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1

Behavioral and psychophysiological markers of disordered attention  

SciTech Connect

Behavioral and psychophysiological assays provide the most sensitive indication of whether a presumed neurotoxin has a deleterious effect on the nervous system. The effects of lead on the nervous system are strongly suggestive that this agent can produce disturbances in attention; moreover, there are clinical reports of such effects. The action of lead is also manifest in behaviors described as ''hyperactive,'' or reflecting ''minimal brain damage.'' The core symptom in both disorders is probably impairment in attention. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III) of the American Psychiatric Association uses the term Attention Deficit Disorder to replace such terms as hyperactivity and minimal brain damage. Prior studies of the behavioral toxicity of lead may have used inadequate or incomplete assays of attention; this could in part account for the variability in outcomes. Recent research on attention suggests that it is a complex behavior consisting of a number of elements or components, each of which may be in part dependent upon a different region of the central nervous system. Behavioral assays should examine the components of attentive behavior using tests which are sensitive to the different elements. It is recommended that psychophysiological assays (using cognitive event-related potentials), although more difficult and costly to implement, be used as well. These assays may provide a more dynamic view of altered information processing in the brain and help to localize and characterize the behavioral impairment. 50 references.

Mirsky, A.F.

1987-10-01

2

Socially guided attention influences infants' communicative behavior.  

PubMed

For effective prelinguistic communication, infants must be able to direct their attention, vocalizations, and nonverbal gestures in social interactions. The purpose of our study was to examine how different styles of caregiver responses influenced infant attentional and communicative behavior in social interactions, based on prior studies that have shown influences of responsiveness on attention, language and cognitive outcomes. Infants were exposed to redirective and sensitive behavior systematically using an ABA design to examine real-time changes in infants' behavior as a function of caregiver responses. During the two baseline "A" periods, caregivers were instructed to play as they would at home. During the social response "B" period, caregivers were instructed to respond sensitively to infants' behavior on one visit and redirectively on the other visit. Results demonstrated that when caregivers behaved redirectively, infants shifted their attention more frequently and decreased the duration of their visual attention. Caregiver responses also resulted in changes in vocal and gesture production. Infants decreased their production of caregiver-directed vocalizations, gestures, and gesture-vocal combinations during in the redirective condition. Results suggest that caregiver sensitive responding to infants' attentional focus may be one influence on infants' attentional and prelinguistic communicative behavior. PMID:23906941

Miller, Jennifer L; Gros-Louis, Julie

2013-12-01

3

Android Permissions: User Attention, Comprehension, and Behavior  

E-print Network

Android Permissions: User Attention, Comprehension, and Behavior Adrienne Porter Felt*, Elizabeth,arielhaney}@ischool.berkeley.edu ABSTRACT Android's permission system is intended to inform users about the risks of installing applications whether the Android permission sys- tem is effective at warning users. In particular, we evaluate whether

Wagner, David

4

Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.  

PubMed

Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed. PMID:24922613

Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang

2014-10-01

5

Toward a behavioral analysis of joint attention  

PubMed Central

Joint attention (JA) initiation is defined in cognitive-developmental psychology as a child's actions that verify or produce simultaneous attending by that child and an adult to some object or event in the environment so that both may experience the object or event together. This paper presents a contingency analysis of gaze shift in JA initiation. The analysis describes reinforcer-establishing and evocative effects of antecedent objects or events, discriminative and conditioned reinforcing functions of stimuli generated by adult behavior, and socially mediated reinforcers that may maintain JA behavior. A functional analysis of JA may describe multiple operant classes. The paper concludes with a discussion of JA deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders and suggestions for research and treatment. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:22478429

Dube, William V.; MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Mansfield, Renee C.; Holcomb, William L.; Ahearn, William H.

2004-01-01

6

Empirical Analysis of Attention Behaviors in Online Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying attention behavior has its social significance because such behavior is considered to lead the evolution of the friendship network. However, this type of behavior in social networks has attracted relatively little attention before, which is mainly because, in reality, such behaviors are always transitory and rarely recorded. In this paper, we collected the attention behaviors as well as the friendship network from Douban database and then carefully studied the attention behaviors in the friendship network as a latent metric space. The revealed similar patterns of attention behavior and friendship suggest that attention behavior may be the pre-stage of friendship to a certain extent, which can be further validated by the fact that pairwise nodes in Douban network connected by attention links beforehand are indeed far more likely to be connected by friendship links in the near future. This phenomenon can also be used to explain the high clustering of many social networks. More interestingly, it seems that attention behaviors are more likely to take place between individuals who have more mutual friends as well as more different friends, which seems a little different from the principles of many link prediction algorithms. Moreover, it is also found that forward attention is preferred to inverse attention, which is quite natural because, usually, an individual must be more interested in others that he is paying attention to than those paying attention to him. All of these findings can be used to guide the design of more appropriate social network models in the future.

Du, Fang; Xuan, Qi; Wu, Tie-Jun

7

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Attentional Templates in Visual Working Memory  

E-print Network

working memory to long-term memory representations controlling attention as learning occurredBehavioral/Systems/Cognitive Attentional Templates in Visual Working Memory Nancy B. Carlisle of attention propose that we maintain attentional templates in visual working memory to control what

Woodman, Geoffrey F.

8

Children's Attentional Skills and Road Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switching attention and concentration, 2 skills expected to be used by skillful pedestrians, were studied. A sample of 160 children (aged 4 years 3 months–10 years) played a computer game involving attention switching. To examine concentration, a subset of the children was distracted with a cartoon video while they attempted a difficult task that required matching familiar figures. The same

George Dunbar; Ros Hill; Vicky Lewis

2001-01-01

9

Toward a Behavioral Analysis of Joint Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joint attention (JA) initiation is defined in cognitive-developmental psychology as a child's actions that verify or produce simultaneous attending by that child and an adult to some object or event in the environment so that both may experience the object or event together. This paper presents a contingency analysis of gaze shift in JA…

Dube, William V.; MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Mansfield, Renee C.; Holcomb, William L.; Ahearn, William H.

2004-01-01

10

Behavioral oscillations in attention: rhythmic ? pulses mediated through ? band.  

PubMed

Neuronal oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain and contribute to perception and attention. However, most associated evidence derives from post hoc correlations between brain dynamics and behavior. Although a few recent studies demonstrate rhythms in behavior, it remains largely unknown whether behavioral performances manifest spectrotemporal dynamics in a neurophysiologically relevant manner (e.g., the temporal modulation of ongoing oscillations, the cross-frequency coupling). To investigate the issue, we examined fine spectrotemporal dynamics of behavioral time courses in a large sample of human participants (n = 49), by taking a high time-resolved psychophysical measurement in a precuing attentional task. We observed compelling dynamic oscillatory patterns directly in behavior. First, typical attentional effects are demonstrated in low-pass (0-2 Hz) filtered time courses of behavioral responses. Second, an uninformative peripheral cue elicits recurring ?-band (8-20 Hz) pulses in behavioral performances, and the elicited ? pulses for cued and uncued conditions are in a temporally alternating relationship. Finally, ongoing ?-band power is phase locked to ongoing ?-bands (3-5 Hz) in behavioral time courses. Our findings constitute manifestation of oscillations at physiologically relevant rhythms and power-phase locking, as widely observed in neurophysiological recordings, in behavior. The findings suggest that behavioral performance actually consists of rich dynamic information and may reflect underlying neuronal oscillatory substrates. Our data also speak to a neural mechanism for item attention based on successive cycles (?) of a sequential attentional sampling (?) process. PMID:24695703

Song, Kun; Meng, Ming; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Ke; Luo, Huan

2014-04-01

11

New perspectives on adolescent motivated behavior: attention and conditioning  

PubMed Central

Adolescence is a critical transition period, during which fundamental changes prepare the adolescent for becoming an adult. Heuristic models of the neurobiology of adolescent behavior have emerged, promoting the central role of reward and motivation, coupled with cognitive immaturities. Here, we bring focus to two basic sets of processes, attention and conditioning, which are essential for adaptive behavior. Using the dual-attention model developed by Corbetta and Shulman (2002), which identifies a stimulus-driven and a goal-driven attention network, we propose a balance that favors stimulus-driven attention over goal-driven attention in youth. Regarding conditioning, we hypothesize that stronger associations tend to be made between environmental cues and appetitive stimuli, and weaker associations with aversive stimuli, in youth relative to adults. An attention system geared to prioritize stimulus-driven attention, together with more powerful associative learning with appetitive incentives, contribute to shape patterns of adolescent motivated behavior. This proposed bias in attention and conditioning function could facilitate the impulsive, novelty-seeking and risk-taking behavior that is typical of many adolescents. PMID:21977221

Ernst, Monique; Daniele, Teresa; Frantz, Kyle

2011-01-01

12

Attention, play, and social behavior in ADHD preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated attention, play and nonplay behavior in preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a matched control group of non-ADHD children. Forty 4- to 5-year-old children (20 ADHD and 20 matched control) participated. Across a 6-week-period, children's social and play interactions as well as nonplay behaviors were videotaped in the classroom. Videotape recordings were analyzed for the

Steven M. Alessandri

1992-01-01

13

Behavioral Assessment of Joint Attention: A Methodological Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a highly structured assessment protocol with objective behavioral measures for joint attention responding and initiation. The assessment was given to 26 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and 21 typically developing children, aged two to four years. Interobserver agreement was high for all behavioral measures.…

MacDonald, Rebecca; Anderson, Jennifer; Dube, William V.; Geckeler, Amy; Green, Gina; Holcomb, William; Mansfield, Renee; Sanchez, June

2006-01-01

14

Attentional Bias Toward Suicide-Related Stimuli Predicts Suicidal Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-standing challenge for scientific and clinical work on suicidal behavior is that people often are motivated to deny or conceal suicidal thoughts. The authors proposed that people considering suicide would possess an objectively measurable attentional bias toward suicide-related stimuli and that this bias would predict future suicidal behavior. Participants were 124 adults presenting to a psychiatric emergency department who

Christine B. Cha; Sadia Najmi; Jennifer M. Park; Christine T. Finn; Matthew K. Nock

2010-01-01

15

The Effects and Predictor Value of In-Class Texting Behavior on Final Course Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cell phones have become a norm within the collegiate environment but little research has examined their impact on academic attainment. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects that in-class texting behavior had on the final grade score in a freshmen level introductory social science course. Students in three different sections were…

McDonald, Sylvia E.

2013-01-01

16

Attentional Bias toward Suicide-Related Stimuli Predicts Suicidal Behavior  

PubMed Central

A long-standing challenge for scientific and clinical work on suicidal behavior is that people often are motivated to deny or conceal suicidal thoughts. We proposed that people considering suicide would possess an objectively measurable attentional bias toward suicide-related stimuli, and that this bias would predict future suicidal behavior. Participants were 124 adults presenting to a psychiatric emergency department who were administered a modified emotional Stroop task and followed for six months. Suicide attempters showed an attentional bias toward suicide-related words relative to neutral words, and this bias was strongest among those who had made a more recent attempt. Importantly, this suicide-specific attentional bias predicted which people made a suicide attempt over the next six months, above and beyond other clinical predictors. Attentional bias toward more general negatively-valenced words did not predict any suicide-related outcomes, supporting the specificity of the observed effect. These results suggest that suicide-specific attentional bias can serve as a behavioral marker for suicidal risk, and ultimately improve scientific and clinical work on suicide-related outcomes. PMID:20677851

Cha, Christine B.; Najmi, Sadia; Park, Jennifer M.; Finn, Christine T.; Nock, Matthew K.

2010-01-01

17

Selective attention in the honeybee optic lobes precedes behavioral choices  

PubMed Central

Attention allows animals to respond selectively to competing stimuli, enabling some stimuli to evoke a behavioral response while others are ignored. How the brain does this remains mysterious, although it is increasingly evident that even animals with the smallest brains display this capacity. For example, insects respond selectively to salient visual stimuli, but it is unknown where such selectivity occurs in the insect brain, or whether neural correlates of attention might predict the visual choices made by an insect. Here, we investigate neural correlates of visual attention in behaving honeybees (Apis mellifera). Using a closed-loop paradigm that allows tethered, walking bees to actively control visual objects in a virtual reality arena, we show that behavioral fixation increases neuronal responses to flickering, frequency-tagged stimuli. Attention-like effects were reduced in the optic lobes during replay of the same visual sequences, when bees were not able to control the visual displays. When bees were presented with competing frequency-tagged visual stimuli, selectivity in the medulla (an optic ganglion) preceded behavioral selection of a stimulus, suggesting that modulation of early visual processing centers precedes eventual behavioral choices made by these insects. PMID:24639490

Paulk, Angelique C.; Stacey, Jacqueline A.; Pearson, Thomas W. J.; Taylor, Gavin J.; Moore, Richard J. D.; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.; van Swinderen, Bruno

2014-01-01

18

Vlogcast Yourself: Nonverbal Behavior and Attention in Social Media  

E-print Network

Vlogcast Yourself: Nonverbal Behavior and Attention in Social Media Joan-Isaac Biel jibiel is useful not only to study social media, but also re- mote communication scenarios, and requires the integration of methods for multimodal processing and for social media understanding. Based on works from

Gatica-Perez, Daniel

19

Vlogcast Yourself: Nonverbal Behavior and Attention in Social Media  

E-print Network

Vlogcast Yourself: Nonverbal Behavior and Attention in Social Media Joan-Isaac Biel jibiel to social media, but also to remote communication scenarios, and requires the integration of methods for multimodal pro- cessing and for social media understanding. Based on works from social psychology

20

Attentional bias modification for addictive behaviors: clinical implications.  

PubMed

When a person has a goal of drinking alcohol or using another addictive substance, the person appears to be automatically distracted by stimuli related to the goal. Because the attentional bias might propel the person to use the substance, an intervention might help modify it. In this article, we discuss techniques that have been developed to help people overcome their attentional bias for alcohol, smoking-related stimuli, drugs, or unhealthy food. We also discuss how these techniques are being adapted for use on mobile devices. The latter would allow people with an addictive behavior to use the attentional training in privacy and as frequently as needed. The attentional training techniques discussed here appear to have several advantages. They are inexpensive, can be fun to use, and have flexibility in when, where, and how often they are used. The evidence so far also suggests that they are effective. PMID:24642267

Cox, W Miles; Fadardi, Javad S; Intriligator, James M; Klinger, Eric

2014-06-01

21

Cognition, attention, and behavior in Prader-Willi syndrome.  

PubMed

We studied the academic, cognitive, and behavior profile of 18 patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. All had severe learning disabilities in arithmetic and writing, and the majority were also dyslexic. Their average Full-Scale IQ was 73.7 +/- 8.9, which was 1 SD below normal range, whereas their performance on executive, memory, and visuospatial tasks ranged from 2.1 to 7.0 SD below the expected means. Behavioral problems were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist, on which the majority scored in the pathologic range for social and attention problems, delinquent and aggressive behavior, somatic complaints, and thought problems. Genotypes of the children did not predict cognitive or behavioral profile, nor could behavior be associated with parameters of weight or IQ. In summary, we found that patients with Prader-Willi syndrome have profound learning disabilities and cognitive deficits, greater than expected for their IQ. Behavioral problems, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), are also prevalent and impede the overall management of this group of patients. The genotypes were not helpful in predicting cognitive or behavioral patterns. PMID:11332464

Gross-Tsur, V; Landau, Y E; Benarroch, F; Wertman-Elad, R; Shalev, R S

2001-04-01

22

A randomized trial of attention training for generalized social phobia: does attention training change social behavior?  

PubMed

The use of attention training protocols for the treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) is undergoing increased examination. Initial investigations were positive but more recent investigations have been less supportive of the treatment paradigm. One significant limitation of current investigations is overreliance on self-report. In this investigation, we expanded on initial investigations by using a multimodal assessment of patient functioning (i.e., including behavioral assessment). Patients with a primary diagnosis of SAD (n=31) were randomly assigned to eight sessions of attention training (n=15) or placebo/control (n=16). Participants were assessed at pre- and posttreatment via self- and clinician-report of social anxiety as well as anxious and behavioral response to two in vivo social interactions. Results revealed no differences between groups at posttreatment for all study outcome variables, suggesting a lack of effect for the attention training condition. The results are concordant with recent investigations finding a lack of support for the use of attention training as an efficacious treatment for patients with SAD. PMID:24094791

Bunnell, Brian E; Beidel, Deborah C; Mesa, Franklin

2013-12-01

23

Attitude-behavior congruity, mindfulness, and self-focused attention: A behavior-analytic reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Social psychologists have responded to research reporting low agreement between attitude measures and related behavior with attempts to explain the incongruities and enhance agreement. This article examines attitude-behavior incongruity from a behavior-analytic point of view. Traditional and behavior-analytic views of attitudes and behaviors are compared. In the behavior-analytic view, answering an attitude scale should be considered as behavior displayed by a person under rather unusual social conditions, not as a reflection of an enduring personal disposition. Reasons why questionnaire-answering behavior will not resemble behavior in other functionally different social conditions are reviewed. Special attention is extended to two representative lines of attitude-behavior research: mindfulness and self-focused attention. Discriminative stimuli in both areas of study have produced more predictable agreement between questionnaire-answering behavior and behavior in other settings. PMID:22478180

Street, Warren R.

1994-01-01

24

Direct and Vicarious Effects of Social Praise on Mentally Retarded Preschool Children's Attentive Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of social praise on attentive behavior of reinforced and nonreinforced children. Two pairs of mentally retarded preschool boys served as subjects. Results revealed that intervention procedure increased the attentive behavior of the target subjects and nonreinforced subjects also increased their attentive behavior during…

Strain, Phillip S.; Pierce, James E.

1977-01-01

25

Voluntary Physical Exercise Alters Attentional Orienting and Social Behavior in a Rat Model of Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of voluntary physical exercise on attentional function and social behavior were examined in male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Rats in the exercise groups had free access to a running wheel for 2 weeks and then all rats received nonreinforced presentations of a visual stimulus (light) during the

Michael E. Hopkins; Mita Sharma; Gretchen C. Evans; David J. Bucci

2009-01-01

26

Neuropsychological and behavioral measures of attention assess different constructs in children with traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological and behavioral measures are used to assess attention, but little convergence has been found between these two assessment methods. However, many prior studies have not considered attention as a multicomponent system, which may contribute to this lack of agreement between neuropsychological and behavioral measures. To address this the current study examined the relationship between the neuropsychological measures that comprise a four-component model of attention and parent-report behavioral ratings of attention problems and hyperactivity. A total of 65 children and adolescents who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) were included in the study. Principal components analysis identified the four attention components in this sample, which accounted for 80.9% of the variance. However, correlations between the neuropsychological measures of attention and behavioral ratings of attention and hyperactivity were low and non-significant. This minimal correspondence suggests that neuropsychological and behavioral measures assess different aspects of attentional disturbances in children with TBI. PMID:21902568

Barney, Sally J; Allen, Daniel N; Thaler, Nicholas S; Park, Brandon S; Strauss, Gregory P; Mayfield, Joan

2011-10-01

27

Attention!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor art/environmental activity, learners create designs that will attract attention to animals and plants in particular habitats, and then test whether their designs attracted the "right" organisms. Learners come to understand more about how features of animal and plant appearance, including color, shape, and design patterns, serve to attract pollinators and mates, scare away predators, or serve as warning. The activity can be extended by discussing other ways plants and animals attract attention, such as by smell, sound, or sight.

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

28

Situation Specificity in Attention-Seeking Problem BehaviorA Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on attention-seeking problem behavior has focused on individuals who misbehaved under general conditions of low adult attention. In general, no detailed analyses were conducted to determine whether different situations involving low levels of adult attention (such as familiar vs. unfamiliar adults, setting events, or the presence or absence of peers) exacerbated or attenuated problem behavior. The current case

Jill C. Taylor; Lori A. Sisson; Jenifer L. McKelvey; Mary F. Trefelner

1993-01-01

29

Attention as a Reinforcer for the Behavior of Young Children in Early Education Classrooms  

E-print Network

Although it is clear that attention is an important variable in the acquisition and maintenance of behavior (appropriate and inappropriate), further investigation into the characteristics of attention that affect its ...

Bayles, Makenzie W.

2013-12-31

30

Eigengaze - covert behavioral biometric exploiting visual attention characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible for the visual attention characteristics of a person to be exploited as a biometric for authentication or identification of individual viewers. The visual attention characteristics of a person can be easily monitored by tracking the gaze of a viewer during the presentation of a known or unknown visual scene. The positions and sequences of gaze locations during

C. Fookes; S. Sridharan

2010-01-01

31

An observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to measure in-class learner engagement: a validation study  

PubMed Central

Background Efforts are made to enhance in-class learner engagement because it stimulates and enhances learning. However, it is not easy to quantify learner engagement. This study aimed to develop and validate an observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to determine and compare in-class learner engagement levels in four different class types delivered by the same instructor. Methods Observer pairs observed instructor and student behaviors during lectures in large class (LLC, n=2) with third-year medical students, lectures in small class (LSC, n=6) and case-based teaching sessions (CBT, n=4) with fifth-year students, and problem-based learning (PBL) sessions (~7 hours) with second-year students. The observation tool was a revised form of STROBE, an instrument for recording behaviors of an instructor and four randomly selected students as snapshots for 5-min cycles. Instructor and student behaviors were scored 1–5 on this tool named ‘in-class engagement measure (IEM)’. The IEM scores were parallel to the degree of behavior's contribution to active student engagement, so higher scores were associated with more in-class learner engagement. Additionally, the number of questions asked by the instructor and students were recorded. A total of 203 5-min observations were performed (LLC 20, LSC 85, CBT 50, and PBL 48). Results Interobserver agreement on instructor and student behaviors was 93.7% (?=0.87) and 80.6% (?=0.71), respectively. Higher median IEM scores were found in student-centered and problem-oriented methods such as CBT and PBL. A moderate correlation was found between instructor and student behaviors (r=0.689). Conclusions This study provides some evidence for validity of the IEM scores as a measure of student engagement in different class types. PMID:25308966

Alimoglu, Mustafa K.; Sarac, Didar B.; Alparslan, Derya; Karakas, Ayse A.; Altintas, Levent

2014-01-01

32

Serial Attention Mechanisms in Visual Search: A Direct Behavioral Demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In visual search, inefficient performance of human observers is typically characterized by a steady increase in reaction time with the number of array elementsthe so-called set-size effect. In general, set-size effects are taken to indicate that processing of the array elements depends on limited-capacity resources, that is, it involves attention. Contrasting theories have been proposed to account for this attentional

Emanuela Bricolo; Tiziana Gianesini; Alessandra Fanini; Claus Bundesen; Leonardo Chelazzi

2002-01-01

33

Affect of Parental Rejection on Negative Attention-Seeking Classroom Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student questionnaires and teacher interviews provided data on 123 Chicago third graders to determine the affect of parental rejection on negative attention-seeking classroom behaviors, what particular parent might be more rejecting, and what specific negative attention-seeking behaviors might be overtly demonstrated in the classroom by sex of…

Peretti, Peter O.; And Others

1984-01-01

34

Which Behavioral and Personality Characteristics Are Associated with Difficulties in Selective Attention?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study investigated the behavioral and personality profile associated with difficulties in selective attention. Method: A group of participants with ADHD were assessed for ADHD behaviors. Adults with ADHD (n = 22) and without ADHD (n = 84) were tested on the conjunctive visual-search task for selective attention and…

Avisar, Alon

2011-01-01

35

Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors.\\u000a Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral\\u000a inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior studies examine the association\\u000a between attention bias and BI before adolescence. The current study

Koraly Pérez-Edgar; Bethany C. Reeb-Sutherland; Jennifer Martin McDermott; Lauren K. White; Heather A. Henderson; Kathryn A. Degnan; Amie A. Hane; Daniel S. Pine; Nathan A. Fox

2011-01-01

36

Self-Management of On-Task Homework Behavior: A Promising Strategy for Adolescents with Attention and Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with attention and behavior problems oftentimes experience difficulty finishing academic work. On-task behavior is frequently cited as a primary reason for students' failure to complete homework assignments. Researchers have identified self-monitoring and self-management of on-task behavior as effective tools for improving homework…

Axelrod, Michael I.; Zhe, Elizabeth J.; Haugen, Kimberly A.; Klein, Jean A.

2009-01-01

37

Severe Problem Behaviors Related to Social Interaction1: Attention Seeking and Social Avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies concerning the functional analysis of severe problem behaviors have suggested that it is important to identify the different categories of stimuli that control problem behavior because each has unique treatment implications. The present study explored the differential effects of adult attention on the severe problem behaviors of two groups of children with developmental disabilities. A third group of nonproblem

Jill Chapman Taylor; Edward G. Carr

1992-01-01

38

Vlogcast yourself: nonverbal behavior and attention in social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce vlogs as a type of rich human interaction which is multimodal in nature and suitable for new large-scale behavioral data analysis. The automatic analysis of vlogs is useful not only to study social media, but also remote communication scenarios, and requires the integration of methods for multimodal processing and for social media understanding. Based on works from social

Joan-Isaac Biel; Daniel Gatica-Perez

2010-01-01

39

Mindfulness and Health Behaviors: Is Paying Attention Good for You?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The investigators examined relations between mindfulness and health behaviors in college students, as well as the role of stress in mediating these effects. Participants: Participants were 553 undergraduates (385 females; mean age = 18.8 years, SD = 2.1) recruited from a university in the northeastern United States. Methods:…

Roberts, Kimberly C.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

2010-01-01

40

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Activations in Visual and Attention-Related Areas Predict  

E-print Network

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Activations in Visual and Attention-Related Areas Predict wereseparatedintotwogroups:"learners"and"nonlearners."Aslearningprogressed,learnersshowedprogressivelyreducedactivation in both visual cortex, including Brodmann's areas 18 and 19 and the fusiform gyrus, and several cortical

Baker, Chris I.

41

A Reference Model of Soldier Attention and Behavior MAJ Jonathan K. Alt  

E-print Network

of situation awareness and behavior. Building on previous work, the researchers developed an integrated and tractable modeling framework for the representation of a soldier's visual attention, situation awareness an integrated conceptual model of a soldier's visual attention (search), situation awareness, and target

Darken, Christian J.

42

Relations Among Student Attention Behaviors, Teacher Practices, and Beginning Word Reading Skill  

PubMed Central

The role of student attention for predicting kindergarten word reading was investigated among 432 students. Using SWAN behavior rating scores, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded three distinct factors that reflected selective attention. In this study, we focused on the role of one of these factors, which we labeled attention-memory behaviors, for predicting reading performance. Teacher ratings of attention predicted word reading above and beyond the contribution of phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. In addition, the relations between four teacher practices and attention ratings for predicting reading performance were examined. Using HLM, significant interactions between student attention and teacher practices observed during literacy instruction were found. In general, as ratings of attention improved, better kindergarten word reading performance was associated with high levels of classroom behavior management. However, by mid-year, better word reading performance was not associated with high levels of teacher task- orienting. A significant three-way interaction was also found among attention, individualized instruction, and teacher task re-directions. The role of regulating kindergarten student attention to support beginning word reading skill development is discussed. PMID:22207616

Saez, Leilani; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher

2011-01-01

43

Cognition, Attention, and Behavior in Prader-Willi Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the academic, cognitive, and behavior profile of 18 patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. All had severe learning disabilities in arithmetic and writing, and the majority were also dyslexic. Their average Full-Scale IQ was 73.7 ± 8.9, which was 1 SD below normal range, whereas their performance on executive, memory, and visuospatial tasks ranged from 2.1 to 7.0 SD below

Varda Gross-Tsur; Yael E. Landau; Fortu Benarroch; Raaya Wertman-Elad; Ruth S. Shalev

2001-01-01

44

Effects of acute nicotine administration on behavioral inhibition in adolescents with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale Adolescents with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) become cigarette smokers at twice the rate of non-ADHD adolescents, and this finding continues into adulthood. Abnormal cognitive\\/behavioral inhibition is one core cognitive symptom of ADHD, leading to impulsive behavior in people with this disorder. Nicotine, contained in tobacco smoke, is known to improve attention, vigilance, and short-term memory. However, little is known about

Alexandra S. Potter; Paul A. Newhouse

2004-01-01

45

Attributions for Child Behavior in Parents of Children Without Behavior Disorders and Children With Attention Deficit–Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attributions for and reactions to inattentive-overactive, oppositional-defiant, and prosocial child behaviors were compared in 52 parents of children with attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 42 parents of children without behavior disorders. Parent attributions and reactions elicited using written descriptions of child behavior, behaviors the parent recalled his or her own child displaying, and videotaped clips of the parent's own child's

Charlotte Johnston; Wendy Freeman

1997-01-01

46

Best in Class: A Classroom-Based Model for Ameliorating Problem Behavior in Early Childhood Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As more young children enter school settings to attend early childhood programs, early childhood teachers and school psychologists have been charged with supporting a growing number of young children with chronic problem behaviors that put them at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). There is a need for effective,…

Vo, Abigail K.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.

2012-01-01

47

Behavior rating scales: Concordance between multiple informants in the diagnosis of Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) emerges in early childhood and is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Behavior rating scales serve as an essential component in a comprehensive assessment of ADHD. Unfortunately, there is often disconcordance between informants' responses, resulting in lower interrater reliability. The current paper reviews variables that may decrease the diagnostic utility of behavior rating scales in the diagnosis

R. L. Mandal; D. J. Olmi; S. M. Wilczynski

1999-01-01

48

Perceptual Attention in Virtual Humans: Towards Realistic and Believable Gaze Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a growing number of applications it is important that the perceptual behavior of a virtual human be at once realistic and believable. To be realistic, a model needs to be psychologically plausible, and to be believable the behavior must look right. To this end, I describe a model of attention that was implemented in a virtual helicopter pilot using

Randall W. Hill

2000-01-01

49

Improving the Effectiveness of Behavioral Classroom Interventions for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study reports how modifications to an existing behavior management plan improved the behavioral intervention of a third-grade boy diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A multiple baseline design across setting was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the modified intervention. Teachers overwhelmingly accepted the…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.

2003-01-01

50

Familial Transmission of Continuous Performance Test Behavior: Attentional and Impulsive Response Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous Performance Tests (CPTs) provide information on attentional processing and impulsive behavior. The results of previous research that used self-report measures have provided evidence for familial transmission (through genetic and\\/or environmental influences) of impulsive characteristics. The authors of the present study examined whether the impulsive behavioral parameters that are measured by the CPT also share familial relationships. The researchers asked

Donald M. Dougherty; James M. Bjork; F. GERARD Moeller; R. ANDREW Harper; Dawn M. Marsh; Charles W. Mathias; Alan C. Swann

2003-01-01

51

Anxiety, attention problems, hyperactivity, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in fragile X syndrome.  

PubMed

Behavior problems are a common challenge for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and constitute the primary clinical outcome domain in trials testing new FXS medications. However, little is known about the relationship between caregiver-reported behavior problems and co-occurring conditions such as anxiety and attention problems. In this study, 350 caregivers, each with at least one son or daughter with full-mutation FXS, rated one of their children with FXS using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Version (ABC-C); the Anxiety subscale of the Anxiety, Depression, and Mood Scale; and the Attention/Hyperactivity Items from the Symptom Inventories. In addition to examining family consequences of these behaviors, this study also sought to replicate psychometric findings for the ABC-C in FXS, to provide greater confidence for its use in clinical trials with this population. Psychometric properties and baseline ratings of problem behavior were consistent with other recent studies, further establishing the profile of problem behavior in FXS. Cross-sectional analyses suggest that selected dimensions of problem behavior, anxiety, and hyperactivity are age related; thus, age should serve as an important control in any studies of problem behavior in FXS. Measures of anxiety, attention, and hyperactivity were highly associated with behavior problems, suggesting that these factors at least coincide with problem behavior. However, these problems generally did not add substantially to variance in caregiver burden predicted by elevated behavior problems. The results provide further evidence of the incidence of problem behaviors and co-occurring conditions in FXS and the impact of these behaviors on the family. PMID:24352914

Wheeler, Anne; Raspa, Melissa; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen; Hessl, David; Sacco, Pat; Bailey, Donald B

2014-01-01

52

VIGILANT AND AVOIDANT ATTENTION BIASES AS PREDICTORS OF RESPONSE TO COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY FOR SOCIAL PHOBIA  

PubMed Central

Background Attention bias for socially threatening information, an empirically supported phenomenon, figures prominently in models of social phobia. However, all published studies examining this topic to date have relied on group means to describe attention bias patterns; research has yet to examine potential subgroups of attention bias among individuals with social phobia (e.g., vigilant or avoidant). Furthermore, almost no research has examined how attention biases in either direction may predict change in symptoms as a result of treatment. Methods This study (N=24) compared responses to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social phobia between individuals with avoidant and vigilant biases for threatening faces at pretreatment. Results Participants with avoidant biases reported significantly and clinically higher symptom levels at posttreatment than did those with vigilant biases. Conclusions These findings suggest that an avoidant attention bias may be associated with reduced response to CBT for social phobia. PMID:21308888

Price, Matthew; Tone, Erin B.; Anderson, Page L.

2013-01-01

53

Attentional dynamics during free picture viewing: Evidence from oculomotor behavior and electrocortical activity  

PubMed Central

Most empirical evidence on attentional control is based on brief presentations of rather abstract stimuli. Results revealed indications for a dynamic interplay between bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms. Here we used a more naturalistic task to examine temporal signatures of attentional mechanisms on fine and coarse time scales. Subjects had to inspect digitized copies of 60 paintings, each shown for 40 s. We simultaneously measured oculomotor behavior and electrophysiological correlates of brain activity to compare early and late intervals (1) of inspection time of each picture (picture viewing) and (2) of the full experiment (time on task). For picture viewing, we found an increase in fixation duration and a decrease of saccadic amplitude while these parameters did not change with time on task. Furthermore, early in picture viewing we observed higher spatial and temporal similarity of gaze behavior. Analyzing electrical brain activity revealed changes in three components (C1, N1 and P2) of the eye fixation-related potential (EFRP); during picture viewing; no variation was obtained for the power in the frontal beta- and in the theta activity. Time on task analyses demonstrated no effects on the EFRP amplitudes but an increase of power in the frontal theta and beta band activity. Thus, behavioral and electrophysiological measures similarly show characteristic changes during picture viewing, indicating a shifting balance of its underlying (bottom-up and top-down) attentional mechanisms. Time on task also modulated top-down attention but probably represents a different attentional mechanism. PMID:23759704

Fischer, Thomas; Graupner, Sven-Thomas; Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Pannasch, Sebastian

2013-01-01

54

The Influence of a Token Economy and Methylphenidate on Attentive and Disruptive Behavior during Sports with Adhd-Diagnosed Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a summer program designed to evaluate the influence of stimulant medication and a token economy on attentive and disruptive behavior during kickball games. Attentive and disruptive behavior were assessed using an interval coding system, and daily ratings on the ADHD Index of the Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised were also

David Reitman; Stephen D. A. Hupp; Patrick M. O’Callaghan; Veronica Gulley; John Northup

2001-01-01

55

Patterns of Sustained Attention in Infancy Shape the Developmental Trajectory of Social Behavior from Toddlerhood through Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the relations between individual differences in sustained attention in infancy, the temperamental trait behavioral inhibition in childhood, and social behavior in adolescence. The authors assessed 9-month-old infants using an interrupted-stimulus attention paradigm. Behavioral inhibition was subsequently assessed in the…

Perez-Edgar, Koraly; McDermott, Jennifer N. Martin; Korelitz, Katherine; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

2010-01-01

56

Effects on Science Summarization of a Reading Comprehension Intervention for Adolescents with Behavior and Attention Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-three adolescent boys with behavioral disorders (BD), 31 of whom had comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), participated in a self-regulated strategy development intervention called Think Before Reading, Think While Reading, Think After Reading, With Written Summarization (TWA-WS). TWA-WS adapted Linda Mason's TWA…

Rogevich, Mary E.; Perin, Dolores

2008-01-01

57

Parenting Intervention to Reduce Attention and Behavior Difficulties in Preschoolers: A CUIDAR Evaluation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we evaluated CUIDAR, a program that provides community-based 10-week parent training to reduce attention and behavior problems in preschool children. We recruited 154 predominantly low-income and Latino preschoolers and their parents to participate in this evaluation study. We collected data prior to and immediately following…

Lakes, Kimberley D.; Vargas, Danyel; Riggs, Matt; Schmidt, Janeth; Baird, Mike

2011-01-01

58

"Gaze Leading": Initiating Simulated Joint Attention Influences Eye Movements and Choice Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research in adults has made great use of the gaze cuing paradigm to understand the behavior of the follower in joint attention episodes. We implemented a gaze leading task to investigate the initiator--the other person in these triadic interactions. In a series of gaze-contingent eye-tracking studies, we show that fixation dwell time upon…

Bayliss, Andrew P.; Murphy, Emily; Naughtin, Claire K.; Kritikos, Ada; Schilbach, Leonhard; Becker, Stefanie I.

2013-01-01

59

Effects of Sugar Ingestion on the Classroom and Playgroup Behavior of Attention Deficit Disordered Boys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention deficit disordered (ADD) boys fasted overnight and then received a drink containing sucrose or a placebo of comparable sweetness for four days. Examination of classroom behavior, academic productivity and accuracy, noncompliance with adult requests and peer interactions offered no support for the contention that sugar ingestion adversely…

Milich, Richards; Pelham, William E.

1986-01-01

60

Escape-to-Attention as a Potential Variable for Maintaining Problem Behavior in the School Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mueller, Sterling-Turner, and Moore (2005) reported a novel escape-to-attention (ETA) functional analysis condition in a school setting with one child. The current study replicates Mueller et al.'s functional analysis procedures with three elementary school-age boys referred for problem behavior. Functional analysis verified the participant's…

Sarno, Jana M.; Sterling, Heather E.; Mueller, Michael M.; Dufrene, Brad; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe

2011-01-01

61

Recent Perspectives in Neuropsychological and Behavioral Evaluation of the Attention Deficit with/without Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper shows new tendencies in the evaluation of the attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Beginning with the more traditional assessment based on behavioral estimations performed in natural contexts by parents and teachers, to neuropsychological evaluation of executive functions, to considering the challenges of functional…

Mateo, Vicente Felix

2005-01-01

62

Attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder and Williams syndrome: Shared behavioral and neuropsychological profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared verbally matched attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Williams syndrome (WS), and typically developing individuals (N = 19 each group) on behavioral symptoms (Conners ADHD rating scale) and neuropsychological functioning. Neuropsychological tasks included those that assessed short-term memory and executive functions from the CANTAB (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) neuropsychological battery. Children with WS scored within the abnormal range and did

Sinéad M. Rhodes; Deborah M. Riby; Keith Matthews; David R. Coghill

2011-01-01

63

Does Knowledge about Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Impact Teachers' Reported Behaviors and Perceptions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study surveyed elementary school teachers in Melbourne, Australia to investigate their knowledge about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its impact on their reported behavior toward and perceptions of children with ADHD. Consistent with previous international findings, teachers demonstrated good overall knowledge about ADHD,…

Ohan, Jeneva L.; Cormier, Nicole; Hepp, Shellane L.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Strain, Melanie C.

2008-01-01

64

Effect of using an auditory trainer on the attentional, language, and social behaviors of autistic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of seven autistic children wore an auditory trainer for an average of 24 minutes per day over two 5- week periods interspersed with 5-week control periods in a time series design. Videotapes were coded for three attentional states (normal, withdrawn, attacking), for verbalization and signing, and for appropriate and acceptable behaviors. Results demonstrated a decrease in time spent

Donald E. P. Smith; James V. McConnell; Timothy L. Walter; Samuel D. Miller

1985-01-01

65

Turning primary care providers' attention to child behavior: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Twenty-five years ago, writers first drew the nation's attention to the "new morbidities"--problems that were biosocial or developmental in nature and were induced or complicated by social or environmental factors. The American Academy of Pediatrics responded by urging primary care providers to spend more time counseling parents on behavioral issues. Recent violent episodes in schools have renewed concern and prompted child health advocates to ask how well primary care providers are doing in attending to problematic childhood behavior. A review of the literature was conducted to examine the role the primary care provider plays in attending to childhood behavior. PMID:11353360

Hawkins-Walsh, E

2001-01-01

66

A week-long meditation retreat decouples behavioral measures of the alerting and executive attention networks  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have examined the influence of meditation on three functionally different components of attention: executive control, alerting, and orienting. These studies have consistently found that meditation training improves both executive attention and alerting, but there has not been a consistent and clear effect of meditation training on orienting. In addition, while previous studies have shown that the functional coupling of the alerting and executive networks increases the processing of task irrelevant stimuli, it is unknown if participating in a meditation retreat can decouple these components of attention and lead to improved performance. The current study investigated the influence of a week-long intensive meditation retreat on three components of attention by randomly assigning participants to either pre- or postretreat testing groups. A modified attention network test (ANT) was used. Executive attention was measured as the difference in response time (RT) between congruent and incongruent task irrelevant flankers (conflict effect). Reflexive and volitional orienting were measured by manipulating cue validity and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). The coupling of executive attention and alerting was measured by examining flanker interference as a function of the SOA of an alerting cue. The meditation retreat improved task based indices of executive attention, but not reflexive or volitional orienting. There was clear behavioral evidence of coupling between executive attention and alerting in the preretreat group, as the conflict effect peaked when an alerting cue was presented 300 ms before the target. Importantly, there was no increase in the conflict effect for the postretreat group. This is consistent with the notion that the retreat decoupled the executive and alerting networks. These results suggest that previously reported improvements in the executive and alerting networks after meditation training might be mediated by the same underlying mechanism. PMID:24596550

Elliott, James C.; Wallace, B. Alan; Giesbrecht, Barry

2014-01-01

67

Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): A neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity)  

PubMed Central

Most studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on the combined type and emphasized a core problem in response inhibition. It is proposed here that the core problem in the truly inattentive type of ADHD (not simply the subthreshold combined type) is in working memory. It is further proposed that laboratory measures, such as complex-span and dual-task dichotic listening tasks, can detect this. Children with the truly inattentive type of ADHD, rather than being distractible, may instead be easily bored, their problem being more in motivation (under-arousal) than in inhibitory control. Much converging evidence points to a primary disturbance in the striatum (a frontal–striatal loop) in the combined type of ADHD. It is proposed here that the primary disturbance in truly inattentive-type ADHD (ADD) is in the cortex (a frontal–parietal loop). Finally, it is posited that these are not two different types of ADHD, but two different disorders with different cognitive and behavioral profiles, different patterns of comorbidities, different responses to medication, and different underlying neurobiologies. PMID:16262993

DIAMOND, ADELE

2006-01-01

68

Sustained Attention Performance during Sleep Deprivation Associates with Instability in Behavior and Physiologic Measures at Baseline  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To identify baseline behavioral and physiologic markers that associate with individual differences in sustained attention during sleep deprivation. Design: In a retrospective study, ocular, electrocardiogram, and electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were compared in subjects who were characterized as resilient (n = 15) or vulnerable (n = 15) to the effects of total sleep deprivation on sustained attention. Setting: Chronobiology and Sleep Laboratory, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore. Participants: Healthy volunteers aged 22-32 years from the general population. Interventions: Subjects were kept awake for at least 26 hours under constant environmental conditions. Every 2 hours, sustained attention was assessed using a 10-minute psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Measurements and Results: During baseline sleep and recovery sleep, EEG slow wave activity was similar in resilient versus vulnerable subjects, suggesting that individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss were not related to differences in homeostatic sleep regulation. Rather, irrespective of time elapsed since wake, subjects who were vulnerable to sleep deprivation exhibited slower and more variable PVT response times, lower and more variable heart rate, and higher and more variable EEG spectral power in the theta frequency band (6.0-7.5 Hz). Conclusions: Performance decrements in sustained attention during sleep deprivation associate with instability in behavioral and physiologic measures at baseline. Small individual differences in sustained attention that are present at baseline are amplified during prolonged wakefulness, thus contributing to large between-subjects differences in performance and sleepiness. Citation: Chua EC; Yeo SC; Lee IT; Tan LC; Lau P; Cai S; Zhang X; Puvanendran K; Gooley JJ. Sustained attention performance during sleep deprivation associates with instability in behavior and physiologic measures at baseline. SLEEP 2014;37(1):27-39. PMID:24470693

Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Lee, Ivan Tian-Guang; Tan, Luuan-Chin; Lau, Pauline; Cai, Shiwei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Puvanendran, Kathiravelu; Gooley, Joshua J.

2014-01-01

69

The control of "classroom attention": a group contingency for complex behavior1  

PubMed Central

Cumulative time measures of classroom attention, as delineated by the teacher, were taken of four elementary classes (kindergarten, third, fifth, and sixth grades) and of 16 randomly chosen students in these same classes. Each class of students was viewed as an individual responding organism. Base rates showed considerable variability. Explicit instructions alone concerning student attention produced temporary increase for some students and for some grades. Adding group contingencies (i.e., contingencies dependent on the attention of every student in the class) and token-mediated reinforcement to class achievement of a gradually increasing attention criterion raised group measures to a consistent 70 to 85% level of time attending to task as instructed, and raised individual student measures to a stable 90 to 100% level. Reversals and other data indicate that the elementary teacher can, by herself and with little effort, maximize what she considers the “paying-attention behavior” of all her students by her less-than-precise measure and consequation of the attention of the class as a whole. PMID:16795234

Packard, Robert G.

1970-01-01

70

Disentangling the attention network test: behavioral, event related potentials, and neural source analyses  

PubMed Central

Background: The study of the attentional system remains a challenge for current neuroscience. The “Attention Network Test” (ANT) was designed to study simultaneously three different attentional networks (alerting, orienting, and executive) based in subtraction of different experimental conditions. However, some studies recommend caution with these calculations due to the interactions between the attentional networks. In particular, it is highly relevant that several interpretations about attentional impairment have arisen from these calculations in diverse pathologies. Event related potentials (ERPs) and neural source analysis can be applied to disentangle the relationships between these attentional networks not specifically shown by behavioral measures. Results: This study shows that there is a basic level of alerting (tonic alerting) in the no cue (NC) condition, represented by a slow negative trend in the ERP trace prior to the onset of the target stimuli. A progressive increase in the CNV amplitude related to the amount of information provided by the cue conditions is also shown. Neural source analysis reveals specific modulations of the CNV related to a task-related expectancy presented in the NC condition; a late modulation triggered by the central cue (CC) condition and probably representing a generic motor preparation; and an early and late modulation for spatial cue (SC) condition suggesting specific motor and sensory preactivation. Finally, the first component in the information processing of the target stimuli modulated by the interaction between orienting network and the executive system can be represented by N1. Conclusions: The ANT is useful as a paradigm to study specific attentional mechanisms and their interactions. However, calculation of network effects is based in subtractions with non-comparable experimental conditions, as evidenced by the present data, which can induce misinterpretations in the study of the attentional capacity in human subjects. PMID:25352800

Galvao-Carmona, Alejandro; González-Rosa, Javier J.; Hidalgo-Muñoz, Antonio R.; Páramo, Dolores; Benítez, María L.; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Vázquez-Marrufo, Manuel

2014-01-01

71

Behavioral and Pharmacological Studies on the Validation of a New Animal Model for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood hyperactivity (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) is a common behavior disorder among grade-school children. The characteristic symptoms are attentional problems and hyperkinesia. A number of animal models for ADHD syndrome have been developed, but very few of these models are truly representative in that they rarely describe both hyperactivity and attentional problems. Frequently the disorder has been induced in

Tarja Puumala; Sirja Ruotsalainen; Pekka Jäkälä; Esa Koivisto; Paavo Riekkinen Jr.; Jouni Sirviö

1996-01-01

72

Attention and Perseverance Behaviors of PreSchool Children Enrolled in Suzuki Violin Lessons and Other Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study of attention span and persevering behaviors of preschool children. Finds the Suzuki Method of violin instruction is associated with longer attention spans and more persevering behaviors than creative movement instruction or other preschool programs. Concludes that teachers prefer the Suzuki Method's approach to other forms of…

Scott, Laurie

1992-01-01

73

Behavioral and ERP evidence for amodal sluggish attentional shifting in developmental dyslexia.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to examine the claim that amodal deficits in attentional shifting may be the source of reading acquisition disorders in phonological developmental dyslexia (sluggish attentional shifting, SAS, theory, Hari & Renvall, 2001). We investigated automatic attentional shifting in the auditory and visual modalities in 13 dyslexic young adults with a phonological awareness deficit and 13 control participants, matched for cognitive abilities, using both behavioral and ERP measures. We tested automatic attentional shifting using a stream segregation task (perception of rapid succession of visual and auditory stimuli as one or two streams). Results of Experiment 1(behavioral) suggested that in order to process two successive stimuli separately dyslexic participants required a significantly longer inter-stimulus interval than controls regardless of sensory modality. In Experiment 2 (ERPs), the same participants were tested by means of an auditory and a visual oddball tasks involving variations in the tempo of the same alternating stimuli as Experiment 1. P3b amplitudes elicited by deviant tempos were differently modulated between groups, supporting predictions made on the basis of observations in Experiment 1. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that SAS in dyslexic participants might be responsible for their atypical perception of rapid sequential stimulus sequences in both the auditory and the visual modalities. Furthermore, these results bring new evidence supporting the link between amodal SAS and the phonological impairment in developmental dyslexia. PMID:20933526

Lallier, Marie; Tainturier, Marie-Josèphe; Dering, Benjamin; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane; Thierry, Guillaume

2010-12-01

74

Motivating Children with Attention Deficiency Disorder Using Certain Behavior Modification Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder and its manifestation during childhood\\u000a are characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and\\/or hyperactivity. ADHD is currently considered a persistent and\\u000a chronic condition for which no medical cure is available, although medication and therapy can treat symptoms. Children with\\u000a such mental retardation more often exhibit behavior problems than children without

Huang Qunfang Jacklyn; S. Ravichandran

75

Attentional Bias in Older Adults: Effects of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Cognitive Behavior Therapy  

PubMed Central

Attentional biases are known to play a contributing, and perhaps even causal role in the etiology of anxiety and other negative affective states. The prevalence of anxiety disorders in the older cohort is growing, and there are both theoretical and empirical reasons to suspect that age-related factors could moderate attentional bias effects in the context of late-life anxiety. The current study included one of the most widely-used measures of attentional bias, the dot-probe task (Mathews & MacLeod, 1985). Participants were older adults who were either nonanxious or diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. The patient subsample also completed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or an equivalent wait list condition, after which the dot probe was administered a second time. Results showed that clinical anxiety had no particular importance for the deployment of attention, casting doubt on the universality of biased attention in older anxiety patients. Although there were no maladaptive biases detected toward either threat or depression words at pretreatment, there was nevertheless a marginally significant differential reduction in bias towards threat words following CBT. This reduction did not occur among those in the wait list condition. Implications are discussed. PMID:23916715

Mohlman, Jan; Price, Rebecca B.; Vietri, Jeff

2013-01-01

76

Bupropion improves attention but does not affect impulsive behavior in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Bupropion is an effective abstinence aid for cessation of smoking and possibly other drug use as well. There is evidence that bupropion improves attention and impulse control in certain patient populations, and improvements in these processes could mediate its efficacy as an abstinence aid. In the present study, we tested the effects of acute bupropion on measures of attention and impulsivity in healthy adults with d-amphetamine included as a positive control. Twenty-two nonsmokers (11 women) and 11 smokers (4 women) completed four 4-hr sessions where they received placebo, bupropion (150 or 300 mg), or d-amphetamine (20 mg) in capsules. Ninety minutes after capsule administration, participants were tested on attention with a simple reaction time task (SRT) and on impulsivity with the stop task, a delay and probability discounting task (DPD), and the balloon analogue risk task (BART). Participants also completed mood questionnaires during sessions. Bupropion (150 mg) decreased lapses in attention on the SRT, but did not affect performance on the stop task, DPD, or BART. Amphetamine decreased lapses in attention and speeded sensory motor processing time on the SRT but did not significantly affect responding on the stop task or DPD. On the BART, d-amphetamine tended to decrease risk taking in men but increased risk taking in women. Bupropion (300 mg) and d-amphetamine increased ratings of arousal. These results suggest that bupropion improves attention without affecting impulsive behavior in healthy adults. Improvements in attention may contribute to the effectiveness of bupropion as a pharmacotherapy for smoking. PMID:18489015

Acheson, Ashley; de Wit, Harriet

2008-04-01

77

The Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Psychopathology and Behavior  

PubMed Central

Background The present study examined prevalence of psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems in children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Primary caregivers of 344 children (8–16y, M=12.28) completed the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (C-DISC-4.0) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Subjects comprised 4 groups: AE with ADHD (AE+, n=85) and without ADHD (AE?, n=52), and non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=74) and without ADHD (CON, n=133). The frequency of specific psychiatric disorders, number of psychiatric disorders (comorbidity), and CBCL behavioral scores were examined using chi-square and ANCOVA techniques. Results Clinical groups had greater frequency of all psychiatric disorders, except for anxiety, where the AE? and CON groups did not differ. There was a synergistic effect of AE and ADHD on conduct disorder. For Comorbidity, children with ADHD had increased psychiatric disorders regardless of AE, which did not have an independent effect on comorbidity. For CBCL scores, there were significant main effects of AE and ADHD on all scores and significant AE X ADHD interactions for Withdrawn/Depressed, Somatic Complaints, Attention, and all Summary scores. There was a synergistic effect of AE and ADHD on Externalizing, Total Problems, and Attention Problems. Conclusion Findings indicate that ADHD diagnosis elevates children’s risk of psychiatric diagnoses, regardless of AE, but suggest a synergistic relation between AE and ADHD on conduct disorder and externalizing behavioral problems in children. Findings affirm a poorer behavioral prognosis for alcohol-exposed children with ADHD and suggest that more than one neurobehavioral profile may exist for individuals with AE. PMID:22974279

Ware, Ashley L.; O'Brien, Jessica W.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

2012-01-01

78

Patterns of Sustained Attention in Infancy Shape the Developmental Trajectory of Social Behavior From Toddlerhood Through Adolescence  

PubMed Central

The current study examined the relations between individual differences in sustained attention in infancy, the temperamental trait behavioral inhibition in childhood, and social behavior in adolescence. The authors assessed 9-month-old infants using an interrupted-stimulus attention paradigm. Behavioral inhibition was subsequently assessed in the laboratory at 14 months, 24 months, 4 years, and 7 years. At age 14 years, adolescents acted out social scenarios in the presence of an unfamiliar peer as observers rated levels of social discomfort. Relative to infants with high levels of sustained attention, infants with low levels of sustained attention showed increasing behavioral inhibition throughout early childhood. Sustained attention also moderated the relation between childhood behavioral inhibition and adolescent social discomfort, such that initial levels of inhibition at 14 months predicted later adolescent social difficulties only for participants with low levels of sustained attention in infancy. These findings suggest that early individual differences in attention shape how children respond to their social environments, potentially via attention’s gate-keeping role in framing a child’s environment for processing. PMID:20873921

Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Martin McDermott, Jennifer N.; Korelitz, Katherine; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

2013-01-01

79

Attentive scanning behavior drives one-trial potentiation of hippocampal place fields.  

PubMed

The hippocampus is thought to have a critical role in episodic memory by incorporating the sensory input of an experience onto a spatial framework embodied by place cells. Although the formation and stability of place fields requires exploration, the interaction between discrete exploratory behaviors and the specific, immediate and persistent modifications of neural representations required by episodic memory has not been established. We recorded place cells in rats and found that increased neural activity during exploratory head-scanning behaviors predicted the formation and potentiation of place fields on the next pass through that location, regardless of environmental familiarity and across multiple testing days. These results strongly suggest that, during the attentive behaviors that punctuate exploration, place cell activity mediates the one-trial encoding of ongoing experiences necessary for episodic memory. PMID:24686786

Monaco, Joseph D; Rao, Geeta; Roth, Eric D; Knierim, James J

2014-05-01

80

Attentive Scanning Behavior Drives One-Trial Potentiation of Hippocampal Place Fields  

PubMed Central

The hippocampus is thought to play a critical role in episodic memory by incorporating the sensory input of an experience onto a spatial framework embodied by place cells. Although the formation and stability of place fields requires exploration, the interaction between discrete exploratory behaviors and the specific, immediate, and persistent modifications of neural representations required by episodic memory has not been established. We recorded place cells in rats and found that increased neural activity during exploratory head-scanning behaviors predicted the formation and potentiation of place fields on the next pass through that location, regardless of environmental familiarity and across multiple testing days. These results strongly suggest that, during the attentive behaviors that punctuate exploration, place cell activity mediates the one-trial encoding of ongoing experiences necessary for episodic memory. PMID:24686786

Monaco, Joseph D.; Rao, Geeta; Roth, Eric D.; Knierim, James J.

2014-01-01

81

Performance of mice in discrimination of liquor odors: behavioral evidence for olfactory attention.  

PubMed

We examined performance of mice in discrimination of liquor odors by Y-maze behavioral assays. Thirsty mice were initially trained to choose the odor of a red wine in the Y-maze. After successful training (>70% concordance for each trained mouse), the individual mice were able to discriminate the learned red wine from other liquors, including white wine, rosé wine, sake, and plum liqueur. However, when the mice were tested to distinguish fine differences between 2 brands of red wine, their performance significantly varied among the individual trained mice. Among 10 mice tested, 2 mice were able to discriminate between the red wines (>75% concordance) whereas 6 mice failed to distinguish between them (50-67% concordance, where chance could be assumed to be 50%). More importantly, 2 other mice exhibited lower than 30% concordance, indicating that they were more attracted to the nonrewarded red wine compared with the learned one. This result suggested that the individual mice directed attention to different subsets of volatile components emanating from the rewarded red wine, when they were trained to choose the liquor odor in the Y-maze. Selective attention of mice was also observed in Y-maze behavioral assays using the mixtures of 3 or less pure odorants. Additionally, we also observed that the olfactory attention of mice could be modified through their learning experiences. PMID:18178544

Takiguchi, Noboru; Okuhara, Keisuke; Kuroda, Akio; Kato, Junichi; Ohtake, Hisao

2008-03-01

82

Language, literacy, attentional behaviors, and instructional quality predictors of written composition for first graders  

PubMed Central

We had two primary purposes in the present study: (1) to examine unique child-level predictors of written composition which included language skills, literacy skills (e.g., reading and spelling), and attentiveness and (2) to examine whether instructional quality (quality in responsiveness and individualization, and quality in spelling and writing instruction) is uniquely related to written composition for first-grade children (N = 527). Children’s written composition was evaluated on substantive quality (ideas, organization, word choice, and sentence flow) and writing conventions (spelling, mechanics, and handwriting). Results revealed that for the substantive quality of writing, children’s grammatical knowledge, reading comprehension, letter writing automaticity, and attentiveness were uniquely related. Teachers’ responsiveness was also uniquely related to the substantive quality of written composition after accounting for child predictors and other instructional quality variables. For the writing conventions outcome, children’s spelling and attentiveness were uniquely related, but instructional quality was not. These results suggest the importance of paying attention to multiple component skills such as language, literacy, and behavioral factors as well as teachers’ responsiveness for writing development. PMID:24062600

Kim, Young-Suk; Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Gruelich, Luana

2013-01-01

83

Media Attention, Institutional Response, and Health Behavior ChangeThe Case of Drunk Driving, 1978-1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers media effects on behavior that are mediated through other social institutions. Examined is the extent to which changes over time in the amount of media attention to the issue of drunk driving (DD) may have contributed to the reduction in DD behavior between 1978 and 1996. It was hypothesized that media effects on DD behavior were mediated

ITZHAK YANOVITZKY; COURTNEY BENNETT

1999-01-01

84

School-Based Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Enhancing Academic and Behavioral Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most common and widely studied treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) are psychostimulant medications and behavioral interventions. The purpose of this article is to review empirically-supported, behavioral school-based interventions that are designed to enhance classroom behavior and academic achievement of students…

DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.

2006-01-01

85

Interactive Pharmacological and Behavioral Management of a Hyperactive Attention Deficit Disordered Child in an Elective Pharmacy Clerkship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principles of behavior analysis and basic behavioral definitions were utilized by clinical pharmacy students within an interdisciplinary setting to recognize and reinforce the spontaneously occurring on-task desirable behaviors of an 8-year-old hyperactive, attention deficit disordered child. Data gathered by pharmacy students from a case…

Hill, John W.; Gourley, Dick R.

86

Factors contributing to the emergence of anxiety among behaviorally inhibited children: the role of attention.  

PubMed

Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament that can be identified early in childhood. Children with BI are socially reticent, withdraw from engaging unfamiliar peers, and often have problems in forming friendships. They are also at risk for developing anxiety disorders as they get older. There is, however, as much discontinuity as continuity in the expression of BI over time. One set of processes that appear to moderate the continuity of BI involve attention. Children with BI who display heightened orienting towards threat and more error monitoring are more likely to remain stable in BI and develop anxiety in early adolescence. PMID:20205180

Fox, Nathan A

2010-01-01

87

Visual attention and autistic behavior in infants with fragile X syndrome  

PubMed Central

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading known inherited cause of intellectual disability and the most common known biological cause of autism. Approximately 25% to 50% of males with FXS meet full diagnostic criteria for autism. Despite the high comorbidity between FXS and autism and the ability to diagnose FXS prenatally or at birth, no studies have examined indicators of autism in infants with FXS. The current study focused on indices of visual attention, one of the earliest and most robust behavioral indicators of autism in idiopathic (non-FXS) autism. Analyses revealed lower HR variability, shallower HR decelerations, and prolonged look durations in 12-month old infants with FXS that were correlated with severity of autistic behavior but not mental age. PMID:21720726

Roberts, Jane E.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Bailey, Donald; Long, Anna C. J.; Anello, Vittoria; Colombo, John

2013-01-01

88

Impulsivity and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Subtype Classification Using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale  

PubMed Central

This study examined the classification accuracy of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS) in discriminating several attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes, including predominantly inattentive type (ADHD/I), combined type (ADHD/C), and combined type with behavioral problems (ADHD/ODD), between each other and a non-ADHD control group using logistic regression analyses. The sample consisted of 88 children ranging in age from 9.0 years to 12.8 years, with a mean of 10.9 years. Children were predominantly male (74%) and Caucasian (86%) and in grades 3–7. Results indicated that the UPPS performed well in classifying ADHD subtypes relative to traditional diagnostic measures. In addition, analyses indicated that differences in symptoms between subtypes can be explained by specific pathways to impulsivity. Implications for the assessment of ADHD and conceptual issues are discussed. PMID:21765593

Derefinko, Karen J.; Lynam, Donald R.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

2011-01-01

89

The time-course of threat processing in children: a temporal dissociation between selective attention and behavioral interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although selective attention to threatening information is an adaptive mechanism, exaggerated attention to threat may be related to anxiety disorders. However, studies examining threat processing in children have obtained mixed findings. In the present study, the time-course of attentional bias for threat and behavioral interference was analyzed in a community sample of 8–18-year-old children (N=33) using a pictorial dot probe

Lidewij H. Wolters; Else de Haan; Leentje Vervoort; Sanne M. Hogendoorn; Frits Boer; Pier J. M. Prins

2011-01-01

90

The time-course of threat processing in children: a temporal dissociation between selective attention and behavioral interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although selective attention to threatening information is an adaptive mechanism, exaggerated attention to threat may be related to anxiety disorders. However, studies examining threat processing in children have obtained mixed findings. In the present study, the time-course of attentional bias for threat and behavioral interference was analyzed in a community sample of 8–18-year-old children (N=33) using a pictorial dot probe

Lidewij H. Wolters; Else de Haan; Leentje Vervoort; Sanne M. Hogendoorn; Frits Boer; Pier J. M. Prins

2012-01-01

91

Linkages Between Child Abuse and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Girls: Behavioral and Social Correlates  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine whether girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of having histories of abuse and to assess whether the presence of an abuse history may constitute a distinct subgroup of youth with ADHD. Method: We examined rates and correlates of child abuse in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 140) and a matched comparison sample of girls without ADHD (n = 88), all aged 6-12 years. A thorough chart review reliably established documented rates of physical and sexual abuse in both samples. Results: There were significantly higher rates of abuse for girls with ADHD (14.3%) than for the comparison sample (4.5%), with most of the abuse found in girls with the Combined as opposed to the Inattentive type. Higher rates of externalizing behaviors (including objective observations in a research summer camp) and peer rejection (indexed through peer sociometric nominations) characterized the subgroup of girls with ADHD with abuse histories compared to the subgroup without such histories, with moderate to large effect sizes. Subgroup differences regarding internalizing problems and cognitive deficits did not emerge. Findings regarding peer rejection were explained, in part, by higher rates of observed aggressive behavior in the abused subgroup. Conclusions: The findings raise important questions about the possible etiologic and/or exacerbating role of abusive trauma in a subgroup of children with ADHD. PMID:17097140

Briscoe-Smith, Allison M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

2006-01-01

92

Illuminating the role of cholinergic signaling in circuits of attention and emotionally salient behaviors  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. Alterations in ACh signaling are involved in the pathophysiology of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. In the central nervous system, ACh transmission is mainly guaranteed by dense innervation of select cortical and subcortical regions from disperse groups of cholinergic neurons within the basal forebrain (BF; e.g., diagonal band, medial septal, nucleus basalis) and the pontine-mesencephalic nuclei, respectively. Despite the fundamental role of cholinergic signaling in the CNS and the long standing knowledge of the organization of cholinergic circuitry, remarkably little is known about precisely how ACh release modulates cortical and subcortical neural activity and the behaviors these circuits subserve. Growing interest in cholinergic signaling in the CNS focuses on the mechanism(s) of action by which endogenously released ACh regulates cognitive functions, acting as a neuromodulator and/or as a direct transmitter via nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The development of optogenetic techniques has provided a valuable toolbox with which we can address these questions, as it allows the selective manipulation of the excitability of cholinergic inputs to the diverse array of cholinergic target fields within cortical and subcortical domains. Here, we review recent papers that use the light-sensitive opsins in the cholinergic system to elucidate the role of ACh in circuits related to attention and emotionally salient behaviors. In particular, we highlight recent optogenetic studies which have tried to disentangle the precise role of ACh in the modulation of cortical-, hippocampal- and striatal-dependent functions. PMID:25386136

Luchicchi, Antonio; Bloem, Bernard; Viaña, John Noel M.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Role, Lorna W.

2014-01-01

93

Modeling paternal attentiveness: distressed pups evoke differential neurobiological and behavioral responses in paternal and nonpaternal mice.  

PubMed

With the exception of parturition and lactation, male California deer mice (Peromyscus californicus) exhibit the same parental responses toward offspring as conspecific females. A closely related species, Peromyscus maniculatus, however, rarely exhibits paternal responses. In the current study, a comparative species approach was used to assess paternal responses in both Peromyscus species with varying levels of paternal experience (biological fathers, pup-exposed virgins, and pup-naïve virgins). Of special interest was the persistence of the males to direct their attention toward a distressed pup housed in a small enclosure (i.e., a barrier existed between males and pups). In addition to pup-directed responses, non-pup-directed responses such as grooming, resting and jumping were recorded. Subsequently, all animals' brains were assessed for fos-immunoreactivity (ir) in several areas previously associated with the paternal brain circuit. Overall, P. californicus exhibited more pup-directed responses as well as less fos-ir in brain areas involved in emotional integration and processing such as the insula and anterior cingulate. In addition to increased activation of emotional regulatory areas, P. maniculatus males, observed to direct their behavior away from the pup, exhibited higher fos-ir in the nucleus accumbens (involved in goal acquisition), perhaps due to a heightened motivation to avoid the pups. Interestingly, experience with pups altered the lateral septum and amygdala activation of P. maniculatus to levels similar to P. californicus biological fathers. Finally, fos-ir was increased in the medial preoptic area, involved in the maintenance of maternal behavior, in the biological fathers of both species. Thus, although biological predispositions toward pup-directed behaviors were observed in P. californicus males, evidence of a few shifts toward the paternal neural activation profile was apparent in P. maniculatus males. Specifically, modifications in fear responses and social processing may represent the cornerstones of the gradual shift from social tentativeness to social attentiveness in the presence of pups. PMID:23262236

Lambert, K G; Franssen, C L; Hampton, J E; Rzucidlo, A M; Hyer, M M; True, M; Kaufman, C; Bardi, M

2013-03-27

94

Decreasing Self-Injurious Behavior in a Student with Autism and Tourette Syndrome through Positive Attention and Extinction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study was conducted with a student diagnosed with autism and Tourette syndrome who displayed severe self-injurious behavior (SIB). We conducted a functional behavioral assessment which indicated that SIB was maintained by multiple functions using an ABAC design to determine the effect of positive social attention and extinction. Results…

Banda, Devender R.; McAfee, James K.; Hart, Stephanie L.

2009-01-01

95

Effects of Stimulant Medication Treatment on Mothers' and Children's Attributions for the Behavior of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants were 55 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were receiving ongoing treatment with stimulant medications and their mothers, and 31 children with ADHD who were beginning stimulant medication and their mothers. Mothers and children offered attributions for child behaviors that occurred when the child was medicated and not medicated. Mothers rated child compliance and prosocial behavior as

Charlotte Johnston; Stuart Fine; Margaret Weiss; Jacqueline Weiss; Gabrielle Weiss; Wendy S. Freeman

2000-01-01

96

Effects of Environmental Stimulation on Students Demonstrating Behaviors Related to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behaviors characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often interfere with students' and their classmates' learning, and interventions targeting these behaviors may be particularly important in schools. This article reviews studies in which researchers manipulated environmental stimulation during task presentation…

Vostal, Brooks R.; Lee, David L.; Miller, Faith

2013-01-01

97

Plasma neuropeptide-Y levels, monoamine metabolism, electrolyte excretion and drinking behavior in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against a background of (a) increased drinking behavior in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); (b) the parallel between some behaviors associated with ADHD and hypertension; (c) the use of the spontaneously hypertensive rat as a model for ADHD; and (d) similarities in the changes of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and catecholamine in studies of hypertension and drinking, NPY, catecholamines and

Robert D Oades; R Daniels; W Rascher

1998-01-01

98

The Effects of Highlighting on the Math Computation Performance and Off-Task Behavior of Students with Attention Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effects of color highlighting during a math computation task on performance accuracy and behavior of students with attention problems. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, three students solved math computation problems on worksheets with and without highlighting. Off-task behavior recorded from videotape…

Kercood, Suneeta; Grskovic, Janice A.

2009-01-01

99

Attentional bias and emotional reactivity as predictors and moderators of behavioral treatment for social phobia.  

PubMed

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-established treatment for anxiety disorders, and evidence is accruing for the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Little is known about factors that relate to treatment outcome overall (predictors), or who will thrive in each treatment (moderators). The goal of the current project was to test attentional bias and negative emotional reactivity as moderators and predictors of treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial comparing CBT and ACT for social phobia. Forty-six patients received 12 sessions of CBT or ACT and were assessed for self-reported and clinician-rated symptoms at baseline, post treatment, 6, and 12 months. Attentional bias significantly moderated the relationship between treatment group and outcome with patients slow to disengage from threatening stimuli showing greater clinician-rated symptom reduction in CBT than in ACT. Negative emotional reactivity, but not positive emotional reactivity, was a significant overall predictor with patients high in negative emotional reactivity showing the greatest self-reported symptom reduction. PMID:23933107

Niles, Andrea N; Mesri, Bita; Burklund, Lisa J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Craske, Michelle G

2013-10-01

100

Attentional bias and emotional reactivity as predictors and moderators of behavioral treatment for social phobia  

PubMed Central

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-established treatment for anxiety disorders, and evidence is accruing for the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Little is known about factors that relate to treatment outcome overall (predictors), or who will thrive in each treatment (moderators). The goal of the current project was to test attentional bias and negative emotional reactivity as moderators and predictors of treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial comparing CBT and ACT for social phobia. Forty-six patients received 12 sessions of CBT or ACT and were assessed for self-reported and clinician-rated symptoms at baseline, post treatment, 6, and 12 months. Attentional bias significantly moderated the relationship between treatment group and outcome with patients slow to disengage from threatening stimuli showing greater clinician-rated symptom reduction in CBT than in ACT. Negative emotional reactivity, but not positive emotional reactivity, was a significant overall predictor with patients high in negative emotional reactivity showing the greatest self-reported symptom reduction. PMID:23933107

Niles, Andrea N.; Mesri, Bita; Burklund, Lisa J.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Craske, Michelle G.

2013-01-01

101

Separate and Combined Effects of Methylphenidate and Behavior Modification on Boys With Attention Deficit–Hyperactivity Disorder in the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the separate and combined effects of behavior modification and 2 doses of methylphenidate (MPH; 0.3 and 0.6 mg\\/kg) compared with baseline (no behavior modification and a placebo) on the classroom behavior and academic performance of 31 ADHD (attention Deficit–Hyperactivity disorder) boys attending a summer treatment program. Results revealed significant effects of both interventions, with the mean effect

William E. Pelham; Caryn L. Carlson; Susan E. Sams; Gary Vallano; M. Joanne Dixon; Betsy Hoza

1993-01-01

102

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Mental Training Enhances Attentional Stability: Neural and  

E-print Network

feature of several mental illnesses, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in sustained attention in patients with attention disorders have been associated with increased trial-to-trial variability in reaction time and event-related potential deficits during attention tasks. At present

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

103

Selective Attention to Threatening Stimuli and Field Independence as Factors in the Etiology of Paranoid Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test a theory that selective attention to threatening stimuli induces paranoia, an attempt was made to manipulate attention to threatening and nonthreatening statements among college students and examine the effects on three indices of paranoia. (Editor)

Locasio, Joseph J.; Snyder, C. R.

1975-01-01

104

Temporal Coordination of Joint Attention Behavior in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated initiating and following declarative joint attention, and initiating requesting joint attention in a group of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and an age-matched control group. Different forms of joint attention were elicited while children interacted with their mothers. Temporal coordination of…

Warreyn, Petra; Roeyers, Herbert; Van Wetswinkel, Ulla; De Groote, Isabel

2007-01-01

105

College Students' Attention Behaviors during Independent Study and Course Level Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in college make daily choices about how to use their independent study time, including choices about allocation of attention. Based on theoretical considerations and clinical studies, attention and the dividing of attention through multitasking is thought to have a relationship to performance levels. Research is only beginning to explore,…

Wagner, Linda G.

2012-01-01

106

Visual Attention and Autistic Behavior in Infants with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aberrant attention is a core feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS), however, little is known regarding the developmental trajectory and underlying physiological processes of attention deficits in FXS. Atypical visual attention is an early emerging and robust indicator of autism in idiopathic (non-FXS) autism. Using a biobehavioral approach with gaze…

Roberts, Jane E.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Long, Anna C. J.; Anello, Vittoria; Colombo, John

2012-01-01

107

Physicians' Shared Decision-Making Behaviors in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Care  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the amount of shared decision-making (SDM) behavior exhibited during treatment planning encounters for children newly diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and to explore relationships between participant characteristics and amount of SDM Design Prospective cohort study Setting Seven community-based primary care pediatric practices in the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky/Southeast Indiana Region from October 5, 2009 to August 9, 2010 Participants Ten pediatricians and 26 families with a 6–10 year old child newly diagnosed with ADHD Outcome Measure Amount of SDM behavior exhibited during video-recorded encounters as coded by two independent raters using a validated scale that produces a score ranging from 0 (no parental involvement) to 100 (maximal parental involvement) Results Treatment decisions focused on medication initiation. The mean (SD) SDM score was 28.5 (11.7). More SDM was observed during encounters involving families with Caucasian children vs. non-Caucasian (adjusted mean difference score=14.9 [95% confidence interval=10.2, 19.6], p<0.001), private vs. public insurance (adjusted mean difference score=15.1 [11.2, 19.0], p<0.001), mothers with at least some college education vs. high school graduate or less (adjusted mean difference score=12.3 [7.2, 17.4], p<0.001), and parents who did not screen positive for serious mental illness vs. those who did (adjusted mean difference score=15.0 [11.9, 18.1], p<0.001). Conclusions Low levels of SDM were observed. Exploratory analyses identified potential disparities and barriers. Interventions may be needed to foster SDM with all parents, especially those of minority race, lower economic status, lower education level, and with serious mental illness. PMID:22065181

Brinkman, William B.; Hartl, Jessica; Rawe, Lauren M.; Sucharew, Heidi; Britto, Maria T.; Epstein, Jeffery N.

2013-01-01

108

The Importance of Parental Attributions in Families of Children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity and Disruptive Behavior Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a social-cognitive model outlining the role of parental attributions for child behavior in parent–child interactions. Examples of studies providing evidence for the basic model are presented, with particular reference to applications of the model in families of children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and\\/or oppositional defiant\\/conduct disordered behavior. Parent or child factors that may moderate the operation of links within

Charlotte Johnston; Jeneva L. Ohan

2005-01-01

109

Parent Agreement on Ratings of Children’s Attention Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder and Broadband Externalizing Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mothers and fathers often disagree in their ratings of child behavior, as evidenced clinically and as supported by a substantial literature examining parental agreement on broadband rating scales. The present study examined mother—father agreement on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual—based symptom-specific ratings of Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as compared to agreement on broadband ratings of externalizing behavior. Based on mother and father

Joshua M. Langberg; Jeffery N. Epstein; John O. Simon; Richard E. A. Loren; L. Eugene Arnold; Lily Hechtman; Stephen P. Hinshaw; Betsy Hoza; Peter S. Jensen; William E. Pelham; James M. Swanson; Timothy Wigal

2010-01-01

110

The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in\\u000a pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two\\u000a different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis\\u000a of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes

Jinah Kim; Tony Wigram; Christian Gold

2008-01-01

111

Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

2011-01-01

112

Mother-Son Interactions in Families of Boys with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder with and without Oppositional Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting responsiveness and over-reactivity were assessed among 25 mothers of 7-9-year-old sons with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and oppositional behavior (Oppositional Defiant, OD), 24 mothers of sons with ADHD only, and 38 mothers of nonproblem sons. Responsiveness was observed during mother-son play and clean-up…

Seipp, Carla M.; Johnston, Charlotte

2005-01-01

113

Case Series: Evaluation of a Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Three Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Dyssomnia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors conducted a preliminary evaluation of a behavioral sleep intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyssomnia delivered via distance treatment. Method: Three children (1 male, 2 females; aged 6-10 years) with ADHD and dyssomnia participated in a 5-week manualized intervention. Using a…

Mullane, Jennifer; Corkum, Penny

2006-01-01

114

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Behavioral Inhibition: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Stop-Signal Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deficient behavioral inhibition (BI) processes are considered a core feature of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This meta-analytic review is the first to examine the potential influence of a wide range of subject and task variable moderator effects on BI processes--assessed by the stop-signal paradigm--in children with ADHD…

Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.

2007-01-01

115

Comparison of Parent's and Teachers' Perceptions of Children's Behavior: A Study of Attentional Problems in a Natural Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate concordance of reports of hyperactive and distractible behavior from three different sources: parents, teachers, and the child, using two different instruments, the ADHD Rating Scale and the Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS). The incidence rate of attentional problems that any of the sources reported in…

Rappaport, Lisa N.

2006-01-01

116

A Comparison of Behavioral Parent Training Programs for Fathers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few behavioral parent training (BPT) treatment studies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have included and measured outcomes with fathers. In this study, fathers were randomly assigned to attend a standard BPT program or the Coaching Our Acting-Out Children: Heightening Essential Skills (COACHES) program. The COACHES program…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Chacko, Anil; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Robb, Jessica; Walker, Kathryn S.; Wymbs, Frances; Sastry, Amber L.; Flammer, Lizette; Keenan, Jenna K.; Visweswaraiah, Hema; Shulman, Simon; Herbst, Laura; Pirvics, Lauma

2009-01-01

117

Improving Compliance with Diabetes Management in Young Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Using Behavior Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical adherence to complex diabetes regimens can be challenging, particularly for adolescents, and therefore represents the most common reason for referral to behavioral psychologists among this population. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), when present in children and adolescents with diabetes, presents unique barriers to…

Sanchez, Lisa M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Hunter, Scott J.

2006-01-01

118

Acceptability of Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Relations to Child and Parent Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One-hundred nine mothers of 5- to 12-year-old boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated. Mothers read case descriptions of boys with ADHD and of boys with both ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Half of the mothers were randomly assigned to read descriptions of behavioral parent training and half to read…

Johnston, Charlotte; Hommersen, Paul; Seipp, Carla

2008-01-01

119

Non-Drug Interventions for Improving Classroom Behavior and Social Functioning of Young Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores research on use of medication and non-drug interventions to modify the behavior of preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It begins by discussing the symptoms of ADHD, neurological differences between children with ADHD and those without ADHD, and expected adolescent and adult outcomes for…

Radcliff, David

120

Testing the Ability of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder To Accurately Report the Effects of Medication on Their Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Double-blind placebo-controlled procedures examined whether 6 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder could recognize medication effects. Three children were able to accurately report their medication status at levels greater than chance. Accuracy of reports was related to dosage level, differences in behaviors, and the presence of…

Ardoin, Scott P.; Martens, Brian K.

2000-01-01

121

The Importance of Parental Attributions in Families of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Disruptive Behavior Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a social-cognitive model outlining the role of parental attributions for child behavior in parent?child interactions. Examples of studies providing evidence for the basic model are presented, with particular reference to applications of the model in families of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or…

Johnston, Charlotte; Ohan, Jeneva L.

2005-01-01

122

Home Literacy Exposure and Early Language and Literacy Skills in Children Who Struggle with Behavior and Attention Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This study investigated the relationships between behavior and attention problems and early language and literacy outcomes for 4-year-olds who experienced varied early home literacy environments. Participants were 1,364 children enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care…

Haak, Jill; Downer, Jason; Reeve, Ronald

2012-01-01

123

Published in the Human Behavior Understanding workshop, IROS, October 2012 Recognizing the Visual Focus of Attention for  

E-print Network

modelling in Human-Robot interactions involving multiple persons. In absence of high definition images, wePublished in the Human Behavior Understanding workshop, IROS, October 2012 Recognizing the Visual Focus of Attention for Human Robot Interaction Samira Sheikhi1,2 , Vasil Khalidov1 , and Jean

Odobez, Jean-Marc

124

The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…

Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

2008-01-01

125

Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation? A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method: A diverse community sample (55% African American) of men (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of…

Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

2011-01-01

126

The Relation of Low-level Prenatal Lead Exposure to Behavioral Indicators of Attention in Inuit Infants in Arctic Quebec  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and several aspects of behavioral function during infancy through examiner ratings and behavioral coding of video recordings. The sample consisted of 169 11-month old Inuit infants from Arctic Quebec. Umbilical cord and maternal blood samples were used to document prenatal exposure to Pb. Average blood Pb levels were 4.6 ?g/dL and 5.9 ?g/dL in cord and maternal samples respectively. The Behavior Rating Scales (BRS) from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II) were used to assess behavior. Attention was assessed through the BRS and behavioral coding of video recordings taken during the administration of the BSID-II. Whereas the examiner ratings of behaviors detected very few associations with prenatal Pb exposure, cord blood Pb concentrations were significantly related to the direct observational measures of infant attention, after adjustment for confounding variables. These data provide evidence that increasing the specificity and the precision of the behavioral assessment has considerable potential for improving our ability to detect low-to-moderate associations between neurotoxicants, such Pb and infant behavior. PMID:17706923

Plusquellec, P.; Muckle, G.; Dewailly, E.; Ayotte, P.; Jacobson, S.W.; Jacobson, J.L.

2007-01-01

127

Neurogenetic interactions and aberrant behavioral co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dispelling myths  

PubMed Central

Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years supporting this statement, there are still many misconceptions about ADHD. These include believing the disorder does not exist, that all children have symptoms of ADHD, that if it does exist it is grossly over-diagnosed and over-treated, and that the treatment is dangerous and leads to a propensity to drug addiction. Since most misconceptions contain elements of truth, where does the reality lie? Results We have reviewed the literature to evaluate some of the claims and counter-claims. The evidence suggests that ADHD is primarily a polygenic disorder involving at least 50 genes, including those encoding enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism, neurotransmitter transporters and receptors. Because of its polygenic nature, ADHD is often accompanied by other behavioral abnormalities. It is present in adults as well as children, but in itself it does not necessarily impair function in adult life; associated disorders, however, may do so. A range of treatment options is reviewed and the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of standard drug treatments are considered. Conclusion The genes so far implicated in ADHD account for only part of the total picture. Identification of the remaining genes and characterization of their interactions is likely to establish ADHD firmly as a biological disorder and to lead to better methods of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:16375770

Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Blum, Kenneth; Mengucci, Julie F; Blum, Seth H; Meshkin, Brian

2005-01-01

128

The effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in autistic children: a randomized controlled study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes in children with autism. The overall results indicated that improvisational music therapy was more effective at facilitating joint attention behaviors and non-verbal social communication skills in children than play. Session analysis showed significantly more and lengthier events of eye contact and turn-taking in improvisational music therapy than play sessions. The implications of these findings are discussed further. PMID:18592368

Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

2008-10-01

129

Bupropion Improves Attention but Does Not Affect Impulsive Behavior in Healthy Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bupropion is an effective abstinence aid for cessation of smoking and possibly other drug use as well. There is evidence that bupropion improves attention and impulse control in certain patient populations, and improvements in these processes could mediate its efficacy as an abstinence aid. In the present study, we tested the effects of acute bupropion on measures of attention and

Ashley Acheson; Harriet de Wit

2008-01-01

130

Attention Shift towards Smoking Cues Relates to Severity of Dependence, Smoking Behavior and Breath Carbon Monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the severity of dependence as a factor affecting the attentional bias of smokers towards smoking-related stimuli and to clarify contradictory results of previous studies. A visual dot probe task was administered to 51 smokers and 41 nonsmokers to assess the attentional bias. Smokers were classified into a group of less severely dependent

Sabine Vollstädt-Klein; Sabine Loeber; Sebastian Winter; Tagrid Leménager; Christoph von der Goltz; Christina Dinter; Anne Koopmann; Carsten Wied; Georg Winterer; Falk Kiefer

2011-01-01

131

Cardiac and Behavioral Evidence for Emotional Influences on Attention in 7-Month-Old Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the ontogeny of emotion-attention interactions, we investigated whether infants exhibit adult-like biases in automatic and voluntary attentional processes towards fearful facial expressions. Heart rate and saccadic eye movements were measured from 7-month-old infants (n = 42) while viewing non-face control stimuli, and neutral, happy,…

Leppanen, Jukka; Peltola, Mikko J.; Mantymaa, Mirjami; Koivuluoma, Mikko; Salminen, Anni; Puura, Kaija

2010-01-01

132

Kanizsa subjective figures capture visual spatial attention: evidence from electrophysiological and behavioral data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Figural binding and attention are two important processes that help to perceive the outside world. Binding is necessary to link together the different features of single objects which are represented in a distributed fashion in the brain. Attention serves to focus onto a small subset of incoming information. It is still not clear how exactly these two mechanisms operate and

John J. Foxeb; Christoph S. Herrmannf

133

Joint attention training for children with autism using behavior modification procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Deficits in joint attention are considered by many researchers to be an early pre- dictor of childhood autism (e.g., Osterling & Dawson, 1994) and are considered to be pivotal to deficits in language, play, and social development in this population (Mundy, 1995). Although many researchers have noted the importance of joint attention deficits in the development of children with

Christina Whalen; Laura Schreibman

2003-01-01

134

Initial sociometric impressions of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and comparison boys: predictions from social behaviors and from nonbehavioral variables.  

PubMed

This study systematically compared the influence of naturalistic social behaviors and nonbehavioral variables on the development of peer status in 49 previously unfamiliar boys, aged 6-12 years, who attended a summer research program. Twenty-five boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 24 comparison boys participated. Physical attractiveness, motor competence, intelligence, and academic achievement constituted the nonbehavioral variables; social behaviors included noncompliance, aggression, prosocial actions, and isolation, measured by live observations of classroom and playground interactions. As early as the first day of interaction, ADHD and comparison boys displayed clear differences in social behaviors, and the ADHD youngsters were overwhelmingly rejected. Whereas prosocial behavior independently predicted friendship ratings during the first week, the magnitude of prediction was small. In contrast, the boys' aggression (or noncompliance) strongly predicted negative nominations, even with nonbehavioral factors, group status (ADHD versus comparison), and other social behaviors controlled statistically. Implications for understanding and remediating negative peer reputations are discussed. PMID:7962888

Erhardt, D; Hinshaw, S P

1994-08-01

135

Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation?: A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model  

PubMed Central

Objective This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method A diverse community sample (55% African-American) of males (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of age (M = 25.80) were randomly assigned to one of two beverage conditions (i.e., alcohol, no-alcohol control) and one of two distraction conditions (i.e., distraction, no-distraction). Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks and a verbal insult from a fictitious male opponent. Participants’ attention-allocation to aggression words (i.e., aggression bias) and physical aggression were measured using a dot probe task and a shock-based aggression task, respectively. Results Intoxicated men whose attention was distracted displayed significantly lower levels of aggression bias and enacted significantly less physical aggression than intoxicated men whose attention was not distracted. However, aggression bias did not account for the lower levels of alcohol-related aggression in the distraction, relative to the no-distraction, condition. Conclusions These results replicated and extended past evidence that cognitive distraction is associated with lower levels of alcohol-related aggression in highly provoked males and provide the first known cognitive data to support the attentional processes posited by the attention-allocation model. Discussion focused on how these data inform intervention programming for alcohol-related aggression. PMID:21500889

Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

2011-01-01

136

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Executive Functions : Potential Vulnerabilities for Bully/Victimization Behaviors.  

E-print Network

??Children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder can present with numerous difficulties in several areas of life, and particularly within the social realm. These interpersonal problems are… (more)

[No author

2006-01-01

137

Behavioral and executive functions in children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity disorder and reading disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention, impulse control, activity level, and motor decision\\/response organization were assessed in 70 child psychiatric outpatients, using a continuous performance test (CPT), a solid-state actigraph, and a response incompatibility task. Subjects were divided based on the presence or absence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and\\/or reading disability (RD). Two-way ANOVAs yielded significant main effects for ADHD, but not RD, on

S. J. Hall; J. M. Halperin; S. T. Schwartz; J. H. Newcorn

1997-01-01

138

Pre-attentive cortical processing of behaviorally perceptible spatial changes in older adults--a mismatch negativity study  

PubMed Central

From behavioral studies it is known that auditory spatial resolution of azimuthal space declines over age. To date, it is not clear how age affects the respective sensory auditory processing at the pre-attentive level. Here we tested the hypothesis that pre-attentive processing of behaviorally perceptible spatial changes is preserved in older adults. An EEG-study was performed in older adults (65–82 years of age) and a mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm employed. Sequences of frequent standard stimuli of defined azimuthal positions were presented together with rarely occurring deviants shifted by 10° or 20° to the left or to the right of the standard. Standard positions were at +5° (central condition) from the midsagittal plane and at 65° in both lateral hemifields (±65°; lateral condition). The results suggest an effect of laterality on the pre-attentive change processing of spatial deviations in older adults: While for the central conditions deviants close to MAA threshold (i.e., 10°) yielded discernable MMNs, for lateral positions the respective MMN responses were only elicited by spatial deviations of 20° toward the midline (i.e., ±45°). Furthermore, MMN amplitudes were found to be insensitive to the magnitude of deviation (10°, 20°), which is contrary to recent studies with young adults (Bennemann et al., 2013) and hints to a deteriorated pre-attentive encoding of sound sources in older adults. The discrepancy between behavioral MAA data and present results are discussed with respect to the possibility that under the condition of active stimulus processing older adults might benefit from recruiting additional attentional top-down processes to detect small magnitudes of spatial deviations even within the lateral acoustic field. PMID:24982611

Freigang, Claudia; Rubsamen, Rudolf; Richter, Nicole

2014-01-01

139

Paternal influences on treatment outcome of behavioral parent training in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

This study aims to explore the influence of paternal variables on outcome of behavioral parent training (BPT) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 83 referred, school-aged children with ADHD were randomly assigned to BPT plus ongoing routine clinical care (RCC) or RCC alone. Treatment outcome was based on parent-reported ADHD symptoms and behavioral problems. Moderator variables included paternal ADHD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and parenting self-efficacy. We conducted repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) for all variables, and then analyzed the direction of interaction effects by repeated measures ANOVA in high and low scoring subgroups. Paternal ADHD symptoms and parenting self-efficacy played a moderating role in decreasing behavioral problems, but not in decreasing ADHD symptoms. Paternal depressive symptoms did not moderate either treatment outcome. BPT is most beneficial in reducing children's behavioral problems when their fathers have high levels of ADHD symptoms or high-parenting self-efficacy. PMID:24878676

van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Sytema, Sjoerd; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Minderaa, Ruud B; Nauta, Maaike H

2014-11-01

140

Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder and Behavioral Inhibition: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Stop-signal Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficient behavioral inhibition (BI) processes are considered a core feature of attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).\\u000a This meta-analytic review is the first to examine the potential influence of a wide range of subject and task variable moderator\\u000a effects on BI processes—assessed by the stop-signal paradigm—in children with ADHD relative to typically developing children.\\u000a Results revealed significantly slower mean reaction time (MRT),

R. Matt Alderson; Mark D. Rapport; Michael J. Kofler

2007-01-01

141

Mother–Son Interactions in Families of Boys With Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder With and Without Oppositional Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parenting responsiveness and over-reactivity were assessed among 25 mothers of 7–9-year-old sons with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and oppositional behavior (Oppositional Defiant, OD), 24 mothers of sons with ADHD only, and 38 mothers of nonproblem sons. Responsiveness was observed during mother–son play and clean-up interactions and over-reactivity was assessed using self-reports of parenting in discipline situations. Mothers of sons with ADHD\\/OD

Carla M. Seipp; Charlotte Johnston

2005-01-01

142

Involuntary attentional capture by speech and non-speech deviations: a combined behavioral-event-related potential study.  

PubMed

This study applied an auditory distraction paradigm to investigate involuntary attention effects of unexpected deviations in speech and non-speech sounds on behavior (increase in response time and error rate) and event-related brain potentials (?N1/MMN and P3a). Our aim was to systematically compare identical speech sounds with physical vs. linguistic deviations and identical deviations (pitch) with speech vs. non-speech sounds in the same set of healthy volunteers. Sine tones and bi-syllabic pseudo-words were presented in a 2-alternative forced-choice paradigm with occasional phoneme deviants in pseudo-words, pitch deviants in pseudo-words, or pitch deviants in tones. Deviance-related ERP components were elicited in all conditions. Deviance-related negativities (?N1/MMN) differed in scalp distribution between phoneme and pitch deviants within phonemes, indicating that auditory deviance-detection partly operates in a deviance-specific manner. P3a as an indicator of attentional orienting was similar in all conditions, and was accompanied by behavioral indicators of distraction. Yet smaller behavioral effects and prolonged relative MMN-P3a latency were observed for pitch deviants within phonemes relative to the other two conditions. This suggests that the similarity and separability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information is essential for the extent of attentional capture and distraction. PMID:23123705

Reiche, M; Hartwigsen, G; Widmann, A; Saur, D; Schröger, E; Bendixen, A

2013-01-15

143

Maternal Stress and Behavior Modulate Relationships between Neonatal Stress, Attention, and Basal Cortisol at 8 Months in Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that the developmental trajectory of cortisol secretion in preterm infants is altered, with elevated basal cortisol levels observed postnatally through at least 18 months corrected age (CA). This alteration is possibly due to neonatal pain-related stress. High cortisol levels might contribute to greater risk of impaired neurodevelopment. Since maternal factors are important for the regulation of infant stress responses, we investigated relationships between infant (neonatal pain-related stress, attention, cortisol) and maternal (stress, interactive behaviors) factors at age 8 months CA. We found that interactive maternal behaviors buffered the relationship between high neonatal pain-related stress exposure and poorer focused attention in mothers who self-reported low concurrent stress. Furthermore, in preterm infants exposed to high concurrent maternal stress and overwhelming interactive maternal behaviors, higher basal cortisol levels were associated with poor focused attention. Overall, these findings suggest that maternal factors can influence the cognitive resilience at 8 months of preterm infants exposed to early life stress. PMID:17299787

Tu, Mai Thanh; Grunau, Ruth E.; Petrie-Thomas, Julie; Haley, David W.; Weinberg, Joanne; Whitfield, Michael F.; Tu, Mai Thanh; Whitfield, Michael F.; Weinberg, Joanne

2007-01-01

144

Externalizing problems, attention regulation, and household chaos: a longitudinal behavioral genetic study.  

PubMed

Previous research documented a robust link between difficulties in self-regulation and development of externalizing problems (i.e., aggression and delinquency). In this study, we examined the longitudinal additive and interactive genetic and environmental covariation underlying this well-established link using a twin design. The sample included 131 pairs of monozygotic twins and 173 pairs of same-sex dizygotic twins who participated in three waves of annual assessment. Mothers and fathers provided reports of externalizing problems. Teacher report and observer rating were used to assess twin's attention regulation. The etiology underlying the link between externalizing problems and attention regulation shifted from a common genetic mechanism to a common environmental mechanism in the transition across middle childhood. Household chaos moderated the genetic variance of and covariance between externalizing problems and attention regulation. The genetic influence on individual differences in both externalizing problems and attention regulation was stronger in more chaotic households. However, higher levels of household chaos attenuated the genetic link between externalizing problems and attention regulation. PMID:22781853

Wang, Zhe; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A; Thompson, Lee A

2012-08-01

145

The differential effects of teacher and peer attention on the disruptive classroom behavior of three children with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

We conducted functional analyses of classroom disruption during contingent teacher and peer attention conditions for 3 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention provided by peer confederates appeared to function as a distinct form of positive reinforcement for all 3 children. PMID:7601806

Northup, J; Broussard, C; Jones, K; George, T; Vollmer, T R; Herring, M

1995-01-01

146

Neurogenetic interactions and aberrant behavioral co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dispelling myths  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years

David E Comings; Thomas JH Chen; Kenneth Blum; Julie F Mengucci; Seth H Blum; Brian Meshkin

2005-01-01

147

The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training on Behavioral Problems and Attentional Functioning in Adolescents with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11-15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7) completed measurements before, immediately after, 8…

van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Formsma, Anne R.; de Bruin, Esther I.; Bogels, Susan M.

2012-01-01

148

Biopsychosocial Aspects of Attention Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder: Toward a Self-Regulated Behavior Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, an overview of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is presented from a biopsychosocial perspective, an attempt to circumvent disparate psychological and medical viewpoints and offer a broader, more integrated view of ADHD. Through a review of the current literature on ADHD treatment within the clinical field, as well as intervention strategies for ADHD within the educational field, the author

Dale Starcher

149

Pre-target activity in visual cortex predicts behavioral performance on spatial and feature attention tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological studies in humans and monkeys have revealed that, in response to an instruction to attend, areas of sensory cortex that code the attributes of the expected stimulus exhibit increases in neural activity prior to the arrival of the stimulus. Models of selective visual attention posit that these increases in activity give attended stimuli a processing advantage over distracting stimuli.

Barry Giesbrecht; Daniel H. Weissman; Marty G. Woldorff; George R. Mangun

2006-01-01

150

Cognitive Behavior Therapy for College Students with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental syndrome that persists into adulthood for the majority of children with ADHD. Other individuals may not experience the full negative effects of undiagnosed ADHD until they face the demands of adult life. College counseling centers in particular are seeing a rise in the number of students seeking therapeutic services for issues related to ADHD.

J. Russell Ramsay; Anthony L. Rostain

2006-01-01

151

Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions…

Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

152

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

2012-01-01

153

Behavioral Inhibition and Anxiety: The Moderating Roles of Inhibitory Control and Attention Shifting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament identified in early childhood, is associated with social reticence in childhood and an increased risk for anxiety problems in adolescence and adulthood. However, not all behaviorally inhibited children remain reticent or develop an anxiety disorder. One possible mechanism accounting for the variability in…

White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

2011-01-01

154

Effects of Caffeine on Classroom Behavior, Sustained Attention, and a Memory Task in Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation of the effect of normative amounts of caffeine on the behavior of six normal kindergarten children found that caffeine exerted only small and inconsistent effects on such classroom behaviors as time off-task and gross motor activity. (Author/DB)

Baer, Ruth A.

1987-01-01

155

Behavioral impairments in rats with chronic epilepsy suggest comorbidity between epilepsy and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is encountered among patients with epilepsy at a significantly higher rate than in the general population. Mechanisms of epilepsy-ADHD comorbidity remain largely unknown. We investigated whether a model of chronic epilepsy in rats produces signs of ADHD, and thus, whether it can be used for studying mechanisms of this comorbidity. Epilepsy was induced in male Wistar rats via pilocarpine status epilepticus. Half of the animals exhibited chronic ADHD-like abnormalities, particularly increased impulsivity and diminished attention in the lateralized reaction-time task. These impairments correlated with the suppressed noradrenergic transmission in locus coeruleus outputs. The other half of animals exhibited depressive behavior in the forced swimming test congruently with the diminished serotonergic transmission in raphe nucleus outputs. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depressive behavior appeared mutually exclusive. Therefore, the pilocarpine model of epilepsy affords a system for reproducing and studying mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and both ADHD and/or depression. PMID:24262783

Pineda, Eduardo; Jentsch, J David; Shin, Don; Griesbach, Grace; Sankar, Raman; Mazarati, Andrey

2014-02-01

156

The attributions of children with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder for their problem behaviors.  

PubMed

This study investigated the attributions children with ADHD make about their most problematic symptoms. Children were interviewed to determine the degree to which they felt their behavior was controllable, stable, global, and stigmatizing; and about the locus of the cause of their behavior. Participants were 16 children with ADHD (10 boys, 6 girls), and 16 children without ADHD (9 boys, 7 girls), ages 7 to 13. The present study demonstrated that children with ADHD viewed their most problematic behaviors as less within their control and more global across situations than children without ADHD. Children with ADHD were more likely than children without ADHD to view their most problematic behavior as always having been present, but were no more likely to view their most problematic behavior as persisting into the future. No significant group differences emerged on the locus of causality dimension. With regards to stigmatization, girls without ADHD reported that their behaviors can bother their teachers, parents, and peers, whereas girls and boys with ADHD did not perceive their behavior as bothersome. PMID:12821875

Kaidar, I; Wiener, J; Tannock, R

2003-04-01

157

Behavioral and Neural Effects of Nicotine on Visuospatial Attentional Reorienting in Non-Smoking Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cholinergic neurotransmitter system has been proposed to be involved in the processing of probabilistic top-down information provided by endogenous cues in location-cueing paradigms. It has been shown that the behavioral and neural effects of a nicotinic cholinergic stimulation resemble the effects obtained by manipulating the validity of the spatial cues: enhancing cortical nicotine levels and decreasing cue validity both

Simone Vossel; Christiane M Thiel; Gereon R Fink

2008-01-01

158

Factors Contributing to the Emergence of Anxiety among Behaviorally Inhibited Children: The Role of Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament that can be identified early in childhood. Children with BI are socially reticent, withdraw from engaging unfamiliar peers, and often have problems in forming friendships. They are also at risk for developing anxiety disorders as they get older. There is, however, as much discontinuity as continuity in…

Fox, Nathan A.

2010-01-01

159

Emergence of symbolic behavior from brain like memory with dynamic attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important feature of human intelligence is the use of symbols. This is seen in our daily use of language and logical thinking. However, the use of symbols is not limited to humans. We observe planned action sequences in primate behavior and prediction-based action in higher mammals. For the representation and operation of symbols by the brain neural circuit, no

Takashi Omori; Akiko Mochizuki; Kentaro Mizutani; M. Nishizaki

1999-01-01

160

Parent Agreement on Ratings of Children's Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Broadband Externalizing Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mothers and fathers often disagree in their ratings of child behavior, as evidenced clinically and as supported by a substantial literature examining parental agreement on broadband rating scales. The present study examined mother-father agreement on "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual"-based symptom-specific ratings of…

Langberg, Joshua M.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Simon, John O.; Loren, Richard E. A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hechtman, Lily; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; Pelham, William E.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy

2010-01-01

161

((((((Fertel-Daly D. ) G.) Bedell ) J.) Hinojosa.) "Effects of a Weighted Vest on Attention to Task and Self-Stimulatory Behaviors in Preschoolers With Pervasive Developmental Disorders." )  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Search instead for ((((((Fertel-Daly D. ) G.) Bedell ) J.) Hinojosa.) "Effects of a Weighted Vest on Attention to Task and Self-Stimulatory Behaviors in Preschoolers With Pervasive Developmental Disorders." ) ?

162

Exploring the Design Space of Robot Appearance and Behavior in an Attention-Seeking `Living Room' Scenario for a Robot Companion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of video based human robot interaction (HRI) trials which investigated people's perceptions of different robot appearances and associated attention seeking features and behaviors displayed by the robot. The methodological approach highlights the \\

M. L. Walters; K. Dautenhahn; R. te Boekhorst; K. L. Koay; S. N. Woods

2007-01-01

163

The Effects of a Response-Cost Program on the Classroom Behavior of Two Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of using response cost in combination with positive reinforcement procedures in helping two second grade students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder maintain their attention in the classroom. This involved the loss of reinforcers/points contingent upon inappropriate behavior in the classroom, in addition…

Rickman, David; Motzenbecker, Trudi

164

Perplexities in Discrimination of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Specific Behaviors that may hold some Answers  

E-print Network

, Barkley, Fletcher, & Smallish, 1993; Langberg, Epstein, Altaye, Molina, Arnold, & Vietiello, 2008). Some of these factors may contribute to contradictory research results (e.g., the effects of behavioral therapy with and without psychostimulant..., sensory integration dysfunction, traumatic brain injury or speech and/or language impairment, specific learning disability, or other condition. In addition participants were not included if the parent reported a clinical diagnosis of autism, dementia...

Harrison, Judith R.

2010-07-14

165

Parenting behaviors during risky driving by teens with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Parenting practices for teen drivers with ADHD were observed via a video monitor installed in vehicles. All teens had recently completed a driver education course and were in the driving permit stage of a graduated driver-licensing program. Parent behaviors were coded during drives when teens were driving safely and during drives when teens engaged in risky driving. The overall frequency of positive parenting strategies was low, regardless of whether teens drove safely or engaged in risky driving. Although the rate of negative feedback was also low, parents engaged in significantly more criticism and were rated by an observer to appear angrier when teens were driving in a risky manner. No other differences in parent behaviors associated with the quality of teen driving were observed. The inconsistencies between observed parenting behaviors and those parenting practices recommended as effective with teens with ADHD are discussed. The need for further research addressing effective strategies for teaching teens with ADHD to drive is highlighted. PMID:24491192

Schatz, Nicole K; Fabiano, Gregory A; Morris, Karen L; Shucard, Jennifer M; Leo, Brittany A; Bieniek, Courtney

2014-03-01

166

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Right-Hemisphere Syndrome: Congruence and Incongruence of Cognitive and Behavioral Aspects of Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied clinical aspects of attention in three groups: children with developmental right-hemisphere syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), children with ADHD only, and normal controls. The three groups (N = 54) were case-matched for age, sex, IQ, hand dominance, and socioeconomic status. ADHD was diagnosed clinically using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-Revised criteria and the Conners'

Yael E. Landau; Varda Gross-Tsur; Judith G. Auerbach; Jaap Van der Meere; Ruth S. Shalev

1999-01-01

167

Distinguishing and Improving Mouse Behavior with Educational Computer Games in Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Executive Function-Based Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this exploratory multiple case study, it is examined how a computer game focused on improving ineffective learning behavior can be used as a tool to assess, improve, and study real-time mouse behavior (MB) in different types of children: 18 children (3.8-6.3 years) with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder…

Veenstra, Baukje; van Geert, Paul L. C.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.

2012-01-01

168

To What Extent Do Joint Attention, Imitation, and Object Play Behaviors in Infancy Predict Later Communication and Intellectual Functioning in ASD?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9-12 and/or 15-18 months. A quantitative…

Poon, Kenneth K.; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele D.

2012-01-01

169

Impact of Treatments for Depression on Comorbid Anxiety, Attentional, and Behavioral Symptoms in Adolescents with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the relative efficacy of antidepressant medication, alone and in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), on comorbid symptoms of anxiety, attention, and disruptive behavior disorders in participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method: Adolescents with selective serotonin…

Hilton, Robert C.; Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon; He, Jiayan; Mayes, Taryn; Emslie, Graham J.; Porta, Giovanna; Clarke, Greg N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

2013-01-01

170

Behavioral and Pharmacological Characterization of the Coloboma Mouse Mutant as a Model of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.  

E-print Network

??Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. Coloboma mice exhibit profound hyperactivity and are a model of attention deficit hyperactivity… (more)

Bruno, Kristy

2006-01-01

171

Attention deficit.  

PubMed

Primary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a familial neurodevelopmental disorder involving the frontostriatal pathways and probably connections with the cerebellum and parietal lobe. ADHD is a polygenetic disorder involving predominantly catecholaminergic receptors and transporters. Though more common in school age children, ADHD may persist into adolescence and adulthood. Comorbidity with other disruptive behavior disorders, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and learning disability is common. Secondary problems with attention are associated with neurological disorders that involve damage to the frontal lobes, drugs and toxins, and some genetic syndromes. Questionnaires are helpful in the diagnosis and follow-up of ADHD, and neuropsychological assessment can be useful for assessing cognitive function. Behavioral therapies are usually combined with medication for treatment of ADHD. Problems with attention are more responsive to treatment with stimulants, but nonstimulant medications such as atomoxetine, and possibly other drugs, are also effective and may be particularly useful in children and adolescents with comorbidity. The response to pharmacotherapy is better in patients with primary ADHD compared to those with secondary problems with attention. PMID:23622173

Dunn, David W; Kronenberger, William G

2013-01-01

172

Pointing Behavior in Infants Reflects the Communication Partner's Attentional and Knowledge States: A Possible Case of Spontaneous Informing  

PubMed Central

Inferring the epistemic states of others is considered to be an essential requirement for humans to communicate; however, the developmental trajectory of this ability is unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine developmental trends in this ability by using pointing behavior as a dependent measure. Infants aged 13 to 18 months (n?=?32, 16 females) participated in the study. The experiment consisted of two phases. In the Shared Experience Phase, both the participant and the experimenter experienced (played with) an object, and the participant experienced a second object while the experimenter was absent. In the Pointing Phase, the participant was seated on his/her mother’s lap, facing the experimenter, and the same two objects from the Shared Experience Phase were presented side-by-side behind the experimenter. The participants’ spontaneous pointing was analyzed from video footage. While the analysis of the Shared Experience Phase suggested that there was no significant difference in the duration of the participants’ visual attention to the two objects, the participants pointed more frequently to the object that could be considered “new” for the experimenter (in Experiment 1). This selective pointing was not observed when the experimenter could be considered unfamiliar with both of the objects (in Experiment 2). These findings suggest that infants in this age group spontaneously point, presumably to inform about an object, reflecting the partner’s attentional and knowledge states. PMID:25211279

Meng, Xianwei; Hashiya, Kazuhide

2014-01-01

173

Avoiding the uncanny valley: robot appearance, personality and consistency of behavior in an attention-seeking home scenario for a robot companion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of video-based Human Robot Interaction (HRI) trials which investigated people’s perceptions\\u000a of different robot appearances and associated attention-seeking features and behaviors displayed by robots with different\\u000a appearance and behaviors. The HRI trials studied the participants’ preferences for various features of robot appearance and\\u000a behavior, as well as their personality attributions towards the robots compared to

Michael L. Walters; Dag S. Syrdal; Kerstin Dautenhahn; I. René J. A. Te Boekhorst; Kheng Lee Koay

2008-01-01

174

Executive Function Predicts Adaptive Behavior in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Study Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these two domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, non-exposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. Methods As part of a multisite study, three groups of children (8-18y, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, N=142), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD, N=82), and typically developing controls (CON, N=133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS). Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with three of the four EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. Conclusion These results support prior research in ADHD suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory measures of executive function. PMID:22587709

Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; O'Brien, Jessica W.; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

2011-01-01

175

Attention and Attachment Related Behavior toward Professional Caregivers in Child Care Centers: A New Measure for Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors attempted to develop and validate the Toddler Attention Questionnaire (TAQ) by examining the relationship between attention and attachment to a professional caregiver. The psychometric reliability and validity of the TAQ was tested with 72 children ranging from 20 to 36 months old. Attentive processes were also measured by the Italian…

Pallini, Susanna; Laghi, Fiorenzo

2012-01-01

176

Behavioral inhibition, self-regulation of motivation, and working memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

We examined 3 aspects of Barkley's (1997) recent model of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--behavioral inhibition, self-regulation of motivation, and working memory utilizing 152 elementary school children ages 7 to 12. Seventy-six children with ADHD and 76 children without a psychiatric diagnosis completed the stop-signal task, a computerized Digit Span Task requiring concurrent storage and processing, and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test during a 1-hr testing session. Parent and teacher ratings were also obtained on the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Long Version (Conners, 1997), and the Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised: Long Version (Conners, 1997), respectively. Results indicated that children with ADHD had deficits in inhibitory control, working memory, and short-term memory relative to children without the disorder. Contrary to our prediction, the groups did not differ in their responsiveness to external reinforcement. In addition, children with and without ADHD had similar self-perceptions of their performances during the experimental session. Future directions for specifying childhood difficulties in inhibitory control and memory processes are discussed. PMID:12139195

Stevens, Jack; Quittner, Alexandra L; Zuckerman, John B; Moore, Scot

2002-01-01

177

White matter abnormalities associated with disruptive behavior disorder in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are among the most commonly diagnosed mental disorders in children and adolescents. Some important characteristics of DBD vary based on the presence or absence of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which may affect the understanding of and treatment decision-making related to the disorders. Thus, identifying neurobiological characteristics of DBD with comorbid ADHD (DBD+ADHD) can provide a basis to establish a better understanding of the condition. This study aimed to assess abnormal white matter microstructural alterations in DBD+ADHD as compared to DBD alone and healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Thirty-three DBD (19 with comorbid ADHD) and 46 age-matched healthy adolescents were studied using DTI. Fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Significantly lower FA and higher MD, RD and AD in many white matter fibers were found in adolescents with DBD+ADHD compared to controls. Moreover, lower FA and higher RD were also found in the DBD+ADHD versus the DBD alone group. Alterations of white matter integrity found in DBD patients were primarily associated with ADHD, suggesting that ADHD comorbidity in DBD is reflected in greater abnormality of microstructural connections. PMID:22743120

Wang, Yang; Horst, Kelly K; Kronenberger, William G; Hummer, Tom A; Mosier, Kristine M; Kalnin, Andrew J; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P

2012-06-30

178

Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well-documented nor well-understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound recognition when task and critical stimuli were identical across attention conditions. We propose modulation of lexical activation as a neurophysiologically-plausible computational mechanism that can account for this type of modulation. Contrary to the claims of critics, this mechanism can account for attentional modulation without violating the principle of interactive processing. Simulations of the interactive TRACE model extended to include two different ways of modulating lexical activation showed that each can account for attentional modulation of lexical feedback effects. Experiment 2 tested conflicting predictions from the two implementations and provided evidence that is consistent with bias input as the mechanism of attentional control of lexical activation. PMID:18509503

Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

2008-01-01

179

The Single and Combined Effects of Multiple Intensities of Behavior Modification and Methylphenidate for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Classroom Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently behavior modification, stimulant medication, and combined treatments are supported as evidence-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in classroom settings. However, there has been little study of the relative effects of these two modalities and their combination in classrooms. Using a within-subject design, the…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran; Garefino, Allison; Keenan, Jenna K.; Onyango, Adia N.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Massetti, Greta M.; Robb, Jessica A.

2007-01-01

180

Breathing Control and Attention Training: A Preliminary Study of a Psychophysiological Approach to Self-Control of Hyperactive Behavior in Children. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was undertaken as a preliminary evaluation of a psychophysiological method for training children in the control of hyperactive behavior. The method involves breathing control and attention training which employs biofeedback and operant conditioning principles designed to help the child develop control over excessive and…

Simpson, D. Dwayne; Nelson, Arnold E.

181

The Impact of Mindfulness Training on Hyperactive Behaviors Demonstrated by Elementary Age Children with a Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders in the United States. Although many children with an ADHD diagnosis are prescribed medication to control symptoms, behavioral concerns are still regularly noted in the classroom, home, and other settings. Therefore, school psychologists are often…

Carboni, Jessica A.

2012-01-01

182

Characteristics of Students at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties Predicting Arithmetic Word Problem Solving Performance: The Role of Attention, Behavior, and Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were (a) to evaluate differences in arithmetic word problem solving between high and low at-risk students for mathematics difficulties (MD) and (b) to assess the influence of attention, behavior, reading, and socio-economic status (SES) in predicting the word problem solving performance of third-grade students with MD.…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Corroy, Kelly Cozine; Dupuis, Danielle N.

2013-01-01

183

Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

2012-01-01

184

Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) compared with placebo for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the impact on substance treatment outcomes in adolescents concurrently receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders (SUD). Method: This was a…

Riggs, Paula D.; Winhusen, Theresa; Davies, Robert D.; Leimberger, Jeffrey D.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Klein, Constance; Macdonald, Marilyn; Lohman, Michelle; Bailey, Genie L.; Haynes, Louise; Jaffee, William B.; Haminton, Nancy; Hodgkins, Candace; Whitmore, Elizabeth; Trello-Rishel, Kathlene; Tamm, Leanne; Acosta, Michelle C.; Royer-Malvestuto, Charlotte; Subramaniam, Geetha; Fishman, Marc; Holmes, Beverly W.; Kaye, Mary Elyse; Vargo, Mark A.; Woody, George E.; Nunes, Edward V.; Liu, David

2011-01-01

185

The Effects of the First Step to Success Program on Academic Engagement Behaviors of Turkish Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluated the effectiveness of the First Step to Success (FSS) early intervention program with Turkish children identified with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Intervention effectiveness on target children's academic engagement behaviors was studied. Participants were four 7-year-old first-grade students in…

Ozdemir, Selda

2011-01-01

186

Transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo: associação com abuso físico na infância Attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders: association with physical abuse in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Many psychiatric disorders diagnosed at the first time in childhood are associated with child abuse, like physical abuse. This disorders cause an important impact on the childhood development. Objectives: To inves- tigate the association between children with attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders group (ADDBD) and physical abuse in childhood. Methods: Cross-sectional study using the MINI KID (Mini International Neuropsychi-

Maria c laudia Maia

187

Sleepiness, On-Task Behavior and Attention in Children with Epilepsy Who Visited a School for Special Education: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with epilepsy are at risk for problems in daytime functioning. We assessed daytime sleepiness, on-task behavior and attention in 17 children (aged between 7 and 11 years) with epilepsy who visited a school for special education and compared these to 17 children from a control group who visited a regular school. Within the group of…

Didden, Robert; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Korzilius, Hubert

2009-01-01

188

Treatment-Related Changes in Objectively Measured Parenting Behaviors in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined treatment outcomes for objectively measured parenting behavior in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Five hundred seventy-nine ethnically and socioeconomically diverse children with ADHD-combined type (ages 7.0-9.9 years) and their parent(s) were recruited …

Wells, Karen C.; Chi, Terry C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Pfiffner, Linda; Nebel-Schwalm, Marie; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; March, John; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy

2006-01-01

189

The Use of Stimulant Medication and Behavioral Interventions for the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Survey of Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined parents' knowledge, attitudes, and information sources regarding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including treatment with stimulant medication and behavioral interventions. Responses from parents with a child diagnosed with ADHD and parents without a child diagnosed with ADHD were also compared. Participants consisted…

Stroh, Jennifer; Frankenberger, William; Cornell-Swanson, La Vonne; Wood, Courtney; Pahl, Stephanie

2008-01-01

190

Three ways to resist temptation: The independent contributions of executive attention, inhibitory control, and affect regulation to the impulse control of eating behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally assumed that impulse control plays a major role in many areas of self-regulation such as eating behavior. However, the exact mechanisms that enable the control of impulsive determinants such as automatic affective reactions toward tempting stimuli are not well understood. “The present research investigated the separate moderator effects of three factors of impulse control, executive attention, inhibitory

Wilhelm Hofmann; Malte Friese; Anne Roefs

2009-01-01

191

Hunger modulates behavioral disinhibition and attention allocation to food-associated cues in normal-weight controls.  

PubMed

Overeating, weight gain and obesity are considered as a major health problem in Western societies. At present, an impairment of response inhibition and a biased salience attribution to food-associated stimuli are considered as important factors associated with weight gain. However, recent findings suggest that the association between an impaired response inhibition and salience attribution and weight gain might be modulated by other factors. Thus, hunger might cause food-associated cues to be perceived as more salient and rewarding and might be associated with an impairment of response inhibition. However, at present, little is known how hunger interacts with these processes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether hunger modulates response inhibition and attention allocation towards food-associated stimuli in normal-weight controls. A go-/nogo task with food-associated and control words and a visual dot-probe task with food-associated and control pictures were administered to 48 normal-weight participants (mean age 24.5 years, range 19-40; mean BMI 21.6, range 18.5-25.4). Hunger was assessed twofold using a self-reported measure of hunger and a measurement of the blood glucose level. Our results indicated that self-reported hunger affected behavioral response inhibition in the go-/nogo task. Thus, hungry participants committed significantly more commission errors when food-associated stimuli served as distractors compared to when control stimuli were the distractors. This effect was not observed in sated participants. In addition, we found that self-reported hunger was associated with a lower number of omission errors in response to food-associated stimuli indicating a higher salience of these stimuli. Low blood glucose level was not associated with an impairment of response inhibition. However, our results indicated that the blood glucose level was associated with an attentional bias towards food-associated cues in the visual dot probe task. In conclusion our results suggest that hunger induces an approach bias and is associated with an impairment of response inhibition when normal-weight participants are confronted with food-associated cues. These findings are important as these processes play a crucial role with regard to the control of food-intake and weight gain and are assumed to contribute to obesity. Thus, individualized treatment approaches taking into account the experience of hunger in everyday-life situations should be considered in addition to a training of response inhibition. PMID:23899903

Loeber, Sabine; Grosshans, Martin; Herpertz, Stephan; Kiefer, Falk; Herpertz, Sabine C

2013-12-01

192

Attentional training of the appetitive motivation system: Effects on sensation seeking preferences and reward-based behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation is seen to guide selective attention in favor of motivation-consistent stimuli. However, such links may be bi-directional\\u000a in nature, such that selective attention processes may also bias and determine one’s motivational state. In the present study,\\u000a we examined the latter direction of influence by randomly assigning participants to one of two conditions designed to train\\u000a selective attention either toward

Paul W. Goetz; Michael D. Robinson; Brian P. Meier

2008-01-01

193

Association between Severity of Behavioral Phenotype and Comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association," 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity…

Rao, Patricia A.; Landa, Rebecca J.

2014-01-01

194

Behavioral Predictors of Substance-Use Initiation in Adolescents With and Without Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.Our goal was to examine substance-use initiation in healthy adolescents and in adolescents who have been diagnosed with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder. METHODS.Seventy-eight adolescents (28 healthy and 50 with attention-deficit\\/hy- peractivity disorder) participated in an ongoing longitudinal study of predictors of substance use. The substances most commonly reported were tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. Aggression, conduct problems, hyperactivity, impulsivity, inatten- tion, anxiety\\/depression, social

Monique Ernst; David A. Luckenbaugh; Eric T. Moolchan; Michelle K. Leff; Rachel Allen; Edythe D. London; Alane Kimes

2010-01-01

195

Parenting Behavior and Cognitions in a Community Sample of Mothers with and without Symptoms of Attention-deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has recently emerged as an important area of research,\\u000a little attention has been given to the family functioning of women with ADHD, particularly in their role as mothers. We examined\\u000a parenting self-esteem, locus of control, and disciplinary styles in a community sample of mothers with varying levels of ADHD\\u000a symptoms. Women with high levels

Tracy Banks; Jerilyn E. Ninowski; Eric J. Mash; Deborah L. Semple

2008-01-01

196

Association between severity of behavioral phenotype and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is sometimes comorbid with autism spectrum disorder. In the current study, we examined rates of parent-reported clinically significant symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children (4–8 years) with autism spectrum disorder, most of whom were first enrolled in our research protocols as toddlers. Results revealed that children with autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had lower cognitive functioning, more severe social impairment, and greater delays in adaptive functioning than children with autism spectrum disorder only. Implications for clinical practice include the need to assess for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms at an early age in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Research is needed to determine efficacious interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to optimize outcomes. PMID:23739542

Rao, Patricia A; Landa, Rebecca J

2014-01-01

197

Plant intelligence and attention  

PubMed Central

This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argued that the concept of attention holds the potential of becoming a cornerstone of plant intelligence studies. PMID:23425923

Marder, Michael

2013-01-01

198

Coming out in Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article shares how the author explained her trans status to her students. Everyone has been extremely supportive of her decision to come out in class and to completely mask the male secondary-sex characteristics, especially in the workplace. The department chair and the faculty in general have been willing to do whatever they can to assist…

McKinnon, Rachel

2012-01-01

199

Single and combined effects of methylphenidate and behavior therapy on the classroom performance of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four boys with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participating in an intensive summer treatment program each received b.i.d. placebo and two doses of methylphenidate (MPH, 0.3 mg\\/kg and 0.6 mg\\/kg) crossed with two classroom settings: a behavior modification classroom including a token economy system, time out and daily home report card, and a “regular” classroom setting not using these procedures. Dependent

Caryn L. Carlson; William E. Pelham; Richard Milich; Joanne Dixon

1992-01-01

200

Does the cortisol response to stress mediate the link between expressed emotion and oppositional behavior in Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Expressed Emotions (EE) are associated with oppositional behavior (OPB) in children with Attention Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). EE has been linked to altered stress responses in some disorders, but ADHD has not been studied. We test the hypothesis that OPB in ADHD is mediated by altered stress-related cortisol reactivity to EE. METHODS: Two groups of children (with\\/without ADHD) and their

Hanna Christiansen; Robert D Oades; Lamprini Psychogiou; Berthold P Hauffa; Edmund J Sonuga-Barke

2010-01-01

201

The spontaneously hypertensive rat/Izm (SHR/Izm) shows attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-like behaviors but without impulsive behavior: Therapeutic implications of low-dose methylphenidate.  

PubMed

The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been used as a genetic animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). SHR/Izm is derived from stroke-resistant SHR as SHR/NIH and SHR/NCrl but from 22nd to 23rd generation descendants of the SHR/NIH ancestor and therefore may show different behavioral phenotypes compared to other SHR sub-strains. In this study, ADHD-like behaviors in SHR/Izm were evaluated compared to Wistar rats. SHR/Izm showed high locomotor activity in the habituation phase in a novel environment, although locomotor activity in the initial exploratory phase was low. In a behavioral test for attention, spontaneous alternation behavior in the Y-maze test was impaired in SHR/Izm. However, impulsive behavior in the elevated-plus maze test, which is designed to detect anxiety-related behavior but also reflects impulsivity for novelty seeking, was comparable to Wistar rats. Hyperactivity and inattention, detected as ADHD-like behaviors in SHR/Izm, were ameliorated with methylphenidate at a low dose (0.05mg/kg, i.p.). Therefore, SHR/Izm represents a unique animal model of ADHD without anxiety-related impulsive behavior. PMID:25151620

Kishikawa, Yuki; Kawahara, Yukie; Yamada, Makiko; Kaneko, Fumi; Kawahara, Hiroshi; Nishi, Akinori

2014-11-01

202

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

203

Response Inhibition in Preschoolers at Familial Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Stop-Signal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children participating in the Ben-Gurion Infant Development Study were assessed with a dynamic-tracking version of the stop-signal task at the age of 5 years. The sample consisted of 60 males. Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was correlated with concurrent ratings of the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms.…

Berger, Andrea; Alyagon, Uri; Hadaya, Hadas; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G.

2013-01-01

204

Descriptions of Personal Experiences: Effects on Students' Learning and Behavioral Intentions toward Peers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-school students were shown an educational video designed to dispel 12 common myths regarding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by describing each myth and then presenting accurate information. The experimental group viewed a video that was supplemented by the speaker acknowledging that he had ADHD and providing descriptions of…

Saecker, Lee B.; Skinner, Amy L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Rowland, Emily; Kirk, Emily

2010-01-01

205

Competing Core Processes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Do Working Memory Deficiencies Underlie Behavioral Inhibition Deficits?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined competing predictions of the working memory and behavioral inhibition models of ADHD. Behavioral inhibition was measured using a conventional stop-signal task, and central executive, phonological, and visuospatial working memory components (Baddeley 2007) were assessed in 14 children with ADHD and 13 typically developing…

Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Hudec, Kristen L.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

2010-01-01

206

Effectiveness of symptom validity measures in identifying cognitive and behavioral symptom exaggeration in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effectiveness of symptom validity measures to detect suspect effort in cognitive testing and invalid completion of ADHD behavior rating scales in 268 adults referred for ADHD assessment. Patients were diagnosed with ADHD based on cognitive testing, behavior rating scales, and clinical interview. Suspect effort was diagnosed by at least two of the following: failure on embedded

Paul Marshall; Ryan Schroeder; Jeffrey O’Brien; Rebecca Fischer; Adam Ries; Brita Blesi; Jessica Barker

2010-01-01

207

Molecular genetics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable and behavioral condition of childhood, affecting 5–10% of school-age children worldwide. Affected patients exhibit various behavioral problems such as carelessness, restlessness, disobedience and failure to stay quiet in class. The etiology of ADHD is not known. However, family, twin and adoption studies have provided strong evidence for a genetic etiology of the disorder.

Barkur S Shastry

2004-01-01

208

Check In/Check out: Effects on Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders with Attention- or Escape-Maintained Behavior in a Residential Facility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Check In/Check Out (CICO) is a secondary tier intervention for those students who are not responsive to universal tier, school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. The present study extended the implementation of CICO to six students with emotional and behavioral disorders in a residential facility whose behaviors were maintained…

Swoszowski, Nicole Cain; Jolivette, Kristine; Fredrick, Laura D.; Heflin, L. Juane

2012-01-01

209

Relationships between computer-based testing and behavioral ratings in the assessment of attention and activity in a pediatric ADHD stimulant crossover trial.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships between computer-based testing and behavioral ratings in the assessment of stimulant-induced changes in attention and activity in a pediatric ADHD crossover trial with methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, and a placebo. Here 36 children between 9 and 14 years old were randomly and evenly assigned to each of six counterbalanced drug orders. A computer-based continuous performance test combined with a motion-tracking system (cb-CPT-MTS) and an ADHD questionnaire rated by teachers constituted the outcome measures. All outcome measures responded to stimulants in a comparable way at the group level, as shown by significant treatment effects of similar size for the two stimulants compared with a placebo. Computer-based and rating-based measures were unrelated in the assessment of stimulant-induced changes in attention and activity in individual children; no significant correlations between these measures in the assessment of change from placebo to stimulant conditions across the sample were detected. Results suggest that computer-based testing and behavioral ratings cannot be considered equivalent in the assessment of stimulant-induced changes in attention and activity among ADHD children. PMID:25249305

Ramtvedt, Bjørn Erik; Sundet, Kjetil

2014-10-01

210

Behavioral support to parents through a cellular-phone website that provides the degree of urgency for medical attention of a child.  

PubMed

When a child suddenly falls ill, the child's family assesses if medical attention is required immediately. However, even in case of minor illnesses, it is not possible to approach a medical institution after consultation hours, and the burden on doctors from overtime-emergency medical examinations becomes a social problem. This study proposes the use of a cellular-phone website that provides information about the degree of urgency for medical attention to parents, who can choose the child's symptoms on the cellular-phone website regardless of the time or place. Therefore, through this study, parents experimentally evaluated the cellular-phone website; also, the effectiveness of this method as a behavioral support for parents was also evaluated. When an advice about the degree of urgency for a child's treatment was taken from the cellular-phone website, the parents felt relieved. Thus, the distress faced by pediatricians may change completely. PMID:23920889

Iwasawa, Mariko; Miyahara, Jyutaro; Noriaki, Terasawa; Nozue, Hiroki; Sumazaki, Ryo

2013-01-01

211

Behavioral phase shift in nymphs of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria: special attention to attraction/avoidance behaviors and the role of serotonin.  

PubMed

Schistocerca gregaria exhibits a phase-specific behavior in response to crowding. Nymphs occurring at low population densities (solitarious phase) tend to avoid one another, whereas those occurring at high population densities (gregarious phase) are attracted to one another. This study examined how this attraction/avoidance behavior changed after isolation or crowding. The behavior of the test nymphs was assessed by determining their positioning with respect to a stimulus cup, which contained 12 gregarious nymphs, placed at one end of an elliptical arena and an empty cup placed at the opposite end. Gregarious (crowd-reared) nymphs were most frequently observed close to the stimulus cup, whereas solitarious (isolated-reared) nymphs tended to avoid it. This tendency was easily changed by exposing the nymphs to isolation or crowding. However, contrary to a previously reported conclusion that behavioral gregarization occurs in 4-8 h of crowding, the nymphs required at least 3 days to achieve a significant change in the attraction/avoidance behavior in either direction, from solitarious to gregarious or the converse. The discrepancies between the present study and previous studies appear to result from the different behaviors observed. The present study focused on the attraction/avoidance behavior that is most likely the most important element in the gregarization and solitarization processes, whereas other studies used a mixture of various activity-related behaviors. No evidence was obtained for a trans-generational accumulation in the attraction/avoidance behaviors. Serotonin, a biogenic amine that is suggested by others to be involved in behavioral phase changes in S. gregaria, had no influence on this behavior or body color when injected into the solitarious nymphs. PMID:23123258

Tanaka, Seiji; Nishide, Yudai

2013-01-01

212

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version in Healthy Adults and Application to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) is a questionnaire measure designed to assess executive functioning in everyday life. Analysis of data from the BRIEF-A standardization sample yielded a two-factor solution (labeled Behavioral Regulation and Metacognition). The present investigation employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate four alternative models of the factor structure of the BRIEF-A self-report form in a sample of 524 healthy young adults. Results indicated that a three-factor model best fits the data: a Metacognition factor, a Behavioral Regulation factor consisting of the Inhibit and Self-Monitor scales, and an Emotional Regulation factor composed of the Emotional Control and Shift scales. The three factors contributed 14%, 19%, and 24% of unique variance to the model, respectively, and a second-order general factor accounted for 41% of variance overall. This three-factor solution is consistent with recent CFAs of the Parent report form of the BRIEF. Furthermore, although the Behavioral Regulation factor score in the two-factor model did not differ between adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and a matched healthy comparison group, greater impairment on the Behavioral Regulation factor but not the Emotional Regulation factor was found using the three-factor model. Together, these findings support the multidimensional nature of executive function and the clinical relevance of a three-factor model of the BRIEF-A. PMID:23676185

Roth, Robert M.; Lance, Charles E.; Isquith, Peter K.; Fischer, Adina S.; Giancola, Peter R.

2013-01-01

213

The Concurrent Validity of a Behavioral Rating Scale for Assessing Attention Deficit Disorder (DSM III) in Learning Disabled Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a total sample of 120 elementary school pupils that had been differentiated into three subsamples of 40 so-called normal children, 40 assigned to Resource program classrooms (for relatively less severe learning disabilities), and 40 placed in Special Day program classrooms (for relatively more severe learning disabilities), an attempt was made to demonstrate the concurrent validity of the Ozawa Behavioral

Joseph P. Ozawa; William B. Michael

1983-01-01

214

Improving Homework in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Self vs. Parent Monitoring of Homework Behavior and Study Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study compared the effectiveness of self- and parent-monitoring of homework and study skills completion in middle school students with ADHD. Students were trained in the SQ4R (Survey, Question, Read, Write, Recite) study strategy and homework completion skills. In one group, students monitored their homework and study behavior and in…

Meyer, Kara; Kelley, Mary Lou

2007-01-01

215

Interaction of Dopamine Transporter Gene and Observed Parenting Behaviors on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emerging evidence suggests that some individuals may be simultaneously more responsive to the effects from environmental adversity "and" enrichment (i.e., differential susceptibility). Given that parenting behavior and a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3'untranslated region of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene…

Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

2013-01-01

216

Bridging the Gap between Physiology and Behavior: Evidence from the sSoTS Model of Human Visual Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present the case for a role of biologically plausible neural network modeling in bridging the gap between physiology and behavior. We argue that spiking-level networks can allow "vertical" translation between physiological properties of neural systems and emergent "whole-system" performance--enabling psychological results to be simulated from…

Mavritsaki, Eirini; Heinke, Dietmar; Allen, Harriet; Deco, Gustavo; Humphreys, Glyn W.

2011-01-01

217

Interaction of Dopamine Transporter Gene and Observed Parenting Behaviors on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach  

PubMed Central

Objective Emerging evidence suggests that some individuals may be simultaneously more responsive to the effects from environmental adversity and enrichment (i.e., differential susceptibility). Given that parenting behavior and a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3?untranslated region of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene are each independently associated with ADHD, our goal was to evaluate the potential interactive effects of child DAT1 genotype with positive and negative parenting behaviors on childhood ADHD. Method We recruited an ethnically-diverse sample of 150 six to nine year-old boys and girls with and without ADHD. Children were genotyped for a common polymorphism of the DAT1 gene, and objective counts of observed parenting behavior (i.e., negativity and praise) were obtained from a valid parent-child interaction task. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the interactive effects of DAT1 and observed parenting with a latent ADHD factor. Results We detected a significant interaction between observed praise and child DAT1 (coded additively) which suggested that praise was associated with increased ADHD, but only among youth with the 9/10 genotype. In addition, a marginally significant interaction between DAT1 (coded additively and recessively) and observed negativity emerged for ADHD, such that negativity was positively associated with ADHD but only for youth with the 9/9 genotype. Conclusions Although differential susceptibility theory was not fully supported, These preliminary results suggest that interactive exchanges between parenting behavior and child genotype potentially contribute to the development of ADHD. Clinical implications for interactions between parenting behavior and child genotype are discussed. PMID:23153115

Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

2012-01-01

218

Parental Influence on Children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder: I. Relationships Between Parent Behaviors and Child Peer Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined associations between children’s peer relationships and (a) their parents’ social competence as well as (b) their\\u000a parents’ behaviors during the children’s peer interactions. Participants were families of 124 children ages 6–10 (68% male),\\u000a 62 with ADHD and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison youth. Children’s peer relationships were assessed via parent and teacher\\u000a report, and sociometric nominations in a

Amori Yee Mikami; Allison Jack; Christina C. Emeh; Haley F. Stephens

2010-01-01

219

A cross-etiology comparison of the socio-emotional behavioral profiles associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

Cross-etiology comparisons provide important information that can help practitioners establish criteria for differential diagnosis and tailor interventions towards the source of children’s difficulties. This study examined the extent to which parent rating scales of socioemotional behavioral difficulties differentiate cases of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from cases of specific language impairment (SLI), and typical development (TD). Parents of 60 children (7–8?years) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) and the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised (Conners, 2004). Significant differences were observed between ratings provided for the children with ADHD and the children with SLI and TD across several scales which assessed behavioral and emotional difficulties. Most of the observed differences between ratings provided for the SLI and TD groups were not significant when nonverbal IQ was treated as a covariate or when syndrome scales were adjusted for the presence of language and academic items. In contrast, these adjustments had little impact on observed differences between the children with ADHD and the other groups. These results highlight important and clinically useful differences between the scope and the scale of socioemotional behavior difficulties associated with ADHD and SLI. PMID:24456478

Ash, Andrea C.

2014-01-01

220

Treatment-related changes in objectively measured parenting behaviors in the multimodal treatment study of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

The present study examined treatment outcomes for objectively measured parenting behavior in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Five hundred seventy-nine ethnically and socioeconomically diverse children with ADHD-combined type (ages 7.0-9.9 years) and their parent(s) were recruited at 6 sites in the United States and Canada and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups for 14 months of active intervention: medication management (MedMgt), intensive behavior therapy, combination of the 2 (Comb), or a community-treated comparison (CC). Baseline and posttreatment laboratory observations of parent-child interactions were coded by observers blind to treatment condition. Comb produced significantly greater improvements in constructive parenting than did MedMgt or CC, with effect sizes approaching medium for these contrasts. Treatment effects on child behaviors were not significant. The authors discuss the importance of changes in parenting behavior for families of children with ADHD and the need for reliable and objective measures in evaluating treatment outcome. PMID:16881772

Wells, Karen C; Chi, Terry C; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Epstein, Jeffery N; Pfiffner, Linda; Nebel-Schwalm, Marie; Owens, Elizabeth B; Arnold, L Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B; Conners, C Keith; Elliott, Glen R; Greenhill, Laurence L; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S; March, John; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Pelham, William E; Severe, Joanne B; Swanson, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy

2006-08-01

221

Effects of Extended Release Methylphenidate Treatment on Ratings of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Associated Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and ADHD Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral effects of four doses of psychostimulant medication, combining extended-release methylphenidate (MPH) in the morning with immediate-release MPH in the afternoon. Method The sample comprised 24 children (19 boys; 5 girls) who met American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and had significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This sample consisted of elementary school-age, community-based children (mean chronological age=8.8 years, SD=1.7; mean intelligence quotient [IQ]=85; SD=16.8). Effects of four dose levels of MPH on parent and teacher behavioral ratings were investigated using a within-subject, crossover, placebo-controlled design. Results MPH treatment was associated with significant declines in hyperactive and impulsive behavior at both home and school. Parents noted significant declines in inattentive and oppositional behavior, and improvements in social skills. No exacerbation of stereotypies was noted, and side effects were similar to those seen in typically developing children with ADHD. Dose response was primarily linear in the dose range studied. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that MPH formulations are efficacious and well-tolerated for children with ASD and significant ADHD symptoms. PMID:23782128

Santos, Cynthia W.; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Casat, Charles D.; Mansour, Rosleen; Lane, David M.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Jerger, Susan W.; Factor, Perry; Vanwoerden, Salome; Perez, Evelyn; Cleveland, Lynne A.

2013-01-01

222

Treating parents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the effects of behavioral parent training and acute stimulant medication treatment on parent-child interactions.  

PubMed

This multiple baseline study evaluated the efficacy of behavioral parent training (BPT) for 12 parents (M age?=?39.17 years; 91 % mothers) and their children (ages 6-12; 83 % boys) both with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and also explored the acute effect of stimulant medication for parents before and after BPT. Parents rated their own and their children's symptoms and impairment and were stabilized on optimally dosed medication. Then, parents discontinued medication and were randomly assigned to a 3, 4, or 5 week baseline (BL), during which they provided twice-weekly ratings of their impairment, parenting, and their child's behavior. Following BL, parents and their children completed two laboratory tasks, once on their optimally dosed medication and once on a placebo to assess observable effects of medication on parent-child behavior, and they completed additional assessments of family functioning. Parents then completed eight BPT sessions, during which they were unmedicated. Twice-weekly ratings of parent and child behavior were collected during BPT and additional ratings were collected upon completing BPT. Two more parent-child tasks with and without parent medication were conducted upon BPT completion to assess the observable effects of BPT and BPT plus medication. Ten (83.33 %) parents completed the trial. Improvements in parent and child behavior were observed, and parents reported improved child behavior with BPT. Few benefits of BPT emerged through parent reports of parent functioning, with the exception of inconsistent discipline, and no medication or interaction effects emerged. These results, although preliminary, suggest that some parents with ADHD benefit from BPT. While pharmacological treatment is the most common intervention for adults with ADHD, further examination of psychosocial treatments for adults is needed. PMID:24687848

Babinski, Dara E; Waxmonsky, James G; Pelham, William E

2014-10-01

223

Correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sugar consumption, quality of diet, and dietary behavior in school children  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the correlation between consumption of sugar intake by fifth grade students in primary schools and development of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A total of 107 students participated, and eight boys and one girl (8.4% of the total) categorized as high risk for ADHD according to diagnostic criteria. There were significant differences in the occupations and drinking habits of the respondents' fathers between the normal group and risk group. In a comparison of students' nutrition intake status with daily nutrition intake standards for Koreans, students consumed twice as much protein as the recommended level, whereas their calcium intake was only 60% of the recommended DRI (dietary reference intake). Regarding intake volume of vitamin C, the normal group posted 143.9% of the recommended DRI, whereas the risk group showed only 65.5% of the recommended DRI. In terms of simple sugar intake from snacks, students in the normal group consumed 58.4 g while the risk group consumed 50.2 g. These levels constituted 12.5% of their total daily volume of sugar intake from snacks, which is higher than the 10% standard recommended by the WHO. In conclusion, children who consumed less sugar from fruit snacks or whose vitamin C intake was less than RI was at increased risks for ADHD (P < 0.05). However, no significant association was observed between total volume of simple sugar intake from snacks and ADHD development. PMID:21779528

Kim, Yujeong

2011-01-01

224

Correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sugar consumption, quality of diet, and dietary behavior in school children.  

PubMed

This study investigated the correlation between consumption of sugar intake by fifth grade students in primary schools and development of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A total of 107 students participated, and eight boys and one girl (8.4% of the total) categorized as high risk for ADHD according to diagnostic criteria. There were significant differences in the occupations and drinking habits of the respondents' fathers between the normal group and risk group. In a comparison of students' nutrition intake status with daily nutrition intake standards for Koreans, students consumed twice as much protein as the recommended level, whereas their calcium intake was only 60% of the recommended DRI (dietary reference intake). Regarding intake volume of vitamin C, the normal group posted 143.9% of the recommended DRI, whereas the risk group showed only 65.5% of the recommended DRI. In terms of simple sugar intake from snacks, students in the normal group consumed 58.4 g while the risk group consumed 50.2 g. These levels constituted 12.5% of their total daily volume of sugar intake from snacks, which is higher than the 10% standard recommended by the WHO. In conclusion, children who consumed less sugar from fruit snacks or whose vitamin C intake was less than RI was at increased risks for ADHD (P < 0.05). However, no significant association was observed between total volume of simple sugar intake from snacks and ADHD development. PMID:21779528

Kim, Yujeong; Chang, Hyeja

2011-06-01

225

The Effects of Presession Attention on Subsequent Attention-Extinction and Alone Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the effects of presession levels of attention (no attention vs. continuous attention) during subsequent alone and attention-extinction conditions for an individual with severe disabilities and problem behavior. A prior functional analysis indicated that attention was a primary maintaining variable for problem behavior. Experimental…

O'Reilly, Mark; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Machalicek, Wendy; Antonucci, Massimo

2007-01-01

226

Transient Inactivation of the Neonatal Ventral Hippocampus Impairs Attentional Set-Shifting Behavior: Reversal with an ?7 Nicotinic Agonist  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits represent a core symptom cluster in schizophrenia that are thought to reflect developmental dysregulations within a neural system involving the ventral hippocampus (VH), nucleus accumbens (NAC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present experiments determined the cognitive effects of transiently inactivating VH in rats during a sensitive period of development. Neonatal (postnatal day 7, PD7) and adolescent (PD32) male rats received a single bilateral infusion of saline or tetrodotoxin (TTX) within the VH to transiently inactivate local circuitry and efferent outflow. Rats were tested as adults on an attentional set-shifting task. Performance in this task depends upon the integrity of the PFC and NAC. TTX infusions did not affect the initial acquisition or ability to learn an intra-dimensional shift. However, TTX rats required a greater number of trials than did controls to acquire the first reversal and extra-dimensional shift (ED) stages. These impairments were age and region-specific as rats infused with TTX into the VH at PD32, or into the dorsal hippocampus at PD7, exhibited performance in the task similar to that of controls. Finally, acute systemic administration of the partial ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist SSR 180711 (3.0?mg/kg) eliminated the TTX-induced performance deficits. Given that patients with schizophrenia exhibit hippocampal pathophysiology and deficits in the ED stages of set-shifting tasks, our results support the significance of transient hippocampal inactivation as an animal model for studying the cognitive impairments in schizophrenia as well as the pro-cognitive therapeutic potential of ?7 nAChR agonists. PMID:22781844

Brooks, Julie M; Pershing, Michelle L; Thomsen, Morten S; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Sarter, Martin; Bruno, John P

2012-01-01

227

Executive functions: performance-based measures and the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).  

PubMed

Performance-based measures and ratings of executive functions were examined in a sample of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison controls. Performance-based measures of executive function included inhibition, working memory, set shifting, and planning, and ratings of these same executive functions were completed by parents and teachers. Adolescents with ADHD demonstrated lower executive function performance than controls and displayed elevated ratings on the executive function ratings by parents and teachers. Significant associations were obtained between the performance-based measures and the parent and teacher ratings, but each measure was not uniquely associated with its respective scale on the rating scales. When performance-based measures and ratings were examined as predictors of ADHD status, the parent and teacher ratings entered as significant predictors of ADHD status. Further commonality analyses indicated that performance-based measures accounted for little unique variance in predicting ADHD status and also displayed little overlap with the behavioral ratings. These findings highlight the diagnostic utility of behavioral ratings of executive function in predicting ADHD status; however, behavioral ratings should not be assumed to be a proxy for performance on measures of executive function in clinical practice. PMID:18608232

Toplak, Maggie E; Bucciarelli, Stefania M; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

2009-01-01

228

Viewing preschool disruptive behavior disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder through a developmental lens: what we know and what we need to know.  

PubMed

Empirical investigation into disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in early childhood has expanded considerably during the past decade. Although there have been considerable gains in the understanding of the presentation and course of these psychiatric disorders in early childhood, the lack of a developmental framework to guide nosologic issues likely impedes progress in this area. The authors propose that enhanced developmental sensitivity in defining symptoms of DBDs and ADHD may shed light on outstanding issues in the field. In particular, developmental specification may enhance specificity, sensitivity, and stability of DBDs and ADHD symptoms as well as inform our understanding of which type of treatment works best for whom. This article provides an overview of these critical issues. PMID:19486842

Chacko, Anil; Wakschlag, Lauren; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

2009-07-01

229

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent, heterogeneous syndrome of cognitive and behavioral\\u000a features including inattention, impulsivity, deficient behavioral inhibition, and hyperactivity. Prevalence is about 4%, with\\u000a a moderate excess of a mainly inattentive subtype, and fewer mixed or mainly hyperactive\\/impulsive cases. Comorbid conditions\\u000a include conduct, learning, and mood disorders. ADHD can be found at any age, but

Kehong Zhang; Eugen Davids; Ross J. Baldessarini

230

Gaze Cueing of Attention  

PubMed Central

During social interactions, people’s eyes convey a wealth of information about their direction of attention and their emotional and mental states. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of past and current research into the perception of gaze behavior and its effect on the observer. This encompasses the perception of gaze direction and its influence on perception of the other person, as well as gaze-following behavior such as joint attention, in infant, adult, and clinical populations. Particular focus is given to the gaze-cueing paradigm that has been used to investigate the mechanisms of joint attention. The contribution of this paradigm has been significant and will likely continue to advance knowledge across diverse fields within psychology and neuroscience. PMID:17592962

Frischen, Alexandra; Bayliss, Andrew P.; Tipper, Steven P.

2007-01-01

231

Attention Genes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major problem for developmental science is understanding how the cognitive and emotional networks important in carrying out mental processes can be related to individual differences. The last five years have seen major advances in establishing links between alleles of specific genes and the neural networks underlying aspects of attention. These…

Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.

2007-01-01

232

Dissociations of Personally Significant and Task-Relevant Distractors Inside and Outside the Focus of Attention: A Combined Behavioral and Psychophysiological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of attentional capture by personally significant stimuli have reached inconsistent results, possibly because of improper control of the participants' attention. In the present study, the authors controlled visual attention by using a Stroop-like task. Participants responded to a central color and ignored a word presented either centrally (i.e., at the focus of attention) or peripherally (i.e., outside the focus

Nurit Gronau; Asher Cohen; Gershon Ben-Shakhar

2003-01-01

233

Combining attention training with cognitive-behavior therapy in Internet-based self-help for social anxiety: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Guided Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD) by several independent research groups. However, since the extent of clinically significant change demonstrated leaves room for improvement, new treatments should be developed and investigated. A novel treatment, which has generally been found to be effective, is cognitive bias modification (CBM). This study aims to evaluate the combination of CBM and ICBT. It is intended that two groups will be compared; one group randomized to receiving ICBT and CBM towards threat cues and one group receiving ICBT and control training. We hypothesize that the group receiving ICBT plus CBM will show superior treatment outcomes. Methods/design Participants with SAD (N = 128), will be recruited from the general population. A composite score combining the scores obtained from three social anxiety questionnaires will serve as the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures include self-reported depression and quality of life. All treatments and assessments will be conducted via the Internet and measurement points will be baseline, Week 2, post-treatment, and 4 months post-treatment. Discussion There is no direct evidence of the effects of combining CBM and ICBT in SAD. Adding attention-training sessions to ICBT protocols could increase the proportion of participants who improve and recover through Internet-based self-help. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01570400 PMID:23497513

2013-01-01

234

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children with a 7-repeat allele of the dopamine receptor D4 gene have extreme behavior but normal performance on critical neuropsychological tests of attention  

PubMed Central

An association of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene located on chromosome 11p15.5 and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been demonstrated and replicated by multiple investigators. A specific allele [the 7-repeat of a 48-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in exon 3] has been proposed as an etiological factor in attentional deficits manifested in some children diagnosed with this disorder. In the current study, we evaluated ADHD subgroups defined by the presence or absence of the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 gene, using neuropsychological tests with reaction time measures designed to probe attentional networks with neuroanatomical foci in D4-rich brain regions. Despite the same severity of symptoms on parent and teacher ratings for the ADHD subgroups, the average reaction times of the 7-present subgroup showed normal speed and variability of response whereas the average reaction times of the 7-absent subgroup showed the expected abnormalities (slow and variable responses). This was opposite the primary prediction of the study. The 7-present subgroup seemed to be free of some of the neuropsychological abnormalities thought to characterize ADHD. PMID:10781080

Swanson, James; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Murias, Michael; Schuck, Sabrina; Flodman, Pamela; Spence, M. Anne; Wasdell, Michael; Ding, Yuanchun; Chi, Han-Chang; Smith, Moyra; Mann, Miranda; Carlson, Caryn; Kennedy, James L.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Leung, Patrick; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Sadeh, Avi; Chen, Chuansheng; Whalen, Carol K.; Babb, Kimberley A.; Moyzis, Robert; Posner, Michael I.

2000-01-01

235

Abnormal Pre-Attentive Arousal in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Contributes to Their Atypical Auditory Behavior: An ERP Study  

PubMed Central

Auditory sensory modulation difficulties and problems with automatic re-orienting to sound are well documented in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal preattentive arousal processes may contribute to these deficits. In this study, we investigated components of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) reflecting preattentive arousal in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children aged 3-8 years. Pairs of clicks (‘S1’ and ‘S2’) separated by a 1 sec S1-S2 interstimulus interval (ISI) and much longer (8-10 sec) S1-S1 ISIs were presented monaurally to either the left or right ear. In TD children, the P50, P100 and N1c CAEP components were strongly influenced by temporal novelty of clicks and were much greater in response to the S1 than the S2 click. Irrespective of the stimulation side, the ‘tangential’ P100 component was rightward lateralized in TD children, whereas the ‘radial’ N1c component had higher amplitude contralaterally to the stimulated ear. Compared to the TD children, children with ASD demonstrated 1) reduced amplitude of the P100 component under the condition of temporal novelty (S1) and 2) an attenuated P100 repetition suppression effect. The abnormalities were lateralized and depended on the presentation side. They were evident in the case of the left but not the right ear stimulation. The P100 abnormalities in ASD correlated with the degree of developmental delay and with the severity of auditory sensory modulation difficulties observed in early life. The results suggest that some rightward-lateralized brain networks that are crucially important for arousal and attention re-orienting are compromised in children with ASD and that this deficit contributes to sensory modulation difficulties and possibly even other behavioral deficits in ASD. PMID:23935931

Stroganova, Tatiana A.; Kozunov, Vladimir V.; Posikera, Irina N.; Galuta, Ilia A.; Gratchev, Vitaliy V.; Orekhova, Elena V.

2013-01-01

236

Civility in Classes and Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility in classes and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…

Lumpkin, Angela

2010-01-01

237

Visuospatial selective attention in chickens  

PubMed Central

Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d?) increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an “indecision” model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens—a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies—as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention. PMID:24753566

Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L.; Schwarz, Jason S.; Knudsen, Eric I.

2014-01-01

238

Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.  

PubMed

Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention. PMID:24753566

Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

2014-05-13

239

The influence of serotonin- and other genes on impulsive behavioral aggression and cognitive impulsivity in children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Findings from a family-based association test (FBAT) analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Low serotonergic (5-HT) activity correlates with increased impulsive-aggressive behavior, while the opposite association may apply to cognitive impulsiveness. Both types of impulsivity are associated with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and genes of functional significance for the 5-HT system are implicated in this disorder. Here we demonstrate the separation of aggressive and cognitive components of impulsivity from symptom ratings and test

Robert D. Oades; Jessica Lasky-Su; Hanna Christiansen; Stephen V. Faraone; Edmund J. S. Sonuga-Barke; Tobias Banaschewski; Wai Chen; Richard J. L. Anney; Jan K. Buitelaar; Richard P. Ebstein; Barbara Franke; Michael Gill; Ana Miranda; Herbert Roeyers; Aribert Rothenberger; Joseph A. Sergeant; Hans-Christoph Steinhausen; Eric A. Taylor; Margaret Thompson; Philip Asherson

2008-01-01

240

Adaptive allocation of attentional gain  

PubMed Central

Humans are adept at distinguishing between stimuli that are very similar, an ability that is particularly crucial when the outcome is of serious consequence (e.g. for a surgeon or air traffic controller). Traditionally, selective attention was thought to facilitate perception by increasing the gain of sensory neurons tuned to the defining features of a behaviorally relevant object (e.g. color, orientation, etc.). In contrast, recent mathematical models counter-intuitively suggest that in many cases attentional gain should be applied to neurons that are tuned away from relevant features, especially when discriminating highly similar stimuli. Here we used psychophysical methods to critically evaluate these ‘ideal observer’ models. The data demonstrate that attention enhances the gain of the most informative sensory neurons, even when these neurons are tuned away from the behaviorally relevant target feature. Moreover, the degree to which an individual adopted optimal attentional gain settings by the end of testing predicted success rates on a difficult visual discrimination task, as well as the amount of task improvement that occurred across repeated testing sessions (learning). Contrary to most traditional accounts, these observations suggest that the primary function of attentional gain is not simply to enhance the representation of target features, but to optimize performance on the current perceptual task. Additionally, individual differences in gain suggest that the operating characteristics of low-level attentional phenomena are not stable trait-like attributes and that variability in how attention is deployed may play an important role in determining perceptual abilities. PMID:19776279

Scolari, Miranda; Serences, John T.

2009-01-01

241

An Investigation of the Technical Adequacy of a Daily Behavior Report Card (DBRC) for Monitoring Progress of Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Special Education Placements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are eligible for special education services because of problems with academic and/or social functioning. Thus, a considerable proportion of children with ADHD have individualized education plans (IEPs) that list operationalized goals and objectives for each student. Conceptually,…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Vujnovic, Rebecca; Naylor, Justin; Pariseau, Meaghan; Robins, Melissa

2009-01-01

242

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms: Do the Software and the Instruction Method Affect Their Behavior?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the effects of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) use on pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Nine Greek primary school pupils with ADHD symptoms and four others with no such deficit worked on a computer, either individually or collaboratively, once a week for a six-week period.…

Solomonidou, Christina; Garagouni-Areou, Fotina; Zafiropoulou, Maria

2004-01-01

243

The Incremental Utility of Behavioral Rating Scales and a Structured Diagnostic Interview in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the incremental utility of rating scales, a structured diagnostic interview, and multiple informants in a comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample included 185 children with ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.22, SD = 0.95) and 82 children without ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.24, SD =…

Vaughn, Aaron J.; Hoza, Betsy

2013-01-01

244

Behavioral and Learning Changes Secondary to Chiropractic Care to Reduce Subluxations in a Child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is extremely subjective in both diagnosis and treatment. No single cause has yet been determined for this disorder nor has there been a single treatment plan that is effective in a majority of cases. This paper proposes a possible etiology for some cases of ADHD with respect to concentration and hyperactivity along with a

Lisa Lovett DC; Charles L. Blum

245

Toward the mechanisms of auditory attention  

PubMed Central

Since the earliest studies of auditory cortex, it has been clear that an animal’s behavioral or attentional state can play a crucial role in shaping the response characteristics of single neurons. Much of what has been learned about attention has been made using human and animal models, but little is known about the cellular and synaptic mechanisms by which attentional modulation of neuronal responses occurs. The use of rodent experimental models allows us to exploit the full armamentarium of modern cellular and molecular neuroscience techniques. Here we present our program for studying auditory attention, specifically for development of rodent models of attention and finding the neural correlates of attention. PMID:17307316

Hromádka, Tomáš; Zador, Anthony M.

2007-01-01

246

Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Functional Impairment in Clinic- and Community-Based Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a sample of 268 patients and 137 community-based children with DSM-IV ADHD, and 268 school controls, aged 6-15, this study aimed to compare the emotional/behavioral problems and functional impairment between clinic- and community-based children with ADHD. Children's ADHD-related symptoms, a wide range of emotional/behavioral problems, and…

Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lin, Yu-Ju; Shang, Chi-Yung; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Soong, Wei-Tsuen

2010-01-01

247

Deficient Behavioral Inhibition and Anomalous Selective Attention in a Community Sample of Adolescents with Psychopathic Traits and Low-Anxiety Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socialization is the important process by which individuals learn and then effectively apply the rules of appropriate societal behavior. Response modulation is a psychobiological process theorized to aid in socialization by allowing individuals to utilize contextual information to modify ongoing behavior appropriately. Using Hare’s (1991) Psychopathy Checklist and the Welsh (1956) anxiety scale, researchers have identified a relatively specific form

Jennifer E. Vitale; Joseph P. Newman; John E. Bates; Jackson Goodnight; Kenneth A. Dodge; Gregory S. Pettit

2005-01-01

248

Teaching Reciprocal Imitation Skills to Young Children with Autism Using a Naturalistic Behavioral Approach: Effects on Language, Pretend Play, and Joint Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills which impede the acquisition of more complex behaviors and socialization, and are thus an important focus of early intervention programs for children with autism. This study used a multiple-baseline design across five young children with autism to assess the benefit of a naturalistic behavioral technique for teaching object imitation. Participants increased

Brooke Ingersoll; Laura Schreibman

2006-01-01

249

Deficient Behavioral Inhibition and Anomalous Selective Attention in a Community Sample of Adolescents with Psychopathic Traits and Low-Anxiety Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socialization is the important process by which individuals learn and then effectively apply the rules of appropriate societal behavior. Response modulation is a psychobiological process theorized to aid in socialization by allowing individuals to utilize contextual information to modify ongoing behavior appropriately. Using Hare's (1991)…

Vitale, Jennifer E.; Newman, Joseph P.; Bates, John E.; Goodnight, Jackson; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

2005-01-01

250

Attention in a Bayesian Framework  

PubMed Central

The behavioral phenomena of sensory attention are thought to reflect the allocation of a limited processing resource, but there is little consensus on the nature of the resource or why it should be limited. Here we argue that a fundamental bottleneck emerges naturally within Bayesian models of perception, and use this observation to frame a new computational account of the need for, and action of, attention – unifying diverse attentional phenomena in a way that goes beyond previous inferential, probabilistic and Bayesian models. Attentional effects are most evident in cluttered environments, and include both selective phenomena, where attention is invoked by cues that point to particular stimuli, and integrative phenomena, where attention is invoked dynamically by endogenous processing. However, most previous Bayesian accounts of attention have focused on describing relatively simple experimental settings, where cues shape expectations about a small number of upcoming stimuli and thus convey “prior” information about clearly defined objects. While operationally consistent with the experiments it seeks to describe, this view of attention as prior seems to miss many essential elements of both its selective and integrative roles, and thus cannot be easily extended to complex environments. We suggest that the resource bottleneck stems from the computational intractability of exact perceptual inference in complex settings, and that attention reflects an evolved mechanism for approximate inference which can be shaped to refine the local accuracy of perception. We show that this approach extends the simple picture of attention as prior, so as to provide a unified and computationally driven account of both selective and integrative attentional phenomena. PMID:22712010

Whiteley, Louise; Sahani, Maneesh

2012-01-01

251

Constructing Your In-Class Persona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features an article with suggestions for considering, as an instructor, an in-class persona. Factors that combine to create an in-class persona are considered, as well as possible results, such as improving relationships with students and ensuring that the in-class persona remains in charge.

Carroll, Jill; Education, The C.

252

The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

Shih, Shui-I

2008-01-01

253

An Investigation of the Technical Adequacy of a Daily Behavior Report Card (DBRC) for Monitoring Progress of Students With Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder in Special Education Placements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are eligible for special education services because of problems with academic and\\/or social functioning. Thus, a considerable proportion of children with ADHD have individualized education plans (IEPs) that list operationalized goals and objectives for each student. Conceptually, the majority of these children fall within Tiers 2 and 3 of a tiered intervention system because

Gregory A. Fabiano; Rebecca Vujnovic; Justin Naylor; Meaghan Pariseau; Melissa Robins

2009-01-01

254

Extended attention span training system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

1991-01-01

255

Emotional\\/Behavioral Problems and Functional Impairment in Clinic and Community-Based Children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of 268 patients and 137 community-based children with DSM-IV ADHD, and 268 school controls, aged 6–15, this\\u000a study aimed to compare the emotional\\/behavioral problems and functional impairment between clinic- and community-based children\\u000a with ADHD. Children’s ADHD-related symptoms, a wide range of emotional\\/behavioral problems, and functional impairments were\\u000a assessed by the psychiatric interviews and self-, parent- and teacher-reported

Susan Shur-Fen Gau; Yu-Ju Lin; Chi-Yung Shang; Shih-Kai Liu; Yen-Nan Chiu; Wei-Tsuen Soong

2010-01-01

256

Attention and Olfactory Consciousness  

PubMed Central

Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to the discussion: attention to the olfactory modality. I will first clarify the position of attention to smells in a general taxonomy of attention. I will then review the mechanisms and neuroanatomy of attention and consciousness in the olfactory system before using the newly introduced system to provide evidence that attention is necessary for consciousness. PMID:22203813

Keller, Andreas

2011-01-01

257

A Comparison of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation and Computerized Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Effects on Anxiety, Depression, Attentional Control, and Interpretive Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) and cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) both have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating social anxiety, but how they compare with each other has not been investigated. The present study tested the prediction that both interventions would reduce anxiety relative to a…

Bowler, Jennifer O.; Mackintosh, Bundy; Dunn, Barnaby D.; Mathews, Andrew; Dalgleish, Tim; Hoppitt, Laura

2012-01-01

258

Male-Female, Female-Female, and Male-Male sexual behavior in the stumptail monkey, with special attention to the female orgasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating behavior in Macaca arctoides has several features unique to the macaques. Observations of laboratory groups of stumptail monkeys revealed that their single-mount copulations are exceptionally long, that male orgasm is unusually salient (being characterized by body rigidity followed by body spasms and a characteristic facial expression and vocalization), and that the couple generally remains united, or “tied,” in a

Suzanne Chevalier-Skolnikoff

1974-01-01

259

Teaching Reciprocal Imitation Skills to Young Children with Autism Using a Naturalistic Behavioral Approach: Effects on Language, Pretend Play, and Joint Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills which impede the acquisition of more complex behaviors and socialization, and are thus an important focus of early intervention programs for children with autism. This study used a multiple-baseline design across five young children with autism to assess the benefit of a…

Ingersoll, Brooke; Schreibman, Laura

2006-01-01

260

Two-Stage Processing of Sounds Explains Behavioral Performance Variations due to Changes in Stimulus Contrast and Selective Attention: An MEG Study  

PubMed Central

Selectively attending to task-relevant sounds whilst ignoring background noise is one of the most amazing feats performed by the human brain. Here, we studied the underlying neural mechanisms by recording magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses of 14 healthy human subjects while they performed a near-threshold auditory discrimination task vs. a visual control task of similar difficulty. The auditory stimuli consisted of notch-filtered continuous noise masker sounds, and of 1020-Hz target tones occasionally () replacing 1000-Hz standard tones of 300-ms duration that were embedded at the center of the notches, the widths of which were parametrically varied. As a control for masker effects, tone-evoked responses were additionally recorded without masker sound. Selective attention to tones significantly increased the amplitude of the onset M100 response at 100 ms to the standard tones during presence of the masker sounds especially with notches narrower than the critical band. Further, attention modulated sustained response most clearly at 300–400 ms time range from sound onset, with narrower notches than in case of the M100, thus selectively reducing the masker-induced suppression of the tone-evoked response. Our results show evidence of a multiple-stage filtering mechanism of sensory input in the human auditory cortex: 1) one at early (100 ms) latencies bilaterally in posterior parts of the secondary auditory areas, and 2) adaptive filtering of attended sounds from task-irrelevant background masker at longer latency (300 ms) in more medial auditory cortical regions, predominantly in the left hemisphere, enhancing processing of near-threshold sounds. PMID:23071654

Kauramaki, Jaakko; Jaaskelainen, Iiro P.; Hanninen, Jarno L.; Auranen, Toni; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Lampinen, Jouko; Sams, Mikko

2012-01-01

261

Attentional and Ocular Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between eye movements and movements of attention was examined in a series of 6 experiments. A temporal order judgment technique was used to index attentional allocation. The results showed that endogenous movements of attention were slower than movements of the eyes and that the participants were able to hold attention at one location while executing an eye movement

Lew B. Stelmach; June M. Campsall; Chris M. Herdman

1997-01-01

262

Learning, Memory, & Attention Instructor  

E-print Network

1 COGS 101B: Learning, Memory, & Attention · Welcome! · Instructor ­ Dr. Coulson ­ Email: coulson Attention ­ Divided Attention ­ Automaticity ­ Attentional Capture · Immediate Memory ­ Sensory Memory ­ Short-Term Memory ­ Working Memory · Long-Term Memory ­ Levels of Processing ­ Memory Systems

Coulson, Seana

263

Co-occurring risk behaviors among White, Black, and Hispanic US high school adolescents with suicide attempts requiring medical attention, 1999–2007: Implications for future prevention initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To identify subtypes of adolescent suicide attempters by examining risk profiles related to substance use, violent behavior,\\u000a and depressive symptoms. To examine the relationship between these subtypes and having had two or more suicide attempts during\\u000a the past year. To explore race and gender differences across subtypes of suicide attempters.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data were combined from five nationally representative cohorts of the

Juan B. PenaMonica; Monica M. Matthieu; Luis H. Zayas; Katherine E. Masyn; Eric D. Caine

264

Attention\\/Concentration: The Distractible Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Attention and concentration are simple concepts on the surface but become complex when asked to assess or differentiate among\\u000a capacities. While, at its most basic, attention refers to an organisms ability to recognize and respond to changes in its\\u000a environment. The concept of attention when applied in neuropsychology represents a range of behavior which is dependent on\\u000a functional integrity of

James G. Scott

265

Deficient behavioral inhibition and anomalous selective attention in a community sample of adolescents with psychopathic traits and low-anxiety traits.  

PubMed

Socialization is the important process by which individuals learn and then effectively apply the rules of appropriate societal behavior. Response modulation is a psychobiological process theorized to aid in socialization by allowing individuals to utilize contextual information to modify ongoing behavior appropriately. Using Hare's (1991) Psychopathy Checklist and the Welsh (1956) anxiety scale, researchers have identified a relatively specific form of a response modulation deficit in low-anxious, Caucasian psychopaths. Preliminary evidence suggests that the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001) may be used to identify children with a similar vulnerability. Using a representative community sample of 308 16-year-olds from the Child Development Project (Dodge, Bates, & Pettit, 1990), we tested and corroborated the hypotheses that participants with relatively low anxiety and high APSD scores would display poorer passive avoidance learning and less interference on a spatially separated, picture-word Stroop task than controls. Consistent with hypotheses, the expected group differences in picture-word Stroop interference were found with male and female participants, whereas predicted differences in passive avoidance were specific to male participants. To the extent that response modulation deficits contributing to poor socialization among psychopathic adult offenders also characterize a subgroup of adolescents with mild conduct problems, clarification of the developmental processes that moderate the expression of this vulnerability could inform early interventions. PMID:16118992

Vitale, Jennifer E; Newman, Joseph P; Bates, John E; Goodnight, Jackson; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S

2005-08-01

266

Media Attention, Media Exposure, and Media Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study finds that audience exposure and attention to three media—newspapers, television news, and radio news—are separate dimensions, based on a telephone survey of 234 individuals 18 years old and up in Bloomington, Indiana. The relationships among exposure and attention and knowledge gain, opinion direction, opinion strength, and actual behavior are less clear, although there is evidence that newspapers are

Dan Drew; David Weaver

1990-01-01

267

Objectively-measured impulsivity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): testing competing predictions from the working memory and behavioral inhibition models of ADHD.  

PubMed

Impulsivity is a hallmark of two of the three DSM-IV ADHD subtypes and is associated with myriad adverse outcomes. Limited research, however, is available concerning the mechanisms and processes that contribute to impulsive responding by children with ADHD. The current study tested predictions from two competing models of ADHD-working memory (WM) and behavioral inhibition (BI)-to examine the extent to which ADHD-related impulsive responding was attributable to model-specific mechanisms and processes. Children with ADHD (n?=?21) and typically developing children (n?=?20) completed laboratory tasks that provided WM (domain-general central executive [CE], phonological/visuospatial storage/rehearsal) and BI indices (stop-signal reaction time [SSRT], stop-signal delay, mean reaction time). These indices were examined as potential mediators of ADHD-related impulsive responding on two objective and diverse laboratory tasks used commonly to assess impulsive responding (CPT: continuous performance test; VMTS: visual match-to-sample). Bias-corrected, bootstrapped mediation analyses revealed that CE processes significantly attenuated between-group impulsivity differences, such that the initial large-magnitude impulsivity differences were no longer significant on either task after accounting for ADHD-related CE deficits. In contrast, SSRT partially mediated ADHD-related impulsive responding on the CPT but not VMTS. This partial attenuation was no longer significant after accounting for shared variance between CE and SSRT; CE continued to attenuate the ADHD-impulsivity relationship after accounting for SSRT. These findings add to the growing literature implicating CE deficits in core ADHD behavioral and functional impairments, and suggest that cognitive interventions targeting CE rather than storage/rehearsal or BI processes may hold greater promise for alleviating ADHD-related impairments. PMID:22271141

Raiker, Joseph S; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J; Sarver, Dustin E

2012-07-01

268

Training Visual Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of brain waves and alpha rhythms on attentiveness to visual stimuli are discussed, and preliminary research findings and research needs are considered in connection with measuring and training for attention. (LH)

Mulholland, Thomas B.

1974-01-01

269

Attentional Habituation and Mental Retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical proposal is offered concerning individual differences in cognitive processes. The focus is on mental retardation and the comparative problem-solving performance of ‘normal’ and ‘retarded’ children. On the basis of Jeffrey’s analysis of attention and cognitive development, it is proposed that IQ and MA differences in problem-solving behavior reflect differences in (a) speed of OR habituation and (b) ability

Lita Furby

1974-01-01

270

A backward progression of attentional effects in the ventral stream  

E-print Network

The visual processing of behaviorally relevant stimuli is enhanced through top-down attentional feedback. One possibility is that feedback targets early visual areas first and the attentional enhancement builds up at ...

Desimone, Robert

271

Across the Continuum of Attention Skills: A Twin Study of the SWAN ADHD Rating Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Most behavior checklists for attention problems or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) have a narrow range of scores, focusing on the extent to which problems are present. It has been proposed that measuring attention on a continuum, from positive attention skills to attention

Polderman, Tinca J. C.; Derks, Eske M.; Hudziak, Jim J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Posthuma, Danielle; Boomsma, Dorret I.

2007-01-01

272

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , or ADHD . What is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD? ADHD is a common mental disorder ... 08-3572 Revised 2013 Share Find Publications About: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Children and Adolescents Related Information Browse Mental ...

273

Attention competition with advertisement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

2014-09-01

274

Value-driven attentional capture in adolescence.  

PubMed

Adolescence has been characterized as a period of both opportunity and vulnerability. Numerous clinical conditions, including substance-use disorders, often emerge during adolescence. These maladaptive behaviors have been linked to problems with cognitive control, yet few studies have investigated how rewards differentially modulate attentional processes in adolescents versus adults. Here, we trained adults and adolescents on a visual task to establish stimulus-reward associations. Later, we assessed learning in an extinction task in which previously rewarded stimuli periodically appeared as distractors. Both age groups initially demonstrated value-driven attentional capture; however, the effect persisted longer in adolescents than in adults. The results could not be explained by developmental differences in visual working memory. Given the importance of attentional control to daily behaviors and clinical conditions such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, these results reveal that cognitive control failures in adolescence may be linked to a value-based attentional-capture effect. PMID:25210012

Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P; Vaidya, Jatin G

2014-11-01

275

Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network.  

PubMed

ACCOUNTS OF THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INFORMATION ON BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE AND CURRENT MODELS OF EMOTION REGULATION ARE BASED ON TWO OPPOSED BUT INTERACTING PROCESSES: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with "bottom-up" attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control. PMID:24223546

Viviani, Roberto

2013-01-01

276

Attention Deficit Disorder: Diagnosis, Etiology and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides most recent information on attention deficit disorder including: (1) diagnostic considerations according to the latest behavioral criteria and breakthroughs using neurometric EEG assessment; (2) prevalence; (3) etiologies; (4) neurological basis; and (5) treatments. Evaluates alternatives to medication, behavior modification, cognitive…

Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed

1996-01-01

277

Integrating Conflict Detection and Attentional Control Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Human behavior involves monitoring and adjusting performance to meet established goals. Performance-monitoring systems that act by detecting conflict in stimulus and response processing have been hypothesized to influence cortical control systems to adjust and improve performance. Here we used fMRI to investigate the neural mechanisms of conflict monitoring and resolution during voluntary spatial attention. We tested the hypothesis that the ACC would be sensitive to conflict during attentional orienting and influence activity in the frontoparietal attentional control network that selectively modulates visual information processing. We found that activity in ACC increased monotonically with increasing attentional conflict. This increased conflict detection activity was correlated with both increased activity in the attentional control network and improved speed and accuracy from one trial to the next. These results establish a long hypothesized interaction between conflict detection systems and neural systems supporting voluntary control of visual attention. PMID:21126158

Walsh, Bong J.; Buonocore, Michael H.; Carter, Cameron S.; Mangun, George R.

2011-01-01

278

Divided Attention Issues in Attention Research  

E-print Network

· Require no attentional resources · Outside of consciousness · Obligatory Stroop Effect #12;3 Stroop Effect & Shiffrin · Consistent Mapping (diff cat. distr.) ­ Memory Set Size (no effect) ­ Distractor Set Size (no effect) ­ 80 ms/trial for 95% accuracy · Varied Mapping (same cat. distr.) ­ Memory Set Size (more

Coulson, Seana

279

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... and Management. ADHD: Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . 2011;128:1007- ...

280

Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Attentional Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of…

Konrad, Kerstin; Gunther, Thomas; Hanisch, Charlotte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

2004-01-01

281

Embodied Infant Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does real time coupling between mental and physical activity early in development have functional significance? To address this question, we examined the habituation of visual attention and the subsequent response to change in two groups of 3-month-olds with different patterns of movement-attention coupling. In suppressors, the typical decrease in…

Robertson, Steven S.; Johnson, Sarah L.

2009-01-01

282

Learning and selective attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective attention involves the differential processing of different stimuli, and has widespread psychological and neural consequences. Although computational modeling should offer a powerful way of linking observable phenomena at different levels, most work has focused on the relatively narrow issue of constraints on processing resources. By contrast, we consider statistical and informational aspects of selective attention, divorced from resource constraints,

Sham Kakade; P. Read Montague; Peter Dayan

2000-01-01

283

Dynamics of Media Attention  

E-print Network

Studies of human attention dynamics analyses how attention is focused on specific topics, issues or people. In online social media, there are clear signs of exogenous shocks, bursty dynamics, and an exponential or powerlaw lifetime distribution. We here analyse the attention dynamics of traditional media, focussing on co-occurrence of people in newspaper articles. The results are quite different from online social networks and attention. Different regimes seem to be operating at two different time scales. At short time scales we see evidence of bursty dynamics and fast decaying edge lifetimes and attention. This behaviour disappears for longer time scales, and in that regime we find Poissonian dynamics and slower decaying lifetimes. We propose that a cascading Poisson process may take place, with issues arising at a constant rate over a long time scale, and faster dynamics at a shorter time scale.

Traag, V A; Hicks, J; van Klinken, G

2014-01-01

284

Contingent Attentional Capture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

1994-01-01

285

Behavioral and computational models of spatial attention.  

PubMed

Pigeons pecked for food in a spatially cued choice reaction time (RT) task. A brief (50-ms) white light appeared on a left or right key and probabilistically predicted the location (on either the left or right key) of a subsequent target stimulus. The time between cue and target onset (stimulus onset asynchrony), the base rate of left cues, and the probability that the cue correctly predicted the target (cue validity) were experimentally varied. The mean RT to respond to the target key was faster on correctly cued trials (defining a validity effect), decreased for both valid and invalid trials as stimulus onset asynchrony increased (defining an alerting effect), showed a variety of base-rate effects, and did not depend on cue validity. It is shown with a computational-processing model that dynamic interactions of short-term and associative memory processes are sufficient to produce these attentionlike empirical phenomena. PMID:8418214

Shimp, C P; Friedrich, F J

1993-01-01

286

Pay attention! A review of visual attentional expertise in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to review current literature on visual attentional processes in the area of sport expertise. Based on recent findings in neuroscience, attention can be divided into four distinct sub-processes, all of which differ across individuals to varying extents: orienting attention, selective attention, divided attention, and sustained attention. These four sub-processes serve as a heuristic tool

Daniel Memmert

2009-01-01

287

State Regulation and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents, teachers, and clinicians continue saying that the behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder\\u000a (ADHD) can be extremely variable. For activities that are of interest (i.e., watching television), the children can sit still\\u000a and maintain attention for hours. Their performance accuracy declines rapidly, however, if the task at hand is not appealing,\\u000a which may happen during (neuro) psychological

Jaap van der Meere

288

Setting Limits: The Child Who Always Seeks Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is important to remember that a young child never thinks she gets enough attention. Even children who have a parent with them 24/7 will sometimes use attention-seeking behaviors. In this article, the author responds to a teacher's request for advice on how to help one 3-year-old child in her class who seeks attention through one annoying…

Greenberg, Polly

2006-01-01

289

Socialization and attentional deficits under focusing and divided attention conditions.  

PubMed

We conducted two studies to test and refine the hypothesis that, when undersocialized individuals focus on events of immediate interest, they allocate too large a proportion of their processing resources to those events and have little attention available for processing other important events. College students who completed the Socialization (So) scale (Gough, 1960) performed visual and auditory tasks simultaneously under conditions favoring the visual task, an equal division of processing resources between the tasks, or both. In both studies, low-So Ss performed relatively poorly on the auditory task under focusing conditions but displayed no primary task advantage and no significant performance deficits under divided attention conditions. These data support the utility of theories relating antisocial behavior to individual differences in allocation of attention. Low-So Ss' unresponsiveness to secondary events is not a simple function of the reallocation of resources to the primary task or a speed-accuracy trade-off. Moreover, under certain conditions, this deficit may disappear, given substantial practice. PMID:2754605

Kosson, D S; Newman, J P

1989-07-01

290

Attention Enhancement System using Virtual Reality and EEG Biofeedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood syndrome characterized by short attention span, impulsiveness and hyperactivity, which often leads to learning disabilities and various behavioral problems. For the treatment of ADHD, medication and cognitive-behavior therapy has been applied in recent years. Although psychostimulant medication has been widely used for many years, current findings suggest that, as the sole treatment

Baek Hwan Cho; Jong-min Lee; Jeonghun Ku; Dong Pyo Jang; J. S. Kim; In-young Kim; J. H. Lee; Sun I. Kim

2002-01-01

291

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... 2 Items) Treatments (2 Items) Q: What is ADHD? A: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a ... aged children. Q: What are the symptoms of ADHD? A: ADHD has a wide range of symptoms ...

292

Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

2010-01-01

293

In-class Polling for All Learners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource website for the IPAL project provides a free and open-source Moodle module to support in-class student polling. A stand-alone program for non-Moodle users is also available. This module provides a web-based interface for teachers and students engaged in peer instruction or other classroom quizzing and a database of ready-to-use, peer reviewed questions. Students can use cell phones, laptops, other web-enabled devices, and clickers to respond to in-class polling questions. A goal of the IPAL project is to determine if an analysis of student response patterns during polling sessions may allow an early identification of students who are at risk of dropping a course or dropping out of school.

Junkin, William

2012-06-13

294

Baseline shifts do not predict attentional modulation of target processing during feature-based visual attention.  

PubMed

Cues that direct selective attention to a spatial location have been observed to increase baseline neural activity in visual areas that represent a to-be-attended stimulus location. Analogous attention-related baseline shifts have also been observed in response to attention-directing cues for non-spatial stimulus features. It has been proposed that baseline shifts with preparatory attention may serve as the mechanism by which attention modulates the responses to subsequent visual targets that match the attended location or feature. Using functional MRI, we localized color- and motion-sensitive visual areas in individual subjects and investigated the relationship between cue-induced baseline shifts and the subsequent attentional modulation of task-relevant target stimuli. Although attention-directing cues often led to increased background neural activity in feature specific visual areas, these increases were not correlated with either behavior in the task or subsequent attentional modulation of the visual targets. These findings cast doubt on the hypothesis that attention-related shifts in baseline neural activity result in selective sensory processing of visual targets during feature-based selective attention. PMID:18958221

Fannon, Sean P; Saron, Clifford D; Mangun, George R

2007-01-01

295

Baseline Shifts do not Predict Attentional Modulation of Target Processing During Feature-Based Visual Attention  

PubMed Central

Cues that direct selective attention to a spatial location have been observed to increase baseline neural activity in visual areas that represent a to-be-attended stimulus location. Analogous attention-related baseline shifts have also been observed in response to attention-directing cues for non-spatial stimulus features. It has been proposed that baseline shifts with preparatory attention may serve as the mechanism by which attention modulates the responses to subsequent visual targets that match the attended location or feature. Using functional MRI, we localized color- and motion-sensitive visual areas in individual subjects and investigated the relationship between cue-induced baseline shifts and the subsequent attentional modulation of task-relevant target stimuli. Although attention-directing cues often led to increased background neural activity in feature specific visual areas, these increases were not correlated with either behavior in the task or subsequent attentional modulation of the visual targets. These findings cast doubt on the hypothesis that attention-related shifts in baseline neural activity result in selective sensory processing of visual targets during feature-based selective attention. PMID:18958221

Fannon, Sean P.; Saron, Clifford D.; Mangun, George R.

2007-01-01

296

Effect of topiramate on attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired attention is a frequently reported side effect of anti-epileptic medication, as well as a frequent general complaint of epilepsy. It is thus important to evaluate the effect of new medications on attention processes. Attention was assessed weekly in ten subjects receiving topiramate over a 3 month period. Attention was evaluated with digit span, a widely used index of attention.

Leslie A Burton; Cynthia Harden

1997-01-01

297

The role of intrinsic motivations in attention allocation and shifting  

PubMed Central

The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learning (RL), where both these capabilities are involved. RL is deployed to learn how to allocate attentional resources in a behavior-based robotic system, while action selection is obtained as a side effect of the resulting motivated attentional behaviors. Moreover, the influence of intrinsic motivations in attention orientation is obtained by introducing rewards associated with curiosity drives. In this way, the learning process is affected not only by goal-specific rewards, but also by intrinsic motivations. PMID:24744746

Di Nocera, Dario; Finzi, Alberto; Rossi, Silvia; Staffa, Mariacarla

2014-01-01

298

Modeling Perceptual Attention in Virtual Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our efforts to model perceptua l attention in virtual humans for the joint synthet ic battlefield. With the exception of the work by Ree ce et al. (19,20) to develop individual combatants, current computer generated forces represent entities at the platform level, hence, the perceptual model of these entiti es is typically a composite representing the behaviors

Randall W. Hill

1999-01-01

299

Focus of Attention and Putting Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of a preshot attentional/behavioral routine on putting performance was investigated. Subjects were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) Male Routine (MR); (2) Female Routine (FR); (3) Male Control (MC); and (4) Female Control (FC). Subjects in the FR and MR groups were given individualized putting routines which focused on specific…

Boutcher, Stephen H.; Crews, Debra J.

300

The Frontal Cortex and Exogenous Attentional Orienting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal functioning of the attentional orienting system is critical for effective behavior and is predicated on a balanced interaction between goal-directed (endogenous) processes and stimulus-driven (exogenous) processes. Although both systems have been subject to much investigation, little is known about the neural underpinnings of exogenous orient- ing. In the present study, we examined the early facilitatory effects and later inhibition

Janice J. Snyder; Anjan Chatterjee

2006-01-01

301

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

?The defining features of Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). In individuals with ADHD, these behaviors are present for at least six months at levels higher than is typical for their stage of development, are present early in life (currently defined as before age 7), and cause impairment. Currently three subtypes of ADHD are

William E. Pelham; Daniel A. Waschbusch

302

Attention in schizophrenia and in epileptic psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptive behavior of human beings is usually supported by rapid monitoring of outstanding events in the environment. Some investigators have suggested that a primary attention deficit might trigger symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, researchers have long discussed the relationship between schizophrenia and the schizophrenia-like psychosis of epilepsy (SLPE). On the basis of these considerations, the objective of the present

I. C. J. Kairalla; P. E. L. Mattos; M. Q. Hoexter; R. A. Bressan; J. J. Mari; I. Shirakawa

2008-01-01

303

Attention Deficit Disorder: Beyond the Myths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to dispel widely held misconceptions about attention deficit disorder (ADD). Diagnosis, prevention, prevalence, behavior control, medication, and mainstreaming issues are briefly addressed, in discussions of such myths as "ADD can be prevented,""medication can cure students with ADD," and "students with ADD cannot learn in the…

Chesapeake Inst., Washington, DC.

304

Social Computing and the Attention Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social computing focuses on the interaction between social behavior and information, especially on how the latter propagates across social networks and is consumed and transformed in the process. At the same time the ubiquity of information has left it devoid of much monetary value. The scarce, and therefore valuable, resource is now attention, and its allocation gives rise to an attention economy that determines how content is consumed and propagated. Since two major factors involved in getting attention are novelty and popularity, we analyze the role that both play in attracting attention to web content and how to prioritize them in order to maximize it. We also demonstrate that the relative performance of strategies based on prioritizing either popularity or novelty exhibit an abrupt change around a critical value of the novelty decay time, resembling a phase transition.

Huberman, Bernardo A.

2013-04-01

305

Quantifying collective attention from tweet stream.  

PubMed

Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive "digital fossil" of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of "collective attention" on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or "tweets." Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. "Retweet" networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era. PMID:23637913

Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Hirata, Yoshito; Toyoda, Masashi; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2013-01-01

306

Overflow, access, and attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this reply to 32 critics I start by clarifying the overflow argument. I explain why the distinction between generic and specific phenomenology is important and why we are justified in acknowledging specific phenomenology in the overflow experiments. Other issues discussed are the relations among report, cognitive access and attention, panpsychic disaster, the mesh between psychology and neuroscience and whether

Ned Block; Malach Sligte

2007-01-01

307

Attention and Visual Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One theory of visual communication maintains three things. It holds that attention is a process for obtaining information, that it is a transaction between the visual and the viewer, and that the success of a visual communication is determined by the amount and relevance of information conveyed. Current research aims at evaluating…

Mulholland, Thomas B.

308

INFLUENCE AND ATTENTION ON  

E-print Network

INFLUENCE AND ATTENTION ON TWITTER Duncan Watts Microsoft Research #12;New Media... � Historically than media influence in determining individual opinions � Also found that not all people are equally communications research divided between � Mass media � Interpersonal communications � In last few decades

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

309

Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics  

E-print Network

the behaviors of the various agents, and then use multidimensional scaling in an attempt to recover of other humans as animate, mentalistic agents with independent perceptions and motivations. We further for understanding and predict- ing others' behavior, a prime skill whether for chess players contemplating

Feldman, Jacob

310

Concentration and Civilisation: Producing the Attentive Child in the Age of Enlightenment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of how best to capture, direct, and enhance children's abilities to pay attention has been a central feature of educational thought and practices over a long duration. And, while having students pay attention in class has been a concern of teachers across the ages, beginning in the Enlightenment we find a significant shift in…

Sobe, Noah W.

2010-01-01

311

A Phenomenological Description of Primary Creep in Class M Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of creep microstructures in the primary creep region in class M materials show a remarkable similarity with those formed in the exponential creep regime. As a result, it is proposed that the constitutive creep law for normal primary creep is similar to that for the exponential creep regime. A phenomenological description is discussed to rationalize these microstructural observations in terms of a normalized strain rate vs. stress plot. The implications of this plot in describing different testing procedures, steady-state flow, and on the observed deviations from the universal creep law are discussed. The plot is also extended to explain the observed similarities in the transient creep behavior in pre-strained materials and in stress change experiments.

Raj, S. V.; Freed, A. D.

1999-01-01

312

Attention, reward, and information seeking.  

PubMed

Decision making is thought to be guided by the values of alternative options and involve the accumulation of evidence to an internal bound. However, in natural behavior, evidence accumulation is an active process whereby subjects decide when and which sensory stimulus to sample. These sampling decisions are naturally served by attention and rapid eye movements (saccades), but little is known about how saccades are controlled to guide future actions. Here we review evidence that was discussed at a recent symposium, which suggests that information selection involves basal ganglia and cortical mechanisms and that, across different contexts, it is guided by two central factors: the gains in reward and gains in information (uncertainty reduction) associated with sensory cues. PMID:25392517

Gottlieb, Jacqueline; Hayhoe, Mary; Hikosaka, Okihide; Rangel, Antonio

2014-11-12

313

Attentional capture in schizophrenia and schizotypy: Effect of attentional load  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: We examined the effect of attentional load on attentional capture in schizophrenia. On the basis of the ‘‘resource limitations hypothesis’’ in schizophrenia, we propose that attentional capture by an irrelevant distractor will be differentially affected by the attentional load for patients and healthy controls.Method: 70 patients with schizophrenia, 15 schizotypals, and 54 controls were asked to attend to a

Maria-Giovanna Ducato; Pierre Thomas; Jean-Louis Monestes; Pascal Despretz; Muriel Boucart

2008-01-01

314

Emotionally arousing stimuli compete for attention with left hemispace.  

PubMed

Rapid interaction of the emotional and attentional networks is critical for adaptive behavior. Here, we examined the effects of emotional stimulation on hemifield attention allocation using event-related potential and behavioral measures. Participants performed a visual-discrimination task on nonemotional targets presented randomly in the left or right hemifield. A brief task-irrelevant emotional (pleasant or unpleasant; 150-ms duration) or neutral picture was presented centrally 350 ms before the next target (150-ms duration). Unpleasant stimuli interfered with the left visual field attention capacity, slowing behavioral responses to attended left field stimuli. In keeping with the behavioral data, event-related potential responses to nonemotional attended left field stimuli were reduced over the right parietal regions when preceded by an unpleasant event. The results provide electrophysiological and behavioral evidence that unpleasant, emotionally arousing stimuli interfere with the right hemisphere-dependent attention capacity. PMID:18007189

Hartikainen, Kaisa M; Ogawa, Keith H; Soltani, Maryam; Knight, Robert T

2007-12-01

315

Cortical State and Attention  

PubMed Central

Preface The brain continuously adapts its processing machinery to behavioural demands. To achieve this it rapidly modulates the operating mode of cortical circuits, controlling the way information is transformed and routed. This article will focus on two experimental approaches by which the control of cortical information processing has been investigated: the study of state-dependent cortical processing in rodents, and attention in the primate visual system. Both processes involve a modulation of low-frequency activity fluctuations and spiking correlation, and are mediated by common receptor systems. We suggest that selective attention involves processes similar to state change, operating at a local columnar level to enhance the representation of otherwise nonsalient features while suppressing internally generated activity patterns. PMID:21829219

Harris, Kenneth D.; Thiele, Alexander

2012-01-01

316

Attention in risky choice.  

PubMed

Previous research on the processes involved in risky decisions has rarely linked process data to choice directly. We used a simple measure based on the relative amount of attentional deployment to different components (gains/losses and their probabilities) of a risky gamble during the choice process, and we related this measure to the actual choice. In an experiment we recorded the decisions, decision times, and eye movements of 80 participants who made decisions on 11 choice problems. We used the number of eye fixations and fixation transitions to trace the deployment of attention during the choice process and obtained the following main results. First, different components of a gamble attracted different amounts of attention depending on participants' actual choice. This was reflected in both the number of fixations and the fixation transitions. Second, the last-fixated gamble but not the last-fixated reason predicted participants' choices. Third, a comparison of data obtained with eye tracking and data obtained with verbal protocols from a previous study showed a large degree of convergence regarding the process of risky choice. Together these findings tend to support dimensional decision strategies such as the priority heuristic. PMID:25226548

Brandstätter, Eduard; Körner, Christof

2014-10-01

317

Attentional retraining can reduce chocolate consumption.  

PubMed

There is emerging evidence that attentional biases are related to the consumption of substances such as alcohol and tobacco, and that attentional bias modification can reduce unwanted consumption of these substances. We present evidence for the first time to our knowledge that the same logical argument applies in the food and eating domain. We conducted two experiments that used a modified dot probe paradigm to train undergraduate women to direct their attention toward ("attend") or away from ("avoid") food cues (i.e., pictures of chocolate). In Experiment 1, attentional bias for chocolate cues increased in the "attend" group, and decreased in the "avoid" group. Experiment 2 showed that these training effects generalized to novel, previously unseen chocolate pictures. Importantly, attentional retraining affected chocolate consumption and craving. In both experiments, participants in the "avoid" group ate less chocolate in a so-called taste test than did those in the "attend" group. In addition, in Experiment 2, but not in Experiment 1, the "attend" group reported stronger chocolate cravings following training, whereas the "avoid" group reported less intense cravings. The results support predictions of cognitive-motivational models of craving and consumption that attentional biases play a causal role in consumption behavior. Furthermore, they present a promising avenue for tackling unwanted food cravings and (over)eating. PMID:24079387

Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Orr, Jenna; Grear, Justine

2014-03-01

318

The Effect of Interactive Music Therapy on Joint Attention Skills in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of interactive music sessions on joint attention behaviors in preschool children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Joint attention, the ability to share attention to a stimulus with another...

Arezina, Clare Helene

319

Attention Moderates the Processing of Inhibitory Information in Primary Psychopathy  

PubMed Central

Primary psychopathic individuals are less apt to re-evaluate or change their behavior in response to stimuli outside of their current focus of attention. According to the response modulation hypothesis, this tendency reflects a lack of responsivity to important peripheral information and undermines adaptive self-regulation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we administered a response competition (flanker-type) task and manipulated focus of visual attention. We predicted that psychopathic individuals would display significantly less interference to response incongruent information than non-psychopathic participants when attention was cued to the target location but display normal interference when there was no pre-potent focus of attention. The results confirmed this hypothesis and are consistent with the contention that attention moderates psychopathic individuals’ responsivity to inhibitory cues. Finally, we discuss the implications of this attentional anomaly for psychopathic traits and behavior. PMID:19685952

Zeier, Joshua D.; Maxwell, Jeffrey S.; Newman, Joseph P.

2009-01-01

320

Quiet, but only in class: reviewing the in-class participation of Asian students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a teaching innovation that has proved successful in stimulating the in-class participation of Asian students. The innovation consists of using written communication as an additional tool to clarify material and to promote discussions. Although this innovation has been introduced in too few classes to draw a general conclusion, its results suggest that Asian students are willing to

Massimiliano Tani

321

Attentional Engagement in Infancy: The Interactive Influence of Attentional Inertia and Attentional State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated the interactive influences of attentional state and attentional inertia on infants' level of attentional engagement. We assessed infants' distraction latencies longitudinally at 6.5 and 9 months as they explored toys, and we coded both their attentional state (focused vs. casual) and how long they had been looking at the toy at each…

Oakes, Lisa M.; Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Kannass, Kathleen N.

2004-01-01

322

The role of attention in motor control.  

PubMed

Research on the focus of attention (FOA) in motor control has found a consistent advantage for focusing externally (on the effects of one's actions) compared to focusing internally (on one's body mechanics). However, most of this work has concentrated on movement outcomes, leaving open the question of how external attention changes the movement itself. Somewhat paradoxically, recent research has found that external attention also increases trial-by-trial movement variability. To explain these findings, we propose a theory of attention in motor control, grounded in optimal control theory, wherein variability is minimized along attended aspects of the movement. Internal attention thus reduces variability in individual bodily dimensions (positions and velocities of effectors), whereas external attention minimizes variability in the task outcome. Because the goal of a task defines a dimension in the movement space that is generally oblique to bodily dimensions, external attention should increase correlations among bodily dimensions while allowing their individual variances to grow. The current experiment tests these predictions in a dart-throwing task. External FOA led to more accurate performance and increased variability in the motion of the throwing arm, concomitant with stronger correlations among bodily dimensions (shoulder, elbow, and wrist positions and velocities) in a manner consistent with the task kinematics. These findings indicate a shift in the control policy of the motor system, consistent with the proposed theory. These results suggest an important role of attention as a control parameter in the regulation of the motor system, and more broadly illustrate the importance of cognitive mechanisms in motor behavior. PMID:23647310

Lohse, Keith R; Jones, Matt; Healy, Alice F; Sherwood, David E

2014-04-01

323

Joint attention and language evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates how more advanced joint attentional mechanisms, rather than only shared attention between two agents and an object, can be implemented and how they influence the results of language games played by these agents. We present computer simulations with language games showing that adding constructs that mimic the three stages of joint attention identified in children's early development (checking attention, following attention, and directing attention) substantially increase the performance of agents in these language games. In particular, the rates of improved performance for the individual attentional mechanisms have the same ordering as that of the emergence of these mechanisms in infants' development. These results suggest that language evolution and joint attentional mechanisms have developed in a co-evolutionary way, and that the evolutionary emergence of the individual attentional mechanisms is ordered just like their developmental emergence.

Kwisthout, Johan; Vogt, Paul; Haselager, Pim; Dijkstra, Ton

2008-06-01

324

The effects of presession exposure to attention on the results of assessments of attention as a reinforcer.  

PubMed Central

The effects of presession exposure to attention on responding during subsequent assessments of attention as a reinforcer were evaluated across three behavioral assessments. In Experiment 1, a contingent attention assessment condition was preceded by either a noncontingent attention condition (free play) or a contingent escape condition. In Experiment 2, a diverted attention with extinction condition was preceded by either an alone or a free-play condition. In Experiment 3, a two-choice preference assessment was preceded by either 10 min of free play or 10 min of playing alone. In each experiment, the participant responded differentially within the test condition according to the presence or absence of dense schedules of attention immediately prior to that condition. The results of this study show that events occurring immediately prior to an assessment condition can influence behavior within the assessment. PMID:11214023

Berg, W K; Peck, S; Wacker, D P; Harding, J; McComas, J; Richman, D; Brown, K

2000-01-01

325

The Effects of Microcomputers on Children's Attention to Reading Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effects of microcomputers on children's attention to reading tasks and the relationship between previous reading achievement and grade level on such attentional behavior. Fifty-five third and fifth graders read two stories each, one presented on a microcomputer and one presented in print. Television cartoons and rock music…

Zuk, Dorie; Danner, Fred

326

Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

2012-01-01

327

Is Attention Deficit Disorder Becoming a Desired Diagnosis?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rush to label schoolchildren as suffering from attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reached nearly epidemic proportions. The diagnosis often meets parents' needs to assign behavior control to Ritalin; it should be an explanation leading to genuine help, not a license for unacceptable student…

Smelter, Richard W.; And Others

1996-01-01

328

Nonmedical Treatment of ADHD/Hyperactivity: The Attention Training System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used classroom management approach, Attention Training System (ATS), to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Used ABA within-subjects design in which number of off-task behaviors were recorded for six ADHD students during baseline and training phases. Data indicated that five subjects demonstrated clear training effects, which…

Gordon, Michael; And Others

1991-01-01

329

Theory of mind, attention, and executive function in kindergarten boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored the relationship between theory of mind (ToM), attention, and executive function in 66 kindergarten boys drawn from four rural school districts. Three stories designed to test understanding of first and second order mental states were administered. Executive function and attention were assessed, respectively, by scores on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the

Mary Elizabeth McGlamery; Steven E. Ball; Tracy B. Henley; Megan Besozzi

2007-01-01

330

Sensory and attention abnormalities in autistic spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) often experience, describe and exhibit unusual patterns of sensation and attention. These anomalies have been hypothesized to result from overarousal and consequent overfocused attention. Parents of individuals with ASD rated items in three domains, ‘sensory overreactivity’, ‘sensory underreactivity’ and ‘sensory seeking behaviors’, of an expanded version of the Sensory Profile, a 103-item rating scale

Miriam Liss; Celine Saulnier; Deborah Fein; Marcel Kinsbourne

2006-01-01

331

Maternal Scaffolding and Attention Regulation in Children Living in Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relation of maternal scaffolding and children's attention regulation abilities in preschool children from low-income families within the context of a parent-child interaction task and in a child-alone task. Maternal scaffolding behaviors differed for mothers of children with different attention regulation skills. Mothers…

Robinson, Julia B.; Burns, Barbara M.; Davis, Deborah Winders

2009-01-01

332

Joint Attention and Attachment in Toddlers with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joint attention is often referred to as a triadic relation between self, other and object. Young children with autism show deficiencies in the use of joint attention behaviors. Individual differences may be expected, and they may be determined by the children's cognitive development or the characteristics of the relationship of the child with the…

Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van Engeland, Herman

2007-01-01

333

Attention and Joint Attention in Preschool Children With Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments examined the role of attention in explaining dyadic (child–adult) and triadic (child–adult–object) joint attention difficulties in autism. Experiments 1 and 2 investigated children's ability to orient to an adult's attention bid and to follow the direction of a human or nonhuman cue. Experiment 3 tested ability to disengage and shift attention to objects. Results showed autism-specific difficulties at

Susan R. Leekam; Beatriz López; Chris Moore

2000-01-01

334

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Birth Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birth order is considered one of the most influential environmental factors in child development, affecting cognitive abilities and behavioral traits. This study investigates the effect of birth order in relation to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the most common neuro-behavioral disorder of childhood. The study describes birth order of 598 children aged 6 to 18 years diagnosed due to attention-deficit hyperactivity

Itai Berger; Noorit Felsenthal-Berger

2009-01-01

335

Cognitive control of attention in the human brain: Insights from orienting attention to mental representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we summarize a new line of experimentation showing that attentional orienting can bias information processing in the working memory domain as well as in the perceptual domain to optimize goal-directed behavior. A new experimental paradigm was developed, which revealed that spatial orienting cues that appear after perceptual events (retro-cues), when these have been internalized into working memory

Jöran Lepsien; Anna C. Nobre

2006-01-01

336

Attention, Attention Rating and Cognitive Assessment: A Review and a Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We begin with the suggestion that the definition of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) still faces some challenges. Conceptually, inhibition of the Pavlovian kind preexisted the "behavioral inhibition" popular in the USA; the difference between them has to be understood in order to understand ADHD. The present project examines the…

Boersma, Hester; Das, J.P.

2008-01-01

337

ATTENTIONAL BIAS AND ALCOHOL ABUSE.  

E-print Network

??Selective attention towards alcohol-related cues (i.e., “attentional bias”) is thought to reflect increased incentive motivational value of alcohol and alcohol cues acquired through a history… (more)

Weafer, Jessica Jane

2012-01-01

338

The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  

PubMed Central

The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

2010-01-01

339

Neural correlates of attentional bias in addiction.  

PubMed

A small but growing neuroimaging literature has begun to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the difficulty that substance-use dependent (SUD) groups have with ignoring salient, drug-related stimuli. Drug-related attentional bias appears to implicate the countermanding forces of cognitive control and reward salience. Basic cognitive neuroscience research suggests that ignoring emotionally evocative stimuli in our environment requires both up-regulation of control networks and down-regulation of processing in emotion and reward regions. Research to date suggests that attentional biases for drug-related stimuli emerge from a failure to sufficiently increase control of attention over salient, but task-irrelevant stimuli. While SUD samples have typically shown increased activity in the cognitive control regions (ie, lateral prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate), during attentional bias such increases appear to have been insufficient for the concomitant increases in processing by the emotion/reward regions (ie, amygdala, insula, and striatum). Given the potential contribution of attentional biases to perpetuating drug use and the development of interventions (both pharmaceutical and cognitive-behavioral) to treat biases, understanding the neural basis of successfully reducing bias remains an important, but as yet unanswered, question for our field. PMID:23919984

Hester, Robert; Luijten, Maartje

2014-06-01

340

Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers  

PubMed Central

In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

2012-01-01

341

Temporal Differentiation of Attentional Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an analysis of the notion of attention is described that comprises a differentiation according to five stages of an attentional process related to action selection and performance. The first stage deals with the allocation of attention to external and internal stimuli, the second with examination and analysis, the third with decision making and action selection, the fourth

Tibor Bosse; Peter-Paul van Maanen; Jan Treur

342

Attentional Episodes in Visual Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type\\/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks between these episodes are punctuated by periods of suppressed attention, better known as the attentional blink (Raymond, Shapiro, & Arnell,

Brad Wyble; Mary C. Potter; Howard Bowman; Mark Nieuwenstein

2011-01-01

343

Attentional tradeoffs in the pigeon.  

PubMed

We deployed the Multiple Necessary Cues (MNC) discrimination task to see if pigeons can simultaneously attend to four different dimensions of complex visual stimuli. Specifically, we trained nine pigeons (Columba livia) on a go/no go discrimination to peck only 1 of 16 compound stimuli created from all possible combinations of two stimulus values from four separable visual dimensions: shape (circle/square), size (large/small), line orientation (horizontal/vertical), and brightness (dark/light). Some of the pigeons had CLHD (circle, large, horizontal, dark) as the positive stimulus (S+), whereas others had SSVL (square, small, vertical, light) as the S+. We recorded touchscreen pecking during the first 15?s that each stimulus was presented on each training trial. Discrimination training continued until pigeons' rates of responding to all 15 negative stimuli (S-s) fell to less than 15% of their response rates to the S+. All pigeons acquired the MNC discrimination, suggesting that they attended to all four dimensions of the multidimensional stimuli. Learning rate was similar for all four dimensions, indicating equivalent salience of the discriminative stimuli. The more dimensions along which the S-s differed from the S+, the faster was discrimination learning, suggesting an added benefit from increasing perceptual disparities of the S-s from the S+. Finally, evidence of attentional tradeoffs among the four dimensions was seen during discrimination learning, raising interesting questions concerning the possible control of behavior by elemental and configural stimuli. PMID:24634281

Vyazovska, O V; Teng, Y; Wasserman, E A

2014-05-01

344

Early Social Attention Impairments in Autism: Social Orienting, Joint Attention, and Attention to Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated social attention impairments in autism (social orienting, joint attention, and attention to another's distress) and their relations to language ability. Three- to four-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 72), 3- to 4-year-old developmentally delayed children (n = 34), and 12- to 46-month-old typically…

Dawson, Geraldine; Toth, Karen; Abbott, Robert; Osterling, Julie; Munson, Jeff; Estes, Annette; Liaw, Jane

2004-01-01

345

Relation Between Childhood Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Substance Use and Dependence Symptoms in Young Adulthood: Individuals With Symptoms of Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder Are Uniquely at Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most prior literature examining the relations among attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and substance use and abuse suggests that CD fully accounts for the ADHD-substance abuse relation. This study sought to test an alternate theory that individuals with symptoms of both ADHD and CD are at a special risk for substance abuse. Relations between childhood ADHD and CD symptoms,

Kate Flory; Richard Milich; Donald R. Lynam; Carl Leukefeld; Richard Clayton

2003-01-01

346

Attention-Modulating Effects of Cognitive Enhancers  

EPA Science Inventory

Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review fo...

347

Computer simulation on creep of amalgam in Class I cavity.  

PubMed

The creep behavior of amalgam in Class I cavity was simulated by an axi-symmetric elastic creep finite element method. In this procedure, the stress and time dependencies of the creep strain of amalgam were incorporated. Exponents of stress and time dependencies were postulated as 2.0 and 1.0, respectively. Amalgam with 1.0% of creep value (tested by American Dental Association Specification No. 1) were selected for the material to calculate. Simulation was conducted for the occlusal force of 40, 100, and 150 N, respectively, on the caps of enamel and vertical direction to the axis of the tooth. Results show that creep strain of amalgam in the cavity did not increase linearly with time because the amalgam deformed to become stress-free and creep rate was a function of the stress. It was concluded that elastic deformation of the crown with no filling material in its cavity is an important factor in determining the creep strain and the gap between the cavity and the restorative material. PMID:1458203

Asaoka, K; Kawano, F

1992-01-01

348

Neural Mechanisms of Involuntary Attention to Acoustic Novelty and Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures were used to elucidate the neural mechanisms of involuntary engagement of attention by novelty and change in the acoustic environment. The behavioral measures consisted of the reaction time (RT) and performance accuracy (hit rate) in a forced-choice visual RT task where subjects were to discriminate between odd and even numbers. Each visual stimulus

Carles Escera; Kimmo Alho; István Winkler; Risto Näätänen

1998-01-01

349

Epidemiology of Attention Problems Among Turkish Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the epidemiology of attention problems using parent, teacher, and youth informants among a nationally representative Turkish sample. Method The children and adolescents, 4 to 18 years old, were selected from a random household survey. Attention problems derived from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (N = 4,488), Teacher Report Form (TRF) (N = 2,360), and the Youth Self Report (YSR) (N = 2,206) were examined. Results The CBCL and TRF attention problems scores were higher among young male children, whereas the YSR reported scores were higher among older adolescents without a gender effect. The CBCL and YSR scores were also higher by urban residence. Conclusion Compared with other European samples, our national sample had higher mean attention problems scores than the Scandinavian but lower mean scores than the former Soviet Union samples. In addition to elucidating the profile of attention problems in Turkey, our results also contribute to understanding the comparative global epidemiology of attention problems. PMID:18192617

Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Oner, Ozgur; Munir, Kerim

2011-01-01

350

Infant Joint Attention, Neural Networks and Social Cognition  

PubMed Central

Neural network models of attention can provide a unifying approach to the study of human cognitive and emotional development (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This paper we argue that a neural networks approach to the infant development of joint attention can inform our understanding of the nature of human social learning, symbolic thought process and social cognition. At its most basic, joint attention involves the capacity to coordinate one’s own visual attention with that of another person. We propose that joint attention development involves increments in the capacity to engage in simultaneous or parallel processing of information about one’s own attention and the attention of other people. Infant practice with joint attention is both a consequence and organizer of the development of a distributed and integrated brain network involving frontal and parietal cortical systems. This executive distributed network first serves to regulate the capacity of infants to respond to and direct the overt behavior of other people in order to share experience with others through the social coordination of visual attention. In this paper we describe this parallel and distributed neural network model of joint attention development and discuss two hypotheses that stem from this model. One is that activation of this distributed network during coordinated attention enhances to depth of information processing and encoding beginning in the first year of life. We also propose that with development joint attention becomes internalized as the capacity to socially coordinate mental attention to internal representations. As this occurs the executive joint attention network makes vital contributions to the development of human symbolic thinking and social cognition. PMID:20884172

Mundy, Peter; Jarrold, William

2010-01-01

351

Binocular rivalry requires visual attention  

PubMed Central

Summary An interocular conflict arises when different images are presented to each eye at the same spatial location. The visual system resolves this conflict through binocular rivalry-- observers consciously perceive spontaneous alternations between the two images. Visual attention is generally important for resolving competition between neural representations. However, given the seemingly spontaneous and automatic nature of binocular rivalry, the role of attention in resolving interocular competition remains unclear. Here, we test whether visual attention is necessary to produce rivalry. Using an EEG frequency tagging method to track cortical representations of the conflicting images, we show that when attention was diverted away rivalry stopped. The EEG data further suggested that the neural representation of the dichoptic images combined without attention. Thus attention is necessary for dichoptic images to be engaged in sustained rivalry, and may be generally required for resolving conflicting, potentially ambiguous input, and giving a single interpretation access to consciousness. PMID:21791293

Zhang, Peng; Jamison, Keith; Engel, Stephen; He, Bin; He, Sheng

2011-01-01

352

Group rhythmic synchrony and attention in children  

PubMed Central

Synchrony, or the coordinated processing of time, is an often-overlooked yet critical context for human interaction. This study tests the relationship between the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting with the ability to attend in 102 elementary schoolchildren. Impairments in temporal processing have frequently been shown to exist in clinical populations with learning disorders, particularly those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting—an instance of the type of temporal processing necessary for successful interaction and learning—would be correlated with the ability to attend across the continuum of the population. A music class is an ideal setting for the study of interpersonal timing. In order to measure synchrony in this context, we constructed instruments that allowed the recording and measurement of individual rhythmic performance. The SWAN teacher questionnaire was used as a measurement of attentional behavior. We find that the ability to synchronize with others in a group music class can predict a child's attentional behavior. PMID:24032021

Khalil, Alexander K.; Minces, Victor; McLoughlin, Grainne; Chiba, Andrea

2013-01-01

353

A comparison of contexts for assessing joint attention in toddlers on the autism spectrum  

PubMed Central

Children on the autism spectrum often demonstrate atypical joint attention, leading some researchers to consider joint attention defecits a core feature of the autism spectrum. Structured measures, such as the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), are commonly used to provide a metric of joint attention. To explore the assessment of joint attention in multiple contexts, we implemented an alternative system for coding joint attention behaviors. We compared initiation of joint attention (IJA) and response to joint attention (RJA) behaviors coded from naturalistic examiner–child play samples with similar IJA and RJA behaviors elicited within the structured ESCS protocol. Participants were 20 toddlers on the autism spectrum. Levels of IJA and RJA within the two assessment contexts were significantly and positively correlated, providing support for the use of naturalistic sampling of joint attention skills as a viable alternative, or supplement, to structured measures. PMID:18445736

Roos, Elizabeth M.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Ann Gernsbacher, Morton

2009-01-01

354

Attentional inertia and delayed orienting of spatial attention in task-switching.  

PubMed

Among the potential, but neglected, sources of task-switch costs is the need to reallocate attention to different attributes or objects. Even theorists who recognize the importance of attentional resetting in task-switching sometimes think it too efficient to result in significant behavioral costs. We examined the dynamics of spatial attention in a task-cuing paradigm using eye-tracking. Digits appeared simultaneously at 3 locations. A cue preceded this display by a variable interval, instructing the performance of 1 of 3 classification tasks (odd-even, low-high, inner-outer) each consistently associated with a location, so that task preparation could be tracked via fixation of the task-relevant location. Task-switching led to a delay in selecting the relevant location and a tendency to misallocate attention; the previously relevant location attracted attention much more than the other irrelevant location on switch trials, indicating "inertia" in attentional parameters rather than mere distractibility. These effects predicted reaction time switch costs within and over participants. The switch-induced delay was not confined to trials with slow/late orienting, but characteristic of most switch trials. The attentional pull of the previously relevant location was substantially reduced, but not eliminated, by extending the preparation interval to more than 1 sec, suggesting that attentional inertia contributes to the "residual" switch cost. A control condition, using identical displays but only 1 task, showed that these effects could not be attributed to the (small and transient) delays or inertia observed when the required orientation changed between trials in the absence of a task change. PMID:24842065

Longman, Cai S; Lavric, Aureliu; Munteanu, Cristian; Monsell, Stephen

2014-08-01

355

Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis. PMID:22478393

Salzinger, Kurt

2003-01-01

356

Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research attempting to elucidate the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not only shed light on the disorder itself, it has simultaneously provided new insights into the mechanisms of normal cognition and attention. This review will highlight and integrate this bidirectional flow of information. Following a brief overview of ADHD clinical phenomenology, ADHD studies will be placed into a wider

George Bush

2010-01-01

357

High-level attention Attention in complex tasks  

E-print Network

is lengthened. S1 R1 S2 R2 ADHD and Sustained Attention · Selecting among tasks and perceptual inputs attention to one set of inputs and actions · Distractors are a problem in ADHD ­ Milich & Lorch: Sustained better than ADHD · ADHD kids remembered more of the posters on the wall #12;4 Skilled performance · How

Pillow, Jonathan

358

Students' attitude toward assessing in-class participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper measures students' attitude towards assessing in-class participation. A team of lecturers delivering a Bachelor of Applied Business Programme at a New Zealand polytechnic trialled a participation mark in their courses. The mark was worth ten percent of the assessment programme. Students were graded for their contributions, questions and general participation in class. A marking schedule was developed in

Suzan Sariefe; Markus Klose

2008-01-01

359

Cross-modal deactivations during modality-specific selective attention  

PubMed Central

Background Processing stimuli in one sensory modality is known to result in suppression of other sensory-specific cortices. Additionally, behavioral experiments suggest that the primary consequence of paying attention to a specific sensory modality is poorer task performance in the unattended sensory modality. This study was designed to determine how focusing attention on the auditory or visual modality impacts neural activity in cortical regions responsible for processing stimuli in the unattended modality. Methods Functional MRI data were collected in 15 participants who completed a cued detection paradigm. This task allowed us to assess the effects of modality-specific attention both during the presence and the absence of targets in the attended modality. Results The results of this experiment demonstrate that attention to a single sensory modality can result in decreased activity in cortical regions that process information from an unattended sensory modality (cross-modal deactivations). The effects of attention are likely additive with stimulus-driven effects with the largest deactivations being observed during modality-specific selective attention, in the presence of a stimulus in that modality. Conclusion Modality-specific selective attention results in behavioral decrements in unattended sensory modalities. The imaging results presented here provide a neural signature (cross-modal deactivation) for modality-specific selective attention. PMID:18817554

Mozolic, Jennifer L; Joyner, David; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Peiffer, Ann M; Kraft, Robert A; Maldjian, Joseph A; Laurienti, Paul J

2008-01-01

360

A dissociation between attention and selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is widely assumed that the allocatian of spatial attention results in the "selection" of attended objects or regions of space. That is, once a stimulus is attended, all its feature dimensions are processed irrespective of their relevance to behavioral goals. This assumption is based in part on experiments showing significant interference for attended stimuli when the response to an irrelevant dimension conflicts with the response to the relevant dimension (e.g., the Stroop effect). Here we show that such interference is not due to attending per se. In two spatial cuing experiments, we found that it was possible to restrict processing of attended stimuli to task-relevant dimensions. This new evidence supports two novel conclusions: (a) Selection involves more than the focusing of attention per se: and (b) task expectations play a key role in detertnining the depth of processing of the elementary feature dimensions of attended stimuli.

Remington, R. W.; Folk, C. L.

2001-01-01

361

Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care  

MedlinePLUS

Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care Selecting quality behavioral health care services for yourself, a relative or friend requires special thought and attention. The Joint Commission on ...

362

Brain Mechanisms of Attentional Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lack of attentional control--inability to concentrate--has often made the difference between successful and unsuccessful performance on the part of athletes. Attention is controlled neurologically by a very complex interaction of a large portion of the cerebrum and is not localized to any one structure. The mechanism involves a memory retrieval…

Wilke, Thomas

363

The Challenges of Joint Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the concept of joint at- tention and the dierent skills underlying its development. We argue that joint attention is much more than gaze following or simul- taneous looking because it implies a shared intentional relation to the world. The current state-of-the-art in robotic and computational models of the dierent prerequisites of joint attention is discussed in relation

Frederic Kaplan; Verena V. Hafner

2004-01-01

364

Emotional facial expressions capture attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the emotional significance of stimuli can influence spatial attention. BACKGROUND: Motivational and emotional factors may affect attention toward stimuli. However, this has never been examined in brain-damaged patients who present with unilateral inattention due to left spatial neglect. METHODS: The authors studied three patients with chronic left neglect and visual extinction after right parietal stroke. Shapes

Patrik Vuilleumier; Sophie Schwartz

2001-01-01

365

Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

2010-01-01

366

Dorsal and Ventral Attention Systems  

PubMed Central

The idea of two separate attention networks in the human brain for the voluntary deployment of attention and the reorientation to unexpected events, respectively, has inspired an enormous amount of research over the past years. In this review, we will reconcile these theoretical ideas on the dorsal and ventral attentional system with recent empirical findings from human neuroimaging experiments and studies in stroke patients. We will highlight how novel methods—such as the analysis of effective connectivity or the combination of neurostimulation with functional magnetic resonance imaging—have contributed to our understanding of the functionality and interaction of the two systems. We conclude that neither of the two networks controls attentional processes in isolation and that the flexible interaction between both systems enables the dynamic control of attention in relation to top-down goals and bottom-up sensory stimulation. We discuss which brain regions potentially govern this interaction according to current task demands. PMID:23835449

Geng, Joy J.; Fink, Gereon R.

2014-01-01

367

Auditory attentional shifts in reading-disabled students: quantification of attentional effectiveness by the Attentional Shift Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

A controversy has existed for some years regarding auditory attentional skills in reading-disabled children. Data have suggested highly developed attentional skills in groups of reading-disabled students, but reduced attentional shifts have also been documented in equivalent groups. Attentional shifts in dichotic listening with forced or directed attention are usually inferred from a significant interaction between attentional task and ear. However,

Arve E Asbjørnsen; M. P Bryden

1998-01-01

368

Effectiveness of Training Parents to Teach Joint Attention in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children with autism have deficits in initiating and responding to joint attention bids. This study was designed to examine a parent-implemented intervention targeting joint attention responding in children with autism. Parents were trained to increase their joint attention bids using behavior analytic techniques to facilitate appropriate…

Rocha, M. L.; Schreibman, L.; Stahmer, A. C.

2007-01-01

369

Overcoming Attention Deficit Disorders in Children, Adolescents, and Adults. Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previously published as "Attention Deficit Disorder: ADHD and ADD Syndromes," this popular book is now in its fourth edition. It provides up-to-date research and more complete explanations of how Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) interfere with classroom learning, behavior at home, job…

Jordan, Dale R.

2006-01-01

370

Further Evaluation of Leisure Items in the Attention Condition of Functional Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that including leisure items in the attention condition of a functional analysis may produce engagement that masks sensitivity to attention. In this study, 4 individuals. initial functional analyses indicated that behavior was maintained by nonsocial variables (n = 3) or by attention (n = 1). A preference assessment was used to…

Roscoe, Eileen M.; Carreau, Abbey; MacDonald, Jackie; Pence, Sacha T.

2008-01-01

371

Limited Attention as the Scarce Resource in an Information-Rich Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses basic empirical facts from attention and perception psychology for a behavioral approach to equilibrium analysis at the industry and the macroeconomic level. The paper endogenously determines whether an economy is information-rich and whether scarcity of attention complements economic scarcity. A conventional economic equilibrium results if subjects have free attention capacity. At the positive level, the impacts of

Josef Falkinger

2005-01-01

372

Sustained attention differences between children with ADHD and normal children based on auditory-visual stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the difference of auditory and visual sustained attention between children with ADHD and normal children over time, the study establishes time series dynamic model of the auditory-visual sustained attention of children with ADHD and the relationship between children's attention and time. The goal of the study is to predict the behavior of ADHD children. In this study, auditory-visual

Gao Yang; Jiahai Liu; Fangzhong Xu; Zhiping Liu

2012-01-01

373

Attentional capture and inattentional blindness.  

PubMed

Although we intuitively believe that salient or distinctive objects will capture our attention, surprisingly often they do not. For example, drivers may fail to notice another car when trying to turn or a person may fail to see a friend in a cinema when looking for an empty seat, even if the friend is waving. The study of attentional capture has focused primarily on measuring the effect of an irrelevant stimulus on task performance. In essence, these studies explore how well observers can ignore something they expect but know to be irrelevant. By contrast, the real-world examples above raise a different question: how likely are subjects to notice something salient and potentially relevant that they do not expect? Recently, several new paradigms exploring this question have found that, quite often, unexpected objects fail to capture attention, a phenomenon known as 'inattentional blindness'. This review considers evidence for the effects of irrelevant features both on performance ('implicit attentional capture') and on awareness ('explicit attentional capture'). Taken together, traditional studies of implicit attentional capture and recent studies of inattentional blindness provide a more complete understanding of the varieties of attentional capture, both in the laboratory and in the real world. PMID:10740279

Simons

2000-04-01

374

Learning-Induced Changes in Attentional Allocation during Categorization: A Sizable Catalog of Attention Change as Measured by Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

Learning how to allocate attention properly is essential for success at many categorization tasks. Advances in our understanding of learned attention are stymied by a chicken-and-egg problem: there are no theoretical accounts of learned attention that predict patterns of eye movements, making data collection difficult to justify, and there are not enough datasets to support the development of a rich theory of learned attention. The present work addresses this by reporting five measures relating to the overt allocation of attention across 10 category learning experiments: accuracy, probability of fixating irrelevant information, number of fixations to category features, the amount of change in the allocation of attention (using a new measure called Time Proportion Shift - TIPS), and a measure of the relationship between attention change and erroneous responses. Using these measures, the data suggest that eye-movements are not substantially connected to error in most cases and that aggregate trial-by-trial attention change is generally stable across a number of changing task variables. The data presented here provide a target for computational models that aim to account for changes in overt attentional behaviors across learning. PMID:24497915

McColeman, Caitlyn M.; Barnes, Jordan I.; Chen, Lihan; Meier, Kimberly M.; Walshe, R. Calen; Blair, Mark R.

2014-01-01

375

The lack of effect of LSD 25 on amygdaloid and cortical attention responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The behavioral attention response (behavioral arousal associated with contralateral searching movements) was induced in cats by stimulation of the temporal lobe neocortex, the amygdaloid nuclear complex, and the mesencephalic reticular formation. The threshold of the attention responses was tested before and after intravenous or intraperitoneal injection of LSD 25. The threshold was found to be unaltered by the drug for

Holger Ursin

1962-01-01

376

Use of Digital Console Game for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ADHD or ADD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) is one of the most frequently diagnosed mental and behavioral disorders of children. Children with ADHD are characterized by poor attention and distractibility and/or hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Although there is no "cure" for ADHD, there are accepted treatments that specifically…

Chuang, Tsung-Yen; Lee, I-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chih

2010-01-01

377

Learning Disabilities With and Without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Parents' and Teachers' Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to delineate the educational and behavioral differences between learning disabled children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A restrospective (TROHOC) multimeasure comparative design was employed. Parents' and teachers' questionnaires (ANSER system) pertaining to attention-activity, associated behaviors, and scholastic achievements were compared. Parents' questionnaires failed to distinguish between the two groups. Teachers' questionnaires were significantly more sensitive.

Emanuel Tirosh; Joseph Berger; Michal Cohen-Ophir; Michael Davidovitch; Ayala Cohen

1998-01-01

378

Assessment of sustained and divided attention in rats: aspects of validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article on “Behavioral approaches to the assessment of attention in animals” by Bushnell (1998; see Acknowledgements) promises a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of tasks and behavioral procedures used to assess attentional functions in experiments with laboratory animals. While this ambitious goal would have profited from a rigorous analysis of the validity of the available tasks, the aim

Martin Sarter; Jill McGaughy

1998-01-01

379

School-Based Interventions for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a relatively common childhood behavior disorder that typically is treated with psychotropic medication (e.g., methylphenidate), behavioral strategies, or their combination. This article provides an overview of the school-related difficulties associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.…

DuPaul, George J.

2007-01-01

380

ATTENTION PROSPECTIVE GRAPHIC DESIGN MAJORS  

E-print Network

ATTENTION PROSPECTIVE GRAPHIC DESIGN MAJORS ENTRANCE INTO ART 3610 AND 3630 IF YOU WISH TO BE CONSIDERED FOR ADMITTANCE INTO THE FIRST YEAR GRAPHIC DESIGN SEQUENCE, DELIVER YOUR PORTFOLIO TO THE ART IN GRAPHIC DESIGN FOR FALL SEMESTER. #12;

Tipple, Brett

381

Attentional episodes in visual perception  

PubMed Central

Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This paper presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic Simultaneous Type/ Serial Token model or eSTST; Wyble et al 2009a). Breaks between these episodes are punctuated by periods of suppressed attention, better known as the attentional blink (Raymond, Shapiro & Arnell 1992). We test predictions from this model and demonstrate that subjects are able to report more letters from a sequence of four targets presented in a dense temporal cluster, than from a sequence of four targets that are interleaved with non-targets. However, this superior report accuracy comes at a cost in impaired temporal order perception. Further experiments explore the dynamics of multiple episodes, and the boundary conditions that trigger episodic breaks. Finally, we contrast the importance of attentional control, limited resources and memory capacity constructs in the model. PMID:21604913

Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

2011-01-01

382

Common Attentional Constraints in Visual Foraging  

PubMed Central

Predators are known to select food of the same type in non-random sequences or “runs” that are longer than would be expected by chance. If prey are conspicuous, predators will switch between available sources, interleaving runs of different prey types. However, when prey are cryptic, predators tend to focus on one food type at a time, effectively ignoring equally available sources. This latter finding is regarded as a key indicator that animal foraging is strongly constrained by attention. It is unknown whether human foraging is equally constrained. Here, using a novel iPad task, we demonstrate for the first time that it is. Participants were required to locate and touch 40 targets from 2 different categories embedded within a dense field of distractors. When individual target items “popped-out” search was organized into multiple runs, with frequent switching between target categories. In contrast, as soon as focused attention was required to identify individual targets, participants typically exhausted one entire category before beginning to search for the other. This commonality in animal and human foraging is compelling given the additional cognitive tools available to humans, and suggests that attention constrains search behavior in a similar way across a broad range of species. PMID:24964082

Kristjansson, Arni; Johannesson, Omar I.; Thornton, Ian M.

2014-01-01

383

Sports therapy for attention, cognitions and sociality.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to understand if sport improves attention symptoms, social competency, and cognitive functions in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study was designed as a 6-week, prospective trial, including 12 sessions of education/sports therapy. 13 ADHD children participated in a 90-min athletic activity (sports-cADHD) twice a week, while 15 ADHD children received education on behavior control (edu-cADHD). During the 6-week treatment period, the sports-cADHD group showed greater improvements in DuPaul's ADHD Rating Scale scores, parent and teacher version (K-ARS-PT), compared to those of the edu-sADHD group. The cognitive functions assessed with the digit symbol and Trail-Making Test part B (TMT B) were improved in the sports-cADHD group, while the cognitive functions observed in the edu-sADHD group were not significantly changed. The cooperativeness scores in the sports-cADHD group were greatly increased compared to those of the edu-sADHD group. The results demonstrated a positive correlation with sports and improvement in attention symptoms, cognitive symptoms and social skills. The results of the present study suggest that therapy in the form of athletic activity may increase social competency in children with ADHD, as demonstrated by improved cognitive functions. PMID:22068930

Kang, K D; Choi, J W; Kang, S G; Han, D H

2011-12-01

384

An Evaluation of Three Time-Out Procedures for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavior modification is an evidence-based treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Time-out from positive reinforcement is one behavior-modification procedure commonly recommended to manage disruptive or noncompliant behavior. This investigation examined the effects of time-out on children's behavior within the…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E.; Manos, Michael J.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Onyango, Adia N.; Lopez-Williams, Andy; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Meichenbaum, David L.; Caserta, Donald A.; Swain, Sara

2004-01-01

385

Combined visual attention and finger movement effects on human brain representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Sensory and motor systems interact in complex ways; visual attention modifies behavior, neural encoding, and brain activation;\\u000a and dividing attention with simultaneous tasks may impede performance while producing specific brain activation patterns.\\u000a We hypothesized that combining voluntary movement with visual attention would yield unique brain representations differing\\u000a from those occurring for movement or visual attention alone. Hemodynamic signals in

Iole Indovina; Jerome N. Sanes

2001-01-01

386

Time Course of Attentional Bias for Gambling Information in Problem Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a wealth of evidence showing enhanced attention toward drug-related information (i.e., attentional bias) in substance abusers. However, little is known about attentional bias in deregulated behaviors without substance use such as abnormal gambling. This study examined whether problem gamblers (PrG, as assessed through self-reported gambling-related craving and gambling dependence severity) exhibit attentional bias for gambling-related cues. Forty PrG

Damien Brevers; Axel Cleeremans; Antoine Bechara; Cédric Laloyaux; Charles Kornreich; Paul Verbanck; Xavier Noël

2011-01-01

387

Neural control of vascular reactions: impact of emotion and attention.  

PubMed

This study investigated the neural regions involved in blood pressure reactions to negative stimuli and their possible modulation by attention. Twenty-four healthy human subjects (11 females; age = 24.75 ± 2.49 years) participated in an affective perceptual load task that manipulated attention to negative/neutral distractor pictures. fMRI data were collected simultaneously with continuous recording of peripheral arterial blood pressure. A parametric modulation analysis examined the impact of attention and emotion on the relation between neural activation and blood pressure reactivity during the task. When attention was available for processing the distractor pictures, negative pictures resulted in behavioral interference, neural activation in brain regions previously related to emotion, a transient decrease of blood pressure, and a positive correlation between blood pressure response and activation in a network including prefrontal and parietal regions, the amygdala, caudate, and mid-brain. These effects were modulated by attention; behavioral and neural responses to highly negative distractor pictures (compared with neutral pictures) were smaller or diminished, as was the negative blood pressure response when the central task involved high perceptual load. Furthermore, comparing high and low load revealed enhanced activation in frontoparietal regions implicated in attention control. Our results fit theories emphasizing the role of attention in the control of behavioral and neural reactions to irrelevant emotional distracting information. Our findings furthermore extend the function of attention to the control of autonomous reactions associated with negative emotions by showing altered blood pressure reactions to emotional stimuli, the latter being of potential clinical relevance. PMID:24647945

Okon-Singer, Hadas; Mehnert, Jan; Hoyer, Jana; Hellrung, Lydia; Schaare, Herma Lina; Dukart, Juergen; Villringer, Arno

2014-03-19

388

Spatial Attention Effects of Disgusted and Fearful Faces  

PubMed Central

Effective processing of threat-related stimuli is of significant evolutionary advantage. Given the intricate relationship between attention and the neural processing of threat-related emotions, this study manipulated attention allocation and emotional categories of threat-related stimuli as independent factors and investigated the time course of spatial-attention-modulated processing of disgusting and fearful stimuli. The participants were instructed to direct their attention either to the two vertical or to the two horizontal locations, where two faces and two houses would be presented. The task was to respond regarding the physical identity of the two stimuli at cued locations. Event-related potentials (ERP) evidences were found to support a two-stage model of attention-modulated processing of threat-related emotions. In the early processing stage, disgusted faces evoked larger P1 component at right occipital region despite the attention allocation while larger N170 component was elicited by fearful faces at right occipito-temporal region only when participants attended to houses. In the late processing stage, the amplitudes of the parietal P3 component enhanced for both disgusted and fearful facial expressions only when the attention was focused on faces. According to the results, we propose that the temporal dynamics of the emotion-by-attention interaction consist of two stages. The early stage is characterized by quick and specialized neural encoding of disgusting and fearful stimuli irrespective of voluntary attention allocation, indicating an automatic detection and perception of threat-related emotions. The late stage is represented by attention-gated separation between threat-related stimuli and neutral stimuli; the similar ERP pattern evoked by disgusted and fearful faces suggests a more generalized processing of threat-related emotions via top-down attentional modulation, based on which the defensive behavior in response to threat events is largely facilitated. PMID:24983360

Zhou, Chenglin; Chen, Yuming; Luo, Yuejia

2014-01-01

389

Attentional rhythm: a temporal analogue of object-based attention.  

PubMed

The underlying units of attention are often discrete visual objects. Perhaps the clearest form of evidence for this is the same-object advantage: Following a spatial cue, responses are faster to probes occurring on the same object than they are to probes occurring on other objects, while equating brute distance. Is this a fundamentally spatial effect, or can same-object advantages also occur in time? We explored this question using independently normed rhythmic temporal sequences, structured into phrases and presented either visually or auditorily. Detection was speeded when cues and probes both lay within the same rhythmic phrase, compared to when they spanned a phrase boundary, while equating brute duration. This same-phrase advantage suggests that object-based attention is a more general phenomenon than has been previously suspected: Perceptual structure constrains attention, in both space and time, and in both vision and audition. PMID:23586668

De Freitas, Julian; Liverence, Brandon M; Scholl, Brian J

2014-02-01

390

Attention trees and semantic paths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial results will be shown.

Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

2007-02-01

391

Attention to natural auditory signals Emily Caporello Bluvas a,b,*, Timothy Q. Gentner a,c,d  

E-print Network

requires animal models that permit direct control over attention driven behaviors and invasive experimental of single neurons and populations in animal models amenable to invasive neuroscience techniques relevant animal studies of natural communication and auditory attention with the broader goal

Gentner, Timothy

392

Visual attention on the sphere.  

PubMed

Human visual system makes an extensive use of visual attention in order to select the most relevant information and speed-up the vision process. Inspired by visual attention, several computer models have been developed and many computer vision applications rely today on such models. However, the actual algorithms are not suitable to omnidirectional images, which contain a significant amount of geometrical distortion. In this paper, we present a novel computational approach that performs in spherical geometry and thus is suitable for omnidirectional images. Following one of the actual models of visual attention, the spherical saliency map is obtained by fusing together intensity, chromatic, and orientation spherical cue conspicuity maps that are themselves obtained through multiscale analysis on the sphere. Finally, the consecutive maxima in the spherical saliency map represent the spots of attention on the sphere. In the experimental part, the proposed method is then compared to the standard one using a synthetic image. Also, we provide examples of spots detection in real omnidirectional scenes which show its advantages. Finally, an experiment illustrates the homogeneity of the detected visual attention in omnidirectional images. PMID:18854253

Bogdanova, Iva; Bur, Alexandre; Hugli, Heinz

2008-11-01

393

Framing attention in Japanese and american comics: cross-cultural differences in attentional structure.  

PubMed

Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books - the narrative frames in sequential images - highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese "manga" to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer's integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention. PMID:23015794

Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

2012-01-01

394

Framing Attention in Japanese and American Comics: Cross-Cultural Differences in Attentional Structure  

PubMed Central

Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books – the narrative frames in sequential images – highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese “manga” to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention. PMID:23015794

Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

2012-01-01

395

SPATIAL NEGLECT AND ATTENTION NETWORKS  

PubMed Central

Unilateral spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following predominantly right hemisphere injuries to ventral fronto-parietal cortex. We propose that neglect reflects deficits in the coding of saliency, control of spatial attention, and representation within an egocentric frame of reference, in conjunction with non-spatial deficits of reorienting, target detection, and arousal/vigilance. In contrast to theories that link spatial neglect to structural damage of specific brain regions, we argue that neglect is better explained by the physiological dysfunction of distributed cortical networks. The ventral lesions in right parietal, temporal, and frontal cortex that cause neglect directly impair non-spatial functions and hypoactivate the right hemisphere, inducing abnormalities in task-evoked activity and functional connectivity of a dorsal frontal-parietal network that controls spatial attention. The anatomy and right hemisphere dominance of neglect follows from the anatomy and laterality of the ventral regions that interact with the dorsal attention network. PMID:21692662

Corbetta, Maurizio; Shulman, Gordon L.

2013-01-01

396

Supporting Attention in Learning environments: Attention Support Services, and Information  

E-print Network

. Information which used to be a scarce and difficult to access resource, is now readily available, human) Evaluating cost/benefits of possible attentional shifts, (4) Establishing modalities for interventions support in recent years: user-centred and resource-centred (section 2). We then analyse, in section 3

Corran, Ruth

397

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Networks  

PubMed Central

Research attempting to elucidate the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not only shed light on the disorder itself, it has simultaneously provided new insights into the mechanisms of normal cognition and attention. This review will highlight and integrate this bidirectional flow of information. Following a brief overview of ADHD clinical phenomenology, ADHD studies will be placed into a wider historical perspective by providing illustrative examples of how major models of attention have influenced the development of neurocircuitry models of ADHD. The review will then identify major components of neural systems potentially relevant to ADHD, including attention networks, reward/feedback-based processing systems, as well as a ‘default mode' resting state network. Further, it will suggest ways in which these systems may interact and be influenced by neuromodulatory factors. Recent ADHD imaging data will be selectively provided to both illustrate the field's current level of knowledge and to show how such data can inform our understanding of normal brain functions. The review will conclude by suggesting possible avenues for future research. PMID:19759528

Bush, George

2010-01-01

398

Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

2008-01-01

399

Irrelevant stimulus processing in ADHD: catecholamine dynamics and attentional networks  

PubMed Central

A cardinal symptom of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a general distractibility where children and adults shift their attentional focus to stimuli that are irrelevant to the ongoing behavior. This has been attributed to a deficit in dopaminergic signaling in cortico-striatal networks that regulate goal-directed behavior. Furthermore, recent imaging evidence points to an impairment of large scale, antagonistic brain networks that normally contribute to attentional engagement and disengagement, such as the task-positive networks and the default mode network (DMN). Related networks are the ventral attentional network (VAN) involved in attentional shifting, and the salience network (SN) related to task expectancy. Here we discuss the tonic–phasic dynamics of catecholaminergic signaling in the brain, and attempt to provide a link between this and the activities of the large-scale cortical networks that regulate behavior. More specifically, we propose that a disbalance of tonic catecholamine levels during task performance produces an emphasis of phasic signaling and increased excitability of the VAN, yielding distractibility symptoms. Likewise, immaturity of the SN may relate to abnormal tonic signaling and an incapacity to build up a proper executive system during task performance. We discuss different lines of evidence including pharmacology, brain imaging and electrophysiology, that are consistent with our proposal. Finally, restoring the pharmacodynamics of catecholaminergic signaling seems crucial to alleviate ADHD symptoms; however, the possibility is open to explore cognitive rehabilitation strategies to top-down modulate network dynamics compensating the pharmacological deficits. PMID:24723897

Aboitiz, Francisco; Ossandon, Tomas; Zamorano, Francisco; Palma, Barbara; Carrasco, Ximena

2014-01-01

400

Optimal deployment of attentional gain during fine discriminations.  

PubMed

Most models assume that top-down attention enhances the gain of sensory neurons tuned to behaviorally relevant stimuli (on-target gain). However, theoretical work suggests that when targets and distracters are highly similar, attention should enhance the gain of neurons that are tuned away from the target, because these neurons better discriminate neighboring features (off-target gain). While it is established that off-target neurons support difficult fine discriminations, it is unclear if top-down attentional gain can be optimally applied to informative off-target sensory neurons or if gain is always applied to on-target neurons, regardless of task demands. To test the optimality of attentional gain in human visual cortex, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an encoding model to estimate the response profile across a set of hypothetical orientation-selective channels during a difficult discrimination task. The results suggest that top-down attention can adaptively modulate off-target neural populations, but only when the discriminanda are precisely specified in advance. Furthermore, logistic regression revealed that activation levels in off-target orientation channels predicted behavioral accuracy on a trial-by-trial basis. Overall, these data suggest that attention does not only increase the gain of sensory-evoked responses, but may bias population response profiles in an optimal manner that respects both the tuning properties of sensory neurons and the physical characteristics of the stimulus array. PMID:22649250

Scolari, Miranda; Byers, Anna; Serences, John T

2012-05-30

401

Two competing attentional mechanisms in category learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research provides evidence that there are 2 competing attentional mechanisms in category learning. Attentionai persistence directs attention to attributes previously found to be predictive, whereas attentional contrast directs attention to attribute values that have not already been associated with a category. Three experiments provided evidence for these mechanisms. Experiments 1 and 2 provided evidence for persistence because increased attention

Alan W. Kersten; Robert L. Goldstone; Alexandra Schaffert

1998-01-01

402

Executive attention impairment in first-episode schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background We compared the attention abilities of a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and a group of healthy participants using the Attention Network Test (ANT), a standard procedure that estimates the functional state of three neural networks controlling the efficiency of three different attentional behaviors, i.e., alerting (achieving and maintaining a state of high sensitivity to incoming stimuli), orienting (ability to select information from sensory input), and executive attention (mechanisms for resolving conflict among thoughts, feelings, and actions). Methods We evaluated 22 FES patients from 17 to 29?years of age with a recent history of a single psychotic episode treated only with atypical neuroleptics, and 20 healthy persons matched with FES patients by sex, age, and educational level as the control group. Attention was estimated using the ANT in which participants indicate whether a central horizontal arrow is pointing to the left or the right. The central arrow may be preceded by spatial or temporal cues denoting where and when the arrow will appear, and may be flanked by other arrows (hereafter, flankers) pointing in the same or the opposite direction. Results The efficiency of the alerting, orienting, and executive networks was estimated by measuring how reaction time was influenced by congruency between temporal, spatial, and flanker cues. We found that the control group only demonstrated significantly greater attention efficiency than FES patients in the executive attention network. Conclusions FES patients are impaired in executive attention but not in alerting or orienting attention, suggesting that executive attention deficit may be a primary impairment during the progression of the disease. PMID:22998680

2012-01-01

403

Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.  

PubMed

A number of medication and psychologic treatment options for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have become available during the past 5 years, while others are under investigation. This review describes the safety and effectiveness of the stimulants (i.e., methylphenidate and dexedrine), and particularly the newer long-acting stimulants (i.e., Concerta) and Adderall XR) in the treatment of this population. Some nonstimulant/nonantidepressants, particularly atomoxetine, have also been shown to improve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Combination treatment of stimulants and antidepressants require more study with regard to safety and efficacy. Psychosocial interventions (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness training and cognitive remediation) can also benefit adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapy combined with medication is more effective than either intervention alone, especially for addressing the emotional and functional aspects of peoples lives and thus improving occupational, interpersonal and emotional outcomes. PMID:15853481

Greenfield, Brian; Hechman, Lily

2005-01-01

404

Developmental Changes in Infant Attention to Dynamic and Static Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined 4- and 6-month-olds' responses to static or dynamic stimuli using behavioral and heart-rate-defined measures of attention. Infants looked longest to dynamic stimuli with an audio track and least to a static stimulus that was mute. Overall, look duration declined with age to the different stimuli. The amount of time spent in…

Shaddy, D. Jill; Colombo, John

2004-01-01

405

Peer Victimization in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored peer victimization in 9- to 14-year-old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 104 children, 52 of whom had a previous ADHD diagnosis. Children with ADHD had higher overall rates of self-reported victimization by peers and parent- and teacher-reported bullying behavior

Wiener, Judith; Mak, Meghan

2009-01-01

406

What Is Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and\\/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with

Lydia Furman

2005-01-01

407

Small Group Intervention for Children with Attention Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two practice improvement projects that provided small group experiences for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior addressed: communication, friendship, self-control, and social problem solving. One provided activities for elementary students with ADHD (treated with medication only). Another provided…

Houck, Gail; King, Mary Catherine; Tomlinson, Bill; Vrabel, Ann; Wecks, Kathleen

2002-01-01

408

Allergic disorders and attention deficit disorder in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that children with attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADDH) are likely to show allergic disorders, and that both ADDH and allergic disorders may share a common biological background. In a large sample of children from the general population we found no association between parent, teacher, and self-reports of ADDH behaviors and a history of allergic disorders (asthma, eczema,

Rob McGee; Warren R. Stanton; Malcolm R. Sears

1993-01-01

409

Parents' Reactions to Youths' Hyperactivity, Impulsivity, and Attention Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attention problems (HIA) in children and adolescents are stressful for parents. In this study, we used theories of parents' perceived power and attributions for youths' behaviors to develop a model to understand parents' reactions to their youths' HIA. We followed 706 youths (376 boys and 330 girls, aged 10-12 years…

Glatz, Terese; Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret

2011-01-01

410

Brain Dynamics and Hypnosis: Attentional and Disattentional Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent research findings, expanding an evolving neuropsychophysiological model of hypnosis (Crawford, 1989; Crawford & Gruzelier, 1992), that support the view that highly hypnotizable persons (highs) possess stronger attentional filtering abilities than do low hypnotizable persons, and that these differences are reflected in underlying brain dynamics. Behavioral, cognitive, and neurophysiological evidence is reviewed that suggests that highs can

Helen J. Crawford

1994-01-01

411

Household Task Participation of Children with and without Attentional Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often demonstrate problems in their participation in family occupations, such as household tasks, due to their needs for assistance and their behavior. Because participation in household tasks is part of family life and may be one way that families prepare children for adult roles, it…

Dunn, Louise; Coster, Wendy J.; Orsmond, Gael I.; Cohn, Ellen S.

2009-01-01

412

Attention and conduct problems in children exposed to family violence.  

PubMed

This study examines the impact of family violence on the development of attention and conduct problems in girls and boys. Mothers (n = 287) were interviewed and given diagnostic assessment instruments to measure attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder in 1 of their children. Six years later, youths were interviewed about their delinquent behavior. Family violence related to attention and conduct problems in girls only. Girls who displayed these problems in childhood were not necessarily at risk for later delinquency. Family violence in childhood had a direct effect on delinquency in girls. Boys who developed attention problems were more likely to show conduct problems that eventually led to adolescent delinquency. Family violence failed to account for problems or delinquency in boys. PMID:14964597

Becker, Kimberly Barletto; McCloskey, Laura Ann

2002-01-01

413

Factors influencing young chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) recognition of attention.  

PubMed

By 2 1/2 years of age, human infants appear to understand how others are connected to the external world through the mental state of attention and also appear to understand the specific role that the eyes play in deploying this attention. Previous research with chimpanzees suggests that, although they track the gaze of others, they may simultaneously be unaware of the underlying state of attention behind gaze. In a series of 3 experiments, the investigators systematically explored how the presence of eyes, direct eye contact, and head orientation and movement affected young chimpanzees' choice of 2 experimenters from whom to request food. The results indicate that young chimpanzees may be selectively attached to other organisms making direct eye contact with them or engaged in postures or movements that indicate attention, even though they may not appreciate the underlying mentalistic significance of these behaviors. PMID:8956505

Povinelli, D J; Eddy, T J

1996-12-01

414

ENDURING INFLUENCE OF EARLY TEMPERAMENT ON NEURAL MECHANISMS MEDIATING ATTENTION-EMOTION CONFLICT IN ADULTS  

PubMed Central

Background Behavioral inhibition, a temperament identified in early childhood, is often associated with dysregulated attention and affective processing, particularly in response to threat. Longitudinal studies find that the manifestation of perturbed attention and affective processing often dissipates with age. Yet, childhood behavioral inhibition continues to predict perturbed brain function into adulthood. This suggests that adults with childhood behavioral inhibition may engage compensatory processes to effectively regulate emotion-related attention. However, it is unknown whether perturbations in brain function reflect compensation for attention bias to emotional stimuli generally, or to threatening contexts more specifically. The present study tests these possibilities. Methods Adults with and without a history of stable childhood behavioral inhibition completed an attention-control task in the context of threatening and nonthreatening stimuli while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were asked to identify the gender of fearful (threatening) and happy (nonthreatening) faces, while ignoring both the face emotion and overlaid congruent (low attention control, LAC) or incongruent (high attention control, HAC) gender words. Results When fearful faces were present, adults with stable childhood behavioral inhibition exhibited more activity in striatum, cingulate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for HAC trials compared with LAC trials, relative to those without behavioral inhibition. When happy faces were present, the opposite activation pattern emerged. No group differences in behavior were observed. Conclusions Among adults, stable childhood behavioral inhibition predicts neural, but not behavioral, responding when attention control is engaged in discrete emotional contexts. This suggests a mechanism by which adults may compensate for the behavioral manifestation of threat-based attention biases. PMID:23861165

Jarcho, Johanna M.; Fox, Nathan A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Shechner, Tomer; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Ernst, Monique

2014-01-01

415

Warm Fingers, Cool Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five hyperactive primary and intermediate students were taught biofeedback techniques designed to elevate finger temperature. Ss learned to raise their temperature and were observed to decrease hyperactive type behaviors while increasing attention to academic tasks. (CL)

Hershey, Myrliss

1983-01-01

416

ATTENTION AS AN ORGAN SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years it has been possible to examine selective attention as an organ system with its own functional anatomy, circuitry and cellular structure. Although information remains incomplete on each of these levels, this view has already altered our knowledge concerning many perplexing problems in cognitive science and allowed important insights into neurological and psychiatric disorders of children and of

Michael I. Posner; Jin Fan

2001-01-01

417

The Mechanisms of Involuntary Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested 3 mechanisms of involuntary attention: (1) a perceptual enhancement mechanism, (2) a response-decision mechanism, and (3) a serial-search mechanism. Experiment 1 used a response deadline technique to compare the perceptual enhancement and the decision mechanisms and found evidence consistent with the decision mechanism. Experiment 2 used…

Prinzmetal, William; Ha, Ruby; Khani, Aniss

2010-01-01

418

Thinking of God Moves Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts of God and Devil are well known across many cultures and religions, and often involve spatial metaphors, but it is not well known if our mental representations of these concepts affect visual cognition. To examine if exposure to divine concepts produces shifts of attention, participants completed a target detection task in which they…

Chasteen, Alison L.; Burdzy, Donna C.; Pratt, Jay

2010-01-01

419

Attention maps in the brain  

PubMed Central

Over 20 distinct cerebral cortical areas contain spatial map representations of the visual field. These retinotopic, or visuotopic, cortical areas occur not only in the occipital lobe but also in the parietal, temporal, and frontal lobes. The cognitive influences of visuospatial attention operate via these cortical maps and can support selection of multiple objects at the same time. In early visual cortical areas, spatial attention enhances responses of selected items and diminishes the responses to distracting items. In higher order cortex, the maps support a spatial indexing role, keeping track of the items to be attended. These maps also support visual short-term memory (VSTM) representations. In each hemisphere, all the known maps respond selectively to stimuli presented within the contralateral visual field. However, a hemispheric asymmetry emerges when the attentional or VSTM demands of a task become significant. In the parietal lobe, the right hemisphere visuotopic maps switch from coding only contralateral visual targets to coding memory and attention targets across the entire visual field. This emergent asymmetry has important implications for understanding hemispatial neglect syndrome, and supports a dynamic network form of the representational model of neglect. PMID:25089167

Somers, David C.; Sheremata, Summer L.

2014-01-01

420

Bayesian Surprise Attracts Human Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of surprise is central to sensory processing, adaptation, learning, and attention. Yet, no widely-accepted mathematical theory currently exists to quantitatively characterize surprise elicited by a stim- ulus or event, for observers that range from single neurons to complex natural or engineered systems. We describe a formal Bayesian defini- tion of surprise that is the only consistent formulation under

Laurent Itti; Pierre Baldi

2005-01-01

421

Attention: The Mechanisms of Consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent papers and books discuss theoretical efforts toward a scientific understanding of consciousness. Progress in imaging networks of brain areas active when people perform simple tasks may provide a useful empirical background for distinguishing conscious and unconscious informations processing. Attention networks include those involved in orienting to sensory stimuli, activating ideas from memory, and maintaining the alert

Michael I. Posner

1994-01-01

422

Attention, memory, and cigarette smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments tested the effects of smoking one cigarette on verbal memory and attention. In Experiment I, 18 men were tested under three conditions in a repeated-measures design (pretrial smoking, posttrial smoking, no smoking). Recall of a 50-word list was tested immediately and after intervals of 10 and 45 min. Pretrial smoking resulted in improved recall 10 and 45 min

Shirley C. Peeke; Harman V. S. Peeke

1984-01-01

423

Functional fractionation of the stimulus-driven attention network.  

PubMed

A novel, salient event in the environment powerfully captures attention. This stimulus-driven attentional capture not only includes orienting of attention toward the event, but also an evaluative process to determine the behavioral significance and appropriate response to the event. Whereas a network of human brain regions composed of prefrontal and temporoparietal regions have been associated with stimulus-driven attention, the neural substrates of orienting have never been teased apart from those of evaluative processes. Here we used fMRI to measure the human brain's response to the temporally extended presentations of salient, task-irrelevant stimuli, and found a clear functional dissociation in the stimulus-driven attention network; the anterior insula and cingulate cortex showed transient orienting responses to the onsets and offsets of the stimuli, whereas the temporoparietal cortex exhibited sustained activity throughout event evaluation. The lateral prefrontal cortex was implicated in both attentional and evaluative processes, pointing to its central, integrative role in stimulus-driven attention. PMID:24828649

Han, Suk Won; Marois, René

2014-05-14

424

Exogenous (automatic) attention to emotional stimuli: a review.  

PubMed

Current knowledge on the architecture of exogenous attention (also called automatic, bottom-up, or stimulus-driven attention, among other terms) has been mainly obtained from studies employing neutral, anodyne stimuli. Since, from an evolutionary perspective, exogenous attention can be understood as an adaptive tool for rapidly detecting salient events, reorienting processing resources to them, and enhancing processing mechanisms, emotional events (which are, by definition, salient for the individual) would seem crucial to a comprehensive understanding of this process. This review, focusing on the visual modality, describes 55 experiments in which both emotional and neutral irrelevant distractors are presented at the same time as ongoing task targets. Qualitative and, when possible, meta-analytic descriptions of results are provided. The most conspicuous result is that, as confirmed by behavioral and/or neural indices, emotional distractors capture exogenous attention to a significantly greater extent than do neutral distractors. The modulatory effects of the nature of distractors capturing attention, of the ongoing task characteristics, and of individual differences, previously proposed as mediating factors, are also described. Additionally, studies reviewed here provide temporal and spatial information-partially absent in traditional cognitive models-on the neural basis of preattention/evaluation, reorienting, and sensory amplification, the main subprocesses involved in exogenous attention. A model integrating these different levels of information is proposed. The present review, which reveals that there are several key issues for which experimental data are surprisingly scarce, confirms the relevance of including emotional distractors in studies on exogenous attention. PMID:24683062

Carretié, Luis

2014-12-01

425

Cannabis dependence, cognitive control and attentional bias for cannabis words.  

PubMed

One of the characteristics of people suffering from addictive behaviors is the tendency to be distracted by drug cues. This attentional bias for drug cues is thought to lead to increased craving and drug use, and may draw individuals into a vicious cycle of drug addiction. In the current study we developed a Dutch version of the cannabis Stroop task and measured attentional bias for cannabis words in a group of heavy cannabis users and matched controls. The classical Stroop task was used as a global measure of cognitive control and we examined the relationship between cognitive control, cannabis-related problems, cannabis craving and cannabis attentional bias. Using our version of the cannabis Stroop task, a group of heavy cannabis users showed attentional bias to cannabis words, whereas a control group of non-users did not. Furthermore, within the group of cannabis users, those who were clinically recognized as dependent showed a stronger attentional bias than the heavy, non-dependent users. Cannabis users who displayed reduced cognitive control (as measured with the classical Stroop task) showed increased session-induced craving. Contrary to expectations, however, cognitive control did not appear to modulate the relationship between attentional bias to cannabis words (cannabis Stroop task) and cannabis dependence. This study confirmed the relationship between cannabis dependence and attentional bias and extends this by highlighting a moderating role for cognitive control, which may make some more vulnerable to craving. PMID:24018225

Cousijn, J; Watson, P; Koenders, L; Vingerhoets, W A M; Goudriaan, A E; Wiers, R W

2013-12-01

426

Developmental Trajectories of Regulating Attentional Selection Over Time  

PubMed Central

Adaptive behavior in learning environments requires both the maintenance of an attentional focus on a task-set and suppression of distracting stimuli. This may be especially difficult when the competing information is more appealing than the target event. The aptitude to “pay attention” and resist distraction has often been noted as an important prerequisite of successful acquisition of intellectual abilities in children. This focused review draws on research that highlights interindividual differences in the temporal dynamics of attentional engagement and disengagement under competition, and their relation with age and cognitive/academic skills. Although basic strategies of attention control are present in very young children, the more refined ability to manage attentional resources over time in an economic and adaptive fashion appears during early school years, dramatically improves until the early teen years, and continues to develop into late adolescence. Across studies, parameters of attention control over time predict specific aspects of academic performance, rather than general intellectual ability. We conclude that the ability to strategically regulate the dynamic allocation of attention at rapid rates may represent an important element of cognitive and academic development. PMID:22905028

Heim, Sabine; Keil, Andreas

2012-01-01

427

Functional Fractionation of the Stimulus-Driven Attention Network  

PubMed Central

A novel, salient event in the environment powerfully captures attention. This stimulus-driven attentional capture not only includes orienting of attention toward the event, but also an evaluative process to determine the behavioral significance and appropriate response to the event. Whereas a network of human brain regions composed of prefrontal and temporoparietal regions have been associated with stimulus-driven attention, the neural substrates of orienting have never been teased apart from those of evaluative processes. Here we used fMRI to measure the human brain's response to the temporally extended presentations of salient, task-irrelevant stimuli, and found a clear functional dissociation in the stimulus-driven attention network; the anterior insula and cingulate cortex showed transient orienting responses to the onsets and offsets of the stimuli, whereas the temporoparietal cortex exhibited sustained activity throughout event evaluation. The lateral prefrontal cortex was implicated in both attentional and evaluative processes, pointing to its central, integrative role in stimulus-driven attention. PMID:24828649

2014-01-01

428

Relating Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Polymorphisms to Spatial Attention in Infancy  

PubMed Central

Early selective attention skills are a crucial building block for cognitive development, as attention orienting serves as a primary means by which infants interact with and learn from the environment. Although several studies have examined infants’ attention orienting using the spatial cueing task, relatively few studies have examined neurodevelopmental factors associated with attention orienting during infancy. The present study examined the relationship between normative genetic polymorphisms affecting dopamine and acetylcholine signaling and attention orienting in 7-month-old infants during a spatial cueing task. We focused on 3 genes, including the CHRNA4 C1545T SNP (rs10344946), DAT1 3? UTR VNTR, and COMT Val158Met SNP (rs4680), as previous adult research has linked spatial attention skills to these polymorphisms. Behavioral measures included both facilitation of orienting at the cued location as well as inhibition of return (IOR), in which attention orienting is suppressed at the cued location. Results indicated that COMT Val carriers showed robust IOR relative to infants with the Met/Met genotype. However, COMT was unrelated to infants’ facilitation responses, and there were no effects of CHRNA4 or DAT1 on either facilitation or IOR. Overall, this study suggests that variations in dopamine signaling, likely in prefrontal cortex, contribute to individual differences in orienting during early development. PMID:23731290

Markant, Julie; Cicchetti, Dante; Hetzel, Susan; Thomas, Kathleen M.

2014-01-01

429

Demand and Modality of Directed Attention Modulate "Pre-attentive" Sensory Processes in Schizophrenia Patients and Nonpsychiatric Controls  

PubMed Central

Background Mismatch negativity (MNN) and P3a are event related potential (ERP) measures of early sensory information processing. These components are usually conceptualized as being “pre-attentive” and therefore immune to changes with variations in attentional functioning. This study aimed to determine whether manipulations of attention influence the amplitudes and latencies of MMN and P3a and, if so, the extent to which these early sensory processes govern concurrent behavioral vigilance performance in schizophrenia patients and normal subjects. Methods Schizophrenia patients (SZ; n=20) and Nonpsychiatric Control Subjects (NCS; n=20) underwent auditory ERP testing to assess MMN and P3a across 4 EEG recording sessions in which attentional demand (low vs. high) and sensory modality of directed attention (visual vs. auditory) were experimentally varied. Results Across conditions, SZ patients exhibited deficits in MMN and P3a amplitudes. Significant amplitude and latency modulation were observed in both SZ and NCS but there were no group-by- condition interactions. The amount of MMN amplitude attenuation from low- to-high-demand tasks was significantly associated with increased vigilance performance in both SZ and NCS groups (r=-0.67 and r=-0.60). Conclusions Attentional demand and modality of directed attention significantly influence the amplitude and latencies of “pre-attentive” ERP components in both SZ and NCS. Deficits in MMN and P3a were not “normalized” when attention was directed to the auditory stimuli in schizophrenia patients. The adaptive modulation of early sensory information processing appears to govern concurrent attentional task performance. MMN and P3a may serve as a gateway to some higher order cognitive operations necessary for psychosocial functioning. PMID:23490760

Rissling, Anthony J.; Park, Sung-Hyouk; Young, Jared W.; Rissling, Michelle B.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Sprock, Joyce; Mathias, Daniel J.; Pela, Marlena; Sharp, Richard F.; Braff, David L.; Light, Gregory A.

2013-01-01

430

Selective Attention Deficits in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has undergone a major transition from the time it was discovered\\u000a to the present date. As previously discussed, ADHD is a disorder that is accompanied by many neuropsychological, academic,\\u000a and cognitive deficits. With the introduction of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition\\u000a (DSM-III) and subsequent research (1) the

Lisa M. Jonkman

431

Auditory selective attention and processing in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder  

E-print Network

Auditory selective attention and processing in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Attention-deficit/hyperactivity to better characterize the contributions of deficits in attention allocation and distracter inhibition

Foxe, John J.

432

Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder  

PubMed Central

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/ADD) is a neurobehavioral disorder of childhood onset characterized by severe, developmentally inappropriate motor hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsiveness that result in impairment in more than one setting. It affects the home, school, and community life of 39% of school-going children worldwide. There is increasing recognition that ADHD symptoms and clinically defined disorder can persist into adult life and are associated with later drug and alcohol misuse and social and work difficulties. Added to that is the extreme variability of the disorder over time, within the same individual, between individuals, and across different circumstances. Treatment with stimulants and nonstimulants has proven effective in different subgroups, with the effectiveness of specific agents most likely related to the primary neurotransmitter involved. However, stimulants with a short duration of action have been problematic for some patients. Parent training and cognitive behavioral therapies represent the most widely adjunct psychosocial interventions to pharmacotherapy. PMID:21977081

Verma, Rohit; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mathur, Shachi

2011-01-01

433

Natural selective attention: Orienting and emotion  

PubMed Central

The foundations of orienting and attention are hypothesized to stem from activation of defensive and appetitive motivational systems that evolved to protect and sustain the life of the individual. Motivational activation initiates a cascade of perceptual and motor processes that facilitate the selection of appropriate behavior. Among these are detection of significance, indexed by a late centro-parietal positivity in the event-related potential, enhanced perceptual processing, indexed by a initial cardiac deceleration, and preparation for action, indexed by electrodermal changes. Data exploring the role of stimulus novelty and significance in orienting are presented that indicate different components of the orienting response habituate at different rates. Taken together, it is suggested that orienting is mediated by activation of fundamental motivational systems that have evolved to support survival. PMID:18778317

BRADLEY, MARGARET M.

2013-01-01

434

What Does Talking in Class Mean to You?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is the sound of pupils talking in class an indication of disengagement and a cue for teacher intervention or an indication of active learning? According to Jennifer Richmond, second in science at Falinge Park High School in Rochdale and a lead teacher with Rochdale Local Authority, "pupils talking in groups can develop language skills; it's…

Walsh, Edmund

2009-01-01

435

In-Class vs. Online Experiments: Is There a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom experiments in economics continue to increase in popularity. While early experiments were often hand-run in class, now computerized online experiments are also widely available. Using a quasiexperimental approach, the authors investigated whether any difference in student achievement (as measured by course scores and the "Test of…

Carter, Linda K.; Emerson, Tisha L. N.

2012-01-01

436

Increasing Low-Responding Students' Participation in Class Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in six sections of a large undergraduate class were asked to record their class comments on notecards in all course units. Additionally, in some units, they received points toward their course grade based on their reported comments in class discussion. The study was conducted over a two-semester period, with slight variation in both the…

Foster, Lisa N.; Krohn, Katherine R.; McCleary, Daniel F.; Aspiranti, Kathleen B.; Nalls, Meagan L.; Quillivan, Colin C.; Taylor, Cora M.; Williams, Robert L.

2009-01-01

437

In-class Simulations of the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed a simple computer program for the in-class simulation of the repeated prisoner's dilemma game with student-designed strategies. Describes the basic features of the software. Presents two examples using the program to teach the problems of cooperation among profit-maximizing agents. (JEH)

Bodo, Peter

2002-01-01

438

Assigned Positions for In-Class Debates Influence Student Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In-class debates are frequently used to encourage student engagement. Ideally, after researching both sides of the debate, students will form their own opinions based on what they have learned. However, in a large course of Environmental Science, opinions of students, when surveyed after the debate, were remarkably consistent with the position…

Lilly, Emily

2012-01-01

439

In-class Review: Simple vs. Pure Shear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quick review worksheet that has students draw a sequence of illustrations of what would occur to a syntectonic quart vein, a pebble conglomerate, a rigid object, and a garnet porphyroblast for pure vs. simple shear. I've used this both as a quiz & as an in-class review.

Goeke, Elizabeth

440

Searching for Homogamy: An In-Class Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the popular television programs of "Bachelor," "Bachelorette," "Blind Date," "Elimidate," and "Next" an in-class exercise was developed and executed in five sections of a marriage and family course at a large southeastern university whereby students identified a homogamous (homogamy = similarity) partner and went out on a "real" date.…

Knox, David; McGinty, Kristen

2009-01-01

441

Visual attention: The past 25 years  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discriminability and appearance in tasks mediated by contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution; the effects of feature-based attention on basic visual processes, and a comparison of the effects of spatial and feature-based attention. The emphasis of this review is on psychophysical studies, but relevant electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies and models regarding how and where neuronal responses are modulated are also discussed. PMID:21549742

Carrasco, Marisa

2012-01-01

442

Octave effect in auditory attention  

PubMed Central

After hearing a tone, the human auditory system becomes more sensitive to similar tones than to other tones. Current auditory models explain this phenomenon by a simple bandpass attention filter. Here, we demonstrate that auditory attention involves multiple pass-bands around octave-related frequencies above and below the cued tone. Intriguingly, this “octave effect” not only occurs for physically presented tones, but even persists for the missing fundamental in complex tones, and for imagined tones. Our results suggest neural interactions combining octave-related frequencies, likely located in nonprimary cortical regions. We speculate that this connectivity scheme evolved from exposure to natural vibrations containing octave-related spectral peaks, e.g., as produced by vocal cords. PMID:24003112

Borra, Tobias; Versnel, Huib; Kemner, Chantal; van Opstal, A. John; van Ee, Raymond

2013-01-01

443

Grouping does not require attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many theories of visual perception stipulate that Gestalt grouping occurs preattentively. Subjects’ failure to report perceiving\\u000a even salient grouping patterns under conditions of inattention challenges this assumption (see, e.g., Mack, Tang, Tuma, Kahn,\\u000a & Rock, 1992), but Moore and Egeth (1997) showed that although subjects are indeed unable to identify grouping patterns outside\\u000a the focus of attention, effects of these

Dominique Lamy; Hannah Segal; Lital Ruderman

2006-01-01

444

A Real Attention-Getter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While most parents would agree that playing videos games is the antithesis of time well spent for their children, recent advances involving NASA biofeedback technology are proving otherwise. The same techniques used to measure brain activity in NASA pilots during flight simulation exercises are now a part of a revolutionary video game system that is helping to improve overall mental awareness for Americans of all ages, including those who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

2003-01-01

445

Infant and adult visual attention during an imitation demonstration  

PubMed Central

Deferred imitation tasks have shown that manipulations at encoding can enhance infant learning and memory performance within an age, suggesting that brain maturation alone cannot fully account for all developmental changes in early memory abilities. The present study investigated whether changes in the focus of attention during learning might contribute to improving memory abilities during infancy. Infants aged 6, 9, and 12 months, and an adult comparison group, watched a video of a puppet imitation demonstration while visual behavior was recorded on an eye tracker. Overall, infants spent less time attending to the video than adults, and distributed their gaze more equally across the demonstrator and puppet stimulus. In contrast, adults directed their gaze primarily to the puppet. When infants were tested for their behavioral recall of the target actions, “imitators” were shown to have increased attention to the person and decreased attention to the background compared to “non-imitators.” These results suggest that attention during learning is related to memory outcome and that changes in attention may be one mechanism by which manipulations to the learning event may enhance infant recall memory. © 2013 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24037972

Taylor, Gemma; Herbert, Jane S

2014-01-01

446

Does the efferent system aid with selective attention?  

PubMed

To study whether attention and inattention lead to differential activation of the olivocochlear (OC) efferent system, a cochlear measure of efferent activity was collected while human subjects performed behaviorally under the two conditions. Listeners heard two independent, simultaneous strings of seven digits, one spoken by a male and the other by a female, and at the end of some trials (known in advance), they were required to recognize the middle five digits spoken by the female. Interleaved with the digits were one stimulus that evokes a stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emission (SFOAE) and another that activates the OC system-a 4-kHz tone (60 dB SPL, 300 ms in duration) and a wideband noise (1.0-6.0 kHz, 25 dB spectrum level, 250 ms in duration, beginning 50 ms after tone onset). These interleaved sounds, used with a double-evoked procedure, permitted the collection of a nonlinear measure called the nSFOAE. When selective attention was required behaviorally, the magnitude of the nSFOAE to tone-plus-noise differed by 1.3-4.0 dB compared to inattention. Our interpretation is that the OC efferent system was more active during attention than during relative inattention. Whether or how this efferent activity actually aided behavioral performance under attention is not known. PMID:25235937

McFadden, Dennis; Walsh, Kyle P; Pasanen, Edward G

2014-04-01

447

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

MedlinePLUS

... the behaviors excessive, and do they affect all aspects of the child's life? Do they happen more ... to see if he or she has a learning disability. Finally, after gathering all this information, if ...

448

Getting Help for Attention Problems Quick Review  

E-print Network

DISORDER ­ ADD OR ADHD? Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD is characterized by a numberGetting Help for Attention Problems Quick Review Page 1 of 4 DO I HAVE ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY & MEDICATION AT CAPS FOR ATTENTION DEFICIT PROBLEMS 1. Schedule a telephone screening appointment, call 831

California at Santa Cruz, University of

449

The interruptive effect of pain on attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain is known to disrupt attentional performance in both healthy adults and patients with chronic pain. Exactly which aspects of attentional function are affected are, however, still to be determined. The primary aim of this investigation was to systematically examine the effects of experimentally induced pain on a range of attentional performance tasks. Following a review of tests of attentional

David J. Moore; Edmund Keogh; Christopher Eccleston

2012-01-01

450

The interruptive effect of pain on attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain is known to disrupt attentional performance in both healthy adults and patients with chronic pain. Exactly which aspects of attentional function are affected are, however, still to be determined. The primary aim of this investigation was to systematically examine the effects of experimentally induced pain on a range of attentional performance tasks. Following a review of tests of attentional

David J. Moore; Edmund Keogh; Christopher Eccleston

2011-01-01

451

Now, Pay Attention! The Effects of Instruction on Children's Attention  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of instructions to “stay on task” on preschoolers' attention and cognitive performance in the face of either incomprehensible or comprehensible distraction. Three- and 4-year-olds completed problem-solving tasks while a distracting event played continuously in the background, under conditions of (a) no instruction, (b) moderate instruction, or (c) frequent instruction to “stay on task.” Under conditions where an incomprehensible distractor was present, any amount of instruction reduced looking to the distracting event. Under conditions where a comprehensible distractor was present, however, frequent instruction was the most effective in increasing looking to the task and decreasing looking to the distracting event. PMID:21218123

Kannass, Kathleen N.; Colombo, John; Wyss, Nancy

2010-01-01

452

Quantifying Pilot Visual Attention in Low Visibility Terminal Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantifying pilot visual behavior allows researchers to determine not only where a pilot is looking and when, but holds implications for specific behavioral tracking when these data are coupled with flight technical performance. Remote eye tracking systems have been integrated into simulators at NASA Langley with effectively no impact on the pilot environment. This paper discusses the installation and use of a remote eye tracking system. The data collection techniques from a complex human-in-the-loop (HITL) research experiment are discussed; especially, the data reduction algorithms and logic to transform raw eye tracking data into quantified visual behavior metrics, and analysis methods to interpret visual behavior. The findings suggest superior performance for Head-Up Display (HUD) and improved attentional behavior for Head-Down Display (HDD) implementations of Synthetic Vision System (SVS) technologies for low visibility terminal area operations. Keywords: eye tracking, flight deck, NextGen, human machine interface, aviation

Ellis, Kyle K.; Arthur, J. J.; Latorella, Kara A.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Norman, Robert M.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.

2012-01-01

453

Attentional Modulation of Auditory Steady-State Responses  

PubMed Central

Auditory selective attention enables task-relevant auditory events to be enhanced and irrelevant ones suppressed. In the present study we used a frequency tagging paradigm to investigate the effects of attention on auditory steady state responses (ASSR). The ASSR was elicited by simultaneously presenting two different streams of white noise, amplitude modulated at either 16 and 23.5 Hz or 32.5 and 40 Hz. The two different frequencies were presented to each ear and participants were instructed to selectively attend to one ear or the other (confirmed by behavioral evidence). The results revealed that modulation of ASSR by selective attention depended on the modulation frequencies used and whether the activation was contralateral or ipsilateral. Attention enhanced the ASSR for contralateral activation from either ear for 16 Hz and suppressed the ASSR for ipsilateral activation for 16 Hz and 23.5 Hz. For modulation frequencies of 32.5 or 40 Hz attention did not affect the ASSR. We propose that the pattern of enhancement and inhibition may be due to binaural suppressive effects on ipsilateral stimulation and the dominance of contralateral hemisphere during dichotic listening. In addition to the influence of cortical processing asymmetries, these results may also reflect a bias towards inhibitory ipsilateral and excitatory contralateral activation present at the level of inferior colliculus. That the effect of attention was clearest for the lower modulation frequencies suggests that such effects are likely mediated by cortical brain structures or by those in close proximity to cortex. PMID:25334021

Mahajan, Yatin; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

2014-01-01

454

Color impact in visual attention deployment considering emotional images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color is a predominant factor in the human visual attention system. Even if it cannot be sufficient to the global or complete understanding of a scene, it may impact the visual attention deployment. We propose to study the color impact as well as the emotion aspect of pictures regarding the visual attention deployment. An eye-tracking campaign has been conducted involving twenty people watching half pictures of database in full color and the other half of database in grey color. The eye fixations of color and black and white images were highly correlated leading to the question of the integration of such cues in the design of visual attention model. Indeed, the prediction of two state-of-the-art computational models shows similar results for the two color categories. Similarly, the study of saccade amplitude and fixation duration versus time viewing did not bring any significant differences between the two mentioned categories. In addition, spatial coordinates of eye fixations reveal an interesting indicator for investigating the differences of visual attention deployment over time and fixation number. The second factor related to emotion categories shows evidences of emotional inter-categories differences between color and grey eye fixations for passive and positive emotion. The particular aspect associated to this category induces a specific behavior, rather based on high frequencies, where the color components influence the visual attention deployment.

Chamaret, C.

2012-03-01

455

Challenges to attention: A continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) study of the effects of distraction on sustained attention  

PubMed Central

Maintaining attention and performance over time is an essential part of many activities, and effortful cognitive control is required to avoid vigilance decrements and interference from distraction. Regions at or near right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann’s area (BA) 9), as well as in other prefrontal and parietal areas, are often activated in studies of sustained attention (e.g., Cabeza & Nyberg, 2000; Kim et al., 2006; Lim et al., 2010). This activation has often been interpreted as representing the engagement of cognitive control processes. However, such studies are typically implemented at one level of task difficulty, without an experimental manipulation of control demands. The present study used the distractor condition sustained attention task (dSAT), which has been used extensively in animals to determine the role of neuromodulator systems in attentional performance, to test the hypotheses that BA 9 is sensitive to changes in the demand for cognitive control and that this sensitivity reflects an increased engagement of attentional effort. Continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) was used to measure neural activity in sixteen healthy, young adults performing a sustained attention task under standard conditions and under a distraction condition that provided an experimental manipulation of demands on cognitive control. The distractor impaired behavioral performance and increased activation in right middle frontal gyrus. Larger increases in right middle frontal gyrus activity were associated with greater behavioral vulnerability to the distractor. These findings indicate that while right middle frontal gyrus regions are sensitive to demands for attentional effort and control, they may not be sufficient to maintain performance under challenge. In addition, they demonstrate the sensitivity of ASL methods to variations in task demands, and suggest that the dSAT may be a useful tool for translational cross-species and clinical research. PMID:20851189

Demeter, Elise; Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Sarter, Martin; Lustig, Cindy

2010-01-01

456

Concealing Behavior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A previous activity suggested the importance of behavior to an animal with coincident coloration. If the stripe-legged frog fails to fold its legs, the disruptive markings on them lose much of their effectiveness. If, when at rest, a moth with coincident wing markings on them lose much of their effectiveness. If, when at rest, a moth with coincident wing markings leaves its wings spread too widely after alighting, the coincident pattern that normally cuts across them is broken into pieces. This activity considers further aspects of behavior that may influence the effectiveness of their concealing coloration. In the second activity, further attention is paid to the influence of behavior on concealment as students put to test much of their recently acquired knowledge by playing the Lizard Game.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert

2008-04-01

457

Active Listening Impairs Visual Perception and Selectivity: An ERP Study of Auditory Dual-task Costs on Visual Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to drive safely is disrupted by cell phone conversations, and this has been attributed to a diversion of attention from the visual environment. We employed behavioral and ERP measures to study whether the attentive processing of spoken messages is, in itself, sufficient to produce visual– attentional deficits. Participants searched for visual targets defined by a unique feature (Experiment

Elena Gherri; Martin Eimer

2010-01-01

458

Active Listening Impairs Visual Perception and Selectivity: An ERP Study of Auditory Dual-task Costs on Visual Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to drive safely is disrupted by cell phone conversations, and this has been attributed to a diversion of attention from the visual environment. We employed behavioral and ERP measures to study whether the attentive processing of spoken messages is, in itself, sufficient to produce visual–attentional deficits. Participants searched for visual targets defined by a unique feature (Experiment 1)

Elena Gherri; Martin Eimer

2011-01-01

459

Attentional Bias to Food Images Associated With Elevated Weight and Future Weight Gain: An fMRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral studies reveal that obese vs. lean individuals show attentional bias to food stimuli. Yet research has not investigated this relation using objective brain imaging or tested whether attentional bias to food stimuli predicts future weight gain, which are important aims given the prominence of food cues in the environment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine attentional

Sonja Yokum; Janet Ng; Eric Stice

2011-01-01

460

FULL TITLE: Speed of inhibition predicts teacher-rated medication response in boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

E-print Network

-mail: ascheres@u.arizona.edu Key words: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; ADHD; response inhibition;Introduction Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder characterizedFULL TITLE: Speed of inhibition predicts teacher-rated medication response in boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity

Scheres, Anouk

461

In-class Exercise: Sources of Variation in Populations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To prepare for this in-class exercise, students read relevant background material in their textbook and then hear a lecture about sources of variation in populations. Students then form small groups (5 individuals per group) and spend time examining specimens sampled from natural populations of three species. They make sketches and discuss the different types of morphological variation seen, then assign different components of the observed varation to the following sources: Genetic, ontogentic, sexual and ecophenotypic.

Farmer, Jack

462

Cheap, dirty (and effective) in-class experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a series of five in-class experiments run in a third-year industrial organisation course. A description is given of how these experiments can be run informally in a classroom without computers, while still maintaining a reasonable level of control. Each experiment involves an anonymous five-round 'round-robin' tournament. Thus, students play a total of 5 × 5 = 25

Richard Martin

463

Bayesian surprise attracts human attention  

PubMed Central

We propose a formal Bayesian definition of surprise to capture subjective aspects of sensory information. Surprise measures how data affects an observer, in terms of differences between posterior and prior beliefs about the world. Only data observations which substantially affect the observer’s beliefs yield surprise, irrespectively of how rare or informative in Shannon’s sense these observations are. We test the framework by quantifying the extent to which humans may orient attention and gaze towards surprising events or items while watching television. To this end, we implement a simple computational model where a low-level, sensory form of surprise is computed by simple simulated early visual neurons. Bayesian surprise is a strong attractor of human attention, with 72% of all gaze shifts directed towards locations more surprising than the average, a figure rising to 84% when focusing the analysis onto regions simultaneously selected by all observers. The proposed theory of surprise is applicable across different spatio-temporal scales, modalities, and levels of abstraction. PMID:18834898

Itti, Laurent; Baldi, Pierre

2009-01-01

464

Infrequent, but Not Frequent, Reinforcers Produce More Variable Responding and Deficient Sustained Attention in Young Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The underlying behavioral/psychological processes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are unclear. Motivational factors, related to dopamine dysfunction, may play an important role in the development of the behavioral symptoms. Particularly,