ 20 K). Our model predicts a high-z [C ii]-SFR relation, consistent with observations of local dwarf galaxies (0.02 < Z/Z⊙ < 0.5). The [C ii] deficit suggested by actual data (LCii < 2.0 × 107 L⊙ in BDF3299 at z ≈ 7.1) if confirmed by deeper ALMA observations, can be ascribed to negative stellar feedback disrupting molecular clouds around star formation sites. The deviation from the local [C ii]-SFR would then imply a modified Kennicutt-Schmidt relation in z > 6 galaxies. Alternatively/in addition, the deficit might be explained by low gas metallicities (Z < 0.1 Z⊙).

  11. The Role of School Improvement in Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2007-01-01

    The role of improved schooling, a central part of most development strategies, has become controversial because expansion of school attainment has not guaranteed improved economic conditions. This paper reviews the role of education in promoting economic wellbeing, with a particular focus on the role of educational quality. It concludes that there…

  12. Innovative power conversion system for the French SFR prototype, ASTRID

    SciTech Connect

    Cachon, L.; Biscarrat, C.; Morin, F.; Haubensack, D.; Rigal, E.; Moro, I.; Baque, F.; Madeleine, S.; Rodriguez, G.; Laffont, G.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the French Act of 28 June 2006 about nuclear materials and waste management, the prototype ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), foreseen in operation by the 20's, will have to demonstrate not only the minor actinide transmutation capability, but also the progress made in Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) technology on an industrial scale, by qualifying innovative options. Some of these options still require improvements, especially in the field of operability and safety. In fact, one of the main issues with the standard steam/water Power Conversion System (PCS) of SFR is the fast and energetic chemical reaction between water and sodium, which could occur in steam generators in case of tube failure. To manage the sodium/water reaction, one way consists in minimizing the impact of such event: hence studies are carried out on steam generator design, improvement of the physical knowledge of this phenomenon, development of numerical simulation to predict the reaction onset and consequences, and associated detection improvement. On the other hand, the other way consists in eliminating sodium/water reaction. In this frame, the CEA contribution to the feasibility evaluation of an alternative innovative PCS (replacing steam/water by 180 bar pressurised nitrogen) is focused on the following main topics: - The parametric study leading to nitrogen selection: the thermodynamic cycle efficiency optimisation on Brayton cycles is performed with several gases at different pressures. - The design of innovative compact heat exchangers for the gas loop: here the key points are the nuclear codification associated with inspection capability, the innovative welding process and the thermal-hydraulic and thermal-mechanic optimisations. After a general introduction of the ASTRID project, this paper presents in detail these different feasibility studies being led on the innovative gas PCS for an SFR. (authors)

  13. Improved Economics of Nuclear Plant Life Management

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Jarrell, Donald B.; Bond, Joseph W D.

    2007-07-31

    The adoption of new on-line monitoring, diagnostic and eventually prognostics technologies has the potential to impact the economics of the existing nuclear power plant fleet, new plants and future advanced designs. To move from periodic inspection to on-line monitoring for condition based maintenance and eventually prognostics will require advances in sensors, better understanding of what and how to measure within the plant; enhanced data interrogation, communication and integration; new predictive models for damage/aging evolution; system integration for real world deployments; quantification of uncertainties in what are inherently ill-posed problems and integration of enhanced condition based maintenance/prognostics philosophies into new plant designs, operation and O&M approaches. The move to digital systems in petrochemical, process and fossil fuel power plants is enabling major advances to occur in the instrumentation, controls and monitoring systems and approaches employed. The adoption within the nuclear power community of advanced on-line monitoring and advanced diagnostics has the potential for the reduction in costly periodic surveillance that requires plant shut-down , more accurate cost-benefit analysis, “just-in-time” maintenance, pre-staging of maintenance tasks, move towards true “operation without failures” and a jump start on advanced technologies for new plant concepts, such as those under the International Gen IV Program. There are significant opportunities to adopt condition-based maintenance when upgrades are implemented at existing facilities. The economic benefit from a predictive maintenance program based upon advanced on-line monitoring and advanced diagnostics can be demonstrated from a cost/benefit analysis. An analysis of the 104 US legacy systems has indicated potential savings at over $1B per year when applied to all key equipment; a summary of the supporting analysis is provided in this paper.

  14. Comparison of JSFR design with EDF requirements for future SFR

    SciTech Connect

    Uematsu, M. M.; Prele, G.; Mariteau, P.; Sauvage, J. F.; Hayafune, H.; Chikazawa, Y.

    2012-07-01

    A comparison of Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) design with future French SFR concept has been done based on the requirement of EDF, the investor-operator of future French SFR, and the French safety baseline, under the framework of EDF-JAEA bilateral agreement of research and development cooperation on future SFR. (authors)

  15. Economic and policy implications of improving longevity.

    PubMed

    Vladeck, Bruce C

    2005-09-01

    With all the rhetoric surrounding the impending "entitlement crisis" produced by the "graying of America," there has been surprisingly little serious analysis of the social and economic implications of increased longevity and the doubling of the number of elderly people that will occur in this country over the next 30 years. This article identifies five critical areas in which the effect of demographic change will be significant. First, patterns of work life and labor-force participation will almost inevitably change. Second, government expenditures now financed largely by payroll and federal income taxes will increase, whereas those financed by state and local property taxes will fall, at least proportionately. Third, the post-World War II pattern of suburbanized, automobile-dependent communities will pose special challenges to serving an aging population, and new adaptations will need to be developed. Fourth, intrafamily caregiving patterns will necessarily change. Fifth, the level of disability and dependence of older people, for which the rate of change is inherently unpredictable, will have a major effect on all these and other phenomena. Whether one views the net effect of all these changes as a positive or a negative, it is necessary to begin thinking a lot harder and more systematically about all of them. PMID:16131358

  16. Improved, Low-Stress Economical Submerged Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary study has shown that the use of a high-strength composite fiber cloth material may greatly reduce fabrication and deployment costs of a subsea offshore pipeline. The problem is to develop an inexpensive submerged pipeline that can safely and economically transport large quantities of fresh water, oil, and natural gas underwater for long distances. Above-water pipelines are often not feasible due to safety, cost, and environmental problems, and present, fixed-wall, submerged pipelines are often very expensive. The solution is to have a submerged, compliant-walled tube that when filled, is lighter than the surrounding medium. Some examples include compliant tubes for transporting fresh water under the ocean, for transporting crude oil underneath salt or fresh water, and for transporting high-pressure natural gas from offshore to onshore. In each case, the fluid transported is lighter than its surrounding fluid, and thus the flexible tube will tend to float. The tube should be ballasted to the ocean floor so as to limit the motion of the tube in the horizontal and vertical directions. The tube should be placed below 100-m depth to minimize biofouling and turbulence from surface storms. The tube may also have periodic pumps to maintain flow without over-pressurizing, or it can have a single pump at the beginning. The tube may have periodic valves that allow sections of the tube to be repaired or maintained. Some examples of tube materials that may be particularly suited for these applications are non-porous composite tubes made of high-performance fibers such as Kevlar, Spectra, PBO, Aramid, carbon fibers, or high-strength glass. Above-ground pipes for transporting water, oil, and natural gas have typically been fabricated from fiber-reinforced plastic or from more costly high-strength steel. Also, previous suggested subsea pipeline designs have only included heavy fixed-wall pipes that can be very expensive initially, and can be difficult and expensive

  17. OsSFR6 is a functional rice orthologue of SENSITIVE TO FREEZING-6 and can act as a regulator of COR gene expression, osmotic stress and freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wathugala, Deepthi L; Richards, Shane A; Knight, Heather; Knight, Marc R

    2011-09-01

    The Arabidopsis protein SENSITIVE TO FREEZING-6 (AtSFR6) is required for cold- and drought-inducible expression of COLD-ON REGULATED (COR) genes and, as a consequence, AtSFR6 is essential for osmotic stress and freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. Therefore, orthologues of AtSFR6 in crop species represent important candidate targets for future manipulation of stress tolerance. We identified and cloned a homologue of AtSFR6 from rice (Oryza sativa), OsSFR6, and confirmed its orthology in Arabidopsis. OsSFR6 was identified by homology searches, and a full-length coding region isolated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from Oryza sativa cDNA. To test for orthology, OsSFR6 was expressed in an Arabidopsis sfr6 loss-of-function mutant background, and restoration of wild-type phenotypes was assessed. Searching the rice genome revealed a single homologue of AtSFR6. Cloning and sequencing the OsSFR6 coding region showed OsSFR6 to have 61.7% identity and 71.1% similarity to AtSFR6 at the predicted protein sequence level. Expression of OsSFR6 in the atsfr6 mutant background restored the wild-type visible phenotype, as well as restoring wild-type levels of COR gene expression and tolerance of osmotic and freezing stresses. OsSFR6 is an orthologue of AtSFR6, and thus a target for future manipulation to improve tolerance to osmotic and other abiotic stresses. PMID:21585388

  18. Economic load dispatch using improved gravitational search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu; Wang, Jia-rong; Guo, Feng

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an improved gravitational search algorithm(IGSA) to solve the economic load dispatch(ELD) problem. In order to avoid the local optimum phenomenon, mutation processing is applied to the GSA. The IGSA is applied to solve the economic load dispatch problems with the valve point effects, which has 13 generators and a load demand of 2520 MW. Calculation results show that the algorithm in this paper can deal with the ELD problems with high stability.

  19. The Economic Benefits of Improving Literacy Skills in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Michael; Burrows, Marie; Lafleur, Brenda; Squires, Robert

    A Canadian study explored the economic benefits of improving literacy skills in the workplace from the perspective of both employers and employees. The Conference Board identified and measured these benefits by conducting a survey of 40 employers, as well as by analyzing data gathered in the International Adult Literacy Survey. The study found…

  20. The economic valuation of improved process plant decision support technology.

    PubMed

    White, Douglas C

    2007-06-01

    How can investments that would potentially improve a manufacturing plant's decision process be economically justified? What is the value of "better information," "more flexibility," or "improved integration" and the technologies that provide these effects? Technology investments such as improved process modelling, new real time historians and other databases, "smart" instrumentation, better data analysis and visualization software, and/or improved user interfaces often include these benefits as part of their valuation. How are these "soft" benefits to be converted to a quantitative economic return? Quantification is important if rational management decisions are to be made about the correct amount of money to invest in the technologies, and which technologies to choose among the many available ones. Modelling the plant operational decision cycle-detect, analyse, forecast, choose and implement--provides a basis for this economic quantification. In this paper a new economic model is proposed for estimation of the value of decision support investments based on their effect upon the uncertainty in forecasting plant financial performance. This model leads to quantitative benefit estimates that have a realistic financial basis. An example is presented demonstrating the application of the method. PMID:17434170

  1. The nutrition intervention improved adult human capital and economic productivity.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Melgar, Paul; Maluccio, John A; Stein, Aryeh D; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    This article reviews key findings about the long-term impact of a nutrition intervention carried out by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama from 1969 to 1977. Results from follow-up studies in 1988-89 and 2002-04 show substantial impact on adult human capital and economic productivity. The 1988-89 study showed that adult body size and work capacity increased for those provided improved nutrition through age 3 y, whereas the 2002-04 follow-up showed that schooling was increased for women and reading comprehension and intelligence increased in both men and women. Participants were 26-42 y of age at the time of the 2002-04 follow-up, facilitating the assessment of economic productivity. Wages of men increased by 46% in those provided with improved nutrition through age 2 y. Findings for cardiovascular disease risk factors were heterogeneous; however, they suggest that improved nutrition in early life is unlikely to increase cardiovascular disease risk later in life and may indeed lower risk. In conclusion, the substantial improvement in adult human capital and economic productivity resulting from the nutrition intervention provides a powerful argument for promoting improvements in nutrition in pregnant women and young children. PMID:20032473

  2. Advanced Burner Reactor with Breed-and-Burn Thorium Blankets for Improved Economics and Resource Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, Ehud

    2015-11-04

    This study assesses the feasibility of designing Seed and Blanket (S&B) Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) to generate a significant fraction of the core power from radial thorium fueled blankets that operate on the Breed-and-Burn (B&B) mode without exceeding the radiation damage constraint of presently verified cladding materials. The S&B core is designed to maximize the fraction of neutrons that radially leak from the seed (or “driver”) into the subcritical blanket and reduce neutron loss via axial leakage. The blanket in the S&B core makes beneficial use of the leaking neutrons for improved economics and resource utilization. A specific objective of this study is to maximize the fraction of core power that can be generated by the blanket without violating the thermal hydraulic and material constraints. Since the blanket fuel requires no reprocessing along with remote fuel fabrication, a larger fraction of power from the blanket will result in a smaller fuel recycling capacity and lower fuel cycle cost per unit of electricity generated. A unique synergism is found between a low conversion ratio (CR) seed and a B&B blanket fueled by thorium. Among several benefits, this synergism enables the very low leakage S&B cores to have small positive coolant voiding reactivity coefficient and large enough negative Doppler coefficient even when using inert matrix fuel for the seed. The benefits of this synergism are maximized when using an annular seed surrounded by an inner and outer thorium blankets. Among the high-performance S&B cores designed to benefit from this unique synergism are: (1) the ultra-long cycle core that features a cycle length of ~7 years; (2) the high-transmutation rate core where the seed fuel features a TRU CR of 0.0. Its TRU transmutation rate is comparable to that of the reference Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) with CR of 0.5 and the thorium blanket can generate close to 60% of the core power; but requires only one sixth of the reprocessing and

  3. [Geriatric fracture centers. Improved patient care and economic benefits].

    PubMed

    Kates, S L

    2016-01-01

    The world's population is aging resulting in changes in the way we manage geriatric care. Furthermore, this population has a considerable risk of fragility fractures, most notably hip fractures. Hip fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and have large economic consequences. It is due to these factors that the concept of an elderly trauma center was developed. These trauma centers utilize the expertise in orthopedic and geriatric disciplines to provide coordinated care to the elderly hip fracture patient. As a result, studies have demonstrated improvements in clinical outcomes within the hospital stay, a reduction in iatrogenic complications, and improvements in 1-year mortality rates compared to the usual care given at a similar facility. Furthermore, economic models have demonstrated that there is a role for regionalized hip fracture centers that can be both profitable and provide more efficient care to these patients. PMID:26658903

  4. The potential economic benefits of improvements in weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The study was initiated as a consequence of the increased use of weather satellites, electronic computers and other technological developments which have become a virtual necessity for solving the complex problems of the earth's atmosphere. Neither the economic emphasis, nor the monetary results of the study, are intended to imply their sole use as criteria for making decisions concerning the intrinsic value of technological improvements in meteorology.

  5. Techniques to improve the economics of limestone FGDS

    SciTech Connect

    Bresowar, G.E.; Klingspor, J.

    1995-12-31

    Many utilities have evaluated the cost of scrubbing versus fuel switching in various plans and scenarios to determine the most economical means for meeting the requirements of the new law. Presently, the future cost of removing a ton of SO{sub 2} is based on fuel switching, and the market values are in the range of $150 - $250 per ton. The perceived cost of FGDS retrofits is $250 - $400 per ton for eastern medium to high sulfur coal. ABB has studied the overall costs of FGDS and has developed a series of cost reducing improvements. and innovations. The improvements are manifested in ABBs new limestone FGDS technology known by the code phrase {open_quote}Stealth FGDS{close_quotes}. Stealth promises low capital and operating cost, high removal efficiencies for SO{sub 2} and other pollutants, little or positive environmental and economic impact on the local community, salable or non-hazardous by-products, ease of retrofit, and exceptionally short installation schedules. The concepts are being demonstrated in one system at the Miles Generating Station of Ohio Edison Company. Bearing the name {open_quote}LS-2 Advanced SO, Scrubbing{close_quotes}, the Stealth scrubber at Niles is a 110 MWe turnkey, retrofit unit to be completed 20 months after the release of engineering. It will remove 20,000 or more tons per year of SO{sub 2} from the flue gases generated by both Unit 1 and Unit 2 boilers, producing wallboard-grade gypsum. Upon completion of a four month test program, the plant will be operated by Ohio Edison for a four to five year reliability demonstration period. The performance and economic projections for LS-2 scrubbers show the technology to be quite attractive relative to projections for fuel switching when installed in a manner similar to the installation plan for Niles. The description and basis for these economic projections are described in this paper.

  6. New bits, motors improve economics of slim hole horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, S.; Felderhoff, F.; Fisher, K.

    1996-03-11

    The latest generation of small-diameter bits, combined with a new extended power section positive displacement motor (PDM), has improved the economics of slim hole drilling programs. As costs are driven down, redevelopment reserves are generated in the older, more established fields. New reserves result from increases in the ultimate recovery and accelerated production rates from the implementation of horizontal wells in reentry programs. This logic stimulated an entire development program for a Gulf of Mexico platform, which was performed without significant compromises in well bore geometry. The savings from this new-generation drilling system come from reducing the total number of trips required during the drilling phase. This paper reviews the design improvements of roller cone bits, PDC bits, and positive displacement motors for offshore directional drilling operations.

  7. Improved Differential Evolution for Combined Heat and Power Economic Dispatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, C.; Basu, M.; Panigrahi, C. K.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an improved differential evolution to solve non-smooth non-convex combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problem. Valve-point loading and prohibited operating zones of conventional thermal generators are taken into account. Differential evolution (DE) exploits the differences of randomly sampled pairs of objective vectors for its mutation process. Consequently the variation between vectors will outfit the objective function toward the optimization process and therefore provides efficient global optimization capability. However, although DE is shown to be precise, fast as well as robust, its search efficiency will be impaired during solution process with fast descending diversity of population. This paper proposes Gaussian random variable instead of scaling factor which improves search efficiency. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified on four test systems. The results of the proposed approach are compared with those obtained by other evolutionary methods. It is found that the proposed improved differential evolution based approach is able to provide better solution.

  8. Exploring Systematic Effects in the Mass-Metallicity-SFR Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telford, O. G.; Dalcanton, J.; Skillman, E.; Conroy, C.

    2016-06-01

    There is evidence that the well-established mass-metallicity relation in galaxies is correlated with a third parameter: star formation rate (SFR). The strength of the correlation between metallicity and SFR may be used along with chemical evolution models to disentangle the relative importance of different physical processes (e.g., infall of pristine gas, metal-enriched outflows), but the observed strength of this correlation varies widely among studies using both single-fiber and IFU spectroscopy. We analyze possible sources of systematic error that could affect the observed strength of this correlation, including choice of metallicity calibration. We present the first analysis of the relation between stellar mass, gas phase metallicity and SFR using a new set of theoretically calibrated abundance diagnostics from Dopita et al. (2013) for ~150,000 star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using any of these new strong emission line abundance diagnostics yields a relatively weak correlation between metallicity and SFR at fixed stellar mass, in contrast to the stronger correlation found by some previous studies using other metallicity diagnostics. We also consider other possible sources of bias that can affect the metallicity correlation with SFR, including uncertainty in stellar mass determination, aperture effects, and dust. Finally, we present preliminary results from current work investigating the effect of the choice of binning technique on derivations of direct method metallicities for stacked galaxy spectra and the subsequent impact on the correlation between metallicity and SFR. The large uncertainty in the true strength of the relation between mass, metallicity, and SFR must be carefully accounted for in theoretical studies of chemical evolution.

  9. Advanced Placement Economics Improves Both Merit and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, Sally; Morton, John

    2009-01-01

    In 1989, microeconomics and macroeconomics examinations debuted on the Advanced Placement (AP) scene. At that time, many professors of economics were skeptical that college freshmen had the skills and maturity to understand the concepts in principles of economics courses. They thought teaching these concepts to high school students was even more…

  10. Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Eric V.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Vietnam provides an interesting insight into the sharp decline in child labor. A study of the rising economic status of the population across Vietnam shows that children returned to school or stopped working as their family incomes grew. The decline in child labor is steep in poor households as they emerged from…

  11. An empirical SFR estimator for high redshift galaxies:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnouts, Stephane

    2015-08-01

    At high redshift, most of the SFR indicators are limited to the most massive galaxies (Far-IR, radio) and out of reach of optical spectroscopy (Halpha). The UV continuum is the only one available at all redshifts and for galaxies within a large range of mass. The main question is then to properly account for dust absorption. The SED fitting are always limited in the choice of popular attenuation laws (if not only one, starburst) which relies on the slope of the UV continuum. The alternative is to measure the net budget between the absorbed vs un-absorbed UV light i.e. the infrared excess (IRX= Lir/Luv).By using the deep 24 micron in the COSMOS field, we have observed a remarkable behaviour of IRX stripes within the (NUV-r)o vs (r-K)o color diagram which can be used to derive robust SFR estimates just with the Luv, Lr and Lk luminosities (Arnouts et al, 2013). We have shown that we can explain the correlation if we consider a two component models for the birth clouds and the ISM and also a complete model for galaxy inclination to explain the extrem IRX values. We are now extended the method with Herschel data at higher redshift (z~2) and lower masses (M~10^8Mo) by using stacking techniques and find that the IRX-NUVrK correlation persists (Le Floc’h , in prep). This method allows us to derive an accurate SFR for each individual galaxy based on its location in the NUVrK diagram and with no assumption on dust attenuation law, a main caveat for SED fitting technique.We investigated the behavior of the scatter of the SFR-Mass in GOODS and COSMOS fields and find that both SFR (Lir+Luv) or SFR(NUVrK) estimatesare consistent (Ilbert et al., 2015). Finally will investigate the dust-free UV luminosity functions in between 0SFR densities down to 10^8-8.5 Mo, with no resort to stacking technique as in Far-IR or radio wavelength.

  12. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    PubMed

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research. PMID:24391285

  13. Growth Versus Government Management Improvement During Economic Downturn

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, Boris; Baaquie, Belal E.; Bishop, Steven; Njavro, Djuro; Li, Baowen

    2013-01-01

    In estimating how economic growth depends on various inputs, economists commonly use long periods of data encompassing both main extremes to fluctuations in the economy: recession and expansion. Here we focus on recession years because during expansion even countries with bad economic policies may experience large growth. Specifically, we study how growth depends on the proportion of public-sector workforce, p and competitiveness, quantified by the Global Competitiveness Index, GCI. For the 2008–2011 economic downturn and for 57 countries, we find that the growth rate of GDP per capita, g, decreases with p, and increases with ΔGCI. Further, more competitive countries attract more foreign direct investments per capita, I, than less competitive countries, where I ∝ GCIα. We propose a production function, divided into the private and public sectors, where GDP depends on market capitalization, the public (private)-sector workforce, and competitiveness level, used to quantify the public sector efficiency. PMID:23563321

  14. Growth Versus Government Management Improvement During Economic Downturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, Boris; Baaquie, Belal E.; Bishop, Steven; Njavro, Djuro; Li, Baowen

    2013-04-01

    In estimating how economic growth depends on various inputs, economists commonly use long periods of data encompassing both main extremes to fluctuations in the economy: recession and expansion. Here we focus on recession years because during expansion even countries with bad economic policies may experience large growth. Specifically, we study how growth depends on the proportion of public-sector workforce, p and competitiveness, quantified by the Global Competitiveness Index, GCI. For the 2008-2011 economic downturn and for 57 countries, we find that the growth rate of GDP per capita, g, decreases with p, and increases with ΔGCI. Further, more competitive countries attract more foreign direct investments per capita, I, than less competitive countries, where I ~ GCIα. We propose a production function, divided into the private and public sectors, where GDP depends on market capitalization, the public (private)-sector workforce, and competitiveness level, used to quantify the public sector efficiency.

  15. Growth versus government management improvement during economic downturn.

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Boris; Baaquie, Belal E; Bishop, Steven; Njavro, Djuro; Li, Baowen

    2013-01-01

    In estimating how economic growth depends on various inputs, economists commonly use long periods of data encompassing both main extremes to fluctuations in the economy: recession and expansion. Here we focus on recession years because during expansion even countries with bad economic policies may experience large growth. Specifically, we study how growth depends on the proportion of public-sector workforce, p and competitiveness, quantified by the Global Competitiveness Index, GCI. For the 2008-2011 economic downturn and for 57 countries, we find that the growth rate of GDP per capita, g, decreases with p, and increases with ΔGCI. Further, more competitive countries attract more foreign direct investments per capita, I, than less competitive countries, where I is proportional to GCI(α). We propose a production function, divided into the private and public sectors, where GDP depends on market capitalization, the public (private)-sector workforce, and competitiveness level, used to quantify the public sector efficiency. PMID:23563321

  16. ON IMPROVING THE ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE NEGRO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TOBIN, JAMES

    EFFORTS TO ELIMINATE NEGRO POVERTY MUST BE UNDERTAKEN WITHIN A FAVORABLE OVERALL ECONOMIC CLIMATE, AND THE CURRENT CLIMATE IS NOT FAVORABLE BECAUSE MANPOWER AND PLANT CAPACITY ARE NOT FULLY UTILIZED. SUCH FACTORS AS LIMITED JOBS, EXAGGERATED JOB REQUIREMENTS, LOWER EARNING CAPACITY, DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT, FLUCTUATIONS OF THE BUSINESS CYCLE, AND…

  17. Economic benefits of improved meteorological forecasts - The construction industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, R. K.; Greenberg, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates are made of the potential economic benefits accruing to particular industries from timely utilization of satellite-derived six-hour weather forecasts, and of economic penalties resulting from failure to utilize such forecasts in day-to-day planning. The cost estimate study is centered on the U.S. construction industry, with results simplified to yes/no 6-hr forecasts on thunderstorm activity and work/no work decisions. Effects of weather elements (thunderstorms, snow and sleet) on various construction operations are indicated. Potential dollar benefits for other industries, including air transportation and other forms of transportation, are diagrammed for comparison. Geosynchronous satellites such as STORMSAT, SEOS, and SMS/GOES are considered as sources of the forecast data.

  18. Uncertainty analysis of a SFR core with sodium plenum

    SciTech Connect

    Canuti, E.; Ivanov, E.; Tiberi, V.; Pignet, S.

    2012-07-01

    The new concepts of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors have to reach the Generation IV safety objectives. In this regard the Sodium Void Effect has to be minimized for the future projects of large-size SFR as well as the uncertainties on it. The Inst. of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) as technological support of French public authorities is in charge of safety assessment of operating and under construction reactors, as well as future projects. In order to state about the safety of new SFR designs the IRSN must be able to evaluate core parameters and their uncertainties. In this frame a sensitivity and uncertainty study has been performed to evaluate the impact of nuclear data uncertainty on sodium void effect, for the benchmark model of large SFR BN-800. The benchmark parameters (effective multiplication factor and sodium void effect) have been evaluated using two codes, the deterministic code ERANOS and the Monte Carlo code SCALE, while the S/U analysis has been performed only with SCALE. The results of the these studies point out the most relevant cross section uncertainties that affect the SVE and how efforts should be done in increasing the existing nuclear data accuracies. (authors)

  19. The SFR and IMF of the galactic disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, Andreas

    2003-04-01

    There is a long term dynamical heating of stellar populations with age observed in the age velocity dispersion relation (AVR). This effect allows a determination of the star formation history SFR(t) from local kinematical data of main sequence stars. Using a self-consistent disk model for the vertical structure of the disk, we find from the kinematics of the stars in the solar neighbourhood that the SFR shows a moderate star burst about 10 Gyr ago followed by a continuous decline to the present day value consistent with the observed number of OB stars. The gravitational potential of the gas component and of the Dark Matter Halo is included and the effect of chemical enrichment, finite lifetime of the stars and mass loss of the stellar component are taken into account. The scale heights for main sequence stars together with the SFR is then used to determine constistently the IMF from the observed local luminosity function. The main new result is that the power law break in the present day mass function (PDMF) around 1 M ⊙ is entirely due to evolutionary effects of the disk and does not appear in the IMF.

  20. Near-term improvements in parabolic troughs: an economic and performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, R.; Murphy, L.M.

    1981-08-01

    Improved parabolic-trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. This analysis qualifies the performance potential of various parabolic-trough component improvements from a systems viewpoint and uses these performance data to determine the worth of each improvement on an economic basis. The improvements considered are evacuated receivers, silvered-glass reflectors, improved receiver, selective coatings, higher optical accuracy concentrations, and higher transmittance receiver glazings. Upper-bound costs for each improvement are provided as well as estimates of the increased solar system rates of return that are made possible by these improvements. The performance and economic potential of some of these improvements are shown to be substantial, especially at higher collector operating temperatures.

  1. Can combining economizers with improved filtration save energy and protect equipment in data centers?

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganguly, Srirupa; Gundel, Lara A.; Horvath, Arpad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2009-06-05

    Economizer use in data centers is an energy efficiency strategy that could significantly limit electricity demand in this rapidly growing economic sector. Widespread economizer implementation, however, has been hindered by potential equipment reliability concerns associated with exposing information technology equipment to particulate matter of outdoor origin. This study explores the feasibility of using economizers in data centers to save energy while controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at an operating northern California data center equipped with an economizer under varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to levels when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh any increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration could reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design.

  2. Economic analysis of the health impacts of housing improvement studies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Elisabeth; Macdonald, Catriona; Thomson, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation of public policies has been advocated but rarely performed. Studies from a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement included data on costs and some economic analysis. Examination of these data provides an opportunity to explore the difficulties and the potential for economic evaluation of housing. Methods Data were extracted from all studies included in the systematic review of housing improvement which had reported costs and economic analysis (n=29/45). The reported data were assessed for their suitability to economic evaluation. Where an economic analysis was reported the analysis was described according to pre-set definitions of various types of economic analysis used in the field of health economics. Results 25 studies reported cost data on the intervention and/or benefits to the recipients. Of these, 11 studies reported data which was considered amenable to economic evaluation. A further four studies reported conducting an economic evaluation. Three of these studies presented a hybrid ‘balance sheet’ approach and indicated a net economic benefit associated with the intervention. One cost-effectiveness evaluation was identified but the data were unclearly reported; the cost-effectiveness plane suggested that the intervention was more costly and less effective than the status quo. Conclusions Future studies planning an economic evaluation need to (i) make best use of available data and (ii) ensure that all relevant data are collected. To facilitate this, economic evaluations should be planned alongside the intervention with input from health economists from the outset of the study. When undertaken appropriately, economic evaluation provides the potential to make significant contributions to housing policy. PMID:23929616

  3. Improving Education Outcomes in Germany. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 611

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, David

    2008-01-01

    Improving education outcomes is important for Germany's long-term economic performance and social cohesion. While student achievement is above the OECD average in science and at the OECD average in reading and mathematics according to the 2006 OECD PISA study, weaker students tend to do badly by international comparison and socio-economic and/or…

  4. The SFR-M* Relation and Empirical Star-Formation Histories from ZFOURGE* at 0.5 < z < 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, Adam R.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Labbé, Ivo; Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Papovich, Casey; Glazebrook, Karl; Allen, Rebecca; Brammer, Gabreil B.; Cowley, Michael; Dickinson, Mark; Elbaz, David; Inami, Hanae; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Morrison, Glenn E.; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Persson, S. Eric; Rees, Glen A.; Salmon, Brett; Schreiber, Corentin; Spitler, Lee R.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2016-02-01

    We explore star formation histories (SFHs) of galaxies based on the evolution of the star formation rate stellar mass relation (SFR-M*). Using data from the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE) in combination with far-IR imaging from the Spitzer and Herschel observatories we measure the SFR-M* relation at 0.5 < z < 4. Similar to recent works we find that the average infrared spectral energy distributions of galaxies are roughly consistent with a single infrared template across a broad range of redshifts and stellar masses, with evidence for only weak deviations. We find that the SFR-M* relation is not consistent with a single power law of the form {SFR}\\propto {M}*α at any redshift; it has a power law slope of α ˜ 1 at low masses, and becomes shallower above a turnover mass (M0) that ranges from 109.5 to 1010.8 M⊙, with evidence that M0 increases with redshift. We compare our measurements to results from state-of-the-art cosmological simulations, and find general agreement in the slope of the SFR-M* relation albeit with systematic offsets. We use the evolving SFR-M* sequence to generate SFHs, finding that typical SFRs of individual galaxies rise at early times and decline after reaching a peak. This peak occurs earlier for more massive galaxies. We integrate these SFHs to generate mass growth histories and compare to the implied mass growth from the evolution of the stellar mass function (SMF). We find that these two estimates are in broad qualitative agreement, but that there is room for improvement at a more detailed level. At early times the SFHs suggest mass growth rates that are as much as 10× higher than inferred from the SMF. However, at later times the SFHs under-predict the inferred evolution, as is expected in the case of additional growth due to mergers. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  5. How can we improve socio-economic condition of women?

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, P C; Pattanaik, B E

    Aspects of discrimination against women in India are summarized, a case study of a rural district in Orissa is presented, and the article follows with a suggested 3-part strategy of education, employment and appropriate technology. The economic role played by women is difficult to quantitate because of their lifestyle that combines domestic work and unpaid family or low-paid outside farm or cottage industry labor. Besides these tasks, women usually care for dairy animals, and carry water and firewood. Discrimination against women in this system is evident, however, from some available statistics. 46% of women, as opposed to 20% of men, work as agricultural laborers. Women are denied education because they are not expected to do responsible work, then they are denied employment because they are not educated. Their work is counted as worth only half that of men, and based on this assumption, they are paid less then men. The male heads of 124 households in 7 villages in the Orissa area were interviewed to study labor participation of household members. 89% of the people worked in agriculture, 94% in rice paddy and 6% in oilseed or pulses for cash crops. The average farm size was 2.29 acres. Female literacy had risen to 14.3% from 1% 10 years before. Women usually worked in transplantation, weeding, harvesting and threshing, but also in heavier farm labor, construction of roads and buildings, quarrying and forestry. In this poor, hilly region, the custom of purdah was not practiced to the extent of keeping women from doing day labor outside the home. The authors' suggested strategy for women's development included appropriate technology such as the Gobar methane gas plant, provision of credit for women's industries, retention of girls in school and literacy programs for girls and women, and higher wages for women. PMID:12281792

  6. Measuring the reduced scattering coefficient and γ with SFR spectroscopy: studying the phase function dependence (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Anouk L.; Zhang, Xu; Bosschaart, Nienke; Van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Faber, Dirk J.

    2016-03-01

    Both Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Single Fiber Reflectance Spectroscopy (SFR) are used to determine various optical properties of tissue. We developed a method combining these two techniques to measure the scattering anisotropy (g1) and γ (=1-g2/1-g1), related to the 1st and 2nd order moments of the phase function. The phase function is intimately associated with the cellular organization and ultrastructure of tissue, physical parameters that may change during disease onset and progression. Quantification of these parameters may therefore allow for improved non-invasive, in vivo discrimination between healthy and diseased tissue. With SFR the reduced scattering coefficient and γ can be extracted from the reflectance spectrum (Kanick et al., Biomedical Optics Express 2(6), 2011). With OCT the scattering coefficient can be extracted from the signal as a function of depth (Faber et al., Optics Express 12(19), 2004). Consequently, by combining SFR and OCT measurements at the same wavelengths, the scattering anisotropy (g) can be resolved using µs'= µs*(1-g). We performed measurements on a suspension of silica spheres as a proof of principle. The SFR model for the reflectance as a function of the reduced scattering coefficient and γ is based on semi-empirical modelling. These models feature Monte-Carlo (MC) based model constants. The validity of these constants - and thus the accuracy of the estimated parameters - depends on the phase function employed in the MC simulations. Since the phase function is not known when measuring in tissue, we will investigate the influence of assuming an incorrect phase function on the accuracy of the derived parameters.

  7. A New Streamflow-Routing (SFR1) Package to Simulate Stream-Aquifer Interaction with MODFLOW-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.; Konikow, Leonard F.; Banta, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing concern for water and its quality require improved methods to evaluate the interaction between streams and aquifers and the strong influence that streams can have on the flow and transport of contaminants through many aquifers. For this reason, a new Streamflow-Routing (SFR1) Package was written for use with the U.S. Geological Survey's MODFLOW-2000 ground-water flow model. The SFR1 Package is linked to the Lake (LAK3) Package, and both have been integrated with the Ground-Water Transport (GWT) Process of MODFLOW-2000 (MODFLOW-GWT). SFR1 replaces the previous Stream (STR1) Package, with the most important difference being that stream depth is computed at the midpoint of each reach instead of at the beginning of each reach, as was done in the original Stream Package. This approach allows for the addition and subtraction of water from runoff, precipitation, and evapotranspiration within each reach. Because the SFR1 Package computes stream depth differently than that for the original package, a different name was used to distinguish it from the original Stream (STR1) Package. The SFR1 Package has five options for simulating stream depth and four options for computing diversions from a stream. The options for computing stream depth are: a specified value; Manning's equation (using a wide rectangular channel or an eight-point cross section); a power equation; or a table of values that relate flow to depth and width. Each stream segment can have a different option. Outflow from lakes can be computed using the same options. Because the wetted perimeter is computed for the eight-point cross section and width is computed for the power equation and table of values, the streambed conductance term no longer needs to be calculated externally whenever the area of streambed changes as a function of flow. The concentration of solute is computed in a stream network when MODFLOW-GWT is used in conjunction with the SFR1 Package. The concentration of a solute in a

  8. Specific guidelines for assessing and improving the methodological quality of economic evaluations of newborn screening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation of newborn screening poses specific methodological challenges. Amongst others, these challenges refer to the use of quality adjusted life years (QALYs) in newborns, and which costs and outcomes need to be considered in a full evaluation of newborn screening programmes. Because of the increasing scale and scope of such programmes, a better understanding of the methods of high-quality economic evaluations may be crucial for both producers/authors and consumers/reviewers of newborn screening-related economic evaluations. The aim of this study was therefore to develop specific guidelines designed to assess and improve the methodological quality of economic evaluations in newborn screening. Methods To develop the guidelines, existing guidelines for assessing the quality of economic evaluations were identified through a literature search, and were reviewed and consolidated using a deductive iterative approach. In a subsequent test phase, these guidelines were applied to various economic evaluations which acted as case studies. Results The guidelines for assessing and improving the methodological quality of economic evaluations in newborn screening are organized into 11 categories: “bibliographic details”, “study question and design”, “modelling”, “health outcomes”, “costs”, “discounting”, “presentation of results”, “sensitivity analyses”, “discussion”, “conclusions”, and “commentary”. Conclusions The application of the guidelines highlights important issues regarding newborn screening-related economic evaluations, and underscores the need for such issues to be afforded greater consideration in future economic evaluations. The variety in methodological quality detected by this study reveals the need for specific guidelines on the appropriate methods for conducting sound economic evaluations in newborn screening. PMID:22947299

  9. A plan for the economic assessment of the benefits of improved meteorological forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, R.; Greenberg, J.

    1975-01-01

    Benefit-cost relationships for the development of meteorological satellites are outlined. The weather forecast capabilities of the various weather satellites (Tiros, SEOS, Nimbus) are discussed, and the development of additional satellite systems is examined. A rational approach is development that leads to the establishment of the economic benefits which may result from the utilization of meteorological satellite data. The economic and social impacts of improved weather forecasting for industries and resources management are discussed, and significant weather sensitive industries are listed.

  10. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:27620113

  11. Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at Site SFR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    This report is a basic data report for field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-4P and SFR-4T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  12. Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at site SFR-3

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    This report is a basic data report fro field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-3P and SFR-3T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  13. DNA homologous recombination factor SFR1 physically and functionally interacts with estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuxin; Singleton, David; Guo, Chun; Gardner, Amanda; Pakala, Suresh; Kumar, Rakesh; Jensen, Elwood; Zhang, Jinsong; Khan, Sohaib

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, mediates the expression of its target genes by interacting with corepressors and coactivators. Since the first cloning of SRC1, more than 280 nuclear receptor cofactors have been identified, which orchestrate target gene transcription. Aberrant activity of ER or its accessory proteins results in a number of diseases including breast cancer. Here we identified SFR1, a protein involved in DNA homologous recombination, as a novel binding partner of ERα. Initially isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen, the interaction of SFR1 and ERα was confirmed in vivo by immunoprecipitation and mammalian one-hybrid assays. SFR1 co-localized with ERα in the nucleus, potentiated ER's ligand-dependent and ligand-independent transcriptional activity, and occupied the ER binding sites of its target gene promoters. Knockdown of SFR1 diminished ER's transcriptional activity. Manipulating SFR1 expression by knockdown and overexpression revealed a role for SFR1 in ER-dependent and -independent cancer cell proliferation. SFR1 differs from SRC1 by the lack of an intrinsic activation function. Taken together, we propose that SFR1 is a novel transcriptional modulator for ERα and a potential target in breast cancer therapy. PMID:23874500

  14. Evaluation of AGNI SFR core neutronics parameters with VESTA and ERANOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecrabet, Fabrice; Haeck, Wim; Chaitanya Tadepalli, Sai

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the calculation of core neutronics parameters for so called AGNI Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) model performed with ERANOS code and Monte Carlo depletion interface software VESTA. The AGNI core has been developed at IRSN for its own R&D needs, i.e. to test performance of calculation codes for safety assessment of a generation IV SFR project. The ERANOS code is used as reference code for SFR core calculations at IRSN. In this work, VESTA calculations have been performed and compared with corresponding ERANOS results. These calculations have a double purpose: mastering the use of tools for the evaluation of SFR core static neutronics parameters and validate the use of VESTA for SFR cores.

  15. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  16. Identification of SFR6, a key component in cold acclimation acting post-translationally on CBF function.

    PubMed

    Knight, Heather; Mugford, Sarah G; Ulker, Bekir; Gao, Dahai; Thorlby, Glenn; Knight, Marc R

    2009-04-01

    The sfr6-1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was identified previously on the basis of its failure to undergo acclimation to freezing temperatures following exposure to low positive temperatures. This failure is attributed to a defect in the pathway leading to cold on-regulated (COR) gene expression via CBF (C-box binding factor) transcription factors. We identified a region of chromosome 4 containing SFR6 by positional mapping. Fine mapping of the sfr6-1 mutation proved impossible as the locus resides very close to the centromere. Therefore, we screened 380 T-DNA lines with insertions in genes within the large region to which sfr6-1 mapped. This resulted in the identification of two further mutant alleles of SFR6 (sfr6-2 and sfr6-3); like the original sfr6-1 mutation, these disrupt freezing tolerance and COR gene expression. To determine the protein sequence, we cloned an SFR6 cDNA based on the predicted coding sequence, but this offered no indication as to the mechanism by which SFR6 acts. The SFR6 gene itself is not strongly regulated by cold, thus discounting regulation of SFR6 activity at the transcriptional level. We show that over-expression of CBF1 or CBF2 transcription factors, which constitutively activate COR genes in the wild-type, cannot do so in sfr6-1. We demonstrate that CBF protein accumulates to wild-type levels in response to cold in sfr6-1. These results indicate a role for the SFR6 protein in the CBF pathway -downstream of CBF translation. The fact that the SFR6 protein is targeted to the nucleus may suggest a direct role in modulating gene expression. PMID:19067974

  17. The Role of Christian Educational Institutions in Improving Economic Self-Reliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwosu, Constance C.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that Christian educational institutions in Africa can play a major role in improving economic self-reliance within the continent, if those who establish Christian universities there take time to plan the programs and activities in those institutions. Specifically, it argues that with proper planning of quality education--the…

  18. Social and Economic Benefits of Improved Adult Literacy: Towards a Better Understanding: Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Robyn; Horne, Jackie

    2005-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Social and Economic Benefits of Improved Adult Literacy: Towards a Better Understanding," and is an added resource for further information. The original document is a feasibility study which explores the frameworks and methodologies available for determining and…

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial of Teaching Methods: Do Classroom Experiments Improve Economic Education in High Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenkopf, Gerald; Sulser, Pascal A.

    2016-01-01

    The authors present results from a comprehensive field experiment at Swiss high schools in which they compare the effectiveness of teaching methods in economics. They randomly assigned classes into an experimental and a conventional teaching group, or a control group that received no specific instruction. Both teaching treatments improve economic…

  20. Nuclear data uncertainty propagation for neutronic key parameters of CEA's SFR V2B and CFV sodium fast reactor designs

    SciTech Connect

    Archier, P.; Buiron, L.; De Saint Jean, C.; Dos Santos, N.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a nuclear data uncertainty propagation analysis for two CEA's Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor designs: the SFR V2B and CFV cores. The nuclear data covariance matrices are provided by the DER/SPRC/LEPh's nuclear data team (see companion paper) for several major isotopes. From the current status of this analysis, improvements on certain nuclear data reactions are highlighted as well as the need for new specific integral experiments in order to meet the technological breakthroughs proposed by the CFV core. (authors)

  1. The benefits of improved technologies in agricultural aviation. [economic impact and aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The economic benefits attributable to a variety of potential technological improvements in agricultural aviation are discussed. Topics covered include: the ag-air industry, the data base used to estimate the potential benefits and a summary of the potential benefits from technological improvements; ag-air activities in the United States; foreign ag-air activities; major ag-air aircraft is use and manufacturers' sales and distribution networks; and estimates of the benefits to the United States of proposed technological improvements to the aircraft and dispersal equipment. A bibliography of references is appended.

  2. Generation of SFR few-group constants using the Monte Carlo code Serpent

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, E.; Rachamin, R.; Shwageraus, E.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the Serpent Monte Carlo code was used as a tool for preparation of homogenized few-group cross sections for the nodal diffusion analysis of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) cores. Few-group constants for two reference SFR cores were generated by Serpent and then employed by nodal diffusion code DYN3D in 2D full core calculations. The DYN3D results were verified against the references full core Serpent Monte Carlo solutions. A good agreement between the reference Monte Carlo and nodal diffusion results was observed demonstrating the feasibility of using Serpent for generation of few-group constants for the deterministic SFR analysis. (authors)

  3. Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands

    PubMed Central

    Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L.; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M.; Windhorst, David; Weber, Michael; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven; Palomeque, Ximena; Mora, Julio; Mosandl, Reinhard; Beck, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of 23 ecological, economic and social indicators for four restoration options in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. A comparison of the outcomes among afforestation with native alder or exotic pine, pasture restoration with either low-input or intense management and the abandoned status quo shows that both variants of afforestation and intense pasture use improve the ecological value, but low-input pasture does not. Economic indicators favour either afforestation or intense pasturing. Both Mestizo and indigenous Saraguro settlers are more inclined to opt for afforestation. PMID:25425182

  4. Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands.

    PubMed

    Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M; Windhorst, David; Weber, Michael; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven; Palomeque, Ximena; Mora, Julio; Mosandl, Reinhard; Beck, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of 23 ecological, economic and social indicators for four restoration options in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. A comparison of the outcomes among afforestation with native alder or exotic pine, pasture restoration with either low-input or intense management and the abandoned status quo shows that both variants of afforestation and intense pasture use improve the ecological value, but low-input pasture does not. Economic indicators favour either afforestation or intense pasturing. Both Mestizo and indigenous Saraguro settlers are more inclined to opt for afforestation. PMID:25425182

  5. Condensing economizers for efficiency improvement and emissions control in industrial boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.L.; Schulze, K.; Bailey, R.

    1996-06-01

    Condensing economizers recover sensible and latent heat from boiler flue gas, leading to marked improvements in thermal efficiency. This paper summarizes the current commercial status and continuing development efforts with one type of condensing economizer. In this design Teflon{reg_sign} covered tubes and enclosure walls are used to handle the corrosive condensate. Flue gas flows around the tubes and feed water, being heated, flows through the inside. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers can also be used to reduce particulate emissions primarily by inertial impaction of particles on tube surfaces, water droplets, and added impactors. Collected particles are then removed with condensate. Water sprays directly on the tubes can be used to enhance particle capture. With coal-firing, tests have shown particle removal efficiencies as high as 98%. To enhance the emissions control potential of condensing economizer technology a two-stage economizer system concept has been developed. Two heat exchanger modules are used. The first is a downflow design and recovers primarily sensible heat from the flue gas. The second is upflow and recovers mostly latent heat. Condensate is collected in a transition plenum between the two stages. This configuration, termed the Integrated Flue Gas Treatment System, provides great flexibility for implementing emissions reduction strategies. Particulate emissions can be reduced without impacting sensible heat recovery by recirculating collected condensate to spray nozzles at the top of the second stage heat exchanger. In tests at BNL with heavy oil firing, particulate reductions over 90% and final emission rates on the order of.005 lb/MMBtu are achieved. Adding sorbents to the recirculated condensate reduces sulfur dioxide emissions and SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies over 95% are achieved. Also, condensing economizers show great potential for the removal of certain air toxics such as mercury and nickel.

  6. Energy and women's economic empowerment: Rethinking the benefits of improved cookstove use in rural India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaward, James Nicholas

    International development organizations have recently ramped up efforts to promote the use of improved cookstoves (ICS) in developing countries, aiming to reduce the harmful environmental and public health impacts of the burning of biomass for cooking and heating. I hypothesize that ICS use also has additional benefits---economic and social benefits---that can contribute to women's economic empowerment in the developing world. To explore the relationship between ICS use and women's economic empowerment, I use Ordinary Least Squares and Logit models based on data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) to analyze differences between women living in households that use ICS and those living in homes that use traditional cookstoves. My regression results reveal that ICS use has a statistically significant and negative effect on the amount of time women and girls spend on fuel collection and a statistically significant and positive effect on the likelihood of women's participation in side businesses, but does not have a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of lost productivity. My analysis shows promise that in addition to health and environmental benefits, fuel-efficient cooking technologies can also have social and economic impacts that are especially beneficial to women. It is my hope that the analysis provided in this paper will be used to further the dialogue about the importance of women's access to modern energy services in the fight to improve women's living standards in the developing world.

  7. Operation and performance of the Supercritical Fluids Reactor (SFR)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanush, R.G.; Rice, S.F.; Hunter, T.B.; Aiken, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    The Supercritical Fluids Reactor (SFR) at Sandia National Laboratories, CA has been developed to examine and solve engineering, process, and fundamental chemistry issues regarding the development of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO). This report details the experimental apparatus, procedures, analytical methods used in these experiments, and performance characteristics of the reactor. The apparatus consists of pressurization, feed, preheat, reactor, cool down, and separation subsystems with ancillary control and data acquisition hardware and software. Its operating range is from 375 - 650{degrees} at 3250 - 6300 psi with resident times from 0.09 to 250 seconds. Procedures required for experimental operations are described. They include maintenance procedures conducted between experiments, optical alignment for acquisition of spectroscopic data, setup of the experiment, reactor start up, experimental operations, and shutdown of apparatus. Analytical methods used are Total Organic Carbon analysis, Gas Chromatography, ion probes, pH probes, turbidity measurements and in situ Raman spectroscopy. Experiments conducted that verify the accuracy of measurement and sampling methods are described.

  8. The economic and environmental value of genetic improvements in fattening pigs: An integrated dynamic model approach.

    PubMed

    Niemi, J K; Sevón-Aimonen, M-L; Stygar, A H; Partanen, K

    2015-08-01

    The selection of animals for improved performance affects the profitability of pig fattening and has environmental consequences. The goal of this paper was to examine how changes in genetic and market parameters impact the biophysical (feeding patterns, timing of slaughter, nitrogen excretion) and economic (return per pig space unit) results describing pig fattening in a Finnish farm. The analysis can be viewed as focusing on terminal line breeding goals. An integrated model using recursive stochastic dynamic programming and a biological pig growth model was used to estimate biophysical results and economic values. Combining these models allowed us to provide more accurate estimates for the value of genetic improvement and, thus, provide better feedback to animal breeding programs than the traditional approach, which is based on fixed management patterns. Besides the benchmark scenario, the results were simulated for 5 other scenarios. In each scenario, genotype was improved regarding daily growth potential, carcass lean meat content, or the parameters of the Gompertz growth curve (maturing rate [], adult weight of protein [α], and adult weight of lipid mass []). The change in each parameter was equal to approximately 1 SD genetic improvement (ceteris paribus). Increasing , , daily growth potential, or carcass lean meat content increased the return on pig space unit by €12.60, €7.60, €4.10, or €2.90 per year, respectively, whereas an increase in decreased the return by €3.10. The genetic improvement in and resulted in the highest decrease in nitrogen excretion calculated in total or per kilogram of carcass gain but only under the optimal feeding pattern. Simulated changes in the Gompertz growth function parameters imply greater changes in ADG and lean meat content than changes in scenarios focusing on improving ADG and lean meat content directly. The economic value of genetic improvements as well as the quantity of nitrogen excreted during the fattening

  9. Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic…

  10. 50 CFR 86.92 - Who can use the SFR logo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM State Use of Signs and Sport Fish Restoration Symbols § 86.92 Who can use the SFR logo? The...

  11. 50 CFR 86.92 - Who can use the SFR logo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM State Use of Signs and Sport Fish Restoration Symbols § 86.92 Who can use the SFR logo? The...

  12. 50 CFR 86.93 - Where should I use the SFR logo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM State Use of Signs and Sport Fish Restoration Symbols § 86.93 Where should I use the SFR logo?...

  13. 50 CFR 86.93 - Where should I use the SFR logo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM State Use of Signs and Sport Fish Restoration Symbols § 86.93 Where should I use the SFR logo?...

  14. 50 CFR 86.92 - Who can use the SFR logo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM State Use of Signs and Sport Fish Restoration Symbols § 86.92 Who can use the SFR...

  15. 50 CFR 86.92 - Who can use the SFR logo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM State Use of Signs and Sport Fish Restoration Symbols § 86.92 Who can use the SFR...

  16. 50 CFR 86.92 - Who can use the SFR logo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM State Use of Signs and Sport Fish Restoration Symbols § 86.92 Who can use the SFR logo? The...

  17. 50 CFR 86.93 - Where should I use the SFR logo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM State Use of Signs and Sport Fish Restoration Symbols § 86.93 Where should I use the SFR logo?...

  18. Health and Economic Benefits of Improved Injury Prevention and Trauma Care Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Kotagal, Meera; Agarwal-Harding, Kiran J.; Mock, Charles; Quansah, Robert; Arreola-Risa, Carlos; Meara, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Injury is a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and often disproportionately affects younger, more productive members of society. While many have made the case for improved injury prevention and trauma care, health system development in low- and middle-income countries is often limited by resources. This study aims to determine the economic benefit of improved injury prevention and trauma care in low- and middle-income countries. Methods This study uses existing data on injury mortality worldwide from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate the number of lives that could be saved if injury mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries could be reduced to rates in high-income countries. Using economic modeling – through the human capital approach and the value of a statistical life approach – the study then demonstrates the associated economic benefit of these lives saved. Results 88 percent of injury-related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. If injury mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries were reduced to rates in high-income countries, 2,117,500 lives could be saved per year. This would result in between 49 million and 52 million disability adjusted life years averted per year, with discounting and age weighting. Using the human capital approach, the associated economic benefit of reducing mortality rates ranges from $245 to $261 billion with discounting and age weighting. Using the value of a statistical life approach, the benefit is between 758 and 786 billion dollars per year. Conclusions Reducing injury mortality in low- and middle-income countries could save over 2 million lives per year and provide significant economic benefit globally. Further investments in trauma care and injury prevention are needed. PMID:24626472

  19. Conditional economic incentives to improve HIV treatment adherence: literature review and theoretical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Galárraga, Omar; Genberg, Becky L.; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Laws, M. Barton; Wilson, Ira B.

    2013-01-01

    We present selected theoretical issues regarding conditional economic incentives (CEI) for HIV treatment adherence. High HIV treatment adherence is essential not only to improve individual health for persons living with HIV, but also to reduce transmission. The incentives literature spans several decades and various disciplines, thus we selectively point out useful concepts from economics, psychology and HIV clinical practice to elucidate the complex interaction between socio-economic issues, psychological perspectives and optimal treatment adherence. Appropriately-implemented CEI can help patients improve their adherence to HIV treatment in the short-term, while the incentives are in place. However, more research is needed to uncover mechanisms that can increase habit formation or maintenance effects in the longer-term. We suggest some potentially fruitful avenues for future research in this area, including the use of concepts from self-determination theory. This general framework may have implications for related research among disadvantaged communities with high rates of HIV/AIDS infection. PMID:23370833

  20. Conditional economic incentives to improve HIV treatment adherence: literature review and theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Galárraga, Omar; Genberg, Becky L; Martin, Rosemarie A; Barton Laws, M; Wilson, Ira B

    2013-09-01

    We present selected theoretical issues regarding conditional economic incentives (CEI) for HIV treatment adherence. High HIV treatment adherence is essential not only to improve individual health for persons living with HIV, but also to reduce transmission. The incentives literature spans several decades and various disciplines, thus we selectively point out useful concepts from economics, psychology and HIV clinical practice to elucidate the complex interaction between socio-economic issues, psychological perspectives and optimal treatment adherence. Appropriately-implemented CEI can help patients improve their adherence to HIV treatment in the short-term, while the incentives are in place. However, more research is needed to uncover mechanisms that can increase habit formation or maintenance effects in the longer-term. We suggest some potentially fruitful avenues for future research in this area, including the use of concepts from self-determination theory. This general framework may have implications for related research among disadvantaged communities with high rates of HIV/AIDS infection. PMID:23370833

  1. A plan for application system verification tests: The value of improved meteorological information, volume 1. [economic consequences of improved meteorological information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The framework within which the Applications Systems Verification Tests (ASVTs) are performed and the economic consequences of improved meteorological information demonstrated is described. This framework considers the impact of improved information on decision processes, the data needs to demonstrate the economic impact of the improved information, the data availability, the methodology for determining and analyzing the collected data and demonstrating the economic impact of the improved information, and the possible methods of data collection. Three ASVTs are considered and program outlines and plans are developed for performing experiments to demonstrate the economic consequences of improved meteorological information. The ASVTs are concerned with the citrus crop in Florida, the cotton crop in Mississippi and a group of diverse crops in Oregon. The program outlines and plans include schedules, manpower estimates and funding requirements.

  2. Improving biomass project economic evaluations with the use of fuzzy modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Warnken, P.G.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses the use of fuzzy modeling for improving economic feasibility evaluations of biomass power generation projects. Fuzzy logic, in concert with traditional financial and economic concepts, provides a powerful tool for incorporating qualitative and uncertain information into the evaluation framework. The paper first describes the basic elements of fuzzy logic - fuzzy set theory and verbal rules. Through the modeling process, these elements form a language-based representation of complex business problems. An example of a simple fuzzy investment decision expert system is then provided to demonstrate the mechanics of fuzzy model development. The example shows how multiple expert opinions and confidence in profitability measures can be modeled using fuzzy concepts. Finally, generic applications of fuzzy modeling to the investment decisionmaking process are discussed.

  3. Are Economic Development and Education Improvement Associated with Participation in Transnational Terrorism?

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, L; Jin, Y H

    2015-08-01

    Using transnational terrorism data from 1980 to 2000, this study empirically examines the relationships between frequency of participation in transnational terrorism acts and economic development and education improvement. We find an inverse U-shaped association between the frequency of various nationals acting as perpetrators in transnational terrorism acts and per capita income in their respective home countries. As per capita incomes increase from relatively low levels, frequencies of participation in transnational terrorism increase. However, at sufficiently higher levels of per capita income, further increase in per capita income is negatively associated with the rate of participation in transnational terrorism. Education improvement from elementary to secondary is positively correlated with frequency of participation in transnational terrorism events, whereas further improvement from secondary to tertiary level is negatively correlated with participation in transnational terrorism. We also find that citizens of countries with greater openness to international trade, lower degree of income inequality, greater economic freedom, larger proportion of population with tertiary education, and less religious prevalence participate in transnational terrorism events less frequently. PMID:25868529

  4. GAMA/H-ATLAS: A meta-analysis of SFR indicators - comprehensive measures of the SFR-M relation and Cosmic Star Formation History at z < 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Grootes, M. W.; Popescu, C. C.; Tuffs, R. J.; Hopkins, A.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrews, S. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bremer, M. N.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M. E.; Croom, S.; da Cunha, E.; Dunne, L.; Lara-López, M. A.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Moffett, A. J.; Owers, M.; Phillipps, S.; Sansom, A. E.; Taylor, E. N.; Michalowski, M. J.; Ibar, E.; Smith, M.; Bourne, N.

    2016-06-01

    We present a meta-analysis of star-formation rate (SFR) indicators in the GAMA survey, producing 12 different SFR metrics and determining the SFR-M★ relation for each. We compare and contrast published methods to extract the SFR from each indicator, using a well-defined local sample of morphologically-selected spiral galaxies, which excludes sources which potentially have large recent changes to their SFR. The different methods are found to yield SFR-M★ relations with inconsistent slopes and normalisations, suggesting differences between calibration methods. The recovered SFR-M★ relations also have a large range in scatter which, as SFRs of the targets may be considered constant over the different timescales, suggests differences in the accuracy by which methods correct for attenuation in individual targets. We then recalibrate all SFR indicators to provide new, robust and consistent luminosity-to-SFR calibrations, finding that the most consistent slopes and normalisations of the SFR-M★ relations are obtained when recalibrated using the radiation transfer method of Popescu et al. These new calibrations can be used to directly compare SFRs across different observations, epochs and galaxy populations. We then apply our calibrations to the GAMA II equatorial dataset and explore the evolution of star-formation in the local Universe. We determine the evolution of the normalisation to the SFR-M★ relation from 0 < z < 0.35 - finding consistent trends with previous estimates at 0.3 < z < 1.2. We then provide the definitive z < 0.35 Cosmic Star Formation History, SFR-M★ relation and its evolution over the last 3 billion years.

  5. GAMA/H-ATLAS: a meta-analysis of SFR indicators - comprehensive measures of the SFR-M* relation and cosmic star formation history at z < 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Grootes, M. W.; Popescu, C. C.; Tuffs, R. J.; Hopkins, A.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrews, S. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bremer, M. N.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M. E.; Croom, S.; da Cunha, E.; Dunne, L.; Lara-López, M. A.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Moffett, A. J.; Owers, M.; Phillipps, S.; Sansom, A. E.; Taylor, E. N.; Michalowski, M. J.; Ibar, E.; Smith, M.; Bourne, N.

    2016-09-01

    We present a meta-analysis of star formation rate (SFR) indicators in the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, producing 12 different SFR metrics and determining the SFR-M* relation for each. We compare and contrast published methods to extract the SFR from each indicator, using a well-defined local sample of morphologically selected spiral galaxies, which excludes sources which potentially have large recent changes to their SFR. The different methods are found to yield SFR-M* relations with inconsistent slopes and normalizations, suggesting differences between calibration methods. The recovered SFR-M* relations also have a large range in scatter which, as SFRs of the targets may be considered constant over the different time-scales, suggests differences in the accuracy by which methods correct for attenuation in individual targets. We then recalibrate all SFR indicators to provide new, robust and consistent luminosity-to-SFR calibrations, finding that the most consistent slopes and normalizations of the SFR-M* relations are obtained when recalibrated using the radiation transfer method of Popescu et al. These new calibrations can be used to directly compare SFRs across different observations, epochs and galaxy populations. We then apply our calibrations to the GAMA II equatorial data set and explore the evolution of star formation in the local Universe. We determine the evolution of the normalization to the SFR-M* relation from 0 < z < 0.35 - finding consistent trends with previous estimates at 0.3 < z < 1.2. We then provide the definitive z < 0.35 cosmic star formation history, SFR-M* relation and its evolution over the last 3 billion years.

  6. Improving protocol design feasibility to drive drug development economics and performance.

    PubMed

    Getz, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    Protocol design complexity has increased substantially during the past decade and this in turn has adversely impacted drug development economics and performance. This article reviews the results of two major Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development studies quantifying the direct cost of conducting less essential and unnecessary protocol procedures and of implementing amendments to protocol designs. Indirect costs including personnel time, work load and cycle time delays associated with complex protocol designs are also discussed. The author concludes with an overview of steps that research sponsors are taking to improve protocol design feasibility. PMID:24823665

  7. Improving Protocol Design Feasibility to Drive Drug Development Economics and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Protocol design complexity has increased substantially during the past decade and this in turn has adversely impacted drug development economics and performance. This article reviews the results of two major Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development studies quantifying the direct cost of conducting less essential and unnecessary protocol procedures and of implementing amendments to protocol designs. Indirect costs including personnel time, work load and cycle time delays associated with complex protocol designs are also discussed. The author concludes with an overview of steps that research sponsors are taking to improve protocol design feasibility. PMID:24823665

  8. Comparative analysis of maize (Zea mays) crop performance: natural variation, incremental improvements and economic impacts.

    PubMed

    Leibman, Mark; Shryock, Jereme J; Clements, Michael J; Hall, Michael A; Loida, Paul J; McClerren, Amanda L; McKiness, Zoe P; Phillips, Jonathan R; Rice, Elena A; Stark, Steven B

    2014-09-01

    Grain yield from maize hybrids continues to improve through advances in breeding and biotechnology. Despite genetic improvements to hybrid maize, grain yield from distinct maize hybrids is expected to vary across growing locations due to numerous environmental factors. In this study, we examine across-location variation in grain yield among maize hybrids in three case studies. The three case studies examine hybrid improvement through breeding, introduction of an insect protection trait or introduction of a transcription factor trait associated with increased yield. In all cases, grain yield from each hybrid population had a Gaussian distribution. Across-location distributions of grain yield from each hybrid partially overlapped. The hybrid with a higher mean grain yield typically outperformed its comparator at most, but not all, of the growing locations (a 'win rate'). These results suggest that a broad set of environmental factors similarly impacts grain yields from both conventional- and biotechnology-derived maize hybrids and that grain yields among two or more hybrids should be compared with consideration given to both mean yield performance and the frequency of locations at which each hybrid 'wins' against its comparators. From an economic standpoint, growers recognize the value of genetically improved maize hybrids that outperform comparators in the majority of locations. Grower adoption of improved maize hybrids drives increases in average U.S. maize grain yields and contributes significant value to the economy. PMID:24851925

  9. Improving utilization of and retention in PMTCT services: Can behavioral economics help?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The most recent strategic call to action of the World Health Organization sets the elimination of pediatric HIV as a goal. While recent efforts have focused on building infrastructure and ensuring access to high-quality treatment, we must now turn our focus to the behavior change needed to eliminate vertical transmission. We make the case for the application of concepts from the field of behavioral economics to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs to more effectively address demand-side issues of uptake and retention. Discussion We introduce five concepts from the field of behavioral economics and discuss their application to PMTCT programs: 1) Mentor mothers who come from similar circumstances as PMTCT patients can serve as social references who provide temporally salient modeling of utilization of services and adherence to treatment. 2) Economic incentives, like cell phone minutes or food vouchers, that reward adherence to PMTCT protocols leverage present bias, the observation that people are generally biased toward immediate versus future awards. 3) Default bias, our preference for the default option, is already being used in many countries in the form of opt-out testing, and could be expanded to all PMTCT programs. 4) We are hardwired to avoid loss more than to pursue an equivalent gain. PMTCT programs can take advantage of loss aversion through the use of commitment contracts that incentivize mothers to return to the clinic in order to avoid both reputational and financial loss. Summary Eliminating vertical transmission of HIV is an ambitious goal. To close the remaining gap, innovations are needed to address demand for PMTCT services. Behavioral economics offers a set of tools that can be engineered into PMTCT programs to increase uptake and improve retention with minimal investment. PMID:24112440

  10. Economic Insights into Providing Access to Improved Groundwater Sources in Remote, Low-Resource Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, A.; Lazarovitch, N.; Adar, E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is often the most or only feasible drinking water source in remote, low-resource areas. Yet the economics of its development have not been systematically outlined. We applied CBARWI (Cost-Benefit Analysis for Remote Water Improvements), a recently developed Decision Support System, to investigate the economic, physical and management factors related to the costs and benefits of non-networked groundwater supply in remote areas. Synthetic profiles of community water services (n = 17,962), defined across 14 parameters' values and ranges relevant to remote areas, were imputed into the decision framework, and the parameter effects on economic outcomes were investigated through regression analysis (Table 1). Several approaches were included for financing the improvements, after Abramson et al, 2011: willingness-to -pay (WTP), -borrow (WTB) and -work (WTW) in community irrigation (';water-for-work'). We found that low-cost groundwater development approaches are almost 7 times more cost-effective than conventional boreholes fitted with handpumps. The costs of electric, submersible borehole pumps are comparable only when providing expanded water supplies, and off-grid communities pay significantly more for such expansions. In our model, new source construction is less cost-effective than improvement of existing wells, but necessary for expanding access to isolated households. The financing approach significantly impacts the feasibility of demand-driven cost recovery; in our investigation, benefit exceeds cost in 16, 32 and 48% of water service configurations financed by WTP, WTB and WTW, respectively. Regressions of total cost (R2 = 0.723) and net benefit under WTW (R2 = 0.829) along with analysis of output distributions indicate that parameters determining the profitability of irrigation are different from those determining costs and other measures of net benefit. These findings suggest that the cost-benefit outcomes associated with groundwater-based water

  11. Economic Barriers To Improvement Of Human Health Associated With Wastewater Irrigation In The Mezquital Valley, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, H.; Sedlak, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    To improve public health, the United Nations' Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 set Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015. The Mezquital Valley of Mexico is one of the places suffering serious human health problems such as ascariasis due to agricultural irrigation with untreated wastewater discharged by Mexico City. Despite the existence of serious health problems, wastewater treatment has not been installed due to economic barriers: the agricultural benefit of nutrients in the wastewater and cost of building and operating wastewater treatment plants. To develop solutions to this problem, the human health damage and the benefits of nutrient input were evaluated. The health impact caused by untreated wastewater reuse in the Mezquital Valley was estimated to be about 14 DALYs (disability-adjusted life year) per 100,000, which was 2.8 times higher than the DALYs lost by ascariasis in Mexico in 2002 estimated by WHO. The economic damage of the health impact was evaluated at 77,000 /year using willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing DALYs. The value of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) due to reuse of untreated wastewater was evaluated at 33 million /year using fertilizer prices. Therefore, attempts to decrease public health problems associated with reuse in the Mezquital Valley need to address losses of economic benefits associated with nutrients in sewage. In 2007, the Mexican Government announced plans to install wastewater treatment plants in this area. Although nutrient inputs in irrigated water is expected to decrease by 33% due to the wastewater treatment, farmers in the Mezquital Valley would still benefit from improved public health in the community and increases of crop values due to the ability to grow raw-eaten vegetables.

  12. DISSECTING THE STELLAR-MASS-SFR CORRELATION IN z = 1 STAR-FORMING DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Salmi, F.; Daddi, E.; Elbaz, D.; Sargent, M. T.; Bethermin, M.; Renzini, A.; Le Borgne, D. E-mail: edaddi@cea.fr

    2012-07-20

    Using a mass-limited sample of 24 {mu}m detected, star-forming galaxies at 0.5 < z < 1.3, we study the mass-star formation rate (SFR) correlation and its tightness. The correlation is well defined ({sigma} = 0.28 dex) for disk galaxies (n{sub Sersic} < 1.5), while more bulge-dominated objects often have lower specific SFRs (sSFRs). For disk galaxies, a much tighter correlation ({sigma} = 0.19 dex) is obtained if the rest-frame H-band luminosity is used instead of stellar mass derived from multi-color photometry. The sSFR correlates strongly with rest-frame optical colors (hence luminosity-weighted stellar age) and also with clumpiness (which likely reflects the molecular gas fraction). This implies that most of the observed scatter is real, despite its low level, and not dominated by random measurement errors. After correcting for these differential effects a remarkably small dispersion remains ({sigma} = 0.14 dex), suggesting that measurement errors in mass or SFR are {approx}< 0.10 dex, excluding systematic uncertainties. Measurement errors in stellar masses, the thickening of the correlation due to real sSFR variations, and varying completeness with stellar mass, can spuriously bias the derived slope to lower values due to the finite range over which observables (mass and SFR) are available. When accounting for these effects, the intrinsic slope for the main sequence for disk galaxies gets closer to unity.

  13. Role of the RAD51-SWI5-SFR1 Ensemble in homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Su, Guan-Chin; Yeh, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Sheng-Wei; Chung, Chan-I; Huang, Yu-Shan; Liu, Yi-Chung; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Chi, Peter

    2016-07-27

    During DNA double-strand break and replication fork repair by homologous recombination, the RAD51 recombinase catalyzes the DNA strand exchange reaction via a helical polymer assembled on single-stranded DNA, termed the presynaptic filament. Our published work has demonstrated a dual function of the SWI5-SFR1 complex in RAD51-mediated DNA strand exchange, namely, by stabilizing the presynaptic filament and maintaining the catalytically active ATP-bound state of the filament via enhancement of ADP release. In this study, we have strived to determine the basis for physical and functional interactions between Mus musculus SWI5-SFR1 and RAD51. We found that SWI5-SFR1 preferentially associates with the oligomeric form of RAD51. Specifically, a C-terminal domain within SWI5 contributes to RAD51 interaction. With specific RAD51 interaction defective mutants of SWI5-SFR1 that we have isolated, we show that the physical interaction is indispensable for the stimulation of the recombinase activity of RAD51. Our results thus help establish the functional relevance of the trimeric RAD51-SWI5-SFR1 complex and provide insights into the mechanistic underpinnings of homology-directed DNA repair in mammalian cells. PMID:27131790

  14. IMPROVED TUBULARS FOR BETTER ECONOMICS IN DEEP GAS WELL DRILLING USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. This is being accomplished by developing an efficient and economically viable continuous microwave process to sinter continuously formed/extruded steel powder for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products. The entire program has been spread over three phases with the following goals: Phase I--Demonstration of the feasibility concept of continuous microwave sintering process for tubular steel products. Phase II--Design, building and testing of a prototype microwave system which shall be combined with a continuous extruder for steel tubular objects. Phase III--Execution of the plan for commercialization of the technology by one of the industrial partners. The criteria for the success of the program is based on the performance of coiled tubing made by the microwave process. It is expected that this product will have superior quality and performance to the standard product, and will be economically viable.

  15. An economic decision framework using modeling for improving aquifer remediation design

    SciTech Connect

    James, B.R.; Gwo, J.P.; Toran, L.E.

    1995-11-01

    Reducing cost is a critical challenge facing environmental remediation today. One of the most effective ways of reducing costs is to improve decision-making. This can range from choosing more cost- effective remediation alternatives (for example, determining whether a groundwater contamination plume should be remediated or not) to improving data collection (for example, determining when data collection should stoop). Uncertainty in site conditions presents a major challenge for effective decision-making. We present a framework for increasing the effectiveness of remedial design decision-making at groundwater contamination sites where there is uncertainty in many parameters that affect remediation design. The objective is to provide an easy-to-use economic framework for making remediation decisions. The presented framework is used to 1) select the best remedial design from a suite of possible ones, 2) estimate if additional data collection is cost-effective, and 3) determine the most important parameters to be sampled. The framework is developed by combining elements from Latin-Hypercube simulation of contaminant transport, economic risk-cost-benefit analysis, and Regional Sensitivity Analysis (RSA).

  16. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 9: Ports and harbors case study and generalization. [economic benefits of SEASAT satellites to harbors and shipping industries through improved weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This case study and generalization quantify benefits made possible through improved weather forecasting resulting from the integration of SEASAT data into local weather forecasts. The major source of avoidable economic losses to shipping from inadequate weather forecasting data is shown to be dependent on local precipitation forecasting. The ports of Philadelphia and Boston were selected for study.

  17. ADRIANA project: Identification of research infrastructures for the SFR, within the frame of European industrial initiative for sustainable nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Latge, C.; Gastaldi, O.; Vala, L.; Gerbeth, G.; Homann, C.; Benoit, P.; Papin, J.; Girault, N.; Roelofs, F.; Bucenieks, I.; Paffumi, E.; Ciampichetti, A.

    2012-07-01

    Fast neutron reactors have a large potential as sustainable energy source. In particular, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) with a closed fuel cycle and potential for minor actinide burning may allow minimization of volume and heat load of high level waste and provide improved use of natural resources (as compared to only 1% energy recovery in the current once-through fuel cycle, with Thermal Reactors, such as EPR). The coordinating action ADRIANA (Advanced Reactor Initiative And Network Arrangement) has been initiated to set up a network dedicated to the construction and operation of research infrastructures in support of developments for the European Industrial Initiative for sustainable nuclear fission. The Project sets these objectives for the following reactor systems and related technologies: Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR), Lead Fast Reactor (LFR), Gas Fast Reactor (GFR, including very high temperature technologies), Instrumentation, diagnostics and experimental devices, Irradiation facilities and hot laboratories, Zero power reactors. Among the fast reactor systems, the sodium cooled reactor has the most comprehensive technological basis as result of the experience gained from worldwide operation of several experimental, prototype and commercial size reactors, since the forties (see Appendix I). This concept is currently considered as the reference, within the European strategy. Innovations are needed to further enhance safety, reduce capital cost and improve efficiency reliability and operability, making the Generation IV SFR an attractive option for electricity production. Currently, in France, a moderate (500 to 600 MWe) power demonstrator named ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) has been proposed and endorsed by EU. Presently, the reference configuration is a pool concept. General R and D needs have been identified and experimental facilities required to satisfy these needs have been listed for the following domains: material and

  18. EMERGENCE OF THE KENNICUTT-SCHMIDT RELATION FROM THE SMALL-SCALE SFR-DENSITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Fujimoto, Yusuke

    2014-05-20

    We use simulations of isolated galaxies with a few parsec resolution to explore the connection between the small-scale star formation rate (SFR)-gas density relation and the induced large-scale correlation between the SFR surface density and the surface density of the molecular gas (the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation). We find that, in the simulations, a power-law small-scale ''star formation law'' directly translates into an identical power-law Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. If this conclusion holds in the reality as well, it implies that the observed approximately linear Kennicutt-Schmidt relation must reflect the approximately linear small-scale ''star formation law''.

  19. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mark Hunt; Mahlon Dennis

    2007-07-31

    The main objective of the entire research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Based on the results of the Phase I and insurmountable difficulties faced in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program was slightly changed in the Phase II in which an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) has been adopted. This process can be developed into a semicontinuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. The main objective of the Phase II research program is to demonstrate the potential to economically manufacture microwave processed coiled tubing with improved performance for extended useful life under hostile coiled tubing drilling conditions. After the completion of the Phase II, it is concluded that scale up and sintering of a thin wall common O.D. size tubing that is widely used in the market is still to be proved and further experimentation and refinement of the sintering process is needed in Phase III. Actual manufacturing capability of microwave sintered, industrial quality, full length tubing will most likely require several million dollars of investment.

  20. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling Using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal

    2006-09-30

    The main objective of the entire research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Based on the results of the Phase I and insurmountable difficulties faced in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program was slightly changed in the Phase II in which an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) has been adopted. This process can be developed into a semicontinuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. The main objective of the Phase II research program is to demonstrate the potential to economically manufacture microwave processed coiled tubing with improved performance for extended useful life under hostile coiled tubing drilling conditions. After the completion of the Phase II, it is concluded that scale up and sintering of a thin wall common O.D. size tubing that is widely used in the market is still to be proved and further experimentation and refinement of the sintering process is needed in Phase III. Actual manufacturing capability of microwave sintered, industrial quality, full length tubing will most likely require several million dollars of investment.

  1. Impact of the control rod consumption on the reactivity control of a SFR break-even core

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, D.; Fontaine, B.

    2012-07-01

    Current design studies on Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) differ from those performed in the past by the fact that design criteria are now those of the Generation IV reactors. In order to improve their safety, reactors with break-even cores are preferred because they minimize the needs in terms of reactivity control and limit the consequences of control rod withdrawal. Furthermore, as the reactivity control needs are low, break-even core enables the use of absorbing materials with reduced efficiency (natural boron, hafnium...). Nevertheless, the use of control rods with few absorbing materials may present the disadvantage of a non-negligible ({approx}10%) loss of efficiency due to their consumption under irradiation. This paper presents a methodology to calculate accurately and analyze this consumption. (authors)

  2. Improving efficiencies in pharmaceutical distribution channels using the economic order quantity model.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, D L; Schommer, J C

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate empirically the potential cost savings to a pharmaceutical wholesaler using the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) model. This model allows for calculating the order quantity that minimizes both ordering and holding costs. A regional pharmaceutical wholesaler was selected for a case analysis study using the EOQ model. Eleven brand name products were randomly selected for the analysis. The average yearly cost savings using EOQ was $31.92 per product. The potential yearly cost savings based on 8500 brand name stock-keeping units was $271,320. Using EOQ can therefore assist pharmaceutical wholesalers in minimizing holding and ordering costs and improve efficiency for pharmaceutical distribution channels. PMID:8111811

  3. Design Considerations for Economically Competitive Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao

    2009-05-01

    The technological viability of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR) has been established by various experimental and prototype (demonstration) reactors such as EBR-II, FFTF, Phénix, JOYO, BN-600 etc. However, the economic competitiveness of SFR has not been proven yet. The perceived high cost premium of SFRs over LWRs has been the primary impediment to the commercial expansion of SFR technologies. In this paper, cost reduction options are discussed for advanced SFR designs. These include a hybrid loop-pool design to optimize the primary system, multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle for the power conversion system and the potential for suppression of intermediate heat transport system. The design options for the fully passive decay heat removal systems are also thoroughly examined. These include direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS), reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) and the newly proposed pool reactor auxiliary cooling system (PRACS) in the context of the hybrid loop-pool design.

  4. Autologous stem cell transplantation improves quality of life in economically challenged, Brazilian multiple myeloma patients

    PubMed Central

    Etto, Leina Y.; Morelli, Vânia Maris; Silva, Vanderleia C.; Hungria, Vania T. M.; Ciconelli, Rozana M.; Almeida, Manuella S. S.; de Oliveira, José Salvador R.; Barros, José Carlos; Durie, Brian G.; Colleoni, Gisele W. B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: 1) To characterize the impact of multiple myeloma on the quality of life of patients treated in two public institutions in São Paulo State, Brazil, using a generic Short Form 36 Health Survey and a questionnaire specific for oncologic patients (QLQ-C30) upon diagnosis, after the clinical treatment, and at day +100 after autologous stem cell transplantation; 2) to evaluate whether autologous stem cell transplantation can improve the quality of life of our economically challenged population aside from providing a clinical benefit and disease control. METHODS: We evaluated 49 patients with multiple myeloma (a total of 70 interviews) using the two questionnaires. The scores upon diagnosis, post-treatment/pre-autologous stem cell transplantation, and at D+100 were compared using ANOVA (a comparison of the three groups), post hoc tests (two-by-two comparisons of the three groups), and paired t-tests (the same case at two different times). RESULTS : Of the included patients, 87.8% had a family budget under US $600 (economic class C, D, or E) per month. The generic Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaire demonstrated that physical function, role-physical, and bodily pain indices were statistically different across all three groups, favoring the D+100 autologous stem cell transplantation group (ANOVA). The questionnaire specific for oncologic patients, the QLQ-C30 questionnaire, confirmed what had been demonstrated by the Short Form 36 Health Survey with respect to physical function and bodily pain, with improvements in role functioning, fatigue, and lack of appetite and constipation, favoring the D+100 autologous stem cell transplant group (ANOVA). The post hoc tests and paired t-tests confirmed a better outcome after autologous stem cell transplantation. CONCLUSION: The questionnaire specific for cancer patients seems to be more informative than the generic Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaire and reflects the real benefit of autologous stem cell

  5. The High Cost of Low Educational Performance: The Long-Run Economic Impact of Improving PISA Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    While many nations express a commitment to improved educational quality, education often slips down on the policy agenda. Because the benefits of educational investments are seen only in the future, it is possible to underestimate the value and the importance of improvements. This report uses recent economic modelling to relate cognitive…

  6. Star formation histories of z~2 galaxies and their intrinsic characteristics on the SFR-M* plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bomee; Giavalisco, Mauro; CANDELS

    2016-01-01

    Using CANDELS in the GOODS-North and South field, we investigate how galaxies quench their star formations and evolve on the SFR-M* plane at 1improved SED fitting technique, we are able to obtain more accurate stellar mass and SFR by testing various star formation histories (SFH) for each galaxy, not just commonly used tau model. We show that galaxies are apparently separated in four different populations: starbursts which lie above the main sequence of star formation (MS), normal star-forming galaxies on the tight MS, galaxies below the MS with a little star-forming activity, and quiescent galaxies with different time evolutions of SFR. We constrain the slope and the scatter on the MS better at 110.5, indicating that star formation efficiency decreases at high masses. We study morphologies of galaxies using non-parametric (Sersic Index) and parametric measures as well as a projected mass surface density. We find that the average morphologies of SB galaxies are disky and generally have much more diffuse optical light profile than massive compact early-type galaxies (ETGs). The sizes of the SB galaxies are clearly larger than those of the MS galaxies on average. Using a projected mass surface density, more distinct morphological differences are shown among different galaxy populations. As star formation activities decrease, galaxies become more compact at all explored redshifts. The morphologies of galaxies below the MS are similar to those of quiescent galaxies, which are compact and mostly have steep optical light profiles. The existence of compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) supports the idea that galaxies quench their star formations as they increase the core-growth in SFGs. Very compact SB galaxies are rather rare. Our morphological analysis is not consistent with the dissipative mechanism that gas-rich merging is the key driver to assemble very compact

  7. Improving Students' Understanding of the Importance of Economic Consequences in Standard Setting: A Computerized Spreadsheet Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivancevich, Daniel M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Points out that political and economic pressures have sometimes caused the Financial Accounting Standards Board to alter standards. Presents a spreadsheet tool that demonstrates the economic consequences of adopting accounting standards. (SK)

  8. Investments in women, economic development, and improvements in health in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Schultz, T P

    1989-01-01

    Investments in human resources are more likely to have higher rates of return than investments in capital resources like factories, equipment, inventories, and infrastructure. There are a variety of studies that estimate the ratio of return from primary and secondary schooling to be between 5-40% annually. The primary factor affecting return is the level of development of the country in question. Developing countries are able to achieve higher rates of return than already developed countries. Determining the rates of return on public and private health investments and related research and developments is much harder because the major improvements that have occurred in the past were accompanied by other significant improvements in trade, nutrition, and income. However, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests that improvements in health were significantly responsible for the economic growth following World War II. Analysis of education expenditures indicates that the less educated a country's women are, the lower its standard of living. 90% of the intracountry variation in enrollment rates for men and women for 80 countries between 1960-1980 indicate that this is the case. Studies conducted during the 1970s and 1980s by demographers, economists, anthropologists, and sociologists clearly show a trend in education of women and child mortality. Every additional year of female education translates to a 5-10% reduction in child mortality. It is clear that women play a central role in the health determinants of family members. The education of women is a strong, although not clearly understood, force affecting child mortality, nutrition, health, and school achievement. Household resources and maternal education must always be determined before any study of health care delivery effectiveness is conducted. The same is true for any studies of the effectiveness of local family planning expenditures. PMID:2698095

  9. Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process

    PubMed Central

    Sassner, Per; Zacchi, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Background There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat for district heating, were compared in terms of overall energy efficiency and production cost. The effects of changes in the process performance, such as variations in the ethanol yield and/or the energy demand, were also studied. The process was based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment, which was followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A model including all the major process steps was implemented in the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus, the model input was based on data recently obtained on lab scale or in a process development unit. Results For the five base case scenarios presented in the paper the overall energy efficiency ranged from 53 to 92%, based on the lower heating values, and a minimum ethanol selling price from 3.87 to 4.73 Swedish kronor per litre (0.41–0.50 EUR/L); however, ethanol production was performed in essentially the same way in each base case scenario. (Highly realistic) improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significantly lower production costs for all scenarios. Conclusion Although ethanol was shown to be the main product, i.e. yielding the major part of the income, the co-product revenue had a considerable effect on the process economics and the importance of good utilization of the entire feedstock was clearly shown. With the assumed prices of the co-products, utilization of the excess solid residue for heat and power production was highly economically favourable. The study also showed that improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significant production

  10. IMPROVED TUBULARS FOR BETTER ECONOMICS IN DEEP GAS WELL DRILLING USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mahlon Dennis; Roderic Stanley

    2005-03-01

    The main objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Originally, it was proposed to accomplish this by developing an efficient and economically viable continuous microwave process to sinter continuously formed/extruded steel powder for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products. However, based on the results and faced with insurmountable difficulties in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program has been slightly changed. In the continuation proposal an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) is adopted. This process can be developed into a semi-continuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. Originally, the entire program was spread over three phases with the following goals: Phase I: Demonstration of the feasibility concept of continuous microwave sintering process for tubular steel products. Phase II: Design, building and testing of a prototype microwave system which shall be combined with a continuous extruder for steel tubular objects. Phase III: Execution of the plan for commercialization of the technology by one of the industrial partners. However, since some of the goals of the phase I were not completed, an extension of nine months was granted and we continued extrusion experiments, designed and built semicontinuous microwave sintering unit.

  11. Bigger is better: Improved nature conservation and economic returns from landscape-level mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Christina M.; Miteva, Daniela A.; Baumgarten, Leandro; Hawthorne, Peter L.; Sochi, Kei; Polasky, Stephen; Oakleaf, James R.; Uhlhorn, Elizabeth M.; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Impact mitigation is a primary mechanism on which countries rely to reduce environmental externalities and balance development with conservation. Mitigation policies are transitioning from traditional project-by-project planning to landscape-level planning. Although this larger-scale approach is expected to provide greater conservation benefits at the lowest cost, empirical justification is still scarce. Using commercial sugarcane expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado as a case study, we apply economic and biophysical steady-state models to quantify the benefits of the Brazilian Forest Code (FC) under landscape- and property-level planning. We find that FC compliance imposes small costs to business but can generate significant long-term benefits to nature: supporting 32 (±37) additional species (largely habitat specialists), storing 593,000 to 2,280,000 additional tons of carbon worth $69 million to $265 million ($ pertains to U.S. dollars), and marginally improving surface water quality. Relative to property-level compliance, we find that landscape-level compliance reduces total business costs by $19 million to $35 million per 6-year sugarcane growing cycle while often supporting more species and storing more carbon. Our results demonstrate that landscape-level mitigation provides cost-effective conservation and can be used to promote sustainable development. PMID:27419225

  12. Bigger is better: Improved nature conservation and economic returns from landscape-level mitigation.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Christina M; Miteva, Daniela A; Baumgarten, Leandro; Hawthorne, Peter L; Sochi, Kei; Polasky, Stephen; Oakleaf, James R; Uhlhorn, Elizabeth M; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Impact mitigation is a primary mechanism on which countries rely to reduce environmental externalities and balance development with conservation. Mitigation policies are transitioning from traditional project-by-project planning to landscape-level planning. Although this larger-scale approach is expected to provide greater conservation benefits at the lowest cost, empirical justification is still scarce. Using commercial sugarcane expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado as a case study, we apply economic and biophysical steady-state models to quantify the benefits of the Brazilian Forest Code (FC) under landscape- and property-level planning. We find that FC compliance imposes small costs to business but can generate significant long-term benefits to nature: supporting 32 (±37) additional species (largely habitat specialists), storing 593,000 to 2,280,000 additional tons of carbon worth $69 million to $265 million ($ pertains to U.S. dollars), and marginally improving surface water quality. Relative to property-level compliance, we find that landscape-level compliance reduces total business costs by $19 million to $35 million per 6-year sugarcane growing cycle while often supporting more species and storing more carbon. Our results demonstrate that landscape-level mitigation provides cost-effective conservation and can be used to promote sustainable development. PMID:27419225

  13. Advanced Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, Handling, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Englar

    2001-05-14

    Research is being conducted at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) to develop advanced aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability, handling and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles by using previously-developed and flight-tested pneumatic (blown) aircraft technology. Recent wind-tunnel investigations of a generic Heavy Vehicle model with blowing slots on both the leading and trailing edges of the trailer have been conducted under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These experimental results show overall aerodynamic drag reductions on the Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle of 50% using only 1 psig blowing pressure in the plenums, and over 80% drag reductions if additional blowing air were available. Additionally, an increase in drag force for braking was confirmed by blowing different slots. Lift coefficient was increased for rolling resistance reduction by blowing only the top slot, while downforce was produced for traction increase by blowing only the bottom. Also, side force and yawing moment were generated on either side of the vehicle, and directional stability was restored by blowing the appropriate side slot. These experimental results and the predicted full-scale payoffs are presented in this paper, as is a discussion of additional applications to conventional commercial autos, buses, motor homes, and Sport Utility Vehicles.

  14. A Systematic Review of Health Economic Analyses of Housing Improvement Interventions and Insecticide-Treated Bednets in the Home

    PubMed Central

    Pega, Frank; Wilson, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Background Housing improvements have considerable potential for improving health. So does the provision of insecticide-treated bednets for malaria prevention. Therefore we aimed to conduct updated systematic reviews of health economic analyses in both these intervention domains. Methods and findings The search strategy included economic analyses of housing improvement interventions and use of insecticide-treated bednets for community-dwelling, healthy populations (published between 1 January 2000 and 15 April 2014). We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and three health economics databases. Thirty-five economic analyses of seven types of intervention fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most included studies adopted a health sector perspective and were cost-effectiveness analyses using decision analytic modeling or conducted alongside trials. The overall quality of the studies was generally likely to be adequate for informing policy-making (albeit with limitations in some areas). There was fairly consistent evidence for the cost-effectiveness/favorable cost-benefit of removing indoor lead to prevent lead poisoning and sequelae, and retrofitting insulation to prevent lung disease. But the value of assessing and improving home safety and providing smoke alarms to prevent injuries was more mixed and the economic evidence was inconclusive or insufficient for: home ventilation to prevent lung disease, installing heaters to prevent lung disease and regulating tap water temperatures to prevent scalding. Few studies (n = 4) considered health equity. The 12 studies of providing insecticide-treated bednets or hammocks to prevent malaria found these interventions to be moderately to highly cost-effective. Conclusions This systematic review provides updated evidence that several housing improvement interventions (such as removing indoor lead and retrofitting insulation) and also the provision of insecticide-treated bednets are cost

  15. Does In-Service Professional Learning for High School Economics Teachers Improve Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinton, John R.; De Berry, Thomas; Scafidi, Benjamin; Woodard, Howard C.

    2010-01-01

    Education policy analysts and professional educators have called for more and better professional learning opportunities for in-service teachers, and for at least 30 years economists called for more content training for high school economics teachers. Using new data from all Georgia high school economics students, we assess the impact of…

  16. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  17. Development of electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) phased arrays for SFR inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît

    2014-02-18

    A long-standing problem for Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) instrumentation is the development of efficient under-sodium visualization systems adapted to the hot and opaque sodium environment. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMAT) are potential candidates for a new generation of Ultrasonic Testing (UT) probes well-suited for SFR inspection that can overcome drawbacks of classical piezoelectric probes in sodium environment. Based on the use of new CIVA simulation tools, we have designed and optimized an advanced EMAT probe for under-sodium visualization. This has led to the development of a fully functional L-wave EMAT sensing system composed of 8 elements and a casing withstanding 200° C sodium inspection. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the probe's ability to sweep an ultrasonic beam to an angle of 15 degrees. Testing in a specialized sodium facility has shown that it was possible to obtain pulse-echo signals from a target under several different angles from a fixed position.

  18. LWR codes capability to address SFR BDBA scenarios: Modeling of the ABCOVE tests

    SciTech Connect

    Herranz, L. E.; Garcia, M.; Morandi, S.

    2012-07-01

    The sound background built-up in LWR source term analysis in case of a severe accident, make it worth to check the capability of LWR safety analysis codes to model accident SFR scenarios, at least in some areas. This paper gives a snapshot of such predictability in the area of aerosol behavior in containment. To do so, the AB-5 test of the ABCOVE program has been modeled with 3 LWR codes: ASTEC, ECART and MELCOR. Through the search of a best estimate scenario and its comparison to data, it is concluded that even in the specific case of in-containment aerosol behavior, some enhancements would be needed in the LWR codes and/or their application, particularly with respect to consideration of particle shape. Nonetheless, much of the modeling presently embodied in LWR codes might be applicable to SFR scenarios. These conclusions should be seen as preliminary as long as comparisons are not extended to more experimental scenarios. (authors)

  19. Development of electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) phased arrays for SFR inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît

    2014-02-01

    A long-standing problem for Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) instrumentation is the development of efficient under-sodium visualization systems adapted to the hot and opaque sodium environment. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMAT) are potential candidates for a new generation of Ultrasonic Testing (UT) probes well-suited for SFR inspection that can overcome drawbacks of classical piezoelectric probes in sodium environment. Based on the use of new CIVA simulation tools, we have designed and optimized an advanced EMAT probe for under-sodium visualization. This has led to the development of a fully functional L-wave EMAT sensing system composed of 8 elements and a casing withstanding 200° C sodium inspection. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the probe's ability to sweep an ultrasonic beam to an angle of 15 degrees. Testing in a specialized sodium facility has shown that it was possible to obtain pulse-echo signals from a target under several different angles from a fixed position.

  20. OSCAR-Na: A New Code for Simulating Corrosion Product Contamination in SFR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génin, J.-B.; Brissonneau, L.; Gilardi, T.

    2016-07-01

    A code named OSCAR-Na has been developed to calculate the mass transfer of corrosion products in the primary circuit of sodium fast reactors (SFR). It is based on a solution/precipitation model, including diffusion in the steel (enhanced under irradiation), diffusion through the sodium boundary layer, equilibrium concentration of each element, and velocity of the interface (bulk corrosion or deposition). The code uses a numerical method for solving the diffusion equation in the steel and the complete mass balance in sodium for all elements. Corrosion and deposition rates are mainly determined by the iron equilibrium concentration in sodium and its oxygen-enhanced dissolution rate. All parameters of the model have been assessed from a literature review, but iron solubility had to be adjusted. A simplified primary system description of PHENIX French SFR was able to assess the correct amounts and profiles of contamination on heat exchanger surfaces for the main radionuclides.

  1. IRSN working program status on tools for evaluation of SFR cores static neutronics safety parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, E.; Tiberi, V.; Ecrabet, F.; Chegrani, Y.; Canuti, E.; Bisogni, D.; Sargeni, A.; Bernard, F.

    2012-07-01

    As technical support of the French Nuclear Safety Authority, IRSN will be in charge of safety assessment of any future project of Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) that could be built in France. One of the main safety topics will deal with reactivity control. Since the design and safety assessment of the last two SFR plants in France (Phenix and Superphenix, more than thirty years ago), methods, codes and safety objectives have evolved. That is why a working program on core neutronic simulations has been launched in order to be able to evaluate accuracy of future core characteristics computations. The first step consists in getting experienced with the ERANOS well-known deterministic code used in the past for Phenix and Superphenix. Then Monte-Carlo codes have been tested to help in the interpretation of ERANOS results and to define what place this kind of codes can have in a new SFR safety demonstration. This experience is based on open benchmark computations. Different cases are chosen to cover a wide range of configurations. The paper shows, as an example, criticality results obtained with ERANOS, SCALE and MORET, and the first conclusions based on these results. In the future, this work will be extended to other safety parameters such as sodium void and Doppler effects, kinetic parameters or flux distributions. (authors)

  2. ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2004-09-08

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the study

  3. New Fabrication Method Improves the Efficiency and Economics of Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    NT-based DSSCs and determines an optimal illumination direction to use in these cells. The synthetic fabrication strategy will improve the economics and conversion efficiency of DSSCs.

  4. MSFR TRU-burning potential and comparison with an SFR

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorina, C.; Cammi, A.; Franceschini, F.; Krepel, J.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) potential benefits in terms of transuranics (TRU) burning through a comparative analysis with a sodium-cooled FR. The comparison is based on TRU- and MA-burning rates, as well as on the in-core evolution of radiotoxicity and decay heat. Solubility issues limit the TRU-burning rate to 1/3 that achievable in traditional low-CR FRs (low-Conversion-Ratio Fast Reactors). The softer spectrum also determines notable radiotoxicity and decay heat of the equilibrium actinide inventory. On the other hand, the liquid fuel suggests the possibility of using a Pu-free feed composed only of Th and MA (Minor Actinides), thus maximizing the MA burning rate. This is generally not possible in traditional low-CR FRs due to safety deterioration and decay heat of reprocessed fuel. In addition, the high specific power and the lack of out-of-core cooling times foster a quick transition toward equilibrium, which improves the MSFR capability to burn an initial fissile loading, and makes the MSFR a promising system for a quick (i.e., in a reactor lifetime) transition from the current U-based fuel cycle to a novel closed Th cycle. (authors)

  5. A livelihood intervention to improve economic and psychosocial well-being in rural Uganda: Longitudinal pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kakuhikire, Bernard; Suquillo, Diego; Atuhumuza, Elly; Mushavi, Rumbidzai; Perkins, Jessica M; Venkataramani, Atheendar S; Weiser, Sheri D; Bangsberg, David R; Tsai, Alexander C

    2016-12-01

    HIV and poverty are inextricably intertwined in sub-Saharan Africa. Economic and livelihood intervention strategies have been suggested to help mitigate the adverse economic effects of HIV, but few intervention studies have focused specifically on HIV-positive persons. We conducted three pilot studies to assess a livelihood intervention consisting of an initial orientation and loan package of chickens and associated implements to create poultry microenterprises. We enrolled 15 HIV-positive and 22 HIV-negative participants and followed them for up to 18 months. Over the course of follow-up, participants achieved high chicken survival and loan repayment rates. Median monthly income increased, and severe food insecurity declined, although these changes were not statistically significant (P-values ranged from 0.11 to 0.68). In-depth interviews with a purposive sample of three HIV-positive participants identified a constellation of economic and psychosocial benefits, including improved social integration and reduced stigma. PMID:27619011

  6. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mahlon Dennis

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration. The current process of the manufacture long tubular steel products consists of shaping the tube from flat strip, welding the seam and sections into lengths that can be miles long, and coiling onto reels. However, the welds, that are a weak point, now limit the performance of the coil tubing. This is not only from a toughness standpoint but also from a corrosion standpoint. By utilizing the latest developments in the sintering of materials with microwave energy and powder metal extrusion technology for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products, these problems can be eliminated. The project is therefore to develop a continuous microwave process to sinter continuously steel tubulars and butt-join them using microwave/induction process. The program started about three years ago and now we are in the middle of Phase II. In Phase I (which ended in February 2005) a feasibility study of the extrusion process of steel powder and continuously sinter the extruded tubing was conducted. The research program has been based on the development of microwave technology to process tubular specimens of powder metals, especially steels. The existing microwave systems at the Materials Research Laboratory (MRL) and Dennis Tool Company (DTC) were suitably modified to process tubular small specimens. The precursor powder metals were either extruded or cold isostatically pressed (CIP) to form tubular specimens. After conducting an extensive and systematic investigation of extrusion process for producing long tubes, it was determined that there were several difficulties in adopting extrusion process and it cannot be economically used for producing thousands of feet long green tubing. Therefore, in the Phase II the

  7. Casting evaluation of U-Zr alloy system fuel slug for SFR prepared by injection casting method

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2013-07-01

    Metal fuel slugs of U-Pu-Zr alloys for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) have conventionally been fabricated by a vacuum injection casting method. Recently, management of minor actinides (MA) became an important issue because direct disposal of the long-lived MA can be a long-term burden for a tentative repository up to several hundreds of thousand years. In order to recycle transuranic elements (TRU) retained in spent nuclear fuel, remote fabrication capability in a shielded hot cell should be prepared. Moreover, generation of long-lived radioactive wastes and loss of volatile species should be minimized during the recycled fuel fabrication step. In order to prevent the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, alternative fabrication methods of metal fuel slugs have been studied applying gravity casting, and improved injection casting in KAERI, including melting under inert atmosphere. And then, metal fuel slugs were examined with casting soundness, density, chemical analysis, particle size distribution and microstructural characteristics. Based on these results there is a high level of confidence that Am losses will also be effectively controlled by application of a modest amount of overpressure. A surrogate fuel slug was generally soundly cast by improved injection casting method, melted fuel material under inert atmosphere.

  8. Can we do better? Economic analysis of human resource investment to improve home care service for the elderly in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Mihic, Marko M; Todorovic, Marija Lj; Obradovic, Vladimir Lj; Mitrovic, Zorica M

    2016-01-01

    Background Social services aimed at the elderly are facing great challenges caused by progressive aging of the global population but also by the constant pressure to spend funds in a rational manner. Purpose This paper focuses on analyzing the investments into human resources aimed at enhancing home care for the elderly since many countries have recorded progress in the area over the past years. The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of performing an economic analysis of the investment. Methods This paper combines statistical analysis methods such as correlation and regression analysis, methods of economic analysis, and scenario method. Results The economic analysis of investing in human resources for home care service in Serbia showed that the both scenarios of investing in either additional home care hours or more beneficiaries are cost-efficient. However, the optimal solution with the positive (and the highest) value of economic net present value criterion is to invest in human resources to boost the number of home care hours from 6 to 8 hours per week and increase the number of the beneficiaries to 33%. Conclusion This paper shows how the statistical and economic analysis results can be used to evaluate different scenarios and enable quality decision-making based on exact data in order to improve health and quality of life of the elderly and spend funds in a rational manner. PMID:26869778

  9. Economic feasibility study for improving drinking water quality: a case study of arsenic contamination in rural Argentina.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Perez Carrera, Alejo; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Fernández-Cirelli, Alicia; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2014-12-01

    Economic studies are essential in evaluating the potential external investment support and/or internal tariffs available to improve drinking water quality. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a useful tool to assess the economic feasibility of such interventions, i.e. to take some form of action to improve the drinking water quality. CBA should involve the market and non-market effects associated with the intervention. An economic framework was proposed in this study, which estimated the health avoided costs and the environmental benefits for the net present value of reducing the pollutant concentrations in drinking water. We conducted an empirical application to assess the economic feasibility of removing arsenic from water in a rural area of Argentina. Four small-scale methods were evaluated in our study. The results indicated that the inclusion of non-market benefits was integral to supporting investment projects. In addition, the application of the proposed framework will provide water authorities with more complete information for the decision-making process. PMID:24925717

  10. Socio-economic comparison between traditional and improved cultivation methods in agroforestry systems, East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Teija; Quiroz, Roberto; Msikula, Shija

    2005-11-01

    The East Usambara Mountains, recognized as one of the 25 most important biodiversity hot spots in the world, have a high degree of species diversity and endemism that is threatened by increasing human pressure on resources. Traditional slash and burn cultivation in the area is no longer sustainable. However, it is possible to maintain land productivity, decrease land degradation, and improve rural people's livelihood by ameliorating cultivation methods. Improved agroforestry seems to be a very convincing and suitable method for buffer zones of conservation areas. Farmers could receive a reasonable net income from their farm with little investment in terms of time, capital, and labor. By increasing the diversity and production of already existing cultivations, the pressure on natural forests can be diminished. The present study shows a significant gap between traditional cultivation methods and improved agroforestry systems in socio-economic terms. Improved agroforestry systems provide approximately double income per capita in comparison to traditional methods. More intensified cash crop cultivation in the highlands of the East Usambara also results in double income compared to that in the lowlands. However, people are sensitive to risks of changing farming practices. Encouraging farmers to apply better land management and practice sustainable cultivation of cash crops in combination with multipurpose trees would be relevant in improving their economic situation in the relatively short term. The markets of most cash crops are already available. Improved agroforestry methods could ameliorate the living conditions of the local population and protect the natural reserves from human disturbance. PMID:16261277

  11. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, Scott T.; Justice James L.; Taylor, Archie R.

    1999-10-28

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs.

  12. Learning to Work. Improving Youth Employability. Education-Economic Development Series 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Paula; Mazza, Jacqueline

    This volume is part of a series that is designed to promote stronger ties between the educational resources in the Northeast and Midwest and the economic development process. This monograph examines programs that develop the employment potential of those youth who are not likely to make it on their own. It first looks at the problem of youth…

  13. Technology for Improving Production, Economic Efficiency, Quality, and Sustainability in Peanut Production and Handling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA ARS National Peanut Research Laboratory has a very diverse scientific staff conducting research to address the needs of the United States peanut industry. Research is conducted in the fields of mycology, chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, breeding, agronomy, economics, and engineering....

  14. Technology for Improving Production, Economic Efficiency, Quality and Sustainability in Peanut Production and Handling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA ARS National Peanut Research Laboratory has a very diverse scientific staff conducting research to address the needs of the United States peanut industry. Research is conducted in the fields of mycology, chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, breeding, agronomy, economics, and engineering....

  15. Technology for Improving Production, Economic Efficiency, Quality and Sustainability in Peanut Production and Handling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper crop rotation is essential to maintaining high peanut yield and quality. However, the economic considerations of maintaining or altering crop rotation sequences must incorporate the commodity prices, production costs, and yield responses of all crops in, or potentially in, the crop rotation ...

  16. Using "U-Pace" Instruction to Improve the Academic Performance of Economically Disadvantaged Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, R.; Stoiber, L. C.; Pfeiffer, H. M.; Kienzler, S. E.; Fleming, R. R.; Pedrick, L. E.; Barth, D. J.; Reddy, D. .

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate whether the student success associated with the "U-Pace" instructional approach, which integrates mastery-based learning with proactive instructor support in an online learning environment, would replicate for both economically disadvantaged students and students who are not economically…

  17. Private Sector/Educator Collaboration: Project Improves Financial, Economic Literacy of America's Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Deborah C.; Chinadle, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    The Family Economics and Financial Education Project (FEFE) began in 2001 at Montana State University with an annual grant from Take Charge America, Inc., a credit counseling and debt management company headquartered in Phoenix, Arizona. FEFE's mission is to provide educators with curriculum materials and training to be effective teachers of…

  18. Technology for improving production, economic efficiency, quality, and sustainability in peanut production and handling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA ARS National Peanut Research Laboratory has a very diverse scientific staff conducting research to address the needs of the United States peanut industry. Research is conducted in the fields of mycology, chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, breeding, agronomy, economics, and engineering....

  19. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  20. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (control group results). Executive summary. [weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A demonstration experiment is being planned to show that frost and freeze prediction improvements are possible utilizing timely Synchronous Meteorological Satellite temperature measurements and that this information can affect Florida citrus grower operations and decisions so as to significantly reduce the cost for frost and freeze protection and crop losses. The design and implementation of the first phase of an economic experiment which will monitor citrus growers decisions, actions, costs and losses, and meteorological forecasts and actual weather events was carried out. The economic experiment was designed to measure the change in annual protection costs and crop losses which are the direct result of improved temperature forecasts. To estimate the benefits that may result from improved temperature forecasting capability, control and test groups were established with effective separation being accomplished temporally. The control group, utilizing current forecasting capability, was observed during the 1976-77 frost season and the results are reported. A brief overview is given of the economic experiment, the results obtained to date, and the work which still remains to be done.

  1. Improving the cost-effectiveness of a healthcare system for depressive disorders by implementing telemedicine: a health economic modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Lokkerbol, Joran; Adema, Dirk; Cuijpers, Pim; Reynolds, Charles F.; Schulz, Richard; Weehuizen, Rifka; Smit, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Objective Depressive disorders are important causes of disease burden and are associated with substantial economic costs. Therefore, it is important to design a health care system that can effectively manage depression at sustainable costs. This paper computes the benefit-to-costs ratio of the current Dutch health care system for depression, and investigates whether offering more online preventive interventions improves the cost-effectiveness overall. Methods A health economic (Markov) model was used to synthesize clinical and economic evidence and to compute population-level costs and effects of interventions. The model compares a base-case scenario without preventive telemedicine and alternative scenarios with preventive telemedicine. The central outcome is the benefit-to-cost ratio, also known as return-on-investment (ROI). Results In terms of ROI, a health care system with preventive telemedicine for depressive disorders offers better value for money than a health care system without internet-based prevention. Overall, the ROI increases from €1.45 ($1.72) in the base-case scenario to €1.76 ($2.09) in the alternative scenario where preventive telemedicine is offered. In a scenario where the costs of offering preventive telemedicine are balanced by cutting back on the expenditure for curative interventions, ROI increases to €1.77 ($2.10), while keeping the health care budget constant. Conclusion In order for a health care system for depressive disorders to remain economically sustainable, its cost-benefit ratio needs to be improved. Offering preventive telemedicine at a large scale is likely to introduce such an improvement. PMID:23759290

  2. Advanced process modeling at the BCL smelter: Improving economic and environmental performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Nagendra; Peek, Edgar; Stroud, Milton

    2011-01-01

    Since 1973 Bamangwato Concessions Limited (BCL) has operated a nickel-copper smelter in Selebi-Phikwe, Botswana. The smelter treats concentrates from local mines and various custom feed concentrates. The nickel throughput capacity of this smelter is constrained by a low nickel feed grade in its primary BCL concentrate. BCL contracted Xstrata Process Support (XPS) to assist in identifying key economic drivers to maximize revenue-generating opportunities. After the disclosure of essential BCL plant performance data XPS developed and utilized advanced metallurgical modeling techniques to identify production bottlenecks, calculate Ni, Cu, and Co recoveries, manage the slag volumes, increase the custom feed capacity, and perform various feasibility analyses for key unit process operations in the BCL smelter. The methodology for developing the process model and its application in contributing to the economic bottom line are outlined in this paper.

  3. Black-white differences in the economic value of improving health.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kevin M; Topel, Robert H

    2005-01-01

    This article examines how differences in longevity over time and across groups add to the typical measures of economic progress and intergroup differentials. We focus on gains for and differences between groups defined both by race (black and white) and by gender, relying on willingness to pay as our measure of the economic value of gains in longevity. Measured at birth, the gains for white males between 1968 and 1998 were about 245,000 dollars per person, while the gains for black males were far larger, about 390,000 dollars per person. The gains for women were somewhat smaller, with white females gaining about 150,000 dollars per person and black females gaining about 305,000 dollars per person. Our estimates suggest that differences in income explain about 1/3 to 1/2 of the current black-white gap in longevity. PMID:15842095

  4. Performance evaluation of two-stage fuel cycle from SFR to PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, T.; Hoffman, E.A.; Kim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A.

    2013-07-01

    One potential fuel cycle option being considered is a two-stage fuel cycle system involving the continuous recycle of transuranics in a fast reactor and the use of bred plutonium in a thermal reactor. The first stage is a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) fuel cycle with metallic U-TRU-Zr fuel. The SFRs need to have a breeding ratio greater than 1.0 in order to produce fissile material for use in the second stage. The second stage is a PWR fuel cycle with uranium and plutonium mixed oxide fuel based on the design and performance of the current state-of-the-art commercial PWRs with an average discharge burnup of 50 MWd/kgHM. This paper evaluates the possibility of this fuel cycle option and discusses its fuel cycle performance characteristics. The study focuses on an equilibrium stage of the fuel cycle. Results indicate that, in order to avoid a positive coolant void reactivity feedback in the stage-2 PWR, the reactor requires high quality of plutonium from the first stage and minor actinides in the discharge fuel of the PWR needs to be separated and sent back to the stage-1 SFR. The electricity-sharing ratio between the 2 stages is 87.0% (SFR) to 13.0% (PWR) for a TRU inventory ratio (the mass of TRU in the discharge fuel divided by the mass of TRU in the fresh fuel) of 1.06. A sensitivity study indicated that by increasing the TRU inventory ratio to 1.13, The electricity generation fraction of stage-2 PWR is increased to 28.9%. The two-stage fuel cycle system considered in this study was found to provide a high uranium utilization (>80%). (authors)

  5. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (control group results). [weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A demonstration experiment is being planned to show that frost and freeze prediction improvements are possible utilizing timely Synchronous Meteorological Satellite temperature measurements and that this information can affect Florida citrus grower operations and decisions. An economic experiment was carried out which will monitor citrus growers' decisions, actions, costs and losses, and meteorological forecasts and actual weather events and will establish the economic benefits of improved temperature forecasts. A summary is given of the economic experiment, the results obtained to date, and the work which still remains to be done. Specifically, the experiment design is described in detail as are the developed data collection methodology and procedures, sampling plan, data reduction techniques, cost and loss models, establishment of frost severity measures, data obtained from citrus growers, National Weather Service, and Federal Crop Insurance Corp., resulting protection costs and crop losses for the control group sample, extrapolation of results of control group to the Florida citrus industry and the method for normalization of these results to a normal or average frost season so that results may be compared with anticipated similar results from test group measurements.

  6. Improving Education Outcomes in the Slovak Republic. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 578

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, David

    2007-01-01

    Improving education outcomes is vital for achieving convergence with GDP per capita levels in Western European countries and for reducing income inequality. While some education outcomes are favourable, such as the low secondary-school drop-out rate, others have room for improvement: education achievement is below the OECD average and strongly…

  7. A global evaluation of coral reef management performance: are MPAs producing conservation and socio-economic improvements?

    PubMed

    Hargreaves-Allen, Venetia; Mourato, Susana; Milner-Gulland, Eleanor Jane

    2011-04-01

    There is a consensus that Marine Protected Area (MPA) performance needs regular evaluation against clear criteria, incorporating counterfactual comparisons of ecological and socio-economic performance. However, these evaluations are scarce at the global level. We compiled self-reports from managers and researchers of 78 coral reef-based MPAs world-wide, on the conservation and welfare improvements that their MPAs provide. We developed a suite of performance measures including fulfilment of design and management criteria, achievement of aims, the cessation of banned or destructive activities, change in threats, and measurable ecological and socio-economic changes in outcomes, which we evaluated with respect to the MPA's age, geographical location and main aims. The sample was found to be broadly representative of MPAs generally, and suggests that many MPAs do not achieve certain fundamental aims including improvements in coral cover over time (in 25% of MPAs), and conflict reduction (in 25%). However, the large majority demonstrated improvements in terms of slowing coral loss, reducing destructive uses and increasing tourism and local employment, despite many being small, underfunded and facing multiple large scale threats beyond the control of managers. However spatial comparisons suggest that in some regions MPAs are simply mirroring outside changes, with demonstrates the importance of testing for additionality. MPA benefits do not appear to increase linearly over time. In combination with other management efforts and regulations, especially those relating to large scale threat reduction and targeted fisheries and conflict resolution instruments, MPAs are an important tool to achieve coral reef conservation globally. Given greater resources and changes which incorporate best available science, such as larger MPAs and no-take areas, networks and reduced user pressure, it is likely that performance could further be enhanced. Performance evaluation should test for

  8. A Global Evaluation of Coral Reef Management Performance: Are MPAs Producing Conservation and Socio-Economic Improvements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves-Allen, Venetia; Mourato, Susana; Milner-Gulland, Eleanor Jane

    2011-04-01

    There is a consensus that Marine Protected Area (MPA) performance needs regular evaluation against clear criteria, incorporating counterfactual comparisons of ecological and socio-economic performance. However, these evaluations are scarce at the global level. We compiled self-reports from managers and researchers of 78 coral reef-based MPAs world-wide, on the conservation and welfare improvements that their MPAs provide. We developed a suite of performance measures including fulfilment of design and management criteria, achievement of aims, the cessation of banned or destructive activities, change in threats, and measurable ecological and socio-economic changes in outcomes, which we evaluated with respect to the MPA's age, geographical location and main aims. The sample was found to be broadly representative of MPAs generally, and suggests that many MPAs do not achieve certain fundamental aims including improvements in coral cover over time (in 25% of MPAs), and conflict reduction (in 25%). However, the large majority demonstrated improvements in terms of slowing coral loss, reducing destructive uses and increasing tourism and local employment, despite many being small, underfunded and facing multiple large scale threats beyond the control of managers. However spatial comparisons suggest that in some regions MPAs are simply mirroring outside changes, with demonstrates the importance of testing for additionality. MPA benefits do not appear to increase linearly over time. In combination with other management efforts and regulations, especially those relating to large scale threat reduction and targeted fisheries and conflict resolution instruments, MPAs are an important tool to achieve coral reef conservation globally. Given greater resources and changes which incorporate best available science, such as larger MPAs and no-take areas, networks and reduced user pressure, it is likely that performance could further be enhanced. Performance evaluation should test for

  9. Study on improving the method of analyzing the economic incident effects caused by public investment policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momma, Toshiyuki; Hino, Seiichi; Koike, Atsushi; Nakano, Takeshi; Fujii, Satoshi

    A nationwide micro-econometric model was established to estimate changes in the national gross product based on road-related investment amounts. And by considering the supply-demand balance during inflationary and deflationary times and the price adjustment mechanism, this model was then used to examine issues with the current micro-econometric model in light of the present economic circumstances. The results showed that during deflationary times issuing government bonds is less likely to have a crowding-out effect and public investments tend to be more effective than during inflationary times.

  10. Mass media campaign improves cervical screening across all socio-economic groups.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jenny O; Mullins, Robyn M; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-10-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data were obtained from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry for each Pap test registered during 2005 and categorized into SES quintiles using the Index of Socio-Economic Advantage/Disadvantage. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the impact of the campaign on the weekly number of Pap tests and whether the media campaign had a differential effect by SES, after adjusting for the number of workdays per week, age group and time since previous test. Cervical screening increased 27% during the campaign period and was equally effective in encouraging screening across all SES groups, including low-SES women. Mass media campaigns can prompt increased rates of cervical screening among all women, not just those from more advantaged areas. Combining media with additional strategies targeted at low-SES women may help lessen the underlying differences in screening rates across SES. PMID:19342422

  11. A Comparison Study of Creep-Fatigue Defect Growth Evaluations for a SFR IHTS Piping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang-Gyu; Kim, Jong-Bum; Lee, Jae-Han

    A defect behavior is one of the principal concerns to be dealt with for a structural integrity since defects may lead to the failure of a SFR(Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) structure under high temperature loading conditions. A thin-walled and large diametric piping is adopted for the IHTS (Intermediate Heat Transport System) piping system of a SFR to enhance the system's economy and to reduce the thermal stress level. The structural material for the piping is Type 316 austenitic stainless steel. In this study, a defect growth evaluation of IHTS piping was performed for a semi-elliptical surface defect subjected to a combined mechanical loading and thermal loading of a high temperature above 500°C including a cyclic loading condition corresponding to a reactor refueling cycle. The creep-fatigue defect behavior evaluations were carried out by following the French Assessment Procedure A16, the UK Assessment Procedure R5 and the JNC procedure. The results were compared with each other and their strong and weak points were discussed. Also the degree of conservatism of each procedure was reviewed.

  12. Effect of the star formation histories on the SFR-M∗ relation at z ≥ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassarà, L. P.; Maccagni, D.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Thomas, R.; Le Fèvre, O.; Zamorani, G.; Schaerer, D.; Lemaux, B. C.; Cassata, P.; Le Brun, V.; Pentericci, L.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Vanzella, E.; Zucca, E.; Amorín, R.; Bardelli, S.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Durkalec, A.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Ilbert, O.; Paltani, S.; Ribeiro, B.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Capak, P.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; de la Torre, S.; Dunlop, J.; Fotopoulou, S.; Guaita, L.; Koekemoer, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Mellier, Y.; Pforr, J.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Wang, P. W.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the effect of different star formation histories (SFHs) on the relation between stellar mass (M∗) and star formation rate (SFR) using a sample of galaxies with reliable spectroscopic redshift zspec> 2 drawn from the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS). We produce an extensive database of dusty model galaxies, calculated starting from a new library of single stellar population (SSPs) models, weighted by a set of 28 different star formation histories based on the Schmidt function, and characterized by different ratios of the gas infall timescale τinfall to the star formation efficiency ν. Dust extinction and re-emission were treated by means of the radiative transfer calculation. The spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting technique was performed by using GOSSIP+, a tool able to combine both photometric and spectroscopic information to extract the best value of the physical quantities of interest, and to consider the intergalactic medium (IGM) attenuation as a free parameter. We find that the main contribution to the scatter observed in the SFR-M∗ plane is the possibility of choosing between different families of SFHs in the SED fitting procedure, while the redshift range plays a minor role. The majority of the galaxies, at all cosmic times, are best fit by models with SFHs characterized by a high τinfall/ν ratio. We discuss the reliability of a low percentage of dusty and highly star-forming galaxies in the context of their detection in the far infrared (FIR).

  13. Projected techno-economic improvements for advanced solar thermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; Manvi, R.; Roschke, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The projected characteristics of solar thermal power plants (with outputs up to 10 MWe) employing promising advanced technology subsystems/components are compared to current (or pre-1985) steam-Rankine systems. Improvements accruing to advanced technology development options are delineated. The improvements derived from advanced systems result primarily from achieving high efficiencies via solar collector systems which (1) capture a large portion of the available insolation and (2) concentrate this captured solar flux to attain high temperatures required for high heat engine/energy conversion performance. The most efficient solar collector systems employ two-axis tracking. Attractive systems include the central receiver/heliostat and the parabolic dish.

  14. Economic analysis of interventions to improve village chicken production in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Henning, J; Morton, J; Pym, R; Hla, T; Sunn, K; Meers, J

    2013-07-01

    A cost-benefit analysis using deterministic and stochastic modelling was conducted to identify the net benefits for households that adopt (1) vaccination of individual birds against Newcastle disease (ND) or (2) improved management of chick rearing by providing coops for the protection of chicks from predation and chick starter feed inside a creep feeder to support chicks' nutrition in village chicken flocks in Myanmar. Partial budgeting was used to assess the additional costs and benefits associated with each of the two interventions tested relative to neither strategy. In the deterministic model, over the first 3 years after the introduction of the interventions, the cumulative sum of the net differences from neither strategy was 13,189Kyat for ND vaccination and 77,645Kyat for improved chick management (effective exchange rate in 2005: 1000Kyat=1$US). Both interventions were also profitable after discounting over a 10-year period; Net Present Values for ND vaccination and improved chick management were 30,791 and 167,825Kyat, respectively. The Benefit-Cost Ratio for ND vaccination was very high (28.8). This was lower for improved chick management, due to greater costs of the intervention, but still favourable at 4.7. Using both interventions concurrently yielded a Net Present Value of 470,543Kyat and a Benefit-Cost Ratio of 11.2 over the 10-year period in the deterministic model. Using the stochastic model, for the first 3 years following the introduction of the interventions, the mean cumulative sums of the net difference were similar to those values obtained from the deterministic model. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the cumulative net differences were strongly influenced by grower bird sale income, particularly under improved chick management. The effects of the strategies on odds of households selling and consuming birds after 7 months, and numbers of birds being sold or consumed after this period also influenced profitability. Cost variations for

  15. GALAXY STRUCTURE AND MODE OF STAR FORMATION IN THE SFR-MASS PLANE FROM z {approx} 2.5 TO z {approx} 0.1

    SciTech Connect

    Wuyts, Stijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Magnelli, Benjamin; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter; Berta, Stefano; Gracia-Carpio, Javier; Nordon, Raanan; Van der Wel, Arjen; Guo, Yicheng; Aussel, Herve; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; and others

    2011-12-01

    We analyze the dependence of galaxy structure (size and Sersic index) and mode of star formation ({Sigma}{sub SFR} and SFR{sub IR}/SFR{sub UV}) on the position of galaxies in the star formation rate (SFR) versus mass diagram. Our sample comprises roughly 640,000 galaxies at z {approx} 0.1, 130,000 galaxies at z {approx} 1, and 36,000 galaxies at z {approx} 2. Structural measurements for all but the z {approx} 0.1 galaxies are based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging, and SFRs are derived using a Herschel-calibrated ladder of SFR indicators. We find that a correlation between the structure and stellar population of galaxies (i.e., a 'Hubble sequence') is already in place since at least z {approx} 2.5. At all epochs, typical star-forming galaxies on the main sequence are well approximated by exponential disks, while the profiles of quiescent galaxies are better described by de Vaucouleurs profiles. In the upper envelope of the main sequence, the relation between the SFR and Sersic index reverses, suggesting a rapid buildup of the central mass concentration in these starbursting outliers. We observe quiescent, moderately and highly star-forming systems to co-exist over an order of magnitude or more in stellar mass. At each mass and redshift, galaxies on the main sequence have the largest size. The rate of size growth correlates with specific SFR, and so does {Sigma}{sub SFR} at each redshift. A simple model using an empirically determined star formation law and metallicity scaling, in combination with an assumed geometry for dust and stars, is able to relate the observed {Sigma}{sub SFR} and SFR{sub IR}/SFR{sub UV}, provided a more patchy dust geometry is assumed for high-redshift galaxies.

  16. Improving Education Achievement and Attainment in Luxembourg. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 508

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, David; Ernst, Ekkehard

    2006-01-01

    Improving education achievement in Luxembourg is a priority for strengthening productivity growth and enhancing residents' employment prospects in the private sector, where employers mainly hire cross-border workers. Student achievement in Luxembourg is below the OECD average according to the 2003 OECD PISA study, with the performance gap between…

  17. Economics of Caring Labor: Improving Compensation in the Early Childhood Workforce. Summary. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripple, Carol

    Improving compensation in early care and education (ECE) has been and will continue to be an extremely difficult policy issue. The Mailman Family Foundation and the Foundation for Child Development convened a group of 18 representatives of diverse disciplines concerned about child- and elder-care compensation. This report details the issues…

  18. Improving the Economic and Life Outcomes of At-Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivry, Robert; Doolittle, Fred

    This paper outlines ideas and strategies to engage alienated and disaffected young people and help them acquire skills, gain work experience, and improve their lives. Based on lessons learned from three decades of demonstrations and evaluations concerning at-risk youth, the paper presents ideas that government agencies and private foundations…

  19. Economic Viewpoints in Educational Effectiveness: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of an Educational Improvement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, Bert; van der Werf, Greetje

    2000-01-01

    An evaluation of the Primary Education Quality Improvement Project in Indonesia illustrates that combining the knowledge base and methodology of educational effectiveness research and cost-effectiveness analysis provides fruitful possibilities for future theoretical/practical developments in both approaches. PEQIP positively affected student…

  20. Predicting positive mental health in internally displaced persons in Indonesia: the roles of economic improvement and exposure to violent conflict.

    PubMed

    Saragih Turnip, Sherly; Sörbom, Dag; Hauff, Edvard

    2016-01-01

    Positive mental health, rather than just the absence of mental illness, is rarely investigated among the internally displaced persons (IDPs) affected by violent conflict in low-income countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate a model that could explain the interrelationship between factors contributing to positive mental health in displaced populations. In a longitudinal study we examine poverty, exposure to traumatic events and the change of material well-being after one year. We collected data in two consecutive years (2005 and 2006) from a community-based sample of IDPs in Ambon, Indonesia, through face-to-face structured interviews with consenting adults. Participants of this study were IDPs lived in Ambon during the violent conflict period. We interviewed 471 IDPs in the first year and reinterviewed 399 (85%) of the same subjects in the second year. The IDPs possessed good sense of coherence and subjective well-being. Our final model, which was generated by the use of structural equation modeling, fits the data well (χ(2) = 52.51, df = 45, p = .21, CFI = .99, RMSEA = .019). Exposure to violent conflict had a negative impact on IDPs' mental health initially and better economic conditions improved it (r = -.30 and .29 respectively). Mental health status one year previously was a strong predictor of future mental health, followed by individual economic growth in the past year (r = .43 and .29 respectively). On a group level the IDPs were resilient and adaptive to survive in adverse living conditions after devastating violent conflict, and the economic improvement contributed to it. PMID:26059612

  1. Salinity Tolerance Mechanism of Economic Halophytes From Physiological to Molecular Hierarchy for Improving Food Quality.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chongzhi; Tang, Xiaoli; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Hongyan

    2016-06-01

    Soil salinity is becoming the key constraints factor to agricultural production. Therefore, the plant especially the crops possessing capacities of salt tolerance will be of great economic significance. The adaptation or tolerance of plant to salinity stress involves a series of physiological, metabolic and molecular mechanisms. Halophytes are the kind of organisms which acquire special salt tolerance mechanisms to respond to the salt tress and ensure normal growth and development under saline conditions in their lengthy evolutionary adaptation, so understanding how halophytes respond to salinity stress will provide us with methods and tactics to foster and develop salt resistant varieties of crops. The strategies in physiological and molecular level adopted by halophytes are various including the changes in photosynthetic and transpiration rate, the sequestration of Na+ to extracellular or vacuole, the regulation of stomata aperture and stomatal density, the accumulation and synthesis of the phytohormones as well as the relevant gene expression underlying these physiological traits, such as the stress signal transduction, the regulation of the transcription factors, the activation and expression of the transporter genes, the activation or inhibition of the synthetases and so on. This review focuses on the research advances of the regulating mechanisms in halophytes from physiological to molecular, which render the halophytes tolerance and adaption to salinity stress. PMID:27252587

  2. The Economics of Improving Medication Adherence in Osteoporosis: Validation and Application of a Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Schousboe, John T.; Losina, Elena; Solomon, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Adherence to osteoporosis treatment is low. Although new therapies and behavioral interventions may improve medication adherence, questions are likely to arise regarding their cost-effectiveness. Objective: Our objectives were to develop and validate a model to simulate the clinical outcomes and costs arising from various osteoporosis medication adherence patterns among women initiating bisphosphonate treatment and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical intervention to improve medication adherence. Design: We constructed a computer simulation using estimates of fracture rates, bisphosphonate treatment effects, costs, and utilities for health states drawn from the published literature. Probabilities of transitioning on and off treatment were estimated from administrative claims data. Setting and Patients: Patients were women initiating bisphosphonate therapy from the general community. Intervention: We evaluated a hypothetical behavioral intervention to improve medication adherence. Main Outcome Measures: Changes in 10-yr fracture rates and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were evaluated. Results: A hypothetical intervention with a one-time cost of $250 and reducing bisphosphonate discontinuation by 30% had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $29,571 per quality-adjusted life year in 65-yr-old women initiating bisphosphonates. Although the ICER depended on patient age, intervention effectiveness, and intervention cost, the ICERs were less than $50,000 per quality-adjusted life year for the majority of intervention cost and effectiveness scenarios evaluated. Results were sensitive to bisphosphonate cost and effectiveness and assumptions about the rate at which intervention and treatment effects decline over time. Conclusions: Our results suggests that behavioral interventions to improve osteoporosis medication adherence will likely have favorable ICERs if their efficacy can be sustained. PMID:21733991

  3. Modeling Water Utility Investments and Improving Regulatory Policies using Economic Optimisation in England and Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Water utilities in England and Wales are regulated natural monopolies called 'water companies'. Water companies must obtain periodic regulatory approval for all investments (new supply infrastructure or demand management measures). Both water companies and their regulators use results from least economic cost capacity expansion optimisation models to develop or assess water supply investment plans. This presentation first describes the formulation of a flexible supply-demand planning capacity expansion model for water system planning. The model uses a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation to choose the least-cost schedule of future supply schemes (reservoirs, desalination plants, etc.) and demand management (DM) measures (leakage reduction, water efficiency and metering options) and bulk transfers. Decisions include what schemes to implement, when to do so, how to size schemes and how much to use each scheme during each year of an n-year long planning horizon (typically 30 years). In addition to capital and operating (fixed and variable) costs, the estimated social and environmental costs of schemes are considered. Each proposed scheme is costed discretely at one or more capacities following regulatory guidelines. The model uses a node-link network structure: water demand nodes are connected to supply and demand management (DM) options (represented as nodes) or to other demand nodes (transfers). Yields from existing and proposed are estimated separately using detailed water resource system simulation models evaluated over the historical period. The model simultaneously considers multiple demand scenarios to ensure demands are met at required reliability levels; use levels of each scheme are evaluated for each demand scenario and weighted by scenario likelihood so that operating costs are accurately evaluated. Multiple interdependency relationships between schemes (pre-requisites, mutual exclusivity, start dates, etc.) can be accounted for by

  4. Economic support to improve tuberculosis treatment outcomes in South Africa: a pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poverty undermines adherence to tuberculosis treatment. Economic support may both encourage and enable patients to complete treatment. In South Africa, which carries a high burden of tuberculosis, such support may improve the currently poor outcomes of patients on tuberculosis treatment. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of delivering economic support to patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in a high-burden province of South Africa. Methods This was a pragmatic, unblinded, two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial, where 20 public sector clinics acted as clusters. Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in intervention clinics (n = 2,107) were offered a monthly voucher of ZAR120.00 (approximately US$15) until the completion of their treatment. Vouchers were redeemed at local shops for foodstuffs. Patients in control clinics (n = 1,984) received usual tuberculosis care. Results Intention to treat analysis showed a small but non-significant improvement in treatment success rates in intervention clinics (intervention 76.2%; control 70.7%; risk difference 5.6% (95% confidence interval: -1.2%, 12.3%), P = 0.107). Low fidelity to the intervention meant that 36.2% of eligible patients did not receive a voucher at all, 32.3% received a voucher for between one and three months and 31.5% received a voucher for four to eight months of treatment. There was a strong dose–response relationship between frequency of receipt of the voucher and treatment success (P <0.001). Conclusions Our pragmatic trial has shown that, in the real world setting of public sector clinics in South Africa, economic support to patients with tuberculosis does not significantly improve outcomes on treatment. However, the low fidelity to the delivery of our voucher meant that a third of eligible patients did not receive it. Among patients in intervention clinics who received the voucher at least once, treatment success rates were significantly

  5. The Economic Promise of Investing in High-Quality Preschool: Using Early Education to Improve Economic Growth and the Fiscal Sustainability of States and the Nation. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Preschool programs have long prepared children for early educational success, but investing in high-quality early education also offers promising ways to strengthen the future economic and fiscal position of states and the nation. The Committee for Economic Development (CED) believes that broadening access to preschool programs for all children is…

  6. Improving Conceptual Design for Launch Vehicles. The Bimese Concept: A Study of Mission and Economic Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.; Tooley, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes key activities conducted in the third and final year of the cooperative agreement NCC1-229 entitled "Improving Conceptual Design for Launch Vehicles." This project has been funded by the Vehicle Analysis Branch at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA. Work has been performed by the Space Systems Design Lab (SSDL) at the Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA. Accomplishments during the first and second years of this project have been previously reported in annual progress reports. This report will focus on the third and final year of the three year activity.

  7. Socio-economic improvements and health system strengthening of maternity care are contributing to maternal mortality reduction in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Liljestrand, Jerker; Sambath, Mean Reatanak

    2012-06-01

    Maternal mortality has been falling significantly in Cambodia since 2005 though it had been stagnant for at least 15 years before that. This paper analyzes the evolution of some major societal and health system factors based on recent national and international reports. The maternal mortality ratio fell from 472 per 100,000 live births in 2000-2005 to 206 in 2006-2010. Background factors have included peace and stability, economic growth and poverty reduction, improved primary education, especially for girls, improved roads, improved access to information on health and health services via TV, radio and cellphones, and increased ability to communicate with and within the health system. Specific health system improvements include a rapid increase in facility-based births and skilled birth attendance, notably investment in midwifery training and numbers of midwives providing antenatal care and deliveries within an expanding primary health care network, a monetary incentive for facility-based midwives for every live birth conducted, and an expanding system of health equity funds, making health care free of cost for poor people. Several major challenges remain, including post-partum care, family planning, prevention and treatment of breast and cervical cancer, and addressing sexual violence against women, which need the same priority attention as maternity care. PMID:22789083

  8. Increasing performance of health care services within economic constraints: working towards improved incentive structures.

    PubMed

    Custers, Thomas; Klazinga, Niek S; Brown, Adalsteinn D

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that health care systems can create better value for money by improving performance and setting the right incentives. Worldwide this has led to an emergence of financial and non-financial incentive structures as a strategy to improve performance. The role of incentives is not only to motivate high performance through the alignment of results and rewards (financial/non-financial as well as direct/indirect) but also to enable health care providers to perform better by mitigating financial barriers that typically result from funding schemes. Various incentive structures in health care, identified in the scientific literature, are described in this article and available evidence on effectiveness and side effects is summarized. Literature shows that there is no single best approach to create an incentive yet and that the ability of financial and non-financial incentives to achieve desired results depends on a number of circumstantial elements. Several incentive schemes that can be used by health care insurers or local health authorities are discussed and concrete examples are provided. Decision-making on incentive schemes requires a careful design with the involvement of those targeted by incentives. PMID:17902405

  9. Economic support to improve tuberculosis treatment outcomes in South Africa: a qualitative process evaluation of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Poverty undermines the adherence of patients to tuberculosis treatment. A pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the extent to which economic support in the form of a voucher would improve patients’ adherence to treatment, and their treatment outcomes. Although the trial showed a modest improvement in the treatment success rates of the intervention group, this was not statistically significant, due in part to the low fidelity to the trial intervention. A qualitative process evaluation, conducted in the final few months of the trial, explained some of the factors that contributed to this low fidelity. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with patients who received vouchers, nurses in intervention clinics, personnel in shops who administered the vouchers, and managers of the TB Control Programme. These interviews were analyzed thematically. Results The low fidelity to the trial intervention can be explained by two main factors. The first was nurses’ tendency to ‘ration’ the vouchers, only giving them to the most needy of eligible patients and leaving out those eligible patients whom they felt were financially more comfortable. The second was logistical issues related to the administration of the voucher as vouchers were not always available for patients on their appointed clinic dates, necessitating further visits to the clinics which they were not always able to make. Conclusions This process evaluation identifies some of the most important factors that contributed to the results of this pragmatic trial. It highlights the value of process evaluations as tools to explain the results of randomized trials and emphasizes the importance of implementers as ‘street level bureaucrats’ who may profoundly affect the way an intervention is administered. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN50689131, registered 21 April 2009. The trial protocol is available at the following web address: http://www

  10. Wheat forecast economics effect study. [value of improved information on crop inventories, production, imports and exports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, R. K.; Rouhani, R.; Jones, S.; Schick, I.

    1980-01-01

    A model to assess the value of improved information regarding the inventories, productions, exports, and imports of crop on a worldwide basis is discussed. A previously proposed model is interpreted in a stochastic control setting and the underlying assumptions of the model are revealed. In solving the stochastic optimization problem, the Markov programming approach is much more powerful and exact as compared to the dynamic programming-simulation approach of the original model. The convergence of a dual variable Markov programming algorithm is shown to be fast and efficient. A computer program for the general model of multicountry-multiperiod is developed. As an example, the case of one country-two periods is treated and the results are presented in detail. A comparison with the original model results reveals certain interesting aspects of the algorithms and the dependence of the value of information on the incremental cost function.

  11. Farm-economic analysis of reducing antimicrobial use whilst adopting improved management strategies on farrow-to-finish pig farms.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Gimeno, Cristina; Postma, Merel; Dewulf, Jeroen; Hogeveen, Henk; Lauwers, Ludwig; Wauters, Erwin

    2016-07-01

    Due to increasing public health concerns that food animals could be reservoirs for antibiotic resistant organisms, calls for reduced current antibiotic use on farms are growing. Nevertheless, it is challenging for farmers to perform this reduction without negatively affecting technical and economic performance. As an alternative, improved management practices based on biosecurity and vaccinations have been proven useful to reduce antimicrobial use without lowering productivity, but issues with insufficient experimental design possibilities have hindered economic analysis. In the present study a quasi-experimental approach was used for assessing the economic impact of reduction of antimicrobial use coupled with improved management strategies, particularly biosecurity strategies. The research was performed on farrow-to-finish pig farms in Flanders (northern region of Belgium). First, to account for technological progress and to avoid selection bias, propensity score analysis was used to compare data on technical parameters. The treatment group (n=48) participated in an intervention study whose aim was to improve management practices to reduce the need for use of antimicrobials. Before and after the change in management, data were collected on the technical parameters, biosecurity status, antimicrobial use, and vaccinations. Treated farms were matched without replacement with control farms (n=69), obtained from the Farm Accountancy Data Network, to estimate the difference in differences (DID) of the technical parameters. Second, the technical parameters' DID, together with the estimated costs of the management intervention and the price volatility of the feed, meat of the finisher pigs, and piglets served as a basis for modelling the profit of 11 virtual farrow-to-finish pig farms representative of the Flemish sector. Costs incurred by new biosecurity measures (median +€3.96/sow/year), and new vaccinations (median €0.00/sow/year) did not exceed the cost reduction

  12. [On the need to improve the system for the prevention of falsification of food products in the Eurasian Economic Union].

    PubMed

    Arnautov, O V; Bagryantseva, O V; Bessonov, V V

    2016-01-01

    Adulteration of food is misleading consumers about the composition of foods in order to obtain economic benefits. Olive oil, wine and other alcoholic beverages, spices, tea, fish, honey, milk and dairy products, meat products, cereal products, beverages based on fruit juices, spices, coffee are falsified with the highest frequency. In addition, sufficient data on the frequency of adulterated food products are missing not only in Russia but also in the developed countries. This is because the purpose of the manufacturer and distributors of such products is primarily an economic advantage. Therefore, the majority of incidents of falsification of food products remained undetected since their production, generally had not led to the risk of food safety, and consumers often did not notice the reduction in quality of foodstuffs. The analysis of international data and data of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) has shown that, in order to improve the quality of food products and to reduce sales of adulterated food the following steps should be done: introduce the definition of falsificated food products into legislation of the EAEU; expand the list of methods for confirming the authenticity of the food and detecting the presence of substances which are not permitted for usage in the food industry; consolidate the principle of the responsibility of all participants in the treatment of food that does not comply with the mandatory requirements at the legislative level; introduce the indicators of the quality of foodstuffs in the technical regulations of the EAEU; return to the mandatory requirements for the quality of foods given in the interstate and state standards. PMID:27455606

  13. Star formation in the local Universe from the CALIFA sample. I. Calibrating the SFR using integral field spectroscopy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Sánchez, S. F.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Marino, R. A.; Walcher, C. J.; Husemann, B.; García-Benito, R.; Mast, D.; González Delgado, R. M.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Del Olmo, A.; Galbany, L.; Gomes, J. M.; Kehrig, C.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Mendoza, M. A.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Pérez-Torres, M.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Vilchez, J. M.; Califa Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    Context. The star formation rate (SFR) is one of the main parameters used to analyze the evolution of galaxies through time. The need for recovering the light reprocessed by dust commonly requires the use of low spatial resolution far-infrared data. Recombination line luminosities provide an alternative, although uncertain dust-extinction corrections based on narrowband imaging or long-slit spectroscopy have traditionally posed a limit to their applicability. Integral field spectroscopy (IFS) is clearly the way to overcome this kind of limitation. Aims: We obtain integrated Hα, ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR)-based SFR measurements for 272 galaxies from the CALIFA survey at 0.005 SFR and to shed light on the origin of the discrepancies between tracers. Updated calibrations referred to Hα are provided. The well-defined selection criteria and large statistics allow us to carry out this analysis globally and split by properties, including stellar mass and morphological type. Methods: We derive integrated, extinction-corrected Hα fluxes from CALIFA, UV surface and asymptotic photometry from GALEX and integrated WISE 22 μm and IRAS fluxes. Results: We find that the extinction-corrected Hα luminosity agrees with the hybrid updated SFR estimators based on either UV or Hα plus IR luminosity over the full range of SFRs (0.03-20 M⊙ yr-1). The coefficient that weights the amount of energy produced by newly-born stars that is reprocessed by dust on the hybrid tracers, aIR, shows a large dispersion. However, this coefficient does not became increasingly small at high attenuations, as expected if significant highly-obscured Hα emission were missed, i.e., after a Balmer decrement-based attenuation correction is applied. Lenticulars, early-type spirals, and type-2 AGN host galaxies show smaller coefficients because of the

  14. Star Formation in the Local Universe from the CALIFA sample: calibration and contribution of disks to the SFR density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán-Torrecilla, Cristina; Gil de Paz, Armando; Castillo-Morales, África; Iglesias-Páramo, Jorge; Sánchez, Sebastián F.

    2015-02-01

    The study of the star formation rate (SFR) is crucial for understanding the birth and evolution of the galaxies (Kennicutt 1998), with this aim in mind, we make use of a well-characterized sample of 380 nearby galaxies from the CALIFA survey that fill the entire color-magnitude diagram in the Local Universe. The availability of wide-field CALIFA IFS ensures a proper determination of the underlying stellar continuum and, consequently, of the extiction-corrected Hα luminosity. We compare our integrated Hα-based SFRs with single and hybrids tracers at other wavelengths found in the literature (Calzetti 2013). Then, we provide a new set of single-band and hybrid calibrators anchored to the extinction-corrected Hα luminosities. In the case of the hybrid calibrators we determine the best fitting aIR coefficients for different combinations of observed (UV or Hα) and dust-reprocessed (22μm or TIR) SFR contributions (where SFR ~ Lobs + aIR × L[IR]). This analysis allow us to provide, for the first time, a set of hybrid calibrations for different morphological types and masses. These are particularly useful in case that the sample to be analyzed shows a different bias in terms of morphology or, more commonly, luminosity or stellar mass. We also study the dependence of this coefficient with color and ionized-gas attenuation. The distributions of a IR values are quite wide in all cases. We found that not single physical property can by itself explain the variation found in a IR. Finally, we explore the spatial distribution of the SFR by measuring the contribution of disks to the total SFR in the Local Universe. Our preliminary spatially-resolved analysis shows that the disk to total (disk + spheroidal component) SFR ratio is on average ~ 88%. The use of the 2D spectroscopic data is critical to properly determine the Hα luminosity function and SFR density in the Local Universe per galaxy components, the ultimate goal of this project.

  15. Balancing therapeutic safety and efficacy to improve clinical and economic outcomes in schizophrenia: a managed care perspective.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junqing

    2014-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, reduced life expectancy, and increased economic burden. Antipsychotic agents used for the management of schizophrenia are often associated with undesirable adverse effects, such as weight gain and metabolic abnormalities, contributing to elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and mortality. Contributors to the growing economic burden of schizophrenia include direct (eg, medical care and hospitalization) and indirect costs (eg, lost productivity and mortality). Strategies to reduce these expenditures include the use of generic medications, improving treatment adherence, avoidance of switching antipsychotic therapies, reducing disease relapses, and appropriate management of cardiometabolic disease. Arguably, while pharmacy benefit and managed care strategies (eg, prior authorization, prescription caps, copayments and patient cost-sharing strategies, tiered formulary pricing, and gap coverage) are designed and implemented to reduce healthcare costs, they may have the unintended result of creating barriers to treatment access and thereby contribute to further adverse patient outcomes. Managed care professionals should be cognizant of the drivers of cost and the need for cardiometabolic monitoring to individualize care for patients with schizophrenia. Further, comprehensive disease management plans should be developed that include the monitoring of disease progression and treatment adherence, while factoring in medication and healthcare administration costs. PMID:25180707

  16. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics-A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization's culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence. PMID:26835016

  17. The evolution of the dust temperatures of galaxies in the SFR-M∗ plane up to z ∼ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnelli, B.; Lutz, D.; Saintonge, A.; Berta, S.; Santini, P.; Symeonidis, M.; Altieri, B.; Andreani, P.; Aussel, H.; Béthermin, M.; Bock, J.; Bongiovanni, A.; Cepa, J.; Cimatti, A.; Conley, A.; Daddi, E.; Elbaz, D.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G.; Maiolino, R.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S. J.; Page, M.; Pérez García, A.; Poglitsch, A.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Rosario, D.; Roseboom, I.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Scott, D.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Valtchanov, I.; Wang, L.; Wuyts, S.

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of the dust temperature of galaxies in the SFR- M∗ plane up to z ~ 2 using far-infrared and submillimetre observations from the Herschel Space Observatory taken as part of the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time key programmes. Starting from a sample of galaxies with reliable star-formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses (M∗) and redshift estimates, we grid the SFR- M∗parameter space in several redshift ranges and estimate the mean dust temperature (Tdust) of each SFR-M∗ - z bin. Dust temperatures are inferred using the stacked far-infrared flux densities (100-500 μm) of our SFR-M∗ - z bins. At all redshifts, the dust temperature of galaxies smoothly increases with rest-frame infrared luminosities (LIR), specific SFRs (SSFR; i.e., SFR/M∗), and distances with respect to the main sequence (MS) of the SFR- M∗ plane (i.e., Δlog (SSFR)MS = log [SSFR(galaxy)/SSFRMS(M∗,z)]). The Tdust - SSFR and Tdust - Δlog (SSFR)MS correlations are statistically much more significant than the Tdust - LIR one. While the slopes of these three correlations are redshift-independent, their normalisations evolve smoothly from z = 0 and z ~ 2. We convert these results into a recipe to derive Tdust from SFR, M∗ and z, valid out to z ~ 2 and for the stellar mass and SFR range covered by our stacking analysis. The existence of a strong Tdust - Δlog (SSFR)MS correlation provides us with several pieces of information on the dust and gas content of galaxies. Firstly, the slope of the Tdust - Δlog (SSFR)MS correlation can be explained by the increase in the star-formation efficiency (SFE; SFR/Mgas) with Δlog (SSFR)MS as found locally by molecular gas studies. Secondly, at fixed Δlog (SSFR)MS, the constant dust temperature observed in galaxies probing wide ranges in SFR and M∗ can be explained by an increase or decrease in the number of star-forming regions with comparable SFE enclosed in

  18. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SANANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2003-01-15

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; (7) Mobility control agents.

  19. Enhanced X-ray emission from Lyman break analogues and a possible LX-SFR-metallicity plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, M.; Kaaret, P.; Prestwich, A.; Mirabel, I. F.

    2016-04-01

    The source of energetic photons that heated and reionized the early Universe remains uncertain. Early galaxies had low metallicity and recent population synthesis calculations suggest that the number and luminosity of high-mass X-ray binaries are enhanced in star-forming galaxies with low metallicity, offering a potentially important and previously overlooked source of heating and reionization. Lyman break analogue (LBA) galaxies are local galaxies that strongly resemble the high-redshift, star-forming Lyman break galaxies and have been suggested as local analogues to these metal-deficient galaxies found in the early Universe. We studied a sample of 10 LBAs in order to measure the relation between star formation rate and X-ray luminosity. We found that for LBAs with metallicities in the range 12 + log10(O/H) = 8.15-8.80, the LX -SFR relation was log _{10} (L_X/SFR {[erg s^{-1} M_{⊙}^{-1} yr]}) = 39.85(± 0.10) in the 0.5-8 keV band with a dispersion of σ = 0.25 dex. This is an enhancement of nearly a factor of 2 in the L0.5-8 keV-SFR relation relative to results for nearby, near-solar metallicity galaxies. The enhancement is significant at the 98.2 per cent level (2.4σ). Our enhanced LX/SFR relation is consistent with the metallicity-dependent predicted value from population synthesis models. We discuss the possibility of an LX-SFR-metallicity plane for star-forming galaxies. These results are important to our understanding of reionization and the formation of early galaxies.

  20. Demand response to improved walking infrastructure: A study into the economics of walking and health behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, W George; Hunter, Ruth F; Tully, Mark A; Kee, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Walking is the most common form of moderate-intensity physical activity among adults, is widely accessible and especially appealing to obese people. Most often policy makers are interested in valuing the effect on walking of changes in some characteristics of a neighbourhood, the demand response for walking, of infrastructure changes. A positive demand response to improvements in the walking environment could help meet the public health target of 150 min of at least moderate-intensity physical activity per week. We model walking in an individual's local neighbourhood as a 'weak complement' to the characteristics of the neighbourhood itself. Walking is affected by neighbourhood characteristics, substitutes, and individual's characteristics, including their opportunity cost of time. Using compensating variation, we assess the economic benefits of walking and how walking behaviour is affected by improvements to the neighbourhood. Using a sample of 1209 respondents surveyed over a 12 month period (Feb 2010-Jan 2011) in East Belfast, United Kingdom, we find that a policy that increased walkability and people's perception of access to shops and facilities would lead to an increase in walking of about 36 min/person/week, valued at £13.65/person/week. When focussing on inactive residents, a policy that improved the walkability of the area would lead to guidelines for physical activity being reached by only 12.8% of the population who are currently inactive. Additional interventions would therefore be needed to encourage inactive residents to achieve the recommended levels of physical activity, as it appears that interventions that improve the walkability of an area are particularly effective in increasing walking among already active citizens, and, among the inactive ones, the best response is found among healthier, younger and wealthier citizens. PMID:26347960

  1. Predicting moisture and economic value of solid forest fuel piles for improving the profitability of bioenergy use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauren, Ari; Kinnunen, Jyrki-Pekko; Sikanen, Lauri

    2016-04-01

    Bioenergy contributes 26 % of the total energy use in Finland, and 60 % of this is provided by solid forest fuel consisting of small stems and logging residues such as tops, branches, roots and stumps. Typically the logging residues are stored as piles on site before transporting to regional combined heat and power plants for combustion. Profitability of forest fuel use depends on smart control of the feedstock. Fuel moisture, dry matter loss, and the rate of interest during the storing are the key variables affecting the economic value of the fuel. The value increases with drying, but decreases with wetting, dry matter loss and positive rate of interest. We compiled a simple simulation model computing the moisture change, dry matter loss, transportation costs and present value of feedstock piles. The model was used to predict the time of the maximum value of the stock, and to compose feedstock allocation strategies under the question: how should we choose the piles and the combustion time so that total energy yield and the economic value of the energy production is maximized? The question was assessed concerning the demand of the energy plant. The model parameterization was based on field scale studies. The initial moisture, and the rates of daily moisture change and dry matter loss in the feedstock piles depended on the day of the year according to empirical field measurements. Time step of the computation was one day. Effects of pile use timing on the total energy yield and profitability was studied using combinatorial optimization. Results show that the storing increases the pile maximum value if the natural drying onsets soon after the harvesting; otherwise dry matter loss and the capital cost of the storing overcome the benefits gained by drying. Optimized timing of the pile use can improve slightly the profitability, based on the increased total energy yield and because the energy unit based transportation costs decrease when water content in the biomass is

  2. The Economic Promise of Investing in High-Quality Preschool: Using Early Education to Improve Economic Growth and the Fiscal Sustainability of States and the Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Early education programs have long been regarded as an important step in preparing children for primary school--but investing in the education of America's youngest learners has emerged as one of the most promising ways to help strengthen the future economic and fiscal position of our states and nation. High-quality preschool programs offer…

  3. Improving Indonesia's Cities: A Case Study of Economic Development, Including a Teaching Guide and An Economic Summary of Indonesia. Toward a Better World Series, Learning Kit No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Harriet, Ed.; Rosen, Carol, Ed.

    This World Bank (Washington, D.C.) kit is designed to teach secondary school social studies students the impact of rapid urbanization on Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. The kit contains a pamphlet, a booklet, a filmstrip, and a teacher's guide. The pamphlet, "An Economic Summary of Indonesia" provides students with the structure, recent…

  4. Reducing GHG emissions through genetic improvement for feed efficiency: effects on economically important traits and enteric methane production.

    PubMed

    Basarab, J A; Beauchemin, K A; Baron, V S; Ominski, K H; Guan, L L; Miller, S P; Crowley, J J

    2013-06-01

    Genetic selection for residual feed intake (RFI) is an indirect approach for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions in beef and dairy cattle. RFI is moderately heritable (0.26 to 0.43), moderately repeatable across diets (0.33 to 0.67) and independent of body size and production, and when adjusted for off-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFI fat) is also independent of body fatness in growing animals. It is highly dependent on accurate measurement of individual animal feed intake. Within-animal repeatability of feed intake is moderate (0.29 to 0.49) with distinctive diurnal patterns associated with cattle type, diet and genotype, necessitating the recording of feed intake for at least 35 days. In addition, direct measurement of enteric CH4 production will likely be more variable and expensive than measuring feed intake and if conducted should be expressed as CH4 production (g/animal per day) adjusted for body size, growth, body composition and dry matter intake (DMI) or as residual CH4 production. A further disadvantage of a direct CH4 phenotype is that the relationships of enteric CH4 production on other economically important traits are largely unknown. Selection for low RFI fat (efficient, -RFI fat) will result in cattle that consume less dry matter (DMI) and have an improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with high RFI fat cattle (inefficient; +RFI fat). Few antagonistic effects have been reported for the relationships of RFI fat on carcass and meat quality, fertility, cow lifetime productivity and adaptability to stress or extensive grazing conditions. Low RFI fat cattle also produce 15% to 25% less enteric CH4 than +RFI fat cattle, since DMI is positively related to enteric methane (CH4) production. In addition, lower DMI and feeding duration and frequency, and a different rumen bacterial profile that improves rumen fermentation in -RFI fat cattle may favor a 1% to 2% improvement in dry matter and CP digestibility compared with +RFI fat cattle. Rate

  5. Bridging the gap: exploring the barriers to using economic evidence in healthcare decision making and strategies for improving uptake.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Gregory; Page, Katie; Ratcliffe, Julie; Halton, Kate; Graves, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Evidence from economic evaluations is often not used to inform healthcare policy despite being well regarded by policy makers and physicians. This article employs the accessibility and acceptability framework to review the barriers to using evidence from economic evaluation in healthcare policy and the strategies used to overcome these barriers. Economic evaluations are often inaccessible to policymakers due to the absence of relevant economic evaluations, the time and cost required to conduct and interpret economic evaluations, and lack of expertise to evaluate quality and interpret results. Consistently reported factors that limit the translation of findings from economic evaluations into healthcare policy include poor quality of research informing economic evaluations, assumptions used in economic modelling, conflicts of interest, difficulties in transferring resources between sectors, negative attitudes to healthcare rationing, and the absence of equity considerations. Strategies to overcome these barriers have been suggested in the literature, including training, structured abstract databases, rapid evaluation, reporting checklists for journals, and considering factors other than cost effectiveness in economic evaluations, such as equity or budget impact. The factors that prevent or encourage decision makers to use evidence from economic evaluations have been identified, but the relative importance of these factors to decision makers is uncertain. PMID:25288052

  6. MODFLOW-LGR-Modifications to the streamflow-routing package (SFR2) to route streamflow through locally refined grids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, Steffen W.; Hill, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents modifications to the Streamflow-Routing Package (SFR2) to route streamflow through grids constructed using the multiple-refined-areas capability of shared node Local Grid Refinement (LGR) of MODFLOW-2005. MODFLOW-2005 is the U.S. Geological Survey modular, three-dimensional, finite-difference groundwater-flow model. LGR provides the capability to simulate groundwater flow by using one or more block-shaped, higher resolution local grids (child model) within a coarser grid (parent model). LGR accomplishes this by iteratively coupling separate MODFLOW-2005 models such that heads and fluxes are balanced across the shared interfacing boundaries. Compatibility with SFR2 allows for streamflow routing across grids. LGR can be used in two- and three-dimensional, steady-state and transient simulations and for simulations of confined and unconfined groundwater systems.

  7. Transmutation abilities of the SFR low void effect core concept 'CFV' 3600 MWth

    SciTech Connect

    Buiron, L.; Fontaine, B.; Andriolo, L.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential of minor actinide transmutation in a 3600 MWth SFR core designed with the low void effect core concept (namely 'CFV concept'). This concept is based upon an axially heterogeneous design with an internal fertile zone, and two radial fuel zones with different heights. Two modes of minor actinide transmutation are considered. The homogeneous mode where the minor actinides (MA) are diluted in the fuel is studied considering different options: - MA diluted in the whole core, - MA diluted in the internal and external fuel zone, - MA diluted in the internal fertile zone, for which different isotopic vectors and contents in fuel are analyzed. The heterogeneous mode is also studied with MA placed in external blanket bearings, with contents of 20%. The results are compared to those obtained with a traditional homogenous core concept (SFRV2B type) in terms of transmutation performances. Impacts of the transmutation assumptions on transmutation performances, on fuel cycle and safety parameters (void effect, Doppler) are also presented. (authors)

  8. Improving the economic and humanistic outcomes for diabetic patients: making a case for employer-sponsored medication therapy management

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Sharrel L; Kumar, Jinender; Partha, Gautam; Bechtol, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the cost savings of a pharmacist-led, employer-sponsored medication therapy management (MTM) program for diabetic patients and to assess for any changes in patient satisfaction and self-reported medication adherence for enrollees. Methods Participants in this study were enrollees of an employer-sponsored MTM program. They were included if their primary medical insurance and prescription coverage was from the City of Toledo, they had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, and whether or not they had been on medication or had been given a new prescription for diabetes treatment. The data were analyzed on a prospective, pre-post longitudinal basis, and tracked for one year following enrollment. Outcomes included economic costs, patient satisfaction, and self-reported patient adherence. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the population, calculate the number of visits, and determine the mean costs for each visit. Friedman’s test was used to determine changes in outcomes due to the nonparametric nature of the data. Results The mean number of visits to a physician’s office decreased from 10.22 to 7.07. The mean cost of these visits for patients increased from $47.70 to $66.41, but use of the emergency room and inpatient visits decreased by at least 50%. Employer spending on emergency room visits decreased by $24,214.17 and inpatient visit costs decreased by $166,610.84. Office visit spending increased by $11,776.41. A total cost savings of $179,047.80 was realized by the employer at the end of the program. Significant improvements in patient satisfaction and adherence were observed. Conclusion Pharmacist interventions provided through the employer-sponsored MTM program led to substantial cost savings to the employer with improved patient satisfaction and adherence on the part of employees at the conclusion of the program. PMID:23610526

  9. The economics of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription-only drugs: prescribed to improve consumer welfare?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven; Mintzes, Barbara; Barer, Morris

    2003-10-01

    According to economic theory, one might expect that the informational content of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription-only drugs would improve consumers' welfare. However, contrasting the models of consumer and market behaviour underlying this theory with the realities of the prescription-only drug market reveals that this market is distinct in ways that render it unlikely that advertising will serve an unbiased and strictly informative function. A review of qualitative evidence regarding the informational content of drug advertising supports this conclusion. Direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising concentrates on particular products, and features of those products, to the exclusion of others, and the information provided has frequently been found to be biased or misleading in regulatory and academic evaluations. Governments that have so far resisted direct-to-consumer advertising should invest in independent sources of evidence that could help consumers and professionals to better understand the risks and benefits of treating disease with alternative drug and non-drug therapies, rather than permitting direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising. PMID:14596759

  10. Coupled 3D-neutronics / thermal-hydraulics analysis of an unprotected loss-of-flow accident for a 3600 MWth SFR core

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, K.; Chenu, A.; Mikityuk, K.; Krepel, J.; Chawla, R.

    2012-07-01

    The core behaviour of a large (3600 MWth) sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is investigated in this paper with the use of a coupled TRACE/PARCS model. The SFR neutron spectrum is characterized by several performance advantages, but also leads to one dominating neutronics drawback - a positive sodium void reactivity. This implies a positive reactivity effect when sodium coolant is removed from the core. In order to evaluate such feedback in terms of the dynamics, a representative unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) transient, i.e. flow run-down without SCRAM in which sodium boiling occurs, is analyzed. Although analysis of a single transient cannot allow general conclusions to be drawn, it does allow better understanding of the underlying physics and can lead to proposals for improving the core response during such an accident. The starting point of this study is the reference core design considered in the framework of the Collaborative Project on the European Sodium Fast Reactor (CP-ESFR). To reduce the void effect, the core has been modified by introducing an upper sodium plenum (along with a boron layer) and by reducing the core height-to-diameter ratio. For the ULOF considered, a sharp increase in core power results in melting of the fuel in the case of the reference core. In the modified core, a large dryout leads to melting of the clad. It seems that, for the hypothetical event considered, fuel failure cannot be avoided with just improvement of the neutronics design; therefore, thermal-hydraulics optimization has been considered. An innovative assembly design is proposed to prevent sodium vapour blocking the fuel channel. This results in preventing a downward propagation of the sodium boiling to the core center, thus limiting it to the upper region. Such a void map introduces a negative coolant density reactivity feedback, which dominates the total reactivity change. As a result, the power level and the fuel temperature are effectively reduced, and a large dryout

  11. Performance of supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle with additive gases at varying critical points for SFR application

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, W. S.; Jeong, Y. H.

    2012-07-01

    The supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle (S-CO{sub 2} cycle) has received attention as alternative to the energy conversion system for a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). The high cycle efficiency of S-CO{sub 2} cycle is attributed to significantly reduced compressor work. This is because the compressor operates like a pump in the vicinity of CO{sub 2} critical point. To make use of this feature, the minimum cycle operating range of S-CO{sub 2} cycle, which is the main compressor inlet condition, should be located close to the critical point of CO{sub 2}. This translated into that the critical point of CO{sub 2} is the limitation of the lowest cycle condition of S-CO{sub 2} cycles. To increase the flexibility and broaden the applicability of the cycle, changing the critical point of CO{sub 2} by mixing additive gases could be adopted. An increase in the efficiency of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle could be achieved by decreasing critical point of CO{sub 2}. In addition, increasing critical point of CO{sub 2} could be utilized to obtain improved cycle performances at ascending heat sink temperature of hot arid areas. Due to the rapid fluctuations of thermo-physical properties of gas mixtures near the critical point, an in-house cycle analysis code coupled to NIST property database was developed. Several gases were selected as potential additives through the screening process for thermal stability and chemical interaction with sodium. By using the developed cycle code, optimized cycles of each gas mixture were compared with the reference case of S-CO{sub 2} cycle. For decreased critical temperatures, CO{sub 2}-Xe and CO{sub 2}-Kr showed an increase in the total cycle efficiency. At increasing critical temperatures, the performance of CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}-cyclohexane is superior to S-CO{sub 2}cycle when the compressor inlet temperature is above the critical temperature of CO{sub 2}. (authors)

  12. The Behavioralist Goes to School: Leveraging Behavioral Economics to Improve Educational Performance. NBER Working Paper No. 18165

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Steven D.; List, John A.; Neckermann, Susanne; Sadoff, Sally

    2012-01-01

    A long line of research on behavioral economics has established the importance of factors that are typically absent from the standard economic framework: reference dependent preferences, hyperbolic preferences, and the value placed on non-financial rewards. To date, these insights have had little impact on the way the educational system operates.…

  13. Indicators for Improving Educational, Employment, and Economic Outcomes for Youth and Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A National Report on Existing Data Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulewski, Jennifer Sullivan; Zalewska, Agnes; Butterworth, John

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes available national data on educational, employment and economic outcomes for youth and young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) over the years 2000-2010. These data can be used to benchmark progress in improving these outcomes for young adult population across the country and within individual states. Data is…

  14. Mapping the average AGN accretion rate in the SFR-M* plane for Herschel-selected galaxies at 0 < z ≤ 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvecchio, I.; Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Rosario, D. J.; Zamorani, G.; Pozzi, F.; Gruppioni, C.; Vignali, C.; Brusa, M.; Cimatti, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Lanzuisi, G.; Oliver, S.; Rodighiero, G.; Santini, P.; Symeonidis, M.

    2015-05-01

    We study the relation of AGN accretion, star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass (M*) using a sample of ≈8600 star-forming galaxies up to z = 2.5 selected with Herschel imaging in the GOODS and COSMOS fields. For each of them we derive SFR and M*, both corrected, when necessary, for emission from an active galactic nucleus (AGN), through the decomposition of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). About 10 per cent of the sample are detected individually in Chandra observations of the fields. For the rest of the sample, we stack the X-ray maps to get average X-ray properties. After subtracting the X-ray luminosity expected from star formation and correcting for nuclear obscuration, we derive the average AGN accretion rate for both detected sources and stacks, as a function of M*, SFR and redshift. The average accretion rate correlates with SFR and with M*. The dependence on SFR becomes progressively more significant at z > 0.8. This may suggest that SFR is the original driver of these correlations. We find that average AGN accretion and star formation increase in a similar fashion with offset from the star-forming `main-sequence'. Our interpretation is that accretion on to the central black hole and star formation broadly trace each other, irrespective of whether the galaxy is evolving steadily on the main-sequence or bursting.

  15. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Rebecca Egg

    2002-09-30

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  16. Improved (ERTS) information and its impact on U.S. markets for agricultural commodities: A quantitiative economic investigation of production, distribution and net export effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scope, and architecture of the analysis and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The major empirical results and policy conclusions are set forth. These results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. A number of promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  17. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.; Egg, Rebecca

    2001-08-07

    The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization.

  18. Improving the Quality of Continuing Higher Educators' Leadership Role in Economic and Community Development Planning. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferro, Trenton R.

    In response to a 1991 call issued by the American Association of State Colleges and Universities, eight institutions were selected to participate in a model process designed to involve higher education in the economics of community development. They were: Bloomsburg University, Chadron State College, Kean College of New Jersey, Murray State…

  19. Improving the Career Decision-Making Behaviour of Working Class Students: Do Economic Barriers Stand in the Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul; Hepworth, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the extent to which economic factors influence the career decision-making process of working class students. Design/methodology/approach: The study involved an initial survey of 165 final-year students from a range of degree programmes. It was followed by in-depth interviews with 30 working class students.…

  20. Social and Economic Benefits of Improved Adult Literacy: Towards a Better Understanding. An Adult Literacy National Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Robyn; Horne, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    Assessing the social and economic costs of poor adult literacy and numeracy skills, and the benefits of investing in such skills, is largely unchartered territory in Australia. This feasibility study explores the frameworks and methodologies available for determining and measuring such benefits and costs across a number of life domains, including…

  1. Organizing Hazards, Engineering Disasters? Improving the Recognition of Political-Economic Factors in the Creation of Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenburg, William R.; Gramling, Robert; Laska, Shirley; Erikson, Kai T.

    2008-01-01

    Disaster studies have made important progress in recognizing the unequally distributed consequences of disasters, but there has been less progress in analyzing social factors that help create "natural" disasters. Even well-known patterns of hazard-creation tend to be interpreted generically--as representing "economic development" or…

  2. Extension and Improvement of Psychological Services Provided to Children in Areas of Economic Deprivation, January 31, 1966 - June 17, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The study is a project undertaken by the school psychologists of the Milwaukee Public Schools in order to evaluate the psychological services provided to primary and secondary school children from areas of economic deprivation who are experiencing learning or behavioral problems. Research design was of the test-retest variety; specifically, I.Q.…

  3. IMPROVING RESOURCE RECOVERY OF ORGANIC WASTE TO ALLEVIATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC PROBLEMS IN A DEPRESSED URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    New Orleans East is a unique area that is both ecologically and economically critical to the rest of the city due to the presence of valuable wetlands and dense industries. Several of these industries generate large amounts of organic waste, which create multiple problems. The...

  4. Economic Benefits of Improved Information on Worldwide Crop Production: An Optimal Decision Model of Production and Distribution with Application to Wheat, Corn, and Soybeans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J.

    1977-01-01

    An optimal decision model of crop production, trade, and storage was developed for use in estimating the economic consequences of improved forecasts and estimates of worldwide crop production. The model extends earlier distribution benefits models to include production effects as well. Application to improved information systems meeting the goals set in the large area crop inventory experiment (LACIE) indicates annual benefits to the United States of $200 to $250 million for wheat, $50 to $100 million for corn, and $6 to $11 million for soybeans, using conservative assumptions on expected LANDSAT system performance.

  5. A new fabrication route for SFR fuel using (U, Pu)O2 powder obtained by oxalic co-conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudez, Stéphane; Belin, Renaud C.; Aufore, Laurence; Sornay, Philippe; Grandjean, Stéphane

    2013-11-01

    The standard powder metallurgy preparation of SFR (Sodium Fast Reactor) oxide fuel involves UO2 and PuO2 co-milling. An alternative route, using a solid-solution of mixed oxide obtained by oxalic co-conversion as the starting material, is presented. It was used to manufacture nuclear fuels for the "COPIX" irradiation conducted in the Phenix SFR. Two processes using co-converted powders were tested to elaborate fuel pellets: (1) the Direct Process that consists in pressing and sintering the mixed oxide with the final Pu content and (2) the Dilution Process, which involves the dilution of a high Pu content mixed oxide with UO2. After studying the structural and microstructural evolution with temperature of these innovative raw materials, the elaboration parameters were adjusted to obtain final pellets in accordance with the Phenix fuel specifications. This study demonstrates the feasibility of such new fabrication route at laboratory scale and, from a more fundamental prospect, allows a better understanding of the underlying phenomena involved during sintering.

  6. The improvement of the effectiveness of using natural gas in hot-water boilers by means of condensing economizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vnukov, A. K.; Rozanova, F. A.

    2013-07-01

    The paper describes the results of the study of the mathematical model of a condensing economizer (CE) interacting with the technological parameter of the particular district heating station. This model has been developed by the authors. It is shown that the CE, due to condensation of water vapor and augmentation of convective heat exchange between products of natural gas combustion, makes it possible to save up to 8% of fuel.

  7. One-Dimensional Analysis of Thermal Stratification in AHTR and SFR Coolant Pools

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2007-10-01

    Thermal stratification phenomena are very common in pool type reactor systems, such as the liquid-salt cooled Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) and liquid-metal cooled fast reactor systems such as the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). It is important to accurately predict the temperature and density distributions both for design optimation and accident analysis. Current major reactor system analysis codes such as RELAP5 (for LWR’s, and recently extended to analyze high temperature reactors), TRAC (for LWR’s), and SASSYS (for liquid metal fast reactors) only provide lumped-volume based models which can only give very approximate results and can only handle simple cases with one mixing source. While 2-D or 3-D CFD methods can be used to analyze simple configurations, these methods require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries, yet such fine grid resolution is difficult or impossible to provide for studying the reactor response to transients due to computational expense. Therefore, new methods are needed to support design optimization and safety analysis of Generation IV pool type reactor systems. Previous scaling has shown that stratified mixing processes in large stably stratified enclosures can be described using one-dimensional differential equations, with the vertical transport by free and wall jets modeled using standard integral techniques. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to three-dimensional numerical modeling of turbulent mixing in large enclosures. The BMIX++ (Berkeley mechanistic MIXing code in C++) code was originally developed at UC Berkeley to implement such ideas. This code solves mixing and heat transfer problems in stably stratified enclosures. The code uses a Lagrangian approach to solve 1-D transient governing equations for the ambient fluid and uses analytical or 1-D integral models to compute substructures. By including liquid salt properties, BMIX++ code is

  8. An environmental, economic, and social assessment of improving cattle finishing weight or average daily gain within U.S. beef production.

    PubMed

    White, R R; Capper, J L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess environmental impact, economic viability, and social acceptability of 3 beef production systems with differing levels of efficiency. A deterministic model of U.S. beef production was used to predict the number of animals required to produce 1 × 10(9) kg HCW beef. Three production treatments were compared, 1 representing average U.S. production (control), 1 with a 15% increase in ADG, and 1 with a 15% increase in finishing weight (FW). For each treatment, various socioeconomic scenarios were compared to account for uncertainty in producer and consumer behavior. Environmental impact metrics included feed consumption, land use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe), and N and P excretion. Feed cost, animal purchase cost, animal sales revenue, and income over costs (IOVC) were used as metrics of economic viability. Willingness to pay (WTP) was used to identify improvements or reductions in social acceptability. When ADG improved, feedstuff consumption, land use, and water use decreased by 6.4%, 3.2%, and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the control. Carbon footprint decreased 11.7% and N and P excretion were reduced by 4% and 13.8%, respectively. When FW improved, decreases were seen in feedstuff consumption (12.1%), water use (9.2%). and land use (15.5%); total GHGe decreased 14.7%; and N and P excretion decreased by 10.1% and 17.2%, compared with the control. Changes in IOVC were dependent on socioeconomic scenario. When the ADG scenario was compared with the control, changes in sector profitability ranged from 51 to 117% (cow-calf), -38 to 157% (stocker), and 37 to 134% (feedlot). When improved FW was compared, changes in cow-calf profit ranged from 67% to 143%, stocker profit ranged from -41% to 155% and feedlot profit ranged from 37% to 136%. When WTP was based on marketing beef being more efficiently produced, WTP improved by 10%; thus, social acceptability increased. When marketing was based on production

  9. Engineering and organizational solutions for improvement of engineering and economic characteristics of the TPE-216 boilers equipped with MV-3300/800/490 pulverizing fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, M. V.; Safronov, P. G.

    2014-07-01

    Efficiency of coal-fired boilers is determined in many respects by optimal operation of the coal-pulverizing plants that are increasingly frequently equipped with pulverizing fans. By an example of retrofitted MV-3300/800/490 pulverizing fans, the effects of different factors on the performance and economic efficiency of the coal-pulverizing plants are analyzed. The experience gained in retrofitting MV-3300/800/490 pulverizing fans by introducing the three-crusher operation mode of a TPE-216 boiler employing the internal recirculation and a blading device in the classifier was also studied. Optimization of the boiler's operation mode was made when switching over from the four-crusher to the three-crusher mode, which considerably improved the engineering and economic characteristics.

  10. Improving the accuracy and comparability of model-based economic evaluations of health technologies for reimbursement decisions: a methodological framework for the development of reference models.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Hossein Haji Ali; Karnon, Jonathan; Merlin, Tracy

    2013-04-01

    Increasingly, decision analytic models are used within economic evaluations of health technologies (e.g., pharmaceuticals) submitted to national reimbursement bodies in countries like Australia and UK, where such models play a fundamental role in informing public funding decisions. Concerns regarding the accuracy of model outputs and hence the credibility of national reimbursement decisions are frequently raised. We propose a framework for developing reference models for specific diseases to inform economic evaluations of health technologies and their appraisal. The structure of a reference model reflects the natural history of the condition under study and defines the clinical events to be represented, the relationships between the events, and the effect of patient characteristics on the probability and timing of events. We contend that the use of reference models will improve the accuracy and comparability of public funding decisions. This can lead to the more efficient allocation of public funds. PMID:22961101

  11. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (an update of control group results)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braen, C.

    1978-01-01

    The economic experiment, the results obtained to date and the work which still remains to be done are summarized. Specifically, the experiment design is described in detail as are the developed data collection methodology and procedures, sampling plan, data reduction techniques, cost and loss models, establishment of frost severity measures, data obtained from citrus growers, National Weather Service and Federal Crop Insurance Corp. Resulting protection costs and crop losses for the control group sample, extrapolation of results of control group to the Florida citrus industry and the method for normalization of these results to a normal or average frost season so that results may be compared with anticipated similar results from test group measurements are discussed.

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of Neutron Cross-Sections Considered for Design and Safety Studies of Lfr and SFR Generation IV Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucek, Kamil; Carlsson, Johan; Wider, Hartmut

    2006-04-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of several design and safety parameters with regard to five different nuclear data libraries, JEF2.2, JEFF3.0, ENDF/B-VI.8, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3. More specifically, the effective multiplication factor, burn-up reactivity swing and decay heat generation in available LFR and SFR designs were estimated. Monte Carlo codes MCNP and MCB were used in the analyses of the neutronic and burn-up performance of the systems. Thermo-hydraulic safety calculations were performed by the STAR-CD CFD code. For the LFR, ENDF/B-VI.8 and JEF2.2 showed to give a harder neutron spectrum than JEFF3.0, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3 data due to the lower inelastic scattering cross-section of lead in these libraries. Hence, the neutron economy of the system becomes more favourable and keff is higher when calculated with ENDF/B-VI.8 and JEF2.2 data. As for actinide cross-section data, the uncertainties in the keff values appeared to be mainly due to 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am. Differences in the estimated burn-up reactivity swings proved to be significant, for an SFR as large as a factor of three (when comparing ENDF/B-VI.8 results to those of JENDL3.2). Uncertainties in the evaluation of short-term decay heat generation showed to be of the order of several per cent. Significant differences were, understandably, observed between decay heat generation data quoted in literature for LWR-UOX and those calculated for an LFR (U,TRU)O2 spent fuel. A corresponding difference in calculated core parameters (outlet coolant temperature) during protected total Loss-of-Power was evaluated.

  13. Improving Public-spending Efficiency in Czech Regions and Municipalities. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 499

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Philip

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at ways of ensuring Czech regions and municipalities are fully motivated to make efficiency improvements in public service provision and so help achieve countrywide fiscal sustainability. The very large number of small municipalities in the Czech Republic means that scale economies are difficult to exploit and the policy options…

  14. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf San Andres Reservoir.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.R.; Hickman, T.S.; Justice, J.J.

    1997-07-30

    The Oxy West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The research and development phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advance and reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) will implement the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period I officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and optimum flood design has continued into the first part of Budget Period 2. Specifically, the geologic model was enhanced by integration of the 3-D seismic interpretations. This resulted in improved history match by the simulator and more accurate predictions of flood performance on which to base the project design. The majority of the project design work has been completed, material specifications provided and bids solicited. Preparation of the demonstration area is well underway.

  15. Improved ethanol yield and reduced minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 2) Techno-economic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our companion paper discussed the yield benefits achieved by integrating deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing with low acid and low temperature pretreatment. To evaluate the impact of the modified process on the economic feasibility, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed based on the experimental data presented in the companion paper. Results The cost benefits of dilute acid pretreatment technology combined with the process alternatives of deacetylation, mechanical refining, and pretreated solids washing were evaluated using cost benefit analysis within a conceptual modeling framework. Control cases were pretreated at much lower acid loadings and temperatures than used those in the NREL 2011 design case, resulting in much lower annual ethanol production. Therefore, the minimum ethanol selling prices (MESP) of the control cases were $0.41-$0.77 higher than the $2.15/gallon MESP of the design case. This increment is highly dependent on the carbohydrate content in the corn stover. However, if pretreatment was employed with either deacetylation or mechanical refining, the MESPs were reduced by $0.23-$0.30/gallon. Combing both steps could lower the MESP further by $0.44 ~ $0.54. Washing of the pretreated solids could also greatly improve the final ethanol yields. However, the large capital cost of the solid–liquid separation unit negatively influences the process economics. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed to study the effect of the cost of the pretreatment reactor and the energy input for mechanical refining. A 50% cost reduction in the pretreatment reactor cost reduced the MESP of the entire conversion process by $0.11-$0.14/gallon, while a 10-fold increase in energy input for mechanical refining will increase the MESP by $0.07/gallon. Conclusion Deacetylation and mechanical refining process options combined with low acid, low severity pretreatments show improvements in ethanol yields and calculated MESP for cellulosic

  16. Simulator of Galaxy Millimeter/Submillimeter Emission (SíGAME): The [C ii]-SFR Relationship of Massive z = 2 Main Sequence Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Karen P.; Greve, Thomas R.; Narayanan, Desika; Thompson, Robert; Toft, Sune; Brinch, Christian

    2015-11-01

    We present SÍGAME simulations of the [C II] 157.7 μm fine structure line emission from cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of seven main sequence galaxies at z = 2. Using sub-grid physics prescriptions the gas in our simulations is modeled as a multi-phased interstellar medium comprised of molecular gas residing in giant molecular clouds, an atomic gas phase associated with photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) at the cloud surfaces, and a diffuse, ionized gas phase. Adopting logotropic cloud density profiles and accounting for heating by the local FUV radiation field and cosmic rays by scaling both with local star formation rate (SFR) volume density, we calculate the [C II] emission using a photon escape probability formalism. The [C II] emission peaks in the central ≲ 1 kpc of our galaxies as do the SFR radial profiles, with most [C II] (≳ 70%) originating in the molecular gas phase, whereas further out (≳ 2 kpc), the atomic/PDR gas dominates (≳ 90%) the [C II] emission, no longer tracing ongoing star formation. Throughout, the ionized gas contribution is negligible (≲ 3%). The [C II] luminosity versus SFR ([C II]-SFR) relationship, integrated as well as spatially resolved (on scales of 1 kpc), delineated by our simulated galaxies is in good agreement with the corresponding relations observed locally and at high redshifts. In our simulations, the molecular gas dominates the [C II] budget at SFR≳ 20 {M}⊙ yr-1 (ΣSFR ≳ 0.5 {M}⊙ yr-1 kpc-2), while atomic/PDR gas takes over at lower SFRs, suggesting a picture in which [C II] predominantly traces the molecular gas in high-density/pressure regions where star formation is ongoing, and otherwise reveals the atomic/PDR gas phase.

  17. Improved oil production using economical biopolymer-surfactant blends for profile modification and mobility control. Final report, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Gabitto, J.; Barrufet, M.A.; Burnett, D.B.

    1998-12-01

    In the past, starch hydrocolloids have not been effective alternates to partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides, copolymers, and xanthan gum polymers as water shutoff agents in fractures and in matrix flow configurations. Poor injectivity and questionable stability have usually prevented their use in profile control applications. However, in recent years, the demands of the oil and gas drilling industry have led to the development of new drilling, drill-in, and completion fluids with improved functionality. New types of modified starches have contributed to these new drill in fluid (DIF) products. It was felt that the properties of the new products would lend themselves to applications in improved recovery. The objective of this project has been to evaluate the use of agricultural starch biopolymers for gelled and polymer applications in oil recovery processes. The authors believe that there is great potential for finding new functional starch products because of their chemical and structural flexibility, low cost, and wide availability. The goals of this project have been, therefore, to systematically investigate how the physical properties and chemical composition of relatively inexpensive agricultural starch products will influence their use as effective selective permeability control agents or as gels for water shut-off.

  18. Declining Trend of Hepatitis A Seroepidemiology in Association with Improved Public Health and Economic Status of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Sa-nguanmoo, Pattaratida; Posuwan, Nawarat; Vichaiwattana, Preeyaporn; Vuthitanachot, Viboonsak; Saelao, Siriporn; Foonoi, Monthana; Fakthongyoo, Apinya; Makaroon, Jamorn; Srisingh, Klaita; Asawarachun, Duangporn; Owatanapanich, Somchai; Wutthiratkowit, Norra; Tohtubtiang, Kraisorn; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Poovorawan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is transmitted via the fecal-oral route from contaminated food or water. As part of the most recent survey of viral hepatitis burden in Thailand, we analyzed the current seroprevalence of HAV in the country and compared with data dating back to 1971. From March to October, 2014, a total of 4,260 individuals between one month and 71 years of age from different geographical regions (North = 961; Central = 1,125; Northeast = 1,109; South = 1,065) were screened for anti-HAV IgG antibody using an automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Overall, 34.53% (1,471/4,260) possessed anti-HAV IgG antibody, and the age-standardized seroprevalence was 48.6%. Seroprevalence rates were 27.3% (North), 30.8% (Central), 33.8% (Northeast) and 45.8% (South) and were markedly lower than in the past studies especially among younger age groups. The overall trend showed an increase in the age by which 50% of the population were anti-HAV IgG antibody: 4.48 years (1971–1972), 6 (1976), 12.49 (1990), 36.02 (2004) and 42.03 (2014).This suggests that Thailand is transitioning from low to very low HAV endemicity. Lower prevalence of HAV correlated with improved healthcare system as measured by decreased infant mortality rate and improved national economy based on increased GDP per capita. The aging HAV immuno-naïve population may be rendered susceptible to potential HAV outbreaks similar to those in industrialized countries and may benefit from targeted vaccination of high-risk groups. PMID:27008531

  19. Behavior of an heterogeneous annular FBR core during an unprotected loss of flow accident: Analysis of the primary phase with SAS-SFR

    SciTech Connect

    Massara, S.; Schmitt, D.; Bretault, A.; Lemasson, D.; Darmet, G.; Verwaerde, D.; Struwe, D.; Pfrang, W.; Ponomarev, A.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of a substantial improvement on FBR core safety connected to the development of a new Gen IV reactor type, heterogeneous core with innovative features are being carefully analyzed in France since 2009. At EDF R and D, the main goal is to understand whether a strong reduction of the Na-void worth - possibly attempting a negative value - allows a significant improvement of the core behavior during an unprotected loss of flow accident. Also, the physical behavior of such a core is of interest, before and beyond the (possible) onset of Na boiling. Hence, a cutting-edge heterogeneous design, featuring an annular shape, a Na-plena with a B{sub 4}C plate and a stepwise modulation of fissile core heights, was developed at EDF by means of the SDDS methodology, with a total Na-void worth of -1 $. The behavior of such a core during the primary phase of a severe accident, initiated by an unprotected loss of flow, is analyzed by means of the SAS-SFR code. This study is carried-out at KIT and EDF, in the framework of a scientific collaboration on innovative FBR severe accident analyses. The results show that the reduction of the Na-void worth is very effective, but is not sufficient alone to avoid Na-boiling and, hence, to prevent the core from entering into the primary phase of a severe accident. Nevertheless, the grace time up to boiling onset is greatly enhanced in comparison to a more traditional homogeneous core design, and only an extremely low fraction of the fuel (<0.1%) enters into melting at the end of this phase. A sensitivity analysis shows that, due to the inherent neutronic characteristics of such a core, the gagging scheme plays a major role on the core behavior: indeed, an improved 4-zones gagging scheme, associated with an enhanced control rod drive line expansion feed-back effect, finally prevents the core from entering into sodium boiling. This major conclusion highlights both the progress already accomplished and the need for more detailed

  20. The far-infrared/radio correlation and radio spectral index of galaxies in the SFR-M∗ plane up to z~2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnelli, B.; Ivison, R. J.; Lutz, D.; Valtchanov, I.; Farrah, D.; Berta, S.; Bertoldi, F.; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Ibar, E.; Karim, A.; Le Floc'h, E.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S. J.; Page, M.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.; Rigopoulou, D.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Rosario, D.; Roseboom, I.; Wang, L.; Wuyts, S.

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of the radio spectral index and far-infrared/radio correlation (FRC) across the star-formation rate - stellar masse (i.e. SFR-M∗) plane up to z ~ 2. We start from a stellar-mass-selected sample of galaxies with reliable SFR and redshift estimates. We then grid the SFR-M∗ plane in several redshift ranges and measure the infrared luminosity, radio luminosity, radio spectral index, and ultimately the FRC index (i.e. qFIR) of each SFR-M∗-z bin. The infrared luminosities of our SFR-M∗-z bins are estimated using their stacked far-infrared flux densities inferred from observations obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory. Their radio luminosities and radio spectral indices (i.e. α, where Sν ∝ ν-α) are estimated using their stacked 1.4 GHz and 610 MHz flux densities from the Very Large Array and Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope, respectively. Our far-infrared and radio observations include the most widely studied blank extragalactic fields - GOODS-N, GOODS-S, ECDFS, and COSMOS - covering a total sky area of ~2.0 deg2. Using this methodology, we constrain the radio spectral index and FRC index of star-forming galaxies with M∗ > 1010 M⊙ and 0 SFR-M∗ plane (i.e. Δlog (SSFR)MS = log [ SSFR(galaxy) /SSFRMS(M∗,z) ]). Instead, star-forming galaxies have a radio spectral index consistent with a canonical value of 0.8, which suggests that their radio spectra are dominated by non-thermal optically thin synchrotron emission. We find that the FRC index, qFIR,displays a moderate but statistically significant redshift evolution as qFIR(z) = (2.35 ± 0.08) × (1 + z)-0.12 ± 0.04, consistent with some previous literature. Finally, we find no significant correlation between qFIR and Δlog (SSFR)MS, though a weak positive trend, as observed in one of our redshift bins (i.e. Δ [ q

  1. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    T. Scott Hickman

    2003-01-17

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  2. Height of Northern Jordanian middle-class adults, born 1960-1990 in the response to improving socio-economic conditions.

    PubMed

    Abu Dalou, Ahmad Yosuf

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to document and explain secular trends in stature among Northern Jordanian men and women between the years of birth 1960 and 1990, as they relate to overall per capita socio-economic improvement, the stature of 360 adults from two Northern governorates, those of Jerash and Irbid, was measured. General linear model (GLM) was used to examine the effect of birth-decade, education level of subject, and their interaction on mean stature of each sex separately. GLM results revealed that women who were born during the following three decades pooled together (1951-1980) did not differ significantly in mean stature from those born during (1981-1990). Among men, stature of those born in the two pooled birth-decades together (1951-1970) did not significantly differ of those were born in the two pooled birth-decades (1971-1990). PMID:27130990

  3. A cost of living longer: Projections of the effects of prospective mortality improvement on economic support ratios for 14 advanced economies.

    PubMed

    Parr, Nick; Li, Jackie; Tickle, Leonie

    2016-07-01

    The economic implications of increasing life expectancy are important concerns for governments in developed countries. The aims of this study were as follows: (i) to forecast mortality for 14 developed countries from 2010 to 2050, using the Poisson Common Factor Model; (ii) to project the effects of the forecast mortality patterns on support ratios; and (iii) to calculate labour force participation increases which could offset these effects. The forecast gains in life expectancy correlate negatively with current fertility. Pre-2050 support ratios are projected to fall most in Japan and east-central and southern Europe, and least in Sweden and Australia. A post-2050 recovery is projected for most east-central and southern European countries. The increases in labour force participation needed to counterbalance the effects of mortality improvement are greatest for Japan, Poland, and the Czech Republic, and least for the USA, Canada, Netherlands, and Sweden. The policy implications are discussed. PMID:27282412

  4. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  5. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Raj Kumar; Keith Brown; T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2000-04-27

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  6. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-12-11

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  7. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-08-10

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Strategies to Improve HIV Testing and Receipt of Results: Economic Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Anaya, Henry D.; Asch, Steven; Hoang, Tuyen; Golden, Joya F.; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Owens, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Background The CDC recommends routine voluntary HIV testing of all patients 13-64 years of age. Despite this recommendation, HIV testing rates are low even among those at identifiable risk, and many patients do not return to receive their results. Objective To examine the costs and benefits of strategies to improve HIV testing and receipt of results. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis based on a Markov model. Acceptance of testing, return rates, and related costs were derived from a randomized trial of 251 patients; long-term costs and health outcomes were derived from the literature. Setting/target population Primary-care patients with unknown HIV status. Interventions Comparison of three intervention models for HIV counseling and testing: Model A = traditional HIV counseling and testing; Model B = nurse-initiated routine screening with traditional HIV testing and counseling; Model C = nurse-initiated routine screening with rapid HIV testing and streamlined counseling. Main measures Life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs and incremental cost-effectiveness. Key results Without consideration of the benefit from reduced HIV transmission, Model A resulted in per-patient lifetime discounted costs of $48,650 and benefits of 16.271 QALYs. Model B increased lifetime costs by $53 and benefits by 0.0013 QALYs (corresponding to 0.48 quality-adjusted life days). Model C cost $66 more than Model A with an increase of 0.0018 QALYs (0.66 quality-adjusted life days) and an incremental cost-effectiveness of $36,390/QALY. When we included the benefit from reduced HIV transmission, Model C cost $10,660/QALY relative to Model A. The cost-effectiveness of Model C was robust in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions In a primary-care population, nurse-initiated routine screening with rapid HIV testing and streamlined counseling increased rates of testing and receipt of test results and was cost-effective compared with traditional HIV testing strategies. Electronic

  9. The role of galaxy interaction in the SFR-M {sub *} relation: characterizing morphological properties of Herschel-selected galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.5

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Sanders, D. B.; Casey, C. M.; Lee, N.; Barnes, J. E.; Koss, M.; Larson, K. L.; Lockhart, K.; Man, A. W. S.; Mann, A. W.; Capak, P.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Riguccini, L.; Scoville, N.; Symeonidis, M.

    2013-12-01

    Galaxy interactions/mergers have been shown to dominate the population of IR-luminous galaxies (L {sub IR} ≳ 10{sup 11.6} L {sub ☉}) in the local universe (z ≲ 0.25). Recent studies based on the relation between galaxies' star formation rates and stellar mass (the SFR-M {sub *} relation or the {sup g}alaxy main sequence{sup )} have suggested that galaxy interaction/mergers may only become significant when galaxies fall well above the galaxy main sequence. Since the typical SFR at a given M {sub *} increases with redshift, the existence of the galaxy main sequence implies that massive, IR-luminous galaxies at high z may not necessarily be driven by galaxy interactions. We examine the role of galaxy interactions in the SFR-M {sub *} relation by carrying out a morphological analysis of 2084 Herschel-selected galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.5 in the COSMOS field. Using a detailed visual classification scheme, we show that the fraction of 'disk galaxies' decreases and the fraction of 'irregular' galaxies increases systematically with increasing L {sub IR} out to z ≲ 1.5 and z ≲ 1.0, respectively. At L {sub IR} >10{sup 11.5} L {sub ☉}, ≳ 50% of the objects show evident features of strongly interacting/merger systems, where this percentage is similar to the studies of local IR-luminous galaxies. The fraction of interacting/merger systems also systematically increases with the deviation from the SFR-M {sub *} relation, supporting the view that galaxies falling above the main sequence are more dominated by mergers than the main-sequence galaxies. Meanwhile, we find that ≳ 18% of massive IR-luminous 'main-sequence galaxies' are classified as interacting systems, where this population may not evolve through the evolutionary track predicted by a simple gas exhaustion model.

  10. Determinants of Persistent Underweight among Children, Aged 6–35 Months, after Huge Economic Development and Improvements in Health Services in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Alasfoor, Deena; Traissac, Pierre; Gartner, Agnès; Delpeuch, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades, health indicators have witnessed major improvements in the Sultanate of Oman. This study was aimed at factors associated with underweight among children in four regions of Oman, as, in 1998, underweight was prevalent among 17.9% of children aged less than five years. A case-control study was conducted in 2002: 190 cases were 6-35-month old children with weight-for-age <−2 z-scores. Controls were individually matched by village of residence, sex, and age. The questionnaire included anthropometry of children, child-feeding practices, morbidity, anthropometry of mothers, parity, birth-spacing, and socioeconomic characteristics. Conditional logistic regression was used for analyses. Birth-weight of <2,500 g was strongly associated with underweight and also were height of mother, low level of education of mother, bad quality of water in households, diarrhoea of children in the last two weeks, and regular use of infant formula. Factors, such as birth-weight, height of mother, supply of safe water in household, and care for mothers and children were the determinants of persistent underweight after huge economic development and improvements in health services. Further research is also needed to investigate further specific determinants of low birth-weight in the Omani context and try to disentangle emaciation and determinants of linear growth retardation. PMID:18330070

  11. Economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  12. The Economics of Publishing and the Publishing of Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Manna, Manfredi

    2003-01-01

    Explores the relationship between economics and scientific journal publishing. Topics include journal pricing in economics; market power exerted by the dominant commercial publisher in economics journal publishing; academic experiments to improve scholarly communication in economics; policies of the United Kingdom Competition Commission; and…

  13. Assessment of SFR fuel pin performance codes under advanced fuel for minor actinide transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Bouineau, V.; Lainet, M.; Chauvin, N.; Pelletier, M.

    2013-07-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is, therefore, an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and residual power packages as well as the repository area. In the SUPERFACT Experiment four different oxide fuels containing high and low concentrations of {sup 237}Np and {sup 241}Am, representing the homogeneous and heterogeneous in-pile recycling concepts, were irradiated in the PHENIX reactor. The behavior of advanced fuel materials with minor actinide needs to be fully characterized, understood and modeled in order to optimize the design of this kind of fuel elements and to evaluate its performances. This paper assesses the current predictability of fuel performance codes TRANSURANUS and GERMINAL V2 on the basis of post irradiation examinations of the SUPERFACT experiment for pins with low minor actinide content. Their predictions have been compared to measured data in terms of geometrical changes of fuel and cladding, fission gases behavior and actinide and fission product distributions. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results, although improvements are also pointed out for further studies, especially if larger content of minor actinide will be taken into account in the codes. (authors)

  14. Technical and economic assessment of different options for minor actinide transmutation: the French case

    SciTech Connect

    Chabert, C.; Coquelet-Pascal, C.; Saturnin, A.; Mathonniere, G.; Boullis, B.; Warin, D.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Caron-Charles, M.; Garzenne, C.

    2013-07-01

    Studies have been performed to assess the industrial perspectives of partitioning and transmutation of long-lived elements. These studies were carried out in tight connection with GEN-IV systems development. The results include the technical and economic evaluation of fuel cycle scenarios along with different options for optimizing the processes between the minor actinide transmutation in fast neutron reactors, their interim storage and geological disposal of ultimate waste. The results are analysed through several criteria (impacts on waste, on waste repository, on fuel cycle plants, on radiological exposure of workers, on costs and on industrial risks). These scenario evaluations take place in the French context which considers the deployment of the first Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) in 2040. 3 management options of minor actinides have been studied: no transmutation, transmutation in SFR and transmutation in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). Concerning economics the study shows that the cost overrun related to the transmutation process could vary between 5 to 9% in SFR and 26 % in the case of ADS.

  15. Using the economics of certification to improve the safety and quality of male circumcision in developing countries: three models of implementation.

    PubMed

    Richards, Michael R

    2012-03-01

    Although male circumcision (MC) has been a widespread practice in some regions, while relatively new in others, it has recently ascended in popularity as a HIV-reduction intervention, particularly in areas with high rates of HIV but low rates of MC. However, the uptake and potential effectiveness of MC may be hampered by uneven levels of provider training and procedure skill within developing country settings. Indeed, this procedure that is otherwise considered simple and safe has witnessed complication rates as high as 25-35% in some areas, leaving some men with irreversible injuries. To improve the transparency of procedure quality for prospective patients, I borrow from a classic economics approach and advocate a new application in the form of provider certification. Building on some experience in the healthcare systems and economic rationale of high-income counties, I explore the potential for certifying providers of MC in low-income countries and compare and contrast three models of implementation: government agency, private certifiers and private MC device manufacturers. The hope is that increased transparency of provider quality through any or all three types of certifying programmes can better assist local men as they navigate this otherwise complex and unclear medical care market. As more resources are being devoted to MC scale up, I argue that certification should be considered for incorporation as a means of complementing both current and future efforts in order to enhance the effectiveness of MC campaigns. The two models based on privatized certification, as opposed to having the local government underwrite the intervention, may prove most useful when public or philanthropic funding is volatile or incomplete for a given location. The timing for MC campaign adoption and desired speed of scale up may vary across countries in ways that international assistance efforts cannot always immediately and flexibly adapt to. As such, the role of the diverse MC

  16. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in a wastewater treatment plant by means of mechanical and thermal pre-treatments: Performance, energy and economical assessment.

    PubMed

    Ruffino, Barbara; Campo, Giuseppe; Genon, Giuseppe; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Novarino, Daniel; Scibilia, Gerardo; Zanetti, Mariachiara

    2015-01-01

    Performances of mechanical and low-temperature (<100°C) thermal pre-treatments were investigated to improve the present efficiency of anaerobic digestion (AD) carried out on waste activated sludge (WAS) in the largest Italian wastewater treatment plant (2,300,000p.e.). Thermal pre-treatments returned disintegration rates of one order of magnitude higher than mechanical ones (about 25% vs. 1.5%). The methane specific production increased by 21% and 31%, with respect to untreated samples, for treatment conditions of respectively 70 and 90°C, 3h. Thermal pre-treatments also decreased WAS viscosity. Preliminary energy and economic assessments demonstrated that a WAS final total solid content of 5% was enough to avoid the employment of auxiliary methane for the pre-treatment at 90°C and the subsequent AD process, provided that all the heat generated was transferred to WAS through heat exchangers. Moreover, the total revenues from sale of the electricity produced from biogas increased by 10% with respect to the present scenario. PMID:25459836

  17. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping Provides a Feasible Way to Improve Yield and Economic Incomes in Farming and Pastoral Areas of Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

  18. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

  19. Would You Like To Swing on a Star? Opportunities To Improve Education in Kentucky's Fifth Congressional District. A Report to the Shakertown Roundtable Conference on Economic Development and Education in Kentucky's Fifth Congressional District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Carol; And Others

    Interviews conducted in Kentucky's Fifth Congressional District sought answers for improving educational quality in the district, which has the highest dropout rate, the lowest holding power, and the lowest standardized test scores in Kentucky. Members of the Mountain Association for Community Economic Development interviewed 155 people from 15 of…

  20. Health economics and orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Maniadakis, N; Gray, A

    2000-01-01

    It is becoming widely accepted that research which considers only the outcome and not the costs associated with new technologies in health care, is of limited value in making decisions about the use of scarce resources. Economic evaluation is becoming a standard feature of clinical research but many published economic evaluations fall short of best practice in their methodology. We have described the essential features of economic evaluation, using published studies in orthopaedics, in order to try to improve the ability of orthopaedic surgeons to read, understand and appraise such studies critically, and to encourage them to consider including economic evaluation in future investigations. PMID:10697306

  1. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2002-01-09

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  2. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Beebe

    2003-05-05

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  3. The integration of single fiber reflectance (SFR) spectroscopy during endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirations (EUS-FNA) in pancreatic masses: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegehuis, Paulien L.; Boogerd, Leonora S. F.; Inderson, Akin; Veenendaal, Roeland A.; Bonsing, Bert A.; Amelink, Arjen; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Robinson, Dominic J.

    2016-03-01

    EUS-FNA can be used for pathological confirmation of a suspicious pancreatic mass. However, performance depends on an on-site cytologist and time between punction and final pathology results can be long. SFR spectroscopy is capable of extracting biologically relevant parameters (e.g. oxygenation and blood volume) in real-time from a very small tissue volume at difficult locations. In this study we determined feasibility of the integration of SFR spectroscopy during EUSFNA procedures in pancreatic masses. Patients with benign and malignant pancreatic masses who were scheduled for an EUS-FNA were included. The working guide wire inside the 19 gauge endoscopic biopsy needle was removed and the sterile single fiber (300 μm core and 700 μm outer diameter, wide-angle beam, NA 0.22) inserted through the needle. Spectroscopy measurements in the visiblenear infrared wavelength region (400-900 nm) and autofluorescence measurements (excitation at 405 nm) were taken three times, and subsequently cytology was obtained. Wavelength dependent optical properties were compared to cytology results. We took measurements in 13 patients with corresponding cytology results (including mucinous tumor, ductal adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumor, and pancreatitis). In this paper we show the first analyzed results comparing normal pancreatic tissue with cancerous tissue in the same patient. We found a large difference in blood volume fraction, and blood oxygenation was higher in normal tissue. Integration of SFR spectroscopy is feasible in EUS-FNA procedures, the workflow hardly requires changes and it takes little time. The first results differentiating normal from tumor tissue are promising.

  4. Characterisation of an intrinsically disordered protein complex of Swi5-Sfr1 by ion mobility mass spectrometry and small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Saikusa, Kazumi; Kuwabara, Naoyuki; Kokabu, Yuichi; Inoue, Yu; Sato, Mamoru; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Ikeguchi, Mitsunori; Akashi, Satoko

    2013-03-01

    It is now recognized that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) play important roles as hubs in intracellular networks, and their structural characterisation is of significance. However, due to their highly dynamic features, it is challenging to investigate the structures of IDPs solely by conventional methods. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel method to characterise protein complexes using electrospray ionization ion mobility mass spectrometry (ESI-IM-MS) in combination with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). This method enables structural characterisation even of proteins that have difficulties in crystallisation. With this method, we have characterised the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Swi5-Sfr1 complex, which is expected to have a long disordered region at the N-terminal portion of Sfr1. ESI-IM-MS analysis of the Swi5-Sfr1 complex revealed that its experimental collision cross-section (CCS) had a wide distribution, and the CCS values of the most dominant ions were ∼56% of the theoretically calculated value based on the SAXS low-resolution model, suggesting a significant size reduction in the gas phase. The present study demonstrates that the newly developed method for calculation of the theoretical CCSs of the SAXS low-resolution models of proteins allows accurate evaluation of the experimental CCS values of IDPs provided by ESI-IM-MS by comparing with the low-resolution solution structures. Furthermore, it was revealed that the combination of ESI-IM-MS and SAXS is a promising method for structural characterisation of protein complexes that are unable to crystallise. PMID:23324799

  5. Massage therapy improves the development of HIV-exposed infants living in a low socio-economic, peri-urban community of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Perez, E M; Carrara, H; Bourne, L; Berg, A; Swanevelder, S; Hendricks, M K

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of massage therapy on the growth and development of infants of HIV-infected mothers in a low socio-economic community in Cape Town. It was a prospective, randomised, controlled intervention trial that included massage therapy and control groups of HIV-infected mothers and their normal birth weight infants who were enrolled in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme. Participants were recruited at the 6-week clinic visit and followed up every 2 weeks until their infants were 9 months of age. Mother-infant pairs in the massage therapy and control groups included 73 and 88 at 6 weeks and 55 and 58 at 9 months, respectively. Mothers in the intervention group were trained to massage their infants for 15 min daily. The socioeconomic status, immunity, relationship with the partner and mental pain of mothers; the infants' dietary intake, anthropometry and development (Griffiths Mental Development Scales); and haematological and iron status of mothers and infants were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Nine infants (5.3%) were HIV-infected on the HIV DNA PCR test at 6 weeks. Despite significantly higher levels of maternal mental pain, infants in the massage therapy compared to control group scored higher in all five of the Griffiths Scales of Mental Development and significantly higher in the mean quotient (p=0.002) and mean percentile (p=0.004) for the hearing and speech scale at 9 months. Based on the mean difference in scores, the massage therapy group showed greater improvement for all five scales compared to the control group. The mean difference in scores was significantly greater for the hearing and speech quotient (21.9 vs. 11.2) (p<0.03) and the general quotient percentile (19.3 vs. 7.7) (p=0.03) in the massage therapy compared to the control group. These scales remained significant when adjusting for the relationship with the partner and maternal mental pain. Both groups had lower scores in

  6. Evaluation of the effect of B and N on the microstructure of 9Cr-2W steel during an aging treatment for SFR fuel cladding tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Eun Hee; Park, Sang-Gyu; Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Young Do

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the microstructure of sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) fuel cladding steel with different B and N contents after aging is compared. The addition of nitrogen produces a large quantity of MX precipitates with sizes of 0.1 μm or smaller during the initial thermal treatment process and this contributes to help such precipitates maintain stability without being excessively affected by aging. B is primarily distributed in the grain boundary precipitates and grain interior precipitates in the initial stage. The B distribution is believed to move to the Cr precipitates after 7000 h and to contribute to suppressing the growth of M23C6.

  7. Economic uncertainty and econophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinckus, Christophe

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a methodological link between econophysics and economics. I will study a key notion of both fields: uncertainty and the ways of thinking about it developed by the two disciplines. After having presented the main economic theories of uncertainty (provided by Knight, Keynes and Hayek), I show how this notion is paradoxically excluded from the economic field. In economics, uncertainty is totally reduced by an a priori Gaussian framework-in contrast to econophysics, which does not use a priori models because it works directly on data. Uncertainty is then not shaped by a specific model, and is partially and temporally reduced as models improve. This way of thinking about uncertainty has echoes in the economic literature. By presenting econophysics as a Knightian method, and a complementary approach to a Hayekian framework, this paper shows that econophysics can be methodologically justified from an economic point of view.

  8. Institutional Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Warren J.

    1984-01-01

    Institutional economics remains a viable alternative approach to economics. It stresses power, technology, and a holistic and evolutionary approach while critiquing the neoclassical approach. General features of institutional economics are examined, and the work of institutionalists in specific areas is discussed. (RM)

  9. Stimulating Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaian, King

    2009-01-01

    With the current economic slump possibly the deepest since the Great Depression, interest in the subject of macroeconomics has reignited, and the number of students majoring in economics has increased during the last two years. While this would appear to be good news for educators in the economics field, the profession is nervous about more than…

  10. Energy and Economics. [Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walstad, William; Gleason, Joyce

    This unit is designed to provide high school students with an introduction to topics of energy and economics. A basic premise of the unit is that energy issues and economics are interrelated. It is believed that the application of basic economic concepts to energy issues can provide students with the tools to improve their analysis of problems and…

  11. Improved Socio-Economic Status of a Community Population Following Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Control Interventions on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwanga, Joseph R; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Siza, Julius E; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M

    2015-10-01

    Research on micro-level assessment of the changes of socio-economic status following health interventions is very scarce. The use of household asset data to determine wealth indices is a common procedure for estimating socio-economic position in resource poor settings. In such settings information about income is usually lacking, and the collection of individual consumption or expenditure data would require in-depth interviews, posing a considerable risk of bias. In this study, we determined the socio-economic status of 213 households in a community population in an island in the north-western Tanzania before and 3 year after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. We constructed a household 'wealth index' based housing construction features (e.g., type of roof, walls, and floor) and durable assets ownership (e.g., bicycle, radio, etc.). We employed principal components analysis and classified households into wealth quintiles. The study revealed that asset variables with positive factor scores were associated with higher socio-economic status, whereas asset variables with negative factor scores were associated with lower socio-economic status. Overall, households which were rated as the poorest and very poor were on the decrease, whereas those rated as poor, less poor, and the least poor were on the increase after PHAST intervention. This decrease/increase was significant. The median shifted from -0.4376677 to 0.5001073, and the mean from -0.2605787 (SD; 2.005688) to 0.2605787 (SD; 1.831199). The difference in socio-economic status of the people between the 2 phases was highly statistically significant (P<0.001). We argue that finding of this study should be treated with caution as there were other interventions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections which were running concurrently on Kome Island apart from PHAST intervention. PMID

  12. Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Derek D.; Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research is provided. PMID:25729506

  13. The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps: Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Robert G.; Oakford, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black…

  14. Moving toward a Higher Value-Added Economy: What Is the National Need for Economic Growth and Work Improvements? Monograph Series Vol. 1, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Stephen E.

    Elements of the "American dream" are adequate housing, education for one's children, and a secure retirement. Economic growth has long been seen as a way to realize the dream. Recent data indicate that achieving the dream and succeeding in the labor market have become more difficult due to sluggish productivity growth, increased competition from…

  15. SEASAT economic assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, K.; Steele, W.

    1974-01-01

    The SEASAT program will provide scientific and economic benefits from global remote sensing of the ocean's dynamic and physical characteristics. The program as presently envisioned consists of: (1) SEASAT A; (2) SEASAT B; and (3) Operational SEASAT. This economic assessment was to identify, rationalize, quantify and validate the economic benefits evolving from SEASAT. These benefits will arise from improvements in the operating efficiency of systems that interface with the ocean. SEASAT data will be combined with data from other ocean and atmospheric sampling systems and then processed through analytical models of the interaction between oceans and atmosphere to yield accurate global measurements and global long range forecasts of ocean conditions and weather.

  16. Economic Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Alstyne, Carol

    Concerns relating to the economics of higher education, including inflation, are considered. It is suggested that future sources of rising costs are energy, equipment, books, and federal requirements, and that another major economic concern involves trends in enrollments and in tuition revenues. Projections of declining enrollments should be…

  17. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    1999-10-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of each chapter, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems.

  18. Swarm Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazadi, Sanza; Lee, John

    The Hamiltonian Method of Swarm Design is applied to the design of an agent based economic system. The method allows the design of a system from the global behaviors to the agent behaviors, with a guarantee that once certain derived agent-level conditions are satisfied, the system behavior becomes the desired behavior. Conditions which must be satisfied by consumer agents in order to bring forth the `invisible hand of the market' are derived and demonstrated in simulation. A discussion of how this method might be extended to other economic systems and non-economic systems is presented.

  19. Transonic transport study: Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.; Wilcox, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of advanced materials, increased aerodynamic and structural efficiencies, and cruise speed on advanced transport aircraft designed for cruise Mach numbers of .90, .98, and 1.15. A detailed weight statement was generated by an aircraft synthesis computer program called TRANSYN-TST; these weights were used to estimate the cost to develop and manufacture a fleet of aircraft of each configuration. The direct and indirect operating costs were estimated for each aircraft, and an average return on investment was calculated for various operating conditions. There was very little difference between the operating economics of the aircraft designed for Mach numbers .90 and .98. The Mach number 1.15 aircraft was economically marginal in comparison but showed significant improvements with the application of carbon/epoxy structural material. However, the Mach .90 and Mach .98 aircraft are the most economically attractive vehicles in the study.

  20. [On improvement of the mechanism for establishing and changing indicators of quality and food safety in the regulatory and legal acts of the Eurasian Economical Union].

    PubMed

    Arnautov, O V

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) to ensure the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population within the Union, a coordinated policy in agreed policy in the sphere of application of sanitary measures is carried out. Sanitary measures are the obligatory requirements and procedures, including requirements for the final product, processing methods, production, transportation, storage and disposal, sampling procedures, methods of research (tests), risk assessment, the state registration, requirements for packaging directly aimed at ensuring the safety of products (goods) in order to protect human welfare, and they should be applied on the basis having a scientific explanation, and only to the extent that is necessary to protect human welfare. Sanitary measures applied within the Union should be based on international and regional standards, guidelines and (or) the recommendations, except when they based on appropriate scientific studies and explanations. In this case sanitary measures which could provide a higher level of sanitary protection are introduced. At present, the mechanism of the development, justification and approval of common sanitary and epidemiological requirements (ESR) and procedures of the Eurasian Economic Commission (the Commission) is not installed. The absence of a clear mechanism for the development, approval and implementation of the ESR to the products (goods) on the basis having a scientific explanation on the one hand could lead to the creation of unjustified barriers to foreign and mutual trade, on the other--to weaken the level of safety for human life and health of products (goods) placed on markets of the Union. In order to bring the regulatory legal acts of the Customs Union in accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union the Commission in cooperation with the competent authorities of the Member States in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare developed the project of

  1. Behavioral economics

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, Steven R.

    1984-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitution versus complementarity. Changes in absolute response rate are analyzed in relation to elasticity and intensity of demand. The economic concepts of substitution and complementarity are related to traditional behavioral studies of choice and to the matching relation. The economic approach has many implications for the future of behavioral research and theory. In general, economic concepts are grounded on a dynamic view of reinforcement. The closed-economy methodology extends the generality of behavioral principles to situations in which response rate and obtained rate of reinforcement are interdependent. Analysis of results in terms of elasticity and intensity of demand promises to provide a more direct method for characterizing the effects of “motivational” variables. Future studies of choice should arrange heterogeneous reinforcers with varying elasticities, use closed economies, and modulate scarcity or income. The economic analysis can be extended to the study of performances that involve subtle discriminations or skilled movements that vary in accuracy or quality as opposed to rate or quantity, and thus permit examination of time/accuracy trade-offs. PMID:16812401

  2. Ecological Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Common, Michael; Stagl, Sigrid

    2005-10-01

    Taking as its starting point the interdependence of the economy and the natural environment, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of ecological economics. The authors, who have written extensively on the economics of sustainability, build on insights from both mainstream economics and ecological sciences. Part I explores the interdependence of the modern economy and its environment, while Part II focuses mainly on the economy and on economics. Part III looks at how national governments set policy targets and the instruments used to pursue those targets. Part IV examines international trade and institutions, and two major global threats to sustainability - climate change and biodiversity loss. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this textbook is well suited for use on interdisciplinary environmental science and management courses. It has extensive student-friendly features including discussion questions and exercises, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, further reading and website addresses. A comprehensive introduction to a developing field which will interest students from science, economics and management backgrounds A global approach to the problems of sustainability and sustainable development, issues which are increasingly prominent in political debate and policy making Filled with student-friendly features including focus areas for each chapter, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, discussion questions and exercises, further reading and website addresses

  3. The new economics.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Bill

    2006-11-16

    Current NHS finance mechanisms use activity-based models that do not measure individual services. Economic policies that measure profitability of different services can drive improvement and efficiency. Monitor is looking at the introduction of a requirement for foundation trusts to implement these policies, and will shortly be consulting on the processes involved. PMID:17152891

  4. [Economic Growth and Development].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Recent efforts of the World Bank to improve global economic problems are described, issues which will influence the role of the World Bank in the decade to come are discussed, and the Bank's future role is examined. Recent World Bank efforts to help developing nations include a lending program, project investments, analytical and advisory work,…

  5. Assessing the economic impact of indirect liquefaction process improvements: Volume 1, Development of the integrated indirect liquefaction model and baseline case

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.C. . Civil Systems Div.)

    1990-10-01

    This report documents the development of an integrated indirect liquefaction system model, which processes input coal to refined liquid products, and the model's application in the analysis of a baseline case. The baseline case uses Shell gasification of coal followed by gas cleaning to produce a clean synthesis gas for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The raw liquid products are refined to produce gasoline and diesel. Costs of liquid products have been estimated for the baseline plant. The model also alloys many sensitivity studies to be performed so that the economic impacts of research and development advances can be quantified. When used in this manner, the model can provide research guidance for future indirect liquefaction studies. 18 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Airship economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, R. D.; Hackney, L. R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Projected operating and manufacturing costs of a large airship design which are considered practical with today's technology and environment are discussed. Data and information developed during an 18-month study on the question of feasibility, engineering, economics and production problems related to a large metalclad type airship are considered. An overview of other classic airship designs are provided, and why metalclad was selected as the most prudent and most economic design to be considered in the 1970-80 era is explained. Crew operation, ATC and enroute requirements are covered along with the question of handling, maintenance and application of systems to the large airship.

  7. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf San Andres Reservoir. Annual report, August 4, 1996--August 3, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.R.; Hickman, T.S.; Justice, J.J.

    1997-07-30

    The Oxy West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The research and development phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) will implement the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and optimum flood design has continued into the first part of Budget Period 2. Specifically, the geologic model was enhanced by integration of the 3-D seismic interpretations. This resulted in improved history match by the simulator and more accurate predictions of flood performance on which to base the project design. The majority of the project design work has been completed, material specifications provided and bids solicited. Preparation of the demonstration area is well underway.

  8. Recreational music-making: an integrative group intervention for reducing burnout and improving mood states in first year associate degree nursing students: insights and economic impact.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Barry B; Snyder, Cherie; Bruhn, Karl T; Liebfreid, Fran; Stevens, Christine K; Westengard, James; Umbach, Paul O

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of providing exemplary undergraduate nursing education cannot be underestimated in an era when burnout and negative mood states predictably lead to alarming rates of academic as well as career attrition. While the multi-dimensional nature of this complex issue has been extensively elucidated, few rational strategies exist to reverse a disheartening trend recognizable early in the educational process that subsequently threatens to undermine the future viability of quality healthcare. This controlled prospective crossover study examined the impact of a 6-session Recreational Music-making (RMM) protocol on burnout and mood dimensions as well as Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in first year associate level nursing students. A total of 75 first year associate degree nursing students from Allegany College of Maryland (ACM) participated in a 6-session RMM protocol focusing on group support and stress reduction utilizing a specific group drumming protocol. Burnout and mood dimensions were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Profile of Mood States respectively. Statistically significant reductions of multiple burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD scores were noted. Potential annual cost savings for the typical associate degree nursing program (16,800 dollars) and acute care hospital (322,000 dollars) were projected by an independent economic analysis firm. A cost-effective 6-session RMM protocol reduces burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD in associate degree nursing students. PMID:16646877

  9. Hybrid Support Vector Regression and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Models Improved by Particle Swarm Optimization for Property Crime Rates Forecasting with Economic Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Alwee, Razana; Hj Shamsuddin, Siti Mariyam; Sallehuddin, Roselina

    2013-01-01

    Crimes forecasting is an important area in the field of criminology. Linear models, such as regression and econometric models, are commonly applied in crime forecasting. However, in real crimes data, it is common that the data consists of both linear and nonlinear components. A single model may not be sufficient to identify all the characteristics of the data. The purpose of this study is to introduce a hybrid model that combines support vector regression (SVR) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) to be applied in crime rates forecasting. SVR is very robust with small training data and high-dimensional problem. Meanwhile, ARIMA has the ability to model several types of time series. However, the accuracy of the SVR model depends on values of its parameters, while ARIMA is not robust to be applied to small data sets. Therefore, to overcome this problem, particle swarm optimization is used to estimate the parameters of the SVR and ARIMA models. The proposed hybrid model is used to forecast the property crime rates of the United State based on economic indicators. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid model is able to produce more accurate forecasting results as compared to the individual models. PMID:23766729

  10. Cable Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    A guide to the economic factors that influence cable television systems is presented. Designed for local officials who must have some familiarity with cable operations in order to make optimum decisions, the guide analyzes the financial framework of a cable system, not only from the operators viewpoint, but also from the perspective of the…

  11. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    2000-01-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

  12. Economic impact

    SciTech Connect

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  13. Economic Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2005-01-01

    The signals had been there for years. Task force reports and researchers all predicted it. Then, in the late 1990s, the economic collapse in this blue-collar region of central Maine began. First, the Cascade Co. closed its textile mill. Then the C.F. Hathaway Co. shut down, and Dumont Industries followed suit soon after. Several stores and other…

  14. Economic Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Today, a national economy gone bust has derailed Black Americans' plans across the country. Gone are many of the economic gains, small as they were, achieved in the post-segregation era by millions of 1960s generation children and their children. Black America today is beset by job losses, business closures, pay cuts, furloughs, investment and…

  15. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

    This presentation of suggested layouts and specifications for home economics facilities has been prepared to be of service to school boards, architects, teachers, and administrators who are planning new schools or making renovations to existing structures. Room layouts are shown for a foods and nutrition room, or the foods and nutrition area of a…

  16. [Economic crime].

    PubMed

    Dinitz, S

    1976-01-01

    Economic crime, often also referred to as white collar crime, is one of the most incidious and predatory of offenses. Unlike street crime, for which there may well be some protection, the average citizen is completely at the mercy of the perpetrators of economic crimes. The concept of white collar crime was first identified by Edwin H. Sutherland. He dealt with the problem as a violation of trust involving either or both misrepresentation and duplicity. He argued for the use of criminal sanctions rather than civil remedies as a means of dealing with white collar offenses. Sutherland's views were attacked by the legal profession, by sociologists and criminologists and by public opinion specialists. They contended that an act treated in civil court is not a crime; that criminals are those persons who are defined as such and white collar criminals are neither so defined nor do they define themselves as criminals and, finally, that economic crime is universal. Can anyone be criminal, then, ask the critics? A number of studies by Clinard, Quinney, Black, Ball, Cressey, Newman and others have translated the interest in white collar crime into empirical terms. The last thirty-five years have also witnessed the elaboration and alteration of the theory itself. Geis' work has been particularly important in this respect. His "street" versus "suite" crime is a useful dichotomy. Most important, however, have been the monograph and papers by Herbert Edelhertz who has conceptualized the issues on various levels - from consumer fraud to the illegal activities of the multinational corporation. This article is concerned with the exposition of the theory and research in the field. Most significant, the paper raises serious doubts whether the problem of economic crime can be researched and studied; it raises even more difficult issues concerning the legal and sociological implications of economic crime and of its prevention, management and control. PMID:1030807

  17. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Quarterly report, April 1 - June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.R.

    1996-07-01

    West Welch Unit is one of four large waterflood units in the Welch Field located in the Northwestern portion of Dawson County, Texas. The Welch Field was discovered in the early 1940`s and produces oil under a solution gas drive mechanism from the San Andres formation at approximately 4800 ft. The field has been under waterflood for 30 years and a significant portion has been infill drilled on 20-ac density. A 1982-86 Pilot CO{sub 2} injection project in the offsetting South Welch Unit yielded positive results. The recent installation of a CO{sub 2} pipeline near the field allowed the phased development of a miscible CO{sub 2} injection project at the South Welch Unit. The reservoir quality is poorer at the West Welch Unit due to its relative position to sea level during deposition. Because of the proximity of a CO{sub 2} source and the CO{sub 2} operating experience that would be available from the South Welch Unit, West Welch Unit is an ideal location for demonstrating methods for enhancing economics of IOR projects in lower quality SSC reservoirs. This Class 2 project concentrates on the efficient design of a miscible CO{sub 2} project based on detailed reservoir characterization from advanced petrophysics, 3-D seismic interpretations and cross wellbore tomography interpretations. During the quarter, work continued on the simulation history match using only the base geologic model generated from available wellbore data. Tomography processing methods were further refined and 3-D surface seismic data was 1115 reprocessed to increase the frequency and decrease the bin size.

  18. The influence and use of the SFR or LQS Nd:YAG laser beam on the cleaning and restoration of two diverse church facades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, Ida M.; Andriani, S. E.; Laviano, R.; Vona, F.; Daurelio, Giuseppe; Stea, G.

    2005-03-01

    The present experimental study and job, still in progress, were conceived not only for an evaluation of the effectiveness of laser cleaning technique but also for comparing two different laser pulse duration of a Nd:YAG laser: Short Free Running (SFR) with a pulse duration of td=20μs and Long Q-Switched (LQS) with a pulse duration of td=70ns. The samples were carried out by the facades of teh Cathedral of Troia and of the Church of Molfetta, both in the South of Italy. All laser cleaning experiments were carried out in "wet condition" by using some distilled water on the encrustation before the irradiation. Surface analytical techniques, such as Optical Microscopy (OM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier-Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Xpray Dispersive analysis (EDX)were used to detect crust chemical composition and morphology, as well as, to monitor the effects induced by the laser treatments. On the basis of these structural and analytical examinations, both the lasers have shown to be appropriate for achieving a sufficient removal of the selected layers without modifying the surface morphology and keeping the preservation of the "patina/treatment" layer.

  19. Orbital-optimized opposite-spin scaled second order correlation: An economical method to improve the description of open-shell molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Lochan, Rohini C.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Coupled cluster methods based on Brueckner orbitals are well-known to resolve the problems of symmetry-breaking and spin-contamination that are often associated with Hartree-Fock orbitals. However their computational cost is large enough to prevent application to large molecules. Here they present a simple approximation where the orbitals are optimized with the mean-field energy plus a correlation energy taken as the opposite-spin component of the second order many-body correlation energy, scaled by an empirically chosen parameter (recommended as 1.2 for general applications). This optimized 2nd order opposite spin (abbreviated as O2) method requires fourth order computation on each orbital iteration. O2 is shown to yield predictions of structure and frequencies for closed shell molecules that are very similar to scaled second order Moller-Plesset methods. However it yields substantial improvements for open shell molecules, where problems with spin-contamination and symmetry breaking are shown to be greatly reduced.

  20. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. End of budget period report, August 3, 1994--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.R.; Hinterlong, G.; Watts, G.; Justice, J.; Brown, K.; Hickman, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Oxy West Welch project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. The research and design phase primarily involves advanced reservoir characterization and accelerating the production response. The demonstration phase will implement the reservoir management plan based on an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood as designed in the initial phase. During Budget Period 1, work was completed on the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments and the hydraulic fracture design. Analysis of the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatment provided a methodology for predicting results. The hydraulic fracture treatment proved up both the fracture design approach a and the use of passive seismic for mapping the fracture wing orientation. Although the 3-D seismic interpretation is still being integrated into the geologic model and interpretation of borehole seismic is still underway, the simulator has been enhanced to the point of giving good waterflood history matches. The simulator-forecasted results for an optimal designed miscible CO{sub 2} flood in the demonstration area gave sufficient economics to justify continuation of the project into Budget Period 2.

  1. Use of behavioral economics and social psychology to improve treatment of acute respiratory infections (BEARI): rationale and design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [1RC4AG039115-01] - study protocol and baseline practice and provider characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for nonbacterial infections leads to increases in the costs of care, antibiotic resistance among bacteria, and adverse drug events. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the most common reason for inappropriate antibiotic use. Most prior efforts to decrease inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs (e.g., educational or informational interventions) have relied on the implicit assumption that clinicians inappropriately prescribe antibiotics because they are unaware of guideline recommendations for ARIs. If lack of guideline awareness is not the reason for inappropriate prescribing, educational interventions may have limited impact on prescribing rates. Instead, interventions that apply social psychological and behavioral economic principles may be more effective in deterring inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs by well-informed clinicians. Methods/design The Application of Behavioral Economics to Improve the Treatment of Acute Respiratory Infections (BEARI) Trial is a multisite, cluster-randomized controlled trial with practice as the unit of randomization. The primary aim is to test the ability of three interventions based on behavioral economic principles to reduce the rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs. We randomized practices in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design to receive up to three interventions for non-antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses: 1) Accountable Justifications: When prescribing an antibiotic for an ARI, clinicians are prompted to record an explicit justification that appears in the patient electronic health record; 2) Suggested Alternatives: Through computerized clinical decision support, clinicians prescribing an antibiotic for an ARI receive a list of non-antibiotic treatment choices (including prescription options) prior to completing the antibiotic prescription; and 3) Peer Comparison: Each provider’s rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing relative to top

  2. Michigan Economic Development Education Manual. Second Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conboy, Michael, Ed.; Guiles, Roger, Ed.

    This manual represents an educational program designed for public officials, interested citizens, and professionals interested in improving the economic climate of the municipality or region. Its purpose is to teach economic development skills, thus enabling participants to develop community economic growth plans. Focus is on four essential…

  3. The Economics of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Catherine M.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines from an economic perspective the ways in which Open Educational Resources (OER) can be linked to economic growth, equality of access to knowledge, and the improvement of teaching and learning. In leading economies, technology and knowledge are the critical factors of economic growth, which is a significant shift from the…

  4. Program Plan for Community College Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    This guide outlines the core curriculum and articulation plans that were developed by a home economics task force for the purpose of improving and standardizing home economics education programs at community colleges throughout California. The first five chapters deal with the following subject areas addressed in home economics education: child…

  5. OT2_cxu_2: Local Benchmarks for Cosmic Evolution of Major-Merger Pairs -- A Herschel Study of SFR, Dust and Gas Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. K.

    2011-09-01

    We propose to map a complete sample of 88 local star-forming major-merger pairs (median redshift 0.04), using PACS and SPIRE photometers in 6 bands at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 micron. The goal is to set the local benchmarks for the cosmic evolution of the SFR-to-gas relation (the Kennicutt-Schmidt law) for major-merger pairs, complementing a study on the K-S law for high-z mergers in the COSMOS field using the PEP and HerMES data. The K-S law for major mergers may be significantly different from that for normal galaxies. The SPIRE imaging at 250, 350, and 500 micron, together with PACS maps at shorter wavelengths, will probe the gas mass estimated from the dust mass. Dust is arguably the best proxy for total gas in galaxies spanning a wide redshift range, given the fact that it is still impossible to observe the HI gas in high redshift galaxies through the 21cm line emission. The PACS imaging at 70, 100, and 160 micron will map the star formation in these systems, with good angular resolutions (6 -- 12 arcsec) and at the wavelengths near the peak of the infrared dust emission. The local sample closely matches the high-z COSMOS pairs sample (278 pairs) in the pair selection criteria, both being stellar mass selected and including only spiral-spiral (S+S) and spiral-elliptical (S+E) major-merger pairs. This will facilitate studies on stellar mass dependence of the K-S law for major mergers with different redshifts. The large sample size enables good statistics even after separating the sample into subsamples of S+S pairs and of S+E pairs, and into several mass bins.

  6. Population, poverty and economic development.

    PubMed

    Sinding, Steven W

    2009-10-27

    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on this aspect of the debate, concludes that the burden of evidence now increasingly supports a positive conclusion, examines recent trends in demographic change and economic development and argues that the countries representing the last development frontier, those of Sub-Saharan Africa, would be well advised to incorporate policies and programmes to reduce high fertility in their economic development strategies. PMID:19770153

  7. Population, poverty and economic development

    PubMed Central

    Sinding, Steven W.

    2009-01-01

    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on this aspect of the debate, concludes that the burden of evidence now increasingly supports a positive conclusion, examines recent trends in demographic change and economic development and argues that the countries representing the last development frontier, those of Sub-Saharan Africa, would be well advised to incorporate policies and programmes to reduce high fertility in their economic development strategies. PMID:19770153

  8. Technical Note: Ethical Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, J.

    Ethical economics is inspirational, expanding our vision beyond the narrow self-interest of the theoretical economic man. Ethical economics sees more value in space settlement than conventional economic calculations that can inappropriately discount the value of the future.

  9. Economic development partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Nikkila, N.

    1994-12-31

    The economy and the environment are inextricably linked. Neither one can be concentrated on to the total exclusion of the other. When the economy declines, so does public and private support for aggressive clean air measures. So a healthy economy is a necessary partner for a healthful environment. California is going through tough economic times and, in the future, when things have improved, the South Coast Air Quality Management District wants to be able to look back and say it pitched in and did its share to help in the recovery. The author gives a few examples of what it has done and what it is doing.

  10. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf Sand Andreas Reservoir: Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1997--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.R., Hickman, T.S., Justice, J.J.

    1997-04-30

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: l.Advanced petrophysics 1547 2.Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic 3.Cross-well bore tomography 4.Advanced reservoir simulation 5.Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments 6.Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring 7. Mobility control agents SUMMARY OF TECHNICAL PROGRESS West Welch Unit is one of four large waterflood units in the Welch Field in the northwestern portion of Dawson County, Texas. The Welch Field was discovered in the early 1940`s and produces oil under a solution gas drive mechanism from the San Andres formation at approximately 4800 ft. The field has been under waterflood for 30 years and a significant portion has been infill-drilled on 20-ac density. A 1982- 86 Pilot C0{sub 2} injection project in the offsetting South Welch Unit yielded positive results. Recent installation of a C0{sub 2} pipeline near the field allowed the phased development of a miscible CO injection project at the South Welch Unit.

  11. Economics of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G

    2008-07-01

    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures. PMID:18650705

  12. Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction. Final Report. NCEE 2010-4022rev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas; Huang, Chun-Wei; Hirschman, Becca; Huang, Min

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether the Problem Based Economics curriculum developed by the Buck Institute for Education improves grade 12 students' content knowledge as measured by the Test of Economic Literacy, a test refined by the National Council on Economic Education (NCEE) over decades. Students' problem-solving skills in economics were also…

  13. Economic Conditions of Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, James; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors found that the economic circumstances of military families are good, certainly much improved compared with even a decade ago. The military context is nonetheless challenging, with long hours, dangerous work, frequent transfers, and stressful absences during deployment. Service members receive relatively high pay and…

  14. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf San Andres reservoir. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.R.; Hickman, T.S.; Justice, J.J.

    1998-01-31

    West Welch Unit is one of four large waterflood units in the Welch Field in the northwestern portion of Dawson County, Texas. The Welch Field produces oil under a solution gas drive mechanism from the San Andres formation at approximately 4,800 ft. The field has been under waterflood for 30 years and a significant portion has been infill-drilled on 20-ac density. A 1982--86 pilot CO{sub 2} injection project in the offsetting South Welch Unit yielded positive results. Recent installation of a CO{sub 2} pipeline near the field allowed the phased development of a miscible CO{sub 2} injection project at the South Welch Unit. The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: advanced petrophysics; three-dimensional seismic; cross-well bore tomography; advanced reservoir simulation; CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments; hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and mobility control agents. During the quarter, development of the project`s south expansion area was undertaken, work was continued on interpreting the crosswell seismic data and CO{sub 2} injection into 11 wells was initiated.

  15. The Mixed Economic Progress of Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeni, Robert F.; And Others

    This report examines whether the economic well-being of male immigrants to the United States improves substantially over time, details differences in economic progress of immigrants from different countries of origin, and assesses the impact of educational attainment on immigrants' earnings. Analyses are based on Public Use Micro Samples of the…

  16. Writing Better Software for Economics Principles Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walbert, Mark S.

    1989-01-01

    Examines computer software currently available with most introductory economics textbooks. Compares what is available with what should be available in order to meet the goal of effectively using the microcomputer to teach economic principles. Recommends 14 specific pedagogical changes that should be made in order to improve current designs. (LS)

  17. Primer on Social Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcy, Robert L.

    An elaboration of the author's booklet entitled "First Steps Toward Economic Understanding," this primer is designed to help the reader develop a functional understanding of the economic process so that he can make wiser decisions on issues of social policy and on matters affecting his economic well-being. The document is not "economics in one…

  18. Engaging Undergraduates in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajwani, Kiran; Miron, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Siegfried and Stock (2007) explore the undergraduate training of PhD economists. Their findings show that among U.S. undergraduate economics programs, the Harvard University Economics Department produces many eventual economics PhD recipients. In this article, the authors discuss Harvard's undergraduate economics program and highlight some key…

  19. Language Planning and Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grin, Francois

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive overview of the "economics of language". This field of research, which is grounded in the discipline of economics, displays a strong interdisciplinary orientation, which places it on the fringes of mainstream economics. It studies the ways in which linguistic and economic processes influence one another. It is…

  20. Focus: Economic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorkle, Sarapage; Meszaros, Bonnie T.; Odorzynski, Sandra J.; Schug, Mark C.; Watts, Michael

    The "Focus" series, part of the National Council on Economic Education's (NCEE) EconomicsAmerica program, uses economics to enhance learning in subjects such as history, geography, civics, and personal finance, as well as economics. Activities are interactive, reflecting the belief that students learn best through active, highly personalized…

  1. Focus: International Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Gerald J.; Watts, Michael W.; Wentworth, Donald R.

    The "Focus" series, part of the National Council on Economic Education's (NCEE) EconomicsAmerica program, uses economics to enhance learning in subjects such as history, geography, civics, and personal finance, as well as economics. Activities are interactive, reflecting the belief that students learn best through active, highly personalized…

  2. Economic Outlook, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report published by the TVA assesses the economic health o the Tennessee Valley region. The Valley is proportionately more affected than the US by the value of the dollar due to the region's many industries that are vulnerable to foreign competition. These industries include some that are exporters, such as machineries, and considerably more that are vulnerable to competition with imports for the domestic market such as textiles. While only 5.6 percent of the nation's total manufacturing employees worked in the fifty industries most vulnerable to foreign imports, almost two and one-half times that number (14.3 percent) were so employed in the Valley. The low value of the dollar improves the competitive position of these regional industries versus foreign production.

  3. Economic Outlook, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This report published by the TVA assesses the economic health o the Tennessee Valley region. The Valley is proportionately more affected than the US by the value of the dollar due to the region`s many industries that are vulnerable to foreign competition. These industries include some that are exporters, such as machineries, and considerably more that are vulnerable to competition with imports for the domestic market such as textiles. While only 5.6 percent of the nation`s total manufacturing employees worked in the fifty industries most vulnerable to foreign imports, almost two and one-half times that number (14.3 percent) were so employed in the Valley. The low value of the dollar improves the competitive position of these regional industries versus foreign production.

  4. Basic Business and Economics: Economics for Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frandino, Millie; Duffy, Eileen

    1978-01-01

    To give students the necessary basic economic concepts in the general business course, Monroe-Woodbury High School, Central Valley, New York, expanded the curriculum to offer seven quarter-courses in economics, the court system, principles of banking and insurance, consumer education, the working citizen, and business management. (MF)

  5. The Economics of Pollution. Economic Topic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolozin, Harold

    One of the major reasons for the present concern for the pollution of the environment lies in the doubts about whether economic growth is possible without proportionate increases in the pollution of our air, land, and water. In response, Professor Wolozin devotes Part One of this trilogy to examining the economic relationships that help to explain…

  6. Evidence synthesis, economics and public policy.

    PubMed

    Shemilt, Ian; Mugford, Miranda; Vale, Luke; Marsh, Kevin; Donaldson, Cam; Drummond, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Systematic reviews and syntheses of evidence are increasingly used to inform public policy decisions. Growing budgetary pressures mean that decision makers often need to consider evidence on the costs and efficiency of alternatives as well as their effects. There are a number of methodological challenges in the identification, appraisal, synthesis, interpretation and use of economic evidence. This article draws on a recently published edited volume to review the latest developments, proposals and controversies in these aspects of economic evidence synthesis methodology. It focuses on two broad classes of approach: systematic review to summarize and compare the findings of existing economic analyses and synthesis of new economic results using decision models. The availability and scope of economic evidence is currently limited in many fields, but improving. Increased engagement between economists, the wider evidence synthesis community, and decision makers is needed to improve both the production and use of economic evidence. Further research to improve the evidence base that underpins application of economic evidence synthesis methodology will need to embrace a broader range of methods than economic evaluation and systematic review alone. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26061378

  7. An economic and financial exploratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotti, S.; Sornette, D.; Treleaven, P.; Battiston, S.; Caldarelli, G.; Hommes, C.; Kirman, A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes the vision of a European Exploratory for economics and finance using an interdisciplinary consortium of economists, natural scientists, computer scientists and engineers, who will combine their expertise to address the enormous challenges of the 21st century. This Academic Public facility is intended for economic modelling, investigating all aspects of risk and stability, improving financial technology, and evaluating proposed regulatory and taxation changes. The European Exploratory for economics and finance will be constituted as a network of infrastructure, observatories, data repositories, services and facilities and will foster the creation of a new cross-disciplinary research community of social scientists, complexity scientists and computing (ICT) scientists to collaborate in investigating major issues in economics and finance. It is also considered a cradle for training and collaboration with the private sector to spur spin-offs and job creations in Europe in the finance and economic sectors. The Exploratory will allow Social Scientists and Regulators as well as Policy Makers and the private sector to conduct realistic investigations with real economic, financial and social data. The Exploratory will (i) continuously monitor and evaluate the status of the economies of countries in their various components, (ii) use, extend and develop a large variety of methods including data mining, process mining, computational and artificial intelligence and every other computer and complex science techniques coupled with economic theory and econometric, and (iii) provide the framework and infrastructure to perform what-if analysis, scenario evaluations and computational, laboratory, field and web experiments to inform decision makers and help develop innovative policy, market and regulation designs.

  8. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  9. Basic Transportation Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Transportation economics is an integral part of all transportation activities. Refined, detailed, and careful economic analyses consider conduct-performance methodology and the specifications of production, cost and demand functions.

  10. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  11. Curriculum Development in Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, David, Ed.

    This book reproduces sixteen papers on recent developments in economics curriculum in Britain. The papers, presented and examined at a two-day conference at the University of Manchester in January, 1973, offer a comprehensive look at the current state of economic education and research. Directed to economics teachers and curriculum specialists,…

  12. Economic Components of Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corden, Anne; Hirst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the nature, context, and impact of economic stressors associated with loss, drawing on a mixed-methods study of changes in financial circumstances and economic roles following death of a life partner. Findings show how economic changes, and the practicalities of dealing with such transitions, shaped individual responses…

  13. Attracting Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Ifeakandu

    2011-01-01

    A disturbing concern that has been expressed by academic economists is the low interest in economics as a major, as evidenced by the declining enrollment in most of the economics departments in American colleges and universities. Though some college and university economics departments are experiencing or had experienced a decline in their majors…

  14. The New European Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressand, Albert

    1979-01-01

    Discusses economic achievement, economic constraints, and economic policy issues relevant to Western Europe. Constraints include decreases in resources and energy, a slow-down in the baby boom, and public resistance to pollution-causing technology. Achievements include high standards of living, positive trade balances, and international…

  15. Energy and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaszak, Ronald A.

    1980-01-01

    Recounts how energy and economics mingle at many levels and offers social studies lessons which teach students about economic concepts through examination of the energy crisis. Concepts stressed are scarcity, economic growth, supply and demand, and opportunity cost. Lessons are intended for secondary school students. (DB)

  16. Economics: It's Your Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Henry

    This document is a text for teaching economics. The book is divided into seven units. Unit 1 is called "What is Economics?" Its seven chapters discuss economics and scarcity, money, the role of the consumer, the role of the producer, capitalism and the free enterprise system, and the circular flow of the economy. The second unit is "How the United…

  17. Transportation economics and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani Sobh, Ali

    The overall objective of this research is to study the impacts of technology improvement including fuel efficiency increment, extending the use of natural gas vehicle and electric vehicles on key parameters of transportation. In the first chapter, a simple economic analysis is used in order to demonstrate the adoption rate of natural gas vehicles as an alternative fuel vehicle. The effect of different factors on adoption rate of commuters is calculated in sensitivity analysis. In second chapter the VMT is modeled and forecasted under influence of CNG vehicles in different scenarios. The VMT modeling is based on the time series data for Washington State. In order to investigate the effect of population growth on VMT, the per capita model is also developed. In third chapter the effect of fuel efficiency improvement on fuel tax revenue and greenhouse emission is examined. The model is developed based on time series data of Washington State. The rebound effect resulted from fuel efficiency improvement is estimated and is considered in fuel consumption forecasting. The reduction in fuel tax revenue and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as two outcomes of lower fuel consumption are computed. In addition, the proper fuel tax rate to restitute the revenue is suggested. In the fourth chapter effective factors on electric vehicles (EV) adoption is discussed. The constructed model is aggregated binomial logit share model that estimates the modal split between EV and conventional vehicles for different states over time. Various factors are incorporated in the utility function as explanatory variables in order to quantify their effect on EV adoption choices. The explanatory variables include income, VMT, electricity price, gasoline price, urban area and number of EV stations.

  18. Economic Education Projects: Abstracts from the 1979-80 Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, George E., Ed.

    Over 175 economics education projects submitted to the 1979-1980 National Awards Program for Teaching Economics are abstracted. The aim of this annual competition is to discover outstanding classroom teaching practices while encouraging teachers to include and improve economics instruction in the classroom. Citations are contained in separate…

  19. Realities and Choices: Helping States Enhance Family Economic Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venner, Sandra

    This document, which is designed to help state administrators and legislators formulate policies enhancing family economic security, summarizes research findings regarding barriers to economic self-sufficiency and policies used by various states to improve poor family's available work opportunities and economic security. Discussed in the…

  20. Item Analysis in Introductory Economics Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinari, Frank D.

    1979-01-01

    Computerized analysis of multiple choice test items is explained. Examples of item analysis applications in the introductory economics course are discussed with respect to three objectives: to evaluate learning; to improve test items; and to help improve classroom instruction. Problems, costs and benefits of the procedures are identified. (JMD)

  1. The technical and economic impact of minor actinide transmutation in a sodium fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, G. M.; Morin, F.; Dechelette, F.; Sanseigne, E.; Chabert, C.

    2012-07-01

    Within the frame work of the French National Act of June 28, 2006 pertaining to the management of high activity, long-lived radioactive waste, one of the proposed processes consists in transmuting the Minor Actinides (MA) in the radial blankets of a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). With this option, we may assess the additional cost of the reactor by comparing two SFR designs, one with no Minor Actinides, and the other involving their transmutation. To perform this exercise, we define a reference design called SFRref, of 1500 MWe that is considered to be representative of the Reactor System. The SFRref mainly features a pool architecture with three pumps, six loops with one steam generator per loop. The reference core is the V2B core that was defined by the CEA a few years ago for the Reactor System. This architecture is designed to meet current safety requirements. In the case of transmutation, for this exercise we consider that the fertile blanket is replaced by two rows of assemblies having either 20% of Minor Actinides or 20% of Americium. The assessment work is performed in two phases. - The first consists in identifying and quantifying the technical differences between the two designs: the reference design without Minor Actinides and the design with Minor Actinides. The main differences are located in the reactor vessel, in the fuel handling system and in the intermediate storage area for spent fuel. An assessment of the availability is also performed so that the impact of the transmutation can be known. - The second consists in making an economic appraisal of the two designs. This work is performed using the CEA's SEMER code. The economic results are shown in relative values. For a transmutation of 20% of MA in the assemblies (S/As) and a hypothesis of 4 kW allowable for the washing device, there is a large external storage demanding a very long cooling time of the S/As. In this case, the economic impact may reach 5% on the capital part of the Levelized Unit

  2. VLT-SINFONI sub-kpc study of the star formation in local LIRGs and ULIRGs. Analysis of the global ΣSFR structure and characterisation of individual star-forming clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueras López, J.; Colina, L.; Arribas, S.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Alonso-Herrero, A.

    2016-05-01

    We present a two-dimensional study of star formation at kiloparsec and sub-kiloparsec scales of a sample of local (z < 0.1) luminous (10) and ultraluminous (7) infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs), based on near-infrared VLT-SINFONI integral field spectroscopy (IFS). We obtained integrated measurements of the star formation rate and star formation rate surface density, together with their 2D distributions, based on Brγ and Paα emission. In agreement with previous studies, we observe a tight linear correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) derived from our extinction-corrected Paα measurements and that derived from Spitzer 24 μm data, and a reasonable agreement with SFR derived from LIR. We also compared our SFRPaα values with optical measurements from Hα emission and find that the SFRPaα is on average a factor ~3 larger than the SFRHα, even when the extinction corrections are applied. Within the angular resolution and sizes sampled by the SINFONI observations, we found that LIRGs have a median-observed star formation rate surface density of ΣLIRGsobs=1.16 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, and ΣLIRGscorr=1.72 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 for the extinction-corrected distribution. The median-observed and the extinction-corrected ΣSFR values for ULIRGs are ΣULIRGsobs=0.16 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 and ΣULIRGscorr=0.23 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, respectively. These median values for ULIRGs increase up to 1.38 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 and 2.90 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, when only their inner regions, covering the same size as the average FoV of LIRGs, are considered. For a given fixed angular sampling, our simulations show that the predicted median of the ΣSFR distribution increases artificially with distance, a factor ~2-3 when the original measurements for LIRGs are simulated at the average distance of our ULIRGs. This could have consequences on any estimates of the star formation surface brightness in high-z galaxies, and consequently on the derivation of the universality of star formation laws at all redshifts. We

  3. Economic Evaluation of Health IT.

    PubMed

    Luzi, Daniela; Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Tamburis, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Economic evaluation in health care supports decision makers in prioritizing interventions and maximizing the available limited resources for social benefits. Health Information Technology (health IT) constitutes a promising strategy to improve the quality and delivery of health care. However, to determine whether the appropriate health IT solution has been selected in a specific health context, its impact on the clinical and organizational process, on costs, on user satisfaction as well as on patient outcomes, a rigorous and multidimensional evaluation analysis is necessary. Starting from the principles of evaluation introduced since the mid-1980s within the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) guidelines, this contribution provides an overview of the main challenging issues related to the complex task of performing an economic evaluation of health IT. A set of necessary key principles to deliver a proper design and implementation of a multidimensional economic evaluation study is described, focusing in particular on the classification of costs and outcomes as well as on the type of economic analysis to be performed. A case study is eventually described to show how the key principles introduced are applied. PMID:27198101

  4. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  5. Population growth and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    the exponential growth of population as the source of several complications for economic growth and human welfare. Stabilization of population by reducing fertility is conducive for improving the quality of population and also advances the longterm management of the population growth and work force utilization. The perspective of longterm economic management involves populatio n planning, control of environmental pollution, conservation of scarce resources, exploration of resources, realization of technological possibilities in agriculture and industry and in farm and factory, and achievement of economic growth and its equitable distribution. PMID:12314595

  6. Economic impact of climate

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, A.

    1980-05-01

    This volume summarizes the first two of a series of six workshops to investigate the economic impact of climate. These two workshops dealt mainly with input-output and econometric models. Potential for introducing weather and climate variables was discussed. A listing of topics and authors follows: Economic Models and the Identification of Climatic Effects on Economic Processes, Stan Johnson; Economic Modeling, Jim Morgan; Econometric Modeling: State of the Arts for the US Agricultural Industry, Abner Womack; Regional Input-Output Models: Understanding Their Application, Charles Lamphear; Measuring Regional Economic Impact Associated With Unfavorable Conditions During Crop Production Periods: A concept Paper, Charles Lamphear; Possible Applications of Input-Output Models in Climatic Impact Analysis, William Cooter; and Aspects of Input-Output Analysis Pertinent to Climate-Economic Modeling: Three Short Notes, William Cooter. (PSB)

  7. Applying a Family-Level Economic Strengthening Intervention to Improve Education and Health-Related Outcomes of School-Going AIDS-Orphaned Children: Lessons from a Randomized Experiment in Southern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ssewamala, Fred M; Karimli, Leyla; Torsten, Neilands; Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Han, Chang-Keun; Ilic, Vilma; Nabunya, Proscovia

    2016-01-01

    Children comprise the largest proportion of the population in sub-Saharan Africa. Of these, millions are orphaned. Orphanhood increases the likelihood of growing up in poverty, dropping out of school, and becoming infected with HIV. Therefore, programs aimed at securing a healthy developmental trajectory for these orphaned children are desperately needed. We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-level economic strengthening intervention with regard to school attendance, school grades, and self-esteem in AIDS-orphaned adolescents aged 12-16 years from 10 public rural primary schools in southern Uganda. Children were randomly assigned to receive usual care (counseling, school uniforms, school lunch, notebooks, and textbooks), "bolstered" with mentorship from a near-peer (control condition, n = 167), or to receive bolstered usual care plus a family-level economic strengthening intervention in the form of a matched Child Savings Account (Suubi-Maka treatment arm, n = 179). The two groups did not differ at baseline, but 24 months later, children in the Suubi-Maka treatment arm reported significantly better educational outcomes, lower levels of hopelessness, and higher levels of self-concept compared to participants in the control condition. Our study contributes to the ongoing debate on how to address the developmental impacts of the increasing numbers of orphaned and vulnerable children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, especially those affected by HIV/AIDS. Our findings indicate that innovative family-level economic strengthening programs, over and above bolstered usual care that includes psychosocial interventions for young people, may have positive developmental impacts related to education, health, and psychosocial functioning. PMID:26228480

  8. Healthcare information technology and economics

    PubMed Central

    Bates, David W; Berner, Eta S; Bernstam, Elmer V; Covvey, H Dominic; Frisse, Mark E; Graf, Thomas; Greenes, Robert A; Hoffer, Edward P; Kuperman, Gil; Lehmann, Harold P; Liang, Louise; Middleton, Blackford; Omenn, Gilbert S; Ozbolt, Judy

    2013-01-01

    At the 2011 American College of Medical Informatics (ACMI) Winter Symposium we studied the overlap between health IT and economics and what leading healthcare delivery organizations are achieving today using IT that might offer paths for the nation to follow for using health IT in healthcare reform. We recognized that health IT by itself can improve health value, but its main contribution to health value may be that it can make possible new care delivery models to achieve much larger value. Health IT is a critically important enabler to fundamental healthcare system changes that may be a way out of our current, severe problem of rising costs and national deficit. We review the current state of healthcare costs, federal health IT stimulus programs, and experiences of several leading organizations, and offer a model for how health IT fits into our health economic future. PMID:22781191

  9. Economic impact of urinary stones

    PubMed Central

    Hyams, Elias S.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney stones have been rising in prevalence in the United States and worldwide, and represent a significant cost burden. Cost effectiveness research in this area may enable improvements in treatment efficiency that can benefit patients, providers and the healthcare system. There has been limited research in the cost effectiveness of surgical interventions for stone disease, despite the diverse treatment approaches that are available. Medical expulsive therapy (MET) has been shown to improve rates of stone passage for ureteral stones, and there is evidence that this practice should be liberalized from the standpoint of both clinical and cost effectiveness. While conservative treatment following a primary stone event appears to be cost effective, the economic impact of medical therapy for recurrent stone formers requires clarification despite its clinical efficacy. Future study regarding the cost effectiveness of prevention and interventions for stone disease are likely to improve both the quality and efficiency of care. PMID:26816777

  10. The End of Economic History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Christina D.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the field of economic history is no longer a separate subfield of economics but an integral part of the entire discipline. Explains the concepts of monetary policy, labor force development, and economic growth in U.S. economic history. Concludes that the end of economic history is the beginning of better and richer economics. (CFR)

  11. Economic Engagement Framework: Economic Impact Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambargis, Zoë; Mead, Charles Ian; Rzeznik, Stanislaw J.; Swenson, David; Weisenberger, Janet

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Public and Land-grant Universities' (APLU's) Commission on Innovation, Competitiveness, and Economic Prosperity (CICEP) views university contributions to the economy across a spectrum of activity--from educating students and creating the talent necessary for the 21st century workforce to developing innovation ecosystems and…

  12. Comprehensive Home Economics. Vocational Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This curriculum guide is one of a number of curriculum guides developed for use in vocational home economics education in Texas. The guide is correlated closely with the essential elements prescribed by the State Board of Education. The competencies in the guide are the essential elements, and the subcompetencies are the subelements prescribed in…

  13. Economic Stabilization Policies. Economic Topic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Wilfred

    This pamphlet was derived from a discussion paper prepared for a Joint Council conference. It was specifically revised for this series to bring an important subject to the attention of students and concerned citizens. Part One defines the problem of economic stabilization and explains the fiscal and monetary measures used to help control the…

  14. The Economics of Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, William S., Ed.

    This collection of papers presents a picture of economic principles at work in the dynamic world of big-time sports. Papers were given at the 35th Annual Lecture-Seminar Series presented by the Department of Economics at Western Michigan University during the 1998-99 school year. After an "Introduction" (William S. Kern), the six papers are: (1)…

  15. Economics and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Curt L.

    This packet of lessons focuses on the complementary relationship between economic well-being and the natural resources of the environment. Students gain insight into a variety of environmental issues and learn to use economic analysis to understand these issues and seek solutions. The book contains 20 lessons divided into seven units. The units…

  16. Partnerships in Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Edward J.; Dary, Donald K.

    1988-01-01

    Many colleges in North America are taking a proactive role in community economic development to respond to changing economic conditions. This article explores the myriad of activities engaged in by Red Deer College, Alberta, Canada, by describing the partnerships themselves, their benefits, and the principles under which they operate. (Author)

  17. Power and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostow, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses whether the United States possesses sufficient international power to (1) shape its own destiny in the current world economic climate, and (2) influence significantly and constructively the destiny of the world economy as a whole. Argues that the key to America's future economic power lies in ideas and concepts. (Author/GC)

  18. Foster Children of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Ivan

    1976-01-01

    The two major branches of economics, micro and macro, are developing conflicting theories on pollution and environmental quality which rest upon very different assumptions concerning the use of natural resources in our economic system. Consequently, economists have focused upon the symptoms of the pollution problem rather than its causes. (BT)

  19. Elementary Economics: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, IL.

    Elementary educators have realized in recent years the life-long importance of developing students' economic decision-making skills. Many now include economic education in the curriculum. This annotated bibliography was developed to support and encourage these efforts and to bring to educators' attention some of the excellent materials available…

  20. Modular GCSE Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Paul; Jewell, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the London East Anglian Group's General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) Economics (Mature) syllabus. Prepared for students over 17 in sixth form schools and higher education, it was designed for centers that required a flexible economics course. Offers ideas on coursework assignments. (GG)

  1. MDE: Its Economic Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzer, John P.

    1984-01-01

    Provides marketing and distributive education (MDE) teachers with a framework for integrating specific economic concepts within seven common MDE units of instruction. Suggests appropriate teaching activities as well as some current and future economic issues that should be considered in MDE curriculum development activities. (JOW)

  2. The Economics of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Myron H., Ed.

    Papers included are as follows: "An Overview" (Ross); "The Outlook for Social Security in the Wake of the 1983 Amendments" (Munnell); "The Economics of Aging: Doomsday or Shangrila?" (Schulz); "Retirement Incentives--the Carrot and the Stick. (Why No One Works beyond 65 Anymore)" (Quinn); "Inflation and the Economic Well-Being of Older Americans"…

  3. Economics, Lies, and Videotapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strober, Myra H.; Cook, Allen

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a study examining how introductory economics students use graphic analysis. Concludes that the difficulties students have in analyzing an economic problem graphically result from problems with concept formation. Suggests that videotaping can assist instructors to understand and anticipate the learning processes that students…

  4. Women and Economics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Carole L.; Blankenship, Glen

    1983-01-01

    A content analysis of 22 secondary economics textbooks revealed the textbooks to be less sex-biased than the books examined in earlier studies. However, women are still underrepresented in most of the textbooks, and little attention is given to economic realities which women face. (Author/RM)

  5. CyberEconomics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Describes CyberEconomics, a complete, free, two-semester principles of economics textbook available on the World Wide Web. Contains chapters, sections, a table of contents, a set of learning objectives, and links to chapter introductions and sections. Offers a CD-ROM version available for a fee that contains interactive review questions. (JEH)

  6. Threshold Concepts in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine threshold concepts in the context of teaching and learning first-year university economics. It outlines some of the arguments for using threshold concepts and provides examples using opportunity cost as an exemplar in economics. Design/ Methodology/Approach: The paper provides an overview of the…

  7. Economics in Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elonge, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Economics in Detention is a University of Maryland Extension program that teaches inmates essential principles of economics as a foundation to a spectrum of decision making. Also, the program includes an emphasis on starting a small business after incarceration. The idea of this program emanates from an invitation by the Baltimore City Detention…

  8. Microcomputers in Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document is an information guide for teachers that introduces computers into vocational home economics education classes. The first part points out implications of microcomputers for home economics classes, while the second part provides information on selecting, using, and maintaining computer hardware. The final section describes procedures…

  9. Economics of Grassland Conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we provide an overview of economic factors that contribute to changes in grassland area including the relative profitability of crop and livestock production, effects of land productivity, and effects of conversion costs. We also identify other potential socio-economic influences on gr...

  10. Economics in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evensky, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    Academic departmentalization has limited the dimensionality and thus the richness of analysis in the social sciences. The author examines the case of a modern economics as an example. He reviews the ideas of Williamson (2000), who cites the limits of scope in the New Institutional Economics; Buchanan, who lays bare the ethical foundations of…

  11. Economics of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The author describes and elaborates on how to use his public-television reports on the costs of the war in Iraq to teach economics. He shows how the Iraq war can provide economics instructors with an example for discussing cost-benefit analysis and opportunity costs in class. (Contains 4 notes.)

  12. Your Economics Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Helen C.

    How economics can be taught through a student-developed textbook is described. Having secondary students construct their own economics textbook can be an exciting process. During the initial six- or nine-week segment of a course, materials can be collected and organized to make a book that the class can study for the rest of the semester or year.…

  13. Economics' Fall from Grace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Lloyd I.; Rudolph, Susanne Hoeber

    2010-01-01

    Not long ago, many political scientists suffered from economics envy. Some still do. They view economics as the queen of the social sciences, claiming that it is "scientific," like physics. Physicists and other natural scientists spend most of their time trying to explain phenomena, but non-behavioral micro-economists spend most of their time on…

  14. Wind Economic Development (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the economic development benefits of wind energy. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the economic development benefits section on the Wind Powering America website.

  15. Situating Economic Geographical Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Trevor J.

    2006-01-01

    This article makes an argument for an economic geographical pedagogy that is post-disciplinary, emphasizing non-hierarchical, student-based knowledge, disciplinary interconnectedness, epistemological plurality, and material embodiedness and embeddedness. Key to this conception of economic geographical pedagogy are recent writings of Timothy…

  16. Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.

    PubMed

    Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E

    2014-07-22

    The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design. PMID:25024182

  17. Maximization, learning, and economic behavior

    PubMed Central

    Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E.

    2014-01-01

    The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design. PMID:25024182

  18. Economic analysis handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This edition of the handbook provides revised guidance on the treatment of inflation in economic analysis, increased emphasis on the use of sensitivity analysis, additional guidance on the treatment of risk, and updates specific guidance for Navy programs. Especially those related to energy conservation. The purpose of this Economic Analysis Handbook is to provide offical NAVFAC guidance for the preparation of economic analyses for: (1) Proposed programs, projects and activities. (2) Program evaluation of ongoing activities. The methodologies demonstrated herein should be applied in comprehensive and continuous management reviews of the cost and effectiveness of both proposed and ongoing projects.

  19. Behavioral economics without anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Rachlin, H

    1995-01-01

    Behavioral economics is often conceived as the study of anomalies superimposed on a rational system. As research has progressed, anomalies have multiplied until little is left of rationality. Another conception of behavioral economics is based on the axiom that value is always maximized. It incorporates so-called anomalies either as conflicts between temporal patterns of behavior and the individual acts comprising those patterns or as outcomes of nonexponential time discounting. This second conception of behavioral economics is both empirically based and internally consistent. PMID:8551195

  20. [Cancer and health economics].

    PubMed

    Koinuma, N

    1996-01-01

    Health economics on cancer medicine is a supportive tool of cancer care and is becoming one of the essential weapons against cancer. Its principal roles are to enhance the quality and efficacy and to secure the finance necessary to the cancer care. The economic aspects of cancer medicine and the methods of economic evaluation are overviewed with emphasis on cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis. The operational and interpretational checkpoints are introduced, and the problems and prospects of the practical use of the methods on clinical settings such as cancer chemotherapy are discussed. PMID:8546457

  1. ASTRID sodium cooled fast reactor: Program for improving in service inspection and repair

    SciTech Connect

    Jadot, F.; De Dinechin, G.; Augem, J. M.; Sibilo, J.

    2011-07-01

    In the frame of the CEA, EDF, AREVA coordinated research program for the development of Generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), the ASTRID project was launched in 2010. For the future prototype, the improvement of in-service inspection and repair (ISI and R) capabilities was identified as a major issue. Following the pluri-annual SFR research program, the ISI and R main R and D axes remain: i) improvement of the primary system conceptual design, ii) development of measurement and inspection techniques (continuous monitoring instrumentation and periodic inspection tools), iii) accessibility and associated robotics, and iv) development and validation of repair processes. Associated ISI and R needs are being defined through an iterative method between designers and instrumentation specialists: adaptation of the Design to ISI and R requirements, fission chamber development, validation of the ultrasonic and chemical transducers, of ultrasonic non destructive simulation, of acoustic surveillance, of laser repair intervention processes, of connected robotic equipment. Moreover, CEA, as leader of the ASTRID Project, is willing to find new contributors, partners or suppliers, in order to get innovative, diversified, exhaustive and efficient solutions. (authors)

  2. Hotter and drier conditions in the near future (2010-2035) might paradoxically improve the general adaptive capacity of a viticultural social-ecological system in Roussillon, southern France, exposed to long-term climatic and economic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lereboullet, Anne-Laure; Beltrando, Gérard

    2014-05-01

    Background: Wine production in Roussillon, southern France, has been subjected to deep structural changes in cultural practices since the 1970's, due to changes in demand and market organization. In this Mediterranean region, temperature and rainfall parameters have long been adapted to fortified wine production, but might be less suited to dry wine production, which is nowadays prevailing. The wine industry in Roussillon can be studied as a social-ecological system where local economical and social characteristics are strongly linked to physical inputs. Thus changes in climate, especially warming and drying trends that have been detected and projected by the IPCC in the Mediterranean basin, may disrupt the local economy and social organization in the long term. The aim of our study is to assess the role played by recent (1956-2010) and near-future (2010-2035) changes in temperature and rainfall inputs in the evolution of the system's adaptive capacity to combined long term climatic and economic changes. Methods: Our study combined quantitative and qualitative data. We first assessed recent exposure to climate change by analysing change in daily data of temperature and rainfall observed in Perpignan weather station from 1956 to 2010. Thirty-nine in-depth interviews with local producers and key stakeholders of the local wine industry helped us understand the impacts of recent climatic conditions in the system's adaptive capacity. Then, we measured future changes in temperature and rainfall based on daily data simulated by ARPEGE-Climat (SCRATCH10 dataset) at an 8-km spatial scale, for emission scenarios A2, A1B and B1, up to 2060. Based on the impacts of recent changes in the system, we inferred the possible impacts of future climate change on the system's equilibrium. Results and discussion: Climate data analyses show that changes in temperatures and rainfall patterns have occurred in Perpignan since the mid-1980's, and that current (2001-2010) conditions are

  3. Economic Burden of Colorectal Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Ju-Young; Oh, In-Hwan; Kim, Young Ae; Seo, Hye-Young; Lee, Yo-Han

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The incidence and survival rate of colorectal cancer in Korea are increasing because of improved screening, treatment technologies, and lifestyle changes. In this aging population, increases in economic cost result. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden of colorectal cancer utilizing claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Methods Economic burdens of colorectal cancer were estimated using prevalence data and patients were defined as those who received ambulatory treatment from medical institutions or who had been hospitalized due to colorectal cancer under the International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes from C18-C21. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer were calculated as direct costs and indirect costs. Results The prevalence rate (per 100 000 people) of those who were treated for colorectal cancer during 2010 was 165.48. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer in 2010 were 3 trillion and 100 billion Korean won (KRW), respectively. Direct costs included 1 trillion and 960 billion KRW (62.85%), respectively and indirect costs were 1 trillion and 160 billion (37.15%), respectively. Conclusions Colorectal cancer has a large economic burden. Efforts should be made to reduce the economic burden of the disease through primary and secondary prevention. PMID:24744825

  4. Global health funding and economic development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

  5. Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

  6. Global health funding and economic development.

    PubMed

    Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

  7. Economic Value of Weather and Climate Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Richard W.; Murphy, Allan H.

    1997-06-01

    Weather and climate extremes can significantly impact the economics of a region. This book examines how weather and climate forecasts can be used to mitigate the impact of the weather on the economy. Interdisciplinary in scope, it explores the meteorological, economic, psychological, and statistical aspects of weather prediction. Chapters by area specialists provide a comprehensive view of this timely topic. They encompass forecasts over a wide range of temporal scales, from weather over the next few hours to the climate months or seasons ahead, and address the impact of these forecasts on human behavior. Economic Value of Weather and Climate Forecasts seeks to determine the economic benefits of existing weather forecasting systems and the incremental benefits of improving these systems, and will be an interesting and essential text for economists, statisticians, and meteorologists.

  8. The Economic Case for Combating Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, Mark; Robinson, Matthew; Wei, Kuangyi; Rublin, David

    2013-01-01

    To date, existing studies focus largely on the economic detriments of malaria. However, if we are to create suitable incentives for larger-scale, more sustained anti-malaria efforts from a wider group of stakeholders, we need a much better understanding of the economic benefits of malaria reduction and elimination. Our report seeks to rectify this disjuncture by showing how attaining the funding needed to meet internationally agreed targets for malaria elimination would, on conservative assumptions, generate enormous economic improvements. We use a cost-benefit analysis anchored in Global Malaria Action Plan projections of malaria eradication based on fully met funding goals. By calculating the value of economic output accrued caused by work years saved and subtracting the costs of intervention, we find that malaria reduction and elimination during 2013–2035 has a 2013 net present value of US $208.6 billion. PMID:24197172

  9. The economic case for combating malaria.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Mark; Robinson, Matthew; Wei, Kuangyi; Rublin, David

    2013-11-01

    To date, existing studies focus largely on the economic detriments of malaria. However, if we are to create suitable incentives for larger-scale, more sustained anti-malaria efforts from a wider group of stakeholders, we need a much better understanding of the economic benefits of malaria reduction and elimination. Our report seeks to rectify this disjuncture by showing how attaining the funding needed to meet internationally agreed targets for malaria elimination would, on conservative assumptions, generate enormous economic improvements. We use a cost-benefit analysis anchored in Global Malaria Action Plan projections of malaria eradication based on fully met funding goals. By calculating the value of economic output accrued caused by work years saved and subtracting the costs of intervention, we find that malaria reduction and elimination during 2013-2035 has a 2013 net present value of US $208.6 billion. PMID:24197172

  10. Economic components of grief.

    PubMed

    Corden, Anne; Hirst, Michael

    2013-09-01

    This article investigates the nature, context, and impact of economic stressors associated with loss, drawing on a mixed-methods study of changes in financial circumstances and economic roles following death of a life partner. Findings show how economic changes, and the practicalities of dealing with such transitions, shaped individual responses to the death. Perceived decline in financial wellbeing was associated with increased risk of poor psychological health following bereavement. The findings underline the theoretical importance of financial risk factors for anticipating the duration, pattern, and timing of bereavement outcomes. A challenge for service providers and professionals is how to bring understanding of economic components within emotional and practical support for people preparing for death and those who are bereaved. PMID:24521030

  11. The Economics of Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, John

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of economics to health, health services, and supply and demand of health care. Examines alternative mechanisms by which health resources can be allocated and considers who should make decisions about rationing medical care. (DB)

  12. Training in Managerial Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Hartley, Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Basic mathematical concepts of Managerial Economics, a way of quantitatively analyzing and structuring the making of a business decision, are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of its use in business are discussed and several recent applications are given. (DT)

  13. Economic Commission Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Summarizing presentations and discussions of the Economic Commission of the International Non-Governmental Organizations Conference on Discrimination Against Indigenous Populations (1977), this report addresses: multinational corporations; the land question; and the Commission's recommended "Plan of Action". (JC)

  14. Metaphor, Economics, and ESP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Willie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses whether the "Economist" magazine is a suitable source for the analysis of the language of economics, and argues that its discourse is essentially journalistic and very different from that of a textbook. (Author/VWL)

  15. Economics of electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, G.

    2015-08-01

    The following text is an introduction into the economic theory of electricity supply and demand. The basic approach of economics has to reflect the physical peculiarities of electric power that is based on the directed movement of electrons from the minus pole to the plus pole of a voltage source. The regular grid supply of electricity is characterized by a largely constant frequency and voltage. Thus, from a physical point of view electricity is a homogeneous product. But from an economic point of view, electricity is not homogeneous. Wholesale electricity prices show significant fluctuations over time and between regions, because this product is not storable (in relevant quantities) and there may be bottlenecks in the transmission and distribution grids. The associated non-homogeneity is the starting point of the economic analysis of electricity markets.

  16. Satellite servicing economic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that satellite servicing is cost effective; however, all of these studies were of different formats, dollar year, learning rates, availability, etc. Therefore, it was difficult to correlate any useful trends from these studies. The reviewed study was initiated to correlate the economic data into a common data base, using a common set of assumptions. A selected set of existed funded programs was then analyzed to provide an independent analysis of the servicing options and potential economic benefits.

  17. Satellite servicing economic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that satellite servicing is cost effective; however, all of these studies were of different formats, dollar year, learning rates, availability, etc. Threfore, it was difficult to correlate any useful trends from these studies. The reviewed study was initiated to correlate the economic data into a common data base, using a common set of assumptions. A selected set of existed funded programs was then analyzed to provide an independent analysis of the servicing options and potential economic benefits.

  18. Mini-Laparoscopy: Instruments and Economics.

    PubMed

    Shadduck, Phillip P; Paquentin, Eduardo Moreno; Carvalho, Gustavo L; Redan, Jay A

    2015-11-01

    Mini-laparoscopy (Mini) was pioneered more than 20 years ago, initially with instruments borrowed from other specialties and subsequently with tools designed specifically for Mini. Early adoption of Mini was inhibited though by the limitations of these first-generation instruments, especially functionality and durability. Newer generation Mini instruments have recently become available with improved effector tips, a choice of shaft diameters and lengths, better shaft insulation and electrosurgery capability, improved shaft strength and rotation, more ergonomic handles, low-friction trocar options, and improved instrument durability. Improvements are also occurring in imaging and advanced energy for Mini. The current status of mini-laparoscopy instruments and economics are presented. PMID:26680380

  19. Postmodern health economics.

    PubMed

    Mannion, R; Small, N

    1999-01-01

    Postmodernism and health economics are both concerned with questions about choices and values, risk and uncertainty. Postmodernists seek to respond to such questions in the context of a world of uncoordinated and often contradictory chances, a world devoid of clear-cut standards. Health economics seeks to respond using the constructs of modernity, including the application of reason to generate better order. In this article we present two sorts of voice. First we introduce postmodernism and those seeking to contribute to economics from a postmodern perspective. Second, we consider critics of a prevalent neo-classicism within health economics both from outside that paradigm and from those more closely associated with it. It is increasingly evident that (health) economics, as presently constituted, is failing both in its descriptive powers and its prescriptive possibilities. Postmodernism offers not just an alternative theoretical approach but the possibility of both expanding the scope of health economics and grounding it more appropriately in the everyday experience of those engaging with health systems. PMID:10724554

  20. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.R.

    1995-12-01

    West Welch Unit is one of four large waterflood units in the Welch Field located in the Northwestern portion of Dawson County, Texas. The Welch Field was discovered in the early 1940`s and produces oil under a solution gas drive mechanism from the San Andres formation at approximately 4,800 ft. The field has been under waterflood for 30 years and a significant portion has been infilled drilled on 20-ac density. A 1982--86 pilot CO{sub 2} injection project in the offsetting South Welch Unit yielded positive results. The reservoir quality is poorer at the West Welch Unit because of its relative location of sea level during deposition. Because of the proximity of a CO{sub 2} source and the CO{sub 2} operating experience that would be available from the South Welch Unit, West Welch Unit is an ideal location for demonstrating methods for enhancing economics of IOR projects in lower quality SSC reservoirs. This Class 2 project concentrates on the efficient design of a miscible CO{sub 2} project based on detailed reservoir characterization from advanced petrophysics, 3-D seismic interpretations and cross wellbore tomography interpretations. During the quarter, substantial progress was made in both the petrophysical analyses and the tomography processing. Both of these phases are running behind schedule. The geologic model is dependent upon the petrophysical analysis and the seismic and tomography interpretations. The actual reservoir simulation cannot start until the geologic model is complete, although all the preliminary simulation work is being done.

  1. Animal Genetic Resource Trade Flows: Economic Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout human history, livestock producers have relied on a vibrant international exchange of genetic resources to achieve improvements in the quality and productivity of their animals. In recent years, however, some observers have argued that changes in the legal, technological, and economic env...

  2. Zero-Till Crop Sequence Economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till production systems allow more intensified and diversified production in the northern Great Plains; however, this has increased the need for information on improving economic returns through crop sequence selection. Field research was conducted near Mandan ND to determine the influences of pr...

  3. Capitalism and Black Economic Development: A Reappraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Louis C.

    1978-01-01

    Explanations for the inferior socioeconomic status of Blacks are examined and strategies for improving the status of Blacks are discussed. It is concluded that changes in the distribution of wealth will require changes in the structure of the economic system itself. (Author/MC)

  4. Research on High School Economic Education: Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walstad, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Critiques William Becker, William Greene, and Sherwin Rosen's review of the research regarding the teaching and learning of high school economics. Calls for sharper definitions of research models to improve focus. Explains a distinction between stock and flow models, and asks for elaboration on topics covered. Suggests examining textbook…

  5. Economic impact of stimulated technological activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The findings are reported of research into the relationships between technological progress and economic development, with emphasis on several ways in which NASA research and development has aided in the accumulation and commercial application of new or improved scientific and technological knowledge.

  6. Economic Effects of Technological Advances in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Comparisons of average food prices and hourly wages based on 40-hours work week in various capital cities of the world are presented. Such factors as mechanization, chemicals, and improved genetics have resulted in greater productivity, fewer but larger farms, and hardier plants and animals. The economic effects are discussed as they are felt by…

  7. ZERO-TILL CROP SEQUENCE ECONOMICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till production systems allow more intensified and diversified production in the northern Great Plains; however, this has increased the need for information on improving economic returns through crop sequence selection. Field research was conducted near Mandan ND to determine the influences of pr...

  8. Crop Sequence Economics in Dynamic Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till production systems allow more intensified and diversified production in the northern Great Plains; however, this has increased the need for information on improving economic returns through crop sequence selection. Field research was conducted 6 km southwest of Mandan ND to determine the inf...

  9. Student Achievement and National Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Luo, Xiaowei; Schofer, Evan; Meyer, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Educational policy around the world has increasingly focused on improving aggregate student achievement as a means to increase economic growth. In the last two decades, attention has focused especially on the importance of achievement in science and mathematics. Yet, the policy commitments involved have not been based on research evidence. The…

  10. Metro Nature, Environmental Health, and Economic Value

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Alicia S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. Objectives We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. Methods We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Discussion Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements—collectively termed metro nature—generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Conclusions Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits. Citation Wolf KL, Robbins AS. 2015. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value. Environ Health Perspect 123:390–398; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408216 PMID:25626137

  11. Development and first application of a new tool for the simulation of the initiating phase of a severe accident on SFR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyot, M.; Gubernatis, P.; Suteau, C.

    2014-06-01

    In order to improve the safety level of Sodium Fast Reactors, low probability events such as Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident (HCDA) are analyzed for their potential consequences. The initiating phase of such accidents is of particular interest both for the prevention and the mitigation of routes leading to a large core disruption and recriticalities. Up to now, analysis of the initiating phase of HCDA has been performed with the SAS4A code. The SAS4A accident calculations are based on a multiple-channel approach, which requires that subassemblies or groups of similar subassemblies be represented together as independent channels. The SAS4A severe accident calculation scheme resorts to a simplified treatment in which an average pin is used to represent a channel. A point kinetics model coupled with a feedback reactivity model is also used to provide an estimate of the reactor power level. Both to increase the accuracy and decrease the uncertainties in the prediction of reactor safety margins, a new computational tool is currently under development at CEA Cadarache. The main features of this tool are the ability to provide a detailed sub-channel meshing of the sub-assembly as well as three-dimensional kinetics during severe accident conditions. To fulfill these goals, the fluid-dynamics SIMMER-III code has been coupled to the SNATCH solver using a MPI environment. This coupling allows both to compute the multi-phase and multi-component flows encountered in severe accident conditions and to model the power shape variation during voiding and melting of the different reactor materials. This new calculation scheme relies on a SAS-like multiple-channel treatment, where channel-to-channel heat and momentum exchanges are neglected. In this paper, an overview of the SIMMER-III/SNATCH coupled tool capabilities is provided. A first application of this new tool is also performed and compared with a SAS4A reference calculation. The new SIMMER-III/SNATCH tool proved to be

  12. Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok

    2007-03-06

    standards. However, concentration were still above the levels measured in data centers that do not use economizers (3) Current filtration in data centers is minimal (ASHRAE 40%) since most air is typically recycled. When using economizers, modest improvements in filtration (ASHRAE 85%) can reduce particle concentrations to nearly match the level found in data centers that do not use economizers. The extra cost associated with improve filters was not determined in this study. (4) Humidity was consistent and within the ASHRAE recommended levels for all data centers without economizers. Results show that, while slightly less steady, humidity in data centers with economizers can also be controlled within the ASHRAE recommended levels. However, this control of humidity reduces energy savings by limiting the hours the economizer vents are open. (5) The potential energy savings from economizer use has been measured in one data center. When economizers were active, mechanical cooling power dropped by approximately 30%. Annual savings at this center is estimated within the range of 60-80 MWh/year, representing approximately a 5% savings off the mechanical energy load of the data center. Incoming temperatures and humidity at this data center were conservative relative to the ASHRAE acceptable temperature and humidity ranges. Greater savings may be available if higher temperature humidity levels in the data center area were permitted. The average particle concentrations measured at each of the eight data center locations are shown in Table 1. The data centers ranged in size from approximately 5,000 ft{sup 2} to 20,000 ft{sup 2}. The indoor concentrations and humidity in Table 1 represents measurements taken at the server rack. Temperature measurements at the server rack consistently fell between 65-70 F. The Findings section contains a discussion of the individual findings from each center. Data centers currently operate under very low contamination levels. Economizers can be expected

  13. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 5: Coastal zones case study and generalization. [economic benefits of weather forecasting by SEASAT satellites to the coastal plains of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The economic losses sustained in the U.S. coastal zones were studied for the purpose of quantitatively establishing economic benefits as a consequence of improving the predictive quality of destructive phenomena in U.S. coastal zones. Improved prediction of hurricane landfall and improved experimental knowledge of hurricane seeding are discussed.

  14. Behavioral economics and health policy: understanding Medicaid's failure.

    PubMed

    Richman, Barak D

    2005-03-01

    This Article employs a behavioral economic analysis to understand why Medicaid has failed to improve the health outcomes of its beneficiaries. It begins with a formal economic model of health care consumption and then systematically incorporates a survey of psychosocial variables to formulate explanations for persistent health disparities. This methodology suggests that consulting the literature in health psychology and intertemporal decision theory--empirical sources generally excluded from orthodox economic analysis--provides valuable material to explain certain findings in health econometrics. More significantly, the lessons from this behavioral economic approach generate useful policy considerations for Medicaid policymakers, who largely have neglected psychosocial variables in implementing a health insurance program that rests chiefly on orthodox economic assumptions. The Article's chief contributions include an expansion of the behavioral economic approach to include a host of variables in health psychology, a behavioral refinement of empirical health economics, a behavioral critique of Medicaid policy, and a menu of suggested Medicaid reforms. PMID:15868692

  15. Economic impacts study

    SciTech Connect

    Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

    1988-09-30

    This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

  16. Group Formation in Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demange, Gabrielle; Wooders, Myrna

    2005-01-01

    Broad and diverse ranges of activities are conducted within and by organized groups of individuals, including political, economic and social activities. These activities have recently become a subject of intense interest in economics and game theory. Some of the topics investigated in this collection are models of networks of power and privilege, trade networks, co-authorship networks, buyer-seller networks with differentiated products, and networks of medical innovation and the adaptation of new information. Other topics are social norms on punctuality, clubs and the provision of club goods and public goods, research and development and collusive alliances among corporations, and international alliances and trading agreements. While relatively recent, the literature on game theoretic studies of group formation in economics is already vast. This volume provides an introduction to this important literature on game-theoretic treatments of situations with networks, clubs, and coalitions, including some applications.

  17. Economics of polysilicon processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaws, C. L.; Li, K. Y.; Chou, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques are being developed to provide lower cost polysilicon material for solar cells. Existing technology which normally provides semiconductor industry polysilicon material is undergoing changes and also being used to provide polysilicon material for solar cells. Economics of new and existing technologies are presented for producing polysilicon. The economics are primarily based on the preliminary process design of a plant producing 1,000 metric tons/year of silicon. The polysilicon processes include: Siemen's process (hydrogen reduction of trichlorosilane); Union Carbide process (silane decomposition); and Hemlock Semiconductor process (hydrogen reduction of dichlorosilane). The economics include cost estimates of capital investment and product cost to produce polysilicon via the technology. Sensitivity analysis results are also presented to disclose the effect of major paramentes such as utilities, labor, raw materials and capital investment.

  18. Economics of polysilicon processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaws, C. L.; Li, K. Y.; Chou, S. M.

    1986-02-01

    Techniques are being developed to provide lower cost polysilicon material for solar cells. Existing technology which normally provides semiconductor industry polysilicon material is undergoing changes and also being used to provide polysilicon material for solar cells. Economics of new and existing technologies are presented for producing polysilicon. The economics are primarily based on the preliminary process design of a plant producing 1,000 metric tons/year of silicon. The polysilicon processes include: Siemen's process (hydrogen reduction of trichlorosilane); Union Carbide process (silane decomposition); and Hemlock Semiconductor process (hydrogen reduction of dichlorosilane). The economics include cost estimates of capital investment and product cost to produce polysilicon via the technology. Sensitivity analysis results are also presented to disclose the effect of major paramentes such as utilities, labor, raw materials and capital investment.

  19. Role of vaccination in economic growth

    PubMed Central

    Quilici, Sibilia; Smith, Richard; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The health of a population is important from a public health and economic perspective as healthy individuals contribute to economic growth. Vaccination has the potential to contribute substantially to improving population health and thereby economic growth. Childhood vaccination programmes in Europe can offer protection against 15 important infectious diseases, thus preventing child fatalities and any serious temporary and permanent sequelae that can occur. Healthy children are more able to participate in education, thus preparing them to become healthy and productive adults. Vaccination programmes can also prevent infectious diseases in adolescents, thus allowing them to continue their development towards a healthy adulthood. Protecting adults against infectious diseases ensures that they can fully contribute to productivity and economic development by avoiding sick leave and lower productivity. Vaccination in older adults will contribute to the promotion of healthy ageing, enabling them to assist their familiy with, for instance, childcare, and also help them avoid functional decline and the related impacts on health and welfare expenditure. Effective vaccination programmes for all ages in Europe will thus contribute to the European Union's 2020 health and economic strategies. Indeed, beyond their impact on healthcare resources and productivity, reductions in mortality and morbidity also contribute to increased consumption and gross domestic product. Therefore, assessment of the value of vaccines and vaccination needs to consider not just the direct impact on health and healthcare but also the wider impact on economic growth, which requires a macroeconomic analysis of vaccination programmes. PMID:27123174

  20. Democracy and economic development.

    PubMed

    Rao, V

    1985-01-01

    This discussion explains why democracy as is generally understood may not be suitable to meet the challenges of a developing economy and how democratic institutions generally fail to respond to the immediate demands of a population impatient to raise its level of living. It defines the terms economic development and democracy, reviews some theoretical models of democracy which have been proposed in economic theory, proposes an approach to the process of economic development, and considers problems of development. Economic development is a process which calls for huge investments in personnel and material. Such investment programs imply cuts in current consumption that would be painful at the low levels of living that exist in almost all developing societies. Governments need to resort to strong measures, and they must enforce them vigorously in order to marshal the surpluses required for investment. If such measures were put to a popular vote, they would certainly be defeated. Mainstream economic theory assumes the virtues of a market system and the decisions arrived at by the interaction of market forces. This is the economic equivalent of democracy. Yet, mainstream economic theory devotes little attention to the conditions under which a market system generates a just solution. The democratic developing countries have all inherited a class society, with a highly skewed distribution of income. The wealthy minority often seeks to preserve its privileged position and to enjoy the benefits of development. It even seeks the help of the judiciary to preserve the sanctity of private property and to assure that its patterns of conspicuous consumption can continue. This is done in the name of democratic rights. Many developing societies are burdened with outmoded traditions and value systems that are incompatible with the production relations of the new society they hope to achieve. The international exchange of resources is believed by some to be an attempt to control the

  1. Crop productivity and economics during the transition to alternative cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing economic pressures and continued environmental concerns in agricultural production have heightened the need for more sustainable cropping systems. Research is needed to identify systems that simultaneously improve the economic and social viability of farms and rural communities while prot...

  2. How Should the Graduate Economics Core Be Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abito, Jose Miguel; Borovickova, Katarina; Golden, Hays; Goldin, Jacob; Masten, Matthew A.; Morin, Miguel; Poirier, Alexandre; Pons, Vincent; Romem, Israel; Williams, Tyler; Yoon, Chamna

    2011-01-01

    The authors present suggestions by graduate students from a range of economics departments for improving the first-year core sequence in economics. The students identified a number of elements that should be added to the core: more training in building microeconomic models, a discussion of the methodological foundations of model-building, more…

  3. Consumer & Home Economics In-Service/Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy (Shirley) & Associates, Sierra Madre, CA.

    Mt. San Antonio Community College District's Consumer/Home Economics In-Service/Curriculum Development Project was designed to provide activities to meet staff development and program improvement needs. The choice of activities was based on evaluation data from previous home economics projects, and priorities identified by the Consumer/Home…

  4. Economic Literacy among Corporate Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, William C.; Doyle, Joanne M.

    2002-01-01

    Reports the results of a telephone survey of employees (n=1001) of large corporations (n=7) conducted for the Business Roundtable. Embeds 20 questions keyed to the Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics to measure economic literacy. Finds that economic literacy was associated with education level, courses in economics, high income, and…

  5. Whatever Happened to Economic Geography?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Robert

    1985-01-01

    Maintains that economic geography is alive and well. Describes some of the challenges facing research in economic geography and highlights the changing approaches being applied to economic geography. Includes sections on structural change, economic reorganization, and internationalization of manufacturing and finances. (JDH)

  6. Improvement in aircraft performance reduces operating costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The escalation of jet transport fuel prices has altered traditional economic formulas for commercial airplane operators. This economic change has provided the impetus to develop improvements for existing production run transports such as the Boeing 727, 737, and 747 airplanes. Improvements have been made in drag reduction, propulsion system, weight reduction, and operation.

  7. Techno-economic requirements for automotive composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Scot

    1993-01-01

    New technology generally serves two main goals of the automotive industry: one is to enable vehicles to comply with various governmental regulations and the other is to provide a competitive edge in the market. The latter goal can either be served through improved manufacturing and design capabilities, such as computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing, or through improved product performance, such as anti-lock braking (ABS). Although safety features are sometimes customer driven, such as the increasing use of airbags and ABS, most are determined by regulations as outlined by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). Other standards, set by the Environmental Protection Agency, determine acceptable levels of emissions and fuel consumption. State governments, such as in California, are also setting precedent standards, such as requiring manufacturers to offer zero-emission vehicles as a certain fraction of their sales in the state. The drive to apply new materials in the automobile stems from the need to reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency. Topics discussed include: new lightweight materials; types of automotive materials; automotive composite applications; the role for composite materials in automotive applications; advantages and disadvantages of composite materials; material substitution economics; economic perspective; production economics; and composite materials production economics.

  8. Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Colleen F.; Shah, Maunank

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and implementation of new diagnostics. The aim of this piece is to examine the current state of TB diagnostics, outline the unmet needs for new tests, and detail the economic challenges associated with development of new tests from the perspective of developers, policy makers and implementers. PMID:24766367

  9. The economics of ideas and intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Michele; Levine, David K

    2005-01-25

    Innovation and the adoption of new ideas is fundamental to economic progress. Here we examine the underlying economics of the market for ideas. From a positive perspective, we examine how such markets function with and without government intervention. From a normative perspective, we examine the pitfalls of existing institutions, and how they might be improved. We highlight recent research by us and others challenging the notion that government awards of monopoly through patents and copyright are "the way" to provide appropriate incentives for innovation. PMID:15657138

  10. Coal mining technology, economics and policy 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The 1991 session papers from the American Mining Congress Coal Convention covered a variety of technical, economic, regulatory, and health and safety issues. The papers were grouped into the following categories: Coal mine ventilation technology; Coal policy; Coal utilization -- problems and opportunities; Dealing with spontaneous combustion; Energy taxation; Environmental issues; Ergonomics in the underground mine environment; Ground control technology; Lessons in compromise: the need to improve our communications strategies; Management - improving operations through organizational change; Productivity forum - how to improve the bottom line; Reclamation technology; Safety and health; Subsidence; Surface mining - technology and reclamation policy; Underground haulage - from the face to the surface.

  11. Improved Estimates of the Milky Way's Stellar Mass and Star Formation Rate from Hierarchical Bayesian Meta-Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licquia, Timothy C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2015-06-01

    We present improved estimates of several global properties of the Milky Way, including its current star formation rate (SFR), the stellar mass contained in its disk and bulge+bar components, as well as its total stellar mass. We do so by combining previous measurements from the literature using a hierarchical Bayesian (HB) statistical method that allows us to account for the possibility that any value may be incorrect or have underestimated errors. We show that this method is robust to a wide variety of assumptions about the nature of problems in individual measurements or error estimates. Ultimately, our analysis yields an SFR for the Galaxy of {{\\dot{M}}\\star }=1.65+/- 0.19 {{M}⊙ } y{{r}-1}, assuming a Kroupa initial mass function (IMF). By combining HB methods with Monte Carlo simulations that incorporate the latest estimates of the Galactocentric radius of the Sun, R0, the exponential scale length of the disk, Ld, and the local surface density of stellar mass, {{Σ}\\star }({{R}0}), we show that the mass of the Galactic bulge+bar is M\\star B=0.91+/- 0.07× {{10}10} {{M}⊙ }, the disk mass is M\\star D=5.17+/- 1.11× {{10}10} {{M}⊙ }, and their combination yields a total stellar mass of {{M}\\star }=6.08+/- 1.14× {{10}10} {{M}⊙ } (assuming a Kroupa IMF and an exponential disk profile). This analysis is based upon a new compilation of literature bulge mass estimates, normalized to common assumptions about the stellar IMF and Galactic disk properties, presented herein. We additionally find a bulge-to-total mass ratio for the Milky Way of B/T=0.150-0.019+0.028 and a specific SFR of {{\\dot{M}}\\star }/{{M}\\star }=2.71+/- 0.59× {{10}-11} yr-1.

  12. Economic implications of chronic sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Gliklich, R E; Metson, R

    1998-03-01

    An approach to cost analysis useful in understanding the economic implications of surgical intervention on chronic sinusitis is break-even time analysis. The break-even time is the time until cost savings associated with improved health status after surgery equal the up-front costs of the operation itself. Data from 100 consecutive patients undergoing sinus operation were obtained by survey before surgery and at quarterly intervals for 1 year with statistically validated outcome measures (Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey, Chronic Sinusitis Survey). Direct and indirect costs were obtained or derived for this cohort. The cost of sinus medications, including over-the-counter remedies, nasal steroid sprays, and antibiotics, averaged $1220 per patient per year before surgery and $629 after surgery (p < 0.0001), which is a 48% reduction. Surgical costs averaged $6490 per patient. Economic modeling predicted a break-even time of approximately 7 years assuming a 3% surgical revision rate per year, a 3% decrease in sickness-related disability, and a 5% discount rate. The model was sensitive to changes in the total cost of operation, the surgical revision rate, and the anticipated disability benefit. We conclude that significant direct and indirect medical cost savings may be achieved after surgical intervention for chronic sinusitis and these savings eventually break even with the total cost of surgery itself. PMID:9527115

  13. Advanced Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Marc W.; Laing, William

    2013-01-01

    An Economic Analysis (EA) is a systematic approach to the problem of choosing the best method of allocating scarce resources to achieve a given objective. An EA helps guide decisions on the "worth" of pursuing an action that departs from status quo ... an EA is the crux of decision-support.

  14. Emerging Asian Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  15. High School Economics. Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Michael; McCorkle, Sarapage; Meszaros, Bonnie; Smith, Robert F.; Highsmith, Robert J.

    This book opens with an exploration of the fundamental trilogy of economics - scarcity, choice, and cost. Students then examine the broad social goals of an economy in preparation for lessons treating many topics new to the precollege level such as the stock market, public choice, and aggregate supply and demand. The set of 20 lessons include: (1)…

  16. Ronald Reagan's Economic Jeremiad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesen, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Considers President Reagan's address to the nation on February 5, 1981, concerning the state of the economy, as a contemporary secular version of the jeremiad, a rhetorical form that has persisted in America since colonial times. Describes Reagan's skillful use of the genre to motivate public response to what he viewed as an economic crisis. (NKA)

  17. Economics of Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumol, William J.; Marcus, Matityahu

    An analysis is conducted of economic issues pertinent to library planning in higher education in the face of rising costs and diminishing financial support. The individual chapters deal with: 1) growth rates in large university libraries; 2) library costs in colleges and universities; 3) cost trends and long-range plans; 4) library data; and 5) a…

  18. ECONOMICS OF BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the session was to describe procedures used in the estimation of economic cost of air pollution to agriculture in the U.S. and to present some examples of those estimates. In recent years, there has been great interest in the development of monetary estimates of ...

  19. Understanding World Economic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaples, Robert

    2013-01-01

    One joy of studying history is discovering people living meaningful lives and behaving in unusual ways that are startling to the modern reader--young or old. Why did pre-modern people living hundreds or even thousands of years ago do things so differently than we do? Robert Whaples states that Economic historians conclude that the key difference…

  20. Curious Georgia Studies Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolle, Anthony; Houck, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    District and school administrators are challenged to provide learning environments that help students attain and surpass set levels of academic and social learning. In times of economic strife, discussions often turn to the efficient use of financial and human resources to maximize school districts' capacity to fulfill those objectives. Most…

  1. Essays in Information Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiao, Hak Fung

    2010-01-01

    I study two economic responses to the challenges of copyright infringements and spam brought about by the birth of the Internet. These responses are anti-spam mechanisms and open contents. I derive conditions under which distribution and care level taken to avoid damages in open contents are socially efficient or inefficient. Then I report…

  2. A Realistic International Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Criticizes college textbooks for adopting a "party line" of laissez-faire economic doctrine which asserts the benefits of free trade. Offers an alternative interpretation of international trade, covering such topics as the effect of unregulated international trade on wage levels, and international lending. (JDH)

  3. Crossing the Economic Divide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinstein, David

    1998-01-01

    A teacher who has taught in two Chicago high schools chronicled in Jonathan Kozol's "Savage Inequalities"--an alternative Westside high school and an affluent, suburban Eastside school--ponders benefits of teaching on both sides of the economic chasm. Although inner-city problems often stem from parents lacking power and expectations, suburban…

  4. The Economics of Overexploitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Colin W.

    1973-01-01

    Argues that overexploitation of renewable biological resources to the point of extinction is possible under private (commercial) management. Public surveillance is necessary to prevent severe depletion of resources. An economic theory of a biological resource is developed, using the blue whale population as an example. (JR)

  5. Economics for Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Teaching Economics, San Francisco, CA.

    This economics unit of study consists of 10 lessons. Each lesson sets out key terms (such as demand, scarcity, monetary costs, property rights, and cost/benefit analysis); outlines the national content standards addressed; lists objectives; provides teaching and discussion ideas; suggests sample interactive discussion problems and sample small…

  6. "Candyconomy"--FUNdamental Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, George P.; Schibik, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    Candyconomy is a technique that uses a single commodity to illustrate several basic concepts in economics such as scarcity and choice, opportunity cost, trade-offs and decision-making, exchange, supply and demand, and equilibrium. The example has been used with over 5,000 elementary and secondary students. (JOW)

  7. South Korea's Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihm, Chon-Sun

    1988-01-01

    Examines South Korea's economic development from being one of the poorest nations in the world in the 1950s to becoming a "rising giant" in international trade. Surveys the path to growth, the reasons for success, and problems and new challenges facing the country as it seeks developed nation status. (GEA)

  8. "The New Economic Reality"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Pearl

    2012-01-01

    Many historically Black business schools have taken a proactive stance during this period of economic uncertainty. Dr. Jessica Bailey, president of the HBCU Business Deans' Roundtable, which includes 52 of the 104 historically Black business schools, thinks the institutions are "expanding their missions" to place more emphasis on globalization,…

  9. Economics Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, this learning package introduces intermediate grade students to basic economic concepts. The fourteen activities include the topics of consumption (4 activities), production (5), the market system (3), a pretest, and a posttest. Specific titles under consumption include The Wonderful Treasure Tree (introduction…

  10. Applied Economics: Job Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trahern, Darlene

    1972-01-01

    The classroom became a working economics laboratory for third graders at Humboldt School in Canyon City, Oregon, beginning with their duties as classroom helpers. By giving the tasks the importance of real-life jobs, the youngsters soon discovered individual likes, dislikes, and capabilities which affected their attitudes toward work. (Author)

  11. Essays in Education Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Erica Theresa

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation contains three chapters that explore various aspects of the economics of education, with a focus on higher education. In particular, the first two chapters deal with college major as it relates to earnings, occupational choice, and high school curriculum, while the third discusses the relationship between college-student match…

  12. Economical space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A commercial approach to design and fabrication of an economical space power system is investigated. Cost projections are based on a 2 kW space power system conceptual design taking into consideration the capability for serviceability, constraints of operation in space, and commercial production engineering approaches. A breakdown of the system design, documentation, fabrication, and reliability and quality assurance estimated costs are detailed.

  13. Business, Economics, Management Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Edward Zip

    This annotated bibliography includes reference sources pertaining to business, economics, and management that are located in the libraries of the Portland and Gorham campuses of the University of Southern Maine. Specific reference sources are listed under the categories of: (1) indexes and abstracts; (2) dictionaries and encyclopedias, including…

  14. Feminism and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergmann, Barbara R.

    1983-01-01

    The principal distinction between nonfeminist and feminist economists is that the latter view the present assignment to economic duties based on sex as unfair and wish to draw a system of work and family relations that will be fair to men, women, and children. (MSE)

  15. Economics of enzymatic hydrolysis processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis processes have the ability to produce high yields of sugars for fermentation to fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. However, these systems have been plagued with yields, product concentrations, and reactions rates far below those that are theoretically possible. Engineering and economic analyses are presented on several fungal enzyme hydrolysis processes to illustrate the effects of the important process parameters, to quantify the progress that has been made to date, and to estimate the cost reductions that can be made through research improvements. All enzymatic hydrolysis processes require pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and enzyme production. The key effect of pretreatment is to allow access of the enzymes to the substrate. Pretreatments have been devised that make the biomass completely digestible that increase the xylose yield and concentration, and that integrate pretreatment with lignin utilization. Major improvements in enzyme activity and use of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) have greatly reduced the inhibition of the enzymes. It now appears that ethanol inhibition of the yeast is the limiting factor. Enzyme production costs have been dramatically reduced because use of SSF has reduced enzyme loading. However, further improvements may be possible by using soluble carbon sources for production. Over the past decade, the predicted cost of ethanol from such processes has dropped from more than $4.00/gallon to approximately $1.60. Research is currently under way in the United States and has the potential to reduce the projected cost to less than $1.00/gallon. 65 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  16. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

  17. Stateline: Link Investment in Education to Economic Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to much of this year's frightening economic news, many states are investing in initiatives to strengthen local economies. This article describes how several states are improving education and training so they match business needs and the labor pool.

  18. Economic development, political-economic system, and the physical quality of life.

    PubMed

    Cereseto, S; Waitzkin, H

    1986-06-01

    This study compared capitalist and socialist countries in measures of the physical quality of life (PQL), taking into account the level of economic development. The World Bank was the principal source of statistical data for 123 countries (97 per cent of the world's population). PQL variables included: indicators of health, health services, and nutrition (infant mortality rate, child death rate, life expectancy, population per physician, population per nursing person, and daily per capita calorie supply); measures of education (adult literacy rate, enrollment in secondary education, and enrollment in higher education); and a composite PQL index. Capitalist countries fell across the entire range of economic development (measured by gross national product per capita), while the socialist countries appeared at the low-income, lower-middle-income, and upper-middle-income levels. All PQL measures improved as economic development increased. In 28 of 30 comparisons between countries at similar levels of economic development, socialist countries showed more favorable PQL outcomes. PMID:3706593

  19. Economic development, political-economic system, and the physical quality of life.

    PubMed Central

    Cereseto, S; Waitzkin, H

    1986-01-01

    This study compared capitalist and socialist countries in measures of the physical quality of life (PQL), taking into account the level of economic development. The World Bank was the principal source of statistical data for 123 countries (97 per cent of the world's population). PQL variables included: indicators of health, health services, and nutrition (infant mortality rate, child death rate, life expectancy, population per physician, population per nursing person, and daily per capita calorie supply); measures of education (adult literacy rate, enrollment in secondary education, and enrollment in higher education); and a composite PQL index. Capitalist countries fell across the entire range of economic development (measured by gross national product per capita), while the socialist countries appeared at the low-income, lower-middle-income, and upper-middle-income levels. All PQL measures improved as economic development increased. In 28 of 30 comparisons between countries at similar levels of economic development, socialist countries showed more favorable PQL outcomes. PMID:3706593

  20. The economics of nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, Ronald L.

    We extend economic analysis of the nuclear power industry by developing and employing three tools. They are (1) compilation and unification of operating and accounting data sets for plants and sites, (2) an abstract industry model with major economic agents and features, and (3) a model of nuclear power plant operators. We build a matched data set to combine dissimilar but mutually dependant bodies of information. We match detailed information on the activities and conditions of individual plants to slightly more aggregated financial data. Others have exploited the data separately, but we extend the sets and pool available data sets. The data reveal dramatic changes in the industry over the past thirty years. The 1980s proved unprofitable for the industry. This is evident both in the cost data and in the operator activity data. Productivity then improved dramatically while cost growth stabilized to the point of industry profitability. Relative electricity prices may be rising after nearly two decades of decline. Such demand side trends, together with supply side improvements, suggest a healthy industry. Our microeconomic model of nuclear power plant operators employs a forward-looking component to capture the information set available to decision makers and to model the decision-making process. Our model includes features often overlooked elsewhere, including electricity price equations and liability. Failure to account for changes in electricity price trends perhaps misled earlier scholars, and they attributed to other causes the effects on profits of changing price structures. The model includes potential losses resulting from catastrophic nuclear accidents. Applications include historical simulations and forecasts. Nuclear power involves risk, and accident costs are borne both by plant owners and the public. Authorities regulate the industry and balance conflicting desires for economic gain and safety. We construct an extensible model with regulators, plant

  1. Standardized wellheads proven economical for subsea operations

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, C.C.; Silva Paulo, C.A. )

    1994-05-02

    A standardization program for subsea wellheads and completion equipment has made development of Brazil's offshore fields more economical and efficient. The resulting operational flexibility associated with the use of field-proven equipment and procedures saves rig time and can reduce production loss during workovers. Additionally, investments can be rationalized economically by installing part of the completion equipment at the end of the drilling job and then delaying purchase and installation of the christmas tree and the flow lines until installation of the production platform. Savings are also realized from the reduction in the number of spare parts and tools. Moreover, the savings related to improved operations exceed considerably those from equipment acquisition and storage. Thus, the greatest benefit is the operational flexibility. The paper discusses initial standards, the subsea programs, philosophy, implementation, diver-assisted trees, diverless trees, and economics.

  2. Economic Geology of the Moon: Some Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Stephen L.

    1992-01-01

    Supporting any but the smallest lunar facility will require indigenous resources due to the extremely high cost of bringing material from Earth. The Moon has also attracted interest as a resource base to help support near-Earth space activities, because of the potential lower cost once the necessary infrastructure has been amortized. Obviously, initial lunar products will be high-volume, bulk commodities, as they are the only ones for which the economics of lunar production are conceivably attractive. Certain rarer elements, such as the halogens, C, and H, would also be extremely useful (for propellant, life support, and/or reagents), and indeed local sources of such elements would vastly improve the economics of lunar resource extraction. The economic geology of the Moon is discussed.

  3. Essays in applied economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arano, Kathleen

    Three independent studies in applied economics are presented. The first essay looks at the US natural gas industrial sector and estimates welfare effects associated with the changes in natural gas regulatory policy over the past three decades. Using a disequilibrium model suited to the natural gas industry, welfare transfers and deadweight losses are calculated. Results indicate that deregulation policies, beginning with the NGPA of 1978, have caused the industry to become more responsive to market conditions. Over time, regulated prices converge toward the estimated equilibrium prices. As a result of this convergence, deadweight losses associated with regulation are also diminished. The second essay examines the discounted utility model (DU), the standard model used for intertemporal decision-making. Prior empirical studies challenge the descriptive validity of the model. This essay addresses the four main inconsistencies that have been raised: domain dependence, magnitude effects, time effects, and gain/loss asymmetries. These inconsistencies, however, may be the result of the implicit assumption of linear utility and not a failure of the DU model itself. In order to test this hypothesis, data was collected from in-class surveys of economics classes at Mississippi State University. A random effects model for panel data estimation which accounts for individual specific effects was then used to impute discount rates measured in terms of dollars and utility. All four inconsistencies were found to be present when the dollar measures were used. Using utility measures of the discount rate resolved the inconsistencies in some cases. The third essay brings together two perspectives in the study of religion and economics: modeling religious behavior using economic tools and variables, and modeling economic behavior using religious variables. A system of ordered probit equations is developed to simultaneously model religious activities and economic outcomes. Using data

  4. The Economics OF NEOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schalkwyk, James D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center, in its role as partnerships lead for NASA asteroid redirect robotic missions and as a supporting Center for the Asteroid Grand Challenge, responded to increasing interest in near-Earth objects (NEOs) by holding a workshop entitled 'The Economics of NEOs' on the 6th and 7th of September 2014. The workshop was intended to serve as a catalyst for discussions and to foster collaborations between industry, academia and government. This document serves as a summary of the discussions which took place within three sessions and their respective table discussions; Session One: Background and Motivation; Session Two: Economics of NEOs; and Session Three: Policy and Legal Frameworks. This document is a collection of observations by individuals and does not express the consensus view of all participants; it does not express US Government or NASA policy.

  5. Globalisation, economics and professionalism.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chay-Hoon; Macneill, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effect of globalisation and attendant economic factors on the global practice of medicine, medical education, medical ethics and medical professionalism. The authors discuss the implications of these trends, citing case scenarios in the healthcare insurance, medical tourism, pharmaceutical industries, and the educational systems as well as in clinical practice, to illustrate the impact of globalisation and economics on professionalism. Globalisation, on the one hand, offers benefits for the global practice of medicine and for medical education. On the other, globalisation can have negative effects, particularly when the main driver is to maximise profitability across national boundaries rather than concern for human well-being. Appraising the effect of globalisation on professionalism involves assessing its effects at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional levels, and its effect on society at large. PMID:26075950

  6. Economics of information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Mitsunori

    2000-06-01

    The economics of information covers a wide range of topics such as insurance, stochastic equilibria, the theory of finance (e.g. option pricing), job search, etc. In this paper, we focus on an economic model in which traders are uncertain about the true characteristics of commodities and know only the probability distributions of those characteristics. The traders acquire information on those characteristics via the actual consumption in the past and are allowed to exchange the information among themselves prior to the forthcoming trade. Though optimal consumption at the preceding trade generally alters optimal consumption at the succeeding trade, it may happen that they both coincide. We call this particular type of optimal consumption an information stable equilibrium (ISE). At an ISE, the traders gain no additional information from consumption, which is significant enough to revise their optimal choice at the succeeding trade. .

  7. Economic valuation for sustainable development in the Swedish coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Söderqvist, Tore; Eggert, Håkan; Olsson, Björn; Soutukorva, Asa

    2005-03-01

    The Swedish coastal zone is a scene of conflicting interests about various goods and services provided by nature. Open-access conditions and the public nature of many services increase the difficulty in resolving these conflicts. "Sustainability" is a vague but widely accepted guideline for finding reasonable trade-offs between different interests. The UN view of sustainable development suggests that coastal zone management should aim at a sustainable ecological, economic, and social-cultural development. Looking closer at economic sustainability, it is observed that economic analyses about whether changes in society imply a gain or a loss should take into account the economic value of the environment. Methods used for making such economic valuation in the context of the Swedish coastal zone are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the property rights context matters for the results of a valuation study. This general background is followed by a concise presentation of the design and results of four valuation studies on Swedish coastal zone issues. One study is on the economic value of an improved bathing water quality in the Stockholm archipelago. The other studies are a travel cost study about the economic value of improved recreational fisheries in the Stockholm archipelago, a replacement cost study on the value of restoring habitats for sea trout, and a choice experiment study on the economic value of improved water quality along the Swedish westcoast. PMID:15865316

  8. 76 FR 19976 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of EDA Grant Process Improvement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Economic Development Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of EDA Grant Process Improvement AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Services, Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce, HCHB Room 7227, 1401...

  9. Basic Economic Principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tideman, T. N.

    1972-01-01

    An economic approach to design efficient transportation systems involves maximizing an objective function that reflects both goals and costs. A demand curve can be derived by finding the quantities of a good that solve the maximization problem as one varies the price of that commodity, holding income and the prices of all other goods constant. A supply curve is derived by applying the idea of profit maximization of firms. The production function determines the relationship between input and output.

  10. Forest management and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Buongiorno, J.; Gilless, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    This volume provides a survey of quantitative methods, guiding the reader through formulation and analysis of models that address forest management problems. The authors use simple mathematics, graphics, and short computer programs to explain each method. Emphasizing applications, they discuss linear, integer, dynamic, and goal programming; simulation; network modeling; and econometrics, as these relate to problems of determining economic harvest schedules in even-aged and uneven-aged forests, the evaluation of forest policies, multiple-objective decision making, and more.

  11. Asymmetric information and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieden, B. Roy; Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an expression of the economic concept of asymmetric information with which it is possible to derive the dynamical laws of an economy. To illustrate the utility of this approach we show how the assumption of optimal information flow leads to a general class of investment strategies including the well-known Q theory of Tobin. Novel consequences of this formalism include a natural definition of market efficiency and an uncertainty principle relating capital stock and investment flow.

  12. Obesity and Economic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes our understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs: Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline of healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time, however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if we want to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, we need to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior towards healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could only close a part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the US and this may continue until the role of environment factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role to shape the understanding of the causes of obesity. PMID:24853237

  13. ALMR deployment economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Hudson, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    This analysis seeks to model and evaluate the economics of the use of Advanced Liquid Metal Reactors (ALMR) as a component of this country`s future electricity generation mix. The ALMR concept has the ability to utilize as fuel the fissile material contained in previously irradiated nuclear fuel (i.e., spent fuel). While not a requirement for the successful deployment of ALMR power plant technology, the reprocessing of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWR) is necessary for any rapid introduction of ALMR power plants. In addition, the reprocessing of LWR spent fuel may reduce the number of high level waste repositories needed in the future by burning the long-lived actinides produced in the fission process. With this study, the relative economics of a number of potential scenarios related to these issues are evaluated. While not encompassing the full range of all possibilities, the cases reported here provide an indication of the potential costs, timings, and relative economic attractiveness of ALMR deployment.

  14. Obesity and economic environments.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes current understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs. Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline in healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time; however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if one wants to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, one needs to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior toward healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could close only part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the United States and this may continue until the role of environmental factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role in shaping the understanding of the causes of obesity. PMID:24853237

  15. Economic networks: the new challenges.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Frank; Fagiolo, Giorgio; Sornette, Didier; Vega-Redondo, Fernando; Vespignani, Alessandro; White, Douglas R

    2009-07-24

    The current economic crisis illustrates a critical need for new and fundamental understanding of the structure and dynamics of economic networks. Economic systems are increasingly built on interdependencies, implemented through trans-national credit and investment networks, trade relations, or supply chains that have proven difficult to predict and control. We need, therefore, an approach that stresses the systemic complexity of economic networks and that can be used to revise and extend established paradigms in economic theory. This will facilitate the design of policies that reduce conflicts between individual interests and global efficiency, as well as reduce the risk of global failure by making economic networks more robust. PMID:19628858

  16. Global Economic Impact of Dental Diseases.

    PubMed

    Listl, S; Galloway, J; Mossey, P A; Marcenes, W

    2015-10-01

    Reporting the economic burden of oral diseases is important to evaluate the societal relevance of preventing and addressing oral diseases. In addition to treatment costs, there are indirect costs to consider, mainly in terms of productivity losses due to absenteeism from work. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the direct and indirect costs of dental diseases worldwide to approximate the global economic impact. Estimation of direct treatment costs was based on a systematic approach. For estimation of indirect costs, an approach suggested by the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health was employed, which factored in 2010 values of gross domestic product per capita as provided by the International Monetary Fund and oral burden of disease estimates from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study. Direct treatment costs due to dental diseases worldwide were estimated at US$298 billion yearly, corresponding to an average of 4.6% of global health expenditure. Indirect costs due to dental diseases worldwide amounted to US$144 billion yearly, corresponding to economic losses within the range of the 10 most frequent global causes of death. Within the limitations of currently available data sources and methodologies, these findings suggest that the global economic impact of dental diseases amounted to US$442 billion in 2010. Improvements in population oral health may imply substantial economic benefits not only in terms of reduced treatment costs but also because of fewer productivity losses in the labor market. PMID:26318590

  17. Economic analysis in health care research.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Diaa E E

    2008-04-01

    There is contemporary widespread acceptance in the medical community of the need to address economic perspective of healthcare, specifically whether the benefits of a proposed or existing medical intervention are sufficient to justify that particular use of scarce health resources. The use of any scarce resources whether manpower, buildings or equipment has an opportunity cost in terms of the benefits foregone by denying those resources to other competing claims. Health economics emphasizes the need to assess formally the implications of choices over the deployment of resources. A number of economic evaluation techniques such as cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis have thus been developed to aid this formal assessment and to help identify the most efficient allocation of resources. The methodological quality and principles of economic analyses studies recently published in the biomedical literature, however, can be further improved. The most common limitations are in the methodology or presentation of cost, incremental analyses, sensitivity analysis and discounting. The ten methodological principles that should be incorporated in studies addressing economic analyses are highlighted. Understanding the methodology of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis is critical for biomedical researchers, editors, reviewers and readers from developing countries to accurately interpret the results of the growing body of these articles. PMID:19143119

  18. Diuresis and inversion therapy to improve clearance of lower caliceal stones after shock wave lithotripsy: A prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Abul-fotouh; Shalaby, Essam; Maarouf, Aref; Badran, Yasser; Eladl, Mahmoud; Ghobish, Ammar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To improve the clearance of lower caliceal stones (LCSs) after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) using a combination of intra-operative forced diuresis and inversion therapy. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-seven consecutive patients with symptomatic, single LCSs of 5–20 mm size were prospectively randomized into two groups. The first (study group, SG) underwent SWL at the time of the maximum diuresis with the patient in the Trendelenburg position with an angle of 30 degree, while the second group (control group, CG) underwent standard SWL. After the last SWL session, patients were followed-up regularly using plain abdominal X-ray and renal ultrasound. The primary endpoint of the study was the stone-free rate (SFR) at 12 weeks. Results: A total of 141 patients completed the study treatment protocol and follow-up: 69 patients in SG and 72 patients in CG. Both groups were comparable in baseline data. SG showed significantly higher SFR at all follow-up time points. At week 12, 78.3% of SG were rendered stone free, whereas only 61.1% were stone free in CG (P = 0.030). Also, there was a significantly higher SFR for larger stones (>10 mm) and stones with higher attenuation value (>500 Hounsfield units) in SG than CG. Mild non-significant complications were reported in both groups. Conclusion: SWL with intraoperative forced diuresis and inversion seems to be an effective measure with minimal extra cost to improve LCS clearance post-SWL. PMID:25878414

  19. Manpower and Economic Education: Opportunities in American Economic Life. Revised Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcy, Robert L.; Powell, Phillip E.

    This eighth, ninth, or tenth grade year-long economic education course is written from the viewpoint of the individual as a worker/income-earner. Its primary purpose is to provide the schools with a means for improving the preparation of young people for effective participation in the changing economy. The educational objectives are: 1) to develop…

  20. Performance improvement options for the supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle.

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-07-17

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle is under development at Argonne National Laboratory as an advanced power conversion technology for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) as well as other Generation IV advanced reactors as an alternative to the traditional Rankine steam cycle. For SFRs, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle eliminates the need to consider sodium-water reactions in the licensing and safety evaluation, reduces the capital cost of the SFR plant, and increases the SFR plant efficiency. Even though the S-CO{sub 2} cycle has been under development for some time and optimal sets of operating parameters have been determined, those earlier development and optimization studies have largely been directed at applications to other systems such as gas-cooled reactors which have higher operating temperatures than SFRs. In addition, little analysis has been carried out to investigate cycle configurations deviating from the selected 'recompression' S-CO{sub 2} cycle configuration. In this work, several possible ways to improve S-CO{sub 2} cycle performance for SFR applications have been identified and analyzed. One set of options incorporates optimization approaches investigated previously, such as variations in the maximum and minimum cycle pressure and minimum cycle temperature, as well as a tradeoff between the component sizes and the cycle performance. In addition, the present investigation also covers options which have received little or no attention in the previous studies. Specific options include a 'multiple-recompression' cycle configuration, intercooling and reheating, as well as liquid-phase CO{sub 2} compression (pumping) either by CO{sub 2} condensation or by a direct transition from the supercritical to the liquid phase. Some of the options considered did not improve the cycle efficiency as could be anticipated beforehand. Those options include: a double recompression cycle, intercooling between the compressor stages, and reheating

  1. The Opinions of Economics Majors before and after Learning Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammock, Michael R.; Routon, P. Wesley; Walker, Jay K.

    2016-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on undergraduates from 463 American colleges and universities from 1994-99, the authors examine how majoring in economics affects student opinions on 13 social, political, and economic issues. Economics majors were found to begin and end their college tenure with differing opinions on several issues when compared to other…

  2. Economic Inequality and Economic Crisis: A Challenge for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-01-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The…

  3. Ohio Economics: K-12 Model Course of Study in Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Council on Economic Education.

    The K-12 Model Course of Study in Economics (MCSE) provides Ohio school district personnel with assistance in the development and implementation of economics courses of study for kindergarten through twelfth grade. The guide also offers information to help readers integrate economics into their curricula across disciplines. In addition to an…

  4. Black Women Who Head Families: Economic Needs and Economic Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    Black women bear a heavy burden of family responsibilities, yet their economic position is marginal relative to other groups in American society. It is this imbalance between economic needs and economic resources which poses the greatest challenge to public policy. This paper examines some aspects of this imbalance. It describes the demographic…

  5. Teaching Personal Economics in the Home Economics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Council on Economic Education, New York, NY.

    The guide for secondary teachers, a new interdisciplinary approach integrating macroeconomic and microeconomic concepts with home economic courses, is divided into two major parts: Part I, "Teaching Personal Economics in the Home Economics Curriculum," written by a group of specialists, stresses consumer behavior in four units on clothing,…

  6. CF6 performance improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennard, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Potential CF6 engine performance improvements directed at reduced fuel consumption were identified and screened relative to airline acceptability and are reviewed. The screening process developed to provide evaluations of fuel savings and economic factors including return on investment and direct operating cost is described. In addition, assessments of development risk and production potential are made. Several promising concepts selected for full-scale development based on a ranking involving these factors are discussed.

  7. Evaluating Economic Performance and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurow, Lester C.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that a social welfare approach to evaluating economic performance is inappropriate at the high school level. Provides several historical case studies which could be used to augment instruction aimed at the evaluation of economic performance and policies. (JDH)

  8. What's Wrong with Economics Textbooks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culyer, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    Many things are wrong with college level economics textbooks. For example, they are too ahistorical, too particularist, or unsystematically eclectic. The requirements of a good college economics textbook are examined. (RM)

  9. Classroom Curriculum Development in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Brian

    1974-01-01

    A review of reference literature in curriculum development and a short sample curriculum, "Economic Aspects of the Local Environment," are presented to help guide economics teachers in making curriculum revisions. (JH)

  10. Gloves-off Consumer Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of the consumer economics course at Hobart and William Smith College demonstrates its mainstreaming in the liberal arts curriculum. The course uses principles of economics to address broad and often controversial consumer issues. (SK)

  11. Causal inference in economics and marketing.

    PubMed

    Varian, Hal R

    2016-07-01

    This is an elementary introduction to causal inference in economics written for readers familiar with machine learning methods. The critical step in any causal analysis is estimating the counterfactual-a prediction of what would have happened in the absence of the treatment. The powerful techniques used in machine learning may be useful for developing better estimates of the counterfactual, potentially improving causal inference. PMID:27382144

  12. Causal inference in economics and marketing

    PubMed Central

    Varian, Hal R.

    2016-01-01

    This is an elementary introduction to causal inference in economics written for readers familiar with machine learning methods. The critical step in any causal analysis is estimating the counterfactual—a prediction of what would have happened in the absence of the treatment. The powerful techniques used in machine learning may be useful for developing better estimates of the counterfactual, potentially improving causal inference. PMID:27382144

  13. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Ongondo, F.O.; Williams, I.D.; Dietrich, J.; Carroll, C.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their

  14. An economic analysis of communal goat production.

    PubMed

    Sebel, P J; McCrindle, C M E; Webb, E C

    2004-03-01

    The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis). Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scale communal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of North West Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In South Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different scenarios to

  15. An Economics Primer for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    This publication provides an introduction to basic concepts that form the core of economics education and gives a framework for curriculum planning and teaching. A brief introduction addresses the topic "Why study economics?" One major reason for promoting economic education may be to create a literate voting population. Fourteen concepts are then…

  16. LSAT Scores of Economics Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieswiadomy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Argues that economics education provides many benefits to students, including preparation for law school. Examines the ranking of economics majors on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). Finds that among the 14 majors having more than 2,000 students take the LSAT, economics students received the highest average score. (DSK)

  17. Economic Education in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, E. Dale

    Economic education can help elementary and secondary school students understand the dynamics of the American free enterprise system and the relationships among consumer, producer, and government. The economic education curriculum will help students most if it is structured as an upward spiral in which basic economic concepts are built upon and…

  18. Arctic Economics Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-03-01

    AEM (Arctic Economics Model) for oil and gas was developed to provide an analytic framework for understanding the arctic area resources. It provides the capacity for integrating the resource and technology information gathered by the arctic research and development (R&D) program, measuring the benefits of alternaive R&D programs, and providing updated estimates of the future oil and gas potential from arctic areas. AEM enables the user to examine field or basin-level oil and gas recovery,more » costs, and economics. It provides a standard set of selected basin-specified input values or allows the user to input their own values. AEM consists of five integrated submodels: geologic/resource submodel, which distributes the arctic resource into 15 master regions, consisting of nine arctic offshore regions, three arctic onshore regions, and three souhtern Alaska (non-arctic) regions; technology submodel, which selects the most appropriate exploration and production structure (platform) for each arctic basin and water depth; oil and gas production submodel, which contains the relationship of per well recovery as a function of field size, production decline curves, and production decline curves by product; engineering costing and field development submodel, which develops the capital and operating costs associated with arctic oil and gas development; and the economics submodel, which captures the engineering costs and development timing and links these to oil and gas prices, corporate taxes and tax credits, depreciation, and timing of investment. AEM provides measures of producible oil and gas, costs, and ecomonic viability under alternative technology or financial conditions.« less

  19. Humor to the Rescue: How to Make Introductory Economics an Appealing Social Science for Non-Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Despite efforts made over the past few years to improve upon the way introductory economics is taught, these efforts have unfortunately done very little to change student perception of economics as a dry, difficult and boring subject. Since the introductory economics course for many nonmajors may be their only economics course in college, it is…

  20. Improved Magnetic Fusion Energy Economics via Massive Resistive Electromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, R.D.

    1998-08-19

    Abandoning superconductors for magnetic fusion reactors and instead using resistive magnet designs based on cheap copper or aluminum conductor material operating at "room temperature" (300 K) can reduce the capital cost per unit fusion power and simplify plant operations. By increasing unit size well beyond that of present magnetic fusion energy conceptual designs using superconducting electromagnets, the recirculating power fraction needed to operate resistive electromagnets can be made as close to zero as needed for economy without requiring superconductors. Other advantages of larger fusion plant size, such as very long inductively driven pulses, may also help reduce the cost per unit fusion power.

  1. DETERMINING THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF IMPROVED HUMAN EXPOSURE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA develops and revises environmental regulations and policies to protect the environment and human health. One of the key components of the regulatory process is establishing the proposed action level, which requires high quality exposure data. In many cases, expos...

  2. THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF HEALTH IMPROVEMENTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The series of questions will serve as input for regression models that predict value of reductions in morbidity risks and utility tradeoff rates for related disamenities (duration, severity, etc.) based upon demographic and other characteristics of respondents. Thus, rather th...

  3. Development of economical improved thick film solar cell contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.; Mentley, D.

    1979-01-01

    Materials were surveyed to provide candidates for an all metal electrode paste system. These consisted of a major constituent metal powder, a low melting metal powder suitable for a liquid phase sintering medium, and a powder material suitable as an etchant for silicon dioxide at sintering temperatures. By means of thermal gravimetric analysis a suitable binder was identified for low temperature fired inks. The all metal ink concept was first demonstrated with the silver system to avoid the problems of limited process windows encountered with base metal systems. A number of solid materials capable of selectively etching silicon dioxide at modest temperatures were identified. A paste with silver fluoride was screened onto N-type silicon with 5 ohm cm resistivity. The resulting contact pads had excellent adhesion but were not electrically ohmic. Metallurgically, these contacts have equal or better grain structure as commercial inks fired at the same temperatures.

  4. Development of Economical Improved Thick Film Solar Cell Contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.

    1979-01-01

    Materials were surveyed to provide candidates for an all metal electrode paste system. These consisted of a major constituent metal powder, a low melting metal powder suitable for a liquid phase sintering medium, and a powder material suitable as an etchant for silicon dioxide at sintering temperatures. By means of thermal gravimetric analysis a suitable binder was identified for low temperature fired inks.

  5. Development of economical improved thick film solar cell contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.

    1979-01-01

    Metal screened electrodes were investigated with base metal pastes and silver systems being focused upon. Contact resistance measurements were refined. A facility allowing fixing in hydrogen and other atmospheres was acquired. Several experiments were made applying screenable pastes to solar cells. Doping investigations emphasized eutectic alloys reduced to powders. Metal systems were reviewed and base metal experiments were done with nickel and copper using lead and tin as the frit metals. Severe adhesion problems were experienced with hydrogen atmospheres in all metal systems. A two step firing schedule was devised. Aluminum-silicon and aluminum-germanium eutectic doping additions to copper pastes were tried on 2 1/4 in diameter solar cell back contacts, both with good results.

  6. European Conference on Health Economics.

    PubMed

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2010-12-01

    The biennial European Conference on Health Economics was held in Finland this year, at the Finlandia Hall in the centre of Helsinki. The European conferences rotate among European countries and fall between the biennial world congresses organized by the International Health Economics Association (iHEA). A record attendance of approximately 800 delegates from 50 countries around the world were present at the Helsinki conference. The theme of the conference was 'Connecting Health and Economics'. All major topics of health economics were covered in the sessions. For the first time, social care economics was included in the agenda of the European Conference as a session of its own. PMID:21155696

  7. Global Health and the Global Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Although the resources and knowledge for achieving improved global health exist, a new, critical paradigm on health as an aspect of human development, human security, and human rights is needed. Such a shift is required to sufficiently modify and credibly reduce the present dominance of perverse market forces on global health. New scientific discoveries can make wide-ranging contributions to improved health; however, improved global health depends on achieving greater social justice, economic redistribution, and enhanced democratization of production, caring social institutions for essential health care, education, and other public goods. As with the quest for an HIV vaccine, the challenge of improved global health requires an ambitious multidisciplinary research program. PMID:21330597

  8. Using Field Experiments to Change the Template of How We Teach Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    List, John A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explains why field experiments can improve what we teach and how we teach economics. Economists no longer operate as passive observers of economic phenomena. Instead, they participate actively in the research process by collecting data from field experiments to investigate the economics of everyday life. This change can…

  9. Critical Thinking and Decision-Making Skills through Economic Education. Prospectus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for Instructional Technology, Bloomington, IN.

    Designed to improve the critical thinking and decision-making skills of 10-to 13-year old students through instruction in basic economic concepts, the Agency for International Technology (AIT), the Canadian Foundation for Economic Education (CFEE), and the Joint Council on Economic Education (JCEE) are undertaking a project which will use eight…

  10. Economic Perspectives on Investments in Teacher Quality: Lessons Learned and Implications for Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plecki, Margaret L.

    This article reviews the contributions and limitations of economic analyses of resource allocation policies aimed at improving teacher quality. Two analytic frameworks taken from the study of the economics of education are employed: productivity theory and human capital theory. The article first summarizes results of various economic analyses of…

  11. Another Curriculum Requirement? Quantitative Reasoning in Economics: Some First Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Patrick B.; Flynn, David T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe first steps toward focusing on quantitative reasoning in an intermediate microeconomic theory course. We find student attitudes toward quantitative aspects of economics improve over the duration of the course (as we would hope). Perhaps more importantly, student attitude toward quantitative reasoning improves, in…

  12. Essays in public economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligman, Jason Scott

    2002-01-01

    Three essays in the field of public economics are included in this thesis. Chapter 1 begins this work with an introduction to public economics and places the remaining chapters in context. Like all economic agents, the government must manage its cash position. Chapter 2 considers this activity. Short-term financial requirements cause the government to solicit the market for bills not previously scheduled (Cash Management Bills). Using data from the US Treasury's Proprietary Domestic Finance Database, this chapter shows that these bills have higher costs than normal bills, suggesting that both Treasury and financial markets appreciate that demand is more inelastic for these instruments. In addition, this research identifies several factors that increase finance costs for Treasury in meeting short-term financial need. Chapter 3 explores location choices for generation investment in a re-regulated electricity market. Recently, there have been significant changes in the regulation of electricity in the State of California. These changes may affect generation investment behavior within the State, an important consideration for policy makers. This work identifies the impact of public sector regulatory change on private sector investment outcomes, by comparing the location and scope of electricity generation projects before and after two specific regulatory changes in air quality management and transmission tariff charges, while controlling for expected population growth patterns within the State. Significant changes in location preference are identified using factors for the northern and southern transmission zones, NP15 and SP15, the intermediate zone ZP26, and for areas outside of ISO control. Chapter 4 considers Disability Insurance and individual public pension investment accounts. Current debate on the Social Security Administration's long-term finance of benefits includes proposals for independent private investment via individual accounts. The author investigates

  13. Assessing the Economic Impacts of Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazo, J. K.

    2008-05-01

    Understanding the socio-economic impacts of weather provides a basis for prioritizing actions to mitigate and respond to weather events and understanding the value of improvements in weather forecasts. In this talk we discuss two studies of the economic impacts of weather: (1) an empirical study of the sensitivity of state-sector level economic activity to weather variability and (2) an assessment of the quality of data on storm damages in the US as primarily collected through the National Weather Service's Storm Data Program. In the first study, 24 years of state level sector economic data and historical weather observations are used to form a panel combining weather information with economic data. A translog function is estimated of sectoral sensitivity and vulnerability to weather variability. Eleven sectors are ranked based on their degree of sensitivity to weather, states more sensitive to weather impacts are identified, and the aggregate dollar amount of variation in U.S. economic activity attributable to weather variability is calculated. Estimates indicate that US economic output varies by about 3.4% due to weather variability. While considerably smaller than prior estimates, our estimate represents about 469 billion a year in 2007 dollars. In our work to update and revise damage data in the Extreme Weather Sourcebook (www.sip.ucar.edu/sourcebook), we have confronted issues concerning the depth, accuracy and consistency of storm damage data collection. This type of data has been used in many studies exploring changes in weather impacts over time but there has been little recognition of the quality of the data. In the second study reported here, we examine issues with weather induced damage data quality to prompt a dialogue about reliability of scattered and inconsistent data from multiple sources. We hope this will lead to efforts to reduce the error in reported damages and to better reporting and organization of storm damage data in the future. We advocate

  14. Economic impact of refugees

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J. Edward; Filipski, Mateusz J.; Alloush, Mohamad; Gupta, Anubhab; Rojas Valdes, Ruben Irvin; Gonzalez-Estrada, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees accommodated over 15 million refugees, mostly in refugee camps in developing countries. The World Food Program provided these refugees with food aid, in cash or in kind. Refugees’ impacts on host countries are controversial and little understood. This unique study analyzes the economic impacts of refugees on host-country economies within a 10-km radius of three Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda. Simulations using Monte Carlo methods reveal that cash aid to refugees creates significant positive income spillovers to host-country businesses and households. An additional adult refugee receiving cash aid increases annual real income in the local economy by $205 to $253, significantly more than the $120–$126 in aid each refugee receives. Trade between the local economy and the rest of Rwanda increases by $49 to $55. The impacts are lower for in-kind food aid, a finding relevant to development aid generally. PMID:27325782

  15. Economic impact of refugees.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J Edward; Filipski, Mateusz J; Alloush, Mohamad; Gupta, Anubhab; Rojas Valdes, Ruben Irvin; Gonzalez-Estrada, Ernesto

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees accommodated over 15 million refugees, mostly in refugee camps in developing countries. The World Food Program provided these refugees with food aid, in cash or in kind. Refugees' impacts on host countries are controversial and little understood. This unique study analyzes the economic impacts of refugees on host-country economies within a 10-km radius of three Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda. Simulations using Monte Carlo methods reveal that cash aid to refugees creates significant positive income spillovers to host-country businesses and households. An additional adult refugee receiving cash aid increases annual real income in the local economy by $205 to $253, significantly more than the $120-$126 in aid each refugee receives. Trade between the local economy and the rest of Rwanda increases by $49 to $55. The impacts are lower for in-kind food aid, a finding relevant to development aid generally. PMID:27325782

  16. Practice and hospital economics.

    PubMed

    Senagore, Anthony J

    2006-08-01

    There has been a significant effort over the past 10 years to attempt to control the rate of increase in the cost of medical care. However, as is true of any economic system, there are multiple stakeholders involved and often competing motivations. The single largest source of medical inflation is the cost of pharmaceuticals; however, this topic is not directly discussed in this article Similarly, the cost of medical insurance products is not included as these issues cannot be directly addressed by physician behavior. The body of this discussion focuses on costs directly experienced by or potentially controlled by physicians. These areas include practice expense and margin and hospital direct costs and margin. It is essential for physicians to understand fully factors they can potentially control and areas they may be able to influence in this troubling era of cost containment. PMID:20011377

  17. Economics of nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Rossin, A D; Rieck, T A

    1978-08-18

    With 12 percent of U.S. electricity now being supplied by nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison has found nuclear plants to be good investments relative to other base load energy sources. The country's largest user of nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison, estimates that its commitment to nuclear saved its customers about 10 percent on their electric bills in 1977, compared to the cost with the next best alternative, coal. This advantage is seen as continuing, contrary to criticisms of the economics and reliability of nuclear power and claims that it has hidden subsidies. It is concluded that there is a need for both nuclear and coal and that government policy precluding or restricting either would be unwise. PMID:17794111

  18. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  19. Space processing economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bredt, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Two types of space processing operations may be considered economically justified; they are manufacturing operations that make profits and experiment operations that provide needed applied research results at lower costs than those of alternative methods. Some examples from the Skylab experiments suggest that applied research should become cost effective soon after the space shuttle and Spacelab become operational. In space manufacturing, the total cost of space operations required to process materials must be repaid by the value added to the materials by the processing. Accurate estimates of profitability are not yet possible because shuttle operational costs are not firmly established and the markets for future products are difficult to estimate. However, approximate calculations show that semiconductor products and biological preparations may be processed on a scale consistent with market requirements and at costs that are at least compatible with profitability using the Shuttle/Spacelab system.

  20. The economics of atrazine.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Frank

    2007-01-01

    It is often claimed that atrazine is of great economic benefit to corn growers, but support for this claim is limited. Some cost-benefit studies have assumed that atrazine boosts corn yields by 6%; an extensive review found a 3%-4% average yield increase; other research suggests only a 1% yield effect. Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, also makes mesotrione, an alternative herbicide that does about the same amount for corn yields as atrazine. Italy and Germany both banned atrazine in 1991, with no decrease in corn yields or harvested area. Even if atrazine leads to 6% more corn production, it is not certain that this would justify its continued use; a 1%, or perhaps zero, change does not warrant large-scale exposure of humans and the environment to this potentially hazardous chemical. PMID:18085057