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Sample records for improvised explosive device

  1. Igloo containment system for improvised explosive devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dyckes, G.W.

    1980-09-01

    A method for containing or partially containing the blast and dispersal of radioactive particulate from improvised explosive devices is described. The containment system is restricted to devices located in fairly open areas at ground level, e.g., devices concealed in trucks, vans, transportainers, or small buildings which are accessible from all sides.

  2. Predicting the Emplacement of Improvised Explosive Devices: An Innovative Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Warren D.

    2013-01-01

    In this quantitative correlational study, simulated data were employed to examine artificial-intelligence techniques or, more specifically, artificial neural networks, as they relate to the location prediction of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). An ANN model was developed to predict IED placement, based upon terrain features and objects…

  3. Improvised explosive devices: pathophysiology, injury profiles and current medical management.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, A; Hill, A M; Clasper, J C

    2009-12-01

    The improvised explosive device (IED), in all its forms, has become the most significant threat to troops operating in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices range from rudimentary home made explosives to sophisticated weapon systems containing high-grade explosives. Within this broad definition they may be classified as roadside explosives and blast mines, explosive formed pojectile (EFP) devices and suicide bombings. Each of these groups causeinjury through a number of different mechanisms and can result in vastly different injury profiles. The "Global War on Terror" has meant that incidents which were previously exclusively seen in conflict areas, can occur anywhere, and clinicians who are involved in emergency trauma care may be required to manage casualties from similar terrorist attacks. An understanding of the types of devices and their pathophysiological effects is necessary to allow proper planning of mass casualty events and to allow appropriate management of the complex poly-trauma casualties they invariably cause. The aim of this review article is to firstly describe the physics and injury profile from these different devices and secondly to present the current clinical evidence that underpins their medical management. PMID:20397601

  4. Real-time change detection for countering improvised explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wouw, Dennis W. J. M.; van Rens, Kris; van Lint, Hugo; Jaspers, Egbert G. T.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2014-03-01

    We explore an automatic real-time change detection system to assist military personnel during transport and surveillance, by detection changes in the environment with respect to a previous operation. Such changes may indicate the presence of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), which can then be bypassed. While driving, images of the scenes are acquired by the camera and stored with their GPS positions. At the same time, the best matching reference image (from a previous patrol) is retrieved and registered to the live image. Next a change mask is generated by differencing the reference and live image, followed by an adaptive thresholding technique. Post-processing steps such as Markov Random Fields, local texture comparisons and change tracking, further improve time- and space-consistency of changes and suppress noise. The resulting changes are visualized as an overlay on the live video content. The system has been extensively tested on 28 videos, containing over 10,000 manually annotated objects. The system is capable of detecting small test objects of 10 cm3 at a range of 40 meters. Although the system shows an acceptable performance in multiple cases, the performance degrades under certain circumstances for which extensions are discussed.

  5. Cervical spine injury in dismounted improvised explosive device trauma

    PubMed Central

    Taddeo, Joseph; Devine, Maj Melissa; McAlister, LCol Vivian C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The injury pattern from improvised explosive device (IED) trauma is different if the target is in a vehicle (mounted) or on foot (dismounted). Combat and civilian first response protocols require the placement of a cervical collar on all victims of a blast injury. Methods We searched the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR) and the Role 3 Hospital, Kandahar Airfield (KAF) database from Mar. 1, 2008, to May 31, 2011. We collected data on cervical fracture; head injury; traumatic amputation; initial blood pressure, pulse, injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and base excess; and patient demographic information. Results The concordance rate between JTTR and KAF databases was 98%. Of the 15 693 admissions in JTTR, 326 patients with dismounted IED injuries were located. The rate of cervical collar prehospital placement was 7.6%. Cervical fractures were found in 19 (5.8%) dismounted IED victims, but only 4 (1.2%) were considered radiographically unstable. None of these 19 patients had prehospital placement of a collar. Patients with cervical spine fractures were more severely injured than those without (ISS 18.2 v. 13.4; GCS 10.1 v. 12.5). Patients with head injuries had significantly higher risk of cervical spine injury than those with no head injury recorded (13.6% v. 3.9%). No differences in frequency of cervical spine injury were found between patients who had associated traumatic amputations and those who did not (5.4% v. 6.0%). Conclusion Dismounted IED is a mechanism of injury associated with a low risk for cervical spine trauma. A selective protocol for cervical collar placement on victims of dismounted IED blasts is possible and may be more amenable to combat situations. PMID:26100769

  6. A Directed Energy System for Defeat of Improvised Explosive Devices and Landmines

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C; Fochs, S; Parker, J; Rotter, M; Rubenchik, A; Yamamoto, R

    2006-03-20

    We describe a laser system, built in our laboratory at LLNL, that has near-term, effective applications in exposing and neutralizing improvised explosive devices and landmines. We discuss experiments with this laser, demonstrating excavation capabilities and relevant material interactions. Model results are also described.

  7. Simulation study of x-ray backscatter imaging of pressure-plate improvised explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heuvel, Johan; Fiore, Franco

    2012-06-01

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) triggered by pressure-plates are a serious threat in current theatres of operation. X-ray backscatter imaging (XBI) is a potential method for detecting buried pressure-plates. Monte-Carlo simulation code was developed in-house and has been used to study the potential of XBI for pressure-plate detection. It is shown that pressure-plates can be detected at depths up to 7 cm with high photon energies of 350 keV with reasonable speeds of 1 to 10 km/h. However, spatial resolution is relatively low due to multiple scattering.

  8. A simulation study of fast neutron interrogation for standoff detection of improvised explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heider, S. A.; Dunn, W. L.

    2015-11-01

    The signature-based radiation-scanning technique utilizes radiation detector responses, called "signatures," and compares these to "templates" in order to differentiate targets that contain certain materials, such as explosives or drugs, from those that do not. Our investigations are aimed at the detection of nitrogen-rich explosives contained in improvised explosive devices. We use the term "clutter" to refer to any non-explosive materials with which the interrogating radiation may interact between source and detector. To deal with the many target types and clutter configurations that may be encountered in the field, the use of "artificial templates" is proposed. The MCNP code was used to simulate 14.1 MeV neutron source beams incident on one type of target containing various clutter and sample materials. Signatures due to inelastic-scatter and prompt-capture gamma rays from hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen and two scattered neutron signatures were considered. Targets containing explosive materials in the presence of clutter were able to be identified from targets that contained only non-explosive ("inert") materials. This study demonstrates that a finite number of artificial templates is sufficient for IED detection with fairly good sensitivity and specificity.

  9. Wartime spine injuries: understanding the improvised explosive device and biophysics of blast trauma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daniel G; Lehman, Ronald A; Carragee, Eugene J

    2012-09-01

    The improvised explosive device (IED) has been the most significant threat by terrorists worldwide. Blast trauma has produced a wide pattern of combat spinal column injuries not commonly experienced in the civilian community. Unfortunately, explosion-related injuries have also become a widespread reality of civilian life throughout the world, and civilian medical providers who are involved in emergency trauma care must be prepared to manage casualties from terrorist attacks using high-energy explosive devices. Treatment decisions for complex spine injuries after blast trauma require special planning, taking into consideration many different factors and the complicated multiple organ system injuries not normally experienced at most civilian trauma centers. Therefore, an understanding about the effects of blast trauma by spine surgeons in the community has become imperative, as the battlefield has been brought closer to home in many countries through domestic terrorism and mass casualty situations, with the lines blurred between military and civilian trauma. We set out to provide the spine surgeon with a brief overview on the use of IEDs for terrorism and the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and also a perspective on the biophysics of blast trauma. PMID:22197184

  10. Investigative studies into the recovery of DNA from improvised explosive device containers.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Shane G; Stallworth, Shawn E; Foran, David R

    2012-05-01

    Apprehending those who utilize improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a national priority owing to their use both domestically and abroad. IEDs are often concealed in bags, boxes, or backpacks to prevent their detection. Given this, the goal of the research presented was to identify IED handlers through postblast DNA recovery from IED containers. Study participants were asked to use backpacks for 11 days, after which they served as containers for pipe bombs. Eleven postdeflagration backpack regions likely to be handled were swabbed and analyzed via mini-short tandem repeats (miniSTRs) and alleles were called blind. An experimental consensus method was examined in which profiles from all regions were considered, to help identify spurious drop-in/out. Results were correct for all loci, except one that remained ambiguous. The results show that recovering DNA from IED containers is a viable approach for aiding in the identification of those who may have been involved in an IED event. PMID:22150348

  11. In-vehicle extremity injuries from improvised explosive devices: current and future foci

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Arul; Masouros, Spyros D.; Newell, Nicolas; Hill, Adam M.; Proud, William G.; Brown, Katherine A.; Bull, Anthony M. J.; Clasper, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    The conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have been epitomized by the insurgents' use of the improvised explosive device against vehicle-borne security forces. These weapons, capable of causing multiple severely injured casualties in a single incident, pose the most prevalent single threat to Coalition troops operating in the region. Improvements in personal protection and medical care have resulted in increasing numbers of casualties surviving with complex lower limb injuries, often leading to long-term disability. Thus, there exists an urgent requirement to investigate and mitigate against the mechanism of extremity injury caused by these devices. This will necessitate an ontological approach, linking molecular, cellular and tissue interaction to physiological dysfunction. This can only be achieved via a collaborative approach between clinicians, natural scientists and engineers, combining physical and numerical modelling tools with clinical data from the battlefield. In this article, we compile existing knowledge on the effects of explosions on skeletal injury, review and critique relevant experimental and computational research related to lower limb injury and damage and propose research foci required to drive the development of future mitigation technologies. PMID:21149353

  12. In-vehicle extremity injuries from improvised explosive devices: current and future foci.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Arul; Masouros, Spyros D; Newell, Nicolas; Hill, Adam M; Proud, William G; Brown, Katherine A; Bull, Anthony M J; Clasper, Jon C

    2011-01-27

    The conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have been epitomized by the insurgents' use of the improvised explosive device against vehicle-borne security forces. These weapons, capable of causing multiple severely injured casualties in a single incident, pose the most prevalent single threat to Coalition troops operating in the region. Improvements in personal protection and medical care have resulted in increasing numbers of casualties surviving with complex lower limb injuries, often leading to long-term disability. Thus, there exists an urgent requirement to investigate and mitigate against the mechanism of extremity injury caused by these devices. This will necessitate an ontological approach, linking molecular, cellular and tissue interaction to physiological dysfunction. This can only be achieved via a collaborative approach between clinicians, natural scientists and engineers, combining physical and numerical modelling tools with clinical data from the battlefield. In this article, we compile existing knowledge on the effects of explosions on skeletal injury, review and critique relevant experimental and computational research related to lower limb injury and damage and propose research foci required to drive the development of future mitigation technologies. PMID:21149353

  13. Blast Injuries: From Improvised Explosive Device Blasts to the Boston Marathon Bombing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay K; Ditkofsky, Noah G; York, John D; Abujudeh, Hani H; Avery, Laura A; Brunner, John F; Sodickson, Aaron D; Lev, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns. Primary blast injuries are caused by barotrauma from the initial increased pressure of the explosive detonation and the rarefaction of the atmosphere immediately afterward. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris carried by the blast wind and most often result in penetrating trauma from small shrapnel. Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the physical displacement of the victim and the wide variety of blunt or penetrating trauma sustained as a result of the patient impacting immovable objects such as surrounding cars, walls, or fences. Quaternary blast injuries include all other injuries, such as burns, crush injuries, and inhalational injuries. Radiography is considered the initial imaging modality for assessment of shrapnel and fractures. Computed tomography is the optimal test to assess penetrating chest, abdominal, and head trauma. The mechanism of blast injuries and the imaging experience of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing are detailed, as well as musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary injury patterns from blast injuries. PMID:26761543

  14. Multilateral haptics-based immersive teleoperation for improvised explosive device disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Daly, John

    2013-05-01

    Of great interest to police and military organizations is the development of effective improvised explosive device (IED) disposal (IEDD) technology to aid in activities such as mine field clearing, and bomb disposal. At the same time minimizing risk to personnel. This paper presents new results in the research and development of a next generation mobile immersive teleoperated explosive ordnance disposal system. This system incorporates elements of 3D vision, multilateral teleoperation for high transparency haptic feedback, immersive augmented reality operator control interfaces, and a realistic hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) 3D simulation environment incorporating vehicle and manipulator dynamics for both operator training and algorithm development. In the past year, new algorithms have been developed to facilitate incorporating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) robotic hardware into the teleoperation system. In particular, a real-time numerical inverse position kinematics algorithm that can be applied to a wide range of manipulators has been implemented, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attitude stabilization system for manipulators has been developed and experimentally validated, and a voice­operated manipulator control system has been developed and integrated into the operator control station. The integration of these components into a vehicle simulation environment with half-car vehicle dynamics has also been successfully carried out. A physical half-car plant is currently being constructed for HIL integration with the simulation environment.

  15. Development of nanowell based sensors for the detection of improvised explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zientek, B.; Wang, H. H.; Indacochea, J. E.; Liu, Y.; Wang, M. L.

    2010-04-01

    World events have called for a need for fast, reliable, and more deployable methods of detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) than trained canines and visible detection by X-ray screening technologies. Anodized Aluminum Oxides (AAOs) are ideal substrates for chemical sensor developments. The nanoporous structure provides small pore-to-pore distance and large surface areas. These unique qualities allow optical interference in the visible spectrum when the thin film thickness is in the proper range. By coating the nanowells of the oxide surface first with a thin film of a noble metal followed by a monolayer of a target-specific chemical, detection of trace amounts of explosive materials becomes possible. Research has shown that the carboxyl group of 6-mercaptopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (6-MNA) has an attraction to the nitro groups of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) while the thiol group of 6-MNA creates a self-assembled monolayer on the substrate. By utilizing these chemical properties together, UV-vis spectrometry can detect a shift in the visible spectrum on the coated AAO substrate as the 6-MNA structure attracts trace amounts of TNT particles.

  16. Ocular injuries in survivors of improvised explosive devices (IED) in commuter trains

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Salil; Agarwal, Vinay; Jiandani, Prakash

    2007-01-01

    Background Ocular injuries are common in survivors of terror incidents that involve the use of explosive materials. These explosives are commonly of a High Explosive type (HE) and may be fashioned into improvised explosive devices (IED) that incorporate additional materials to maximise trauma and injuries. Serial IED explosions have occurred in commuter trains in several cities including London and Madrid but data on ocular injuries is limited. We report the ocular injuries of the survivors of a series of IED explosions in crowded commuter trains. Methods 28 patients (56 eyes, 28 male, ages ranging from 22 to 52 years (mean 35.27 years) were screened in the triage area or the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Testing included bedside visual acuity testing, torchlight examination of the anterior segment and dilated (or if necessary, undilated) fundus examination. Selected patients underwent B-scan examination, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, orbits and the optic nerves or visual evoked potential assessment. The injuries, investigations and procedures were entered into the patient's case sheet as well as into a standardised format suggested by the Indian eye injury registry (IER). Results 16 of 28 patients (57.1%) had ocular injuries whereas 12 (42.8%) were found to be normal. Injuries were seen unilaterally in 10 patients and bilaterally in six yielding a total of 22 injured eyes. The common injuries were periorbital haemorrhages (09 eyes, 40%); first or second degree burns to the upper or lower lids (seen in 07 eyes, 31.8 %) and corneal injuries (seen in 08 eyes, 36.3%). Open globe injuries were seen in two eyes of two patients (09%). One patient (4.5%) had a traumatic optic neuropathy. Conclusion Ophthalmologists and traumatologists should be aware of these patterns of ocular injuries. Protocols need to include the screening of large numbers of patients in a short time, diagnostic tests (B scan, visual evoked potential (VEP) etc) and early surgery preferably at

  17. Reconstruction of improvised explosive device blast loading to personnel in the open

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiri, Suthee; Needham, Charles

    2016-05-01

    Significant advances in reconstructing attacks by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and other blast events are reported. A high-fidelity three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics tool, called Second-order Hydrodynamic Automatic Mesh Refinement Code, was used for the analysis. Computer-aided design models for subjects or vehicles in the scene accurately represent geometries of objects in the blast field. A wide range of scenario types and blast exposure levels were reconstructed including free field blast, enclosed space of vehicle cabin, IED attack on a vehicle, buried charges, recoilless rifle operation, rocket-propelled grenade attack and missile attack with single subject or multiple subject exposure to pressure levels from ˜ 27.6 kPa (˜ 4 psi) to greater than 690 kPa (>100 psi). To create a full 3D pressure time-resolved reconstruction of a blast event for injury and blast exposure analysis, a combination of intelligence data and Blast Gauge data can be used to reconstruct an actual in-theatre blast event. The methodology to reconstruct an event and the "lessons learned" from multiple reconstructions in open space are presented. The analysis uses records of blast pressure at discrete points, and the output is a spatial and temporal blast load distribution for all personnel involved.

  18. Reconstruction of improvised explosive device blast loading to personnel in the open

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiri, Suthee; Needham, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Significant advances in reconstructing attacks by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and other blast events are reported. A high-fidelity three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics tool, called Second-order Hydrodynamic Automatic Mesh Refinement Code, was used for the analysis. Computer-aided design models for subjects or vehicles in the scene accurately represent geometries of objects in the blast field. A wide range of scenario types and blast exposure levels were reconstructed including free field blast, enclosed space of vehicle cabin, IED attack on a vehicle, buried charges, recoilless rifle operation, rocket-propelled grenade attack and missile attack with single subject or multiple subject exposure to pressure levels from ˜ 27.6 kPa (˜ 4 psi) to greater than 690 kPa (> 100 psi). To create a full 3D pressure time-resolved reconstruction of a blast event for injury and blast exposure analysis, a combination of intelligence data and Blast Gauge data can be used to reconstruct an actual in-theatre blast event. The methodology to reconstruct an event and the "lessons learned" from multiple reconstructions in open space are presented. The analysis uses records of blast pressure at discrete points, and the output is a spatial and temporal blast load distribution for all personnel involved.

  19. The challenge of improvised explosives

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maienschein, Jon L.

    2012-06-14

    Energetic materials have been developed for decades, and indeed centuries, with a common set of goals in mind. Performance (as a detonating explosive, a propellant, or a pyrotechnic) has always been key, equally important have been the attributes of safety, stability, and reproducibility. Research and development with those goals has led to the set of energetic materials commonly used today. In the past few decades, the adoption and use of improvised explosives in attacks by terrorists or third-world parties has led to many questions about these materials, e.g., how they may be made, what threat they pose to the intendedmore » target, how to handle them safely, and how to detect them. The unfortunate advent of improvised explosives has opened the door for research into these materials, and there are active programs in many countries. I will discuss issues and opportunities facing research into improvised explosives.« less

  20. The challenge of improvised explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, Jon L.

    2012-06-14

    Energetic materials have been developed for decades, and indeed centuries, with a common set of goals in mind. Performance (as a detonating explosive, a propellant, or a pyrotechnic) has always been key, equally important have been the attributes of safety, stability, and reproducibility. Research and development with those goals has led to the set of energetic materials commonly used today. In the past few decades, the adoption and use of improvised explosives in attacks by terrorists or third-world parties has led to many questions about these materials, e.g., how they may be made, what threat they pose to the intended target, how to handle them safely, and how to detect them. The unfortunate advent of improvised explosives has opened the door for research into these materials, and there are active programs in many countries. I will discuss issues and opportunities facing research into improvised explosives.

  1. Haptics-based immersive telerobotic system for improvised explosive device disposal: Are two hands better than one?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Lambert, Jason Michel; Mantegh, Iraj; Crymble, Derry; Daly, John; Zhao, Yan

    2012-06-01

    State-of-the-art robotic explosive ordnance disposal robotics have not, in general, adopted recent advances in control technology and man-machine interfaces and lag many years behind academia. This paper describes the Haptics-based Immersive Telerobotic System project investigating an immersive telepresence envrionment incorporating advanced vehicle control systems, Augmented immersive sensory feedback, dynamic 3D visual information, and haptic feedback for explosive ordnance disposal operators. The project aim is to provide operatiors a more sophisticated interface and expand sensory input to perform complex tasks to defeat improvised explosive devices successfully. The introduction of haptics and immersive teleprescence has the potential to shift the way teleprescence systems work for explosive ordnance disposal tasks or more widely for first responders scenarios involving remote unmanned ground vehicles.

  2. Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, Terry

    2010-04-01

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

  3. Millimeter-Wave Imaging of Person-Borne Improvised Explosive Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Justin Leigh

    With the recent rise in casualties and threat of casulties resulting from person-borne improvised explosive devices (PBIEDs) there is an urgent need for building imaging systems to perform standoff and portal detection of such threats. An optimum system that fulfills the requirements of PBIED detection must be low cost and have a high probability of detection with low probability of false alarm. A standoff detection system must also be portable while a portal imaging system can be stationary. Currently there are a variety of modalities being researched to perform standoff detection of PBIED's including: backscatter X-ray imaging, infrared imaging, optical detection, terahertz imaging, video analytics, and millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging. MMW imaging is a perferable modality for full body imaging of PBIEDs for many reasons. MMWs can propagate through the atmosphere and clothing with very little attenuation, while at the same time do not cause damage to human skin tissue. MMWs are small enough to build physical and synthetic aperture systems small enough to have a realistic physical system footprint while also providing excellent cross-range resolution. Present technology is available to generate very wideband coherent MMWsignals, which can be used to generate very high resolution images of targets at both standoff (> 15 meters) and portal (< 1 meter) distances. Due to the large expense of building MMW imaging systems there is a large need to accurately model such systems numerically. With a forward model complex geometries, novel sensor and system configurations can be tested with minimal cost and overhead. Models also allow researchers to carry out extremely precise and repeatable analyses that have the ability to give extraordinary insight to scattering processes. The finite difference method in the frequency domain (FDFD) is a forward model which yields itself as an excellent method to analyze the scattering at MMW frequencies. However, due to the matrix inversion

  4. Using unmanned aerial vehicle-borne magnetic sensors to detect and locate improvised explosive devices and unexploded ordnance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trammell, Hoke S., III; Perry, Alexander R.; Kumar, Sankaran; Czipott, Peter V.; Whitecotton, Brian R.; McManus, Tobin J.; Walsh, David O.

    2005-05-01

    Magnetic sensors configured as a tensor magnetic gradiometer not only detect magnetic targets, but also determine their location and their magnetic moment. Magnetic moment information can be used to characterize and classify objects. Unexploded ordnance (UXO) and thus many types of improvised explosive device (IED) contain steel, and thus can be detected magnetically. Suitable unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms, both gliders and powered craft, can enable coverage of a search area much more rapidly than surveys using, for instance, total-field magnetometers. We present data from gradiometer passes over different shells using a gradiometer mounted on a moving cart. We also provide detection range and speed estimates for aerial detection by a UAV.

  5. Development and Performance of an Ultrawideband Stepped-Frequency Radar for Landmine and Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Brian R.; Gallagher, Kyle A.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2014-11-01

    Under support from the Army Research Laboratory's Partnerships in Research Transition program, a stepped-frequency radar (SFR) is currently under development, which allows for manipulation of the radiated spectrum while still maintaining an effective ultra-wide bandwidth. The SFR is a vehicle-mounted forward-looking ground-penetrating radar designed for high-resolution detection of buried landmines and improvised explosive devices. The SFR can be configured to precisely excise prohibited or interfering frequency bands and also possesses frequency-hopping capabilities. This paper discusses the expected performance features of the SFR as derived from laboratory testing and characterization. Ghosts and artifacts appearing in the range profile arise from gaps in the operating band when the system is configured to omit specific frequencies. An analysis of these effects is discussed and our current solution is presented. Future prospects for the SFR are also discussed, including data collection campaigns at the Army's Adelphi Laboratory Center and the Countermine Test Site.

  6. An initial evaluation of stable isotopic characterisation of post-blast plastic debris from improvised explosive devices.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Anthony T; Bellerby, John M; Carter, James F; Thomas, Fay A; Hill, Jenny C

    2009-06-01

    A number of two-way radios, similar to those which have been employed to initiate Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), were acquired from a commercial supplier and grouped into four pairs. Samples of plastic material were collected from five distinct regions of each radio and analysed by Infrared and Raman spectroscopy to identify the nature of the material. One radio of each pair was then subjected to detonation with a commercially available plastic explosive. The combination of radio and explosive was considered to be representative of the components of an IED. Following detonation, fragments were recovered and, where possible, identified as specific sampling points of the radio. A combination of delta2H and delta13C stable isotopic analysis of material from each of the five sampling points was found to provide a pattern which was characteristic of a given radio and provided a means to associate pairs of radios. When few fragments were recovered, no positive association could be made between the fragments and the paired, undamaged radio. This was attributed, in part, to manufacturing variation in the radios. However, when three or more post-blast fragments were recovered it was possible to associate these with the paired, undamaged radio with a high degree of certainty. PMID:19606586

  7. Recovery of DNA and fingermarks following deployment of render-safe tools for vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIED).

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, S; Houspian, A; Knott, F

    2011-07-15

    Improvised explosive devices (IED) are responsible for a significant proportion of combat and civilian deaths around the world. Given the ease with which IEDs can be made, the large quantity of explosive which can be contained within or on a vehicle, and the use of VBIED in the past (for example the 2002 Bali bombing) in terrorist activities, VBIED are an ongoing concern for Defence and law enforcement agencies. Fingermark and DNA analyses are routinely used by police and forensic analysts to identify suspects involved in illegal activities. There is limited information available on the feasibility of obtaining fingermarks, fibres, hair and DNA samples following an explosive incident, or a situation whereby an IED has been rendered safe following the utilisation of an appropriate defeat or render-safe tool. The main objective of this study was to determine if fingermarks and/or DNA (from saliva and hair samples) placed on the interior and exterior of road vehicles, and on inanimate objects (such as plastic or glass bottles), are able to be obtained and analysed following the use of a vehicle-borne IED (VBIED) render-safe tool on a vehicle containing simulated explosives. The identification of fingermarks on the exterior (67.2±8.5%) and interior (43.8±17.8%) of the vehicles was possible following the use of the render-safe tool, though this was more challenging in the latter than the former. Fingermarks were also able to be identified from both plastic and glass bottles placed inside the vehicles. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques yielded DNA profiles that were able to be identified from saliva and hair samples. These preliminary results suggest that both fingermarks and DNA profiles, obtained from vehicles that have been subjected to a VBIED render-safe tool, may be used to identify persons of interest. PMID:21482051

  8. Multi-arm multilateral haptics-based immersive tele-robotic system (HITS) for improvised explosive device disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Lai, Gilbert; Haddadi, Amir

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the latest advancements of the Haptics-based Immersive Tele-robotic System (HITS) project, a next generation Improvised Explosive Device (IED) disposal (IEDD) robotic interface containing an immersive telepresence environment for a remotely-controlled three-articulated-robotic-arm system. While the haptic feedback enhances the operator's perception of the remote environment, a third teleoperated dexterous arm, equipped with multiple vision sensors and cameras, provides stereo vision with proper visual cues, and a 3D photo-realistic model of the potential IED. This decentralized system combines various capabilities including stable and scaled motion, singularity avoidance, cross-coupled hybrid control, active collision detection and avoidance, compliance control and constrained motion to provide a safe and intuitive control environment for the operators. Experimental results and validation of the current system are presented through various essential IEDD tasks. This project demonstrates that a two-armed anthropomorphic Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot interface can achieve complex neutralization techniques against realistic IEDs without the operator approaching at any time.

  9. Identifying future ‘unexpected’ survivors: a retrospective cohort study of fatal injury patterns in victims of improvised explosive devices

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, James A G; Gibb, Iain E; Hunt, Nicholas C A; Bull, Anthony M J; Clasper, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify potentially fatal injury patterns in explosive blast fatalities in order to focus research and mitigation strategies, to further improve survival rates from blast trauma. Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants UK military personnel killed by improvised explosive device (IED) blasts in Afghanistan, November 2007–August 2010. Setting UK military deployment, through NATO, in support of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan. Data sources UK military postmortem CT records, UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry and associated incident data. Main outcome measures Potentially fatal injuries attributable to IEDs. Results We identified 121 cases, 42 mounted (in-vehicle) and 79 dismounted (on foot), at a point of wounding. There were 354 potentially fatal injuries in total. Leading causes of death were traumatic brain injury (50%, 62/124 fatal injuries), followed by intracavity haemorrhage (20.2%, 25/124) in the mounted group, and extremity haemorrhage (42.6%, 98/230 fatal injuries), junctional haemorrhage (22.2%, 51/230 fatal injuries) and traumatic brain injury (18.7%, 43/230 fatal injuries) in the dismounted group. Conclusions Head trauma severity in both mounted and dismounted IED fatalities indicated prevention and mitigation as the most effective strategies to decrease resultant mortality. Two-thirds of dismounted fatalities had haemorrhage implicated as a cause of death that may have been anatomically amenable to prehospital intervention. One-fifth of the mounted fatalities had haemorrhagic trauma which currently could only be addressed surgically. Maintaining the drive to improve all haemostatic techniques for blast casualties, from point of wounding to definitive surgical proximal vascular control, alongside the development and application of novel haemostatic interventions could yield a significant survival benefit. Prospective studies in this field are indicated. PMID:23906957

  10. High vacuum for containing the blast and radioactive particulate from improvised nuclear devices or explosive radioactive dispersal devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dyckes, G.W.

    1980-07-01

    The problems associated with using a source of high vacuum for attenuating the shock overpressure from uncontained explosive devices were explored. Calculations and the experiments cited revealed that practical difficulties exist in achieving high vacuums in sufficient volume to produce significant decreases in peak shock wave overpressures.

  11. Trace vapor detection of hydrogen peroxide: An effective approach to identification of improvised explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Miao

    Vapor detection has been proven as one of the practical, noninvasive methods suitable for explosives detection among current explosive detection technologies. Optical methods (especially colorimetric and fluorescence spectral methods) are low in cost, provide simple instrumentation alignment, while still maintaining high sensitivity and selectivity, these factors combined facilitate broad field applications. Trace vapor detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) represents an effective approach to noninvasive detection of peroxide-based explosives, though development of such a sensor system with high reliability and sufficient sensitivity (reactivity) still remains challenging. Three vapor sensor systems for H2O2 were proposed and developed in this study, which exploited specific chemical reaction towards H2O2 to ensure the selectivity, and materials surface engineering to afford efficient air sampling. The combination of these features enables expedient, cost effective, reliable detection of peroxide explosives. First, an expedient colorimetric sensor for H2O2 vapor was developed, which utilized the specific interaction between Ti(oxo) and H2O2 to offer a yellow color development. The Ti(oxo) salt can be blended into a cellulose microfibril network to produce tunable interface that can react with H2O2. The vapor detection limit can reach 400 ppb. To further improve the detection sensitivity, a naphthalimide based fluorescence turn-on sensor was designed and developed. The sensor mechanism was based on H2O2-mediated oxidation of a boronate fluorophore, which is nonfluorescent in ICT band, but becomes strongly fluorescent upon conversion into the phenol state. The detection limit of this sensory material was improved to be below 10 ppb. However, some technical factors such as sensor concentration, local environment, and excitation intensity were found difficult to control to make the sensor system sufficiently reproducible. To solve the problem, we developed a

  12. Raman detection of improvised explosive device (IED) material fabricated using drop-on-demand inkjet technology on several real world surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Mikella E.; Holthoff, Ellen L.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2015-05-01

    The requirement to detect hazardous materials (i.e., chemical, biological, and explosive) on a host of materials has led to the development of hazard detection systems. These new technologies and their capabilities could have immediate uses for the US military, national security agencies, and environmental response teams in efforts to keep people secure and safe. In particular, due to the increasing use by terrorists, the detection of common explosives and improvised explosive device (IED) materials have motivated research efforts toward detecting trace (i.e., particle level) quantities on multiple commonly encountered surfaces (e.g., textiles, metals, plastics, natural products, and even people). Non-destructive detection techniques can detect trace quantities of explosive materials; however, it can be challenging in the presence of a complex chemical background. One spectroscopic technique gaining increased attention for detection is Raman. One popular explosive precursor material is ammonium nitrate (AN). The material AN has many agricultural applications, however it can also be used in the fabrication of IEDs or homemade explosives (HMEs). In this paper, known amounts of AN will be deposited using an inkjet printer into several different common material surfaces (e.g., wood, human hair, textiles, metals, plastics). The materials are characterized with microscope images and by collecting Raman spectral data. In this report the detection and identification of AN will be demonstrated.

  13. Identification of inorganic improvised explosive devices by analysis of postblast residues using portable capillary electrophoresis instrumentation and indirect photometric detection with a light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Joseph P; Evenhuis, Christopher J; Johns, Cameron; Kazarian, Artaches A; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Miroslav; Hilder, Emily F; Guijt, Rosanne M; Dicinoski, Greg W; Haddad, Paul R

    2007-09-15

    A commercial portable capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument has been used to separate inorganic anions and cations found in postblast residues from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) of the type used frequently in terrorism attacks. The purpose of this analysis was to identify the type of explosive used. The CE instrument was modified for use with an in-house miniaturized light-emitting diode (LED) detector to enable sensitive indirect photometric detection to be employed for the detection of 15 anions (acetate, benzoate, carbonate, chlorate, chloride, chlorite, cyanate, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, perchlorate, phosphate, sulfate, thiocyanate, thiosulfate) and 12 cations (ammonium, monomethylammonium, ethylammonium, potassium, sodium, barium, strontium, magnesium, manganese, calcium, zinc, lead) as the target analytes. These ions are known to be present in postblast residues from inorganic IEDs constructed from ammonium nitrate/fuel oil mixtures, black powder, and chlorate/perchlorate/sugar mixtures. For the analysis of cations, a blue LED (470 nm) was used in conjunction with the highly absorbing cationic dye, chrysoidine (absorption maximum at 453 nm). A nonaqueous background electrolyte comprising 10 mM chrysoidine in methanol was found to give greatly improved baseline stability in comparison to aqueous electrolytes due to the increased solubility of chrysoidine and its decreased adsorption onto the capillary wall. Glacial acetic acid (0.7% v/v) was added to ensure chrysoidine was protonated and to enhance separation selectivity by means of complexation with transition metal ions. The 12 target cations were separated in less than 9.5 min with detection limits of 0.11-2.30 mg/L (calculated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The anions separation system utilized a UV LED (370 nm) in conjunction with an aqueous chromate electrolyte (absorption maximum at 371 nm) consisting of 10 mM chromium(VI) oxide and 10 mM sodium chromate, buffered with 40 mM tris

  14. Analytical Characterization of Erythritol Tetranitrate, an Improvised Explosive.

    PubMed

    Matyáš, Robert; Lyčka, Antonín; Jirásko, Robert; Jakový, Zdeněk; Maixner, Jaroslav; Mišková, Linda; Künzel, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN), an ester of nitric acid and erythritol, is a solid crystalline explosive with high explosive performance. Although it has never been used in any industrial or military application, it has become one of the most prepared and misused improvise explosives. In this study, several analytical techniques were explored to facilitate analysis in forensic laboratories. FTIR and Raman spectrometry measurements expand existing data and bring more detailed assignment of bands through the parallel study of erythritol [(15) N4 ] tetranitrate. In the case of powder diffraction, recently published data were verified, and (1) H, (13) C, and (15) N NMR spectra are discussed in detail. The technique of electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was successfully used for the analysis of ETN. Described methods allow fast, versatile, and reliable detection or analysis of samples containing erythritol tetranitrate in forensic laboratories. PMID:27122416

  15. Detection of vehicle-based improvised explosives using ultra-trace detection equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Mark; Sikes, John; Prather, Mark; Wichert, Clint

    2005-05-01

    Vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIEDs) have become the weapon of choice for insurgents in Iraq. At the same time, these devices are becoming increasingly sophisticated and effective. VBIEDs can be difficult to detect during visual inspection of vehicles. This is especially true when explosives have been hidden behind a vehicle"s panels, inside seat cushions, under floorboards, or behind cargo. Even though the explosive may not be visible, vapors of explosive emanating from the device are often present in the vehicle, but the current generation of trace detection equipment has not been sensitive enough to detect these low concentrations of vapor. This paper presents initial test results using the Nomadics Fido sensor for detection of VBIEDs. The sensor is a small, explosives detector with unprecedented levels of sensitivity for detection of nitroaromatic explosives. Fido utilizes fluorescence quenching of novel polymer materials to detect traces of explosive vapor emanating from targets containing explosives. These materials, developed by collaborators at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), amplify the quenching response that occurs when molecules of explosive bind to films of the polymer. These materials have enabled development of sensors with performance approaching that of canines trained to detect explosives. The ability of the sensor to detect explosives in vehicles and on persons who have recently been in close proximity to explosives has recently been demonstrated. In these tests, simulated targets were quickly and easily detected using a Fido sensor in conjunction with both direct vapor and swipe sampling methods. The results of these tests suggest that chemical vapor sensing has utility as a means of screening vehicles for explosives at checkpoints and on patrols.

  16. Optically detonated explosive device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.; Menichelli, V. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A technique and apparatus for optically detonating insensitive high explosives, is disclosed. An explosive device is formed by containing high explosive material in a house having a transparent window. A thin metallic film is provided on the interior surface of the window and maintained in contact with the high explosive. A laser pulse provided by a Q-switched laser is focussed on the window to vaporize the metallic film and thereby create a shock wave which detonates the high explosive. Explosive devices may be concurrently or sequentially detonated by employing a fiber optic bundle to transmit the laser pulse to each of the several individual explosive devices.

  17. Use of self-expanding covered stent and negative pressure wound therapy to manage late rectal perforation after injury from an improvised explosive device: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ozer, M Tahir; Coskun, Ali K; Sinan, Huseyin; Saydam, Mehmet; Akay, Emin O; Peker, Subutay; Ogunc, Gokhan; Demirbas, Sezai; Peker, Yusuf

    2014-06-01

    Blast injuries, caused by explosions accompanied by high-pressure waves, produce tissue damage in the acute period, followed in the later period by circulatory disorders due to vascular endothelial damage and related tissue necrosis. Blunt rectal perforation is rare and difficult to diagnose. In the acute period following blast pelvic injuries, the main objectives are to stop bleeding, minimise contamination and preserve the patient's life. The patient in this report had major vascular injuries, severe pelvic injury and, in the later period, rectal perforation because of vascular endothelial damage caused by the blast effect. Our aim was to treat the patient conservatively because of his poor general condition. We placed a self-expanding covered stent (SECS) into the rectum and then applied negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT; V.A.C.® Therapy, KCI) to the pelvic region and perirectal area. At the end of the treatment, the rectal perforation was closed, and the patient was discharged with healing. In this article, we discuss the novel use of an SECS with NPWT and review related literature. PMID:24851734

  18. Variation of methods in small-scale safety and thermal testing of improvised explosives

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirsten F.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; et al

    2014-09-29

    Here, one of the first steps in establishing safe handling procedures for explosives is small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing. To better understand the response of homemade or improvised explosives (HMEs) to SSST testing, 16 HME materials were compared to 3 standard military explosives in a proficiency-type round robin study among five laboratories, two U.S. Department of Defense and three U.S. Department of Energy, sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security, Science & Technology Directorate, Explosives Division.

  19. DHS small-scale safety and thermal testing of improvised explosives-comparison of testing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, J. G.; Sandstrom, M. M.; Brown, G. W.; Warner, K. F.; Phillips, J. J.; Shelley, T. J.; Reyes, J. A.; Hsu, P. C.

    2014-05-01

    One of the first steps in establishing safe handling procedures for explosives is small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing. To better understand the response of improvised materials or homemade explosives (HMEs) to SSST testing, 16 HME materials were compared to three standard military explosives in a proficiency-type round robin study among five laboratories-two DoD and three DOE-sponsored by DHS. The testing matrix has been designed to address problems encountered with improvised materials-powder mixtures, liquid suspensions, partially wetted solids, immiscible liquids, and reactive materials. More than 30 issues have been identified that indicate standard test methods may require modification when applied to HMEs to derive accurate sensitivity assessments needed for developing safe handling and storage practices. This paper presents a generalized comparison of the results among the testing participants, comparison of friction results from BAM (German Bundesanstalt für Materi-alprüfung) and ABL (Allegany Ballistics Laboratory) designed testing equipment, and an overview of the statistical results from the RDX (1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine) standard tested throughout the proficiency test.

  20. Explosion containment device

    DOEpatents

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  1. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and spectral analysis of improvised explosive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Amy J. R.; Farrington, Michael P.; Sorauf, Kellen; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2014-05-01

    There exists an unmet need in the discovery and identification of certain improvised explosive (IE) materials. IE contain a wide range of materials, many of which are not well classified by available hand-held tools, especially metal powders and food products. Available measurement approaches are based in the identification of specific subgroups such as nitro/nitrate and chlorate/perchlorate, normally with Raman spectroscopy. The presence of metal powders is not detected by these approaches, and further the powders themselves scatter the laser radiation used in the excitation of the spectra, making other components more difficult to discern. Preliminary work with laserinduced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) shows that metal powders are easily detected and identified, and that fuel compounds in flash powder mixtures are easily classified with principal component analysis into those containing oxygen and chlorine or those containing oxygen and nitrogen. Alkali and alkali metal signals are readily used to determine the cation of any salt submitted to analysis.

  2. Urea nitrate, an exceptionally easy-to-make improvised explosive: studies towards trace characterization.

    PubMed

    Tamiri, Tsippy; Rozin, Rinat; Lemberger, Nitay; Almog, Joseph

    2009-09-01

    Urea nitrate is a powerful improvised explosive, frequently used by terrorists in the Israeli arena. It was also used in the first World Trade Center bombing in New York in February 1993. It is difficult to identify urea nitrate in post-explosion debris, since only a very small fraction survives the blast. Also, in the presence of water, it readily decomposes to its original components, urea and nitric acid. It is suspected that post-blast debris of urea nitrate can be confused with ammonium nitrate, the main solid product of urea nitrate thermal decomposition. In a comprehensive study towards identification of urea nitrate in post-blast traces, a spectrophotometric technique for quantitative determination of urea nitrate was developed, and conditions were found for extraction and separation of un-exploded traces of urea nitrate with minimal decomposition. Nevertheless, out of 28 samples collected from a series of three controlled firings of urea nitrate charges, only one gave the typical adduct ion by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. We found that urea nitrate can be extracted from solid mixtures to organic solvents by using Crown ethers as "host compounds." The adducts thus formed are solid, crystalline compounds that can be characterized by microanalysis and spectroscopic techniques. PMID:19575193

  3. Ultrasensitive, Real-time and Discriminative Detection of Improvised Explosives by Chemiresistive Thin-film Sensory Array of Mn2+ Tailored Hierarchical ZnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Wu, Zhaofeng; Guo, Yanan; Li, Yushu; Cao, Hongyu; Zheng, Xuefang; Dou, Xincun

    2016-05-01

    A simple method combing Mn2+ doping with a hierarchical structure was developed for the improvement of thin-film sensors and efficient detection of the explosives relevant to improvised explosive devices (IEDs). ZnS hierarchical nanospheres (HNs) were prepared via a solution-based route and their sensing performances were manipulated by Mn2+ doping. The responses of the sensors based on ZnS HNs towards 8 explosives generally increase firstly and then decrease with the increase of the doped Mn2+ concentration, reaching the climate at 5% Mn2+. Furthermore, the sensory array based on ZnS HNs with different doping levels achieved the sensitive and discriminative detection of 6 analytes relevant to IEDs and 2 military explosives in less than 5 s at room temperature. Importantly, the superior sensing performances make ZnS HNs material interesting in the field of chemiresistive sensors, and this simple method could be a very promising strategy to put the sensors based on thin-films of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures into practical IEDs detection.

  4. Ultrasensitive, Real-time and Discriminative Detection of Improvised Explosives by Chemiresistive Thin-film Sensory Array of Mn2+ Tailored Hierarchical ZnS

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Wu, Zhaofeng; Guo, Yanan; Li, Yushu; Cao, Hongyu; Zheng, Xuefang; Dou, Xincun

    2016-01-01

    A simple method combing Mn2+ doping with a hierarchical structure was developed for the improvement of thin-film sensors and efficient detection of the explosives relevant to improvised explosive devices (IEDs). ZnS hierarchical nanospheres (HNs) were prepared via a solution-based route and their sensing performances were manipulated by Mn2+ doping. The responses of the sensors based on ZnS HNs towards 8 explosives generally increase firstly and then decrease with the increase of the doped Mn2+ concentration, reaching the climate at 5% Mn2+. Furthermore, the sensory array based on ZnS HNs with different doping levels achieved the sensitive and discriminative detection of 6 analytes relevant to IEDs and 2 military explosives in less than 5 s at room temperature. Importantly, the superior sensing performances make ZnS HNs material interesting in the field of chemiresistive sensors, and this simple method could be a very promising strategy to put the sensors based on thin-films of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures into practical IEDs detection. PMID:27161193

  5. Ultrasensitive, Real-time and Discriminative Detection of Improvised Explosives by Chemiresistive Thin-film Sensory Array of Mn(2+) Tailored Hierarchical ZnS.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Wu, Zhaofeng; Guo, Yanan; Li, Yushu; Cao, Hongyu; Zheng, Xuefang; Dou, Xincun

    2016-01-01

    A simple method combing Mn(2+) doping with a hierarchical structure was developed for the improvement of thin-film sensors and efficient detection of the explosives relevant to improvised explosive devices (IEDs). ZnS hierarchical nanospheres (HNs) were prepared via a solution-based route and their sensing performances were manipulated by Mn(2+) doping. The responses of the sensors based on ZnS HNs towards 8 explosives generally increase firstly and then decrease with the increase of the doped Mn(2+) concentration, reaching the climate at 5% Mn(2+). Furthermore, the sensory array based on ZnS HNs with different doping levels achieved the sensitive and discriminative detection of 6 analytes relevant to IEDs and 2 military explosives in less than 5 s at room temperature. Importantly, the superior sensing performances make ZnS HNs material interesting in the field of chemiresistive sensors, and this simple method could be a very promising strategy to put the sensors based on thin-films of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures into practical IEDs detection. PMID:27161193

  6. SENNA: device for explosives' detection based on nanosecond neutron analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry; Gorshkov, Igor

    2006-05-01

    Portable device for explosives' detection (SENNA) based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis (NNA) / Associated Particles Technique (APT) has been created and tested. SENNA is a single suitcase weighting 35 kg; it is remotely controlled from any PC-compatible computer. Inside is an APT neutron generator with a 3×3 matrix of semiconductor detectors of associated alpha-particles, two BGO-based detectors of gamma-rays, fully-digital data acquisition electronics, data analysis and decision-making software, and batteries. Detection technology is based on determining chemical composition of the concealed substance by analyzing secondary gamma-rays from interaction of tagged fast neutrons with its material. A combination of position-sensitive alpha-detector and time-of-flight analysis allows one to determine the location of the detected material within the inspected volume and its approximate mass. Fully digital data acquisition electronics is capable of performing alpha-gamma coincidence analysis at very high counting rates, which leads to reduction of the detection time down to dozens of seconds. SENNA's scenario-driven automatic decisionmaking algorithm based of "fuzzy logic" mechanism allows one to detect not only standard military or industrial explosives, but also improvised explosives (including those containing no nitrogen), even if their chemical composition differs from that of standard explosives. SENNA can also be "trained" to detect other hazardous materials, such as chemical/toxic materials, if their chemical composition is in any way different from that of the surrounding materials.

  7. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Proficiency Testing on Small-Scale Safety and Thermal Testing of Improvised Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, John; Sandstrom, Mary; Brown, Geoffrey; Warner, Kirstin; Phillips, Jason; Shelley, Timothy; Reyes, Jose; Hsu, Peter

    2013-06-01

    One of the first steps in establishing safe handling procedures for explosives is small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing. To better understand the response of improvised materials or HMEs to SSST testing, 18 HME materials were compared to 3 standard military explosives in a proficiency-type round robin study among five laboratories--2 DoD and 3 DOE--sponsored by DHS. The testing matrix has been designed to address problems encountered with improvised materials--powder mixtures, liquid suspensions, partially wetted solids, immiscible liquids, and reactive materials. Over 30 issues have been identified that indicate standard test methods may require modification when applied to HMEs to derive accurate sensitivity assessments needed for development safe handling and storage practices. This presentation will discuss experimental difficulties encountered when testing these problematic samples, show inter-laboratory testing results, show some statistical interpretation of the results, and highlight some of the testing issues. Some of the work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-617519 (721812).

  8. An Improvised “Blow Glove” Device Produces Similar PEP Values to a Commercial PEP Device: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Dagan, Yaakov; Wiser, Itay; Farber, Nimrod; Hundeshagen, Gabriel; Winkler, Eyal; Kazula-Halabi, Tamar; Haik, Josef

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Postoperative positive expiratory pressure (PEP) therapy promotes increased lung volume, secretion clearance, and improved oxygenation. Several commercial devices exist that produce recommended PEP values (10–20 cmH2O) when the patient breathes through a fixed orifice resistor. It was hypothesized that an inexpensive, improvised “blow glove” device would produce similar PEP values over a wider range of expiration volumes and flow rates. Methods: PEP for different expiration volumes (400–2000 mL) and expiratory flow rates (10–80 L/min) was compared between a commercial PEP device (Resistex, Mercury Medical, Clearwater, FL) and an improvised “blow glove” device, recorded by a Vela ventilator (CareFusion, San Diego, CA). Dynamics in positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) values were evaluated following five consecutive expirations. The “blow glove” device was evaluated using various glove compositions and sizes. Results: The improvised “blow glove” device produced a significantly higher rate of PEP values in the recommended range than the Resistex device (88.9% vs. 20%, p<0.0001). No significant difference was observed between small and large glove sizes (88.9% vs. 82.9%, p>0.05), but the powdered latex glove showed a significantly higher rate of PEP values in the recommended range than the powder-free latex glove (88.9% vs. 44.4%, p<0.001). Conclusions: A “blow glove” PEP device using a powdered latex glove produces PEP values in the recommended range over a wider spectrum of expiratory flow rates and expiration volumes than a commercial PEP device. PMID:25125786

  9. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  10. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  11. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  12. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  13. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  14. Swell Sleeves for Testing Explosive Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkel, Todd J.; Dean, Richard J.; Hohmann, Carl W.; Hacker, Scott C.; Harrington, Douglas W.; Bacak, James W.

    2003-01-01

    A method of testing explosive and pyrotechnic devices involves exploding the devices inside swell sleeves. Swell sleeves have been used previously for measuring forces. In the present method, they are used to obtain quantitative indications of the energy released in explosions of the devices under test. A swell sleeve is basically a thick-walled, hollow metal cylinder threaded at one end to accept a threaded surface on a device to be tested (see Figure 1). Once the device has been tightly threaded in place in the swell sleeve, the device-and-swell-sleeve assembly is placed in a test fixture, then the device is detonated. After the explosion, the assembly is removed from the test fixture and placed in a coordinate-measuring machine for measurement of the diameter of the swell sleeve as a function of axial position. For each axial position, the original diameter of the sleeve is subtracted from the diameter of the sleeve as swollen by the explosion to obtain the diametral swelling as a function of axial position (see Figure 2). The amount of swelling is taken as a measure of the energy released in the explosion. The amount of swelling can be compared to a standard amount of swelling to determine whether the pyrotechnic device functioned as specified.

  15. Exploitation of Ubiquitous Wi-Fi Devices as Building Blocks for Improvised Motion Detection Systems.

    PubMed

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Gennarelli, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with a feasibility study on the detection of human movements in indoor scenarios based on radio signal strength variations. The sensing principle exploits the fact that the human body interacts with wireless signals, introducing variations of the radiowave fields due to shadowing and multipath phenomena. As a result, human motion can be inferred from fluctuations of radiowave power collected by a receiving terminal. In this paper, we investigate the potentialities of widely available wireless communication devices in order to develop an improvised motion detection system (IMDS). Experimental tests are performed in an indoor environment by using a smartphone as a Wi-Fi access point and a laptop with dedicated software as a receiver. Simple detection strategies tailored for real-time operation are implemented to process the received signal strength measurements. The achieved results confirm the potentialities of the simple system here proposed to reliably detect human motion in operational conditions. PMID:26927126

  16. Exploitation of Ubiquitous Wi-Fi Devices as Building Blocks for Improvised Motion Detection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Gennarelli, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with a feasibility study on the detection of human movements in indoor scenarios based on radio signal strength variations. The sensing principle exploits the fact that the human body interacts with wireless signals, introducing variations of the radiowave fields due to shadowing and multipath phenomena. As a result, human motion can be inferred from fluctuations of radiowave power collected by a receiving terminal. In this paper, we investigate the potentialities of widely available wireless communication devices in order to develop an improvised motion detection system (IMDS). Experimental tests are performed in an indoor environment by using a smartphone as a Wi-Fi access point and a laptop with dedicated software as a receiver. Simple detection strategies tailored for real-time operation are implemented to process the received signal strength measurements. The achieved results confirm the potentialities of the simple system here proposed to reliably detect human motion in operational conditions. PMID:26927126

  17. Identification of improvised explosives residues using physical-chemical analytical methods under real conditions after an explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrlý, Marek; Mareš, Bohumil; Turková, Ivana; Beroun, Ivo

    2016-05-01

    Within the analysis of cases relating to the use of explosives for crimes, we have experienced a shift from using industrial explosives towards substances made in amateur and illegal way. Availability of industrial explosives is increasingly limited to a narrow sphere of subjects with a relevant permission. Thus, on the part of perpetrators, terrorists, ever greater attention is paid to illegal production of explosives that are easily made from readily available raw materials. Another alarming fact is the availability of information found on the internet. Procedures of preparation are often very simple and do not require even a deeper professional knowledge. Explosive characteristics are not actually accessible for many of these substances (detonation velocity, sensitivity, working capacity, brisance, physical and chemical stability, etc.). Therefore, a project is being implemented, which on grounds of assessment of individual information available in literature and on the internet, aiming at choosing individual areas of potentially abusable substances (e.g. mixtures of nitric acid (98%) with organic substances, mixtures nitromethane and tetranitromethane with organic substances, mixtures of chlorates and perchlorates of alkali metals with organic substances, chemically individual compounds of organic base type of perchloric acid, azides, fulminates, acetylides, picrates, styphnates of heavy metals, etc.). It is directed towards preparation of these explosives also in non-stoichiometric mixtures, conducting test explosives, determination of explosive characteristics (if they are unknown) and analysis of both primary phases and post-blast residues through available analytical techniques, such as gas and liquid chromatography with mass detection, FTIR, micro-Raman spectrometry, electron microscopy with microanalysis and Raman microspectrometry directly in SEM chamber for analysis at the level of individual microparticles. The received characteristics will be used to

  18. Glass ceramics for explosive device headers

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, C. P.; Eagan, R. J.; Kjeldgaard, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    The desired features of a header for our advanced explosive devices include small size; 700 Mpa static burst strength; corrosion resistant alloys for electrodes, bridgewire, and housing; integral charge holder; high thermal conductivity (approaching that of alumina ceramic); no braze around the electrodes; design flexibility and quick turnaround time for fabrication of development prototypes; and low cost.

  19. Terahertz spectroscopy and solid-state density functional theory simulations of the improvised explosive oxidizers potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Witko, Ewelina M; Buchanan, William D; Korter, Timothy M

    2011-11-10

    Terahertz spectroscopy provides a noninvasive and nondestructive method for detecting and identifying concealed explosives. In this work, the room-temperature and cryogenic terahertz spectra of two common improvised explosive oxidizers, namely, potassium nitrate (KN) and ammonium nitrate (AN), are presented, along with detailed solid-state density functional theory (DFT) analyses of the crystalline structures and spectral features. At both 294 and 78 K, KN exhibits two terahertz absorption features below 100 cm(-1) that have been assigned through DFT simulations to arise from hindered nitrate rotations in the KN-II crystalline polymorph. The terahertz spectrum of AN exhibits a pronounced temperature dependence. The 294 K spectrum is free of any absorptions, whereas the 78 K spectrum consists of several narrow and intense peaks. The origin of this large difference is the polymorphic transition that occurs during cooling of AN, where room-temperature AN-IV is converted to AN-V at 255 K. The 78 K terahertz spectrum of AN is assigned here to various ion rotations and translations in the AN-V polymorph lattice. The analysis of the room-temperature AN-IV terahertz spectrum proved to be more complicated. The solid-state DFT simulations predicted that the room-temperature crystal structure of AN is not very well described using the standard Pmmn space-group symmetry as previously believed. The AN-IV polymorph actually belongs to the Pmn2(1) space group, and the perceived Pmmn symmetry results from vibrational averaging through nitrate rotations. This newly observed Pmn2(1) crystal symmetry for room-temperature AN is the reason for the absence of absorption features in the 294 K terahertz spectrum of AN and provides new insight into the polymorphic transitions of this ionic solid. PMID:22007790

  20. Planning and Response to the Detonation of an Improvised Nuclear Device: Past, Present, and Future Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bentz, A

    2008-07-31

    While the reality of an improvised nuclear device (IND) being detonated in an American city is unlikely, its destructive power is such that the scenario must be planned for. Upon reviewing the academic literature on the effects of and response to IND events, this report looks to actual responders from around the country. The results from the meetings of public officials in the cities show where gaps exist between theoretical knowledge and actual practice. In addition to the literature, the meetings reveal areas where future research needs to be conducted. This paper recommends that local response planners: meet to discuss the challenges of IND events; offer education to officials, the public, and responders on IND events; incorporate 'shelter-first' into response plans; provide information to the public and responders using the 3 Cs; and engage the private sector (including media) in response plans. In addition to these recommendations for the response planners, the paper provides research questions that once answered will improve response plans around the country. By following the recommendations, both groups, response planners and researchers, can help the country better prepare for and mitigate the effects of an IND detonation.

  1. Accelerator-Based Biological Irradiation Facility Simulating Neutron Exposure from an Improvised Nuclear Device.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Turner, Helen C; Marino, Stephen A; Geard, Charles R; Brenner, David J; Garty, Guy

    2015-10-01

    We describe here an accelerator-based neutron irradiation facility, intended to expose blood or small animals to neutron fields mimicking those from an improvised nuclear device at relevant distances from the epicenter. Neutrons are generated by a mixed proton/deuteron beam on a thick beryllium target, generating a broad spectrum of neutron energies that match those estimated for the Hiroshima bomb at 1.5 km from ground zero. This spectrum, dominated by neutron energies between 0.2 and 9 MeV, is significantly different from the standard reactor fission spectrum, as the initial bomb spectrum changes when the neutrons are transported through air. The neutron and gamma dose rates were measured using a custom tissue-equivalent gas ionization chamber and a compensated Geiger-Mueller dosimeter, respectively. Neutron spectra were evaluated by unfolding measurements using a proton-recoil proportional counter and a liquid scintillator detector. As an illustration of the potential use of this facility we present micronucleus yields in single divided, cytokinesis-blocked human peripheral lymphocytes up to 1.5 Gy demonstrating 3- to 5-fold enhancement over equivalent X-ray doses. This facility is currently in routine use, irradiating both mice and human blood samples for evaluation of neutron-specific biodosimetry assays. Future studies will focus on dose reconstruction in realistic mixed neutron/photon fields. PMID:26414507

  2. A Review of the Research on Response to Improvised Nuclear Device Events

    SciTech Connect

    Bentz, A; Buddemeier, B; Dombroski, M

    2008-07-01

    Following the events of September 11, a litany of imaginable horribles was trotted out before an anxious and concerned public. To date, government agencies and academics are still grappling with how to best respond to such catastrophes, and as Senator Lieberman's quote says above, now is the time to plan and prepare for such events. One of the nation's worst fears is that terrorists might detonate an improvised nuclear device (IND) in an American city. With 9/11 serving as the catalyst, the government and many NGOs have invested money into research and development of response capabilities throughout the country. Yet, there is still much to learn about how to best respond to an IND event. Understanding the state of knowledge, identifying gaps, and making recommendations for how to fill those gaps, this paper will provide a framework under which past findings can be understood and future research can fit. The risk of an improvised nuclear device (IND) detonation may seem unlikely; and while this is hopefully true, due to its destructive capability, IND events must be prepared for. Many people still live under the Cold War mentality that if a city is attacked with a nuclear weapon, there is little chance of survival. This assumption, while perhaps true in the case of multiple, thermonuclear weapons exchanges, does not hold for the current threat. If a single IND were detonated in the United States, there would be many casualties at the point of impact; however, there would also be many survivors and the initial response by two major groups will mean the difference between life and death for many people. These groups are the first responders and the public. Understanding how these two groups prepare, react and interact will improve response to nuclear terrorism. Figure 1 provides a visualization of the response timeline of an IND event. For the purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that to accurately inform the public, three functions need to be fulfilled by

  3. [Peculiarities of forensic medical reconstruction of the mechanism of injuries in numerous victims of the explosion of a high-capacity blasting device].

    PubMed

    Fradkina, N A; Kovalev, A V; Makarov, I Iu

    2013-01-01

    The systemic analysis of forensic medical practice in Moscow during the past 15 years has demonstrated the scientific, practical, and social significance of expertise of peace-time blast injuries resulting from many terrorist attacks with the use of improvised high-capacity explosive devices that caused multiple human victims. The authors emphasize the current lack of objective forensic medical criteria for the reconstruction of the mechanism of injuries in numerous victims of the explosion of a high-capacity blasting device. It dictates the necessity of their development and substantiation of their practical application. PMID:23802296

  4. Detection of the improvised explosives ammonium nitrate (AN) and urea nitrate (UN) using non-aqueous solvents with electrospray ionization and MS/MS detection.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Inge; McCord, Bruce

    2013-10-15

    In this study methods for the detection of trace levels of the improvised explosives urea nitrate and ammonium nitrate were developed using electrospray ionization with infusion. By using a non-aqueous solvent mixture containing 95% acetone with 5% 2-methoxyethanol we were able to preserve the urea and ammonium nitrate ion pairs and discriminate between these and other similar salts. Negative ion electrospray ionization was used for urea nitrate detection and positive ion electrospray ionization was used for ammonium nitrate. Two specific adduct ions were detected for each explosive with ammonium nitrate producing m/z 178 [2AN+NH4](+) and m/z 258 ions [3AN+NH4](+) while urea nitrate produced m/z 185 [UN+NO3](-) and m/z 248 [UN+HNO3+NO3](-) The specificity of the analysis was examined by mixing the different explosives with various salts and interferents. Adduct ions formed in the gas phase were found to be useful in distinguishing between ion pairs and mixed salts. Overall the method demonstrates the sensitive detection of both explosives, and more specifically the potential to determine intact urea nitrate. PMID:24054629

  5. Redundant, Confined-Explosive Severance Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    Noncontaminating, long, explosive joint with highly reliable separation capability invented for such applications as separation of rocket-motor stages of spacecraft from rockets or Space Shuttle. Two explosive cords housed in tubes held in place by two notched doublers and commercially available fasteners. When either cord fired, its tube expands, bending doublers and causing fracture at adjacent notch.

  6. Service-Life Extension of Explosive Escape Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical and functional tests yield conservative service-life estimates. Approach to extension of service lives of explosive devices in aircraft escape system developed, supported by testing of representative candidate devices to evaluate quantitatively effects of service, age, and degradation, and to enable responsible, conservative service-life determinations. Five types of explosive components evaluated: rigid and flexible explosive transfer lines; one-way transfers; flexible, linear-shaped charges; and initiation-handles. Extension of service in realistic manner provides both cost savings and increased system reliability.

  7. Trace explosive sensor devices based on semiconductor nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Danling

    This dissertation discusses an explosive sensing device based on semiconductor nanomaterials. Here, we mainly focus on two kinds of materials: titanium dioxide nanowires and silicon nanowires to detect explosive trace vapor. Herein, methods for the synthesis, fabrication, design of nanostructured sensing materials using low-cost hydrothermal process are present. In addition, the nanomaterials have been systemically tested on different explosive. The first part of dissertation is focused on the fabrication of TiO2(B) dominant nanowires and testing the response to explosives. It was found that the high porous TiO2(B) nanowires when mixed anatase TiO2, exhibit a very fast and highly sensitive response to nitro-containing explosives. The second part of dissertation has studied the basic sensing mechanism of TiO2(B) nanowire sensor to detect explosives. It shows the specific surface characteristics of TiO2 responsible for the nitro-containing explosives. This information is then used to propose a method using UV illumination to reduce the effect of water vapor on TiO2(B) nanowires. The third part discussed an explosive sensor based on silicon nanowires. We analyzed the mechanism of silicon nanowires to detect nitro-related explosive compounds. In order to further investigate the sensing mechanism of TiO2, the fourth part of dissertation studies the effect on sensor performance by using different crystal phases of TiO2, different microstructure of TiO2, surface modification of TiO2, and different kinds of nanostructured semiconductors such as ZnO nanowires, TiO2 coated ZnO nanowires, V2O5 nanowires, and CdS nanowires to detect explosives. It is found that only TiO2 related semiconductor shows good response to explosives.

  8. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Burlage, R.S.; Patek, D.R.; Smith, C.M.; Hibbs, A.D.; Rayner, T.J.

    1997-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM) are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, none has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  9. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kercel, Stephen W.; Burlage, Robert S.; Patek, David R.; Smith, Cyrus M.; Hibbs, Andrew D.; Rayner, Timothy J.

    1997-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, one has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  10. Safety analysis of optically ignited explosive and pyrotechnic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Holswade, S.

    1994-05-01

    The future of optical ordnance depends on the acceptance, validation and verification of the stated safety enhancement claims of optical ordnance over existing electrical explosive devices (EED`s). Sandia has been pursuing the development of optical ordnance, with the primary motivation of this effort being the enhancement of explosive safety by specifically reducing the potential of premature detonation that can occur with low energy electrically ignited explosive devices. By using semiconductor laser diodes for igniting these devices, safety improvements can be made without being detrimental to current system concerns since the inputs required for these devices are similar to electrical systems. Laser Diode Ignition (LDI) of the energetic material provides the opportunity to remove the bridgewire and electrically conductive pins from the charge cavity, creating a Faraday cage and thus isolating the explosive or pyrotechnic materials from stray electrical ignition sources. Recent results from our continued study of safety enhancements are presented. The areas of investigation which are presented include: (1) unintended optical source analysis, specifically lightning insensitivity, (2) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and electrostatic discharge (ESD) insensitivity analysis, and (3) powder safety.

  11. Low cost mobile explosive/drug detection devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, T.; Bendahan, J.

    1999-06-01

    Inspection technologies based on Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA®) and/or Fast Neutron Analysis (FNA) are the basis for relatively compact and low-cost, material-sensitive devices for a wide variety of inspection needs. The TNA allows the use of either isotropic neutron sources such as a 252Cf, or electronic neutron generators such as the d-T sealed neutron generator tubes. The latter could be used in a steady state mode or in slow (>μs) pulsing mode, to separate the thermal neutron capture signatures following the pulse from the combination of the FNA plus TNA signatures during the pulse. Over the years, Ancore Corporation has built and is continuing to develop a variety of inspection devices based on its TNA and FNA technologies: SPEDS—an explosive detection device for small parcels, portable electronics, briefcases and other similar carry-on items; MDS—a system for the detection or confirmation of buried mines; VEDS—a system for the detection of varied amounts of explosives and/or drugs concealed in passenger vehicles, pallets, lightly loaded trucks or containers, etc.; ACD—a device to clear alarms from a primary, non-specific explosive detection system for passenger luggage. The principle and performance of these devices will be shown and discussed.

  12. Beginning Steps to Improvisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickolajak, Mary T.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a unit used with sixth-grade students focusing on jazz and blues that taught improvisation. Discusses the different levels of improvisation that were used, providing the beginning activities, and describes activities that focus on the third level of improvisation called product-oriented improvisation. (CMK)

  13. Modeling of high-current devices with explosive electron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anishchenko, S. V.; Gurinovich, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a detailed analysis of explosive electron emission in high-current electronic devices, we formulate a system of equations that describes the expansion of cathode plasma and the generation of high-current electron beams. The system underlies the numerical algorithm for the hybrid code which enables the simulation of the charged particles’ dynamics in high-current vircators with open resonators. Using the Gabor-Morlet transform, we perform a time-frequency analysis of vircator radiation.

  14. Home-made explosive found inside injured Afghan.

    PubMed

    Pengelly, Steven; Moore, N; Burgess, D; Mahlon, M; Rowlands, T; Cubison, T

    2015-06-01

    There is extensive literature on metal fragments from improvised explosive devices being embedded in patients but there are no reports describing the clinical and radiological appearances of embedded home-made explosive (HME). We present a case of partially detonated HME being found inside a patient's forearm. We discuss the medical management of the injury, the ongoing risk to the patient and surgical team associated with the explosive and the safe disposal of the substance. PMID:24970934

  15. Application of the MESA reactive hydrocode to space vehicle explosive ordnance devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Selma

    1993-01-01

    The construction of detailed computational models of the dynamic behavior of various explosive ordnance devices used on space vehicles is discussed. The following topics are presented in viewgraph form: numerical methods, explosives and detonations, and the MESA computer code.

  16. Simulation study on radio frequency safety of electric explosive device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Peijie; Tan, Zhiliang; Liu, Chaoyang; Du, Zhide

    2013-03-01

    Radio frequency (RF) is a great danger to the electric explosive device (EED) of typical ordnance. This paper introduced the RF firing mechanism of the EED and the measuring method of its RF impedance. Through the professional antenna simulation software CST, a dipole antenna model of the EED was set up, the gain coefficient of the antenna model was obtained, and the RF power penetrating into the EED was calculated. The multi-frequency analysis of the emulation indicates that in the certain frequency range of 0.5-2 GHz, the gain coefficient of the antenna model increases as the frequency does.

  17. Determination of Nanogram Microparticles from Explosives after Real Open-Air Explosions by Confocal Raman Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Explosives are increasingly being used for terrorist attacks to cause devastating explosions. The detection of their postblast residues after an explosion is a high challenge, which has been barely investigated, particularly using spectroscopic techniques. In this research, a novel methodology using confocal Raman microscopy has been developed for the analysis of postblast residues from 10 open-air explosions caused by 10 different explosives (TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP, HMTD, dynamite, black powder, ANFO, chloratite, and ammonal) commonly used in improvised explosive devices. The methodology for the determination of postblast particles from explosives consisted of examining the samples surfaces with both the naked eye, first, and microscopically (10× and 50×), immediately afterward; and finally, analyzing the selected residues by confocal Raman spectroscopy in order to identify the postblast particles from explosives. Interestingly, confocal Raman microscopy has demonstrated to be highly suitable to rapidly, selectively, and noninvasively analyze postblast microscopic particles from explosives up to the nanogram range. PMID:27281604

  18. Hand-Held Devices Detect Explosives and Chemical Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Ion Applications Inc., of West Palm Beach, Florida, partnered with Ames Research Center through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements to develop a miniature version ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). While NASA was interested in the instrument for detecting chemicals during exploration of distant planets, moons, and comets, the company has incorporated the technology into a commercial hand-held IMS device for use by the military and other public safety organizations. Capable of detecting and identifying molecules with part-per-billion sensitivity, the technology now provides soldiers with portable explosives and chemical warfare agent detection. The device is also being adapted for detecting drugs and is employed in industrial processes such as semiconductor manufacturing.

  19. Improvisation in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straehle, Manfred; Soucar, Beth

    This paper explores the supportive and effective uses of improvisation in counseling. Specifically, the intention in this paper is to accomplish three goals: to explore the history of improvisation in psychotherapy, to examine the aspects of improvisation that pertain to the counseling process, and to identify ways in which the use of…

  20. Digital micromirror devices in Raman trace detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glimtoft, Martin; Svanqvist, Mattias; Ågren, Matilda; Nordberg, Markus; Östmark, Henric

    2016-05-01

    Imaging Raman spectroscopy based on tunable filters is an established technique for detecting single explosives particles at stand-off distances. However, large light losses are inherent in the design due to sequential imaging at different wavelengths, leading to effective transmission often well below 1 %. The use of digital micromirror devices (DMD) and compressive sensing (CS) in imaging Raman explosives trace detection can improve light throughput and add significant flexibility compared to existing systems. DMDs are based on mature microelectronics technology, and are compact, scalable, and can be customized for specific tasks, including new functions not available with current technologies. This paper has been focusing on investigating how a DMD can be used when applying CS-based imaging Raman spectroscopy on stand-off explosives trace detection, and evaluating the performance in terms of light throughput, image reconstruction ability and potential detection limits. This type of setup also gives the possibility to combine imaging Raman with non-spatially resolved fluorescence suppression techniques, such as Kerr gating. The system used consists of a 2nd harmonics Nd:YAG laser for sample excitation, collection optics, DMD, CMOScamera and a spectrometer with ICCD camera for signal gating and detection. Initial results for compressive sensing imaging Raman shows a stable reconstruction procedure even at low signals and in presence of interfering background signal. It is also shown to give increased effective light transmission without sacrificing molecular specificity or area coverage compared to filter based imaging Raman. At the same time it adds flexibility so the setup can be customized for new functionality.

  1. The physical basis of explosion and blast injury processes.

    PubMed

    Proud, W G

    2013-03-01

    Energetic materials are widely used in civilian and military applications, such as quarrying and mining, flares, and in munitions. Recent conflicts have involved the widespread use of improvised explosive devices to attack military, civilians and infrastructure. This article gives a basic overview of explosive technology and the underlying physical processes that produce the injuries encountered. In particular aspects relevant to primary and secondary injuries are discussed. PMID:23631318

  2. 75 FR 282 - Restricting the Mailing of Replica or Inert Explosive Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... 111 Restricting the Mailing of Replica or Inert Explosive Devices AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... the mailing of replica or inert explosive devices, such as grenades, be sent by Registered Mail TM... Service published a Federal Register proposed rule (73 FR 12321) on March 7, 2008 to prohibit replica...

  3. Explosive Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this project was to determine the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The studies were carried out using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model results were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements are presented in this report. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another.

  4. Smart phones: platform enabling modular, chemical, biological, and explosives sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Amethist S.; Coppock, Matthew; Bickford, Justin R.; Conn, Marvin A.; Proctor, Thomas J.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2013-05-01

    Reliable, robust, and portable technologies are needed for the rapid identification and detection of chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) materials. A key to addressing the persistent threat to U.S. troops in the current war on terror is the rapid detection and identification of the precursor materials used in development of improvised explosive devices, homemade explosives, and bio-warfare agents. However, a universal methodology for detection and prevention of CBE materials in the use of these devices has proven difficult. Herein, we discuss our efforts towards the development of a modular, robust, inexpensive, pervasive, archival, and compact platform (android based smart phone) enabling the rapid detection of these materials.

  5. Free Improvisation; Life Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Hoon Hong

    2011-01-01

    This autoethnographic study seeks the value, position and possibilities of free improvisation in the musical field. It explores how embodied knowledge, dialectical exchanges, emotional and intellectual stimulation constructs and reconstructs experiences in various contexts for the free improviser, who is both researcher and actual piano performer.…

  6. Implications of an Improvised Nuclear Device Detonation on Command and Control for Surrounding Regions at the Local, State and Federal Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquale, David A.; Hansen, Richard G.

    2013-01-23

    This paper discusses command and control issues relating to the operation of Incident Command Posts (ICPs) and Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs) in the surrounding area jurisdictions following the detonation of an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). Although many aspects of command and control will be similar to what is considered to be normal operations using the Incident Command System (ICS) and the National Incident Management System (NIMS), the IND response will require many new procedures and associations in order to design and implement a successful response. The scope of this white paper is to address the following questions: • Would the current command and control framework change in the face of an IND incident? • What would the management of operations look like as the event unfolded? • How do neighboring and/or affected jurisdictions coordinate with the state? • If the target area’s command and control infrastructure is destroyed or disabled, how could neighboring jurisdictions assist with command and control of the targeted jurisdiction? • How would public health and medical services fit into the command and control structure? • How can pre-planning and common policies improve coordination and response effectiveness? • Where can public health officials get federal guidance on radiation, contamination and other health and safety issues for IND response planning and operations?

  7. Using Jazz to Teach Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Improvising has been around since the dawn of music. Most music in the world is improvised to some extent, and the idea of performing notes on the page "as written" is a fairly young development in music's history. One genre that does heavily stress improvisation from the start is jazz. Since jazz ethic is based on improvised performances,…

  8. 75 FR 30300 - Restricting the Mailing of Replica or Inert Explosive Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 282-283), which added restrictions to the mailing of replica and inert explosive devices in... discovered in the mail. Such evacuations resulted in unnecessary expense and loss of productivity to...

  9. Simulation of Enhanced-Explosive Devices in Chambers and Tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J B; Kuhl, A L; Beckner, V E

    2007-06-05

    Introduction: Shock-dispersed fuel (SDF) explosives use a small chemical charge to disperse a combustible fuel that burns in the post-detonation environment. The energy released in the combustion process has the potential for generating higher pressures and temperatures than conventional explosives. However, the development of these types of novel explosive systems requires a detailed understanding of all of the modes of energy release. Objective: The objective of this project is develop a simulation capability for predicting explosion and combustion phase of SDF charges and apply that capability to quantifying the behavior of these types of explosives. Methodology: We approximate the dynamics of an SDF charge using high Reynolds number, fast chemistry model that effectively captures the thermodynamic behavior of SDF charges and accurately models the key modes of energy release. The overall computational model is combined with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) , implemented in a parallel adaptive framework suited to the massively parallel computer systems. Results: We have developed a multiphase version of the model and used it to simulate an SDF charge in which the dispersed fuel is aluminum flakes. Flow visualizations show that the combustion field is turbulent for the chamber and tunnel cases studied. During the 3 milli-seconds of simulation, over 90% of the Al fuel was consumed for the chamber case, while about 40% was consumed in the tunnel case in agreement with Al-SDF experiments. Significance to DoD: DoD has a requirement to develop enhanced energetic materials to support future military systems. The SDF charges described here utilize the combustion mechanism to increase energy per gram of fuel by a factor of 7 to 10 over conventional (detonating) charges, and increase the temperature of the explosion cloud to 2,000-4,000 K (depending on the SDF fuel). Accurate numerical simulation of such SDF explosions allows one to understand the energy release mechanism

  10. Approach for Service Life Extension of Explosive Devices for Aircraft Escape Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The service life evaluation of explosive devices used in a wide variety of aircraft escape systems is described. The purpose was to develop a service extension approach, supported by tests on candidate devices, to evaluate the effects of service, age, and degradation, and allow responsible, conservative, service life determinations. An overview is given on the recommended approach and experimental procedures for accurate service evaluations with test results on rigid and flexible explosive transfer lines, one-way transfers, and flexible linear shaped charges.

  11. Methods of field blasting of earth formations using inflatable devices for suspending explosives in boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgibbon, D.F.

    1990-04-03

    This patent describes a method for production blasting of an earth formation to remove earth from the formation. It comprises: drilling production holes in the formation in a desired pattern; disposing explosive material within the holes; disposing inflatable bag-like devices within at least certain of the holes; inflating the devices to seal or plug the holes; disposing material above each device to suspend the material within the hole through the support provided by the device; and detonating the explosive material within the holes in a desired sequence.

  12. Improvisation: Teaching Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzmich, John A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The past, present and future of music improvisation is discussed. Resources for piano, guitar, elementary general music materials, and electronic music materials are included, along with addresses of publishers. The emphasis is on jazz. (KC)

  13. Gospel and Blues Improvisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Richard

    1980-01-01

    The similarities and differences between blues and gospel music are identified and the author suggests that both blues and gospel music have inherent improvisational qualities. Methods of capitalizing on these qualities are presented. Selected readings and recordings are included. (KC)

  14. Mini-fission fusion explosive devices (mini-nukes) for nuclear pulse propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear pulse propulsion demands low-yield nuclear explosive devices. Because the critical mass of a fission explosive is rather large, this leads to extravagant fission devices with a very low fuel burn-up. For non-fission ignited pure fusion microexplosions the problem is the large ignition apparatus (laser, particle beam, etc.). Fission ignited large fusion explosive devices are for obvious reasons even less desirable. A third category (mini-nukes) are devices where the critical mass of the fission explosive is substantially reduced by its coupling to a DT fusion reaction, with the DT fusion neutrons increasing the fission rate. Whereas in pure fission devices a reduction of the critical mass is achieved by the implosive compression of the fissile core with a chemical high explosive, in the third category the implosion must at the same time heat the DT surrounding the fissile core to a temperature of ⩾107K, at which enough fusion neutrons are generated to increase the fission rate which in turn further increases the temperature and fusion neutron production rate. As has been shown by the author many years ago, such mini-nukes lead to astonishingly small critical masses. In their application to nuclear pulse propulsion the combustion products from the chemical high explosive are further heated by the neutrons and are becoming part of the propellant.

  15. Broad energy range neutron spectroscopy using a liquid scintillator and a proportional counter: Application to a neutron spectrum similar to that from an improvised nuclear device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J.

    2015-09-01

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n)3He and D(d,n)3He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the 9Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  16. An Orientation to Explosive Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Betty W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of various types of explosives. Classifies and describes explosives as initiating or primary explosives, low explosives, and high (secondary explosives). Discusses detonating devices, domestic explosive systems, the sensitivity of explosives, explosive reactions, and emergency responses. (TW)

  17. Apollo Spacecraft and Saturn V Launch Vehicle Pyrotechnics/Explosive Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Apollo Mission employs more than 210 pyrotechnic devices per mission.These devices are either automatic of commanded from the Apollo spacecraft systems. All devices require high reliability and safety and most are classified as either crew safety critical or mission critical. Pyrotechnic devices have a wide variety of applications including: launch escape tower separation, separation rocket ignition, parachute deployment and release and electrical circuit opening and closing. This viewgraph presentation identifies critical performance, design requirements and safety measures used to ensure quality, reliability and performance of Apollo pyrotechnic/explosive devices. The major components and functions of a typical Apollo pyrotechnic/explosive device are listed and described (initiators, cartridge assemblies, detonators, core charges). The presentation also identifies the major locations and uses for the devices on: the Command and Service Module, Lunar Module and all stages of the launch vehicle.

  18. Remote Detection of Explosive Molecules by a Microfluidic SERS Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piorek, Brian; Lee, Seung Joon; Moskovits, Martin; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Meinhart, Carl

    2007-11-01

    Free-surface microfluidics (FSF) is combined with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect trace explosives vapors at room temperature and pressure. A free surface, with a large surface to volume ratio, is created using an open microchannel. Since surface tension is a dominant force at the microscale, it can be used to confine the fluid in the microchannel and create a pressure gradient to drive the flow with velocities ranging from ˜ 1um/s - 1mm/s. The curvature of the free surface is measured by confocal microscopy in order to determine the local Laplace pressure in the free-surface microchannel flow. The system has been used for the molecular-specific detection of vapor emanated from explosives such as DNT, TNT and picric acid. The system does not show signs of performance degradation from common interferents such as saturated gasoline vapor and perfume.

  19. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  20. Keyboard Improvisation: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingscott, John; Durrant, Colin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the phenomenon of musical improvisation within two contrasting musical genres--jazz piano and liturgical and concert organ. While improvisation is well documented in both genres, there is little literature relating the two forms and, in particular, the process of improvisation. The aim of this study is to…

  1. Intelligence and musical improvisation.

    PubMed

    Hermelin, B; O'Connor, N; Lee, S; Treffert, D

    1989-05-01

    We investigated whether somebody with a severe mental impairment could not only remember and reproduce music, but was also able to generate it. Musical improvisation requires the ability to recognize constraints and also demands inventiveness. Musical improvisations on a traditional, tonal and also on a whole tone scale composition were produced by a mentally handicapped and by a normal control musician. It was found that not only the control but also the handicapped subject could improvise appropriately within structural constraints, although with the tonal music the idiot-savant showed some stylistic latitude. It is concluded that cognitive processes such as musical input analysis, decision making, and output monitoring are independent of general intellectual status. PMID:2762446

  2. The Effects of Group Free Improvisation Instruction on Improvisation Achievement and Improvisation Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Maud; Ankney, Kimberly; Healy, Daniel; Gallo, Donna

    2016-01-01

    While improvisation in K-12 schools in the USA has gained some traction since the inception of the US National Standards in 1994, there is still a dearth of improvisation activities in schools because of the lack of music teacher preparation in improvisation. The purpose of this study was to determine if providing group free improvisation…

  3. Apparatus and methods for real-time detection of explosives devices

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, Brandon W; Hunt, Alan W; Chichester, David L

    2014-01-07

    The present disclosure relates, according to some embodiments, to apparatus, devices, systems, and/or methods for real-time detection of a concealed or camouflaged explosive device (e.g., EFPs and IEDs) from a safe stand-off distance. Apparatus, system and/or methods of the disclosure may also be operable to identify and/or spatially locate and/or detect an explosive device. An apparatus or system may comprise an x-ray generator that generates high-energy x-rays and/or electrons operable to contact and activate a metal comprised in an explosive device from a stand-off distance; and a detector operable to detect activation of the metal. Identifying an explosive device may comprise detecting characteristic radiation signatures emitted by metals specific to an EFP, an IED or a landmine. Apparatus and systems of the disclosure may be mounted on vehicles and methods of the disclosure may be performed while moving in the vehicle and from a safe stand-off distance.

  4. Research topics in explosives - a look at explosives behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maienschein, J. L.

    2014-05-01

    The behaviors of explosives under many conditions - e.g., sensitivity to inadvertent reactions, explosion, detonation - are controlled by the chemical and physical properties of the explosive materials. Several properties are considered for a range of improvised and conventional explosives. Here I compare these properties across a wide range of explosives to develop an understanding of explosive behaviors. For improvised explosives, which are generally heterogeneous mixtures of ingredients, a range of studies is identified as needed to more fully understand their behavior and properties. For conventional explosives, which are generally comprised of crystalline explosive molecules held together with a binder, I identify key material properties that determine overall sensitivity, including the extremely safe behavior of Insensitive High Explosives, and discuss an approach to predicting the sensitivity or insensitivity of an explosive.

  5. Explosives Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    E. H. Seabury; A. J. Caffrey

    2006-04-01

    The feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices has been studied computationally, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Monte Carlo results, in turn were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements have been previously reported. In this report we describe measurements performed on actual explosives and compare the results with calculations. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another by PGNAA

  6. Narrative Development in Improvisational Theatre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumer, Allan; Magerko, Brian

    We have investigated the experience of improvisers as they perform to better understand how narrative is constructed by group performance in improvisational theatre. Our study was conducted with improvisers who would perform improv "games" with each iteration video recorded. Each individual participant was shown the video in a retrospective protocol collection, before reviewing it again in a group interview. This process is meant to elicit information about how the cognition involved develops narrative during an improvisation performance. This paper presents our initial findings related to narrative development in improvisational theatre with an ambition to use these and future analyses in creating improvisational intelligent agents. These findings have demonstrated that the construction of narrative is crafted through the making and accepting of scene-advancing offers, which expert improvisers are more readily capable of performing.

  7. Modeling Environmental Effects of Pollutants Dispersion Generated by Explosions in Confined Enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefler, Y.; Sidilkover, D.; Pistinner, S.

    Improvised radiological dispersion devises (IRDD) might constitute a significant threat to homeland security. One possibility for such an improvised devise, is an industrial radioactive source attached to an explosive.

  8. An investigation of corrosion in semiconductor bridge explosive devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Klassen, Sandra Ellen; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2007-05-01

    In the course of a failure investigation, corrosion of the lands was occasionally found in developmental lots of semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonators and igniters. Evidence was found in both detonators and igniters of the gold layer being deposited on top of a corroded aluminum layer, but inspection of additional dies from the same wafer did not reveal any more corroded parts. In some detonators, evidence was found that corrosion of the aluminum layer also happened after the gold was deposited. Moisture and chloride must both be present for aluminum to corrode. A likely source for chloride is the adhesive used to bond the die to the header. Inspection of other SCB devices, both recently manufactured and manufactured about ten years ago, found no evidence for corrosion even in devices that contained SCBs with aluminum lands and no gold. Several manufacturing defects were noted such as stains, gouges in the gold layer due to tooling, and porosity of the gold layer. Results of atmospheric corrosion experiments confirmed that devices with a porous gold layer over the aluminum layer are susceptible to extensive corrosion when both moisture and chlorine are present. The extent of corrosion depends on the level of chlorine contamination, and corrosion did not occur when only moisture was present. Elimination of the gold plating on the lands eliminated corrosion of the lands in these experiments. Some questions remain unanswered, but enough information was gathered to recommend changes to materials and procedures. A second lot of detonators was successfully built using aluminum SCBs, limiting the use of Ablebond{trademark} adhesive, increasing the rigor in controlling exposure to moisture, and adding inspection steps.

  9. Report on Department of Homeland Security Sponsored Research Project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on Preparation for an Improvised Nuclear Device Event

    SciTech Connect

    A., B

    2008-07-31

    Following the events of September 11th, a litany of imaginable horribles was trotted out before an anxious and concerned public. To date, government agencies and academics are still grappling with how to best respond to such catastrophes, and as Senator Lieberman's quote says above, now is the time to plan and prepare for such events. One of the nation's worst fears is that terrorists might detonate an improvised nuclear device (IND) in an American city. With 9/11 serving as the catalyst, the government and many NGOs have invested money into research and development of response capabilities throughout the country. Yet, there is still much to learn about how to best respond to an IND event. My summer 2008 internship at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory afforded me the opportunity to look in depth at the preparedness process and the research that has been conducted on this issue. While at the laboratory I was tasked to collect, combine, and process research on how cities and the federal government can best prepare for the horrific prospect of an IND event. Specific projects that I was involved with were meeting reports, research reviews, and a full project report. Working directly with Brooke Buddemeier and his support team at the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center, I was able to witness first hand, preparation for meetings with response planners to inform them of the challenges that an IND event would pose to the affected communities. In addition, I supported the Homeland Security Institute team (HSI), which was looking at IND preparation and preparing a Congressional report. I participated in meetings at which local responders expressed their concerns and contributed valuable information to the response plan. I specialized in the psycho-social aspects of an IND event and served as a technical advisor to some of the research groups. Alongside attending and supporting these meetings, I worked on an independent research project which collected

  10. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and

  11. Analysis of explosives via microchip electrophoresis and conventional capillary electrophoresis: a review.

    PubMed

    Pumera, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The upsurge in terrorist activity has generated tremendous demand for innovative tools capable of detecting major industrial, military, and home-made (improvised) explosives. Fast, sensitive, and reliable detection of explosives in the field is a very important issue in nowadays. CE, especially in its miniaturized format (lab-on-a-chip), offers great possibilities to create portable, field deployable, rapidly responding, and potentially disposable devices, allowing security forces to make the important decisions regarding the safety of civilians. This article overviews the microchip and conventional capillary electrophoretic techniques for analysis of a wide variety of explosive compounds and mixtures. PMID:16307431

  12. Capillary-driven microfluidic paper-based analytical devices for lab on a chip screening of explosive residues in soil.

    PubMed

    Ueland, Maiken; Blanes, Lucas; Taudte, Regina V; Stuart, Barbara H; Cole, Nerida; Willis, Peter; Roux, Claude; Doble, Philip

    2016-03-01

    A novel microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was designed to filter, extract, and pre-concentrate explosives from soil for direct analysis by a lab on a chip (LOC) device. The explosives were extracted via immersion of wax-printed μPADs directly into methanol soil suspensions for 10min, whereby dissolved explosives travelled upwards into the μPAD circular sampling reservoir. A chad was punched from the sampling reservoir and inserted into a LOC well containing the separation buffer for direct analysis, avoiding any further extraction step. Eight target explosives were separated and identified by fluorescence quenching. The minimum detectable amounts for all eight explosives were between 1.4 and 5.6ng with recoveries ranging from 53-82% from the paper chad, and 12-40% from soil. This method provides a robust and simple extraction method for rapid identification of explosives in complex soil samples. PMID:26850317

  13. Modeling of explosive electron emission and electron beam dynamics in high-current devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anishchenko, S. V.; Gurinovich, A. A.

    2014-03-01

    Based on a detailed analysis of explosive electron emission in high-current electronic devices, we formulate a system of equations that describes the expansion of the cathode plasma and the generation of high-current electron beams. The system underlies the numerical algorithm for the hybrid code which enables simulating the charged particles' dynamics in high-current vircators with open resonators. Using the Gabor-Morlet transform, we perform the time-frequency analysis of vircator radiation.

  14. Electromagnetic coupling between transmitters and electro-explosive devices located within an enclosure.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2010-04-01

    This report documents calculations conducted to determine if 42 low-power transmitters located within a metallic enclosure can initiate electro-explosive devices (EED) located within the same enclosure. This analysis was performed for a generic EED no-fire power level of 250 mW. The calculations show that if the transmitters are incoherent, the power available is 32 mW - approximately one-eighth of the assumed level even with several worst-case assumptions in place.

  15. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2011-09-01

    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  16. Detection and dispersal of explosives by ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Achal, Steve; Faust, Anthony A.; Puckrin, Eldon; House, Andrew; Reynolds, Damon; McDougall, William; Asquini, Adam

    2009-05-01

    The ability of animals to detect explosives is well documented. Mammalian systems, insects and even single celled organisms have all been studied and in a few cases employed to detect explosives. This paper will describe the potential ability of ants to detect, disperse and possibly neutralize bulk explosives. In spring 2008 a team of DRDC and Itres scientists conducted experiments on detecting surface-laid and buried landmines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and their components. Measurements were made using state-of-the-art short wave and thermal infrared hyperspectral imagers mounted on a personnel lift. During one of the early morning measurement sessions, a wispy, long linear trail was seen to emanate several meters from piles of explosives that were situated on the ground. Upon close visual inspection, it was observed that ants had found the piles of explosives and were carrying it to their ant hill, a distance of almost 20 meters from the piles. Initial analysis of the hyperspectral images clearly revealed the trail to the ant hill of explosives, despite being present in quantities not visible to the unaided eye. This paper details these observations and discusses them in the context of landmine and IED detection and neutralization. Possible reasons for such behaviour are presented. A number of questions regarding the behaviour, many pertinent to the use of ants in a counter-landmine/IED role, are presented and possible methods of answering them are discussed. Anecdotal evidence from deminers of detection and destruction of explosives by ants are presented.

  17. The Improvisational in Teaching Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commeyras, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Contends that an improvisational stance in teaching avoids disagreements and blockages that can stymie reading instruction. Outlines eight graduate students' experiences teaching improvisationally. Explains that the tutors sought a collaborative teaching stance that was in tune with the individual children's interests and personality. Defines…

  18. Improvisation: Thinking "and" Playing Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckstead, David

    2013-01-01

    This article explores and contextualizes improvisation in music from an educational perspective. First, recent brain research that sees improvisation as a distinct cognitive activity is examined and used to illustrate the importance and uniqueness of this often ignored area of music learning. Next, the implications for the music classroom are…

  19. Improvisation and meaning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating. PMID:23930989

  20. Improvisation and meaning.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating. PMID:23930989

  1. Development of a non-explosive release device for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, John D.; Purdy, William E.; Johnson, A. David

    1992-01-01

    A simple, non-explosive, high load capacity release mechanism using a shape memory alloy is currently being developed for space flight. This device, the Frangibolt, could replace most pyrotechnic devices in applications where the need for safety, reliability, non-destructive testing, and minimal mechanical shock is more crucial than the need for rapid actuation. Prototype hardware has been designed, tested, and proven in laboratory conditions. Orientation and demonstration of these devices evidenced reliable and repeatable performance, clearly indicating that extensive testing for flight qualification is warranted. Here, the Frangibolt design is discussed, recent test results of laboratory units are described, and the work that must be performed in the upcoming months to qualify the device for aerospace applications is addressed.

  2. A portable device for fast analysis of explosives in the environment.

    PubMed

    Čapka, Lukáš; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Mikuška, Pavel; Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav; Bumbová, Alena

    2015-04-01

    A novel portable device for fast and sensitive analysis of explosives in environmental samples is presented. The developed system consists of miniaturized microcolumn liquid chromatograph, photolytic converter and chemiluminescence detector. The device is able to determine selectively nitramine- and nitroester- and most of nitroaromates-based explosives as well as inorganic nitrates at trace concentrations in water or soil extracts in less than 8 min. The device allows to analyze various environmental samples such as soils or water materials without previous preconcentration. Because of internal power supply, the device ensures 12h of continuous operation. Limits of detection of compounds of interest are in the range of concentrations from 5.0 × 10(-9)M to 8.0 × 10(-5)M for a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Limits of quantification are in the range of concentrations from 1.7 × 10(-8)M to 2.7 × 10(-4)M for a signal-to-noise ratio of 10. The repeatability of the method (RSD=2.9-5.6%) was determined by repeated injections (n=10) of the standard samples during 4h. PMID:25736306

  3. Improvisation as Ability, Culture, and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…

  4. Far-field dispersal modeling for fuel-air-explosive devices

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, M.W.

    1990-05-01

    A computer model for simulating the explosive dispersal of a fuel agent in the far-field regime is described and is applied to a wide variety of initial conditions to judge their effect upon the resulting fuel/air cloud. This work was directed toward modeling the dispersal process associated with Fuel-Air-Explosives devices. The far-field dispersal regime is taken to be that time after the initial burster charge detonation in which the shock forces no longer dominate the flow field and initial canister and fuel mass breakup has occurred. The model was applied to a low vapor pressure fuel, a high vapor pressure fuel and a solid fuel. A strong dependence of the final cloud characteristics upon the initial droplet size distribution was demonstrated. The predicted fuel-air clouds were highly non-uniform in concentration. 18 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Terahertz reflection spectroscopy for the detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy-Hoppa, Megan R.; Fitch, Michael J.; Osiander, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology has been demonstrated as a promising tool for detection of explosives and is being developed for aviation screening and sensing of improvised explosive devices. THz radiation is attractive for many applications due to its ability to penetrate through a wide range of dielectric materials including clothing, paper, cardboard, plastics, and wood. Of course, metals block THz waves as is the case for microwave, IR, and visible light. Our work has involved investigating the reflection spectroscopy of a variety of materials including explosives such as RDX and PETN, plastic explosive taggants such as DMDNB, and other organic materials. We have also investigated the changes of the reflection spectra in varying grades of sucrose. Spectral differences are observed between three grades of crystalline sugar in the region from 0.1 to 1 THz. By exploiting the unique spectral features, the discrimination capabilities of THz reflection spectroscopy points to the broad applicability of identifying a wide variety of materials.

  6. Brain injury from explosive blast: description and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Ling, G; Ecklund, J M; Bandak, F A

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating clinical experience is indicating that explosive blast brain injury is becoming recognized as a disease distinct from the penetrating form of blast injury as well as the classic closed head injury (CHI). In recent US conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, over 60% of combat casualties were from explosive blast with the hallmark explosive weapon being the improvised explosive device (IED). Explosive blast TBI is a condition afflicting many combat injured warfighters potentially constituting another category of TBI. Clinically, it shares many features with conventional TBI but possesses some unique aspects. In its mild form, it also shares many clinical features with PTSD but here again has distinct aspects. Although military medical providers depend on civilian standard of care guidelines when managing explosive blast mTBI, they are continually adapting their medical practice in order to optimize the treatment of this disease, particularly in a theater of war. It is clear that further rigorous scientific study of explosive blast mTBI at both the basic science and clinical levels is needed. This research must include improved understanding of the causes and mechanisms of explosive blast TBI as well as comprehensive epidemiologic studies to determine the prevalence of this disease and its risk factors. A widely accepted unambiguous clinical description of explosive blast mTBI with diagnostic criteria would greatly improve diagnosis. It is hoped that through appropriate research meaningful prevention, mitigation, and treatment strategies for explosive blast mTBI can be speedily realized. PMID:25702216

  7. Multi-channeled single chain variable fragment (scFv) based microfluidic device for explosives detection.

    PubMed

    Charles, Paul T; Davis, Jasmine; Adams, André A; Anderson, George P; Liu, Jinny L; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Kusterbeck, Anne W

    2015-11-01

    The development of explosives detection technologies has increased significantly over the years as environmental and national security agencies implement tighter pollution control measures and methods for improving homeland security. 2, 4, 6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), known primarily as a component in munitions, has been targeted for both its toxicity and carcinogenic properties that if present at high concentrations can be a detriment to both humans, marine and plant ecosystems. Enabling end users with environmental detection and monitoring systems capable of providing real-time, qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of these toxic compounds would be extremely beneficial. Reported herein is the development of a multi-channeled microfluidic device immobilized with single chain fragment variable (scFv) recombinant proteins specific for the explosive, TNT. Fluorescence displacement immunoassays performed under constant flow demonstrated trace level sensitivity and specificity for TNT. The utility of three multi-channeled devices immobilized with either (1) scFv recombinant protein, (2) biotinylated-scFv (bt-scFv) and (3) monoclonal anti-TNT (whole IgG molecule) were investigated and compared. Fluorescence dose response curves, crossreactivity measurements and limits of detection (LOD) for TNT were determined. Fluorescence displacement immunoassays for TNT in natural seawater demonstrated detection limits at sub-parts-per-billion levels (0.5 ppb) utilizing the microfluidic device with immobilized bt-scFv. PMID:26452845

  8. Improvising on an Indian Flute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Martha Mead

    1984-01-01

    The Indian flute can be used by teachers to supplement classroom study of Indian culture. Indians used it as a personal instrument. Describes how an Indian flute can be made, and suggests improvising bird calls and melodies on it. (CS)

  9. Development in the Detection and Identification of Explosive Residues.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, A D

    1992-06-01

    In the past 2 decades, developments in the sensitivity and selectivity of instrument detectors have significantly improved the detection limits for explosives, particularly nitrated organic compounds. Significant improvements have also been made in clean up and recovery procedures for explosive residues. Methods which also have met the criterion of proven effectiveness in identifying explosive components in "real-world" residues from test explosions have been incorporated into systematic analysis protocols for explosive residues. This article first reviews developments in the application of both traditional and novel methods to analysis of unreacted explosives and explosive residues. Compounds used to formulate commercial, military, and "homemade" explosives are then cross-referenced to the analytical methods that have been specifically applied to them, both as pure chemicals and in explosive mixtures. The subsequent focus is on the combinations of methods used to systematically analyze and positively identify residues from improvised explosive devices, from handswabs derived from persons suspected of handling explosives, and from organic gunshot residue. Technology is available to positively identify virtually any unreacted explosive in residue, but no one method can detect all components of all explosives. Investigators and the courts are best served by well-equipped forensic science laboratories staffed with scientists who have gained experience by the successful analysis of post-blast residues from an explosives range and have comprehensive reference collections of physical material, analytical data, and literature. The greatest progress has been made with respect to nitrated organic compounds, but the new generation of commercial explosive slurries and emulsions which are primarily formulated with inorganic salts and non-nitrated organic compounds offer an ongoing challenge. PMID:26267286

  10. The neuroscience of musical improvisation.

    PubMed

    Beaty, Roger E

    2015-04-01

    Researchers have recently begun to examine the neural basis of musical improvisation, one of the most complex forms of creative behavior. The emerging field of improvisation neuroscience has implications not only for the study of artistic expertise, but also for understanding the neural underpinnings of domain-general processes such as motor control and language production. This review synthesizes functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) studies of musical improvisation, including vocal and instrumental improvisation, with samples of jazz pianists, classical musicians, freestyle rap artists, and non-musicians. A network of prefrontal brain regions commonly linked to improvisatory behavior is highlighted, including the pre-supplementary motor area, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and dorsal premotor cortex. Activation of premotor and lateral prefrontal regions suggests that a seemingly unconstrained behavior may actually benefit from motor planning and cognitive control. Yet activation of cortical midline regions points to a role of spontaneous cognition characteristic of the default network. Together, such results may reflect cooperation between large-scale brain networks associated with cognitive control and spontaneous thought. The improvisation literature is integrated with Pressing's theoretical model, and discussed within the broader context of research on the brain basis of creative cognition. PMID:25601088

  11. Bilateral tension pneumothorax following equipment improvisation.

    PubMed

    Zambricki, Christine; Schmidt, Carol; Vos, Karen

    2014-02-01

    This case report describes an unexpected event that took place as a result of using improvised equipment. The patient, a 16-year-old female undergoing complex oral surgery, suffered bilateral pneumothorax following the improper use of an airway support device. During the immediate postoperative period with the patient still intubated, oxygen tubing was attached to a right angle elbow connector with the port closed and 10 L/minute oxygen flow was administered to the patient in a manner that did not allow the patient to exhale. Within seconds, pneumothorax was apparent as the patient's vital signs deteriorated, visible swelling was noted in the shoulders and neck, and there was an absence of breath sounds on auscultation. This case study has application beyond the immediate discussion of bilateral pneumothorax, serving as a caution about the unintended consequences of equipment improvisation. In addition to highlighting the hazards of providing patient care with a non-standard device, this study also provides a powerful example of the human factors that can contribute to medical errors in the healthcare setting. PMID:24654348

  12. Improvisational Practices in Elementary General Music Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenhagen, Lisa M.; Whitcomb, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Despite historic and ongoing support for the inclusion of improvisation in the elementary general music curriculum, music educators consistently report challenges with implementation of improvisational activities in their classes. This study was designed to examine (a) the extent to which improvisational activities were occurring in the…

  13. Detection of explosives using THz time domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Châteauneuf, Marc; Dubois, Jacques; Allard, Jean-François; Houde, Daniel; Morris, Denis

    2007-06-01

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are a major threat to Canadian and allies troups involved in peacekeeping and minor conflict operations and despite their relative low technology they represent a major challenge in terms of detection and countermeasures. In order to provide tools to detect these threats, Defence Research & Development Canada - Valcartier initiated a research project to the feasibility of using terahertz (THz) radiations to detect and identify the presence of commonly used explosives and concealed weapons in a standoff method. This paper presents the initial results of the first year of the project and the future directions. A compact THz time domain spectroscopy was developed to build a THz signature table of commonly used explosives.

  14. Phenomenology and system engineering of micro- and nano-antenna FPA sensors for detection of concealed weapons and improvised explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, R.; Ferguson, S.

    2012-06-01

    The ability of millimetre wave and terahertz systems to penetrate clothing is well known. The fact that the transmission of clothing and the reflectivity of the body vary as a function of frequency is less so. Several instruments have now been developed to exploit this capability. The choice of operating frequency, however, has often been associated with the maturity and the cost of the enabling technology rather than a sound systems engineering approach. Top level user and systems requirements have been derived to inform the development of design concepts. Emerging micro and nano technology concepts have been reviewed and we have demonstrated how these can be evaluated against these requirements by simulation using OpenFx. Openfx is an open source suite of 3D tools for modeling, animation and visualization which has been modified for use at millimeter waves.

  15. Geometry-independent neutral desorption device for the sensitive EESI-MS detection of explosives on various surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gu, Haiwei; Yang, Shuiping; Li, Jianqiang; Hu, Bin; Chen, Huanwen; Zhang, Lili; Fei, Qiang

    2010-04-01

    A novel geometry-independent neutral desorption (GIND) device was successfully developed, which made neutral desorption (ND) sampling easier and more robust on virtually all types of surfaces. The GIND device features a small air-tight enclosure with fixed space between the ND gas emitter, the sample surface, and the sample collector. Besides easy fabrication and convenient use, this configuration facilitates efficient neutral sample transfer and results in high sensitivity by preventing material loss during the ND process. The effects of various operating parameters of the GIND device such as desorption gas composition, surface wetness, gas flow rate, distance between the surface and the gas emitter, internal diameter of the sample outlet, and GIND device material were experimentally investigated. By using the GIND device, trace amounts of typical explosives such as TNT, RDX, HMX, TATP, etc., were successfully sampled from many different kinds of surfaces, including human skin, glove, glass, envelope, plastic, leather, glass, and clothes. GIND-sampled explosives were detected by multiple-stage extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS). Ion/molecule reactions of explosives such as RDX and TATP were implemented in the EESI source for the rapid detection with enhanced sensitivity and specificity. The typical time for a single sample analysis was a few seconds. Successful transportation of the neutral analytes over a distance longer than 10 m was demonstrated, without either significant signal loss or serious delay of signal response. The limit of detection for these explosives in the study was in the range of ca. 59-842 fg (S/N = 3, n = 8) on various surfaces. Acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD) values (ca. 4.6-10.2%, n = 8) were obtained for all the surfaces tested, showing the successful sampling of trace non-volatile explosive compounds (sub-picogram) by the GIND device for the EESI mass spectrometric analysis. PMID:20349542

  16. Improvisation and the art of holistic nursing.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Mary Anne; Fenton, Mary V

    2013-10-01

    The art of improvisation is an essential component of responding on the front lines of caring. Improvisation expresses the nurse's capacity to perceive the changing patterns of patients and their environments in ways that foster creative and innovative approaches to meeting healthcare needs. Many holistic nurses across the country are working on the front lines of caring, improvising and implementing projects to create change within their communities. This article examines improvisation within the context of the art and science of nursing, and proposes that improvisation reflects qualities within holistic nursing that are essential in contemporary health care. PMID:24575514

  17. 49 CFR 174.9 - Safety and security inspection and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... compromised, including the presence of an improvised explosive device. As used in this section, an improvised explosive device is a device fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating explosives or...

  18. 49 CFR 174.9 - Safety and security inspection and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... compromised, including the presence of an improvised explosive device. As used in this section, an improvised explosive device is a device fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating explosives or...

  19. Contextualized Improvisation in Solfege Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dos Santos, Regina Antunes Teixeira; Del Ben, Luciana

    2004-01-01

    This article presents practitioner research dealing with improvisation in solfege as a creative alternative for the development of music perception. Solfege practice, conceived as a personal construction of a melody, requires an attitude that embraces aural sensitivity to the spatial and temporal dimensions of a melodic line, identification of…

  20. Improvisation: A Complement to Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronald, Green A.

    2006-01-01

    With the growth of standardized assessment benchmarks in both the public and private paradigms, testing performance matters to institutions more than ever. In an attempt to take as many hindering variables out of this process, such as test anxiety, socioeconomic influences, and latency in cognition, Improvisation: A Complement to Curriculum seeks…

  1. Mass spectrometry detection and imaging of inorganic and organic explosive device signatures using desorption electro-flow focusing ionization.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Thomas P; Sisco, Edward

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate the coupling of desorption electro-flow focusing ionization (DEFFI) with in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) for the mass spectrometric (MS) detection and imaging of explosive device components, including both inorganic and organic explosives and energetic materials. We utilize in-source CID to enhance ion collisions with atmospheric gas, thereby reducing adducts and minimizing organic contaminants. Optimization of the MS signal response as a function of in-source CID potential demonstrated contrasting trends for the detection of inorganic and organic explosive device components. DEFFI-MS and in-source CID enabled isotopic and molecular speciation of inorganic components, providing further physicochemical information. The developed system facilitated the direct detection and chemical mapping of trace analytes collected with Nomex swabs and spatially resolved distributions within artificial fingerprints from forensic lift tape. The results presented here provide the forensic and security sectors a powerful tool for the detection, chemical imaging, and inorganic speciation of explosives device signatures. PMID:24968206

  2. Successive explosions in Mumbai the economic center of India.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, R; Daundkar, B B; Malve, M K

    2006-01-01

    Terrorist activities in India are increasing day by day with sophistication in modus operandi. Mumbai the economic center of India was attacked by a series of bomb blasts at twelve different places within a span of an hour on 12th March 1993. The main explosive used was RDX [Krishnamurthy R, Malve MK, Shinde BM. J Indian Acad Forensic Sci 1996;35(1& 2):46-61.]. After about 10 years, terrorist activity of late has again erupted taking a toll on innocent lives, with the use of explosives causing death and destruction. On 2.12.02 a public bus at Ghatkopar was blown up by an improvised explosive device (IED) with two casualties. On 27.1.03 the public vegetable market at Vileparle was targeted causing heavy damage and panic among common people. On 13.3.03 a fully packed local train compartment at Mulund railway station was blown up by an improved explosive device and the casualties ranged up to 10. In most of the explosions the explosives used were RDX, NC-NG, etc. The blasts that occurred at the Zaveri bazaar and the gateway of India on 25/8/03 showed the presence of big craters at the blast site and on analysis the presence of RDX and petroleum oil. PMID:17055401

  3. Novice Music Teachers Learning to Improvise in an Improvisation Professional Development Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filsinger, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    With the intent of improving music improvisation pedagogy, the purpose of this research was to examine experiences of six novice music teachers and a professional development facilitator in an eight-week Improvisation Professional Development Workshop (IPDW). The research questions were: 1. How do teachers learn to improvise within the context of…

  4. Optically-energized, emp-resistant, fast-acting, explosion initiating device

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David A.; Kuswa, Glenn W.

    1987-01-01

    Optical energy, provided from a remote user-operated source, is utilized to initially electrically charge a capacitor in a circuit that also contains an explosion initiating transducer in contact with a small explosive train contained in an attachable housing. Additional optical energy is subsequently supplied in a preferred embodiment to an optically responsive phototransistor acting in conjunction with a silicon controlled rectifer to release the stored electrical energy through the explosion initiating transducer to set off the explosive train. All energy transfers between the user and the explosive apparatus, either for charging it up or for setting it off, are conveyed optically and may be accomplished in a single optical fiber with coding to distinguish between specific optical energy transfers and between these and any extraneous signals.

  5. Collection of trace evidence of explosive residues from the skin in a death due to a disguised letter bomb. The synergy between confocal laser scanning microscope and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analyses.

    PubMed

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Monaci, Fabrizio; Neri, Margherita; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Baroni, Davide; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2010-04-15

    In most deaths caused by explosive, the victim's body becomes a depot for fragments of explosive materials, so contributing to the collection of trace evidence which may provide clues about the specific type of device used with explosion. Improvised explosive devices are used which contain "homemade" explosives rather than high explosives because of the relative ease with which such components can be procured. Many methods such as chromatography-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, stereomicroscopy, capillary electrophoresis are available for use in the identification of explosive residues on objects and bomb fragments. Identification and reconstruction of the distribution of explosive residues on the decedent's body may give additional hints in assessing the position of the victim in relation to the device. Traditionally these residues are retrieved by swabbing the body and clothing during the early phase, at autopsy. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and other analytical methods may be used to analyze the material swabbed from the victim body. The histological examination of explosive residues on skin samples collected during the autopsy may reveal significant details. The information about type, quantity and particularly about anatomical distribution of explosive residues obtained utilizing confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) together with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), may provide very significant evidence in the clarification and reconstruction of the explosive-related events. PMID:20047806

  6. Determining the effects of routine fingermark detection techniques on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues on various substrates.

    PubMed

    King, Sam; Benson, Sarah; Kelly, Tamsin; Lennard, Chris

    2013-12-10

    An offender who has recently handled bulk explosives would be expected to deposit latent fingermarks that are contaminated with explosive residues. However, fingermark detection techniques need to be applied in order for these fingermarks to be detected and recorded. Little information is available in terms of how routine fingermark detection methods impact on the subsequent recovery and analysis of any explosive residues that may be present. If an identifiable fingermark is obtained and that fingermark is found to be contaminated with a particular explosive then that may be crucial evidence in a criminal investigation (including acts of terrorism involving improvised explosive devices). The principal aims of this project were to investigate: (i) the typical quantities of explosive material deposited in fingermarks by someone who has recently handled bulk explosives; and (ii) the effects of routine fingermark detection methods on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues in such fingermarks. Four common substrates were studied: paper, glass, plastic (polyethylene plastic bags), and metal (aluminium foil). The target explosive compounds were 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), as well as chlorate and nitrate ions. Recommendations are provided in terms of the application of fingermark detection methods on surfaces that may contain explosive residues. PMID:24314527

  7. The anatomy of a pipe bomb explosion: measuring the mass and velocity distributions of container fragments.

    PubMed

    Bors, Dana; Cummins, Josh; Goodpaster, John

    2014-01-01

    Improvised explosive devices such as pipe bombs are prevalent due to the availability of materials and ease of construction. However, little is known about how these devices actually explode, as few attempts to characterize fragmentation patterns have been attempted. In this study, seven devices composed of various pipe materials (PVC, black steel, and galvanized steel) and two energetic fillers (Pyrodex and Alliant Red Dot) were initiated and the explosions captured using high-speed videography. The video footage was used to calculate fragment velocities, which were represented as particle velocity vector maps. In addition, the fragments were weighed. The results demonstrate a correlation between the type of energetic filler and both the size and velocity of the fragments. Larger fragments were produced by Pyrodex filler indicating a less complete fragmentation, compared with smaller fragments produced by double-base smokeless powder. Additionally, higher fragment velocities were seen with Alliant Red Dot filler. PMID:24147889

  8. Improvisation through Guided Self-Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that improvisation in musical performances can be taught systematically by music teachers. Maintains that each music practice session should include improvisation along with scales, patterns, theory, and listening. Presents an overview of a practice session incorporating each of these five components. (CFR)

  9. Musical Improvisation Behavior of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, John W.

    Musical improvisation behavior of 4-, 6-, and 8-year-old children who played Orff xylophones during ten 15-minute sessions is described in this paper. Each session involved three improvisatory phases. Phase I consisted of free exploration; Phase II consisted of short verbally stimulated musical tasks (two imitation and six improvisational tasks);…

  10. Improvisational Teaching as Mode of Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shem-Tov, Naphtaly

    2011-01-01

    Theatrical improvisation is a joyful, creative, and playful activity of discovery and a spontaneous process. It seems to be the opposite of teaching, which requires proper planning and advance thinking and seems a very "serious business" that deals with values and knowledge. Improvisation is shaped by flexibility and by transformative and equal…

  11. Informal Music Learning, Improvisation and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ruth; Kanellopoulos, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores firstly the sense in which improvisation might be conceived of as an informal music education process and, secondly, the effects of a course in free improvisation on student teachers' perceptions in relation to themselves as musicians, music as a school subject and children as musicians. The results of a study conducted in two…

  12. STIDP: A US Department of Homeland Security program for countering explosives attacks at large public events and mass transit facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, Christa K.; Kemp, Michael C.; Lombardo, Nicholas J.

    2009-03-07

    The Department of Homeland Security’s Standoff Technology Integration and Demonstration Program is designed to accelerate the development and integration of technologies, concepts of operations, and training to prevent explosives attacks at large public events and mass transit facilities. The program will address threats posed by suicide bombers, vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices, and leave-behind bombs. The program is focused on developing and testing explosives countermeasure architectures using commercial off-the-shelf and near-commercial standoff and remotely operated detection technologies in prototypic operational environments. An important part of the program is the integration of multiple technologies and systems to protect against a wider range of threats, improve countermeasure performance, increase the distance from the venue at which screening is conducted, and reduce staffing requirements. The program will routinely conduct tests in public venues involving successively more advanced technology, higher levels of system integration, and more complex scenarios. This paper describes the initial field test of an integrated countermeasure system that included infrared, millimeter-wave, and video analytics technologies for detecting person-borne improvised explosive devices at a public arena. The test results are being used to develop a concept for the next generation of integrated countermeasures, to refine technical and operational requirements for architectures and technologies, and engage industry and academia in solution development.

  13. Laser-based standoff detection of surface-bound explosive chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, David L.; Smith, Gregory P.; Oser, Harald

    2010-04-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential damage from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) such as suicide, roadside, or vehicle bombs requires that the explosive device be detected and neutralized outside its effective blast radius. Only a few seconds may be available to both identify the device as hazardous and implement a response. As discussed in a study by the National Research Council, current technology is still far from capable of meeting these objectives. Conventional nitrocarbon explosive chemicals have very low vapor pressures, and any vapors are easily dispersed in air. Many pointdetection approaches rely on collecting trace solid residues from dust particles or surfaces. Practical approaches for standoff detection are yet to be developed. For the past 5 years, SRI International has been working toward development of a novel scheme for standoff detection of explosive chemicals that uses infrared (IR) laser evaporation of surfacebound explosive followed by ultraviolet (UV) laser photofragmentation of the explosive chemical vapor, and then UV laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of nitric oxide. This method offers the potential of long standoff range (up to 100 m or more), high sensitivity (vaporized solid), simplicity (no spectrometer or library of reference spectra), and selectivity (only nitrocompounds).

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Selected Characteristics of Children's Melodic Improvisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Timothy S.

    2005-01-01

    This study is an examination of the melodic improvisations of a group of children (N = 62) for 3 years, from ages 7 through 9. Participants improvised as part of a class rondo for Orff instruments, in ABACADA form, in which the B, C, and D sections were 8-measure alto-xylophone improvisations in C pentatonic. Each participant improvised three…

  15. Scientists train honeybees to detect explosives

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-07-24

    Members of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Stealthy Insect Sensor Project team have been able to harness the honeybee's exceptional olfactory sense by using the bees' natural reaction to nectar, a proboscis extension reflex (sticking out their tongue) to record an unmistakable response to a scent. Using Pavlovian techniques, researchers were able to train the bees to give a positive detection response via the PER when exposed to vapors from TNT, C4, and TATP explosives. The Stealthy Insect Sensor Project was born out of a global threat from the growing use of improvised explosive devices or IEDs, especially those that present a critical vulnerability for American military troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, and as an emerging danger for civilians worldwide. Current strategies to detect explosives are expensive and, in the case of trained detection dogs, too obtrusive to be used very discreetly. With bees however, they are small and discreet, offering the element of surprise. They're also are inexpensive to maintain and even easier to train than dogs. As a result of this need, initial funding for the work was provided by a development grant from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

  16. Scientists train honeybees to detect explosives

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-21

    Members of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Stealthy Insect Sensor Project team have been able to harness the honeybee's exceptional olfactory sense by using the bees' natural reaction to nectar, a proboscis extension reflex (sticking out their tongue) to record an unmistakable response to a scent. Using Pavlovian techniques, researchers were able to train the bees to give a positive detection response via the PER when exposed to vapors from TNT, C4, and TATP explosives. The Stealthy Insect Sensor Project was born out of a global threat from the growing use of improvised explosive devices or IEDs, especially those that present a critical vulnerability for American military troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, and as an emerging danger for civilians worldwide. Current strategies to detect explosives are expensive and, in the case of trained detection dogs, too obtrusive to be used very discreetly. With bees however, they are small and discreet, offering the element of surprise. They're also are inexpensive to maintain and even easier to train than dogs. As a result of this need, initial funding for the work was provided by a development grant from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

  17. The Explosively Formed Projectile (EFP) as a Standoff Sea Mine Neutralization Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, G.; Hameed, A.; Hetherington, J. G.; Malik, A. Q.; Sanaullah, K.

    2013-04-01

    There are many methods that can be used for the clearance of underwater ammunition; for example, sea mines. In all such techniques, the primary aim is to defuse underwater ammunition without detonation. Explosively formed projectiles (EFPs) have great potential to cleanly and safely defuse underwater ammunition. Underwater simulations and experiments were conducted to highlight the use of EFPs for safe destruction of sea mines. The copper liner configuration was used to study the penetration performance of the EFPs in water. ANSYS AUTODYN-2D hydrocode was used to simulate copper EFP penetration, passage, and impact with a target immersed in water. Simulation results were obtained by making use of Lagrangian and Euler formulations. The results indicated that the velocity of an EFP reduces sharply as it enters the water. However, the velocity of an EFP is stable in the later part of its flight through the water. The results further indicated that after covering five cone diameters (CDs) in water, the velocity of the EFP was reduced below critical and it failed to perforate an aluminum target plate of 5 mm thickness. Nevertheless, it perforated the target plate at 4 CDs in water. A known quantity of high explosive sandwiched between two plates, just like explosive reactive armor (ERA), was used as a target to simulate the sea mine. Flash X-ray was also used to record the flight and penetration of the EFP through the target plate. Simulation results matched reasonably well with the experimental results.

  18. Detection of residues from explosive manipulation by near infrared hyperspectral imaging: a promising forensic tool.

    PubMed

    Fernández de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles; Amigo, José Manuel; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    In this study near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) is used to provide a fast, non-contact, non-invasive and non-destructive method for the analysis of explosive residues on human handprints. Volunteers manipulated individually each of these explosives and after deposited their handprints on plastic sheets. For this purpose, classical explosives, potentially used as part of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) as ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite were studied. A partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was built to detect and classify the presence of explosive residues in handprints. High levels of sensitivity and specificity for the PLS-DA classification model created to identify ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite residues were obtained, allowing the development of a preliminary library and facilitating the direct and in situ detection of explosives by NIR-HSI. Consequently, this technique is showed as a promising forensic tool for the detection of explosive residues and other related samples. PMID:25086347

  19. Explosive Entrances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Explosive Technology, Inc. manufactured explosives first used by NASA to separate stages of the Gemini launch vehicle. When firemen need to get into a burning building or chop a hole to provide ventilation, axes can be devastatingly slow. Controlled explosives developed to separate manned upper stages of space rockets in case of mishap have been adapted to cutting emergency exits and demolishing unsafe buildings and bridges. Detonation cuts through thick steel girders or other materials more cleanly than torches or saws. This device can also cut emergency holes in airplanes and trains so surviving passengers can escape.

  20. STIDP: A U.S. Department of Homeland Security program for countering explosives attacks at large public events and mass transit facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudson, Christa K.; Kemp, Michael C.; Lombardo, Nicholas J.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Standoff Technology Integration and Demonstration Program is designed to accelerate the development and integration of technologies, concepts of operations, and training to defeat explosives attacks at large public events and mass transit facilities. The program will address threats posed by suicide bombers, vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices, and leave-behind bombs. The program is focused on developing and testing explosives countermeasure architectures using commercial off-the-shelf and near-commercial standoff and remotely operated detection technologies in prototypic operational environments. An important part of the program is the integration of multiple technologies and systems to protect against a wider range of threats, improve countermeasure performance, increase the distance from the venue at which screening is conducted, and reduce staffing requirements. The program will routinely conduct tests in public venues involving successively more advanced technology, higher levels of system integration, and more complex scenarios. This paper describes the initial field test of an integrated countermeasure system that included infrared, millimeter-wave, and video analytics technologies for detecting person-borne improvised explosive devices at a public arena. The test results are being used to develop a concept for the next generation of integrated countermeasures, to refine technical and operational requirements for architectures and technologies, and engage industry and academia in solution development.

  1. Characterization of explosive devices in luggage: Initial results of the ART-IIC test series

    SciTech Connect

    Akerman, M.A.; Kass, M.D.; Clough, B.T.

    1993-12-31

    Characteristics and damage associated with exploded luggage aboard aircraft are presented in this paper. Plastic-sided suitcases filled with typical travel possessions were exploded inside the fuselage of decomissioned B-52 aircraft. Multilayered shield panels, mounted to one side of the fuselage, served to protect the aircraft body and flight system components from both the blast wave and exploded fragments. The resulting damage produced by the explosions was characterized and the absorbing characteristics of the shielding were evaluated. In addition, the energy of the luggage fragments was estimated.

  2. Biography, Identity, Improvisation, Sound: Intersections of Personal and Social Identity through Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smilde, Rineke

    2016-01-01

    This essay addresses the relationship of improvisation and identity. Biographical research that was conducted by the author into professional musicians' lifelong learning showed the huge importance of improvisation for personal expression. Musically, the concept of "sound" appeared to serve as a strong metaphor for identity. In addition,…

  3. Fearless Improvisation: A Pilot Study to Analyze String Students' Confidence, Anxiety, and Attitude toward Learning Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the confidence, anxiety, and attitude of novice string student improvisers. A form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales, as modified for improvisation by Wehr-Flowers, was given to middle school and high school string students (N = 121) after their participation in a 4-month improvisation…

  4. Can Improvisation Be "Taught"?: A Call for Free Improvisation in Our Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Maud

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the idea that the music education profession's current drive to include improvisation in school music is limited in its approach, and that "teaching" improvisation, in the traditional sense, is not possible. These beliefs are based on an examination of current methodologies and texts in light of the…

  5. Advances in Raman spectroscopy for explosive identification in aviation security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillán, Javier D.; Brown, Christopher D.; Jalenak, Wayne

    2007-04-01

    In the operational airport environment, the rapid identification of potentially hazardous materials such as improvised explosive devices, chemical warfare agents and flammable and explosive liquids is increasingly critical. Peroxide-based explosives pose a particularly insidious threat because they can be made from commonly available and relatively innocuous household chemicals, such as bleach and hydrogen peroxide. Raman spectroscopy has been validated as a valuable tool for rapid identification of chemicals, explosives, and narcotics and their precursors while allowing "line-of-sight" interrogation through bottles or other translucent containers. This enables safe identification of both precursor substances, such as acetone, and end-products, such as TATP, without direct sampling, contamination and exposure by security personnel. To date, Raman systems have been laboratory-based, requiring careful operation and maintenance by technology experts. The capital and ongoing expenses of these systems is also significant. Recent advances in Raman component technologies have dramatically reduced the footprint and cost, while improving the reliability and ease of use of Raman spectroscopy systems. Such technologies are not only bringing the lab to the field, but are also protecting civilians and security personnel in the process.

  6. An introductory characterization of a combat-casualty-care relevant swine model of closed head injury resulting from exposure to explosive blast.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Richard A; Ling, Geoffrey; Tong, Lawrence; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Agoston, Dennis; Delanerolle, Nihal; Kim, Young; Ritzel, Dave; Bell, Randy; Ecklund, James; Armonda, Rocco; Bandak, Faris; Parks, Steven

    2009-06-01

    Explosive blast has been extensively used as a tactical weapon in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and more recently in Operation Enduring Freedom(OEF). The polytraumatic nature of blast injuries is evidence of their effectiveness,and brain injury is a frequent and debilitating form of this trauma. In-theater clinical observations of brain-injured casualties have shown that edema, intracranial hemorrhage, and vasospasm are the most salient pathophysiological characteristics of blast injury to the brain. Unfortunately, little is known about exactly how an explosion produces these sequelae as well as others that are less well documented. Consequently, the principal objective of the current report is to present a swine model of explosive blast injury to the brain. This model was developed during Phase I of the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) PREVENT (Preventing Violent Explosive Neurotrauma) blast research program. A second objective is to present data that illustrate the capabilities of this model to study the proximal biomechanical causes and the resulting pathophysiological, biochemical,neuropathological, and neurological consequences of explosive blast injury to the swine brain. In the concluding section of this article, the advantages and limitations of the model are considered, explosive and air-overpressure models are compared, and the physical properties of an explosion are identified that potentially contributed to the in-theater closed head injuries resulting from explosions of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). PMID:19215189

  7. On-site Rapid Detection of Trace Non-volatile Inorganic Explosives by Stand-alone Ion Mobility Spectrometry via Acid-enhanced Evaporization

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Liying; Hua, Lei; Wang, Weiguo; Zhou, Qinghua; Li, Haiyang

    2014-01-01

    New techniques for the field detection of inorganic improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are urgently developed. Although ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been proved to be the most effective method for screening organic explosives, it still faces a major challenge to detect inorganic explosives owing to their low volatilities. Herein, we proposed a strategy for detecting trace inorganic explosives by thermal desorption ion mobility spectrometry (TD-IMS) with sample-to-sample analysis time less than 5 s based on in-situ acidification on the sampling swabs. The responses for typical oxidizers in inorganic explosives, such as KNO3, KClO3 and KClO4 were at least enhanced by a factor of 3000 and their limits of detection were found to be subnanogram. The common organic explosives and their mixtures with inorganic oxidizers were detected, indicating that the acidification process did not affect the detection of organic explosives. Moreover, the typical inorganic explosives such as black powders, firecrackers and match head could be sensitively detected as well. These results demonstrated that this method could be easily employed in the current deployed IMS for on-site sensitive detection of either inorganic explosives or organic ones. PMID:25318960

  8. On-site rapid detection of trace non-volatile inorganic explosives by stand-alone ion mobility spectrometry via acid-enhanced evaporization.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liying; Hua, Lei; Wang, Weiguo; Zhou, Qinghua; Li, Haiyang

    2014-01-01

    New techniques for the field detection of inorganic improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are urgently developed. Although ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been proved to be the most effective method for screening organic explosives, it still faces a major challenge to detect inorganic explosives owing to their low volatilities. Herein, we proposed a strategy for detecting trace inorganic explosives by thermal desorption ion mobility spectrometry (TD-IMS) with sample-to-sample analysis time less than 5 s based on in-situ acidification on the sampling swabs. The responses for typical oxidizers in inorganic explosives, such as KNO3, KClO3 and KClO4 were at least enhanced by a factor of 3000 and their limits of detection were found to be subnanogram. The common organic explosives and their mixtures with inorganic oxidizers were detected, indicating that the acidification process did not affect the detection of organic explosives. Moreover, the typical inorganic explosives such as black powders, firecrackers and match head could be sensitively detected as well. These results demonstrated that this method could be easily employed in the current deployed IMS for on-site sensitive detection of either inorganic explosives or organic ones. PMID:25318960

  9. On-site Rapid Detection of Trace Non-volatile Inorganic Explosives by Stand-alone Ion Mobility Spectrometry via Acid-enhanced Evaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liying; Hua, Lei; Wang, Weiguo; Zhou, Qinghua; Li, Haiyang

    2014-10-01

    New techniques for the field detection of inorganic improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are urgently developed. Although ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been proved to be the most effective method for screening organic explosives, it still faces a major challenge to detect inorganic explosives owing to their low volatilities. Herein, we proposed a strategy for detecting trace inorganic explosives by thermal desorption ion mobility spectrometry (TD-IMS) with sample-to-sample analysis time less than 5 s based on in-situ acidification on the sampling swabs. The responses for typical oxidizers in inorganic explosives, such as KNO3, KClO3 and KClO4 were at least enhanced by a factor of 3000 and their limits of detection were found to be subnanogram. The common organic explosives and their mixtures with inorganic oxidizers were detected, indicating that the acidification process did not affect the detection of organic explosives. Moreover, the typical inorganic explosives such as black powders, firecrackers and match head could be sensitively detected as well. These results demonstrated that this method could be easily employed in the current deployed IMS for on-site sensitive detection of either inorganic explosives or organic ones.

  10. Performance of an improved thermal neutron activation detector for buried bulk explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, J. E.; Faust, A. A.; Andrews, H. R.; Clifford, E. T. H.; Mosquera, C. M.

    2013-06-01

    First generation thermal neutron activation (TNA) sensors, employing an isotopic source and NaI(Tl) gamma ray detectors, were deployed by Canadian Forces in 2002 as confirmation sensors on multi-sensor landmine detection systems. The second generation TNA detector is being developed with a number of improvements aimed at increasing sensitivity and facilitating ease of operation. Among these are an electronic neutron generator to increase sensitivity for deeper and horizontally displaced explosives; LaBr3(Ce) scintillators, to improve time response and energy resolution; improved thermal and electronic stability; improved sensor head geometry to minimize spatial response nonuniformity; and more robust data processing. The sensor is described, with emphasis on the improvements. Experiments to characterize the performance of the second generation TNA in detecting buried landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) hidden in culverts are described. Performance results, including comparisons between the performance of the first and second generation systems are presented.

  11. Winging It: Good Leaders Master the Art of Improvising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goens, George

    2003-01-01

    Because life is unpredictable and plans often go awry, improvisation can be an important skill for educational leaders. This article explains the importance of improvisation; describes what drives it; and provide five questions to ask for assessing how leader improvisation, or lack of it, can affect a school district. (WFA)

  12. Symbolic Interactionism in Music Education: Eight Strategies for Collaborative Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Learning improvisation in music is often treated as the process of gaining skills to spontaneously perform within the conventions of a style. Alternatively, learning improvisation can offer musicians a place to explore sound as it happens in free improvisation. Within the school setting, the former approach is commonly used in the jazz programs,…

  13. Using Baroque Techniques to Teach Improvisation in Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Hyesoo

    2015-01-01

    Before our current notation system was widely adopted by musicians, improvisation was a key component of music throughout the Western world. One of the fundamental elements of the baroque style, namely, using improvised embellishment, offered musicians great artist liberty. During the baroque period, improvisation spread across Europe and beyond.…

  14. Explosive cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Device, jetcord, is metal-clad linear explosive of sufficient flexibility to allow forming into intricate shapes. Total effect is termed ''cutting'' with jetcord consistently ''cutting'' a target of greater thickness than can be penetrated. Applications include sheet metal working, pipe cutting and fire-fighting.

  15. The ignitability of petrol vapours and potential for vapour phase explosion by use of TASER® law enforcement electronic control device.

    PubMed

    Clarke, C; Andrews, S P

    2014-12-01

    An experimental study was made of the potential of the TASER-X26™ law enforcement electronic control device to ignite petrol vapours if used by an officer to incapacitate a person soaked in petrol, or within a flammable atmosphere containing petrol vapour. Bench scale tests have shown that a wooden mannequin with pig skin covering the chest was a suitable representation of a human target. Full scale tests using the mannequin have shown that the arc from a TASER-X26™ is capable of igniting petrol/air vapours on a petrol-soaked person. Further tests in a 1/5 scale and a full scale compartment have shown that if a TASER is used within a compartment, a petrol vapour explosion (deflagration) may be achieved. It is evident from this research that if used in a flammable vapour rich environment, the device could prove fatal not only to the target but the TASER® operator as well. PMID:25498927

  16. Optimizing a lab-on-a-fiber optic device for trace TNT explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianjun; Kos, Aldona; Bock, Wojtek J.; Hao, Wenhui; Wang, Zhi Yuan

    2012-06-01

    Based on the lab-on-a-fiber (LOF) concept we proposed before, we further optimize its architecture while preserving its capability in fluorescent signal collection and excitation stray light rejection. This LOF device is a short fiber taper with a TNT sensory film overlay at one end of a 400 μm core fiber which is approximately 50 mm long. The optimized LOF also lowers the system cost, eases the fiber replacement and maintenance, which are enabled by a reusable 3-leg bifurcated fiber bundle with SMA connectors to connect LOF, an excitation light source and a spectrometer. This LOF device occupies only a Φ0.4 mm × 1 mm space.

  17. The Five Improvisation "Brains": A Pedagogical Model for Jazz Improvisation at High School and the Undergraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The learning of jazz improvisation is often treated as the incorporation of stylistic vocabulary and development of technical dexterity. Although this methodology is effective, considering other aspects of jazz improvisation can make the learning process a more holistic and less technical endeavour. My experience teaching improvisation has led me…

  18. Reducing the Impact of Attacks against Healthcare by Curbing the Use of Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas: Developments at the Global Level.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Attacks against healthcare in situations of armed conflict have emerged as an issue of increasing concern with explosive weapons - such as aircraft bombs, mortars and improvised explosive devices - accounting for more deaths, injuries and damage than any other type of weapon in attacks on healthcare facilities. While this is perhaps unsurprising, it offers some insight into a possible course of action for dealing with the problem of attacks against healthcare - by curbing the use of explosive weapons in populated areas. There has been growing recognition in recent years of the humanitarian problems caused by the use of such weapons in populated areas. Steps are now being taken at the global level to curb this use which could, in time, make an important contribution to reducing the incidence and devastating impact of attacks against healthcare. PMID:27358016

  19. Numerical modeling of electromagnetic scattering in explosive granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, Garth

    Terahertz (THz) reflection and transmission spectroscopy is a promising new field with applications in imaging and illicit material detection. One particularly useful application is for the detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) which is a favorite weapon of global terrorists. Explosive materials have been shown to have a unique spectral signature in the THz band which can be used to identify the explosives. However, the initial measurements performed on the explosive samples do not account for the modulation of the spectral features by random scattering that will be prevalent with actual samples encountered in applications. The intent of this work is to characterize and quantify the effects of random scattering that may alter the spectral features. Specifically, the effect that a randomly rough surface and granular scattering has on the scattered THz wave (T-Rays) will be investigated and characterized using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation method. The FDTD method is a natural choice for this work as it can handle complicated geometries (i.e., multiple scatterers, arbitrarily rough interfaces, etc.) arbitrary materials (i.e., dispersive media, etc.) and provides broadband frequency data with one simulation pass. First, the effect that the randomly rough surface of the sample explosive has on the extracted spectral signature will be studied using a Monte-Carlo analysis. Then the effect of the complex structure inside the explosive material (the granular scatterers) will be considered. Next, when the physics of the rough surface and granular scattering are understood, a robust method to extract the spectral signature from the reflected T-rays will be developed.

  20. Design and validation of inert homemade explosive simulants for ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderGaast, Brian W.; McFee, John E.; Russell, Kevin L.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) identified a requirement for inert simulants to act as improvised, or homemade, explosives (IEs) when training on, or evaluating, ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems commonly used in the detection of buried landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In response, Defence R and D Canada (DRDC) initiated a project to develop IE simulant formulations using commonly available inert materials. These simulants are intended to approximate the expected GPR response of common ammonium nitrate-based IEs, in particular ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) and ammonium nitrate/aluminum (ANAl). The complex permittivity over the range of electromagnetic frequencies relevant to standard GPR systems was measured for bulk quantities of these three IEs that had been fabricated at DRDC Suffield Research Centre. Following these measurements, published literature was examined to find benign materials with both a similar complex permittivity, as well as other physical properties deemed desirable - such as low-toxicity, thermal stability, and commercial availability - in order to select candidates for subsequent simulant formulation. Suitable simulant formulations were identified for ANFO, with resulting complex permittivities measured to be within acceptable limits of target values. These IE formulations will now undergo end-user trials with CAF operators in order to confirm their utility. Investigations into ANAl simulants continues. This progress report outlines the development program, simulant design, and current validation results.

  1. Young Children's Improvisations: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the behavior of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children engaged in improvisational musical tasks. Ten subjects from each of the four age levels participated in the 4-year investigation, which lasted until the 2-year-olds reached 5 years of age. Children met individually with the investigator for 15 minutes…

  2. Electron beam injected into ground generates subsoil x-rays that may deactivate concealed electronics used to trigger explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retsky, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Explosively formed projectiles (EFP) are a major problem in terrorism and asymmetrical warfare. EFPs are often triggered by ordinary infrared motion detectors. A potential weak link is that such electronics are not hardened to ionizing radiation and can latch-up or enter other inoperative states after exposure to a single short event of ionizing radiation. While these can often be repaired with a power restart, they also can produce shorts and permanent damage. A problem of course is that we do not want to add radiation exposure to the long list of war related hazards. Biological systems are highly sensitive to integrated dosage but show no particular sensitivity to short pulses. There may be a way to generate short pulsed subsoil radiation to deactivate concealed electronics without introducing radiation hazards to military personnel and civilian bystanders. Electron beams of 30 MeV that can be produced by portable linear accelerators (linacs) propagate >20 m in air and 10-12 cm in soil. X-radiation is produced by bremsstrahlung and occurs subsoil beneath the point of impact and is mostly forward directed. Linacs 1.5 m long can produce 66 MWatt pulses of subsoil x-radiation 1 microsecond or less in duration. Untested as yet, such a device could be mounted on a robotic vehicle that precedes a military convoy and deactivates any concealed electronics within 10-20 meters on either side of the road.

  3. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: Explosive laboratory devices for the measurement of the dynamic compressibility of porous substances in the pressure range from 0.1 to 1 TPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funtikov, Aleksandr I.

    1997-10-01

    Earlier [1], a historical review of the Russian Federal Nuclear Centre (Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region) work on explosive laboratory devices for dynamic compressibility measurements was given, but most of the devices described were mainly applied to substances with the normal initial density. In the present work, another Sarov explosive devices of the late 50's are described with which the dynamic compressibility of porous metals and porous ionic compounds were determined [2-4].

  4. Standoff detection of explosive molecules using nanosecond gated Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jin Hyuk; Cho, Soo Gyeong

    2013-06-01

    Recently, improvised explosive device (IED) has been a serious threat for many countries. One of the approaches to alleviate this threat is standoff detection of explosive molecules used in IEDs. Raman spectroscopy is a prospective method among many technologies under research to achieve this goal. It provides unique information of the target materials, through which the ingredients used in IEDs can be analyzed and identified. The main problem of standoff Raman spectroscopic detection is the large background noise hindering weak Raman signals from the target samples. Typical background noise comes from both ambient fluorescent lights indoor and sunlight outdoor whose intensities are usually much larger than that of Raman scattering from the sample. Under the proper condition using pulse laser and ICCD camera with nanosecond pulse width and gating technology, we succeed to separate and remove these background noises from Raman signals. For this experiment, we build an optical system for standoff detection of explosive molecules. We use 532 nm, 10 Hz, Q-switching Nd:YAG laser as light source, and ICCD camera triggered by laser Qswitching time with proper gate delay regarding the flight time of Raman from target materials. Our detection system is successfully applied to detect and identify more than 20 ingredients of IEDs including TNT, RDX, and HMX which are located 10 to 54 meters away from the system.

  5. Explosive Material Identification via Neutron-Induced Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiberg, David; Litz, Marc

    2014-09-01

    With the increase in the usage of improvised explosive devices, both vehicle-borne and buried, it has become increasingly important to quickly identify potentially explosive materials before they can be detonated. In a field test performed in January of 2014, 14 MeV neutrons generated in a deuterium-tritium reaction induced gamma emissions in explosive material targets. The resulting gamma rays were counted in LaBr3 detectors in both a time-binned associated particle imaging (API) mode and a repetitively pulsed mode. The details of the resulting data sets were analyzed, and gamma lines for carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen were identified in the spectra produced by both modes. Post-test noise reduction techniques included empty hole background subtraction, Compton background subtraction, peak area integration, and time-of-flight gating. The induced C, O, and N gamma line intensities and ratios were compared to the elemental weight ratios expected for each type of material. The composition results are indicative of the known elemental weights in the target materials. The statistics are limited because of the short, 20 second data collection periods, and would improve greatly with longer exposure times in the future.

  6. Field tests and computational simulations of the explosion of buried charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Eve; Loret, Benjamin; Calvel, Jean Paul

    2015-09-01

    Modelling buried explosion is a matter of concern for vehicle protection. Indeed, in the battlefield, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are one of the major threats for land vehicles and, more specifically, for their underbelly. Two series of field tests using several masses of explosives have been performed, varying certain geometrical parameters, the nature and the physical properties of the soil. These controlled tests have shown that the impulse transmitted to the vehicle is a function of the saturation of the soil as well as of depth of burial of the explosive. In an effort to simulate the phenomena that take place during the explosions, these tests have been used to feed the data requested in computational simulations in a finite element context. Soil modelling presents its own difficulties, especially because soil is a porous medium and the three phases (solid grains, water and air) must be considered. A non linear viscoplastic cap model has been developed where the degree of saturation is variable. The yield surface includes a failure part, a cap and a tension cutoff. Soil stiffening associated with the air expulsion has been observed to be an important aspect of the model.

  7. Ambient pressure laser desorption and laser-induced acoustic desorption ion mobility spectrometry detection of explosives.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Sven; Walte, Andreas; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-11-19

    The development of fast, mobile, and sensitive detection systems for security-relevant substances is of enormous importance. Because of the low vapor pressures of explosives and improvised explosive devices, adequate sampling procedures are crucial. Ion mobility spectrometers (IMSs) are fast and sensitive instruments that are used as detection systems for explosives. Ambient pressure laser desorption (APLD) and ambient pressure laser-induced acoustic desorption (AP-LIAD) are new tools suitable to evaporate explosives in order to detect them in the vapor phase. Indeed, the most important advantage of APLD or AP-LIAD is the capability to sample directly from the surface of interest without any transfer of the analyte to other surfaces such as wipe pads. A much more gentle desorption, compared to classical thermal-based desorption, is possible with laser-based desorption using very short laser pulses. With this approach the analyte molecules are evaporated in a very fast process, comparable to a shock wave. The thermal intake is reduced considerably. The functionality of APLD and AP-LIAD techniques combined with a hand-held IMS system is shown for a wide range of common explosives such as EGDN (ethylene glycol dinitrate), urea nitrate, PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate), HMTD (hexamethylene triperoxide diamine), RDX (hexogen), tetryl (2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine), and TNT (trinitrotoluene). Detection limits down to the low nanogram range are obtained. The successful combination of IMS detection and APLD/AP-LIAD sampling is shown. PMID:24116702

  8. Mapping of explosive contamination using GC/chemiluminescence and ion mobility spectrometry techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Carla J.; Glenn, D. F.; Hartenstein, Steven D.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-12-01

    Recent efforts at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have included mapping explosive contamination resulting from manufacturing and carrying improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Two types of trace detection equipment were used to determine levels of contamination from designated sampling areas. A total of twenty IEDs were constructed: ten using TNT and ten using C-4. Two test scenarios were used. The first scenario tracked the activities of a manufacturer who straps the device onto an independent courier. The courier then performed a series of activities to simulate waiting in an airport. The second scenario tracked the activities of a manufacturer who also served as the courier. A sample set for each test consisted of thirty samples from various locations on each IED manufacturer, thirty from each IED courier, twenty-five from the manufacturing area, and twenty-five from the courier area. Pre-samples and post-samples were collected for analysis with each detection technique. Samples analyzed by gc/chemiluminescence were taken by swiping a teflon- coated sampling swipe across the surface of the sampling area to pick up any explosive particles. Samples analyzed by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) were taken from the clothing of the manufacturer and courier by vacuuming the surface and collecting particulates on a fiberglass filter. Samples for IMS analysis from the manufacturing and courier rooms were taken by wiping a cotton sampling swipe across the surface area. Currently, building IEDs and monitoring the explosive contamination is being directed toward detection with portal monitors.

  9. Improvisational Exercises to Improve Pharmacy Students' Professional Communication Skills

    PubMed Central

    Herrier, Richard N.; Apgar, David A.; Jackowski, Rebekah M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To create and implement improvisational exercises to improve first-year pharmacy students' communication skills. Design Twelve 1-hour improvisational sessions were developed and added to an existing/established patient communication course to improve 3 basic skills: listening, observing and responding. Standardized patient examinations were used to evaluate student communication skills, and course evaluations and reflective journaling were used to evaluate students' perceptions of the improvisational exercises. Assessment The improvisational exercises markedly improved the students' performance in several aspects of standardized patient examination. Additionally, course evaluations and student comments reflected their perception that the improvisational exercises significantly improved their communication skills. Summary Improvisational exercises are an effective way to teach communication skills to pharmacy students. PMID:19513173

  10. [Beyond suffering, schizophrenic improvisation and therapeutic challenges].

    PubMed

    Bizot, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Led jointly by an actress and an occupational therapist, an 'improvisation' activity has been set up within the Sainte-Anne University Hospital SHU Sector 14 for hospitalised patients, on medical prescription. This containing environment provides psychological support and encourages patients with schizophrenia to explore their creativity and to 'let go' so as to discover new physical possibilities. The group thereby becomes a support for the relationship and the development of verbal and non-verbal communication. PMID:27615701

  11. Explosion suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  12. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    1990-01-09

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

  13. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, Charles H.; Graham, Robert A.; Kuehn, Stephen F.; Precit, Richard R.; Rogers, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  14. Espece d'impro: Utiliser l'improvisation contextualisee (A Kind of Improv: Using Contextualized Improvisation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busson, Veronique

    1993-01-01

    Use of any theatrical technique in the language learning classroom allows the linking of the verbal and the nonverbal, whereby the student may draw freely on his or her communicative resources. The approach described offers several methods for providing contexts or formats within which to improvise. (CNP)

  15. Use Jazz to Teach Your String Students Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Standards 3 and 9 of the National Standards for Music Education charge teachers to teach improvisation as well as music of diverse cultures. Jazz is a musical style that is perfect to cover both content areas. Until now, however, jazz repertoire and improvisation have not played a major role in the education of string students. One reason is that…

  16. Pedagogical Techniques of Improvisation Instructors without Academic Credentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salonen, Richard Wayne

    2010-01-01

    The importance of music improvisation can be seen in its inclusion in the National Standards for Music Education and the accreditation standards for the National Association of Schools of Music. The purpose of this study was to examine the pedagogical techniques and materials of improvisation instructors who do not hold academic credentials. The…

  17. Descriptions of Improvisational Thinking by Artist-Level Jazz Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norgaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Thought processes of seven artist-level jazz musicians, each of whom recorded an improvised solo, were investigated. Immediately after completing their improvisations, participants listened to recordings of their playing and looked at the notation of their solos as they described in a directed interview the thinking processes that led to the…

  18. Harmonizing and Improvising in the Choral Rehearsal: A Sequential Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Cindy L.

    2004-01-01

    This article challenges choral teachers to motivate their choirs to a new level of choral singing and harmonic creativity and outlines a sequential process for introducing improvisation into the daily warm-up. It argues that students can learn to harmonize and improvise by ear as part of each day's warm-up period. Sections include: (1) Chord…

  19. Young Pianists Exploring Improvisation Using Interactive Music Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Victoria; Triantafyllaki, Angeliki; Anagnostopoulou, Xristina

    2015-01-01

    The use of music technology in the enhancement of young pianists' musical improvisations has been scarcely explored in instrumental music teaching and learning research. In the present study, 19 piano pupils aged 6-10 from the UK and Greece used an interactive improvisation system called Musical Interaction Relying On Reflexion (MIROR)-Impro…

  20. Rhythmic Characteristics of Improvisational Drumming among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    A call-and-response drumming activity was carried out to determine the rhythmic characteristics of improvised patterns created by preschool children. Specific goals of the study were to: (1) determine the durations, start and stop times, and rhythmic patterns of improvised responses to a simple given call using drums; (2) determine the presence or…

  1. Speaking of Jazz: Jazz Improvisation through Linguistic Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velleman, Barry L.

    1978-01-01

    There is a void in instructional materials which extends basic patterns in jazz into individualized or creative channels. This article investigates the parallels between improvised music and normal speech and explores the possibility of applying the principles of linguistic methodology to the teaching of jazz improvisation. (Author/KC)

  2. Whose Classroom Is It, Anyway? Improvisation as a Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Ronald A.; Trieber, Rosalind H.

    2009-01-01

    Improvisational techniques derived from the experiences in improvisational theatre can be adapted for the college classroom to leverage the characteristics of the Net Generation, their multiple intelligences and learning styles, and the variety of collaborative learning activities already in place in a learner-centered environment. When…

  3. Relationships among Selected Practice Behaviours and Achievement in Jazz Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the practice strategies that collegiate music majors chose to employ in preparing for a jazz improvisation performance, and the relationships among selected practice behaviours and achievement in instrumental jazz improvisation. Participants for the study (N = 62) were enrolled as music majors…

  4. Using Comedy Improvisation Techniques to Support Dance Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larimer, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Although contemporary dance improvisation techniques and comedy improvisation are seldom linked, the two forms evolved around the same time and have many similarities. Both forms exist in the moment, share a highly ephemeral nature, and make use of physical games and structures. Both forms teach students the skill of being present, so essential to…

  5. Free Improvisation and Performance Anxiety among Piano Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of anxiety that students experienced according to whether their public performance consisted of a free improvisation or a repertory piece. The researcher had two objectives: (1) examine the relationship of students' levels of anxiety to free improvisation and repertory pieces during a…

  6. Dramaturgical and Music-Theoretical Approaches to Improvisation Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huovinen, Erkki; Tenkanen, Atte; Kuusinen, Vesa-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the relative merits of two approaches to teaching musical improvisation: a music-theoretical approach, focusing on chords and scales, and a "dramaturgical" one, emphasizing questions of balance, variation and tension. Adult students of music pedagogy, with limited previous experience in improvisation, took part…

  7. Imagery and Improvisation in Dance in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magruder, Ella

    1981-01-01

    Improvisation and imagery should be used to strengthen the thin bond between creativity and motor development in children. The approach to dance as an improvisational tool should be made more concrete when working with special populations such as mentally handicapped students. (JN)

  8. Solid state gas sensors for detection of explosives and explosive precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yun

    The increased number of terrorist attacks using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) over the past few years has made the trace detection of explosives a priority for the Department of Homeland Security. Considerable advances in early detection of trace explosives employing spectroscopic detection systems and other sensing devices have been made and have demonstrated outstanding performance. However, modern IEDs are not easily detectable by conventional methods and terrorists have adapted to avoid using metallic or nitro groups in the manufacturing of IEDs. Instead, more powerful but smaller compounds, such as TATP are being more frequently used. In addition, conventional detection techniques usually require large capital investment, labor costs and energy input and are incapable of real-time identification, limiting their application. Thus, a low cost detection system which is capable of continuous online monitoring in a passive mode is needed for explosive detection. In this dissertation, a thermodynamic based thin film gas sensor which can reliably detect various explosive compounds was developed and demonstrated. The principle of the sensors is based on measuring the heat effect associated with the catalytic decomposition of explosive compounds present in the vapor phase. The decomposition mechanism is complicated and not well known, but it can be affected by many parameters including catalyst, reaction temperature and humidity. Explosives that have relatively high vapor pressure and readily sublime at room temperature, like TATP and 2, 6-DNT, are ideal candidate for vapor phase detection using the thermodynamic gas sensor. ZnO, W2O 3, V2O5 and SnO2 were employed as catalysts. This sensor exhibited promising sensitivity results for TATP, but poor selectivity among peroxide based compounds. In order to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the thermodynamic sensor, a Pd:SnO2 nanocomposite was fabricated and tested as part of this dissertation. A

  9. Explosives detection in the marine environment using UUV-modified immunosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Paul T.; Adams, André A.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Veitch, Scott P.; Hanson, Alfred; Kusterbeck, Anne W.

    2011-05-01

    Port and harbor security has rapidly become a point of interest and concern with the emergence of new improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The ability to provide physical surveillance and identification of IEDs and unexploded ordnances (UXO) at these entry points has led to an increased effort in the development of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) equipped with sensing devices. Traditional sensors used to identify and locate potential threats are side scan sonar/acoustic methods and magnetometers. At the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), we have developed an immunosensor capable of detecting trace levels of explosives that has been integrated into a REMUS payload for use in the marine environment. Laboratory tests using a modified PMMA microfluidic device with immobilized monoclonal antibodies specific for TNT and RDX have been conducted yielding detection levels in the low parts-per-billion (ppb) range. New designs and engineered improvements in microfluidic devices, fluorescence signal probes, and UUV internal fluidic and optical components have been investigated and integrated into the unmanned underwater prototype. Results from laboratory and recent field demonstrations using the prototype UUV immunosensor will be discussed. The immunosensor in combination with acoustic and other sensors could serve as a complementary characterization tool for the detection of IEDs, UXOs and other potential chemical or biological threats.

  10. Measurements and standards for bulk-explosives detection.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Larry; Bateman, Fred; Bergstrom, Paul; Cerra, Frank; Glover, Jack; Minniti, Ronaldo; Seltzer, Stephen; Tosh, Ronald

    2012-07-01

    Recent years have seen a dramatic expansion in the application of radiation and isotopes to security screening. This has been driven primarily by increased incidents involving improvised explosive devices as well as their ease of assembly and leveraged disruption of transportation and commerce. With global expenditures for security-screening systems in the hundreds of billions of dollars, there is a pressing need to develop, apply, and harmonize standards for x-ray and gamma-ray screening systems used to detect explosives and other contraband. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been facilitating the development of standard measurement tools that can be used to gauge the technical performance (imaging quality) and radiation safety of systems used to screen luggage, persons, vehicles, cargo, and left-behind objects. After a review of this new suite of national standard test methods, test objects, and radiation-measurement protocols, we highlight some of the technical trends that are enhancing the revision of baseline standards. Finally we advocate a more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders and outline the advantages this would accrue. PMID:22136814

  11. Electronic tongue for nitro and peroxide explosive sensing.

    PubMed

    González-Calabuig, Andreu; Cetó, Xavier; Del Valle, Manel

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the application of a voltammetric electronic tongue (ET) towards the simultaneous determination of both nitro-containing and peroxide-based explosive compounds, two families that represent the vast majority of compounds employed either in commercial mixtures or in improvised explosive devices. The multielectrode array was formed by graphite, gold and platinum electrodes, which exhibited marked mix-responses towards the compounds examined; namely, 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), N-methyl-N,2,4,6-tetranitroaniline (Tetryl) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP). Departure information was the set of voltammograms, which were first analyzed by means of principal component analysis (PCA) allowing the discrimination of the different individual compounds, while artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used for the resolution and individual quantification of some of their mixtures (total normalized root mean square error for the external test set of 0.108 and correlation of the obtained vs. expected concentrations comparison graphs r>0.929). PMID:27130125

  12. A Next-Generation Countermeasure Architecture to Prevent Explosives Attacks at Large Public Events

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Nicholas J.; Knudson, Christa K.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Singh, Surya V.; Tardiff, Mark F.; Kemp, Mike; Tierney, Michael

    2009-05-11

    A concept has been developed for a next-generation integrated countermeasure architecture to detect improvised explosive devices hidden on people or left behind in unstructured crowds. The work is part of the Standoff Technology Integration and Demonstration Program of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Directorate. The architecture is based on results from an initial design tested in crowd conditions and a broad survey of existing and emerging technologies. The architecture uses a layered-defense approach that automates screening operations and prioritizes threats and mobilizes resources accordingly. A system tracks people as they move, integrating sensors to optimize threat identification accuracy and screening resources. A threat-based decision module prioritizes screening targets based on user-defined rules. Operators manage system-wide risk and mobilize field teams for interdiction. DHS is working with industry on technology development and testing to achieve the required level of system integration and economics in crowd conditions.

  13. A new miniature hand-held solar-blind reagentless standoff chemical, biological, and explosives (CBE) sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hug, W. F.; Reid, R. D.; Bhartia, R.; Lane, A. L.

    2008-04-01

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs), vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIEDs), and suicide bombers are a major threat to many countries and their citizenry. The ability to detect trace levels of these threats with a miniature, hand-held, reagentless, standoff sensor represents a major improvement in the state of the art of CBE surface sensors. Photon Systems, Inc., in collaboration with Jet Propulsion Laboratory, recently demonstrated a new technology hand-held sensor for reagentless, close-range, standoff detection and identification of trace levels CBE materials on surfaces. This targeted ultraviolet CBE (TUCBE) sensor is the result of an Army Phase I STTR program. The resulting 5lb, 5W, flashlight-sized sensor can discriminate CBE from background materials using a combination of deep UV excited resonance Raman (RR) and laser induced native fluorescence (LINF) emissions resulting from excitation by a new technology deep UV laser. Detection and identification is accomplished in less than 1ms. Standoff excitation of suspicious packages, vehicles, persons, and other objects that may contain hazardous materials is accomplished using wavelengths below 250nm where Raman and native fluorescence emissions occupy distinctly different wavelength regions. This enables simultaneous detection of RR and LINF emissions with no interferences. The sensor employs fused RR/LINF chemometric methods to extract the identity of targeted materials from background clutter. Photon Systems has demonstrated detection and identification of 100ng/cm2 of explosives materials at a distance of 1 meter using a sensor with 3.8 cm optical aperture. Expansion of the optical aperture to 38 cm in a lantern-sized sensor will enable similar detection and identification of CBE materials at standoff distances of 10 meters. As a result of excitation and detection in the deep UV and the use of a gated detection system, the sensor is solar blind and can operate in full daylight conditions.

  14. Jazz improvisers' shared understanding: a case study.

    PubMed

    Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta

    2014-01-01

    To what extent and in what arenas do collaborating musicians need to understand what they are doing in the same way? Two experienced jazz musicians who had never previously played together played three improvisations on a jazz standard ("It Could Happen to You") on either side of a visual barrier. They were then immediately interviewed separately about the performances, their musical intentions, and their judgments of their partner's musical intentions, both from memory and prompted with the audiorecordings of the performances. Statements from both (audiorecorded) interviews as well as statements from an expert listener were extracted and anonymized. Two months later, the performers listened to the recordings and rated the extent to which they endorsed each statement. Performers endorsed statements they themselves had generated more often than statements by their performing partner and the expert listener; their overall level of agreement with each other was greater than chance but moderate to low, with disagreements about the quality of one of the performances and about who was responsible for it. The quality of the performances combined with the disparities in agreement suggest that, at least in this case study, fully shared understanding of what happened is not essential for successful improvisation. The fact that the performers endorsed an expert listener's statements more than their partner's argues against a simple notion that performers' interpretations are always privileged relative to an outsider's. PMID:25152740

  15. Jazz improvisers' shared understanding: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Schober, Michael F.; Spiro, Neta

    2014-01-01

    To what extent and in what arenas do collaborating musicians need to understand what they are doing in the same way? Two experienced jazz musicians who had never previously played together played three improvisations on a jazz standard (“It Could Happen to You”) on either side of a visual barrier. They were then immediately interviewed separately about the performances, their musical intentions, and their judgments of their partner's musical intentions, both from memory and prompted with the audiorecordings of the performances. Statements from both (audiorecorded) interviews as well as statements from an expert listener were extracted and anonymized. Two months later, the performers listened to the recordings and rated the extent to which they endorsed each statement. Performers endorsed statements they themselves had generated more often than statements by their performing partner and the expert listener; their overall level of agreement with each other was greater than chance but moderate to low, with disagreements about the quality of one of the performances and about who was responsible for it. The quality of the performances combined with the disparities in agreement suggest that, at least in this case study, fully shared understanding of what happened is not essential for successful improvisation. The fact that the performers endorsed an expert listener's statements more than their partner's argues against a simple notion that performers' interpretations are always privileged relative to an outsider's. PMID:25152740

  16. Vocal Improvisation and Creative Thinking by Australian and American University Jazz Singers: A Factor Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Steinman, Patrice Madura

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated factors underlying vocal improvisation achievement and relationships with the singers' musical background. Participants were 102 college students in Australia and the United States who performed 3 jazz improvisations and 1 free improvisation. Jazz improvisations were rated on rhythmic, tonal, and creative…

  17. Free Improvisation: What It Is, and Why We Should Apply It in Our General Music Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niknafs, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    Improvisation, the third content standard for the National Standards for Music Education (Music Educators National Conference, 1994), has received less attention from music teachers. This article advocates for more improvisation specifically free improvisation in general music classrooms. The nature of free improvisation, and its evolution in the…

  18. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  19. Creativity and improvisation as therapeutic tools within music therapy.

    PubMed

    Tomaino, Concetta M

    2013-11-01

    The neuroscience of creativity and music improvisation is a fascinating topic and one with strong implications for clinical music therapy. Music therapists are trained to use musical improvisation as a means to bring their clients into deeper therapeutic relationship as well as free up any inhibitions or limitations that may block recovery. Could recent fMRI studies of jazz musicians showing areas of brain activation during music improvisation provide a new framework to understand underlying mechanisms at work with neurologically impaired individuals? PMID:23944968

  20. Improvised microinjection technique for mosquito vectors

    PubMed Central

    Sampath, Kumar S.; Puttaraju, H. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Bio-manipulation technique is of primary importance during the development of transgenic mosquitoes. The study describes the variable factors that influence the viability of medically important mosquito vectors during microinjection. Methods: Three mosquito vectors belonging to the genus Aedes, Anopheles and Culex were microinjected at different developmental stages of their life cycle viz., egg, larvae, pupae and adult. Results: The improvisations revealed an increased survivability of biomanipulated mosquitoes during the embryonic and adult microinjection. The study of injecting larvae and pupae resulted in poor survivability. Interpretation & conclusions: The microinjection protocol was successfully tested on three important mosquito vectors. The critical period after biomanipulation which contributes heavily for the survivability factor was evaluated. The results provide a common protocol for biomanipulation of three mosquito vectors with enhanced survivability. PMID:23391792

  1. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation

    PubMed Central

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N.; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G.; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination. PMID:27547193

  2. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation.

    PubMed

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination. PMID:27547193

  3. Defence Research and Development Canada: Suffield research on nuclear methods for detection of buried bulk explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2011-06-01

    Defence R&D Canada - Suffield has conducted research and development on nuclear methods for detection of bulk explosives since 1994. Initial efforts were directed at confirmation of the presence of bulk explosives in land mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In close collaboration with a few key Canadian companies, methods suitable for vehicle-mounted or fixed position applications and those suitable for person- or small robotportable roles have been studied. Vehicle-mounted systems mainly employ detection of characteristic radiation, whereas person-portable systems use imaging of back scattered radiation intensity distributions. Two key design tenets have been reduction of personnel shielding by the use of teleoperation and custom design of sensors to address the particular problem, rather than adapting an existing sensor to a problem. This is shown in a number of recent research examples. Among vehicle-mounted systems, recent research to improve the thermal neutron analysis (TNA) sensors, which were put into service with the Canadian Forces in 2002, are discussed. Research on fast neutron analysis (FNA) and associated particle imaging (API), which can augment or replace TNA, depending on the application, are described. Monoenergetic gamma ray induced photoneutron spectroscopy is a novel method which has a number of potential advantages and disadvantages over TNA and FNA. Sources, detectors and geometries have been identified and modelling studies have suggested feasibility. Among person-portable systems, research on neutron backscatter imaging and X-ray coded aperture backscatter imaging are discussed.

  4. A Most Rare Vision: Improvisations on "A Midsummer Night's Dream."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakaim, Charles J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of improvisation, experimentation, and innovation. Discusses numerous techniques for fostering such skills when working with William Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." (HB)

  5. Communication in the Classroom: Student-Improvised Dialogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farid, Anne

    1976-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for and gives a detailed description of the use of student-improvised dialogues in ESL classrooms. The focus is on techniques suitable to small classes of students with advanced English proficiency. (CHK)

  6. Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Low Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, Bruce; Bottegal, Megan; Mathis, John

    It is extremely important to be able to characterize a wide variety of organic and inorganic materials which may be of potential use in improvised explosives manufacture. As a result our research group has become increasingly interested in the development of mass spectrometric methods for the analysis of various classes of low explosives. We present in this document, the development of ion chromatographic/mass spectrometric methods for the analysis of inorganic explosives and HPLC-ESI-MS for the analysis of smokeless powders.

  7. Recent development of two new UV Raman standoff explosive detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterbury, Rob; Babnick, Robert; Cooper, Justin L.; Ford, Alan R.; Herrera, Francisco; Hopkins, Adam J.; Pohl, Ken; Profeta, Luisa T. M.; Sandoval, Juan; Vunck, Darius

    2016-05-01

    Alakai Defense Systems has created two new short range UV Raman standoff explosive detection sensors. These are called the Critical Infrastructure Protection System (CIPS) and Portable Raman Improvised Explosive Detection System (PRIED) and work at standoff ranges of 10cm and 1-10m respectively. Both these systems are designed to detect neartrace quantities of explosives and Homemade Explosives. A short description of the instruments, design trades, and CONOPS of each design is presented. Data includes a wide variety of explosives, precursors, TIC/TIM's, narcotics, and CWA simulants

  8. Explosives tester

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Eckels, Joel D.; Nunes, Peter J.

    2011-01-11

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  9. Training generalized improvisation of tools by preschool children1

    PubMed Central

    Parsonson, Barry S.; Baer, Donald M.

    1978-01-01

    The development of new, “creative” behaviors was examined in a problem-solving context. One form of problem solving, improvisation, was defined as finding a substitute to replace the specifically designated, but currently unavailable, tool ordinarily used to solve the problem. The study examined whether preschool children spontaneously displayed generalized improvisation skills, and if not, whether they could be trained to do so within different classes of tools. Generalization across different tool classes was monitored but not specifically trained. Five preschool children participated in individual sessions that first probed their skill at improvising tools, and later trained and probed generalized improvisation in one or more of three tool classes (Hammers, Containers, and Shoelaces), using a multiple-baseline design. All five children were trained with Hammers, two were trained in two classes, and two were trained in all three tool classes. Four of the five children improvised little in Baseline. During Training, all five showed increased generalized improvisation within the trained class, but none across classes. Tools fabricated by item combinations were rare in Baseline, but common in Training. Followup probes showed that the training effects were durable. PMID:16795596

  10. Eye-safe UV Raman spectroscopy for remote detection of explosives and their precursors in fingerprint concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaviva, S.; Angelini, F.; Chirico, R.; Palucci, A.; Nuvoli, M.; Schnuerer, F.; Schweikert, W.; Romolo, F. S.

    2014-10-01

    We report the results of Raman investigation performed at stand-off distance between 6-10 m with a new apparatus, capable to detect traces of explosives with surface concentrations similar to those of a single fingerprint. The device was developed as part of the RADEX prototype (RAman Detection of EXplosives) and is capable of detecting the Raman signal with a single laser shot of few ns (10-9 s) in the UV range (wavelength 266 nm), in conditions of safety for the human eye. This is because the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) for the human eye is established to be 3 mJ/cm2 in this wavelength region and pulse duration. Samples of explosives (PETN, TNT, Urea Nitrate, Ammonium Nitrate) were prepared starting from solutions deposited on samples of common fabrics or clothing materials such as blue jeans, leather, polyester or polyamide. The deposition process takes place via a piezoelectric-controlled plotter device, capable of producing drops of welldefined volume, down to nanoliters, on a surface of several cm2, in order to carefully control the amount of explosive released to the tissue and thus simulate a slight stain on a garment of a potential terrorist. Depending on the type of explosive sampled, the detected density ranges from 0.1 to 1 mg/cm2 and is comparable to the density measured in a spot on a dress or a bag due to the contact with hands contaminated with explosives, as it could happen in the preparation of an improvised explosive device (IED) by a terrorist. To our knowledge the developed device is at the highest detection limits nowadays achievable in the field of eyesafe, stand-off Raman instruments. The signals obtained show some vibrational bands of the Raman spectra of our samples with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), allowing us to identify with high sensitivity (high number of True Positives) and selectivity (low number of False Positives) the explosives, so that the instrument could represent the basis for an automated and remote monitoring

  11. Laser based in-situ and standoff detection of chemical warfare agents and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2009-09-01

    environment, especially from improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and of civilian personnel from terrorist attacks in metropolitan areas.

  12. Accidental explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Medard, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

  13. Bodystorming: effects of collaboration and familiarity on improvising contemporary dance.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Catherine J; Leach, James

    2015-09-01

    In contemporary dance, cognitive events are not necessarily restricted "to the skin or skull of an individual" (Hutchins in Int Encycl Soc Behav Sci 2068-2072, 2001) but distributed across dancers during collaborative improvisation. There is some experimental evidence of greater output when people perform problem-solving tasks alone. However, when a task is challenging and paired participants are familiar with each other, pairwise and emergent outcomes are more plentiful than solo outcomes. We investigate these factors in the context of dance with the broad hypothesis that innovation is enhanced when dancers improvise together compared with when they improvise alone. Dancers (N = 10) in a professional company improvised for 2 min alone and then with another dancer. Dancer familiarity (familiar, unfamiliar) and task (expressive, non-expressive) were crossed (within-subjects). The improvisations were video-recorded over 2 h in the dancers' usual improvisation space. After each improvisation, the dancers: stated the number of movement ideas expressed and rated task ease, satisfaction, interest, novelty, originality and clarity. In both tasks, there was a tendency for self-report of a greater number of movement ideas expressed in familiar and unfamiliar pairs than alone. Ratings of task ease, satisfaction, interest, clarity, etc. were slightly higher in the unfamiliar pair condition. In the non-expressive task, ratings of the task were higher in pairs (M = 3.02, SD 0.82) than in the solo (M = 2.67, SD 0.96) condition. Distributed creativity, relational cognition and social facilitation are used to interpret the results. PMID:26233523

  14. Individuality and togetherness in joint improvised motion.

    PubMed

    Hart, Yuval; Noy, Lior; Feniger-Schaal, Rinat; Mayo, Avraham E; Alon, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Actors, dancers and musicians that improvise together report special moments of togetherness: high performance and synchrony, seemingly without a leader and a follower. Togetherness seems to conflict with individuality- the idiosyncratic character of each person's performance. To understand the relation of individuality and togetherness, we employed the mirror game paradigm in which two players are asked to mirror each other and create interesting synchronized motion, with and without a designated leader. The mirror game enables quantitative characterization of moments of togetherness in which complex motion is generated with high synchrony. We find that each person as a leader does basic strokes of motion with a characteristic signature, in terms of the shape of their velocity profile between two stopping events. In moments of togetherness both players change their signature to a universal stroke shape. This universal velocity profile resembles a half-period of a sine wave, and is therefore symmetric and maximally smooth. Thus, instead of converging to an intermediate motion signature, or having one player dominate, players seem to shift their basic motion signatures to a shape that is altogether different from their individually preferred shapes; the resulting motion may be easier to predict and to agree on. The players then build complex motion by using such smooth elementary strokes. PMID:24533054

  15. Individuality and Togetherness in Joint Improvised Motion

    PubMed Central

    Feniger-Schaal, Rinat; Mayo, Avraham E.; Alon, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Actors, dancers and musicians that improvise together report special moments of togetherness: high performance and synchrony, seemingly without a leader and a follower. Togetherness seems to conflict with individuality- the idiosyncratic character of each person's performance. To understand the relation of individuality and togetherness, we employed the mirror game paradigm in which two players are asked to mirror each other and create interesting synchronized motion, with and without a designated leader. The mirror game enables quantitative characterization of moments of togetherness in which complex motion is generated with high synchrony. We find that each person as a leader does basic strokes of motion with a characteristic signature, in terms of the shape of their velocity profile between two stopping events. In moments of togetherness both players change their signature to a universal stroke shape. This universal velocity profile resembles a half-period of a sine wave, and is therefore symmetric and maximally smooth. Thus, instead of converging to an intermediate motion signature, or having one player dominate, players seem to shift their basic motion signatures to a shape that is altogether different from their individually preferred shapes; the resulting motion may be easier to predict and to agree on. The players then build complex motion by using such smooth elementary strokes. PMID:24533054

  16. Design and validation of inert homemade explosive simulants for X-ray-based inspection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Anthony A.; Nacson, Sabatino; Koffler, Bruce; Bourbeau, Éric; Gagne, Louis; Laing, Robin; Anderson, C. J.

    2014-05-01

    Transport Canada (TC), the Canadian Armed Forces, and other public security agencies have an interest in the assessment of the potential utility of advanced explosives detection technologies to aid in the detection and interdiction of commercial grade, military grade, and homemade or improvised explosives (HME or IE). The availability of suitable, non-hazardous, non-toxic, explosive simulants is of concern when assessing the potential utility of such detection systems. Lack of simulants limits the training opportunities, and ultimately the detection probability, of security personnel using these systems. While simulants for commercial and military grade explosives are available for a wide variety of detection technologies, the design and production of materials to simulate improvised explosives has not kept pace with this emerging threat. Funded by TC and the Canadian Safety and Security Program, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), Visiontec Systems, and Optosecurity engaged in an effort to develop inert, non-toxic Xray interrogation simulants for IE materials such as ammonium nitrate, potassium chlorate, and triacetone triperoxide. These simulants were designed to mimic key X-ray interrogation-relevant material properties of real improvised explosives, principally their bulk density and effective atomic number. Different forms of the simulants were produced and tested, simulating the different explosive threat formulations that could be encountered by front line security workers. These simulants comply with safety and stability requirements, and as best as possible match form and homogeneity. This paper outlines the research program, simulant design, and validation.

  17. Pedagogical applications of cognitive research on musical improvisation

    PubMed Central

    Biasutti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the implementation of educational activities involving musical improvisation that is based on a review of the literature on the psychology of music. Psychology of music is a complex field of research in which quantitative and qualitative methods have been employed involving participants ranging from novices to expert performers. The cognitive research has been analyzed to propose a pedagogical approach to the development of processes rather than products that focus on an expert’s use of improvisation. The intention is to delineate a reflective approach that goes beyond the mere instruction of some current practices of teaching improvisation in jazz pedagogy. The review highlights that improvisation is a complex, multidimensional act that involves creative and performance behaviors in real-time in addition to processes such as sensory and perceptual encoding, motor control, performance monitoring, and memory storage and recall. Educational applications for the following processes are outlined: anticipation, use of repertoire, emotive communication, feedback, and flow. These characteristics are discussed in relation to the design of a pedagogical approach to musical improvisation based on reflection and metacognition development. PMID:26029147

  18. Pedagogical applications of cognitive research on musical improvisation.

    PubMed

    Biasutti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the implementation of educational activities involving musical improvisation that is based on a review of the literature on the psychology of music. Psychology of music is a complex field of research in which quantitative and qualitative methods have been employed involving participants ranging from novices to expert performers. The cognitive research has been analyzed to propose a pedagogical approach to the development of processes rather than products that focus on an expert's use of improvisation. The intention is to delineate a reflective approach that goes beyond the mere instruction of some current practices of teaching improvisation in jazz pedagogy. The review highlights that improvisation is a complex, multidimensional act that involves creative and performance behaviors in real-time in addition to processes such as sensory and perceptual encoding, motor control, performance monitoring, and memory storage and recall. Educational applications for the following processes are outlined: anticipation, use of repertoire, emotive communication, feedback, and flow. These characteristics are discussed in relation to the design of a pedagogical approach to musical improvisation based on reflection and metacognition development. PMID:26029147

  19. Insensitive explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kien-yin; Storm, C.B.

    1991-12-31

    This invention relates to the field of chemistry and, more particularly, to explosives. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36). It is desirable to use explosives in weapons and other applications which are less sensitive than the common explosives RDX, TNT, and HMX, since there have been catastrophic explosions of munitions which use these compounds. In preliminary characterization and sensitivity testing, it has been found that 3-amino-5-nitro-1,2,4-triazole (ANTA) is a promising insensitive high explosive. This report details the safety, production, and physical properties of ANTA.

  20. The Sign of Silence: Negotiating Musical Identities in an Improvising Ensemble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Graeme B.; MacDonald, Raymond A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Group musical improvisation, as a spontaneous process of collaborative creativity effected through non-verbal social interaction, is a unique psychological phenomenon and universal capacity. Existing studies focus on improvisation among professional jazz musicians, often using qualitative methods. However, improvisation transcends genres and…

  1. Teaching Improvisation in Elementary General Music: Facing Fears and Fostering Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Improvisation is a vital part of an elementary general music education. While some music teachers successfully include improvisation in music instruction, others have fears and face challenges when attempting improvisational activities in the classroom. This article acknowledges obstacles facing music educators when attempting to incorporate…

  2. Indications and Complications of Tube Thoracostomy with Improvised Underwater Seal Bottles

    PubMed Central

    Edaigbini, Sunday A; Delia, Ibrahim Z; Aminu, Muhammad B; Orogade, Abosede A; Anumenechi, Ndubuisi; Aliyu, Ibrahim D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tube thoracostomy is a lifesaving and frequently performed procedure in hospitals where the expertise and necessary tools are available. Where the ideal drainage receptacle is unavailable, the underwater seal device can be improvised with bottled water plastic can especially in emergency situations. Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the various indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a structured proforma was used for assessment over a 3-year period (May 2010-April 2013). The proforma was filled at the time of the procedure by the performing surgeon and patients were followed up with serial chest X-rays until certified cured. A 1.5 L bottled water container was used as the underwater seal receptacle. The data was analysed with SPSS 15 software program. Results: A total of 167 patients were managed. There were 106 (63.5%) males and 61 (36.5%) females. The mean age was 34.85 ± 16.72 with a range of 1-80 years. The most frequent indication was for malignant/paramalignant effusion, 46 (27.5%). Others were trauma, 44 (26.3%), Parapneumonic effusion, 20 (12%), postthoracotomy 14 (8.4%), empyema thoracis 12 (7.2%), heart disease and tuberculous effusion 11 (6.6%) each, pneumothorax 8 (4.8%) and misdiagnosis 1 (0.6%). A hundred and one (60.5%) of the procedures were performed by registrars, 41 (24.6%) by consultants, house officers 15 (9%) and senior registrars 10 (6%). The overall complication rate was 16.8% with the more frequent complications been empyema (5.6%) and pneumothorax (3.6%). The average duration of tube placement was 13.02 ± 12.362 days and range of 1-110 days. Conclusion: Tube thoracostomy can be a relatively safe procedure with acceptable complication rates even with improvised underwater seal drainage bottles. PMID:25191098

  3. Stand-off explosive detection utilizing low power stimulated emission nuclear quadrupole resonance detection and subwavelength focusing wideband super lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolos, John; Mouyos, William; Feng, Judy; Chase, Walter

    2015-05-01

    The need for advanced techniques to detect improvised explosive devices (IED) at stand-off distances greater than ten (10) meters has driven AMI Research and Development (AMI) to develop a solution to detect and identify the threat utilizing a forward looking Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) combined with our CW radar technology Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) detection system. The novel features include a near-field sub-wavelength focusing antenna, a wide band 300 KHz to 300 MHz rapidly scanning CW radar facilitated by a high Q antenna/tuner, and an advanced processor utilizing Rabi transitions where the nucleus oscillates between states under the time dependent incident electromagnetic field and alternately absorbs energy from the incident field while emitting coherent energy via stimulated emission. AMI's Sub-wavelength Focusing Wide Band Super Lens uses a Near-Field SAR, making detection possible at distances greater than ten (10) meters. This super lens is capable of operating on the near-field and focusing electromagnetic waves to resolutions beyond the diffraction limit. When applied to the case of a vehicle approaching an explosive hazard the methodologies of synthetic aperture radar is fused with the array based super resolution and the NQR data processing detecting the explosive hazard.

  4. Modeling nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  5. Quantum cascade laser-based screening portal for the detection of explosive precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindley, Ruth; Normand, Erwan; Howieson, Iain; McCulloch, Michael; Black, Paul; Lewis, Colin; Foulger, Brian

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, quantum cascade lasers (QCL) have been proven in robust, high-performance gas analyzers designed for continuous emission monitoring (CEM) in harsh environments. In 2006, Cascade Technologies reported progress towards adapting its patented technology for homeland security applications by publishing initial results on explosive compound detection. This paper presents the performance and results from a QCL-based people screening portal developed during the past year and aimed at the detection of precursors used in the make up of improvised explosive devices (IED). System tests have been carried out on a large number of potential interferents, together with target precursor materials, reinforcing original assumptions that compound fingerprinting can be effectively demonstrated using this technique. Results have shown that an extremely high degree of specificity can be achieved with a sub-second response time. Furthermore, it has been shown that unambiguous precursor signature recognition can be extended to compound mixtures associated with the intermediate stages in the make up of IEDs, whilst maintaining interferent immunity. The portal sensitivity was configured for parts per billion (ppb) detection level thresholds, but is currently being reconfigured for sub-ppb detection. In summary, the results obtained from the QCL based portal indicate that development of a low cost detection system, with enhanced features such as low false positive and high throughput screening of individuals or items, is possible. Development and testing was carried out with the support of the UK government.

  6. Field Evaluation of the Explosive Deposition of Cesium on Concrete Surfaces Following the Detonation of a Mock Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD)

    SciTech Connect

    Gates-Anderson, D D; Fisher, R; Sutton, M; Rasmussen, C; Viani, B; McNab, W; Gray, J; Hu, Q

    2006-11-10

    Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory conducted a field study to evaluate the deposition of an explosively dispersed radionuclide surrogate (CsCl) on grime and non-grime containing urban surfaces. An additional objective of this study was to evaluate several laboratory surface contamination techniques for the preparation of mock urban surfaces in order to determine the method that most closely mimics surface contamination following an RDD event. The field study was conducted at the LLNL Site 300 Contained Firing Facility (CFF). For our study, we detonated a mock RDD made using C4 and non-radioactive CsCl. Lab prepared concrete samples (3.8 cm x 7.6 cm cylinders) were made using 4 different conditioning regimes to mimic a range of conditions that may be encountered during an RDD event. This sample set included dry, wet, carbonated and non-carbonated cores with and without the application of urban grime. In addition, concreted samples (13 cm x 13 cm x 5 cm) removed from an urban surface were placed inside the CFF chamber. The samples were placed inside the firing chamber at 3 different distances from the mock RDD device. Following the detonation of the mock RDD, the samples were removed from the firing chamber and selected cores were characterized by laser ablation and scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary results suggest that Cs migrates into the concrete samples and the presence of a grime layer does not appear to impede this migration.

  7. Expertise in Musical Improvisation and Creativity: The Mediation of Idea Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kleinmintz, Oded M.; Goldstein, Pavel; Mayseless, Naama; Abecasis, Donna; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the influence of musical expertise, and specifically training in improvisation on creativity, using the framework of the twofold model, according to which creativity involves a process of idea generation and idea evaluation. Based on the hypothesis that a strict evaluation phase may have an inhibiting effect over the generation phase, we predicted that training in improvisation may have a “releasing effect” on the evaluation system, leading to greater creativity. To examine this hypothesis, we compared performance among three groups - musicians trained in improvisation, musicians not trained in improvisation, and non-musicians - on divergent thinking tasks and on their evaluation of creativity. The improvisation group scored higher on fluency and originality compared to the other two groups. Among the musicians, evaluation of creativity mediated how experience in improvisation was related to originality and fluency scores. It is concluded that deliberate practice of improvisation may have a “releasing effect” on creativity. PMID:25010334

  8. Expertise in musical improvisation and creativity: the mediation of idea evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kleinmintz, Oded M; Goldstein, Pavel; Mayseless, Naama; Abecasis, Donna; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the influence of musical expertise, and specifically training in improvisation on creativity, using the framework of the twofold model, according to which creativity involves a process of idea generation and idea evaluation. Based on the hypothesis that a strict evaluation phase may have an inhibiting effect over the generation phase, we predicted that training in improvisation may have a "releasing effect" on the evaluation system, leading to greater creativity. To examine this hypothesis, we compared performance among three groups--musicians trained in improvisation, musicians not trained in improvisation, and non-musicians--on divergent thinking tasks and on their evaluation of creativity. The improvisation group scored higher on fluency and originality compared to the other two groups. Among the musicians, evaluation of creativity mediated how experience in improvisation was related to originality and fluency scores. It is concluded that deliberate practice of improvisation may have a "releasing effect" on creativity. PMID:25010334

  9. Open apex shaped charge-type explosive device having special disc means with slide surface thereon to influence movement of open apex shaped charge liner during collapse of same during detonation

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, M.J.

    1993-10-12

    An open apex shape charge explosive device is disclosed having an inner liner defining a truncated cone, an explosive charge surrounding the truncated inner liner, a primer charge, and a disc located between the inner liner and the primer charge for directing the detonation of the primer charge around the end edge of the disc means to the explosive materials surrounding the inner liner. The disc comprises a material having one or more of: a higher compressive strength, a higher hardness, and/or a higher density than the material comprising the inner liner, thereby enabling the disc to resist deformation until the liner collapses. The disc has a slide surface thereon on which the end edge of the inner liner slides inwardly toward the vertical axis of the device during detonation of the main explosive surrounding the inner liner, to thereby facilitate the inward collapse of the inner liner. In a preferred embodiment, the geometry of the slide surface is adjusted to further control the collapse or [beta] angle of the inner liner. 12 figures.

  10. Open apex shaped charge-type explosive device having special disc means with slide surface thereon to influence movement of open apex shaped charge liner during collapse of same during detonation

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    An open apex shape charge explosive device is disclosed having an inner liner defining a truncated cone, an explosive charge surrounding the truncated inner liner, a primer charge, and a disc located between the inner liner and the primer charge for directing the detonation of the primer charge around the end edge of the disc means to the explosive materials surrounding the inner liner. The disc comprises a material having one or more of: a higher compressive strength, a higher hardness, and/or a higher density than the material comprising the inner liner, thereby enabling the disc to resist deformation until the liner collapses. The disc has a slide surface thereon on which the end edge of the inner liner slides inwardly toward the vertical axis of the device during detonation of the main explosive surrounding the inner liner, to thereby facilitate the inward collapse of the inner liner. In a preferred embodiment, the geometry of the slide surface is adjusted to further control the collapse or .beta. angle of the inner liner.