Sample records for in-class attentive behavior

  1. Independent Contributions of the Central Executive, Intelligence, and In-Class Attentive Behavior to Developmental Change in the Strategies Used to Solve Addition Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Children's (N = 275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7 = 4+3 and thus 6+7 = 6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first grade to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-class attentive behavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between…

  2. Independent Contributions of the Central Executive, Intelligence, and In-Class Attentive Behavior to Developmental Change in the Strategies Used to Solve Addition Problems

    PubMed Central

    Geary, David C.; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Children’s (n = 275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7 = 4+3, and thus 6+7=6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-class attentive behavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between capacity of the central executive component of working memory, controlling for intelligence and in-class attentive behavior, and grade-related changes in children’s use of these strategies. The predictor on intercept effects from multilevel models revealed that children with higher central executive capacity correctly retrieved more facts and used the most sophisticated counting procedure more frequently and accurately than did their lower capacity peers at the beginning of first grade, but the predictor on slope effects indicated that this advantage disappeared (retrieval) or declined in importance (counting) from first to fourth grade. The predictor on slope effects also revealed that from first through fourth grade, children with higher capacity adopted the decomposition strategy more quickly than did other children. The results remained robust with controls for children’s sex, race, school site, speed of encoding Arabic numerals and articulating number words, and mathematics achievement in kindergarten. The results also revealed that intelligence and in-class attentive behavior independently contributed to children’s strategy development. PMID:22698947

  3. How Long Can Students Pay Attention in Class? A Study of Student Attention Decline Using Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunce, Diane M.; Flens, Elizabeth A.; Neiles, Kelly Y.

    2010-01-01

    Students enrolled in three levels of general chemistry self-reported their attention decline during both lecture and other teaching approaches via personal response devices (clickers). Students report attention declines of 1 min or less more often than longer attention lapses. The data suggest that student engagement alternates between attention

  4. Behavioral and psychophysiological markers of disordered attention.

    PubMed Central

    Mirsky, A F

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and psychophysiological assays provide the most sensitive indication of whether a presumed neurotoxin has a deleterious effect on the nervous system. The effects of lead on the nervous system are strongly suggestive that this agent can produce disturbances in attention; moreover, there are clinical reports of such effects. The action of lead is also manifest in behaviors described as "hyperactive," or reflecting "minimal brain damage." The core symptom in both disorders is probably impairment in attention. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III) of the American Psychiatric Association uses the term Attention Deficit Disorder to replace such terms as hyperactivity and minimal brain damage. Prior studies of the behavioral toxicity of lead may have used inadequate or incomplete assays of attention; this could in part account for the variability in outcomes. Recent research on attention suggests that it is a complex behavior consisting of a number of elements or components, each of which may be in part dependent upon a different region of the central nervous system. Behavioral assays should examine the components of attentive behavior using tests which are sensitive to the different elements. It is recommended that psychophysiological assays (using cognitive event-related potentials), although more difficult and costly to implement, be used as well. These assays may provide a more dynamic view of altered information processing in the brain and help to localize and characterize the behavioral impairment. PMID:3319553

  5. Developing Attention: Behavioral and Brain Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.; Voelker, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Brain networks underlying attention are present even during infancy and are critical for the developing ability of children to control their emotions and thoughts. For adults, individual differences in the efficiency of attentional networks have been related to neuromodulators and to genetic variations. We have examined the development of attentional networks and child temperament in a longitudinal study from infancy (7 months) to middle childhood (7 years). Early temperamental differences among infants, including smiling and laughter and vocal reactivity, are related to self-regulation abilities at 7 years. However, genetic variations related to adult executive attention, while present in childhood, are poor predictors of later control, in part because individual genetic variationmay have many small effects and in part because their influence occurs in interaction with caregiver behavior and other environmental influences. While brain areas involved in attention are present during infancy, their connectivity changes and leads to improvement in control of behavior. It is also possible to influence control mechanisms through training later in life. The relation between maturation and learning may allow advances in our understanding of human brain development. PMID:25110757

  6. Toward a behavioral analysis of joint attention

    PubMed Central

    Dube, William V.; MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Mansfield, Reneé C.; Holcomb, William L.; Ahearn, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Joint attention (JA) initiation is defined in cognitive-developmental psychology as a child's actions that verify or produce simultaneous attending by that child and an adult to some object or event in the environment so that both may experience the object or event together. This paper presents a contingency analysis of gaze shift in JA initiation. The analysis describes reinforcer-establishing and evocative effects of antecedent objects or events, discriminative and conditioned reinforcing functions of stimuli generated by adult behavior, and socially mediated reinforcers that may maintain JA behavior. A functional analysis of JA may describe multiple operant classes. The paper concludes with a discussion of JA deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders and suggestions for research and treatment. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:22478429

  7. Effectiveness of Noncontingent Attention to Decrease Attention-Maintained Disruptive Behaviors in the General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Devender R.; Sokolosky, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of noncontingent attention (NCA) on disruptive talking-out behavior in a student diagnosed with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in the general education classroom. Functional analysis indicated that the talking-out behavior was maintained by teacher attention. We used an ABAB…

  8. The relationship between measures of cognitive attention and behavioral ratings of attention in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Shohreh M; Wilding, John; Cornish, Kim

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we explored the relation between performance on cognitive measures of attention (selection, sustained, and control) and behavioral ratings of inattention and hyperactivity in a sample of typically developing children aged 3 to 7 years. We also examined the influence of chronological age and IQ on both task performance and behavior ratings. Four well-documented attention paradigms were employed, the Visearch (single-target search) task as a measure of selective attention, the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) as a measure of sustained attention, the Day-Night task as a measure of response inhibition, and the Visearch (dual-target search) task as a measure of inhibitory control. The Conners' Rating Scales (Cognitive/Inattention and Hyperactivity subscales) were used to allow for a finer tuned comparison of cognitive performance as related to inattentive behaviors versus hyperactive behaviors. Findings indicate that accuracy and speed in the Visearch dual search task were the most sensitive measures relating respectively to inattentive and hyperactive rated behaviors. PMID:21253933

  9. Vlogcast Yourself: Nonverbal Behavior and Attention in Social Media

    E-print Network

    Vlogcast Yourself: Nonverbal Behavior and Attention in Social Media Joan-Isaac Biel jibiel to social media, but also to remote communication scenarios, and requires the integration of methods for multimodal pro- cessing and for social media understanding. Based on works from social psychology

  10. Vlogcast Yourself: Nonverbal Behavior and Attention in Social Media

    E-print Network

    Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    Vlogcast Yourself: Nonverbal Behavior and Attention in Social Media Joan-Isaac Biel jibiel is useful not only to study social media, but also re- mote communication scenarios, and requires the integration of methods for multimodal processing and for social media understanding. Based on works from

  11. Attentional bias modification for addictive behaviors: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Cox, W Miles; Fadardi, Javad S; Intriligator, James M; Klinger, Eric

    2014-06-01

    When a person has a goal of drinking alcohol or using another addictive substance, the person appears to be automatically distracted by stimuli related to the goal. Because the attentional bias might propel the person to use the substance, an intervention might help modify it. In this article, we discuss techniques that have been developed to help people overcome their attentional bias for alcohol, smoking-related stimuli, drugs, or unhealthy food. We also discuss how these techniques are being adapted for use on mobile devices. The latter would allow people with an addictive behavior to use the attentional training in privacy and as frequently as needed. The attentional training techniques discussed here appear to have several advantages. They are inexpensive, can be fun to use, and have flexibility in when, where, and how often they are used. The evidence so far also suggests that they are effective. PMID:24642267

  12. Three-Layer Model for Generation and Recognition of Attention-Drawing Behavior

    E-print Network

    Kanda, Takayuki

    Three-Layer Model for Generation and Recognition of Attention-Drawing Behavior Osamu Sugiyama1 of attention-drawing behavior. The model enables a robot to recognize people's attention-drawing behavior as well as to perform attention-drawing behavior to people. It consists of three layers: the PSM (Pointing

  13. A randomized trial of attention training for generalized social phobia: does attention training change social behavior?

    PubMed

    Bunnell, Brian E; Beidel, Deborah C; Mesa, Franklin

    2013-12-01

    The use of attention training protocols for the treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) is undergoing increased examination. Initial investigations were positive but more recent investigations have been less supportive of the treatment paradigm. One significant limitation of current investigations is overreliance on self-report. In this investigation, we expanded on initial investigations by using a multimodal assessment of patient functioning (i.e., including behavioral assessment). Patients with a primary diagnosis of SAD (n=31) were randomly assigned to eight sessions of attention training (n=15) or placebo/control (n=16). Participants were assessed at pre- and posttreatment via self- and clinician-report of social anxiety as well as anxious and behavioral response to two in vivo social interactions. Results revealed no differences between groups at posttreatment for all study outcome variables, suggesting a lack of effect for the attention training condition. The results are concordant with recent investigations finding a lack of support for the use of attention training as an efficacious treatment for patients with SAD. PMID:24094791

  14. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Getting control of impulsive behavior.

    PubMed

    Leung, A K; Robson, W L; Fagan, J E; Lim, S H

    1994-02-01

    A sizable number of school-aged children, more often boys, may have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Its cause is unknown. Some investigators implicate food additives or lead poisoning. These theories are not supported by study results, however. Physicians are dependent on reports of parents and teachers to diagnose ADHD, since the children may not show signs at an office visit. The presence of criteria listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third revised edition, and descriptions by parents and teachers of significant and pervasive impairment at home or school are diagnostic. Treatment is essential to minimize the academic failure, rejection, and loss of self-esteem that can result from the behaviors that typify ADHD. Use of stimulant medication is the most effective intervention and should be continued as long as it provides benefits without adverse effects. Concomitant behavioral therapy may be useful, and the entire family may benefit from psychotherapy. PMID:8309858

  15. Physical exercise affects attentional orienting behavior through noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrea M; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T; Bucci, David J

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a nonreinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, is not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26030434

  16. The Developmental Trajectories of Attention Focusing, Attentional and Behavioral Persistence, and Externalizing Problems during School-Age Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Fabes, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    The developmental trajectories of attention focusing (by parents' and teachers' reports) and attentional and behavioral persistence (observed during a laboratory task)--2 indexes of effortful control--and externalizing problems from ages 5 to 10 years were examined for 356 children combined from a pair of 3-wave (2 years apart) longitudinal…

  17. Attention to Novelty in Behaviorally Inhibited Adolescents Moderates Risk for Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Vanderwert, Ross E.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Marshall, Peter J.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Individual differences in specific components of attention contribute to behavioral reactivity and regulation. Children with the temperament of behavioral inhibition (BI) provide a good context for considering the manner in which certain components of attention shape behavior. Infants and children characterized as behaviorally

  18. Endogenous attention modulates attentional and motor interference from distractors: evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological results

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Arévalo, Elisa; Lupiáñez, Juan; Botta, Fabiano; Chica, Ana B.

    2015-01-01

    Selective visual attention enhances the processing of relevant stimuli and filters out irrelevant stimuli and/or distractors. However, irrelevant information is sometimes processed, as demonstrated by the Simon effect (Simon and Rudell, 1967). We examined whether fully irrelevant distractors (task and target-irrelevant) produce interference (measured as the Simon effect), and whether endogenous orienting modulated this interference. Despite being fully irrelevant, distractors were attentionally coded (as reflected by the distractor-related N2pc component), and interfered with the processing of the target response (as reflected by the target-related lateralized readiness potential component). Distractors’ attentional capture depended on endogenous attention, and their interference with target responses was modulated by both endogenous attention and distractor location repetition. These results demonstrate both endogenous attentional and motor modulations over the Simon effect produced by fully irrelevant distractors. PMID:25750629

  19. A Behavioral Analysis of Computational Models of Visual Attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick Shic; Brian Scassellati

    2007-01-01

    Robots often incorporate computational models of visual attention to streamline processing. Even though the number of visual attention systems employed on robots has increased dramatically in recent years, the evaluation of these systems has remained primarily qualitative and subjective. We introduce quantitative methods for evaluating computational models of visual attention by direct comparison with gaze trajectories acquired from humans. In

  20. Four minutes of in-class high-intensity interval activity improves selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jasmin K; Le Mare, Lucy; Gurd, Brendon J

    2015-03-01

    The amount of time allocated to physical activity in schools is declining. Time-efficient physical activity solutions that demonstrate their impact on academic achievement-related outcomes are needed to prioritize physical activity within the school curricula. "FUNtervals" are 4-min, high-intensity interval activities that use whole-body actions to complement a storyline. The purpose of this study was to (i) explore whether FUNtervals can improve selective attention, an executive function posited to be essential for learning and academic success; and (ii) examine whether this relationship is predicted by students' classroom off-task behaviour. Seven grade 3-5 classes (n = 88) were exposed to a single-group, repeated cross-over design where each student's selective attention was compared between no-activity and FUNtervals days. In week 1, students were familiarized with the d2 test of attention and FUNterval activities, and baseline off-task behaviour was observed. In both weeks 2 and 3 students completed the d2 test of attention following either a FUNterval break or a no-activity break. The order of these breaks was randomized and counterbalanced between weeks. Neither motor nor passive off-task behaviour predicted changes in selective attention following FUNtervals; however, a weak relationship was observed for verbal off-task behaviour and improvements in d2 test performance. More importantly, students made fewer errors during the d2 test following FUNtervals. In supporting the priority of physical activity inclusion within schools, FUNtervals, a time efficient and easily implemented physical activity break, can improve selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds. PMID:25675352

  1. Abstract Sensory and motor systems interact in complex ways; visual attention modifies behavior, neural encoding,

    E-print Network

    in relation to basic aspects of motor or visual-motor behavior such as shifts in movement rate or speedAbstract Sensory and motor systems interact in complex ways; visual attention modifies behavior movement with visual attention would yield unique brain representations differing from those occurring

  2. Which Behavioral and Personality Characteristics Are Associated with Difficulties in Selective Attention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avisar, Alon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the behavioral and personality profile associated with difficulties in selective attention. Method: A group of participants with ADHD were assessed for ADHD behaviors. Adults with ADHD (n = 22) and without ADHD (n = 84) were tested on the conjunctive visual-search task for selective attention and…

  3. Relations among Student Attention Behaviors, Teacher Practices, and Beginning Word Reading Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saez, Leilani; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The role of student attention for predicting kindergarten word reading was investigated among 432 students. Using "Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior Rating Scale" behavior rating scores, the authors conducted an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded three distinct factors that reflected selective attention. In this…

  4. Attention Monitoring for Music Contents Based on Analysis of Signal-Behavior Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masatoshi Ohara; Akira Utsumi; Hirotake Yamazoe; Shinji Abe; Noriaki Katayama

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to estimate user attention to displayed content signals with temporal analysis of their\\u000a exhibited behavior. Detecting user attention and controlling contents are key issues in our “networked interaction therapy\\u000a system” that effectively attracts the attention of memory-impaired people. In our proposed method, user behavior, including\\u000a body motions (beat actions), is detected with auditory\\/vision-based

  5. Serial Attention Mechanisms in Visual Search: A Direct Behavioral Demonstration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuela Bricolo; Tiziana Gianesini; Alessandra Fanini; Claus Bundesen; Leonardo Chelazzi

    2002-01-01

    In visual search, inefficient performance of human observers is typically characterized by a steady increase in reaction time with the number of array elementsthe so-called set-size effect. In general, set-size effects are taken to indicate that processing of the array elements depends on limited-capacity resources, that is, it involves attention. Contrasting theories have been proposed to account for this attentional

  6. Aversive emotional interference impacts behavior and prefronto-striatal activity during increasing attentional control

    PubMed Central

    Papazacharias, Apostolos; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Quarto, Tiziana; Mancini, Marina; Porcelli, Annamaria; Romano, Raffaella; Caforio, Grazia; Todarello, Orlando; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that emotional stimulation modulates attentional processing during goal-directed behavior and related activity of a brain network including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the caudate nucleus. However, it is not clear how emotional interference modulates behavior and brain physiology during variation in attentional control, a relevant question for everyday life situations in which both emotional stimuli and cognitive load vary. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of negative emotions on behavior and activity in IFG and caudate nucleus during increasing levels of attentional control. Twenty two healthy subjects underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task in which neutral or fearful facial expressions were displayed before stimuli eliciting increasing levels of attentional control processing. Results indicated slower reaction time (RT) and greater right IFG activity when fearful compared with neutral facial expressions preceded the low level of attentional control. On the other hand, fearful facial expressions preceding the intermediate level of attentional control elicited faster behavioral responses and greater activity in the right and left sides of the caudate. Finally, correlation analysis indicated a relationship between behavioral correlates of attentional control after emotional interference and right IFG activity. All together, these results suggest that the impact of negative emotions on attentional processing is differentially elicited at the behavioral and physiological levels as a function of cognitive load. PMID:25954172

  7. Intelligence and Behavior among Individuals Identified with Attention Deficit Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Ronna F.; Osborne, Susan S.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we describe the nature of attention deficit disorders (ADDs) within an individual differences model of abilities. In so doing, a model-based explanation for the sources of learning and performance difficulties among individuals identified with ADDs is provided. Earlier models of ADDs are discussed, and the proposed loci of ADDs…

  8. Testing the Behavioral Interaction and Integration of Attentional Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Jin; Gu, Xiaosi; Guise, Kevin G.; Liu, Xun; Fossella, John; Wang, Hongbin; Posner, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    One current conceptualization of attention subdivides it into functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Alerting describes the function of tonically maintaining the alert state and phasically responding to a warning signal. Automatic and voluntary orienting are involved in the selection of information among multiple sensory inputs.…

  9. The behavioral ecology of a cognitive constraint: limited attention

    E-print Network

    Dukas, Reuven

    evaluate this issue with a model of foraging under the risk of predation. Specifically, we consider two Behavioural Ecology Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5 foraging and antipredator activity. We analyze how a given attentional capacity affects feeding

  10. Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior…

  11. The influence of activity choice on problem behaviors maintained by escape versus attention.

    PubMed

    Romaniuk, Cathryn; Miltenberger, Raymond; Conyers, Carole; Jenner, Nicole; Jurgens, Mandy; Ringenberg, Crystal

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed whether the function of an individual's problem behavior was related to the effectiveness of an intervention involving choice among tasks. Analogue functional analyses were conducted with 7 students with various diagnoses to determine whether problem behaviors were maintained by escape or attention. Following identification of the function of each student's problem behavior, reversal designs were used to assess the effectiveness of an intervention that allowed the students to choose their own instructional tasks. Results showed that students who displayed escape-maintained problem behavior showed substantial reductions in such behavior when they were provided with opportunities to choose among tasks. On the other hand, students who displayed attention-maintained problem behavior did not show any effects as a result of the choice intervention. These findings are discussed in terms of the effective use of behavior management programs involving choice and the reduction of problem behavior. PMID:12555907

  12. Perceived Instructor In-class Communicative Behaviors As a Predictor of Student Participation in Out of Class Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A. Myers; Matthew M. Martin; Jennifer L. Knapp

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of instructor in-class communicative behaviors on college student participation in out of class communication (OCC). Participants were 298 students enrolled in an introductory communication course at a Mid-Atlantic university who completed the Communication Functions Questionnaire, the modified Affinity-Seeking Strategy scale, and the Out of Class Interaction scale. Results of stepwise

  13. Developmental and behavioral disorders grown up: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Barkley, Russell

    2009-02-01

    Pat was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type in the second grade and has been treated primarily with stimulants, albeit on an inconsistent basis. Pat is now a 22-year-old male, who is a second year student at a local community college. He attained a 2.1 GPA during his first year of postsecondary studies, doing quite well in several classes yet rather poorly in several others. Pat has a part-time job at a fast food restaurant, a position that he has held for approximately 6 months. Before his current job, Pat worked as a dishwasher at a local restaurant. He was fired from this position due to chronically being late to work. Pat stated that he gets along well with his peers, although his mother reported that Pat has a history of being able to make friends, "yet not keep them." Pat's mother also reported that Pat has traditionally gravitated toward peers who were "not especially good influences." She described various antisocial acts that Pat was involved with during high school. Pat reported that he began experimenting with alcohol and cigarettes in ninth grade and marijuana shortly thereafter. He stated that he drinks less often than he smokes marijuana ("several times a week"). Pat denied legal difficulties, although his mother reported that Pat was asked to leave the dormitory during his first semester due to an alcohol-related incident. Pat is not currently involved in psychotherapy and is prescribed extended release methylphenidate. He reported that he took his stimulant whenever he had to do a lot of work for school. PMID:19218850

  14. Influence of monkey dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal activity on behavioral choice during attention tasks.

    PubMed

    Katsuki, Fumi; Saito, Mizuki; Constantinidis, Christos

    2014-09-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal and the posterior parietal cortex have both been implicated in the guidance of visual attention. Traditionally, posterior parietal cortex has been thought to guide visual bottom-up attention and prefrontal cortex to bias attention through top-down information. More recent studies suggest a parallel time course of activation of the two areas in bottom-up attention tasks, suggesting a common involvement, though these results do not necessarily imply identical roles. To address the specific roles of the two areas, we examined the influence of neuronal activity recorded from the prefrontal and parietal cortex of monkeys as they performed attention tasks based on choice probability and on correlation between reaction time and neuronal activity. The results revealed that posterior parietal but not dorsolateral prefrontal activity correlated with behavioral choice during the fixation period, prior to the appearance of the stimulus, resembling a bias factor. This preferential influence of posterior parietal activity on behavior was transient, so that dorsolateral prefrontal activity predicted choice after the appearance of the stimulus. Additionally, reaction time was better predicted by posterior parietal activity. These findings confirm the involvement of both dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex in the bottom-up guidance of visual attention, but indicate different roles of the two areas in the guidance of attention and a dynamic time course of their effects, influencing behavior at different stages of the task. PMID:24964224

  15. Increasing On-Task Behavior Using Teacher Attention Delivered on a Fixed-Time Schedule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica L. Riley; Brian C. McKevitt; Mark D. Shriver; Keith D. Allen

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of fixed-time delivery of attention to increase the on-task behavior of 2 students in general education\\u000a was examined. The teacher in this study provided attention to students on a 5-min fixed-time schedule and responded to students\\u000a in her typical manner between cued intervals. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to test the effects of the intervention.\\u000a The results

  16. Sensory Gain Outperforms Efficient Readout Mechanisms in Predicting Attention-Related Improvements in Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ester, Edward F.; Deering, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Spatial attention has been postulated to facilitate perceptual processing via several different mechanisms. For instance, attention can amplify neural responses in sensory areas (sensory gain), mediate neural variability (noise modulation), or alter the manner in which sensory signals are selectively read out by postsensory decision mechanisms (efficient readout). Even in the context of simple behavioral tasks, it is unclear how well each of these mechanisms can account for the relationship between attention-modulated changes in behavior and neural activity because few studies have systematically mapped changes between stimulus intensity, attentional focus, neural activity, and behavioral performance. Here, we used a combination of psychophysics, event-related potentials (ERPs), and quantitative modeling to explicitly link attention-related changes in perceptual sensitivity with changes in the ERP amplitudes recorded from human observers. Spatial attention led to a multiplicative increase in the amplitude of an early sensory ERP component (the P1, peaking ?80–130 ms poststimulus) and in the amplitude of the late positive deflection component (peaking ?230–330 ms poststimulus). A simple model based on signal detection theory demonstrates that these multiplicative gain changes were sufficient to account for attention-related improvements in perceptual sensitivity, without a need to invoke noise modulation. Moreover, combining the observed multiplicative gain with a postsensory readout mechanism resulted in a significantly poorer description of the observed behavioral data. We conclude that, at least in the context of relatively simple visual discrimination tasks, spatial attention modulates perceptual sensitivity primarily by modulating the gain of neural responses during early sensory processing PMID:25274817

  17. Attentional dynamics during free picture viewing: Evidence from oculomotor behavior and electrocortical activity

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Thomas; Graupner, Sven-Thomas; Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Pannasch, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Most empirical evidence on attentional control is based on brief presentations of rather abstract stimuli. Results revealed indications for a dynamic interplay between bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms. Here we used a more naturalistic task to examine temporal signatures of attentional mechanisms on fine and coarse time scales. Subjects had to inspect digitized copies of 60 paintings, each shown for 40 s. We simultaneously measured oculomotor behavior and electrophysiological correlates of brain activity to compare early and late intervals (1) of inspection time of each picture (picture viewing) and (2) of the full experiment (time on task). For picture viewing, we found an increase in fixation duration and a decrease of saccadic amplitude while these parameters did not change with time on task. Furthermore, early in picture viewing we observed higher spatial and temporal similarity of gaze behavior. Analyzing electrical brain activity revealed changes in three components (C1, N1 and P2) of the eye fixation-related potential (EFRP); during picture viewing; no variation was obtained for the power in the frontal beta- and in the theta activity. Time on task analyses demonstrated no effects on the EFRP amplitudes but an increase of power in the frontal theta and beta band activity. Thus, behavioral and electrophysiological measures similarly show characteristic changes during picture viewing, indicating a shifting balance of its underlying (bottom-up and top-down) attentional mechanisms. Time on task also modulated top-down attention but probably represents a different attentional mechanism. PMID:23759704

  18. A neuronal population measure of attention predicts behavioral performance on individual trials

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marlene R.; Maunsell, John H.R.

    2010-01-01

    Visual attention improves perception for an attended location or feature and also modulates the responses of sensory neurons. In laboratory studies, the sensory stimuli and task instructions are held constant within an attentional condition, but despite experimenters’ best efforts, attention likely varies from moment to moment. Because most previous studies have focused on single neurons, it has been impossible to use neuronal responses to identify attentional fluctuations and determine whether these are associated with changes in behavior. We show that an instantaneous measure of attention based on the responses of a modest number of neurons in area V4 of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) can reliably predict large changes in an animal’s ability to perform a difficult psychophysical task. Unexpectedly, this measure shows that the amount of attention allocated at any moment to locations in opposite hemifields is uncorrelated, suggesting that animals allocate attention to each stimulus independently rather than moving their attentional focus from one location to another. PMID:21068329

  19. Cognitive behavioral group therapy for social phobia with or without attention training: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Peter M; Perini, Sarah J

    2009-05-01

    The Self-Regulatory Executive Function model [S-REF; Wells, A., & Matthews, G. (1996). Modelling cognition in emotional disorder: the S-REF model. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 881-888] proposes that metacognitive beliefs, inflexible self-focused attention, and perseverative thinking (rumination and worry) play an important role in maintaining emotional dysfunction. Attention training [ATT; Wells, A. (1990). Panic disorder in association with relaxation induced anxiety: an attentional training approach to treatment. Behavior Therapy, 21, 273-280] is a technique designed to increase attentional control and flexibility, and thereby lessen the impact of these maintaining factors. The main aim of this study was to determine whether or not supplementing cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) with ATT could potentiate greater changes in social anxiety, depression, attentional control, metacognitive beliefs, and anticipatory and post-event processing in a clinical sample with social phobia. Patients (N=81) were allocated to CBGT with ATT or relaxation training (RT). ATT did not potentiate greater change on any outcome variable, with both groups achieving significant improvements on all measures. Exploratory correlational analyses (pre-treatment and changes scores) showed that some metacognitive beliefs were associated with attentional control, anticipatory processing, and symptoms of social anxiety and depression. However, attentional control was more consistently associated with anticipatory processing, post-event processing, and symptoms of social anxiety and depression, than with metacognitive beliefs. Results are discussed with reference to cognitive behavioral models of social phobia. It is tentatively concluded that while supplementing CBGT with ATT does not improve outcomes, increasing attentional control during CBGT is associated with symptom relief. PMID:19059753

  20. Can attention control conditions have detrimental effects in behavioral medicine randomized trials?

    PubMed Central

    Pagoto, Sherry; McDermott, Mary M.; Reed, George; Greenland, Philip; Mazor, Kathy M.; Ockene, Judith K.; Whited, Matt; Schneider, Kristin; Appelhans, Brad; Leung, Kathy; Merriam, Philip; Ockene, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Objective Attention control conditions are used to balance nonspecific attention in randomized trials of behavioral interventions. Very little guidance is available in the literature about which behavioral interventions and outcomes merit an attention control. The primary aim of the present paper is to demonstrate a scenario in which use of attention control in a behavioral randomized trial was unnecessary and possibly detrimental. Methods Exploratory analyses were performed in a randomized controlled trial that tested whether a patient-centered telephone counseling (PC) intervention reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in 355 participants with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), compared to attention control (AC) and usual care (UC) conditions. The PC intervention was designed to activate participants to ask their physician for lipid-lowering medication and/or increase dose intensity, increase medication adherence, and reduce fat intake. The AC condition involved attention-matched phone-delivered health education, and the UC condition consisted of an educational pamphlet. Results At 12-month follow-up, mean LDL-C changes were ?11.1, and ?6.8 mg/dl in the UC and AC conditions, respectively (p=.17). The proportion of participants who increased use or dose intensity of medication was significantly lower in AC than UC, 17.5% versus 30.5% (p=0.03). No significant difference between AC and UC were observed on other outcomes. Conclusions The AC had significantly worse medication outcomes and there was no indication of a therapeutic effect on other endpoints. Implications for use of attention control in behavioral randomized trials are discussed. PMID:23197844

  1. Behavioral Inhibition, Sustained Attention, and Executive Functions: Constructing a Unifying Theory of ADHD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell A. Barkley

    1997-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comprises a deficit in behavioral inhibition. A theoretical model is constructed that links inhibition to 4 executive neuropsychological functions that appear to depend on it for their effective execution: (a) working memory, (b) self-regulation of affect–motivation–arousal, (c) internalization of speech, and (d) reconstitution (behavioral analysis and synthesis). Extended to ADHD, the model predicts that ADHD

  2. Individual Differences in Newborn Visual Attention Associate with Temperament and Behavioral Difficulties in Later Childhood.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Kostas A; Farroni, Teresa; Johnson, Mark H; Smith, Tim J; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Recently it was shown that individual differences in attention style in infants are associated with childhood effortful control, surgency, and hyperactivity-inattention. Here we investigated whether effortful control, surgency and behavioral problems in childhood can be predicted even earlier, from individual differences in newborns' average duration of gaze to stimuli. Eighty newborns participated in visual preference and habituation studies. Parents completed questionnaires at follow up (mean age?=?7.5 years, SD?=?1.0 year). Newborns' average dwell time was negatively associated with childhood surgency (??=?-.25, R(2)?=?.04, p?=?.02) and total behavioral difficulties (??=?-.28, R(2)?=?.05, p?=?.04) but not with effortful control (??=?.03, R(2)?=?.001, p?=?.76). Individual differences in newborn visual attention significantly associated with individual variation in childhood surgency and behavioral problems, showing that some of the factors responsible for this variation are present at birth. PMID:26110979

  3. Individual Differences in Newborn Visual Attention Associate with Temperament and Behavioral Difficulties in Later Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Kostas A.; Farroni, Teresa; Johnson, Mark H.; Smith, Tim J.; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Recently it was shown that individual differences in attention style in infants are associated with childhood effortful control, surgency, and hyperactivity-inattention. Here we investigated whether effortful control, surgency and behavioral problems in childhood can be predicted even earlier, from individual differences in newborns’ average duration of gaze to stimuli. Eighty newborns participated in visual preference and habituation studies. Parents completed questionnaires at follow up (mean age?=?7.5 years, SD?=?1.0 year). Newborns’ average dwell time was negatively associated with childhood surgency (??=??.25, R2?=?.04, p?=?.02) and total behavioral difficulties (??=??.28, R2?=?.05, p?=?.04) but not with effortful control (??=?.03, R2?=?.001, p?=?.76). Individual differences in newborn visual attention significantly associated with individual variation in childhood surgency and behavioral problems, showing that some of the factors responsible for this variation are present at birth. PMID:26110979

  4. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training on Behavioral Problems and Attentional Functioning in Adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Formsma, Anne R; de Bruin, Esther I; Bögels, Susan M

    2012-10-01

    The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11-15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7) completed measurements before, immediately after, 8 weeks after and 16 weeks after training. Adolescents reported on their attention and behavioral problems and mindful awareness, and were administered two computerized sustained attention tasks. Parents as well as tutors reported on adolescents' attention and behavioral problems and executive functioning. Parents further reported on their own parenting, parenting stress and mindful awareness. Both the mindfulness training for the adolescents and their parents was delivered in group format. First, after mindfulness training, adolescents' attention and behavior problems reduced, while their executive functioning improved, as indicated by self-report measures as well as by father and teacher report. Second, improvements in adolescent' actual performance on attention tests were found after mindfulness training. Moreover, fathers, but not mothers, reported reduced parenting stress. Mothers reported reduced overreactive parenting, whereas fathers reported an increase. No effect on mindful awareness of adolescents or parents was found. Effects of mindfulness training became stronger at 8-week follow-up, but waned at 16-week follow-up. Our study adds to the emerging body of evidence indicating that mindfulness training for adolescents with ADHD (and their parents) is an effective approach, but maintenance strategies need to be developed in order for this approach to be effective in the longer term. PMID:22993482

  5. Attention and Perseverance Behaviors of PreSchool Children Enrolled in Suzuki Violin Lessons and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Laurie

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study of attention span and persevering behaviors of preschool children. Finds the Suzuki Method of violin instruction is associated with longer attention spans and more persevering behaviors than creative movement instruction or other preschool programs. Concludes that teachers prefer the Suzuki Method's approach to other forms of…

  6. Temporal Context in Speech Processing and Attentional Stream Selection: A Behavioral and Neural perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zion Golumbic, Elana M.; Poeppel, David; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    The human capacity for processing speech is remarkable, especially given that information in speech unfolds over multiple time scales concurrently. Similarly notable is our ability to filter out of extraneous sounds and focus our attention on one conversation, epitomized by the ‘Cocktail Party’ effect. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying on-line speech decoding and attentional stream selection are not well understood. We review findings from behavioral and neurophysiological investigations that underscore the importance of the temporal structure of speech for achieving these perceptual feats. We discuss the hypothesis that entrainment of ambient neuronal oscillations to speech’s temporal structure, across multiple time-scales, serves to facilitate its decoding and underlies the selection of an attended speech stream over other competing input. In this regard, speech decoding and attentional stream selection are examples of ‘active sensing’, emphasizing an interaction between proactive and predictive top-down modulation of neuronal dynamics and bottom-up sensory input. PMID:22285024

  7. Parenting Intervention to Reduce Attention and Behavior Difficulties in Preschoolers: A CUIDAR Evaluation Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberley D. Lakes; Danyel Vargas; Matt Riggs; Janeth Schmidt; Mike Baird

    In this study, we evaluated CUIDAR, a program that provides community-based 10-week parent training to reduce attention and\\u000a behavior problems in preschool children. We recruited 154 predominantly low-income and Latino preschoolers and their parents\\u000a to participate in this evaluation study. We collected data prior to and immediately following intervention and one year later.\\u000a At the time of follow-up, we also

  8. The Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Psychopathology and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study examined prevalence of psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems in children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Primary caregivers of 344 children (8–16y, M=12.28) completed the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (C-DISC-4.0) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Subjects comprised 4 groups: AE with ADHD (AE+, n=85) and without ADHD (AE?, n=52), and non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=74) and without ADHD (CON, n=133). The frequency of specific psychiatric disorders, number of psychiatric disorders (comorbidity), and CBCL behavioral scores were examined using chi-square and ANCOVA techniques. Results Clinical groups had greater frequency of all psychiatric disorders, except for anxiety, where the AE? and CON groups did not differ. There was a synergistic effect of AE and ADHD on conduct disorder. For Comorbidity, children with ADHD had increased psychiatric disorders regardless of AE, which did not have an independent effect on comorbidity. For CBCL scores, there were significant main effects of AE and ADHD on all scores and significant AE X ADHD interactions for Withdrawn/Depressed, Somatic Complaints, Attention, and all Summary scores. There was a synergistic effect of AE and ADHD on Externalizing, Total Problems, and Attention Problems. Conclusion Findings indicate that ADHD diagnosis elevates children’s risk of psychiatric diagnoses, regardless of AE, but suggest a synergistic relation between AE and ADHD on conduct disorder and externalizing behavioral problems in children. Findings affirm a poorer behavioral prognosis for alcohol-exposed children with ADHD and suggest that more than one neurobehavioral profile may exist for individuals with AE. PMID:22974279

  9. Circadian modulation of dopamine levels and dopaminergic neuron development contributes to attention deficiency and hyperactive behavior.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Zhong, Zhaomin; Wang, Mingyong; Chen, Xifeng; Tan, Yicheng; Zhang, Shuqing; He, Wei; He, Xiong; Huang, Guodong; Lu, Haiping; Wu, Ping; Che, Yi; Yan, Yi-Lin; Postlethwait, John H; Chen, Wenbiao; Wang, Han

    2015-02-11

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adults. While ADHD patients often display circadian abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we found that the zebrafish mutant for the circadian gene period1b (per1b) displays hyperactive, impulsive-like, and attention deficit-like behaviors and low levels of dopamine, reminiscent of human ADHD patients. We found that the circadian clock directly regulates dopamine-related genes monoamine oxidase and dopamine ? hydroxylase, and acts via genes important for the development or maintenance of dopaminergic neurons to regulate their number and organization in the ventral diencephalic posterior tuberculum. We then found that Per1 knock-out mice also display ADHD-like symptoms and reduced levels of dopamine, thereby showing highly conserved roles of the circadian clock in ADHD. Our studies demonstrate that disruption of a circadian clock gene elicits ADHD-like syndrome. The circadian model for attention deficiency and hyperactive behavior sheds light on ADHD pathogenesis and opens avenues for exploring novel targets for diagnosis and therapy for this common psychiatric disorder. PMID:25673850

  10. Influence of alcohol on social anxiety: an investigation of attentional, physiological and behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Stephan; Cludius, Barbara; Bantin, Trisha; Hermann, Christiane; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2014-02-01

    Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorders are highly comorbid. It remains unclear, however, if and how alcohol influences attentional processes and physical symptoms in social anxiety. In a balanced-placebo-design, high and normally socially anxious participants gave a speech while performing a task, which simultaneously measures internal and external attention. Only high anxious participants showed a preferential processing of external probes, which was eliminated by alcohol or the mere expectation of drinking alcohol. Furthermore, alcohol reduced facial blushing as well as self-reported social anxiety during public speaking. Decreases in anxiety were significantly associated with a reduction of the external focus in the high anxious group. Understanding alcohol as a substance influencing cognitive processes as well as physiological symptoms of anxiety further contributes to our understanding of alcohol use as a safety behavior in social anxiety disorder. PMID:24355243

  11. Changes in attention to an emotional task after sleep deprivation: neurophysiological and behavioral findings.

    PubMed

    Alfarra, Ramey; Fins, Ana I; Chayo, Isaac; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-01-01

    While sleep loss is shown to have widespread effects on cognitive processes, little is known about the impact of sleep loss on emotion processes. In order to expand on previous behavioral and physiological findings on how sleep loss influences emotion processing, we administered positive, negative, and neutral affective visual stimuli to individuals after one night of sleep deprivation while simultaneously acquiring EEG event related potential (ERP) data and recording affective behavioral responses. We compared these responses to a baseline testing session. We specifically looked at the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual ERP as an established sensitive measure of attention to emotionally-charged visual stimuli. Our results show that after sleep deprivation, the LPP no longer discriminates between emotional and non-emotional pictures; after sleep deprivation the LPP amplitude was of similar amplitude for neutral, positive, and negative pictures. This effect was driven by an increase in the LPP to neutral pictures. Our behavioral measures show that, relative to baseline testing, emotional pictures are rated as less emotional following sleep deprivation with a concomitant reduction in emotional picture-induced anxiety. We did not observe any change in cortisol concentrations after sleep deprivation before or after emotional picture exposure, suggesting that the observed changes in emotion processing are independent of potential stress effects of sleep deprivation. Combined, our findings suggest that sleep loss interferes with proper allocation of attention resources during an emotional task. PMID:25451382

  12. Prenatal Organochlorine Exposure and Behaviors Associated With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Sagiv, Sharon K.; Thurston, Sally W.; Bellinger, David C.; Tolbert, Paige E.; Altshul, Larisa M.; Korrick, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Organochlorines are environmentally persistent contaminants that readily cross the placenta, posing a potential risk to the developing fetus. Evidence for neurodevelopmental effects at low levels of these compounds is growing, though few studies have focused on behavioral outcomes. The authors investigated the association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE) levels and behaviors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), measured with the Conners’ Rating Scale for Teachers (CRS-T), in a cohort of 607 children aged 7–11 years (median age, 8.2 years) born in 1993–1998 to mothers residing near a PCB-contaminated harbor in New Bedford, Massachusetts. The median umbilical cord serum level of the sum of 4 prevalent PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180) was 0.19 ng/g serum (range, 0.01–4.41 ng/g serum). The authors found higher risk for ADHD-like behaviors assessed with the CRS-T at higher levels of PCBs and p,p?-DDE. For example, the authors found higher risk of atypical behavior on the Conners’ ADHD Index for the highest quartile of the sum of 4 PCB congeners versus the lowest quartile (risk ratio = 1.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.92) and a similar relation for p,p?-DDE. These results support an association between low-level prenatal organochlorine exposure and ADHD-like behaviors in childhood. PMID:20106937

  13. The effects of yoga on the attention and behavior of boys with Attention-Deficit\\/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline. S. Jensen; Dianna T. Kenny

    2004-01-01

    Boys diagnosed with ADHD by specialist pediatricians and stabilized on medication were randomly assigned to a 20-session yoga group (n = 11) or a control group (cooperative activities; n = 8). Boys were assessed pre- and post-intervention on the Conners’ Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Long (CPRS-R:L & CTRS-R:L; Conners, 1997), the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA; Greenberg, Cormna,

  14. Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Rojas, Joseane Jiménez; Carletti, Jaqueline Vieira; Deckmann, Iohanna; Martinato, Luísa Helena Machado; Pires, Augusto Viana; Bizarro, Lisiane; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi

    2015-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be caused by genetic or environmental factors. Among environmental factors, perinatal complications are related, such as neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether HI contributes to the development of characteristics related to ADHD in adult rats, and to correlate the behavioral results with brain damage volume. Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: HI and control. The HI procedure consisted of a permanent occlusion of the right common carotid artery followed by a period of hypoxia (90 min; 8% O? and 92% N?) on the 7th postnatal day. Two months later, animals were evaluated in the open field test during a single 5-min session, and in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), over 25 weeks. Our results demonstrated that animals submitted to HI manifest cognitive impairments in task acquisition, deficits in sustained attention, and increases in impulsivity and compulsivity in response to task manipulation in the 5-CSRTT. Locomotor activity observed in open field did not differ between groups. Moreover, brain volume loss in the total hemisphere, cerebral cortex, white matter, hippocampus, and striatum were observed in HI animals, especially on the side ipsilateral to the lesion. From these results, we can infer that neonatal HI is an environmental factor that could contribute to the development of behavioral characteristics observed in ADHD that are associated with general brain atrophy. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26030430

  15. Modeling paternal attentiveness: distressed pups evoke differential neurobiological and behavioral responses in paternal and nonpaternal mice.

    PubMed

    Lambert, K G; Franssen, C L; Hampton, J E; Rzucidlo, A M; Hyer, M M; True, M; Kaufman, C; Bardi, M

    2013-03-27

    With the exception of parturition and lactation, male California deer mice (Peromyscus californicus) exhibit the same parental responses toward offspring as conspecific females. A closely related species, Peromyscus maniculatus, however, rarely exhibits paternal responses. In the current study, a comparative species approach was used to assess paternal responses in both Peromyscus species with varying levels of paternal experience (biological fathers, pup-exposed virgins, and pup-naïve virgins). Of special interest was the persistence of the males to direct their attention toward a distressed pup housed in a small enclosure (i.e., a barrier existed between males and pups). In addition to pup-directed responses, non-pup-directed responses such as grooming, resting and jumping were recorded. Subsequently, all animals' brains were assessed for fos-immunoreactivity (ir) in several areas previously associated with the paternal brain circuit. Overall, P. californicus exhibited more pup-directed responses as well as less fos-ir in brain areas involved in emotional integration and processing such as the insula and anterior cingulate. In addition to increased activation of emotional regulatory areas, P. maniculatus males, observed to direct their behavior away from the pup, exhibited higher fos-ir in the nucleus accumbens (involved in goal acquisition), perhaps due to a heightened motivation to avoid the pups. Interestingly, experience with pups altered the lateral septum and amygdala activation of P. maniculatus to levels similar to P. californicus biological fathers. Finally, fos-ir was increased in the medial preoptic area, involved in the maintenance of maternal behavior, in the biological fathers of both species. Thus, although biological predispositions toward pup-directed behaviors were observed in P. californicus males, evidence of a few shifts toward the paternal neural activation profile was apparent in P. maniculatus males. Specifically, modifications in fear responses and social processing may represent the cornerstones of the gradual shift from social tentativeness to social attentiveness in the presence of pups. PMID:23262236

  16. Dimensional Brain-behavior Relationships in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chabernaud, Camille; Mennes, Maarten; Kelly, Clare; Nooner, Kate; Di Martino, Adriana; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging neuroscientific and genetic findings emphasize the dimensional rather than the categorical aspects of psychiatric disorders. However, the integration of dimensional approaches within the current categorical diagnostic framework remains unclear. Here, we used resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) to examine whether dimensional measures of psychiatric symptomatology capture brain-behavior relationships unaccounted for by categorical diagnoses. Additionally, we examined whether dimensional brain-behavior relationships are modified by the presence of a categorically defined illness, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods R-fMRI scans were collected from 37 typically developing children (aged 10.2±2; 21 females) and 37 children meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD (9.7±2; 11 females). Parent-rated Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing and Internalizing scores served as dimensional measures in our analyses of default network (DN) resting state functional connectivity (RSFC). Results Regardless of diagnosis, we observed several significant relationships between DN RSFC and both Internalizing and Externalizing scores. Increased Internalizing scores were associated with stronger positive intra-DN RSFC, while increased Externalizing scores were associated with reduced negative RSFC between DN and “task-positive” regions such as dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Several of these brain-behavior relationships differed depending on the categorical presence of ADHD. Conclusions Our findings suggest that while categorical diagnostic boundaries provide an inadequate basis for understanding the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, psychiatric illness cannot be viewed simply as an extreme of typical neural or behavioral function. Efforts to understand the neural underpinnings of psychiatric illness should incorporate both categorical and dimensional clinical assessments. PMID:21974788

  17. Infant Attention and Visual Preferences: Converging Evidence from Behavior, Event-Related Potentials, and Cortical Source Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Courage, Mary L.; Richards, John E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we had 3 major goals. The 1st goal was to establish a link between behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures of infant attention and recognition memory. To assess the distribution of infant visual preferences throughout ERP testing, we designed a new experimental procedure that embeds a behavioral measure (paired…

  18. Decreasing Self-Injurious Behavior in a Student with Autism and Tourette Syndrome through Positive Attention and Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Devender R.; McAfee, James K.; Hart, Stephanie L.

    2009-01-01

    This case study was conducted with a student diagnosed with autism and Tourette syndrome who displayed severe self-injurious behavior (SIB). We conducted a functional behavioral assessment which indicated that SIB was maintained by multiple functions using an ABAC design to determine the effect of positive social attention and extinction. Results…

  19. The Power of Kawaii: Viewing Cute Images Promotes a Careful Behavior and Narrows Attentional Focus

    PubMed Central

    Nittono, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Michiko; Yano, Akihiro; Moriya, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Kawaii (a Japanese word meaning “cute”) things are popular because they produce positive feelings. However, their effect on behavior remains unclear. In this study, three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of viewing cute images on subsequent task performance. In the first experiment, university students performed a fine motor dexterity task before and after viewing images of baby or adult animals. Performance indexed by the number of successful trials increased after viewing cute images (puppies and kittens; M ± SE?=?43.9±10.3% improvement) more than after viewing images that were less cute (dogs and cats; 11.9±5.5% improvement). In the second experiment, this finding was replicated by using a non-motor visual search task. Performance improved more after viewing cute images (15.7±2.2% improvement) than after viewing less cute images (1.4±2.1% improvement). Viewing images of pleasant foods was ineffective in improving performance (1.2±2.1%). In the third experiment, participants performed a global–local letter task after viewing images of baby animals, adult animals, and neutral objects. In general, global features were processed faster than local features. However, this global precedence effect was reduced after viewing cute images. Results show that participants performed tasks requiring focused attention more carefully after viewing cute images. This is interpreted as the result of a narrowed attentional focus induced by the cuteness-triggered positive emotion that is associated with approach motivation and the tendency toward systematic processing. For future applications, cute objects may be used as an emotion elicitor to induce careful behavioral tendencies in specific situations, such as driving and office work. PMID:23050022

  20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Like Behavioral Problems and Parenting Stress in Pediatric Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Sik; Kim, Se Hee; You, Ji Hee; Baek, Hyung Tae; Na, Chul; Kim, Bung Nyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have reported comorbidity of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and allergic diseases. The current study investigated ADHD like behavioral symptoms and parenting stress in pediatric allergic rhinitis. Methods Eighty-seven children (6-13 years old) with allergic rhinitis and 73 age- and sex-matched children of control group were recruited. Diagnosis and severity assessments of allergic rhinitis were determined by a pediatric allergist. The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), ADHD Rating Scale (ARS), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were completed by their mothers. Results In the allergic rhinitis group, the total PSI-SF score (p<0.01), ARS score (p<0.01), the subscale scores of the CBCL including somatization, attentional problems and emotional instability (p=0.01; p<0.01; p<0.01) and prevalence of ADHD (p=0.03) were significantly higher than those of the control group. Among mothers of children with allergic rhinitis, those of children with comorbid ADHD demonstrated significantly higher parenting stress than those without comorbid ADHD (p<0.01). Parenting stress was correlated with severity of child's allergic symptoms and the ARS total score (beta=0.50, p<0.01; beta=0.39, p<0.01). There was a significant correlation between allergic symptom severity and the ARS total score (B=8.4, SD=2.5, t=3.3, p<0.01). Conclusion This study demonstrated that ADHD symptoms were common in children with allergic rhinitis, and this factor increased parenting stress and disrupted the parent-child relationship. Routine evaluation and early management of ADHD symptoms in pediatric allergic rhinitis may benefit families of children with allergic rhinitis. PMID:25110499

  1. The relationship between self-awareness of attentional status, behavioral performance and oscillatory brain rhythms.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Anderson, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    High-level cognitive factors, including self-awareness, are believed to play an important role in human visual perception. The principal aim of this study was to determine whether oscillatory brain rhythms play a role in the neural processes involved in self-monitoring attentional status. To do so we measured cortical activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants were asked to self-monitor their internal status, only initiating the presentation of a stimulus when they perceived their attentional focus to be maximal. We employed a hierarchical Bayesian method that uses fMRI results as soft-constrained spatial information to solve the MEG inverse problem, allowing us to estimate cortical currents in the order of millimeters and milliseconds. Our results show that, during self-monitoring of internal status, there was a sustained decrease in power within the 7-13 Hz (alpha) range in the rostral cingulate motor area (rCMA) on the human medial wall, beginning approximately 430 msec after the trial start (p < 0.05, FDR corrected). We also show that gamma-band power (41-47 Hz) within this area was positively correlated with task performance from 40-640 msec after the trial start (r = 0.71, p < 0.05). We conclude: (1) the rCMA is involved in processes governing self-monitoring of internal status; and (2) the qualitative differences between alpha and gamma activity are reflective of their different roles in self-monitoring internal states. We suggest that alpha suppression may reflect a strengthening of top-down interareal connections, while a positive correlation between gamma activity and task performance indicates that gamma may play an important role in guiding visuomotor behavior. PMID:24069368

  2. The Relationship between Self-Awareness of Attentional Status, Behavioral Performance and Oscillatory Brain Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Anderson, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    High-level cognitive factors, including self-awareness, are believed to play an important role in human visual perception. The principal aim of this study was to determine whether oscillatory brain rhythms play a role in the neural processes involved in self-monitoring attentional status. To do so we measured cortical activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants were asked to self-monitor their internal status, only initiating the presentation of a stimulus when they perceived their attentional focus to be maximal. We employed a hierarchical Bayesian method that uses fMRI results as soft-constrained spatial information to solve the MEG inverse problem, allowing us to estimate cortical currents in the order of millimeters and milliseconds. Our results show that, during self-monitoring of internal status, there was a sustained decrease in power within the 7-13 Hz (alpha) range in the rostral cingulate motor area (rCMA) on the human medial wall, beginning approximately 430 msec after the trial start (p < 0.05, FDR corrected). We also show that gamma-band power (41-47 Hz) within this area was positively correlated with task performance from 40–640 msec after the trial start (r = 0.71, p < 0.05). We conclude: (1) the rCMA is involved in processes governing self-monitoring of internal status; and (2) the qualitative differences between alpha and gamma activity are reflective of their different roles in self-monitoring internal states. We suggest that alpha suppression may reflect a strengthening of top-down interareal connections, while a positive correlation between gamma activity and task performance indicates that gamma may play an important role in guiding visuomotor behavior. PMID:24069368

  3. The Benefits of Simply Observing: Mindful Attention Modulates the Link Between Motivation and Behavior

    E-print Network

    Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    -Zinn, 1982; Kristeller, Baer, & Quillian-Wolever, 2006). More generally, mindfulness meditation has beenThe Benefits of Simply Observing: Mindful Attention Modulates the Link Between Motivation University Lawrence W. Barsalou Emory University Mindful attention, a central component of mindfulness

  4. Selective Attention to Threatening Stimuli and Field Independence as Factors in the Etiology of Paranoid Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locasio, Joseph J.; Snyder, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    To test a theory that selective attention to threatening stimuli induces paranoia, an attempt was made to manipulate attention to threatening and nonthreatening statements among college students and examine the effects on three indices of paranoia. (Editor)

  5. Visual Attention and Autistic Behavior in Infants with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jane E.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Long, Anna C. J.; Anello, Vittoria; Colombo, John

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant attention is a core feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS), however, little is known regarding the developmental trajectory and underlying physiological processes of attention deficits in FXS. Atypical visual attention is an early emerging and robust indicator of autism in idiopathic (non-FXS) autism. Using a biobehavioral approach with gaze…

  6. College Students' Attention Behaviors during Independent Study and Course Level Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Linda G.

    2012-01-01

    Students in college make daily choices about how to use their independent study time, including choices about allocation of attention. Based on theoretical considerations and clinical studies, attention and the dividing of attention through multitasking is thought to have a relationship to performance levels. Research is only beginning to explore,…

  7. Racial Differences in Parental Reports of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Foster, E. Michael; Heinrichs, Brenda; Heier, Brigitt

    2012-01-01

    Objective Accurate assessment of racial disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) depends on measurement that is equally valid for all groups. This study examines differences among African American and white children in ADHD measurement with a widely used parental report instrument, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC). Methods Data come from 1070 children in the Fast Track Project, a longitudinal study of predominantly low-income children at risk of emotional and/or behavioral problems. Item Response Theory (IRT) methodology is used to determine whether ADHD screening items provide comparable information for African American and white children or whether differential item function (DIF) exists. IRT scores and race/ethnicity are entered in logistic regression models predicting use of ADHD medication. Results Seven of 39 DISC items performed differently among African Americans and whites. In most cases, parents of white children were more likely to endorse these items than were parents of African American children at comparable underlying levels of children’s hyperactivity. When items exhibiting differential functioning were deleted, race disparities predicting underlying need as indicated by ADHD medication use decreased and were no longer statistically significant. Conclusions Perceptions of ADHD-related symptoms among parents of African American children appear to differ in important ways from those of parents of white children, and screening instruments relying on parent report may yield different results for African American and white children with similar underlying treatment needs. Gathering information from additional sources including teachers and school counselors can provide a more complete picture of the behavioral functioning and therapeutic needs of children in all race/ethnic groups. PMID:18049317

  8. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinah Kim; Tony Wigram; Christian Gold

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in\\u000a pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two\\u000a different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis\\u000a of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes

  9. Abstract The ability of animals to use behavioral/facial cues in detection of human attention has been widely in-

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    between two eating humans based on either the visibility of the eyes or direction of the face. Our resultsAbstract The ability of animals to use behavioral/facial cues in detection of human attention has been widely in- vestigated. In this test series we studied the ability of dogs to recognize human

  10. Discriminant Validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Parent Form for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Hale, James B.; Brodzinsky, Lara K.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, with concomitant executive function deficits often being the focus of empirical and clinical investigation. This study explored the validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Parent Form (BRIEF; Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000) for…

  11. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

  12. Non-Drug Interventions for Improving Classroom Behavior and Social Functioning of Young Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliff, David

    This paper explores research on use of medication and non-drug interventions to modify the behavior of preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It begins by discussing the symptoms of ADHD, neurological differences between children with ADHD and those without ADHD, and expected adolescent and adult outcomes for…

  13. The Effects of Block Scheduling on Students with Emotional Behavioral Disorders and/or Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenney, Mark G.

    This study discusses the outcomes of a survey of 23 educators from 19 high schools on a block schedule in New Hampshire. Educators from each school were asked their perceptions of the effects of the block schedule on students identified as having emotional/behavioral disorders and/or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in comparison…

  14. Case Series: Evaluation of a Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Three Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Dyssomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullane, Jennifer; Corkum, Penny

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a preliminary evaluation of a behavioral sleep intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyssomnia delivered via distance treatment. Method: Three children (1 male, 2 females; aged 6-10 years) with ADHD and dyssomnia participated in a 5-week manualized intervention. Using a…

  15. Improving Compliance with Diabetes Management in Young Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Using Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Lisa M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Hunter, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Medical adherence to complex diabetes regimens can be challenging, particularly for adolescents, and therefore represents the most common reason for referral to behavioral psychologists among this population. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), when present in children and adolescents with diabetes, presents unique barriers to…

  16. Comparison of Parent's and Teachers' Perceptions of Children's Behavior: A Study of Attentional Problems in a Natural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Lisa N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate concordance of reports of hyperactive and distractible behavior from three different sources: parents, teachers, and the child, using two different instruments, the ADHD Rating Scale and the Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS). The incidence rate of attentional problems that any of the sources reported in…

  17. Home Literacy Exposure and Early Language and Literacy Skills in Children Who Struggle with Behavior and Attention Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haak, Jill; Downer, Jason; Reeve, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated the relationships between behavior and attention problems and early language and literacy outcomes for 4-year-olds who experienced varied early home literacy environments. Participants were 1,364 children enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care…

  18. Long-Term Cardiovascular Fitness Is Associated with Auditory Attentional Control in Old Adults: Neuro-Behavioral Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Getzmann, Stephan; Falkenstein, Michael; Gajewski, Patrick D.

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that healthy aging affects the ability to focus attention on a given task and to ignore distractors. Here, we asked whether long-term physical activity is associated with lower susceptibility to distraction of auditory attention, and how physically active and inactive seniors may differ regarding subcomponents of auditory attention. An auditory duration discrimination task was employed, and involuntary attentional shifts to task-irrelevant rare frequency deviations and subsequent reorientation were studied by analysis of behavioral data and event-related potential measures. The frequency deviations impaired performance more in physically inactive than active seniors. This was accompanied by a stronger frontal positivity (P3a) and increased activation of anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting a stronger involuntary shift of attention towards task-irrelevant stimulus features in inactive compared to active seniors. These results indicate a positive relationship between physical fitness and attentional control in elderly, presumably due to more focused attentional resources and enhanced inhibition of irrelevant stimulus features. PMID:24023949

  19. Joint attention training for children with autism using behavior modification procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Whalen; Laura Schreibman

    2003-01-01

    Background: Deficits in joint attention are considered by many researchers to be an early pre- dictor of childhood autism (e.g., Osterling & Dawson, 1994) and are considered to be pivotal to deficits in language, play, and social development in this population (Mundy, 1995). Although many researchers have noted the importance of joint attention deficits in the development of children with

  20. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Mental Training Enhances Attentional Stability: Neural and

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    , Oxford OX3 7JX, United Kingdom, and 3Cognitive Neuroscience Group, Department of Psychology, University, that training attention, as cultivated by meditation, can improve the ability to sustain atten- tion. Three months of intensive meditation training reduced variability in attentional processing of target tones

  1. Perplexities in Discrimination of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Specific Behaviors that may hold some Answers 

    E-print Network

    Harrison, Judith R.

    2010-07-14

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a source of diagnostic and intervention confusion and uncertainty for practitioners and parents. Questions creating some of the confusion were answered in a series of three ...

  2. Computer-delivered, Home-based, Attentional Retraining Reduces Drinking Behavior in Heavy Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    McGeary, John E.; Meadows, Sydney P.; Amir, Nader; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2014-01-01

    In order to examine the impact of a computer-delivered, home-based, alcohol-specific attention modification program (AMP), 41 heavy drinking college students were randomly assigned to AMP or an attention control condition (ACC). Participants selected ten alcohol-related words most relevant to their own drinking experience as well as ten neutral words not related to alcohol. These personalized stimuli were used in an attention retaining program based upon the probe detection paradigm twice weekly for four weeks. Participants in the AMP condition reported decreased drinking whereas those in the ACC condition reported no change in their drinking. These preliminary data suggest that a computer-delivered, home-delivered, attention-retraining for alcohol treatment may be an inexpensive and efficacious adjunct to standard alcohol treatments. PMID:24955674

  3. Cognitive behavioral group therapy for social phobia with or without attention training: A controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. McEvoy; Sarah J. Perini

    2009-01-01

    The Self-Regulatory Executive Function model [S-REF; Wells, A., & Matthews, G. (1996). Modelling cognition in emotional disorder: the S-REF model. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 881–888] proposes that metacognitive beliefs, inflexible self-focused attention, and perseverative thinking (rumination and worry) play an important role in maintaining emotional dysfunction. Attention training [ATT; Wells, A. (1990). Panic disorder in association with relaxation induced

  4. The Potential Influence of “Stimulus Overselectivity” in AAC: Information from Eye-tracking and Behavioral Studies of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Dube, William V.; Wilkinson, Krista M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of “stimulus overselectivity” or “overselective attention” as it may impact AAC training and use in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Stimulus overselectivity is defined as an atypical limitation in the number of stimuli or stimulus features within an image that are attended to and subsequently learned. Within AAC, the term “stimulus” could refer to symbols or line drawings on speech generating devices, drawings or pictures on low-technology systems, and/or the elements within visual scene displays. In this context, overselective attention may result in unusual or uneven error patterns such as confusion between two symbols that share a single feature or difficulties with transitioning between different types of hardware. We review some of the ways that overselective attention has been studied behaviorally. We then examine how eye tracking technology allows a glimpse into some of the behavioral characteristics of overselective attention. We describe an intervention approach, differential observing responses, that may reduce or eliminate overselectivity, and we consider this type of intervention as it relates to issues of relevance for AAC. PMID:24773053

  5. An analysis of challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Newman, Isabel; Leader, Geraldine; Chen, June L; Mannion, Arlene

    2015-03-01

    The present study sought to investigate the relationship between challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in Fragile X Syndrome (FRAX). Additionally, this study sought to examine how such disorders are predicted by gender, presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and presence of intellectual disability (ID). A total of 47 children and adolescents with FRAX were assessed. Results revealed high levels of challenging behavior and AD/HD symptoms within the sample, with some participants exhibiting symptoms of comorbid psychopathology. Further analysis revealed that challenging behavior and comorbid psychopathology were positively correlated, with stereotypy correlating most strongly with comorbid psychopathology. In addition, ASD was found to predict challenging behavior, and gender was found to predict AD/HD symptoms. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25543996

  6. Case Series: Evaluation of a Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Three Children With Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder and Dyssomnia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Mullane; Penny Corkum

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a preliminary evaluation of a behavioral sleep intervention for children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyssomnia delivered via distance treatment.Method: Three children (1 male, 2 females; aged 6-10 years) with ADHD and dyssomnia participated in a 5-week manualized intervention. Using a non-concurrent multiple baseline design, the children were randomly assigned to a 1-, 2-, or 3-week

  7. A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Study of Children's Selective Attention under Neutral and Affective Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Fox, Nathan A.

    2005-01-01

    Seven-year-olds completed a Posner cued attention task, under both neutral and affectively charged conditions. Compared to the traditional (affect-neutral) Posner task, performance in the affective Posner task was marked by dramatic decreases in reaction times (RTs), an increase in errors, an increased validity effect (difference in RTs to the…

  8. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Expectancy Violations in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durston, Sarah; Davidson, Matthew C.; Mulder, Martijn J.; Spicer, Julie A.; Galvan, Adriana; Tottenham, Nim; Scheres, Anouk; Castellanos, F. Xavier; van Engeland, Herman; Casey, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neuropsychiatric disorder in childhood with established problems in cognitive control and associated fronto-striatal circuitry. More recently, fronto-cerebellar circuits have been implicated in this disorder. Both of these circuits are important in predicting the occurrence…

  9. A Reference Model of Soldier Attention and Behavior MAJ Jonathan K. Alt

    E-print Network

    Darken, Christian J.

    , and target acquisition prior to a close range encounter, as well as the soldier's initial action choice an integrated conceptual model of a soldier's visual attention (search), situation awareness, and target awareness in combat simulations is a key capability to informing analysis of future combat systems

  10. Temporal Context in Speech Processing and Attentional Stream Selection: A Behavioral and Neural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golumbic, Elana M. Zion; Poeppel, David; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    The human capacity for processing speech is remarkable, especially given that information in speech unfolds over multiple time scales concurrently. Similarly notable is our ability to filter out of extraneous sounds and focus our attention on one conversation, epitomized by the "Cocktail Party" effect. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying on-line…

  11. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive The Influence of Sustained Selective Attention on Stimulus

    E-print Network

    Kreiter, Andreas K.

    of psychophysical studies in the field of inatten- tional blindness demonstrated that subjects often fail to notice that a visual stimulus that differs in both color and form from all other objects on the dis- play may not reach of inatten- tional blindness is that they require subjects to do a demanding attention task for prolonged

  12. Behavioral Inhibition and Anxiety: The Moderating Roles of Inhibitory Control and Attention Shifting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament identified in early childhood, is associated with social reticence in childhood and an increased risk for anxiety problems in adolescence and adulthood. However, not all behaviorally inhibited children remain reticent or develop an anxiety disorder. One possible mechanism accounting for the variability in…

  13. Effects of Caffeine on Classroom Behavior, Sustained Attention, and a Memory Task in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Ruth A.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of the effect of normative amounts of caffeine on the behavior of six normal kindergarten children found that caffeine exerted only small and inconsistent effects on such classroom behaviors as time off-task and gross motor activity. (Author/DB)

  14. Depression in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Mediating Role of Cognitive-Behavioral Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zvorsky, Ivori; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for depressive disorders but little is known about the potential cognitive and behavioral mechanisms of risk that could shape treatment. This study evaluated the degree to which cognitive-behavioral constructs associated with depression and its treatment—dysfunctional attitudes and cognitive-behavioral avoidance—accounted for variance in depressive symptoms and disorder in adults with ADHD. 77 adults clinically diagnosed with ADHD completed self-report questionnaires, diagnostic interviews, and clinician-administered symptom rating scales. Statistical mediation analysis was employed and indirect effects assessed using bootstrap analysis and bias-corrected confidence intervals. Controlling for recent negative life events, dysfunctional attitudes and cognitive-behavioral avoidance fully accounted for the variance between ADHD symptoms and depressive symptoms. Each independent variable partially mediated the other in accounting for depression symptoms suggesting overlapping and unique variance. Cognitive-behavioral avoidance, however, was more strongly related to meeting diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder than were dysfunctional attitudes. Processes that are targeted in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for depression were associated with symptoms in adults with ADHD. Current CBT approaches for ADHD incorporate active coping skills and cognitive restructuring and such approaches could be further tailored to address the ADHD-depression comorbidity.

  15. Delinquency, Aggression, and Attention-Related Problem Behaviors Differentially Predict Adolescent Substance Use in Individuals Diagnosed with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Harty, Seth C.; Galanopoulos, Stavroula; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To measure the degree to which childhood and adolescent ratings of aggression, attention, and delinquency are related to adolescent substance use outcomes in youth diagnosed with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Background Childhood externalizing disorders have been shown to predict adolescent maladaptive substance use, but few studies have examined the differential predictive utility of two distinct dimensions of externalizing behavior; aggression and delinquency. Methods Ninety-seven clinically referred children with ADHD initially took part in this research protocol when they were on average 9.05 years of age, and were seen again on average 9.30 years later. Participants’ parents were administered the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at baseline and follow-up, and youth completed the Youth Self Report (YSR) in adolescence. At follow-up, substance use severity and diagnosis were assessed using semi-structured psychiatric interviews administered separately to parents and adolescents. Linear and binary logistic regressions were used to determine the association of CBCL- and YSR-rated attention problems, aggression and delinquency to adolescent substance use. Results Childhood and adolescent delinquency, but not aggression, as rated by parents and youths, predicted adolescent substance use disorders (SUD) and substance use severity (all p <.05). After accounting for the associations of delinquency and aggression with adolescent substance use, ratings of attention problems in childhood and adolescence were negatively associated with substance use outcome. Conclusions Children with ADHD who exhibit high rates of delinquency are at risk for later substance and may require targeted prevention, intervention, and follow-up services. PMID:24131161

  16. Children with Autism and Attention Difficulties: A Pilot Study of the Association between Sensory, Motor, and Adaptive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mattard-Labrecque, Carolanne; Ben Amor, Leila; Couture, Mélanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study aimed to compare sensory processing, motor skills and adaptive behaviors in children with a double diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (ASD+ADHD) with children with ADHD alone and to examine the association of sensory processing and motor skills with adaptive behaviors (self-care). Method: Thirty children aged 5–14 years diagnosed with ASD+ADHD (n = 13) or ADHD (n = 17) were evaluated on their sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Analysis of covariance compared the groups on these dimensions. Correlation analyses examined the association between sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Results: Compared to children with ADHD alone, children with ASD+ADHD had poorer skills in sensory processing (p < 0.001), motor (p = 0.001) and adaptive behaviors (p < 0.001). For all children, increased autonomy in self-care was correlated with better sensory processing (p < 0.001) and motor skills (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Children with ASD+ADHD have poorer sensory processing, motor and adaptive skills than those with ADHD alone. Sensory processing and motor deficits were negatively associated with autonomy in self-care. Interventions aiming to improve sensory processing and motor skills and autonomy in self-care should become important targets for these children. PMID:23667360

  17. Establishment of Joint Attention in Dyads Involving Hearing Mothers of Deaf and Hearing Children, and Its Relation to Adaptive Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Tasker, Susan L.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    Mounting evidence points to joint attention as a mediating variable in children's adaptive behavior. Joint attention in interactions between hearing mothers and congenitally deaf (n = 27) and hearing (n = 29) children, ages 18-36 months, was examined. All deaf children had severe to profound hearing loss. Mother-child interactions were coded for…

  18. Measures of attentional bias and relational responding are associated with behavioral treatment outcome for cocaine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Kenneth M.; Martinez, Diana; Vadhan, Nehal P.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Nunes, Edward V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychosocial interventions for substance dependence have demonstrated efficacy. However, the mechanisms by which specific intervention strategies exert their effect have not been clearly identified. Objective This study investigated the prospective relationships between two psychological processes, an attentional bias towards cocaine stimuli and beliefs about the consequences of cocaine use, and treatment outcome. Method Twenty-five cocaine dependent participants enrolled in a 6-month outpatient treatment program that included voucher incentives for abstinence. All participants were asked to complete two implicit assessment procedures, a Drug Stroop protocol and an Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), as well as explicit measures of cocaine craving and the consequences of cocaine use, prior to beginning treatment. Pearson-correlation coefficients tested the prospective relationships between treatment outcome and the implicit and explicit assessments. Results Stronger implicit beliefs about the positive effects of cocaine use prior to treatment were associated with poorer treatment outcome when an escalating voucher incentive program was in place. Further, an attentional bias for cocaine-related stimuli was associated with better treatment outcome when an escalating voucher incentive program was removed. No association between cocaine use beliefs and treatment outcome was found when beliefs were measured with self-report instruments. Conclusions and Scientific Significance These findings highlight the potential utility of performance based measures for delineating the psychological mechanisms associated with variation in response to treatment for drug dependence. PMID:22220556

  19. Teaching Behaviorally Disordered Students to Increase Teacher Attention in Mainstreamed Classrooms. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Daniel; And Others

    The study investigated the efficacy of training three behaviorally disordered elementary grade students to recruit reinforcement and assistance from teachers. The study also investigated the effect of systematically fading external experimenter reinforcement of students for prompting and praising teachers in the regular classroom. The three…

  20. Emergence of symbolic behavior from brain like memory with dynamic attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Omori; Akiko Mochizuki; Kentaro Mizutani; M. Nishizaki

    1999-01-01

    An important feature of human intelligence is the use of symbols. This is seen in our daily use of language and logical thinking. However, the use of symbols is not limited to humans. We observe planned action sequences in primate behavior and prediction-based action in higher mammals. For the representation and operation of symbols by the brain neural circuit, no

  1. A fixed-links modeling approach to assess individual differences in the attentional blink: Analysis of behavioral and psychophysiological data.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Felicitas L; Rammsayer, Thomas H; Schweizer, Karl; Troche, Stefan J

    2015-07-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is a fundamental limitation of the ability to select relevant information from irrelevant information. It can be observed with the detection rate in an AB task as well as with the corresponding P300 amplitude of the event-related potential. In previous research, however, correlations between these two levels of observation were weak and rather inconsistent. A possible explanation of this finding might be that multiple processes underlie the AB and, thus, obscure a possible relationship between AB-related detection rate and the corresponding P300 amplitude. The present study investigated this assumption by applying a fixed-links modeling approach to represent behavioral individual differences in the AB as a latent variable. Concurrently, this approach enabled us to control for additional sources of variance in AB performance by deriving two additional latent variables. The correlation between the latent variable reflecting behavioral individual differences in AB magnitude and a corresponding latent variable derived from the P300 amplitude was high (r=.70). Furthermore, this correlation was considerably stronger than the correlations of other behavioral measures of the AB magnitude with their psychophysiological counterparts (all rs<.40). Our findings clearly indicate that the systematic disentangling of various sources of variance by utilizing the fixed-links modeling approach is a promising tool to investigate behavioral individual differences in the AB and possible psychophysiological correlates of these individual differences. PMID:26100339

  2. Testing the ability of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to accurately report the effects of medication on their behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Ardoin, S P; Martens, B K

    2000-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often treated with central nervous system stimulants, making the evaluation of medication effects an important topic for applied behavior analysts. Because assessment protocols emphasize informant reports and direct observations of child behavior, little is known about the extent to which children themselves can accurately report medication effects. Double-blind placebo-controlled procedures were used to examine whether 6 children with ADHD could recognize the effects of their medication. The children were given math worksheets to complete for 15 min during each of 14 sessions while on medication and placebo. Children completed a self-evaluation form at the end of each session, and ratings were compared to observed behavior and academic performance. Results indicated that 3 children were able to accurately report their medication status at levels greater than chance, whereas the accuracy of reports by all children was related to dosage level, differences in behavior, and the presence of adverse effects. The implications of these results for placebo-controlled research, self-monitoring of dosage levels, and accuracy training are discussed. PMID:11214033

  3. Attention as a Reinforcer for the Behavior of Young Children in Early Education Classrooms

    E-print Network

    Bayles, Makenzie W.

    2013-12-31

    to be influential in 3 common caregiver and teacher training procedures on how to interact with young children (Risley, 2005). Risley (2005) noted that the findings of these studies on social reinforcement are “arguably the most influential discovery...-Ortega, & Gewirtz, 2011; Poulson, 1983; Reynolds & Risley, 1968; Rheingold, 1956; Rheingold et al., 1959; Routh, 1969; Thompson, Cotnoir-Bichelman, McKerchar, Tate, & Dancho, 2007; Todd & Palmer, 1968; Weisberg, 1963). In addition to shaping verbal behavior...

  4. To What Extent Do Joint Attention, Imitation, and Object Play Behaviors in Infancy Predict Later Communication and Intellectual Functioning in ASD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kenneth K.; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9-12 and/or 15-18 months. A quantitative…

  5. Specificity of cognitive impairment from Pfiesteria piscicida exposure in rats: attention and visual function versus behavioral plasticity.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, A H; Bushnell, P J; Burkholder, J M; Glasgow, H B; Levin, E D

    2001-01-01

    Pfiesteria piscicida is a toxic dinoflagellate that has caused massive fish kills in estuaries along the East Coast of the United States, and exposure of humans to toxic Pfiesteria has been associated with cognitive impairment. A visual signal detection task was used to determine the possible importance of attentional and visual processes in Pfiesteria effects on cognitive function. Adult female rats were trained to perform the signal detection task. After training, the rats were injected subcutaneously with fish culture water containing toxic Pfiesteria (35,600 or 106,800 cells of Pfiesteria/kg of rat body weight) or with (control) fish culture water containing no Pfiesteria. Effects of toxic Pfiesteria on maintenance of signal detection behavior were assessed for 2 weeks after treatment. Then, the signal-response contingencies were reversed. After the discrimination was reestablished on the reversed levers, the rats received a second dose of toxic Pfiesteria. The rats were again tested for 2 weeks, after which a second reversal was imposed. Pfiesteria did not affect behavior in the signal detection task during 2 weeks of prereversal testing after either exposure. However, a significant Pfiesteria-induced deficit emerged when the signal-response contingencies were reversed. These findings suggest that Pfiesteria-induced deficits emerge during periods of behavioral transition and not during performance of previously learned tasks. PMID:11792529

  6. Executive Function Predicts Adaptive Behavior in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of Study Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these two domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, non-exposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. Methods As part of a multisite study, three groups of children (8-18y, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, N=142), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD, N=82), and typically developing controls (CON, N=133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS). Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with three of the four EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. Conclusion These results support prior research in ADHD suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory measures of executive function. PMID:22587709

  7. Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well documented nor well understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound…

  8. Attention and Attachment Related Behavior toward Professional Caregivers in Child Care Centers: A New Measure for Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallini, Susanna; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2012-01-01

    The authors attempted to develop and validate the Toddler Attention Questionnaire (TAQ) by examining the relationship between attention and attachment to a professional caregiver. The psychometric reliability and validity of the TAQ was tested with 72 children ranging from 20 to 36 months old. Attentive processes were also measured by the Italian…

  9. Academic, Behavioral, and Cognitive Effects of OROS® Methylphenidate on Older Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Wigal, Tim; Schuck, Sabrina; Brams, Matthew; Williamson, David; Armstrong, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System (OROS) methylphenidate (MPH) on a variety of measures evaluating academic performance, cognition, and social behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory school study enrolled 78 children aged 9–12 years with ADHD who responded to OROS MPH. After determining individualized OROS MPH dosing (18–54?mg/day), 71 subjects received blinded treatment (OROS MPH or placebo then vice versa) on each of 2 laboratory school days, separated by 1 week. Primary efficacy was measured by Permanent Product Measure of Performance at 4 hours after study drug administration. Results Treatment with OROS MPH resulted in statistically significant improvement in Permanent Product Measure of Performance and Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham scores, measures of response time, and of working memory compared to placebo. Other measures did not meet all pre-established criteria for significance (maintenance of the overall type I error rate at 5%). Adverse events were consistent with previous reports of stimulant medications used in the management of ADHD. There were no discontinuations due to adverse events, and no serious adverse events or deaths. Conclusions OROS MPH dosed to reduce core symptoms of ADHD to within the normal range also improved performance on a variety of academic tasks in school-aged children compared to placebo. Adverse effects reported were consistent with prior studies. Clinical Trial Registry Information Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Evaluating the Academic, Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of Concerta on Older Children with ADHD, URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00799409, unique identifier: NCT00799409. PMID:21488750

  10. Behavioral Attention: A Longitudinal Study of Whether and How It Influences the Development of Word Reading and Reading Comprehension among At-Risk Readers

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Amanda C.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Kearns, Devin; Zhang, Wenjuan; Yen, Loulee; Patton, Samuel; Kirchner, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which teacher ratings of behavioral attention predicted responsiveness to word reading instruction in first grade and third-grade reading comprehension performance. Participants were 110 first grade students identified as at-risk for reading difficulties who received 20 weeks of intensive reading intervention in combination with classroom reading instruction. Path analysis indicated that teacher ratings of student attention significantly predicted students’ word reading growth in first grade even when they were competed against other relevant predictors (phonological awareness, nonword reading, sight word efficiency, vocabulary, listening comprehension, hyperactivity, nonverbal reasoning, and short term memory). Also, student attention demonstrated a significant indirect effect on third grade reading comprehension via word reading, but not via listening comprehension. Results suggest that student attention (indexed by teacher ratings) is an important predictor of at-risk readers’ responsiveness to reading instruction in first grade and that first-grade reading growth mediates the relationship between students’ attention and their future level of reading comprehension. The importance of considering ways to manage and improve behavioral attention when implementing reading instruction is discussed. PMID:25110548

  11. Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well-documented nor well-understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound recognition when task and critical stimuli were identical across attention conditions. We propose modulation of lexical activation as a neurophysiologically-plausible computational mechanism that can account for this type of modulation. Contrary to the claims of critics, this mechanism can account for attentional modulation without violating the principle of interactive processing. Simulations of the interactive TRACE model extended to include two different ways of modulating lexical activation showed that each can account for attentional modulation of lexical feedback effects. Experiment 2 tested conflicting predictions from the two implementations and provided evidence that is consistent with bias input as the mechanism of attentional control of lexical activation. PMID:18509503

  12. Treatment-Related Changes in Objectively Measured Parenting Behaviors in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Karen C.; Chi, Terry C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Pfiffner, Linda; Nebel-Schwalm, Marie; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; March, John; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined treatment outcomes for objectively measured parenting behavior in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Five hundred seventy-nine ethnically and socioeconomically diverse children with ADHD-combined type (ages 7.0-9.9 years) and their parent(s) were recruited …

  13. Behavioral Attention: A Longitudinal Study of Whether and How It Influences the Development of Word Reading and Reading Comprehension among At-Risk Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Amanda C.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald; Kearns, Devin; Zhang, Wenjuan; Yen, Loulee; Patton, Samuel; Kirchner, Danielle Peterson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which teacher ratings of behavioral attention predicted responsiveness to word reading instruction in first-grade and third-grade reading comprehension performance. Participants were 110 first-grade students identified as at risk for reading difficulties who received 20 weeks of intensive…

  14. Sleepiness, On-Task Behavior and Attention in Children with Epilepsy Who Visited a School for Special Education: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Korzilius, Hubert

    2009-01-01

    Children with epilepsy are at risk for problems in daytime functioning. We assessed daytime sleepiness, on-task behavior and attention in 17 children (aged between 7 and 11 years) with epilepsy who visited a school for special education and compared these to 17 children from a control group who visited a regular school. Within the group of…

  15. The Effects of the First Step to Success Program on Academic Engagement Behaviors of Turkish Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of the First Step to Success (FSS) early intervention program with Turkish children identified with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Intervention effectiveness on target children's academic engagement behaviors was studied. Participants were four 7-year-old first-grade students in…

  16. An Investigation of Verbal and Nonverbal Teacher Immediacy Behaviors, Homophily, Interpersonal Solidarity, Student Attentiveness and Student Learning at the Senior High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Earl E.; McDowell, Carlene E.

    This study focused on verbal and nonverbal immediacy behaviors of teachers, the relationship between immediacy variables and cognitive learning, as well as homophily, interpersonal solidarity, and student attentiveness at the senior-high school level. Subjects, 87 female and 73 male senior-high school students enrolled in interpersonal…

  17. To what extent do joint attention, imitation, and object play behaviors in infancy predict later communication and intellectual functioning in ASD?

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Kenneth K.; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9–12 and/or 15–18 months. A quantitative interval recording of behavior and a qualitative rating of the developmental level were applied. Social communication behaviors increased between 9–12 and 15–18 months. Their mean level during infancy, but not the rate of change, predicted both Vineland Communication scores and intellectual functioning at 3–7 years. The two methods of measurement yielded similar results. Thus, early social communicative behaviors may play pivotal roles in the development of subsequent communication and intellectual functioning. PMID:21858585

  18. Looking, Feeling, and Doing: Are There Age Differences in Attention, Mood, and Behavioral Responses to Skin Cancer Information?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek M. Isaacowitz; YoonSun Choi

    2012-01-01

    Overview: Previous studies on aging and attention to emotional information found that older adults may look away from negative stimuli to regulate their moods. However, it is an open question whether older adults' tendency to look less at negative material comes at the expense of learning when negative information is also health-relevant. This study investigated how age-related changes in attention

  19. Reduced activity within the dorsal endogenous orienting of attention network to fearful expressions in youth with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    White, Stuart F; Williams, W Craig; Brislin, Sarah J; Sinclair, Stephen; Blair, Karina S; Fowler, Katherine A; Pine, Daniel S; Pope, Kayla; Blair, R James

    2012-08-01

    Using behavioral and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response indices through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the current study investigated whether youths with disruptive behavior disorders (conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder) plus psychopathic traits (DBD + PT) show aberrant sensitivity to eye gaze information generally and/or whether they show particular insensitivity to eye gaze information in the context of fearful expressions. The participants were 36 children and adolescents (ages 10-17 years); 17 had DBD + PT and 19 were healthy comparison subjects. Participants performed a spatial attention paradigm where spatial attention was cued by eye gaze in faces displaying fearful, angry, or neutral affect. Eye gaze sensitivity was indexed both behaviorally and as BOLD response. There were no group differences in behavioral response: both groups showed significantly faster responses if the target was in the congruent spatial direction indicated by eye gaze. Neither group showed a Congruence × Emotion interaction; neither group showed an advantage from the displayer's emotional expression behaviorally. However, the BOLD response revealed a significant Group × Congruence × Emotion interaction. The comparison youth showed increased activity within the dorsal endogenous orienting network (superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal sulcus) for fearful congruent relative to incongruent trials relative to the youth with DBD + PT. The results are discussed with reference to current models of DBD + PT and possible treatment innovations. PMID:22781874

  20. Reduced activity within the dorsal endogenous orienting of attention network to fearful expressions in youth with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits

    PubMed Central

    WHITE, STUART F.; WILLIAMS, W. CRAIG; BRISLIN, SARAH J.; SINCLAIR, STEPHEN; BLAIR, KARINA S.; FOWLER, KATHERINE A.; PINE, DANIEL S.; POPE, KAYLA; BLAIR, R. JAMES

    2014-01-01

    Using behavioral and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response indices through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the current study investigated whether youths with disruptive behavior disorders (conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder) plus psychopathic traits (DBD + PT) show aberrant sensitivity to eye gaze information generally and/or whether they show particular insensitivity to eye gaze information in the context of fearful expressions. The participants were 36 children and adolescents (ages 10–17 years); 17 had DBD + PT and 19 were healthy comparison subjects. Participants performed a spatial attention paradigm where spatial attention was cued by eye gaze in faces displaying fearful, angry, or neutral affect. Eye gaze sensitivity was indexed both behaviorally and as BOLD response. There were no group differences in behavioral response: both groups showed significantly faster responses if the target was in the congruent spatial direction indicated by eye gaze. Neither group showed a Congruence × Emotion interaction; neither group showed an advantage from the displayer’s emotional expression behaviorally. However, the BOLD response revealed a significant Group × Congruence × Emotion interaction. The comparison youth showed increased activity within the dorsal endogenous orienting network (superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal sulcus) for fearful congruent relative to incongruent trials relative to the youth with DBD + PT. The results are discussed with reference to current models of DBD + PT and possible treatment innovations. PMID:22781874

  1. Sensing, assessing, and augmenting threat detection: behavioral, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation evidence for the critical role of attention

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Raja; Galster, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly identifying the potentially threatening movements of other people and objects—biological motion perception and action understanding—is critical to maintaining security in many civilian and military settings. A key approach to improving threat detection in these environments is to sense when less than ideal conditions exist for the human observer, assess that condition relative to an expected standard, and if necessary use tools to augment human performance. Action perception is typically viewed as a relatively “primitive,” automatic function immune to top-down effects. However, recent research shows that attention is a top-down factor that has a critical influence on the identification of threat-related targets. In this paper we show that detection of motion-based threats is attention sensitive when surveillance images are obscured by other movements, when they are visually degraded, when other stimuli or tasks compete for attention, or when low-probability threats must be watched for over long periods of time—all features typical of operational security settings. Neuroimaging studies reveal that action understanding recruits a distributed network of brain regions, including the superior temporal cortex, intraparietal cortex, and inferior frontal cortex. Within this network, attention modulates activation of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and middle temporal gyrus. The dorsal frontoparietal network may provide the source of attention-modulation signals to action representation areas. Stimulation of this attention network should therefore enhance threat detection. We show that transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) at 2 mA accelerates perceptual learning of participants performing a challenging threat-detection task. Together, cognitive, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation studies provide converging evidence for the critical role of attention in the detection and understanding of threat-related intentional actions. PMID:23781194

  2. Sensing, assessing, and augmenting threat detection: behavioral, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation evidence for the critical role of attention.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, Raja; Galster, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly identifying the potentially threatening movements of other people and objects-biological motion perception and action understanding-is critical to maintaining security in many civilian and military settings. A key approach to improving threat detection in these environments is to sense when less than ideal conditions exist for the human observer, assess that condition relative to an expected standard, and if necessary use tools to augment human performance. Action perception is typically viewed as a relatively "primitive," automatic function immune to top-down effects. However, recent research shows that attention is a top-down factor that has a critical influence on the identification of threat-related targets. In this paper we show that detection of motion-based threats is attention sensitive when surveillance images are obscured by other movements, when they are visually degraded, when other stimuli or tasks compete for attention, or when low-probability threats must be watched for over long periods of time-all features typical of operational security settings. Neuroimaging studies reveal that action understanding recruits a distributed network of brain regions, including the superior temporal cortex, intraparietal cortex, and inferior frontal cortex. Within this network, attention modulates activation of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and middle temporal gyrus. The dorsal frontoparietal network may provide the source of attention-modulation signals to action representation areas. Stimulation of this attention network should therefore enhance threat detection. We show that transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) at 2 mA accelerates perceptual learning of participants performing a challenging threat-detection task. Together, cognitive, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation studies provide converging evidence for the critical role of attention in the detection and understanding of threat-related intentional actions. PMID:23781194

  3. Attention Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Falkinger

    2003-01-01

    Attracting attention is a basic feature of economic life but no standard economic problem. A new theoretical model is developed which describes the general structure of competition for attention and characterizes equilibria. The exogenous fundamentals of an attention economy are the space of receiving subjects with their attention capacity, and the potential set of competing companies (senders) with their radiation

  4. Investigating sustained attention ability in the elderly by using two different approaches: inhibiting ongoing behavior versus responding on rare occasions.

    PubMed

    Staub, Bérengère; Doignon-Camus, Nadège; Bacon, Elisabeth; Bonnefond, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies on sustained attention ability in the elderly produced inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to evaluate sustained attention performance in younger and older individuals by using, in a within-subjects design, two versions of the same task (the sustained attention to response task, SART) in which only in the response mode differed: in a traditionally formatted task (TFT), subjects had to respond to rare targets, and in a Go/No-Go task they had to withhold response to rare targets. Results showed that in the TFT SART only the older group exhibited a vigilance decrement. On the contrary, only young individuals showed a vigilance decrement in the Go/No-Go SART. These results showed that older individuals, who also reported less mind wandering and a higher level of motivation, exhibited preserved sustained attention ability in the Go/No-Go SART, which could be explained by increased engagement of cognitive control mechanisms in this population. The discrepancy in performance depending on the approach used also underlines the need for further studies on the nature of attention failures and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:24378237

  5. Response Inhibition in Preschoolers at Familial Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Stop-Signal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Andrea; Alyagon, Uri; Hadaya, Hadas; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G.

    2013-01-01

    Children participating in the Ben-Gurion Infant Development Study were assessed with a dynamic-tracking version of the stop-signal task at the age of 5 years. The sample consisted of 60 males. Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was correlated with concurrent ratings of the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms.…

  6. Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Impact of Age and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Ana; Soriano, Manuel; Fernandez, Inmaculada; Melia, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Comorbidity with other psychological problems (PP) complicates the course of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and makes treatment more difficult. The purpose of the present study was to (a) study the correspondence between the perceptions of parents and teachers about PP, (b) determine which PP predict the severity of the…

  7. Integrating Mindfulness Practices into the Elementary Curriculum to Improve Attention-to-Task Behaviors and Social Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanagy-Borofka, Lori

    2013-01-01

    This study examined effects of integrating mindfulness practices into the 5th grade curriculum to improve attention-to-task, including inattention and executive functioning, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and social relations. As academic requirements become more rigorous, students have been expected to demonstrate increased skills in…

  8. [Does the selection of fox for tame and aggressive behavior changes their ability to focus attention, and training the motor skills?].

    PubMed

    Mukhamedshina, I A; Kharlamova, A V; Trut, L N

    2014-01-01

    Foxes long time selected for tame and aggressive behavior were compared on ability to focus attention on the object of food reinforcement. Attenuation of this behavior and rate of training for motor skills also has been examined. Maximal duration of eye focusing was significantly higher in aggressive foxes, in comparison with tame ones. Our experiments allowed divide the group of tame foxes into two subgroups "calm" and "emotional", on the base of emotionality and motor activity during tests. Features of behavior of these two subgroups steadily differed in all tests. "Calm" tame foxes at the extinction test continued the trained skill longer than "emotional" and aggressive ones. Tame foxes were more successful than aggressive in the training for motor skills. The possible reasons of the data obtained are discussed. PMID:25710073

  9. Increasing On-Task Behaviors of High School Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Is It Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham-Day, Kristall J.; Gardner, Ralph, III.; Hsin, Yi-Wei

    2010-01-01

    This study used audiotaped chimes and a student checklist to improve the on-task behavior of three 10th-grade students with ADHD. The study took place in a high school study hall specifically for students with disabilities. The observers used a 10-second whole interval recording system to record on-task/off-task behavior within an alternating…

  10. Assessing dangerous driving behavior during driving inattention: Psychometric adaptation and validation of the Attention-Related Driving Errors Scale in China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Weina; Ge, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan

    2015-07-01

    Driver inattention is a significant cause of motor vehicle collisions and incidents. The purpose of this study was to translate the Attention-Related Driving Error Scale (ARDES) into Chinese and to verify its reliability and validity. A total of 317 drivers completed the Chinese version of the ARDES, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI), the Attention-Related Cognitive Errors Scale (ARCES) and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) questionnaires. Specific sociodemographic variables and traffic violations were also measured. Psychometric results confirm that the ARDES-China has adequate psychometric properties (Cronbach's alpha=0.88) to be a useful tool for evaluating proneness to attentional errors in the Chinese driving population. First, ARDES-China scores were positively correlated with both DDDI scores and number of accidents in the prior year; in addition, ARDES-China scores were a significant predictor of dangerous driving behavior as measured by DDDI. Second, we found that ARDES-China scores were strongly correlated with ARCES scores and negatively correlated with MAAS scores. Finally, different demographic groups exhibited significant differences in ARDES scores; in particular, ARDES scores varied with years of driving experience. PMID:25912099

  11. Attentional Networks Functioning, Age, and Attentional Lapses While Driving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Fernanda López-Ramón; Cándida Castro; Javier Roca; Rubén Ledesma; Juan Lupiañez

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Based on Posner's (1994) model of attentional functions, the relationship between age and personal proneness to attention-related errors while driving and the functioning of the 3 attentional networks were explored by means of attentional behavioral measures and self-report data.Methods: A sample of 55 drivers was drawn from the general population of Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Attention

  12. Development of a Brief, Behavioral Homework Intervention for Middle School Students with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronica L. Raggi; Andrea Chronis-Tuscano; Howard Fishbein; Amber Groomes

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to the vast literature on treatments for children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there\\u000a is a relative paucity of research examining the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for adolescents with ADHD. Furthermore,\\u000a only a handful of ADHD treatment studies employ educational interventions to improve academic functioning, and no study to\\u000a date has examined a parent training intervention for targeting homework

  13. The Effect of Stress Management Program Using Cognitive Behavior Approach on Mental Health of the Mothers of the Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Farkhondeh; Zarei, Shekufe; Alavi Shooshtari, Ali; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children. Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of stress management program using cognitive behavior approach on mental health of the mothers of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Patients and Methods: In this interventional study, 90 mothers of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were randomly allocated into three intervention, placebo, and control groups. The general health questionnaire was used to measure mental health. Besides, stress was assessed through the depression-anxiety-stress scale. The two instruments were completed at baseline, immediately after, and one month after the intervention by the mothers. Afterwards, within group comparisons were made using one-sample repeated measurement ANOVA. One-way ANOVA was used for inter group comparisons. Mothers in the placebo group only participated in meetings to talk and express feelings without receiving any interventions. Results: At the baseline, no significant difference was found among the three groups regarding the means of stress, anxiety, depression, and mental health. However, a significant difference was observed in the mean score of stress immediately after the intervention (P = 0.033). The results also showed a significant difference among the three groups regarding the mean score of mental health (P < 0.001). One month after the intervention, the mean difference of mental health score remained significant only in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The study findings confirmed the effectiveness of stress management program utilizing cognitive behavior approach in mental health of the mothers of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:26199709

  14. Attention economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Falkinger

    2007-01-01

    A new theoretical model is developed which describes the structure of competition for attention and characterizes equilibria. The exogenous fundamentals of an attention economy are the space of receiving subjects with their attention capacity, and the potential set of competing firms (senders) with their radiation technology. The endogenous variables explained by the theory are equilibrium audiences (the clients belonging to

  15. A Comparative Assessment of Student Classroom Behaviors and Learning Environment in Classes of a High Control and a Low Control Teacher through Student Perceptions and Class Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turanli, Adem Sultan; Yildirim, Ali

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between teachers' orientations to classroom management and their students' classroom behaviors and the learning environment. Two teachers with different orientations (non-interventionist and interventionist) to classroom management were selected, and their 91 students were administered the…

  16. Coming out in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article shares how the author explained her trans status to her students. Everyone has been extremely supportive of her decision to come out in class and to completely mask the male secondary-sex characteristics, especially in the workplace. The department chair and the faculty in general have been willing to do whatever they can to assist…

  17. Improving Homework in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Self vs. Parent Monitoring of Homework Behavior and Study Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Kara; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2007-01-01

    The current study compared the effectiveness of self- and parent-monitoring of homework and study skills completion in middle school students with ADHD. Students were trained in the SQ4R (Survey, Question, Read, Write, Recite) study strategy and homework completion skills. In one group, students monitored their homework and study behavior and in…

  18. Different Behavioral and Eye Movement Patterns of Dyslexic Readers with and without Attentional Deficits during Single Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Verena; Urton, Karolina; Heine, Angela; Hawelka, Stefan; Engl, Verena; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2009-01-01

    Comorbidity of learning disabilities is a very common phenomenon which is intensively studied in genetics, neuropsychology, prevalence studies and causal deficit research. In studies on the behavioral manifestation of learning disabilities, however, comorbidity is often neglected. In the present study, we systematically examined the reading…

  19. Parental Influence on Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: I. Relationships between Parent Behaviors and Child Peer Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Jack, Allison; Emeh, Christina C.; Stephens, Haley F.

    2010-01-01

    We examined associations between children's peer relationships and (a) their parents' social competence as well as (b) their parents' behaviors during the children's peer interactions. Participants were families of 124 children ages 6-10 (68% male), 62 with ADHD and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison youth. Children's peer relationships were…

  20. Effects of Extended Release Methylphenidate Treatment on Ratings of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Associated Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Cynthia W.; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Casat, Charles D.; Mansour, Rosleen; Lane, David M.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Jerger, Susan W.; Factor, Perry; Vanwoerden, Salome; Perez, Evelyn; Cleveland, Lynne A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral effects of four doses of psychostimulant medication, combining extended-release methylphenidate (MPH) in the morning with immediate-release MPH in the afternoon. Method The sample comprised 24 children (19 boys; 5 girls) who met American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and had significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This sample consisted of elementary school-age, community-based children (mean chronological age=8.8 years, SD=1.7; mean intelligence quotient [IQ]=85; SD=16.8). Effects of four dose levels of MPH on parent and teacher behavioral ratings were investigated using a within-subject, crossover, placebo-controlled design. Results MPH treatment was associated with significant declines in hyperactive and impulsive behavior at both home and school. Parents noted significant declines in inattentive and oppositional behavior, and improvements in social skills. No exacerbation of stereotypies was noted, and side effects were similar to those seen in typically developing children with ADHD. Dose response was primarily linear in the dose range studied. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that MPH formulations are efficacious and well-tolerated for children with ASD and significant ADHD symptoms. PMID:23782128

  1. Parental Influence on Children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder: I. Relationships Between Parent Behaviors and Child Peer Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amori Yee Mikami; Allison Jack; Christina C. Emeh; Haley F. Stephens

    2010-01-01

    We examined associations between children’s peer relationships and (a) their parents’ social competence as well as (b) their\\u000a parents’ behaviors during the children’s peer interactions. Participants were families of 124 children ages 6–10 (68% male),\\u000a 62 with ADHD and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison youth. Children’s peer relationships were assessed via parent and teacher\\u000a report, and sociometric nominations in a

  2. Old Dog, New Tricks: The Attentional Set-Shifting Test as a Novel Cognitive Behavioral Task after Controlled Cortical Impact Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bondi, Corina O.; Cheng, Jeffrey P.; Tennant, Heather M.; Monaco, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cognitive impairment associated with prefrontal cortical dysfunction is a major component of disability in traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors. Specifically, deficits of cognitive flexibility and attentional set-shifting are present across all levels of injury severity. Though alterations in spatial learning have been extensively described in experimental models of TBI, studies investigating more complex cognitive deficits are relatively scarce. Hence, the aim of this preclinical study was to expand on this important issue by evaluating the effect of three injury levels on executive function and behavioral flexibility performance as assessed using an attentional set-shifting test (AST). Isoflurane-anesthetized male rats received a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury (2.6, 2.8, and 3.0?mm cortical depth at 4?m/sec) or sham injury, whereas an additional group had no surgical manipulation (naïve). Four weeks postsurgery, rats were tested on the AST, which involved a series of discriminative tasks of increasing difficulty, such as simple and compound discriminations, stimulus reversals, and intra- and extradimensional (ED) shifts. TBI produced accompanying impact depth-dependent increases in cortical lesion volumes, with the 3.0-mm cortical depth group displaying significantly larger injury volumes than the 2.6-mm group (p=0.05). Further, injury severity-induced deficits in ED set-shifting and stimulus reversals, as well as increases in total response error rates and total set loss errors, were observed. These novel findings demonstrate executive function and behavioral flexibility deficits in our animal model of CCI injury and provide the impetus to integrate the AST in the standard neurotrauma behavioral battery to further evaluate cognitive dysfunction after TBI. Ongoing experiments in our laboratory are assessing AST performance after pharmacological and rehabilitative therapies post-TBI, as well as elucidating possible mechanisms underlying the observed neuropsychological deficits. PMID:24397572

  3. Old dog, new tricks: the attentional set-shifting test as a novel cognitive behavioral task after controlled cortical impact injury.

    PubMed

    Bondi, Corina O; Cheng, Jeffrey P; Tennant, Heather M; Monaco, Christina M; Kline, Anthony E

    2014-05-15

    Cognitive impairment associated with prefrontal cortical dysfunction is a major component of disability in traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors. Specifically, deficits of cognitive flexibility and attentional set-shifting are present across all levels of injury severity. Though alterations in spatial learning have been extensively described in experimental models of TBI, studies investigating more complex cognitive deficits are relatively scarce. Hence, the aim of this preclinical study was to expand on this important issue by evaluating the effect of three injury levels on executive function and behavioral flexibility performance as assessed using an attentional set-shifting test (AST). Isoflurane-anesthetized male rats received a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury (2.6, 2.8, and 3.0 mm cortical depth at 4 m/sec) or sham injury, whereas an additional group had no surgical manipulation (naïve). Four weeks postsurgery, rats were tested on the AST, which involved a series of discriminative tasks of increasing difficulty, such as simple and compound discriminations, stimulus reversals, and intra- and extradimensional (ED) shifts. TBI produced accompanying impact depth-dependent increases in cortical lesion volumes, with the 3.0-mm cortical depth group displaying significantly larger injury volumes than the 2.6-mm group (p=0.05). Further, injury severity-induced deficits in ED set-shifting and stimulus reversals, as well as increases in total response error rates and total set loss errors, were observed. These novel findings demonstrate executive function and behavioral flexibility deficits in our animal model of CCI injury and provide the impetus to integrate the AST in the standard neurotrauma behavioral battery to further evaluate cognitive dysfunction after TBI. Ongoing experiments in our laboratory are assessing AST performance after pharmacological and rehabilitative therapies post-TBI, as well as elucidating possible mechanisms underlying the observed neuropsychological deficits. PMID:24397572

  4. Correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sugar consumption, quality of diet, and dietary behavior in school children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yujeong

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between consumption of sugar intake by fifth grade students in primary schools and development of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A total of 107 students participated, and eight boys and one girl (8.4% of the total) categorized as high risk for ADHD according to diagnostic criteria. There were significant differences in the occupations and drinking habits of the respondents' fathers between the normal group and risk group. In a comparison of students' nutrition intake status with daily nutrition intake standards for Koreans, students consumed twice as much protein as the recommended level, whereas their calcium intake was only 60% of the recommended DRI (dietary reference intake). Regarding intake volume of vitamin C, the normal group posted 143.9% of the recommended DRI, whereas the risk group showed only 65.5% of the recommended DRI. In terms of simple sugar intake from snacks, students in the normal group consumed 58.4 g while the risk group consumed 50.2 g. These levels constituted 12.5% of their total daily volume of sugar intake from snacks, which is higher than the 10% standard recommended by the WHO. In conclusion, children who consumed less sugar from fruit snacks or whose vitamin C intake was less than RI was at increased risks for ADHD (P < 0.05). However, no significant association was observed between total volume of simple sugar intake from snacks and ADHD development. PMID:21779528

  5. Capturing Attention When Attention "Blinks"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Serena; Chua, Fook K.

    2004-01-01

    Four experiments addressed the question of whether attention may be captured when the visual system is in the midst of an attentional blink (AB). Participants identified 2 target letters embedded among distractor letters in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence. In some trials, a square frame was inserted between the targets; as the only…

  6. Viewing preschool disruptive behavior disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder through a developmental lens: what we know and what we need to know.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Anil; Wakschlag, Lauren; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2009-07-01

    Empirical investigation into disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in early childhood has expanded considerably during the past decade. Although there have been considerable gains in the understanding of the presentation and course of these psychiatric disorders in early childhood, the lack of a developmental framework to guide nosologic issues likely impedes progress in this area. The authors propose that enhanced developmental sensitivity in defining symptoms of DBDs and ADHD may shed light on outstanding issues in the field. In particular, developmental specification may enhance specificity, sensitivity, and stability of DBDs and ADHD symptoms as well as inform our understanding of which type of treatment works best for whom. This article provides an overview of these critical issues. PMID:19486842

  7. Neuropsychological and Behavioral Profiles in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children of Parents with a History of Mood Disorders: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Hong, Kang-E M; Yang, Young Hui; Kang, Jewook; Park, Eun Jin; Ha, Kyooseob; Park, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the neurocognitive and behavioral endophenotypes of premorbid mood disorder. We compared intelligence, neuropsychological functioning, and behavioral problems among three groups: 1) a high-risk group [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children of parents with a history of a mood disorder], 2) a low-risk group (ADHD children of parents without a history of a mood disorder), and 3) normal comparison subjects. Methods We used the Korean Educational Development Institute Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (KEDI-WISC-R), the Stroop Color Word Interference Test (Stroop), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) as neurocognitive measures, and we used the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) as a behavioral measure. Performance on these neuropsychological tests and score on the CBCL of 18 high-risk children were compared to those of 20 low-risk children and 24 healthy children. We also assessed the children's current mood state and familial functioning to control for the confounding effects of these variables. Results Compared to low-risk and healthy children, high-risk children were impaired on the Picture Completion and Stroop Word subtest and showed higher scores on the CBCL subscales representing internalizing symptoms. These significant group differences persisted even after adjustment for the children's current mood state and familial functioning. Conclusion Neuropsychological deficits in the offspring of parents with a mood disorder may be associated with the current mood state rather than with innate characteristics, while their internalizing symptoms may partially stem from innate characteristics that are endophenotypes of a premorbid mood disorder. PMID:24605126

  8. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Barber, Anita D; Jacobson, Lisa A; Wexler, Joanna L; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain-behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8-12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain-behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN-occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON-DMN connections. For all CON-DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON-DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON-DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN-occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children. PMID:25610768

  9. Gaze Cueing of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Frischen, Alexandra; Bayliss, Andrew P.; Tipper, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    During social interactions, people’s eyes convey a wealth of information about their direction of attention and their emotional and mental states. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of past and current research into the perception of gaze behavior and its effect on the observer. This encompasses the perception of gaze direction and its influence on perception of the other person, as well as gaze-following behavior such as joint attention, in infant, adult, and clinical populations. Particular focus is given to the gaze-cueing paradigm that has been used to investigate the mechanisms of joint attention. The contribution of this paradigm has been significant and will likely continue to advance knowledge across diverse fields within psychology and neuroscience. PMID:17592962

  10. Engaging Students via In-Class Worksheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wyels, Cindy

    The Mathematical Association of America (MAA) is creating a series of instructional materials for mathematics teachers, and they are drawing on the expertise of high-quality instructors from across the country. One such teacher is Cindy Wyels, who teaches math at California State University, Channel Islands. She recently created this useful set of materials that will help teachers with the use of worksheets in the classroom. As she remarks in her introduction to these materials, "Worksheets used in class can also help direct students' learning out-of-class." This site contains links to discussion and illustrative examples, and also offers tips on how to focus students' attention in class, delivering content efficiently, and teaching students how to learn from their textbooks.

  11. Attention to attention in domestic dog ( Canis familiaris ) dyadic play

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Horowitz

    2009-01-01

    The social cognitive capacities of dogs, including their communication skills and use of visual attention cues, have recently\\u000a been investigated in numerous experimental studies. This paper reports on research of domestic dog behavior in a natural setting,\\u000a which shows sensitivity to the visual attention of their partners when engaged in dyadic rough-and-tumble play. The sequential\\u000a behaviors and head-direction of both

  12. Neural synchrony and selective attention

    E-print Network

    Desimone, Robert

    A complex visual scene will typically contain many different objects, few of which are currently relevant to behavior. Thus, attentional mechanisms are needed to select the relevant objects from the scene and to reject the ...

  13. Protective effects of the alcohol dehydrogenase-ADH1B*3 allele on attention and behavior problems in adolescents exposed to alcohol during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Neil C; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase is a critical enzyme in the metabolism of alcohol. Expression of three alleles at the ADH1B locus results in enzymes that differ in turnover rate and affinity for alcohol. The ADH1B*3 allele, which appears to be unique to individuals of African descent, is associated with more rapid alcohol metabolism than the more prevalent ADH1B*1 allele. It has been previously demonstrated that the presence of at least one maternal ADH1B*3 allele confers a protective effect against alcohol teratogenicity in infants and children. This study was conducted to determine whether the presence of the ADH1B*3 allele in the mother or child continues to be protective in alcohol-exposed individuals during adolescence. 186 adolescents and 167 mothers participating in a 14-year follow-up of the Detroit Longitudinal Cohort were genotyped for ADH1B alleles. Behavioral reports were obtained from classroom teachers. Frequencies of the ADH1B*3 allele were 17.6% in the mothers and 21.0% in the adolescents, which are consistent with the 15-20% expected for African Americans. Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with increased attention problems and externalizing behaviors in adolescents born to mothers with two ADH1B*1 alleles but not in those whose mothers had at least one ADH1B*3 allele. A similar pattern was seen in relation to the presence or absence of an ADH1B*3 allele in the adolescent, which may have reflected the presence/absence of the maternal variant. This study is the first to demonstrate that the protective effects of the maternal ADH1B*3 allele continue to be evident during adolescence. These persistent individual differences in vulnerability of offspring to the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure are likely attributable to more rapid metabolism of alcohol that the ADH1B*3 variant confers on the mother, leading to a reduction of the peak blood alcohol concentration to which the fetus is exposed during each drinking episode. PMID:24263126

  14. Do executive function deficits differentiate between children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD comorbid with Oppositional Defiant Disorder? A cross-cultural study using performance-based tests and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Qian; Lan Shuai; Qingjiu Cao; Raymond C. K. Chan; Yufeng Wang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the differential executive dysfunction of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and those with ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in Han Chinese. A total of 258 children (89 ADHD, 53 ADHD + ODD, 116 controls) completed performance-based executive function tests and had their everyday life executive skills rated by their parents using the Behavior Rating

  15. The Impact of a Year-Long, Same School Social Skills Instruction Program on Students' with Verified Behavioral Disorders, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders Perceptions of Program Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaden, Gregory G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a year-long, same school classroom social skills instruction program on students' with verified Emotional Behavior Disorders, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders perceptions of program effectiveness. This study indicated that youth can demonstrate…

  16. Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melinda Corwin; Kirti N. Kanitkar; Adam Schwebach; Miriam Mulsow

    An association between Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and adolescent behavioral problems has been well established\\u000a (Lee, Mulsow & Reifman, 2003). For example, adolescents with ADHD have been found to be more likely than adolescents without\\u000a ADHD to engage in risk-taking behaviors such as substance use and abuse, risky driving, risky sexual behaviors, and behaviors\\u000a indicative of conduct disorder or oppositional defiant

  17. Attention deficit disorder and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Romaine

    2005-01-01

    Countless studies have demonstrated that patients with epilepsy have a significant increase in behavioral disturbances of all kinds, including hyperactivity and inattention. This finding has been demonstrated in studies utilizing observer questionnaires and behavior rating scales, neuropsychological test batteries, and standardized tests of attention such as continuous performance tests. Multiple factors must be considered in the evaluation of a child with epilepsy and hyperactivity or inattention. For instance, inattention could be due to subclinical seizures, undiagnosed learning disabilities, disturbed sleep as a result of a side effect of antiepileptic medication, or due to an attention deficit disorder. Electroencephalographic monitoring is helpful to distinguish between behavioral inattention and partial complex or absence seizures. Electroencephalographic monitoring can also assess subclinical spike frequency, which may affect attention and other aspects of cognitive functioning in various ways, even in the absence of clinical seizures. Most antiepileptic drugs do not adversely affect attention and behavior in therapeutic doses, with the exception of phenobarbital, gabapentin, and topiramate. Some antiepileptic drugs, such as lamotrigine and carbamazepine, may even have beneficial effects. The preponderance of evidence suggests that stimulants other than bupropion are safe and effective in the treatment of attention deficit disorder in children with epilepsy, although controlled studies of dextroamphetamine in this population are lacking. So far, atomoxetine has not been demonstrated to have any adverse effect in children with epilepsy. PMID:15607597

  18. Joint attention and language in autism and developmental language delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine A. Loveland; Susan H. Landry

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of gestural joint attention behaviors and the development of effective communication skills in autism and developmental language delay (DLD) was investigated. Autistic and DLD children matched for MA and MLU were compared on measures of gestural joint attention behavior, personal pronoun use, and spontaneous communicative behavior. DLD children responded correctly to joint attention interactions more often than autistic

  19. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms: Do the Software and the Instruction Method Affect Their Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomonidou, Christina; Garagouni-Areou, Fotina; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) use on pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Nine Greek primary school pupils with ADHD symptoms and four others with no such deficit worked on a computer, either individually or collaboratively, once a week for a six-week period.…

  20. Civility in Classes and Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility in classes and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…

  1. Attention in a Bayesian Framework

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, Louise; Sahani, Maneesh

    2012-01-01

    The behavioral phenomena of sensory attention are thought to reflect the allocation of a limited processing resource, but there is little consensus on the nature of the resource or why it should be limited. Here we argue that a fundamental bottleneck emerges naturally within Bayesian models of perception, and use this observation to frame a new computational account of the need for, and action of, attention – unifying diverse attentional phenomena in a way that goes beyond previous inferential, probabilistic and Bayesian models. Attentional effects are most evident in cluttered environments, and include both selective phenomena, where attention is invoked by cues that point to particular stimuli, and integrative phenomena, where attention is invoked dynamically by endogenous processing. However, most previous Bayesian accounts of attention have focused on describing relatively simple experimental settings, where cues shape expectations about a small number of upcoming stimuli and thus convey “prior” information about clearly defined objects. While operationally consistent with the experiments it seeks to describe, this view of attention as prior seems to miss many essential elements of both its selective and integrative roles, and thus cannot be easily extended to complex environments. We suggest that the resource bottleneck stems from the computational intractability of exact perceptual inference in complex settings, and that attention reflects an evolved mechanism for approximate inference which can be shaped to refine the local accuracy of perception. We show that this approach extends the simple picture of attention as prior, so as to provide a unified and computationally driven account of both selective and integrative attentional phenomena. PMID:22712010

  2. The duration of disgusted and fearful faces is judged longer and shorter than that of neutral faces: the attention-related time distortions as revealed by behavioral and electrophysiological measurements

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Liu, Yunzhe; Wang, Xiaochun; Chen, Yuming; Luo, Yuejia

    2014-01-01

    Time perception has been shown to be altered by emotions. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of two threat-related emotions on the judgment of time intervals in the range of 490–910 ms. We demonstrated that disgust and fear have distinct influences on time perception. At the behavioral level, disgusted faces were estimated longer and fearful faces were estimated shorter (i.e., the generalization gradient for the disgusted faces was shifted left while the generalization gradient for the fearful faces was shifted right) when compared with neutral faces. Accordingly, the contingent negative variation, an online ERP index of timing, displayed larger area in disgust and smaller area in fear conditions when compared with neutral condition (disgust = 1.94 ± 2.35 ?V•s, neutral = 1.40 ± 2.5 ?V•s, and fear = 1.00 ± 2.26 ?V•s). These findings indicated that specific neural mechanisms may underlie the attention effects of different subtypes of threat-related emotions on timing; compared with neutral faces, fearful faces are likely to attract more attentional resources while disgusted faces may attract less attentional resources for emotional processing. The major contribution of the current study is to provide neural correlates of fear vs. disgust divergence in the aspect of time perception and to demonstrate beyond the behavioral level that the categorization of threat-related emotions should be refined so to highlight the adaptability of the human defense system. PMID:25221488

  3. Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Functional Impairment in Clinic- and Community-Based Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lin, Yu-Ju; Shang, Chi-Yung; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Soong, Wei-Tsuen

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 268 patients and 137 community-based children with DSM-IV ADHD, and 268 school controls, aged 6-15, this study aimed to compare the emotional/behavioral problems and functional impairment between clinic- and community-based children with ADHD. Children's ADHD-related symptoms, a wide range of emotional/behavioral problems, and…

  4. Deficient Behavioral Inhibition and Anomalous Selective Attention in a Community Sample of Adolescents with Psychopathic Traits and Low-Anxiety Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitale, Jennifer E.; Newman, Joseph P.; Bates, John E.; Goodnight, Jackson; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2005-01-01

    Socialization is the important process by which individuals learn and then effectively apply the rules of appropriate societal behavior. Response modulation is a psychobiological process theorized to aid in socialization by allowing individuals to utilize contextual information to modify ongoing behavior appropriately. Using Hare's (1991)…

  5. The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shui-I

    2008-01-01

    An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

  6. Attention-based information retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Buscher

    2007-01-01

    In the proposed PhD thesis, it will be examined how attention data from the user can be exploited in order to enhance and personalize information retrieval. Up to now, nearly all implicit feedback sources that are used for information retrieval are based on mouse and keyboard input like clickthrough, scrolling and annotation behavior. In this work, an unobtrusive eye tracker

  7. Extended attention span training system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  8. Cognitive Control and Attentional Functions

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Fan, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control is essential to flexible, goal-directed behavior under uncertainty, yet its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Because attentional functions are known to allocate mental resources and prioritize the information to be processed by the brain, we propose that the attentional functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control and the interactions among them contribute to cognitive control in the service of uncertainty reduction. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between cognitive control and attentional functions. We used the Majority Function Task (MFT) to manipulate uncertainty in order to evoke cognitive control along with the Revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R) to measure the efficiency and the interactions of attentional functions. A backwards, stepwise regression model revealed that performance on the MFT could be significantly predicted by attentional functions and their interactions as measured by the ANT-R. These results provide preliminary support for our theory that the attentional functions may be involved in the implementation of cognitive control as required to reduce uncertainty, though further investigation is needed. PMID:23792472

  9. Visual Field Asymmetries in Attention Vary with Self-Reported Attention Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poynter, William; Ingram, Paul; Minor, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an index of self-reported attention deficits predicts the pattern of visual field asymmetries observed in behavioral measures of attention. Studies of "normal" subjects do not present a consistent pattern of asymmetry in attention functions, with some studies showing better left visual field (LVF)…

  10. Joint Attention in Autism: Teaching Smiling Coordinated with Gaze to Respond to Joint Attention Bids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krstovska-Guerrero, Ivana; Jones, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism demonstrate early deficits in joint attention and expressions of affect. Interventions to teach joint attention have addressed gaze behavior, gestures, and vocalizations, but have not specifically taught an expression of positive affect such as smiling that tends to occur during joint attention interactions. Intervention was…

  11. Measuring Attention in the Hemispheres: The Lateralized Attention Network Test (LANT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Deanna J.; Barnea, Anat; Herzberg, Kristin; Rassis, Anat; Neta, Maital; Raz, Amir; Zaidel, Eran

    2008-01-01

    The attention network test (ANT) is a brief computerized battery measuring three independent behavioral components of attention: Conflict resolution (ability to overcome distracting stimuli), spatial Orienting (the benefit of valid spatial pre-cues), and Alerting (the benefit of temporal pre-cues). Imaging, clinical, and behavioral evidence…

  12. Contingent attentional capture or delayed allocation of attention?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, R. W.; Folk, C. L.; McLean, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, external stimuli will elicit an involuntary shift of spatial attention, referred to as attentional capture. According to the contingent involuntary orienting account (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992), capture is conditioned by top-down factors that set attention to respond involuntarily to stimulus properties relevant to one's behavioral goals. Evidence for this comes from spatial cuing studies showing that a spatial cuing effect is observed only when cues have goal-relevant properties. Here, we examine alternative, decision-level explanations of the spatial cuing effect that attribute evidence of capture to postpresentation delays in the voluntary allocation of attention, rather than to on-line involuntary shifts in direct response to the cue. In three spatial cuing experiments, delayed-allocation accounts were tested by examining whether items at the cued location were preferentially processed. The experiments provide evidence that costs and benefits in spatial cuing experiments do reflect the on-line capture of attention. The implications of these results for models of attentional control are discussed.

  13. Spatial attention, feature-based attention, and saccades: three sides of one coin?

    PubMed

    Mazer, James A

    2011-06-15

    The last three decades has seen a steady growth of neuroscience research aimed at understanding the functions and sources of top-down attentional modulation in the brain. This correlates with recognition that attention may be a necessary component of sensory systems to support natural behaviors in natural environments. Complexity and clutter are two of the most recognizable hallmarks of natural environments, which can simultaneously contain vitally important and completely irrelevant stimuli. Attention serves as an adaptive filter providing each sensory modality preferential processing routes for important stimuli while suppressing responses to distracters, thus optimizing use of limited neural resources. In other words, attention is the family of mechanisms by which organisms are able to effectively and selectively allocate limited neural resources to achieve specific behavioral goals. This review provides some historical context for considering attentional frameworks and modern neurophysiological attention research, focusing on visual attention. A taxonomy of common attentional effects and neural mechanisms is provided, along with consideration of the specific relationship between attention and saccade planning. We examine the validity of premotor theories of attention, which posit that attention and saccade planning are one and the same. While there is strong evidence that attention and oculomotor planning are similar, with shared neural substrates, there is also evidence that these two functions are not synonymous. Finally, we examine neurophysiological explanations for dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the hypothesis that social impairment in autism spectrum disorders is partially attributable to perturbations of attentional control circuitry. PMID:21529782

  14. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to the discussion: attention to the olfactory modality. I will first clarify the position of attention to smells in a general taxonomy of attention. I will then review the mechanisms and neuroanatomy of attention and consciousness in the olfactory system before using the newly introduced system to provide evidence that attention is necessary for consciousness. PMID:22203813

  15. A Comparison of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation and Computerized Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Effects on Anxiety, Depression, Attentional Control, and Interpretive Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Jennifer O.; Mackintosh, Bundy; Dunn, Barnaby D.; Mathews, Andrew; Dalgleish, Tim; Hoppitt, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) and cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) both have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating social anxiety, but how they compare with each other has not been investigated. The present study tested the prediction that both interventions would reduce anxiety relative to a…

  16. Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder versus Several Comparison Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173)…

  17. Attention: feedback focuses a wandering mind

    PubMed Central

    Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K

    2015-01-01

    Neurofeedback that tracks attentional focus in real time using fMRI and alerts subjects to impending lapses by modulating the difficulty of the task itself has been demonstrated to improve behavioral performance. PMID:25710832

  18. Answers to Questions in Class Andrew Binder

    E-print Network

    Weinberger, Hans

    Answers to Questions in Class Andrew Binder March 8, 2012 This page contains the answers only to the questions I wrote on the board in class today. There may be typos in this answer sheet, so if your answer stated in class that the phase angle for the last problem is /8. The answer should be /4, and you can

  19. Across the Continuum of Attention Skills: A Twin Study of the SWAN ADHD Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polderman, Tinca J. C.; Derks, Eske M.; Hudziak, Jim J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Posthuma, Danielle; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Most behavior checklists for attention problems or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) have a narrow range of scores, focusing on the extent to which problems are present. It has been proposed that measuring attention on a continuum, from positive attention skills to attention

  20. Supramodal executive control of attention

    PubMed Central

    Spagna, Alfredo; Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Fan, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The human attentional system can be subdivided into three functional networks of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Although these networks have been extensively studied in the visuospatial modality, whether the same mechanisms are deployed across different sensory modalities remains unclear. In this study we used the attention network test for the visuospatial modality, in addition to two auditory variants with spatial and frequency manipulations to examine cross-modal correlations between network functions. Results showed that among the visual and auditory tasks, the effects of executive control, but not effects of alerting and orienting, were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that while alerting and orienting functions rely more upon modality-specific processes, the executive control of attention coordinates complex behavior via supramodal mechanisms. PMID:25759674

  1. Attentional Load and Attentional Boost: A Review of Data and Theory

    PubMed Central

    Swallow, Khena M.; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2013-01-01

    Both perceptual and cognitive processes are limited in capacity. As a result, attention is selective, prioritizing items and tasks that are important for adaptive behavior. However, a number of recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that, at least under some circumstances, increasing attention to one task can enhance performance in a second task (e.g., the attentional boost effect). Here we review these findings and suggest a new theoretical framework, the dual-task interaction model, that integrates these findings with current views of attentional selection. To reconcile the attentional boost effect with the effects of attentional load, we suggest that temporal selection results in a temporally specific enhancement across modalities, tasks, and spatial locations. Moreover, the effects of temporal selection may be best observed when the attentional system is optimally tuned to the temporal dynamics of incoming stimuli. Several avenues of research motivated by the dual-task interaction model are then discussed. PMID:23730294

  2. Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...

  3. A backward progression of attentional effects in the ventral stream

    E-print Network

    Desimone, Robert

    The visual processing of behaviorally relevant stimuli is enhanced through top-down attentional feedback. One possibility is that feedback targets early visual areas first and the attentional enhancement builds up at ...

  4. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.

  5. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    PubMed

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations. PMID:26190986

  6. Training Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Thomas B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of brain waves and alpha rhythms on attentiveness to visual stimuli are discussed, and preliminary research findings and research needs are considered in connection with measuring and training for attention. (LH)

  7. Open focus attention training.

    PubMed

    Fehmi, Lester G; Shor, Susan B

    2013-03-01

    This article describes the role of attention training and brainwave synchrony training in the resolution of stress- and pain-related symptoms. It describes the origin of Open Focus attention training as it was distilled from observations of space-generated brain wave activity. It provides a map of the various attentional styles and associated EEG activity. PMID:23538084

  8. Attention Deficit in Depressed Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Keilp, John G.; Gorlyn, Marianne; Oquendo, Maria A.; Burke, Ainsley K.; Mann, J. John

    2008-01-01

    Attention is typically impaired in depression and may play a role in risk for suicidal behavior. In this study, 66 non-patients, 83 depressed subjects with no past history of suicide attempt, 53 depressed subjects with one or more low lethality suicide attempts, and 42 depressed subjects with at least one high lethality attempt were compared on two computerized measures of attention, a Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and a Stroop task. All subjects were medication free at the time of assessment. Attention was impaired in all depressed subjects but worse in those with a past history of suicidal behavior. CPT performance did not differ among the groups, but Stroop interference was significantly poorer in all depressed subjects relative to non-patients, and poorer still in high lethality suicide attempters relative to all other groups. Interference score correlated modestly with subjective depression, functional level, suicide ideation, number of past suicide attempts, and lethality of past attempts. Depression-related impairments of attention, especially susceptibility to interference, are accentuated in those with a past history of suicidal behavior. Fundamental deficits in attention control may play a role in risk for suicidal behavior, and may contribute to a variety of cognitive deficits in suicidal patients. Brain mechanisms subserving attention control, which overlap considerably with regions implicated in affective disorders, may be a useful target for studies seeking to characterize neuropsychological factors associated with suicidal behavior. PMID:18329724

  9. Attention Deficit Disorder: Diagnosis, Etiology and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed

    1996-01-01

    Provides most recent information on attention deficit disorder including: (1) diagnostic considerations according to the latest behavioral criteria and breakthroughs using neurometric EEG assessment; (2) prevalence; (3) etiologies; (4) neurological basis; and (5) treatments. Evaluates alternatives to medication, behavior modification, cognitive…

  10. Dealing with Difficult Children: Attention Deficit

    E-print Network

    audiences consider whether a child's behavior fits the criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Child Behavior P Handout 4: Let's Review the Situation! P Handout 5: Lesson Evaluation: Increasing our-occurs with other problems, such as depression and anxiety disorders, conduct disorder, drug abuse, or antisocial

  11. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Attentional Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Kerstin; Gunther, Thomas; Hanisch, Charlotte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of…

  12. A chaotic model of sustaining attention problem in attention deficit disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdadi, G.; Jafari, S.; Sprott, J. C.; Towhidkhah, F.; Hashemi Golpayegani, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of keeping an attention level is one of the common symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Dopamine deficiency is introduced as one of the causes of this disorder. Based on some physiological facts about the attention control mechanism and chaos intermittency, a behavioral model is presented in this paper. This model represents the problem of undesired alternation of attention level, and can also suggest different valuable predictions about a possible cause of attention deficit disorder. The proposed model reveals that there is a possible interaction between different neurotransmitters which help the individual to adaptively inhibit the attention switching over time. The result of this study can be used to examine and develop a new practical and more appropriate treatment for the problem of sustaining attention.

  13. Fixational Eye Movements Are Not an Index of Covert Attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd S. Horowitz; Elisabeth M. Fine; David E. Fencsik; Sergey Yurgenson; Jeremy M. Wolfe

    2007-01-01

    The debate about the nature of fixational eye movements has revived recently with the claim that mi- crosaccades reflect the direction of attentional shifts. A number of studies have shown an association between the direction of attentional cues and the direction of micro- saccades. We sought to determine whether microsaccades in attentional tasks are causally related to behavior. Is reaction

  14. Joint Attention and Imitative Learning in Children, Chimpanzees, and Enculturated

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, M.alinda

    Articles Joint Attention and Imitative Learning in Children, Chimpanzees, and Enculturated University Abstract In this study we compared the nature of the joint attentional interactions that occurred of such looks in periods of joint engagement with E, and gestural attempts to direct E's attention or behavior

  15. Orienting Attention to Locations in Perceptual Versus Mental Representations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Nobre; J. T. Coull; P. Maquet; C. D. Frith; R. Vandenberghe; M. M. Mesulam

    2004-01-01

    Extensive clinical and imaging research has characterized the neural networks mediating the adaptive distribution of spatial attention. In everyday behavior, the distribution of attention is guided not only by extrapersonal targets but also by mental representations of their spatial layout. We used eventrelated functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural system involved in directing attention to locations in arrays

  16. Attention, biological motion, and action recognition.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Interacting with others in the environment requires that we perceive and recognize their movements and actions. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have indicated that a number of brain regions, particularly the superior temporal sulcus, are involved in a number of processes essential for action recognition, including the processing of biological motion and processing the intentions of actions. We review the behavioral and neuroimaging evidence suggesting that while some aspects of action recognition might be rapid and effective, they are not necessarily automatic. Attention is particularly important when visual information about actions is degraded or ambiguous, or if competing information is present. We present evidence indicating that neural responses associated with the processing of biological motion are strongly modulated by attention. In addition, behavioral and neuroimaging evidence shows that drawing inferences from the actions of others is attentionally demanding. The role of attention in action observation has implications for everyday social interactions and workplace applications that depend on observing, understanding and interpreting actions. PMID:21640836

  17. Attentional Modulation of Adaptation in V4

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Andrew E.; Schiff, Nicholas D.; Victor, Jonathan D.; Purpura, Keith P.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation and visual attention are two processes that alter neural responses to luminance contrast. Rapid contrast adaptation changes response size and dynamics at all stages of visual processing while visual attention has been shown to modulate both contrast gain and response gain in macaque extrastriate visual cortex. Since attention aims to enhance behaviorally relevant sensory responses while adaptation acts to attenuate neural activity, the question we asked is, how does attention alter adaptation? We present here single-unit recordings from V4 of two rhesus macaques performing a cued target detection task. The study was designed to characterize the effects of attention on the size and dynamics of a sequence of responses produced by a series of flashed oriented gratings parametric in luminance contrast. We found that the effect of attention on the response dynamics of V4 neurons is inconsistent with a mechanism that only alters the effective stimulus contrast, or only rescales the gain of the response. Instead, the action of attention modifies contrast gain early in the task, and modifies both response gain and contrast gain later in the task. We also show that responses to attended stimuli are more closely locked to the stimulus cycle than unattended responses, and that attended responses show less of the phase lag produced by adaptation than unattended responses. The phase advance generated by attention of the adapted responses suggests that the attentional gain control operates in some ways like a contrast gain control utilizing a neural measure of contrast to influence dynamics. PMID:19558603

  18. Contingent Attentional Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

  19. Hierarchical nonlinear dynamics of human attention.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I; Tristan, Irma; Varona, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Attention is the process of focusing mental resources on a specific cognitive/behavioral task. Such brain dynamics involves different partially overlapping brain functional networks whose interconnections change in time according to the performance stage, and can be stimulus-driven or induced by an intrinsically generated goal. The corresponding activity can be described by different families of spatiotemporal discrete patterns or sequential dynamic modes. Since mental resources are finite, attention modalities compete with each other at all levels of the hierarchy, from perception to decision making and behavior. Cognitive activity is a dynamical process and attention possesses some universal dynamical characteristics. Thus, it is time to apply nonlinear dynamical theory for the description and prediction of hierarchical attentional tasks. Such theory has to include the analyses of attentional control stability, the time cost of attention switching, the finite capacity of informational resources in the brain, and the normal and pathological bifurcations of attention sequential dynamics. In this paper we have integrated today's knowledge, models and results in these directions. PMID:25869439

  20. Measuring Teacher Implementation of the "BEST in CLASS" Intervention Program and Corollary Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Algina, James J.; Wilson, Reynolds E.; Martinez, Jose R.; Whalon, Kelly J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is part of a larger randomized efficacy trial examining the impact of Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Training: Competent Learners Achieving School Success ("BEST in CLASS"), a Tier 2 intervention that targets the prevention of emotional/behavioral disorders in young, high risk children. In this investigation, we examined…

  1. Iconic memory requires attention.

    PubMed

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load). However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load), observers' performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features. PMID:22586389

  2. Switch Attention to Listen

    PubMed Central

    Dhamani, Imran; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon; Sharma, Mridula

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the ability to switch attention and selectively attend to relevant information in children (10–15 years) with persistent listening difficulties in noisy environments. A wide battery of clinical tests indicated that children with complaints of listening difficulties had otherwise normal hearing sensitivity and auditory processing skills. Here we show that these children are markedly slower to switch their attention compared to their age-matched peers. The results suggest poor attention switching, lack of response inhibition and/or poor listening effort consistent with a predominantly top-down (central) information processing deficit. A deficit in the ability to switch attention across talkers would provide the basis for this otherwise hidden listening disability, especially in noisy environments involving multiple talkers such as classrooms. PMID:23416613

  3. Attentional Processes in Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Goldstein; Cynthia R. Johnson; Nancy J. Minshew

    2001-01-01

    Attentional processes in individuals with high-functioning autism were compared with a matched control group. Participants for the study were 103 children and adults with autism and 103 control subjects. Measures administered corresponded to Mirsky et al.'s (1991) factor analysis of tests of attention. Diminished performance was noted on measures that loaded on the Focus-Execute and Shift factors, but not on

  4. Unmasking the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Potter, Mary C.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    When asked to identify 2 visual targets (T1 and T2 for the 1st and 2nd targets, respectively) embedded in a sequence of distractors, observers will often fail to identify T2 when it appears within 200-500 ms of T1--an effect called the "attentional blink". Recent work shows that attention does not blink when the task is to encode a sequence of…

  5. Attention Deficits and Divorce

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Method: Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Results: Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. Conclusions: This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce. PMID:25565693

  6. Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Derek D.; Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research is provided. PMID:25729506

  7. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  8. Effect of topiramate on attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie A Burton; Cynthia Harden

    1997-01-01

    Impaired attention is a frequently reported side effect of anti-epileptic medication, as well as a frequent general complaint of epilepsy. It is thus important to evaluate the effect of new medications on attention processes. Attention was assessed weekly in ten subjects receiving topiramate over a 3 month period. Attention was evaluated with digit span, a widely used index of attention.

  9. The Boundaries of Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Mark A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This report examines distinctions and interrelationships among attention deficit disorder and learning disability and oppositional/conduct disorder. A study with 98 children (mean age 10 years) referred for learning or behavior problems found a referral bias in that children referred to mental health settings differed from those referred to…

  10. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph B. Ryan; Antonis Katsiyannis; Elizabeth M. Hughes

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically based disorder, and medication is now considered the first line treatment. This article

  11. Focus of Attention and Putting Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutcher, Stephen H.; Crews, Debra J.

    The effect of a preshot attentional/behavioral routine on putting performance was investigated. Subjects were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) Male Routine (MR); (2) Female Routine (FR); (3) Male Control (MC); and (4) Female Control (FC). Subjects in the FR and MR groups were given individualized putting routines which focused on specific…

  12. Amygdala circuitry in attentional and representational processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Holland; Michela Gallagher

    1999-01-01

    The amygdala has long been implicated in the display of emotional behavior and emotional information processing, especially in the context of aversive events. In this review, we discuss recent evidence that links the amygdala to several aspects of food-motivated associative learning, including functions often characterized as attention, reinforcement and representation. Each of these functions depends on the operation of separate

  13. Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Antoine; Slagter, Heleen A.; Dunne, John D.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores initial findings and the implications of neuroscientific research on meditation. Meditation is conceptualized here as a family of complex emotional and attentional regulatory training regimes developed for various ends, including the cultivation of well-being and emotional balance. The review focuses on the mental processes and the underlying neural circuitry that are critically involved in two styles of meditation. One style, Focused Attention (FA) meditation, entails the voluntary focusing of attention on a chosen object. The other style, Open Monitoring (OM) meditation, involves non-reactive monitoring of the content of experience from moment to moment. We discuss the potential regulatory functions of these practices on attention and emotion processes and their putative long-term impact on the brain and behavior. PMID:18329323

  14. [Auditory evoked potentials under attentional lapses].

    PubMed

    Lazarev, I E; Bryzgalov, D V; Osokina, E S; Viazovtseva, A A; Antonenko, A S; Arkhipova, E A; Chernyshev, B V

    2014-01-01

    In order to study spontaneous attentional lapses the experimental task was used that created a moderately high attentional load and involved response choice based on stimulus feature conjunction. The participant's average correct response rate was 85.1%; they made errors in 9.6% trials and response omissions in 5.4% trials. Peak N1 of the evoked potential was consistent across all behavioral outcomes, while peak P2 amplitude was significantly greater before errors and response omissions compared to correct responses. The analysis of polygraphic indexes (ECG, EMG, SGR) did not reveal any arousal level reduction before attentional lapses. The proposed interpretation of the results obtained is based on the assumption that attentional lapses are mediated by the suppression of external stimuli information processing caused by the state of mind-wandering. PMID:25723016

  15. Attention: an evolving construct.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Arthur; Hrin, Skip

    2015-01-01

    We review the implications of large-scale brain systems on the construct of attention by first focusing on significant theories and discoveries during the previous 150 years and then considering how the comparatively recent discovery of large-scale brain systems may render previous conceptualizations of attention outdated. Seven functional brain networks are briefly reviewed and the implications of emerging principles of brain functioning for test construction and neuropsychological evaluation are considered. To remain a relevant discipline moving into the 21st century, the field of neuropsychology needs to apply the principles that have been discovered about brain networks to better inform our understanding of attention as well as our ever-refining evaluation of this construct. PMID:25719496

  16. A relational structure of voluntary visual-attention abilities.

    PubMed

    Skogsberg, KatieAnn; Grabowecky, Marcia; Wilt, Joshua; Revelle, William; Iordanescu, Lucica; Suzuki, Satoru

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have examined attention mechanisms involved in specific behavioral tasks (e.g., search, tracking, distractor inhibition). However, relatively little is known about the relationships among those attention mechanisms. Is there a fundamental attention faculty that makes a person superior or inferior at most types of attention tasks, or do relatively independent processes mediate different attention skills? We focused on individual differences in voluntary visual-attention abilities using a battery of 11 representative tasks. An application of parallel analysis, hierarchical-cluster analysis, and multidimensional scaling to the intertask correlation matrix revealed 4 functional clusters, representing spatiotemporal attention, global attention, transient attention, and sustained attention, organized along 2 dimensions, one contrasting spatiotemporal and global attention and the other contrasting transient and sustained attention. Comparison with the neuroscience literature suggests that the spatiotemporal-global dimension corresponds to the dorsal frontoparietal circuit and the transient-sustained dimension corresponds to the ventral frontoparietal circuit, with distinct subregions mediating the separate clusters within each dimension. We also obtained highly specific patterns of gender difference and of deficits for college students with elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder traits. These group differences suggest that different mechanisms of voluntary visual attention can be selectively strengthened or weakened based on genetic, experiential, and/or pathological factors. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25867505

  17. Attention: Moral-Cognitive Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Yi-Fu

    1987-01-01

    This article is an essay on the importance of attention as a personal trait. Offers a definition of attention, reviews symptoms of inattention, and identifies the categories of objects which typically hold a person's attention. (JDH)

  18. Les troubles de l'attention avec hyperactivite: une Synthese des connaissances a l'intention des enseignants (Attention Deficit Difficulties with Hyperactivity: A Synthesis of Knowledge for Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrosiers, Karen; Royer, Egide

    1995-01-01

    This document presents a brief synthesis of recent literature on attention deficit difficulties with hyperactivity, particularly literature concerning classroom interventions. It describes diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, its incidence, behavioral characteristics of students who exhibit attention difficulties and…

  19. Does perceptual learning require consciousness or attention?

    PubMed

    Meuwese, Julia D I; Post, Ruben A G; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-10-01

    It has been proposed that visual attention and consciousness are separate [Koch, C., & Tsuchiya, N. Attention and consciousness: Two distinct brain processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 16-22, 2007] and possibly even orthogonal processes [Lamme, V. A. F. Why visual attention and awareness are different. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 12-18, 2003]. Attention and consciousness converge when conscious visual percepts are attended and hence become available for conscious report. In such a view, a lack of reportability can have two causes: the absence of attention or the absence of a conscious percept. This raises an important question in the field of perceptual learning. It is known that learning can occur in the absence of reportability [Gutnisky, D. A., Hansen, B. J., Iliescu, B. F., & Dragoi, V. Attention alters visual plasticity during exposure-based learning. Current Biology, 19, 555-560, 2009; Seitz, A. R., Kim, D., & Watanabe, T. Rewards evoke learning of unconsciously processed visual stimuli in adult humans. Neuron, 61, 700-707, 2009; Seitz, A. R., & Watanabe, T. Is subliminal learning really passive? Nature, 422, 36, 2003; Watanabe, T., Náñez, J. E., & Sasaki, Y. Perceptual learning without perception. Nature, 413, 844-848, 2001], but it is unclear which of the two ingredients-consciousness or attention-is not necessary for learning. We presented textured figure-ground stimuli and manipulated reportability either by masking (which only interferes with consciousness) or with an inattention paradigm (which only interferes with attention). During the second session (24 hr later), learning was assessed neurally and behaviorally, via differences in figure-ground ERPs and via a detection task. Behavioral and neural learning effects were found for stimuli presented in the inattention paradigm and not for masked stimuli. Interestingly, the behavioral learning effect only became apparent when performance feedback was given on the task to measure learning, suggesting that the memory trace that is formed during inattention is latent until accessed. The results suggest that learning requires consciousness, and not attention, and further strengthen the idea that consciousness is separate from attention. PMID:23691987

  20. Attention and Visual Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Thomas B.

    One theory of visual communication maintains three things. It holds that attention is a process for obtaining information, that it is a transaction between the visual and the viewer, and that the success of a visual communication is determined by the amount and relevance of information conveyed. Current research aims at evaluating…

  1. Orienting of attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael I. Posner

    1980-01-01

    Bartlett viewed thinking as a high level skill exhibiting ballistic properties that he called its “point of no return”. This paper explores one aspect of cognition through the use of a simple model task in which human subjects are asked to commit attention to a position in visual space other than fixation. This instruction is executed by orienting a covert

  2. Attention Capture by Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  3. Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. I: Auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kyle P.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring, or not requiring, selective auditory attention. Appended to each stimulus presentation, and included in the calculation of each nSFOAE response, was a 30-ms silent period that was used to estimate the level of the inherent physiological noise in the ear canals of our subjects during each behavioral condition. Physiological-noise magnitudes were higher (noisier) for all subjects in the inattention task, and lower (quieter) in the selective auditory-attention tasks. These noise measures initially were made at the frequency of our nSFOAE probe tone (4.0 kHz), but the same attention effects also were observed across a wide range of frequencies. We attribute the observed differences in physiological-noise magnitudes between the inattention and attention conditions to different levels of efferent activation associated with the differing attentional demands of the behavioral tasks. One hypothesis is that when the attentional demand is relatively great, efferent activation is relatively high, and a decrease in the gain of the cochlear amplifier leads to lower-amplitude cochlear activity, and thus a smaller measure of noise from the ear. PMID:24732069

  4. Visual attention during spatial language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Burigo, Michele; Knoeferle, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Spatial terms such as "above", "in front of", and "on the left of" are all essential for describing the location of one object relative to another object in everyday communication. Apprehending such spatial relations involves relating linguistic to object representations by means of attention. This requires at least one attentional shift, and models such as the Attentional Vector Sum (AVS) predict the direction of that attention shift, from the sausage to the box for spatial utterances such as "The box is above the sausage". To the extent that this prediction generalizes to overt gaze shifts, a listener's visual attention should shift from the sausage to the box. However, listeners tend to rapidly look at referents in their order of mention and even anticipate them based on linguistic cues, a behavior that predicts a converse attentional shift from the box to the sausage. Four eye-tracking experiments assessed the role of overt attention in spatial language comprehension by examining to which extent visual attention is guided by words in the utterance and to which extent it also shifts "against the grain" of the unfolding sentence. The outcome suggests that comprehenders' visual attention is predominantly guided by their interpretation of the spatial description. Visual shifts against the grain occurred only when comprehenders had some extra time, and their absence did not affect comprehension accuracy. However, the timing of this reverse gaze shift on a trial correlated with that trial's verification time. Thus, while the timing of these gaze shifts is subtly related to the verification time, their presence is not necessary for successful verification of spatial relations. PMID:25607540

  5. The Power of In-Class Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Ruth R.

    2009-01-01

    The students in three sections of a class rated their knowledge and identified their view before and after each of five in-class debates. The degree of self-reported knowledge was significantly different after four of the five debates. Between 31% and 58% of participants changed their views after participating in or observing each debate. Some…

  6. Attention Moderates the Processing of Inhibitory Information in Primary Psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zeier, Joshua D.; Maxwell, Jeffrey S.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    Primary psychopathic individuals are less apt to re-evaluate or change their behavior in response to stimuli outside of their current focus of attention. According to the response modulation hypothesis, this tendency reflects a lack of responsivity to important peripheral information and undermines adaptive self-regulation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we administered a response competition (flanker-type) task and manipulated focus of visual attention. We predicted that psychopathic individuals would display significantly less interference to response incongruent information than non-psychopathic participants when attention was cued to the target location but display normal interference when there was no pre-potent focus of attention. The results confirmed this hypothesis and are consistent with the contention that attention moderates psychopathic individuals’ responsivity to inhibitory cues. Finally, we discuss the implications of this attentional anomaly for psychopathic traits and behavior. PMID:19685952

  7. Inhibition drives early feature-based attention

    PubMed Central

    Moher, Jeff; Lakshmanan, Balaji M.; Egeth, Howard E.; Ewen, Joshua B.

    2013-01-01

    Attention can modulate processing of visual input according to task-relevant features, even as early as ~100 ms after stimulus presentation. In the present study, ERP and behavioral data reveal that inhibition of distractor features, rather than activation of target features, is the primary driver of early feature-based selection in human observers. This discovery of inhibition consistent with task goals during early visual processing suggests that inhibition plays a much larger role at an earlier stage of target selection than previously recognized, and highlights the importance of understanding the role of inhibition (in addition to activation) in attention. PMID:24390823

  8. Toddlers’ Duration of Attention towards Putative Threat

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2010-01-01

    Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk for developing anxious behavior, toddlers’ attention towards a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined how attention towards an angry-looking gorilla mask in a room with alternative opportunities for play in 24-month-old toddlers predicted social inhibition when children entered kindergarten. Analyses examined attention to threat above and beyond and in interaction with both proximity to the mask and fear of novelty observed in other situations. Attention to threat interacted with proximity to the mask to predict social inhibition, such that attention to threat most strongly predicted social inhibition when toddlers stayed furthest from the mask. This relation occurred above and beyond the predictive relation between fear of novelty and social inhibition. Results are discussed within the broader literature of anxiety development and attentional processes in young children. PMID:21373365

  9. Temporal dynamics of divided spatial attention

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Javier O.; Serences, John T.

    2013-01-01

    In naturalistic settings, observers often have to monitor multiple objects dispersed throughout the visual scene. However, the degree to which spatial attention can be divided across spatially noncontiguous objects has long been debated, particularly when those objects are in close proximity. Moreover, the temporal dynamics of divided attention are unclear: is the process of dividing spatial attention gradual and continuous, or does it onset in a discrete manner? To address these issues, we recorded steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as subjects covertly monitored two flickering targets while ignoring an intervening distractor that flickered at a different frequency. All three stimuli were clustered within either the lower left or the lower right quadrant, and our dependent measure was SSVEP power at the target and distractor frequencies measured over time. In two experiments, we observed a temporally discrete increase in power for target- vs. distractor-evoked SSVEPs extending from ?350 to 150 ms prior to correct (but not incorrect) responses. The divergence in SSVEP power immediately prior to a correct response suggests that spatial attention can be divided across noncontiguous locations, even when the targets are closely spaced within a single quadrant. In addition, the division of spatial attention appears to be relatively discrete, as opposed to slow and continuous. Finally, the predictive relationship between SSVEP power and behavior demonstrates that these neurophysiological measures of divided attention are meaningfully related to cognitive function. PMID:23390315

  10. Dividing attention between two transparent motion surfaces results in a failure of selective attention

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Zachary Raymond; Palmer, John; Boynton, Geoffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    In object-based attention, it is easier to divide attention between features within a single object than between features across objects. In this study we test the prediction of several capacity models in order to best characterize the cost to dividing attention between objects. Here we studied behavioral performance on a divided attention task in which subjects attended to the motion and luminance of overlapping random dot kinemategrams, specifically red upward moving dots superimposed with green downward moving dots. Subjects were required to detect brief changes (transients) in the motion or luminance within the same surface or across different surfaces. There were two primary results. First, the dual-task deficit was large when attention was divided across two surfaces and near zero when attention was divided within a surface. This is consistent with limited-capacity processing across surfaces and unlimited-capacity processing within a surface—a pattern predicted by established theories of object-based attention. Second and unexpectedly, there was evidence of crosstalk between features: when cued to monitor transients on one surface, response rates were inflated by the presence of a transient on the other surface. Such crosstalk is a failure of selective attention between surfaces. PMID:23149301

  11. Attention in risky choice.

    PubMed

    Brandstätter, Eduard; Körner, Christof

    2014-10-01

    Previous research on the processes involved in risky decisions has rarely linked process data to choice directly. We used a simple measure based on the relative amount of attentional deployment to different components (gains/losses and their probabilities) of a risky gamble during the choice process, and we related this measure to the actual choice. In an experiment we recorded the decisions, decision times, and eye movements of 80 participants who made decisions on 11 choice problems. We used the number of eye fixations and fixation transitions to trace the deployment of attention during the choice process and obtained the following main results. First, different components of a gamble attracted different amounts of attention depending on participants' actual choice. This was reflected in both the number of fixations and the fixation transitions. Second, the last-fixated gamble but not the last-fixated reason predicted participants' choices. Third, a comparison of data obtained with eye tracking and data obtained with verbal protocols from a previous study showed a large degree of convergence regarding the process of risky choice. Together these findings tend to support dimensional decision strategies such as the priority heuristic. PMID:25226548

  12. Attention Training with Auditory Hallucinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Bouman, Theo K.; Schuurman, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The case presented in this paper illustrates how Attention Training (ATT; [Wells, A. (1990). "Panic disorder in association with relaxation induced anxiety: An attentional training approach to treatment." "Behavior Therapy," 21, 273-280.]) can be applied in an outpatient setting in the treatment of auditory hallucinations. The 25-year-old male…

  13. Is Attention Deficit Disorder Becoming a Desired Diagnosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelter, Richard W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The rush to label schoolchildren as suffering from attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reached nearly epidemic proportions. The diagnosis often meets parents' needs to assign behavior control to Ritalin; it should be an explanation leading to genuine help, not a license for unacceptable student…

  14. Visual attention and the acquisition of information in human crowds

    E-print Network

    Couzin, Iain D.

    , and context dependence of socially transmitted visual attention. In our first study, we instructed stimulus features, social context, and sex of the passerby. behavioral contagion | joint visual attention | social can be critical to survival, whether it provides clues to foraging sites (1) or an alert

  15. Modeling the Performance of Children on the Attentional Network Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fehmida Hussain

    Recent research in attention indicates it involves three anatomical networks concerned with alerting, orienting and executive control (cf. Posner & Fan, 2007). The Attentional Network Test (ANT) provides a behavioral measure of the efficiencies of these three networks within a single task (Fan, MaCandliss, Sommer, Raz & Posner, 2002). This work adapts an ACT-R 6.0 model of adult performance on

  16. Joint Attention and Attachment in Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Joint attention is often referred to as a triadic relation between self, other and object. Young children with autism show deficiencies in the use of joint attention behaviors. Individual differences may be expected, and they may be determined by the children's cognitive development or the characteristics of the relationship of the child with the…

  17. Disruption of Attention by Irrelevant Stimuli in Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Elke B.

    2005-01-01

    In four experiments the behavioral consequences of an involuntary attentional distraction concerning memory performance was investigated. The working memory model of Cowan (1995) predicts a performance deficit for memory representations that are held in an active state when the focus of attention is distracted by a change in physical properties.…

  18. Attentional Engagement in Infancy: The Interactive Influence of Attentional Inertia and Attentional State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Lisa M.; Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Kannass, Kathleen N.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the interactive influences of attentional state and attentional inertia on infants' level of attentional engagement. We assessed infants' distraction latencies longitudinally at 6.5 and 9 months as they explored toys, and we coded both their attentional state (focused vs. casual) and how long they had been looking at the toy at each…

  19. Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. II: Visual attention

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kyle P.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Human subjects performed in several behavioral conditions requiring, or not requiring, selective attention to visual stimuli. Specifically, the attentional task was to recognize strings of digits that had been presented visually. A nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emission (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was collected during the visual presentation of the digits. The segment of the physiological response discussed here occurred during brief silent periods immediately following the SFOAE-evoking stimuli. For all subjects tested, the physiological-noise magnitudes were substantially weaker (less noisy) during the tasks requiring the most visual attention. Effect sizes for the differences were >2.0. Our interpretation is that cortico-olivo influences adjusted the magnitude of efferent activation during the SFOAE-evoking stimulation depending upon the attention task in effect, and then that magnitude of efferent activation persisted throughout the silent period where it also modulated the physiological noise present. Because the results were highly similar to those obtained when the behavioral conditions involved auditory attention, similar mechanisms appear to operate both across modalities and within modalities. Supplementary measurements revealed that the efferent activation was spectrally global, as it was for auditory attention. PMID:24732070

  20. Dissociable attentional and affective circuits in medication-naïve children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Jonathan; Rauh, Virginia; Gruber, Allison; Gat, Inbal; Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Current neurocognitive models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that neural circuits involving both attentional and affective processing make independent contributions to the phenomenology of the disorder. However, a clear dissociation of attentional and affective circuits and their behavioral correlates has yet to be shown in medication-naïve children with ADHD. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in a cohort of medication naïve children with (N=22) and without (N=20) ADHD, we demonstrate that children with ADHD have reduced connectivity in two neural circuits: one underlying executive attention (EA) and the other emotional regulation (ER). We also demonstrate a double dissociation between these two neural circuits and their behavioral correlates such that reduced connectivity in the EA circuit correlates with executive attention deficits but not with emotional lability, while on the other hand, reduced connectivity in the ER circuit correlates with emotional lability but not with executive attention deficits. These findings suggest potential avenues for future research such as examining treatment effects on these two neural circuits as well as the potential prognostic and developmental significance of disturbances in one circuit vs the other. PMID:23664625

  1. Dissociable attentional and affective circuits in medication-naïve children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Posner, Jonathan; Rauh, Virginia; Gruber, Allison; Gat, Inbal; Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S

    2013-07-30

    Current neurocognitive models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that neural circuits involving both attentional and affective processing make independent contributions to the phenomenology of the disorder. However, a clear dissociation of attentional and affective circuits and their behavioral correlates has yet to be shown in medication-naïve children with ADHD. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in a cohort of medication naïve children with (N=22) and without (N=20) ADHD, we demonstrate that children with ADHD have reduced connectivity in two neural circuits: one underlying executive attention (EA) and the other emotional regulation (ER). We also demonstrate a double dissociation between these two neural circuits and their behavioral correlates such that reduced connectivity in the EA circuit correlates with executive attention deficits but not with emotional lability, while on the other hand, reduced connectivity in the ER circuit correlates with emotional lability but not with executive attention deficits. These findings suggest potential avenues for future research such as examining treatment effects on these two neural circuits as well as the potential prognostic and developmental significance of disturbances in one circuit vs the other. PMID:23664625

  2. A Candidate for the Attentional Bottleneck: Set-Size Specific Modulation of the Right TPJ during Attentive Enumeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Petra; Butterworth, Brian; Bahrami, Bahador

    2011-01-01

    Several recent behavioral studies have shown that the enumeration of a small number of items (a process termed "subitizing") depends on the availability of attentional resources and is not a preattentive process as previously thought. Here we studied the neural correlates of visual enumeration under different attentional loads in a dual-task…

  3. On the difficulty of feature-based attentional modulations in visual object recognition: A modeling study.

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Robert

    2004-01-14

    Numerous psychophysical experiments have shown an important role for attentional modulations in vision. Behaviorally, allocation of attention can improve performance in object detection and recognition tasks. At the neural ...

  4. Underselective Attention in Learning-Disabled Children: Some Reconceptualizations of Old Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarver, Sara G.

    1981-01-01

    Six hypotheses regarding the attention behaviors of learning disabled children are reviewed and current findings discussed. Hypotheses concern hyperresponsiveness and distractibility; underselective attention; verbal rehearsal deficit; metacognition deficit; word retrieval/naming; speed deficit; and creative ability. (CL)

  5. Studies of Voluntary Visual Attention--Theory, Methods, and Psychometric Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunnally, Jum C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Voluntary Visual Attention concerns "natural" viewing behavior or visual browsing when the subject is under no constraints regarding the distribution of attention. A general overview of this area of psychological investigation is presented. (Author/JKS)

  6. Gaze Cueing of Attention: Visual Attention, Social Cognition, and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frischen, Alexandra; Bayliss, Andrew P.; Tipper, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    During social interactions, people's eyes convey a wealth of information about their direction of attention and their emotional and mental states. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of past and current research into the perception of gaze behavior and its effect on the observer. This encompasses the perception of gaze direction…

  7. Gaze Cueing of Attention: Visual Attention, Social Cognition, and Individual Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Frischen; Andrew P. Bayliss; Steven P. Tipper

    2007-01-01

    During social interactions, people's eyes convey a wealth of information about their direction of attention and their emotional and mental states. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of past and current research into the perception of gaze behavior and its effect on the observer. This encompasses the perception of gaze direction and its influence on perception of the

  8. Reward Sharpens Orientation Coding Independently of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Baldassi, Stefano; Simoncini, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that rewarding improves performance. However it is unclear whether this is due to high level modulations in the output modules of associated neural systems or due to low level mechanisms favoring more “generous” inputs? Some recent studies suggest that primary sensory areas, including V1 and A1, may form part of the circuitry of reward-based modulations, but there is no data indicating whether reward can be dissociated from attention or cross-trial forms of perceptual learning. Here we address this issue with a psychophysical dual task, to control attention, while perceptual performance on oriented targets associated with different levels of reward is assessed by measuring both orientation discrimination thresholds and behavioral tuning functions for tilt values near threshold. We found that reward, at any rate, improved performance. However, higher reward rates showed an improvement of orientation discrimination thresholds by about 50% across conditions and sharpened behavioral tuning functions. Data were unaffected by changing the attentional load and by dissociating the feature of the reward cue from the task-relevant feature. These results suggest that reward may act within the span of a single trial independently of attention by modulating the activity of early sensory stages through a improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio of task-relevant channels. PMID:21369356

  9. A Phenomenological Description of Primary Creep in Class M Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Freed, A. D.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of creep microstructures in the primary creep region in class M materials show a remarkable similarity with those formed in the exponential creep regime. As a result, it is proposed that the constitutive creep law for normal primary creep is similar to that for the exponential creep regime. A phenomenological description is discussed to rationalize these microstructural observations in terms of a normalized strain rate vs. stress plot. The implications of this plot in describing different testing procedures, steady-state flow, and on the observed deviations from the universal creep law are discussed. The plot is also extended to explain the observed similarities in the transient creep behavior in pre-strained materials and in stress change experiments.

  10. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  12. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    PubMed Central

    Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  13. Is Attention Impaired in ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilding, John

    2005-01-01

    Explanations of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in terms of a weakness in Executive Function (EF) or related concepts, such as inhibition, are briefly reviewed. Some alternative views are considered, in particular a proposal by Manly and others that ADHD is a weakness primarily of sustained attention (plus control of attention),…

  14. Attention, Task Difficulty, and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2005-01-01

    Comments on analysis of attention tasks in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) provided by Wilding (2005)points out that whereas many regulatory functions, including alertness or arousal, appear to be impaired in ADHD, demonstrating basic attention deficits in selection or orienting functions in the disorder has proven difficult. Yet…

  15. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  16. Neural Mechanisms of Involuntary Attention to Acoustic Novelty and Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carles Escera; Kimmo Alho; István Winkler; Risto Näätänen

    1998-01-01

    Behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures were used to elucidate the neural mechanisms of involuntary engagement of attention by novelty and change in the acoustic environment. The behavioral measures consisted of the reaction time (RT) and performance accuracy (hit rate) in a forced-choice visual RT task where subjects were to discriminate between odd and even numbers. Each visual stimulus

  17. EEG Markers for Attention Deficit Disorder: Pharmacological and Neurofeedback Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterman, M. Barry

    2000-01-01

    Examined contribution of EEG findings in the classification and treatment of attention deficit and related behavioral problems in children. Found that quantitative EEG methods disclosed patterns of abnormality in children with ADD, suggested improved guidelines for pharmacological treatment, and introduced neurofeedback, a behavioral treatment for…

  18. Attention-Modulating Effects of Cognitive Enhancers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review fo...

  19. Attention deficits in children with 22q.11 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Niklasson, Lena; Rasmussen, Peder; Oskarsdóttir, Sólveig; Gillberg, Christopher

    2005-12-01

    This study examined attention abilities of children with 22q.11 deletion syndrome. Thirty children (14 males, 16 females; age range 7 to 13y) were given comprehensive neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric assessments. Learning disability was found in 13 children. Superiority in verbal over performance IQ was very common. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (mainly of inattentive subtype) was diagnosed in 13 children. There appeared to be a relation between low IQ and presence of autism spectrum problems. The presence of attention deficits was clearly supported by the scores on the Child Behavior Checklist and the Conners Questionnaire. On the Becker attention tests the reaction times were significantly longer in the two visual and auditory tests, indicating that the ability to sustain attention is critically impaired in this group. A tendency of inferiority on auditory compared with visual tests was noted but there were no specific problems with the focus-execute aspect of attention. PMID:16288669

  20. Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care

    MedlinePLUS

    Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care Selecting quality behavioral health care services for yourself, a relative or friend requires special thought and attention. The Joint Commission on ...

  1. Exogenous attention to unseen objects?

    PubMed

    Norman, Liam J; Heywood, Charles A; Kentridge, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    Attention and awareness are closely related phenomena, but recent evidence has shown that not all attended stimuli give rise to awareness. Controversy still remains over whether, and the extent to which, a dissociation between attention and awareness encompasses all forms of attention. For example, it has been suggested that attention without awareness is more readily demonstrated for voluntary, endogenous attention than its reflexive, exogenous counterpart. Here we examine whether exogenous attentional cueing can have selective behavioural effects on stimuli that nevertheless remain unseen. Using a task in which object-based attention has been shown in the absence of awareness, we remove all possible contingencies between cues and target stimuli to ensure that any cueing effects must be under purely exogenous control, and find evidence of exogenous object-based attention without awareness. In a second experiment we address whether this dissociation crucially depends on the method used to establish that the objects indeed remain unseen. Specifically, to confirm that objects are unseen we adopt appropriate signal detection task procedures, including those that retain parity with the primary attentional task (by requiring participants to discriminate the two types of trial that are used to measure an effect of attention). We show a significant object-based attention effect is apparent under conditions where the selected object indeed remains undetectable. PMID:25922174

  2. Infant Joint Attention, Neural Networks and Social Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Mundy, Peter; Jarrold, William

    2010-01-01

    Neural network models of attention can provide a unifying approach to the study of human cognitive and emotional development (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This paper we argue that a neural networks approach to the infant development of joint attention can inform our understanding of the nature of human social learning, symbolic thought process and social cognition. At its most basic, joint attention involves the capacity to coordinate one’s own visual attention with that of another person. We propose that joint attention development involves increments in the capacity to engage in simultaneous or parallel processing of information about one’s own attention and the attention of other people. Infant practice with joint attention is both a consequence and organizer of the development of a distributed and integrated brain network involving frontal and parietal cortical systems. This executive distributed network first serves to regulate the capacity of infants to respond to and direct the overt behavior of other people in order to share experience with others through the social coordination of visual attention. In this paper we describe this parallel and distributed neural network model of joint attention development and discuss two hypotheses that stem from this model. One is that activation of this distributed network during coordinated attention enhances to depth of information processing and encoding beginning in the first year of life. We also propose that with development joint attention becomes internalized as the capacity to socially coordinate mental attention to internal representations. As this occurs the executive joint attention network makes vital contributions to the development of human symbolic thinking and social cognition. PMID:20884172

  3. Allosteric sodium in class A GPCR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Katritch, Vsevolod; Fenalti, Gustavo; Abola, Enrique E.; Roth, Bryan L.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite their functional and structural diversity, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) share a common mechanism of signal transduction via conformational changes in the seven-transmembrane (7TM) helical domain. New major insights into this mechanism come from the recent crystallographic discoveries of a partially hydrated sodium ion that is specifically bound in the middle of the 7TM bundle of multiple class A GPCRs. This review discusses the remarkable structural conservation and distinct features of the Na+ pocket in this most populous GPCR class, as well as the conformational collapse of the pocket on receptor activation. New insights help to explain allosteric effects of sodium on GPCR agonist binding and activation, and sodium’s role as a potential co-factor in class A GPCR function. PMID:24767681

  4. Group rhythmic synchrony and attention in children

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Alexander K.; Minces, Victor; McLoughlin, Grainne; Chiba, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Synchrony, or the coordinated processing of time, is an often-overlooked yet critical context for human interaction. This study tests the relationship between the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting with the ability to attend in 102 elementary schoolchildren. Impairments in temporal processing have frequently been shown to exist in clinical populations with learning disorders, particularly those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting—an instance of the type of temporal processing necessary for successful interaction and learning—would be correlated with the ability to attend across the continuum of the population. A music class is an ideal setting for the study of interpersonal timing. In order to measure synchrony in this context, we constructed instruments that allowed the recording and measurement of individual rhythmic performance. The SWAN teacher questionnaire was used as a measurement of attentional behavior. We find that the ability to synchronize with others in a group music class can predict a child's attentional behavior. PMID:24032021

  5. Attentional processes in depressive disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rick E. Ingram; Ann E. Lumry; Debra Cruet; William Sieber

    1987-01-01

    Theory and research in depression have recently emphasized that self-focused attention may be an important cognitive aspect of this disorder. Although previous research has demonstrated a relationship between self-focused attention and subclinical depression, empirical studies to date have not examined the occurrence of this process in clinically depressed individuals. Using a measure of state self-focused attention frequently employed in social-cognitive

  6. Do New Objects Capture Attention?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven L. Franconeri; Andrew Hollingworth; Daniel J. Simons

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT—The visual system relies on several heuristics to direct attention to important,locations and objects. One of these mechanisms,directs attention to sudden changes,in the environment. Although a substantial body of research suggests that this capture of attention occurs only for the abrupt appearance of a new perceptual object, more re- cent evidence shows that some luminance-based,transients (e.g., motion and looming) and

  7. A dissociation between attention and selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, R. W.; Folk, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the allocatian of spatial attention results in the "selection" of attended objects or regions of space. That is, once a stimulus is attended, all its feature dimensions are processed irrespective of their relevance to behavioral goals. This assumption is based in part on experiments showing significant interference for attended stimuli when the response to an irrelevant dimension conflicts with the response to the relevant dimension (e.g., the Stroop effect). Here we show that such interference is not due to attending per se. In two spatial cuing experiments, we found that it was possible to restrict processing of attended stimuli to task-relevant dimensions. This new evidence supports two novel conclusions: (a) Selection involves more than the focusing of attention per se: and (b) task expectations play a key role in detertnining the depth of processing of the elementary feature dimensions of attended stimuli.

  8. Paying Attention to Attention: New Economies for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Castell, Suzanne; Jenson, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Challenging formal education's traditional monopoly over the mass-scale acculturation of youth, the technological infrastructure of the new economy brings in its wake a new attentional economy in which any connected adult or child owns and controls a full economic share of her or his own attention. For youth who have never known the text-bound…

  9. Difficulty of Discrimination Modulates Attentional Capture by Regulating Attentional Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Risa; Katayama, Jun'ichi

    2009-01-01

    Attentional capture for distractors is enhanced by increasing the difficulty of discrimination between the standard and the target in the three-stimulus oddball paradigm. In this study, we investigated the cognitive mechanism of this modulation of attentional capture. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from participants while they…

  10. Attentional Capture with Rapidly Changing Attentional Control Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Johnston, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The classic theory of spatial attention hypothesized 2 modes, voluntary and involuntary. Folk, Remington, and Johnston (1992) reported that even involuntary attention capture by stimuli requires a match between stimulus properties and what the observer is looking for. This surprising conclusion has been confirmed by many subsequent studies. In…

  11. Provocative Mathematics Questions: Drawing Attention to a Lack of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klymchuk, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    The article investigates the role of attention in the reflective thinking of school mathematics teachers. It analyses teachers' ability to pay attention to detail and "use" their mathematical knowledge. The vast majority of teachers can be expected to have an excellent knowledge of mathematical techniques. The question examined here is…

  12. Attention in Stereo Vision: Implications for Computational Models of Attention

    E-print Network

    Attention in Stereo Vision: Implications for Computational Models of Attention Neil D. B. Bruce for Vision Research, York University, Toronto, Canada, M3J 1P3 ABSTRACT The stereo correspondence problem vision may suggest analogous constraints in other non- stereo feature domains with significant

  13. Focus of Attention in Groups: A Self-Attention Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Brian; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports on three research studies that tested the hypothesis that the focus of attention of individuals in groups varies as a function of the group composition. The populations studied were members of the Nixon White House staff, high school students, and male undergraduate students. Results supported the idea of self-focused attention as a…

  14. Income Inequality in the Attention Economy Kevin S. McCurley

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    Income Inequality in the Attention Economy Kevin S. McCurley Google Research ABSTRACT The World Applications]: Social and Behavioral Sci- ences--Economics General Terms Welfare Economics, Attention Economy- thors) and consumers (readers) and the currency for infor- mation is attention. In this paper we examine

  15. What attracts decision makers' attention? : Managerial allocation of time at product development portfolio meetings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Bentzen; John K. Christiansen; Claus J. Varnes

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Managers' attention is a scarce resource in complex innovation settings. Prior research on the factors to which managers pay attention is mostly based on surveys. The present study aims to address the need for knowledge about the behavior of decision makers based on observations from portfolio meetings. The study seeks to investigate how managers allocate their attention and

  16. Effectiveness of Training Parents to Teach Joint Attention in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, M. L.; Schreibman, L.; Stahmer, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Young children with autism have deficits in initiating and responding to joint attention bids. This study was designed to examine a parent-implemented intervention targeting joint attention responding in children with autism. Parents were trained to increase their joint attention bids using behavior analytic techniques to facilitate appropriate…

  17. Self-focused attention in the treatment of social phobia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila R. Woody; Dianne L. Chambless; Carol R. Glass

    1997-01-01

    For those with social phobia, self-focused attention has been linked with impairment in social performance, increased social anxiety, and a higher frequency of self-critical thoughts during social situations. The purpose of this investigation was to assess correlates of changes in situational self-focus over the course of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT). Focus of attention was assessed after in-session role-plays and after in

  18. The Predictive Brain State: Asynchrony in Disorders of Attention?

    PubMed Central

    Ghajar, Jamshid; Ivry, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    It is postulated that a key function of attention in goal-oriented behavior is to reduce performance variability by generating anticipatory neural activity that can be synchronized with expected sensory information. A network encompassing the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, and cerebellum may be critical in the maintenance and timing of such predictive neural activity. Dysfunction of this temporal process may constitute a fundamental defect in attention, causing working memory problems, distractibility, and decreased awareness. PMID:19074688

  19. Attentional capture and inattentional blindness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Simons

    2000-01-01

    Although we intuitively believe that salient or distinctive objects will capture our attention, surprisingly often they do not. For example, drivers may fail to notice another car when trying to turn or a person may fail to see a friend in a cinema when looking for an empty seat, even if the friend is waving. The study of attentional capture

  20. Potential social interactions are important to social attention

    PubMed Central

    Laidlaw, Kaitlin E. W.; Foulsham, Tom; Kuhn, Gustav; Kingstone, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Social attention, or how spatial attention is allocated to biologically relevant stimuli, has typically been studied using simplistic paradigms that do not provide any opportunity for social interaction. To study social attention in a complex setting that affords social interaction, we measured participants’ looking behavior as they were sitting in a waiting room, either in the presence of a confederate posing as another research participant, or in the presence of a videotape of the same confederate. Thus, the potential for social interaction existed only when the confederate was physically present. Although participants frequently looked at the videotaped confederate, they seldom turned toward or looked at the live confederate. Ratings of participants’ social skills correlated with head turns to the live, but not videotaped, confederate. Our results demonstrate the importance of studying social attention within a social context, and suggest that the mere opportunity for social interaction can alter social attention. PMID:21436052

  1. Emotional distractors can enhance attention

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Tamara J.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of emotional distractors on attention are well demonstrated. However, it is unclear if emotional distractors inevitably disrupt task-relevant attention. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), the present study examined the impact of valence and arousal dimensions of distracting emotional stimuli and individual differences in anxiety on task-relevant processing. Consistent with prior literature, high-arousal negative distractors were associated with poor task-relevant attention compared to positive and neutral distractors. However, low-arousal negative distractors were associated with better task-relevant performance than were positive and neutral distractors. Furthermore, these effects were accentuated by individual differences in worry. These findings challenge assumptions that distraction and worry must be minimized for augmented attentional performance. Overall, these results emphasize the importance of taking into account emotional dimensions of arousal and valence as well as individual differences in anxiety when examining attention in the presence of emotional distractors. PMID:24058065

  2. Use of Peer-Mediated Intervention in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauvogel-MacAleese, Alicia N.; Wallace, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment extended and replicated the use of functional analysis and a peer-mediated intervention to decrease disruptive behavior displayed by children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in an afterschool program. After determining that the participants displayed off-task behavior maintained by peer attention via…

  3. Learning-Induced Changes in Attentional Allocation during Categorization: A Sizable Catalog of Attention Change as Measured by Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    McColeman, Caitlyn M.; Barnes, Jordan I.; Chen, Lihan; Meier, Kimberly M.; Walshe, R. Calen; Blair, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning how to allocate attention properly is essential for success at many categorization tasks. Advances in our understanding of learned attention are stymied by a chicken-and-egg problem: there are no theoretical accounts of learned attention that predict patterns of eye movements, making data collection difficult to justify, and there are not enough datasets to support the development of a rich theory of learned attention. The present work addresses this by reporting five measures relating to the overt allocation of attention across 10 category learning experiments: accuracy, probability of fixating irrelevant information, number of fixations to category features, the amount of change in the allocation of attention (using a new measure called Time Proportion Shift - TIPS), and a measure of the relationship between attention change and erroneous responses. Using these measures, the data suggest that eye-movements are not substantially connected to error in most cases and that aggregate trial-by-trial attention change is generally stable across a number of changing task variables. The data presented here provide a target for computational models that aim to account for changes in overt attentional behaviors across learning. PMID:24497915

  4. The development of visual attention in infancy

    E-print Network

    Colombo, John A.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past decade, the study of attention in infancy has seen dramatic progress. This review delineates four attentional functions (alertness, spatial orienting, attention to object features, and endogenous attention) ...

  5. Sensory gain control (amplification) as a mechanism of selective attention: electrophysiological and neuroimaging evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Hillyard, S A; Vogel, E K; Luck, S J

    1998-01-01

    Both physiological and behavioral studies have suggested that stimulus-driven neural activity in the sensory pathways can be modulated in amplitude during selective attention. Recordings of event-related brain potentials indicate that such sensory gain control or amplification processes play an important role in visual-spatial attention. Combined event-related brain potential and neuroimaging experiments provide strong evidence that attentional gain control operates at an early stage of visual processing in extrastriate cortical areas. These data support early selection theories of attention and provide a basis for distinguishing between separate mechanisms of attentional suppression (of unattended inputs) and attentional facilitation (of attended inputs). PMID:9770220

  6. A Prototype of Attention Simulator on Twitter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Kawano; Yoshito Kishimoto; Tatsuhiro Yonekura

    2011-01-01

    According to the concept of the attention economy, the attention is the only thing that is valuable. Twitter is suit- able for the simulation of trade of the attention, because Twitter field has many similarities to the attention economy. However, Twitter is inadequate for the visualization of the trade of the attention. The attention on the Twitter can be represented

  7. Attentional capture and inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Simons

    2000-04-01

    Although we intuitively believe that salient or distinctive objects will capture our attention, surprisingly often they do not. For example, drivers may fail to notice another car when trying to turn or a person may fail to see a friend in a cinema when looking for an empty seat, even if the friend is waving. The study of attentional capture has focused primarily on measuring the effect of an irrelevant stimulus on task performance. In essence, these studies explore how well observers can ignore something they expect but know to be irrelevant. By contrast, the real-world examples above raise a different question: how likely are subjects to notice something salient and potentially relevant that they do not expect? Recently, several new paradigms exploring this question have found that, quite often, unexpected objects fail to capture attention, a phenomenon known as 'inattentional blindness'. This review considers evidence for the effects of irrelevant features both on performance ('implicit attentional capture') and on awareness ('explicit attentional capture'). Taken together, traditional studies of implicit attentional capture and recent studies of inattentional blindness provide a more complete understanding of the varieties of attentional capture, both in the laboratory and in the real world. PMID:10740279

  8. Common attentional constraints in visual foraging.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Thornton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    Predators are known to select food of the same type in non-random sequences or "runs" that are longer than would be expected by chance. If prey are conspicuous, predators will switch between available sources, interleaving runs of different prey types. However, when prey are cryptic, predators tend to focus on one food type at a time, effectively ignoring equally available sources. This latter finding is regarded as a key indicator that animal foraging is strongly constrained by attention. It is unknown whether human foraging is equally constrained. Here, using a novel iPad task, we demonstrate for the first time that it is. Participants were required to locate and touch 40 targets from 2 different categories embedded within a dense field of distractors. When individual target items "popped-out" search was organized into multiple runs, with frequent switching between target categories. In contrast, as soon as focused attention was required to identify individual targets, participants typically exhausted one entire category before beginning to search for the other. This commonality in animal and human foraging is compelling given the additional cognitive tools available to humans, and suggests that attention constrains search behavior in a similar way across a broad range of species. PMID:24964082

  9. Common Attentional Constraints in Visual Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Jóhannesson, Ómar I.; Thornton, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Predators are known to select food of the same type in non-random sequences or “runs” that are longer than would be expected by chance. If prey are conspicuous, predators will switch between available sources, interleaving runs of different prey types. However, when prey are cryptic, predators tend to focus on one food type at a time, effectively ignoring equally available sources. This latter finding is regarded as a key indicator that animal foraging is strongly constrained by attention. It is unknown whether human foraging is equally constrained. Here, using a novel iPad task, we demonstrate for the first time that it is. Participants were required to locate and touch 40 targets from 2 different categories embedded within a dense field of distractors. When individual target items “popped-out” search was organized into multiple runs, with frequent switching between target categories. In contrast, as soon as focused attention was required to identify individual targets, participants typically exhausted one entire category before beginning to search for the other. This commonality in animal and human foraging is compelling given the additional cognitive tools available to humans, and suggests that attention constrains search behavior in a similar way across a broad range of species. PMID:24964082

  10. Neural control of vascular reactions: impact of emotion and attention.

    PubMed

    Okon-Singer, Hadas; Mehnert, Jan; Hoyer, Jana; Hellrung, Lydia; Schaare, Herma Lina; Dukart, Juergen; Villringer, Arno

    2014-03-19

    This study investigated the neural regions involved in blood pressure reactions to negative stimuli and their possible modulation by attention. Twenty-four healthy human subjects (11 females; age = 24.75 ± 2.49 years) participated in an affective perceptual load task that manipulated attention to negative/neutral distractor pictures. fMRI data were collected simultaneously with continuous recording of peripheral arterial blood pressure. A parametric modulation analysis examined the impact of attention and emotion on the relation between neural activation and blood pressure reactivity during the task. When attention was available for processing the distractor pictures, negative pictures resulted in behavioral interference, neural activation in brain regions previously related to emotion, a transient decrease of blood pressure, and a positive correlation between blood pressure response and activation in a network including prefrontal and parietal regions, the amygdala, caudate, and mid-brain. These effects were modulated by attention; behavioral and neural responses to highly negative distractor pictures (compared with neutral pictures) were smaller or diminished, as was the negative blood pressure response when the central task involved high perceptual load. Furthermore, comparing high and low load revealed enhanced activation in frontoparietal regions implicated in attention control. Our results fit theories emphasizing the role of attention in the control of behavioral and neural reactions to irrelevant emotional distracting information. Our findings furthermore extend the function of attention to the control of autonomous reactions associated with negative emotions by showing altered blood pressure reactions to emotional stimuli, the latter being of potential clinical relevance. PMID:24647945

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hee Jeong; Cho, Soo Churl; Ha, Jihyun; Yune, Sook Kyung; Kim, Seog Ju; Hwang, Jaeuk; Chung, Ain; Sung, Young Hoon; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between attention deficit-hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and Internet addiction. In total, 535 elementary school students (264 boys, 271 girls; mean age, 11.0 +/- 1.0 years) were recruited. The presence or severity of Internet addiction was assessed by the Young's Internet Addiction test. Parents and teachers of the children completed the DuPaul's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scale (ARS; Korean version, K-ARS) and Child Behavior Checklists. Children with the highest and lowest quartiles in K-ARS scores were defined to be in ADHD and non-ADHD groups, respectively. Five children (0.9%) met criteria for a definite Internet addiction and 75 children (14.0%) met criteria for a probable Internet addiction. K-ARS scores had significant positive correlations with Young's Internet Addiction test scores. The Internet addiction group had higher total scores of K-ARS and ADHD-related subcategories in the Child Behavior Checklists than the non-addiction group. The ADHD group had higher Internet addiction scores compared with the non-ADHD group. Therefore, significant associations have been found between the level of ADHD symptoms and the severity of Internet addiction in children. In addition, current findings suggest that the presence of ADHD symptoms, both in inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity domains, may be one of the important risk factors for Internet addiction. PMID:15482579

  12. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    1998-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may arise when key brain circuits do not develop properly, perhaps due to an altered gene or genes. Describes ADHD in detail and introduces a psychological model of ADHD. (ASK)

  13. ATTENTION PROSPECTIVE GRAPHIC DESIGN MAJORS

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    ATTENTION PROSPECTIVE GRAPHIC DESIGN MAJORS ENTRANCE INTO ART 3610 AND 3630 IF YOU WISH TO BE CONSIDERED FOR ADMITTANCE INTO THE FIRST YEAR GRAPHIC DESIGN SEQUENCE, DELIVER YOUR PORTFOLIO TO THE ART IN GRAPHIC DESIGN FOR FALL SEMESTER. #12;

  14. Salience detection and attentional capture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Schubö

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate to what extent irrelevant salient information attracts an observer’s attention and is processed\\u000a without the observer intending to do so. The present experiment investigated attentional capture of salient but irrelevant\\u000a objects and compared target processing in target-and-distractor to target-only trials. Both form and color singletons were\\u000a used and their target–distractor assignment was interchanged. Thus the

  15. Closed-loop training of attention with real-time brain imaging.

    PubMed

    deBettencourt, Megan T; Cohen, Jonathan D; Lee, Ray F; Norman, Kenneth A; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2015-03-01

    Lapses of attention can have negative consequences, including accidents and lost productivity. Here we used closed-loop neurofeedback to improve sustained attention abilities and reduce the frequency of lapses. During a sustained attention task, the focus of attention was monitored in real time with multivariate pattern analysis of whole-brain neuroimaging data. When indicators of an attentional lapse were detected in the brain, we gave human participants feedback by making the task more difficult. Behavioral performance improved after one training session, relative to control participants who received feedback from other participants' brains. This improvement was largest when feedback carried information from a frontoparietal attention network. A neural consequence of training was that the basal ganglia and ventral temporal cortex came to represent attentional states more distinctively. These findings suggest that attentional failures do not reflect an upper limit on cognitive potential and that attention can be trained with appropriate feedback about neural signals. PMID:25664913

  16. Modulation of long-range neural synchrony reflects temporal limitations of visual attention in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Joachim; Schmitz, Frank; Schnitzler, Irmtraud; Kessler, Klaus; Shapiro, Kimron; Hommel, Bernhard; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2004-01-01

    Because of attentional limitations, the human visual system can process for awareness and response only a fraction of the input received. Lesion and functional imaging studies have identified frontal, temporal, and parietal areas as playing a major role in the attentional control of visual processing, but very little is known about how these areas interact to form a dynamic attentional network. We hypothesized that the network communicates by means of neural phase synchronization, and we used magnetoencephalography to study transient long-range interarea phase coupling in a well studied attentionally taxing dual-target task (attentional blink). Our results reveal that communication within the fronto-parieto-temporal attentional network proceeds via transient long-range phase synchronization in the beta band. Changes in synchronization reflect changes in the attentional demands of the task and are directly related to behavioral performance. Thus, we show how attentional limitations arise from the way in which the subsystems of the attentional network interact. PMID:15328408

  17. Treatment of Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Desiree W. Murray

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current treatment literature for attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschoolers.\\u000a Parent training studies show consistent behavioral improvements reported by teachers and observers as well as parents, with\\u000a evidence of clinically significant improvement in ADHD symptoms for up to 2 years. Few other behavioral interventions have\\u000a been evaluated, although data from a large psychosocial, multimodal intervention are forthcoming. There

  18. Framing Attention in Japanese and American Comics: Cross-Cultural Differences in Attentional Structure

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books – the narrative frames in sequential images – highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese “manga” to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention. PMID:23015794

  19. Framing attention in Japanese and american comics: cross-cultural differences in attentional structure.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books - the narrative frames in sequential images - highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese "manga" to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer's integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention. PMID:23015794

  20. Irrelevant stimulus processing in ADHD: catecholamine dynamics and attentional networks

    PubMed Central

    Aboitiz, Francisco; Ossandón, Tomás; Zamorano, Francisco; Palma, Bárbara; Carrasco, Ximena

    2014-01-01

    A cardinal symptom of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a general distractibility where children and adults shift their attentional focus to stimuli that are irrelevant to the ongoing behavior. This has been attributed to a deficit in dopaminergic signaling in cortico-striatal networks that regulate goal-directed behavior. Furthermore, recent imaging evidence points to an impairment of large scale, antagonistic brain networks that normally contribute to attentional engagement and disengagement, such as the task-positive networks and the default mode network (DMN). Related networks are the ventral attentional network (VAN) involved in attentional shifting, and the salience network (SN) related to task expectancy. Here we discuss the tonic–phasic dynamics of catecholaminergic signaling in the brain, and attempt to provide a link between this and the activities of the large-scale cortical networks that regulate behavior. More specifically, we propose that a disbalance of tonic catecholamine levels during task performance produces an emphasis of phasic signaling and increased excitability of the VAN, yielding distractibility symptoms. Likewise, immaturity of the SN may relate to abnormal tonic signaling and an incapacity to build up a proper executive system during task performance. We discuss different lines of evidence including pharmacology, brain imaging and electrophysiology, that are consistent with our proposal. Finally, restoring the pharmacodynamics of catecholaminergic signaling seems crucial to alleviate ADHD symptoms; however, the possibility is open to explore cognitive rehabilitation strategies to top-down modulate network dynamics compensating the pharmacological deficits. PMID:24723897

  1. Parents' Reactions to Youths' Hyperactivity, Impulsivity, and Attention Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatz, Terese; Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attention problems (HIA) in children and adolescents are stressful for parents. In this study, we used theories of parents' perceived power and attributions for youths' behaviors to develop a model to understand parents' reactions to their youths' HIA. We followed 706 youths (376 boys and 330 girls, aged 10-12 years…

  2. Developmental Changes in Infant Attention to Dynamic and Static Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaddy, D. Jill; Colombo, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 4- and 6-month-olds' responses to static or dynamic stimuli using behavioral and heart-rate-defined measures of attention. Infants looked longest to dynamic stimuli with an audio track and least to a static stimulus that was mute. Overall, look duration declined with age to the different stimuli. The amount of time spent in…

  3. Academic Underachievement and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Grofer Klinger

    2002-01-01

    Many children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) achieve academically at a lower level than would be predicted given their intellectual abilities. However, the extent to which this is due to behavioral problems versus cognitive deficits associated with the disorder is unclear. In the present study, a group of children with ADHD (with average intellectual abilities) performed significantly below prediction in reading,

  4. Columbine's Challenge: A Call To Pay Attention to Our Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Presents a call to action to all adults who impact the lives of students to make the time to pay attention to students, encourage their strengths, promote their learning, and model considerate and pro-social behavior--to notice them and talk to them. (SR)

  5. Brain Dynamics and Hypnosis: Attentional and Disattentional Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen J. Crawford

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews recent research findings, expanding an evolving neuropsychophysiological model of hypnosis (Crawford, 1989; Crawford & Gruzelier, 1992), that support the view that highly hypnotizable persons (highs) possess stronger attentional filtering abilities than do low hypnotizable persons, and that these differences are reflected in underlying brain dynamics. Behavioral, cognitive, and neurophysiological evidence is reviewed that suggests that highs can

  6. The Efficiency of Attentional Networks in Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F.; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether previously reported questionnaire-based differences in self-regulatory behaviors (Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2009, 2010) between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS) would also be reflected in their underlying attentional networks. Method: Participants…

  7. Emotion Regulation and Heterogeneity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erica D.; Galloway-Long, Hilary S.; Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: How best to capture heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using biomarkers has been elusive. This study evaluated whether emotion reactivity and regulation provide a means to achieve this. Method: Participants were classified into three groups: children with ADHD plus low prosocial behavior (hypothesized to be…

  8. Multiple Effects of Joint Attention Intervention for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emily A.; Carr, Edward G.; Feeley, Kathleen M.

    2006-01-01

    Joint attention refers to an early developing set of behaviors that plays a critical role in both social and language development and is specifically impaired in children with autism. In a series of three studies, preschool teachers demonstrated the effectiveness of discrete trial instruction and pivotal response training strategies to teach joint…

  9. Brief Report: High and Low Level Initiations of Joint Attention, and Response to Joint Attention--Differential Relationships with Language and Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Katherine E.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    Frequency of high-level (showing/pointing) and low-level (coordinated gaze shifts) behaviors on the Early Social Communication Scales are often used as a measure of joint attention initiations (IJA). This study examined the degree to which these skills and response to joint attention (RJA; e.g. gaze following) were differentially related to…

  10. Visual Attention Modulates Insight Versus Analytic Solving of Verbal Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wegbreit, Ezra; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Kounios, John; Beeman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral and neuroimaging findings indicate that distinct cognitive and neural processes underlie solving problems with sudden insight. Moreover, people with less focused attention sometimes perform better on tests of insight and creative problem solving. However, it remains unclear whether different states of attention, within individuals, influence the likelihood of solving problems with insight or with analysis. In this experiment, participants (N = 40) performed a baseline block of verbal problems, then performed one of two visual tasks, each emphasizing a distinct aspect of visual attention, followed by a second block of verbal problems to assess change in performance. After participants engaged in a center-focused flanker task requiring relatively focused visual attention, they reported solving more verbal problems with analytic processing. In contrast, after participants engaged in a rapid object identification task requiring attention to broad space and weak associations, they reported solving more verbal problems with insight. These results suggest that general attention mechanisms influence both visual attention task performance and verbal problem solving. PMID:24459538

  11. Relating Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Polymorphisms to Spatial Attention in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Markant, Julie; Cicchetti, Dante; Hetzel, Susan; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Early selective attention skills are a crucial building block for cognitive development, as attention orienting serves as a primary means by which infants interact with and learn from the environment. Although several studies have examined infants’ attention orienting using the spatial cueing task, relatively few studies have examined neurodevelopmental factors associated with attention orienting during infancy. The present study examined the relationship between normative genetic polymorphisms affecting dopamine and acetylcholine signaling and attention orienting in 7-month-old infants during a spatial cueing task. We focused on 3 genes, including the CHRNA4 C1545T SNP (rs10344946), DAT1 3? UTR VNTR, and COMT Val158Met SNP (rs4680), as previous adult research has linked spatial attention skills to these polymorphisms. Behavioral measures included both facilitation of orienting at the cued location as well as inhibition of return (IOR), in which attention orienting is suppressed at the cued location. Results indicated that COMT Val carriers showed robust IOR relative to infants with the Met/Met genotype. However, COMT was unrelated to infants’ facilitation responses, and there were no effects of CHRNA4 or DAT1 on either facilitation or IOR. Overall, this study suggests that variations in dopamine signaling, likely in prefrontal cortex, contribute to individual differences in orienting during early development. PMID:23731290

  12. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bush, George

    2010-01-01

    Research attempting to elucidate the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not only shed light on the disorder itself, it has simultaneously provided new insights into the mechanisms of normal cognition and attention. This review will highlight and integrate this bidirectional flow of information. Following a brief overview of ADHD clinical phenomenology, ADHD studies will be placed into a wider historical perspective by providing illustrative examples of how major models of attention have influenced the development of neurocircuitry models of ADHD. The review will then identify major components of neural systems potentially relevant to ADHD, including attention networks, reward/feedback-based processing systems, as well as a ‘default mode' resting state network. Further, it will suggest ways in which these systems may interact and be influenced by neuromodulatory factors. Recent ADHD imaging data will be selectively provided to both illustrate the field's current level of knowledge and to show how such data can inform our understanding of normal brain functions. The review will conclude by suggesting possible avenues for future research. PMID:19759528

  13. Now, Pay Attention! The Effects of Instruction on Children's Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannass, Kathleen N.; Colombo, John; Wyss, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of instructions to "stay on task" on preschoolers' attention and cognitive performance in the face of either incomprehensible or comprehensible distraction. Three- and 4-year-olds completed problem-solving tasks while a distracting event played continuously in the background under conditions of (a) no instruction, (b)…

  14. Self-Monitoring of Attention versus Self-Monitoring of Performance: Effects on Attention and Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert; Harris, Karen R.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-eight students (ages 9-12) with learning disabilities were taught a spelling study procedure (SSP), followed by instruction in self-monitoring of performance (SMP) and self-monitoring of attention (SMA). On-task behavior was significantly higher in both SMA and SMP than in SSP. Neither SMP nor SMA were inherently superior across subjects,…

  15. Cortical Thinning of the Attention and Executive Function Networks in Adults with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikos Makris; Joseph Biederman; Eve M. Valera; George Bush; Jonathan Kaiser; David N. Kennedy; Verne S. Caviness; Stephen V. Faraone; Larry J. Seidman

    2007-01-01

    Attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with structural alterations in brain networks influencing cognitive and motor behaviors. Volumetric studies in children identify ab- normalities in cortical, striatal, callosal, and cerebellar regions. In a prior volumetric study, we found that ADHD adults had sig- nificantly smaller overall cortical gray matter, prefrontal, and anterior cingulate volumes than matched controls. Thickness and surface

  16. [Neurobiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Renner, T J; Gerlach, M; Romanos, M; Herrmann, M; Reif, A; Fallgatter, A J; Lesch, K-P

    2008-07-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as a clinically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome with the contribution of numerous genetic and environmental risk factors. The goal of interdisciplinary and translational neurobiological research is to clarify the interdependent relationship between molecular mechanisms and structural-functional substrates in the pathogenesis of ADHD and its significance to the disorder's long-term course. Work on ADHD-specific molecular genetic and developmental biological essentials of brain function and on the structural-functional basis of behavior holds the promise of developing predictors and differential strategies for effective therapy of severe and chronic courses of ADHD. To define evolutionary conserved ADHD-relevant principles of structure and function of the brain and behavior typical to the syndrome, an integrated approach in the elucidation of specific neuro- and psychobiological mechanisms and thus systemic pathophysiology of ADHD is crucial. Regarding compromised neurodevelopment, pathophysiological models of ADHD, particularly its syndromal and comorbid dimensions, therefore require the combination of molecular genetic, neuroimaging, neuropsychology, behavioral, and psychosocial strategies to explain complete causal chains. PMID:18553066

  17. Does attention bias modification improve attentional control? A double-blind randomized experiment with individuals with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Heeren, Alexandre; Mogoa?e, Cristina; McNally, Richard J; Schmitz, Anne; Philippot, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    People with anxiety disorders often exhibit an attentional bias for threat. Attention bias modification (ABM) procedure may reduce this bias, thereby diminishing anxiety symptoms. In ABM, participants respond to probes that reliably follow non-threatening stimuli (e.g., neutral faces) such that their attention is directed away from concurrently presented threatening stimuli (e.g., disgust faces). Early studies showed that ABM reduced anxiety more than control procedures lacking any contingency between valenced stimuli and probes. However, recent work suggests that no-contingency training and training toward threat cues can be as effective as ABM in reducing anxiety, implying that any training may increase executive control over attention, thereby helping people inhibit their anxious thoughts. Extending this work, we randomly assigned participants with DSM-IV diagnosed social anxiety disorder to either training toward non-threat (ABM), training toward threat, or no-contingency condition, and we used the attention network task (ANT) to assess all three components of attention. After two training sessions, subjects in all three conditions exhibited indistinguishably significant declines from baseline to post-training in self-report and behavioral measures of anxiety on an impromptu speech task. Moreover, all groups exhibited similarly significant improvements on the alerting and executive (but not orienting) components of attention. Implications for ABM research are discussed. PMID:25465885

  18. Attention, memory, and cigarette smoking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirley C. Peeke; Harman V. S. Peeke

    1984-01-01

    Four experiments tested the effects of smoking one cigarette on verbal memory and attention. In Experiment I, 18 men were tested under three conditions in a repeated-measures design (pretrial smoking, posttrial smoking, no smoking). Recall of a 50-word list was tested immediately and after intervals of 10 and 45 min. Pretrial smoking resulted in improved recall 10 and 45 min

  19. Librarians and the Attention Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Bridges

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of Web 2.0, libraries began not only developing innovative technology, but also new economic paradigms for library services. The present economic situation for libraries is unsustainable. Libraries, as a practical matter, cannot pay attention to everything, to every node, to every leaf on the tree of knowledge. Through creation of multiple points of interaction with users the

  20. Attention Control for Robot Vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl-fredrik Westin; Carl-johan Westelius; Hans Knutsson; Gösta H. Granlund

    1996-01-01

    Focus of attention mechanisms for robot vision are discussed. A new method for neglecting low level filter responses from already modelled structures is presented. The method is based on a filtering technique termed normalized convolution. In one experiment, the robot is continuously moving its arm in the scene while tracking other objects. It is shown how the arm can be

  1. Attentional Episodes in Visual Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks between these episodes are punctuated by periods…

  2. Thinking of God Moves Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasteen, Alison L.; Burdzy, Donna C.; Pratt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The concepts of God and Devil are well known across many cultures and religions, and often involve spatial metaphors, but it is not well known if our mental representations of these concepts affect visual cognition. To examine if exposure to divine concepts produces shifts of attention, participants completed a target detection task in which they…

  3. Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rohit; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mathur, Shachi

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/ADD) is a neurobehavioral disorder of childhood onset characterized by severe, developmentally inappropriate motor hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsiveness that result in impairment in more than one setting. It affects the home, school, and community life of 39% of school-going children worldwide. There is increasing recognition that ADHD symptoms and clinically defined disorder can persist into adult life and are associated with later drug and alcohol misuse and social and work difficulties. Added to that is the extreme variability of the disorder over time, within the same individual, between individuals, and across different circumstances. Treatment with stimulants and nonstimulants has proven effective in different subgroups, with the effectiveness of specific agents most likely related to the primary neurotransmitter involved. However, stimulants with a short duration of action have been problematic for some patients. Parent training and cognitive behavioral therapies represent the most widely adjunct psychosocial interventions to pharmacotherapy. PMID:21977081

  4. Infant and adult visual attention during an imitation demonstration

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Gemma; Herbert, Jane S

    2014-01-01

    Deferred imitation tasks have shown that manipulations at encoding can enhance infant learning and memory performance within an age, suggesting that brain maturation alone cannot fully account for all developmental changes in early memory abilities. The present study investigated whether changes in the focus of attention during learning might contribute to improving memory abilities during infancy. Infants aged 6, 9, and 12 months, and an adult comparison group, watched a video of a puppet imitation demonstration while visual behavior was recorded on an eye tracker. Overall, infants spent less time attending to the video than adults, and distributed their gaze more equally across the demonstrator and puppet stimulus. In contrast, adults directed their gaze primarily to the puppet. When infants were tested for their behavioral recall of the target actions, “imitators” were shown to have increased attention to the person and decreased attention to the background compared to “non-imitators.” These results suggest that attention during learning is related to memory outcome and that changes in attention may be one mechanism by which manipulations to the learning event may enhance infant recall memory. © 2013 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24037972

  5. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discriminability and appearance in tasks mediated by contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution; the effects of feature-based attention on basic visual processes, and a comparison of the effects of spatial and feature-based attention. The emphasis of this review is on psychophysical studies, but relevant electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies and models regarding how and where neuronal responses are modulated are also discussed. PMID:21549742

  6. Temporal dynamics of visual attention measured with event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Kashiwase, Yoshiyuki; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    How attentional modulation on brain activities determines behavioral performance has been one of the most important issues in cognitive neuroscience. This issue has been addressed by comparing the temporal relationship between attentional modulations on neural activities and behavior. Our previous study measured the time course of attention with amplitude and phase coherence of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and found that the modulation latency of phase coherence rather than that of amplitude was consistent with the latency of behavioral performance. In this study, as a complementary report, we compared the time course of visual attention shift measured by event-related potentials (ERPs) with that by target detection task. We developed a novel technique to compare ERPs with behavioral results and analyzed the EEG data in our previous study. Two sets of flickering stimulus at different frequencies were presented in the left and right visual hemifields, and a target or distracter pattern was presented randomly at various moments after an attention-cue presentation. The observers were asked to detect targets on the attended stimulus after the cue. We found that two ERP components, P300 and N2pc, were elicited by the target presented at the attended location. Time-course analyses revealed that attentional modulation of the P300 and N2pc amplitudes increased gradually until reaching a maximum and lasted at least 1.5 s after the cue onset, which is similar to the temporal dynamics of behavioral performance. However, attentional modulation of these ERP components started later than that of behavioral performance. Rather, the time course of attentional modulation of behavioral performance was more closely associated with that of the concurrently recorded SSVEPs analyzed. These results suggest that neural activities reflected not by either the P300 or N2pc, but by the SSVEPs, are the source of attentional modulation of behavioral performance. PMID:23976966

  7. Temporal Dynamics of Visual Attention Measured with Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwase, Yoshiyuki; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    How attentional modulation on brain activities determines behavioral performance has been one of the most important issues in cognitive neuroscience. This issue has been addressed by comparing the temporal relationship between attentional modulations on neural activities and behavior. Our previous study measured the time course of attention with amplitude and phase coherence of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and found that the modulation latency of phase coherence rather than that of amplitude was consistent with the latency of behavioral performance. In this study, as a complementary report, we compared the time course of visual attention shift measured by event-related potentials (ERPs) with that by target detection task. We developed a novel technique to compare ERPs with behavioral results and analyzed the EEG data in our previous study. Two sets of flickering stimulus at different frequencies were presented in the left and right visual hemifields, and a target or distracter pattern was presented randomly at various moments after an attention-cue presentation. The observers were asked to detect targets on the attended stimulus after the cue. We found that two ERP components, P300 and N2pc, were elicited by the target presented at the attended location. Time-course analyses revealed that attentional modulation of the P300 and N2pc amplitudes increased gradually until reaching a maximum and lasted at least 1.5 s after the cue onset, which is similar to the temporal dynamics of behavioral performance. However, attentional modulation of these ERP components started later than that of behavioral performance. Rather, the time course of attentional modulation of behavioral performance was more closely associated with that of the concurrently recorded SSVEPs analyzed. These results suggest that neural activities reflected not by either the P300 or N2pc, but by the SSVEPs, are the source of attentional modulation of behavioral performance. PMID:23976966

  8. Concealing Behavior

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Ipsen

    2008-04-01

    A previous activity suggested the importance of behavior to an animal with coincident coloration. If the stripe-legged frog fails to fold its legs, the disruptive markings on them lose much of their effectiveness. If, when at rest, a moth with coincident wing markings on them lose much of their effectiveness. If, when at rest, a moth with coincident wing markings leaves its wings spread too widely after alighting, the coincident pattern that normally cuts across them is broken into pieces. This activity considers further aspects of behavior that may influence the effectiveness of their concealing coloration. In the second activity, further attention is paid to the influence of behavior on concealment as students put to test much of their recently acquired knowledge by playing the Lizard Game.

  9. Quantifying Pilot Visual Attention in Low Visibility Terminal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Kyle K.; Arthur, J. J.; Latorella, Kara A.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Norman, Robert M.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying pilot visual behavior allows researchers to determine not only where a pilot is looking and when, but holds implications for specific behavioral tracking when these data are coupled with flight technical performance. Remote eye tracking systems have been integrated into simulators at NASA Langley with effectively no impact on the pilot environment. This paper discusses the installation and use of a remote eye tracking system. The data collection techniques from a complex human-in-the-loop (HITL) research experiment are discussed; especially, the data reduction algorithms and logic to transform raw eye tracking data into quantified visual behavior metrics, and analysis methods to interpret visual behavior. The findings suggest superior performance for Head-Up Display (HUD) and improved attentional behavior for Head-Down Display (HDD) implementations of Synthetic Vision System (SVS) technologies for low visibility terminal area operations. Keywords: eye tracking, flight deck, NextGen, human machine interface, aviation

  10. The Implications of Early Attentional Regulation for School Success among Low-Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal associations between attentional regulation in preschool and children’s school success in later elementary school within an at-risk sample (N = 2,595). Specifically, two facets of attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) at age 5 were explored as independent predictors of children’s achievement and behavioral competence at age 9. Overall, the pattern of results indicates specificity between the facets of attention and school success, such that focused attention was predictive of achievement outcomes while impulsivity was predictive of behavioral outcomes. Both facets of attention predicted teacher ratings of children’s approaches to learning, which suggests that they jointly influence skills that span both domains of school success. Poverty status, maternal warmth, and infant temperament did not moderate these associations. Implications of these findings for interventions targeting school readiness and success among at-risk children are discussed. PMID:23243330

  11. Active Listening Impairs Visual Perception and Selectivity: An ERP Study of Auditory Dual-task Costs on Visual Attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Gherri; Martin Eimer

    2011-01-01

    The ability to drive safely is disrupted by cell phone conversations, and this has been attributed to a diversion of attention from the visual environment. We employed behavioral and ERP measures to study whether the attentive processing of spoken messages is, in itself, sufficient to produce visual–attentional deficits. Participants searched for visual targets defined by a unique feature (Experiment 1)

  12. Active Listening Impairs Visual Perception and Selectivity: An ERP Study of Auditory Dual-task Costs on Visual Attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Gherri; Martin Eimer

    2010-01-01

    The ability to drive safely is disrupted by cell phone conversations, and this has been attributed to a diversion of attention from the visual environment. We employed behavioral and ERP measures to study whether the attentive processing of spoken messages is, in itself, sufficient to produce visual– attentional deficits. Participants searched for visual targets defined by a unique feature (Experiment

  13. Color impact in visual attention deployment considering emotional images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamaret, C.

    2012-03-01

    Color is a predominant factor in the human visual attention system. Even if it cannot be sufficient to the global or complete understanding of a scene, it may impact the visual attention deployment. We propose to study the color impact as well as the emotion aspect of pictures regarding the visual attention deployment. An eye-tracking campaign has been conducted involving twenty people watching half pictures of database in full color and the other half of database in grey color. The eye fixations of color and black and white images were highly correlated leading to the question of the integration of such cues in the design of visual attention model. Indeed, the prediction of two state-of-the-art computational models shows similar results for the two color categories. Similarly, the study of saccade amplitude and fixation duration versus time viewing did not bring any significant differences between the two mentioned categories. In addition, spatial coordinates of eye fixations reveal an interesting indicator for investigating the differences of visual attention deployment over time and fixation number. The second factor related to emotion categories shows evidences of emotional inter-categories differences between color and grey eye fixations for passive and positive emotion. The particular aspect associated to this category induces a specific behavior, rather based on high frequencies, where the color components influence the visual attention deployment.

  14. Subliminally presented and stored objects capture spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Astle, Duncan E; Nobre, Anna C; Scerif, Gaia

    2010-03-10

    When objects disappear from view, we can still bring them to mind, at least for brief periods of time, because we can represent those objects in visual short-term memory (VSTM) (Sperling, 1960; Cowan, 2001). A defining characteristic of this representation is that it is topographic, that is, it preserves a spatial organization based on the original visual percept (Vogel and Machizawa, 2004; Astle et al., 2009; Kuo et al., 2009). Recent research has also shown that features or locations of visual items that match those being maintained in conscious VSTM automatically capture our attention (Awh and Jonides, 2001; Olivers et al., 2006; Soto et al., 2008). But do objects leave some trace that can guide spatial attention, even without participants intentionally remembering them? Furthermore, could subliminally presented objects leave a topographically arranged representation that can capture attention? We presented objects either supraliminally or subliminally and then 1 s later re-presented one of those objects in a new location, as a "probe" shape. As participants made an arbitrary perceptual judgment on the probe shape, their covert spatial attention was drawn to the original location of that shape, regardless of whether its initial presentation had been supraliminal or subliminal. We demonstrate this with neural and behavioral measures of memory-driven attentional capture. These findings reveal the existence of a topographically arranged store of "visual" objects, the content of which is beyond our explicit awareness but which nonetheless guides spatial attention. PMID:20219990

  15. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that visuospatial attention deficits do not underlie these dyslexias. PMID:25628578

  16. Evidence for split attentional foci.

    PubMed

    Awh, E; Pashler, H

    2000-04-01

    A partial report procedure was used to test the ability of observers to split attention over noncontiguous locations. Observers reported the identity of 2 targets that appeared within a 5 x 5 stimulus array, and cues (validity = 80%) informed them of the 2 most likely target locations. On invalid trials, 1 of the targets appeared directly in between the cued locations. Experiments 1, 1a, and 2 showed a strong accuracy advantage at cued locations compared with intervening ones. This effect was larger when the cues were arranged horizontally rather than vertically. Experiment 3 suggests that this effect of cue orientation reflects an advantage for processing targets that appear in different hemifields. Experiments 4 and 4a suggest that the primary mechanism supporting the flexible deployment of spatial attention is the suppression of interference from stimuli at unattended locations. PMID:10811179

  17. The interruptive effect of pain on attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Moore; Edmund Keogh; Christopher Eccleston

    2011-01-01

    Pain is known to disrupt attentional performance in both healthy adults and patients with chronic pain. Exactly which aspects of attentional function are affected are, however, still to be determined. The primary aim of this investigation was to systematically examine the effects of experimentally induced pain on a range of attentional performance tasks. Following a review of tests of attentional

  18. The interruptive effect of pain on attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Moore; Edmund Keogh; Christopher Eccleston

    2012-01-01

    Pain is known to disrupt attentional performance in both healthy adults and patients with chronic pain. Exactly which aspects of attentional function are affected are, however, still to be determined. The primary aim of this investigation was to systematically examine the effects of experimentally induced pain on a range of attentional performance tasks. Following a review of tests of attentional

  19. A Real Attention-Getter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    While most parents would agree that playing videos games is the antithesis of time well spent for their children, recent advances involving NASA biofeedback technology are proving otherwise. The same techniques used to measure brain activity in NASA pilots during flight simulation exercises are now a part of a revolutionary video game system that is helping to improve overall mental awareness for Americans of all ages, including those who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

  20. Emotion Effects on Attention, Amygdala Activation, and Functional Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Emotion Effects on Attention, Amygdala Activation, and Functional Connectivity in Schizophrenia of their underlying neuropathology is lacking. Numerous studies have examined amygdala activation in response stimuli during minimal cognitive engagement, at the level of behavior, amygdala recruitment, and its whole

  1. Do Quantitative EEG Measures Differentiate Hyperactivity in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Garth A.; Steffler, Dorothy J.; Lemoine, Daniel E.; Leps, Jolene D.

    2001-01-01

    Used quantitative electroencephalogram analysis to examine difference in brain wave activity of attention deficit disorders (ADD) with and without hyperactivity while completing a computerized task measuring a variety of constructs associated with attention and impulsivity. Found that although behavioral ratings confirmed differential…

  2. Stimulus Control and Resistance to Extinction in Attention-Maintained SIB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Gregory P.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Adelinis, John D.

    1997-01-01

    A study of an adolescent with severe mental retardation, who demonstrated self-injurious behavior (SIB) when given attention, evaluated the extent to which providing attention only to appropriate communication would reduce SIB. The client's SIB was reduced significantly only when the therapist left the room when he engaged in SIB. (CR)

  3. The Effect of Early Deprivation on Executive Attention in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loman, Michelle M.; Johnson, Anna E.; Westerlund, Alissa; Pollak, Seth D.; Nelson, Charles A.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children reared in deprived environments, such as institutions for the care of orphaned or abandoned children, are at increased risk for attention and behavior regulation difficulties. This study examined the neurobehavioral correlates of executive attention in post institutionalized (PI) children. Methods: The performance and…

  4. Predicting the Early Developmental Course of Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stauffenberg, Camilla; Campbell, Susan B.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care were examined to test whether: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms remain stable from 54 months through early elementary school; behavioral inhibition and attention deficits assessed at 54 months predict ADHD symptoms in elementary…

  5. Affective sharing in the context of joint attention interactions of normal, autistic, and mentally retarded children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Connie Kasari; Marian Sigman; Peter Mundy; Nurit Yirmiya

    1990-01-01

    Disturbances in the development of joint attention behaviors and the ability to share affect with others are two important components of the social deficits of young autistic children. We examined the association of shared positive affect during two different communicative contexts, joint attention and requesting. The pattern for the normal children was one of frequent positive affect displayed toward the

  6. The Use of Trauma Counseling for Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottinger, Audrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at risk for behavioral problems and so are frequently brought to the attention of counselors. The literature is limited, however, in examining specific counseling techniques for this population, and particularly in discussing counseling in a developing country where children do not…

  7. Establishing Response and Stimulus Classes for Initiating Joint Attention in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emily A.

    2009-01-01

    The absence of the fundamental skill of "initiating joint attention" reflects the social-communicative impairment characterizing autism. Initiating joint attention is related to social and communication development as well as intervention outcomes for children with autism. A behaviorally based intervention was used to teach an expanded class of…

  8. Joint Attention and Word Learning in Ngas-Speaking Toddlers in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Jane B.; Vaughan, Julie; Burquest, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines infants' joint attention behavior and language development in a rural village in Nigeria. Participants included eight younger (1;0 to 1;5, M age=1;2) and eight older toddlers (1;7 to 2;7, M age=2;1). Joint attention behaviors in social interaction contexts were recorded and coded at two time points six months apart. Analyses…

  9. The CBCL Bipolar Profile and Attention, Mood, and Behavior Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerfler, Leonard A.; Connor, Daniel F.; Toscano, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Biederman and colleagues reported that a CBCL profile identified youngsters who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Some studies found that this CBCL profile does not reliably identify children who present with bipolar disorder, but nonetheless this CBCL does identify youngsters with severe dysfunction. However, the nature of the impairment of…

  10. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Cued Spatial Attention Drives Functionally Relevant

    E-print Network

    Moore, Christopher

    in the SI mu rhythm containing mu-alpha (7­14 Hz) and mu-beta (15­29 Hz) components. We found that cued). In the somatosensory neocortex in humans, a spontaneous mu rhythm containing a complex of mu-alpha (7­14 Hz) and mu-beta in sensorimotor mu-alpha and mu-beta activity (Bauer et al., 2006; Babiloni et al., 2008; Dockstader et al., 2010

  11. Trial history effects in the ventral attentional network.

    PubMed

    Scalf, Paige E; Ahn, JeeWon; Beck, Diane M; Lleras, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    The ventral attentional network (VAN) is thought to drive "stimulus driven attention" [e.g., Asplund, C. L., Todd, J. J., Snyder, A. P., & Marois, R. A central role for the lateral prefrontal cortex in goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention. Nature Neuroscience, 13, 507-512, 2010; Shulman, G. L., McAvoy, M. P., Cowan, M. C., Astafiev, S. V., Tansy, A. P., D' Avossa, G., et al. Quantitative analysis of attention and detection signals during visual search. Journal of Neurophysiology, 90, 3384-3397, 2003]; in other words, it instantiates within the current stimulus environment the top-down attentional biases maintained by the dorsal attention network [e.g., Kincade, J. M., Abrams, R. A., Astafiev, S. V., Shulman, G. L., & Corbetta, M. An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study of voluntary and stimulus-driven orienting of attention. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 25, 4593-4604, 2005]. Previous work has shown that the dorsal attentional network is sensitive to trial history, such that it is challenged by changes in task goals and facilitated by repetition thereof [e.g., Kristjánsson, A., Vuilleumier, P., Schwartz, S., Macaluso, E., & Driver, J. Neural basis for priming of pop-out during visual search revealed with fMRI. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 1612-1624, 2007]. Here, we investigate whether the VAN also preserves information across trials such that it is challenged when previously rejected stimuli become task relevant. We used fMRI to investigate the sensitivity of the ventral attentional system to prior history effects as measured by the distractor preview effect. This behavioral phenomenon reflects a bias against stimuli that have historically not supported task performance. We found regions traditionally considered to be part of the VAN (right middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus and right supramarginal gyrus) [Shulman, G. L., McAvoy, M. P., Cowan, M. C., Astafiev, S. V., Tansy, A. P., D' Avossa, G., et al. Quantitative analysis of attention and detection signals during visual search. Journal of Neurophysiology, 90, 3384-3397, 2003] to be more active when task-relevant stimuli had not supported task performance in a previous trial than when they had. Investigations of the ventral visual system suggest that this effect is more reliably driven by trial history preserved within the VAN than that preserved within the visual system per se. We conclude that VAN maintains its interactions with top-down stimulus biases and bottom-up stimulation across time, allowing previous experience with the stimulus environment to influence attentional biases under current circumstances. PMID:24960047

  12. Visual Attention to Radar Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moray, N.; Richards, M.; Brophy, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is described which predicts the allocation of attention to the features of a radar display. It uses the growth of uncertainty and the probability of near collision to call the eye to a feature of the display. The main source of uncertainty is forgetting following a fixation, which is modelled as a two dimensional diffusion process. The model was used to predict information overload in intercept controllers, and preliminary validation obtained by recording eye movements of intercept controllers in simulated and live (practice) interception.

  13. Repetitive behavior disorders in autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark H. Lewis; James W. Bodfish

    1998-01-01

    Autism is associated with a wide range of repetitive behaviors. These behaviors, although diagnostic for the disorder, have been the subject of far less attention than social and communication deficits. An understanding of the phenomenology, including comorbidity, of various forms of abnormal repetition requires improved methodol- ogy, including use of item-independent instruments capable of discriminating categories of repetitive behaviors or

  14. Decoding covert shifts of attention induced by ambiguous visuospatial cues

    PubMed Central

    Trachel, Romain E.; Clerc, Maureen; Brochier, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Simple and unambiguous visual cues (e.g., an arrow) can be used to trigger covert shifts of visual attention away from the center of gaze. The processing of visual stimuli is enhanced at the attended location. Covert shifts of attention modulate the power of cerebral oscillations in the alpha band over parietal and occipital regions. These modulations are sufficiently robust to be decoded on a single trial basis from electroencephalography (EEG) signals. It is often assumed that covert attention shifts are under voluntary control, and that they also occur in more natural and complex environments, but there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. We address this important issue by using random-dot stimuli to cue one of two opposite locations, where a visual target is presented. We contrast two conditions, one in which the random-dot motion is predictive of the target location, and the other, in which it provides ambiguous information. Behavioral results show attention shifts in anticipation of the visual target, in both conditions. In addition, using the common spatial patterns (CSPs) algorithm, we extract EEG power features in the alpha-band (around 10 Hz) that best discriminate the attended location in single trials. We obtain a significant decoding accuracy in 7/10 subjects using a cross-validation procedure applied in the predictive condition. Interestingly, similar accuracy (significant in 5/10 subjects) is obtained when the CSPs trained in the predictive condition are tested in the ambiguous condition. In agreement with this result, we find that the CSPs show very similar topographies in both conditions. These results shed a new light on the behavioral and EEG correlates of visuospatial attention in complex visual environments. This study demonstrates that alpha-power features could be used in brain–computer interfaces to decode covert attention shifts in an environment containing ambiguous spatial information. PMID:26150780

  15. Designing for augmented attention: Towards a framework for attentive user interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roel Vertegaal; Jeffrey S. Shell; Daniel Chen; Aadil Mamuji

    2006-01-01

    Attentive user interfaces are user interfaces that aim to support the user's attentional capacities. By sensing the users' attention for objects and people in their everyday environment, and by treating user attention as a limited resource, these interfaces avoid today's ubiquitous patterns of interrup- tion. Focusing upon attention as a central interaction channel allows development of more sociable methods of

  16. A Hierarchy of Attentional Priority Signals in Human Frontoparietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Youyang

    2013-01-01

    Humans can voluntarily attend to a variety of visual attributes to serve behavioral goals. Voluntary attention is believed to be controlled by a network of dorsal frontoparietal areas. However, it is unknown how neural signals representing behavioral relevance (attentional priority) for different attributes are organized in this network. Computational studies have suggested that a hierarchical organization reflecting the similarity structure of the task demands provides an efficient and flexible neural representation. Here we examined the structure of attentional priority using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were cued to attend to location, color, or motion direction within the same stimulus. We found a hierarchical structure emerging in frontoparietal areas, such that multivoxel patterns for attending to spatial locations were most distinct from those for attending to features, and the latter were further clustered into different dimensions (color vs motion). These results provide novel evidence for the organization of the attentional control signals at the level of distributed neural activity. The hierarchical organization provides a computationally efficient scheme to support flexible top-down control. PMID:24133264

  17. Self-consciousness, self-attention, and social interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Fenigstein

    1979-01-01

    Conducted 2 experiments with a total of 128 female undergraduates to test the effects of self-focused attention on positive and negative social interactions. In Study 1 the behavior of dispositionally high and low publicly self-conscious women (as measured by the Self-Consciousness Scale) was examined in an interpersonal situation involving rejection by a group. It was hypothesized that persons high in

  18. Development and Evaluation of an Attention Maintenance Training Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Knodler; Donald L. Fisher

    One paragraph abstract: This proposed,research,focuses,on one of the key attributes that puts younger,drivers at increased risk. In particular, we will focus on the finding that younger drivers pay less attention to the,forward,roadway,and\\/or are more,likely to be,engaged,in a,distracting behavior. Distractions are estimated,to cause some 20% - 30% of crashes among,older teen drivers, and to be larger among newly licensed drivers than

  19. Attention-deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder: Associations with Overeating and Obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Davis

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade, we have become increasingly aware of strong associations between overweight\\/obesity and symptoms of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity\\u000a disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. This review addresses the prevalence of the comorbidity and discusses\\u000a some of the mechanisms that could account for their relationship. It is suggested that the inattentive and impulsive behaviors\\u000a that characterize ADHD could contribute to

  20. Developmental Measurement of Mental Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascual-Leone, Juan; Baillargeon, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Examines subjects' processing in misleading test items. Suggests that the M-power for children, when assessed behaviorally, may increase with age in a discrete manner, and have the potential to generate interval scales of measurement. In addition, suggests that, in light of the results, what statisticians often consider "error of measurement"…

  1. Effect of psychological treatment on attentional bias in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shafran, Roz; Lee, Michelle; Cooper, Zafra; Palmer, Robert L; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aims of these studies were (a) to investigate the relationship between attentional bias and eating disorders and (b) examine the impact of psychological treatment on attentional bias. Method: The first study compared performance on a pictorial dot probe of 82 female patients with clinical eating disorders and 44 healthy female controls. The second study compared the performance of 31 patients with eating disorder on the same task before and after receiving 20 weeks of standardized cognitive behavior therapy. Twenty-four patients with eating disorder served as wait-list controls Results: With the exception of neutral shape stimuli, attentional biases for eating, shape, and weight stimuli were greater in the patient sample than the healthy controls. The second study found that attentional biases significantly reduced after active treatment only. Conclusion: Attentional biases may be an expression of the eating disorder. The question of whether such biases warrant specific intervention requires further investigation. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 PMID:18213684

  2. Perceptual organization and artificial attention for visual landmarks detection.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Esther; Palomino, Antonio J; Marfil, Rebeca; Bandera, Juan P

    2013-03-01

    In biological vision systems, attention mechanisms are responsible for selecting the relevant information from the sensed field of view, so that the complete scene can be analyzed using a sequence of rapid eye saccades. In recent years, efforts have been made to imitate such attention behavior in artificial vision systems, because it allows optimizing the computational resources as they can be focused on the processing of a set of selected regions. In the framework of mobile robotics navigation, this work proposes an artificial model where attention is deployed at the level of objects (visual landmarks) and where new processes for estimating bottom-up and top-down (target-based) saliency maps are employed. Bottom-up attention is implemented through a hierarchical process, whose final result is the perceptual grouping of the image content. The hierarchical grouping is applied using a Combinatorial Pyramid that represents each level of the hierarchy by a combinatorial map. The process takes into account both image regions (faces in the map) and edges (arcs in the map). Top-down attention searches for previously detected landmarks, enabling their re-detection when the robot presumes that it is revisiting a known location. Landmarks are described by a combinatorial submap; thus, this search is conducted through an error-tolerant submap isomorphism procedure. PMID:23328946

  3. 28 CFR 301.104 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Medical attention. 301.104 Section 301.104 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.104 Medical attention....

  4. 28 CFR 301.104 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Medical attention. 301.104 Section 301.104 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.104 Medical attention....

  5. Superior Colliculus and Visual Spatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Krauzlis, Richard J.; Lovejoy, Lee P.; Zénon, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) has long been known to be part of the network of brain areas involved in spatial attention, but recent findings have dramatically refined our understanding of its functional role. The SC both implements the motor consequences of attention and plays a crucial role in the process of target selection that precedes movement. Moreover, even in the absence of overt orienting movements, SC activity is related to shifts of covert attention and is necessary for the normal control of spatial attention during perceptual judgments. The neuronal circuits that link the SC to spatial attention may include attention-related areas of the cerebral cortex, but recent results show that the SC's contribution involves mechanisms that operate independently of the established signatures of attention in visual cortex. These findings raise new issues and suggest novel possibilities for understanding the brain mechanisms that enable spatial attention. PMID:23682659

  6. 34 CFR 300.606 - Public attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public attention. 300.606 Section 300.606 Education Regulations...Technical Assistance, and Enforcement § 300.606 Public attention. Whenever a State receives notice that the...

  7. Canadian In-Class Question-Charge Distribution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Harrison, David

    In this set of in-class questions, a solid sphere carrying a positive charge is placed next to a negatively charged circular plate. The questions address the topic of charge distribution. All questions are available for download in PDF format.

  8. A WWW-based in-class response system 

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez Barron, Raul

    1997-01-01

    the instructor a chance to initiate early corrective action and enhance overall teaching performance. One of the concerns resulting from the use of such a system in an in-class setting, however, arises due to the potential problem of server overload. With a...

  9. Control of conflicts of interest in class-action suits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis A. Kornhauser

    1983-01-01

    This paper has presented a simple model of conflicts of interest in class litigations. An agent\\/attorney represents a number of principals each interested only in maximizing the remedy personal to herself. The agent acts to maximize his own return which depends on the aggregate award. He (in conjunction with the defendant) must propose a settlement. The court, with knowledge of

  10. Factors Affecting Educational Innovation with in Class Electronic Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Mark; Bell, Amani; Comerton-Forde, Carole; Pickering, Joanne; Blayney, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the use of Rogers' diffusion of innovation perspective to understand the factors affecting educational innovation decisions, specifically in regard to in class electronic response systems. Despite decreasing costs and four decades of research showing strong student support, academic adoption is limited. Using data collected from…

  11. Economic Inequality and Cultural Values: An In-Class Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubeck, Kenneth J.

    1977-01-01

    Described is an in-class sociology game which requires students to choose and defend a system of income distribution. Techniques for conducting the game, assessing game outcomes, and leading the postgame discussion are suggested. Experience with the game leads the author to conclude that it encourages students to think about values concerning…

  12. Emotional Contagion at Work: An In-Class Experiential Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Rebecca A. Bull; Palanski, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an in-class exercise designed to demonstrate the concept of emotional contagion. Empirical research has found that leader emotional displays at work relate to various member work attitudes and performance. However, students may have a difficult time understanding how and why emotions can influence organizational outcomes.…

  13. Assigned Positions for In-Class Debates Influence Student Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Emily

    2012-01-01

    In-class debates are frequently used to encourage student engagement. Ideally, after researching both sides of the debate, students will form their own opinions based on what they have learned. However, in a large course of Environmental Science, opinions of students, when surveyed after the debate, were remarkably consistent with the position…

  14. In-Class vs. Online Experiments: Is There a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Linda K.; Emerson, Tisha L. N.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom experiments in economics continue to increase in popularity. While early experiments were often hand-run in class, now computerized online experiments are also widely available. Using a quasiexperimental approach, the authors investigated whether any difference in student achievement (as measured by course scores and the "Test of…

  15. Searching for Homogamy: An In-Class Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, David; McGinty, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    Based on the popular television programs of "Bachelor," "Bachelorette," "Blind Date," "Elimidate," and "Next" an in-class exercise was developed and executed in five sections of a marriage and family course at a large southeastern university whereby students identified a homogamous (homogamy = similarity) partner and went out on a "real" date.…

  16. Attention Deficits Predict Phenotypic Outcomes in Syndrome-Specific and Domain-Specific Ways

    PubMed Central

    Cornish, K.; Steele, A.; Monteiro, C. Rondinelli Cobra; Karmiloff-Smith, A.; Scerif, G.

    2012-01-01

    Attentional difficulties, both at home and in the classroom, are reported across a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, exactly how attention influences early socio-cognitive learning remains unclear. We addressed this question both concurrently and longitudinally in a cross-syndrome design, with respect to the communicative domain of vocabulary and to the cognitive domain of early literacy, and then extended the analysis to social behavior. Participants were young children (aged 4–9?years at Time 1) with either Williams syndrome (WS, N?=?26) or Down syndrome (DS, N?=?26) and typically developing controls (N?=?103). Children with WS displayed significantly greater attentional deficits (as indexed by teacher report of behavior typical of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than children with DS, but both groups had greater attentional problems than the controls. Despite their attention differences, children with DS and those with WS were equivalent in their cognitive abilities of reading single words, both at Time 1 and 12?months later, at Time 2, although they differed in their early communicative abilities in terms of vocabulary. Greater ADHD-like behaviors predicted poorer subsequent literacy for children with DS, but not for children with WS, pointing to syndrome-specific attentional constraints on specific aspects of early development. Overall, our findings highlight the need to investigate more precisely whether and, if so, how, syndrome-specific profiles of behavioral difficulties constrain learning and socio-cognitive outcomes across different domains. PMID:22798954

  17. What Guides Visual Overt Attention under Natural Conditions? Past and Future Research.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Kai

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, overt attention under natural conditions became a prominent topic in neuroscientific and psychological research. In this context, one central question is "what guides the direction of gaze on complex visual scenes?" In the present review recent research on bottom-up influences on overt attention is presented first. Against this background, strengths and limitations of the bottom-up approach are discussed and future directions in this field are outlined. In addition to that, the current scope on top-down factors in visual attention is enlarged by discussing the impact of emotions and motivational tendencies on viewing behavior. Overall, this review highlights how behavioral and neurophysiological research on overt attention can benefit from a broader scope on influential factors in visual attention. PMID:24959568

  18. Mood as a determinant of attentional focus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constantine Sedikides

    1992-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of mood on self-focused versus external-focused attention. The results demonstrated that sad mood (compared to neutral and happy mood) tends to induce self-focused attention, whereas happy mood (compared to sad mood) tends to elicit external-focused attention. The effects of mood on attention were independent of the self-focusing nature of the mood-inducing event. A model is

  19. Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amishi P. Jha; Jason Krompinger; Michael J. Baime

    2007-01-01

    Mindfulness is defined as paying attention in the present moment. We investigate the hypothesis that mindfulness training may alter or\\u000a enhance specific aspects of attention. We examined three functionally and neuroanatomically distinct but overlapping attentional\\u000a subsystems: alerting, orienting, and conflict monitoring. Functioning of each subsystem was indexed by performance on the\\u000a Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, &

  20. Properties of Attention During Reading Lessons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mutsumi Imai; Richard C. Anderson; Ian A. G. Wilkinson; Hwajin Yi

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the attention of 116 children in 6 2nd- and 3rd-grade classrooms while they participated in 4 lessons involving progressively more difficult stories. Analysis of videotapes of the lessons revealed that the likelihood of a lapse of attention was highest during the first 15 s of attention episodes. Lapses in attention were more likely among 2nd graders than

  1. Attention theory and training research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, James G., Jr.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Lintern, Gavan; Harwood, Kelly

    1987-01-01

    This study used elements of attention theory as a methodological basis to decompose a complex training task in order to improve training efficiency. The complex task was a microcomputer flight simulation where subjects were required to control the stability of their own helicopter while acquiring and engaging enemy helicopers in a threat enviroment. Subjects were divided into whole-task, part-task, and part/open loop adaptive task groups in a transfer of training paradigm. The effect of reducing mental workload at the early stages of learning was examined with respect to the degree that subordinate elements of the complex task could be automated through practice of consistent, learnable stimulus-response relationships. Results revealed trends suggesting the benefit of isolating consistently mapped sub-tasks for part-task training and the presence of a time-sharing skill over and above the skill required for the separate subtasks.

  2. The neural correlates of volitional attention: A combined fMRI and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Bengson, Jesse J; A Kelley, Todd; Mangun, George R

    2015-07-01

    Studies of visual-spatial attention typically use instructional cues to direct attention to a relevant location, but in everyday vision, attention is often focused volitionally, in the absence of external signals. Although investigations of cued attention comprise hundreds of behavioral and physiological studies, remarkably few studies of voluntary attention have addressed the challenging question of how spatial attention is initiated and controlled in the absence of external instructions, which we refer to as willed attention. To explore this question, we employed a trial-by-trial spatial attention task using electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI results reveal a unique network of brain regions for willed attention that includes the anterior cingulate cortex, left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and the left and right anterior insula (AI). We also observed two event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with willed attention; one with a frontal distribution occurring 250-350 ms postdecision cue onset (EWAC: Early Willed Attention Component), and another occurring between 400 and 800 ms postdecision-cue onset (WAC: Willed Attention Component). In addition, each ERP component uniquely correlated across subjects with different willed attention-specific sites of BOLD activation. The EWAC was correlated with the willed attention-specific left AI and left MFG activations and the later WAC was correlated only with left AI. These results offer a comprehensive and novel view of the electrophysiological and anatomical profile of willed attention and further illustrate the relationship between scalp-recorded ERPs and the BOLD response. Hum Brain Mapp 36:2443-2454, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25731128

  3. Topological organization of the “small-world” visual attention network in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shugao; Foxe, John J.; Sroubek, Ariane E.; Branch, Craig; Li, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder. Disrupted sustained attention is one of the most significant behavioral impairments in this disorder. We mapped systems-level topological properties of the neural network responsible for sustained attention during a visual sustained task, on the premise that strong associations between anomalies in network features and clinical measures of ADHD would emerge. Methods: Graph theoretic techniques (GTT) and bivariate network-based statistics (NBS) were applied to fMRI data from 22 children with ADHD combined-type and 22 age-matched neurotypicals, to evaluate the topological and nodal-pairing features in the functional brain networks. Correlation testing for relationships between network properties and clinical measures were then performed. Results: The visual attention network showed significantly reduced local-efficiency and nodal-efficiency in frontal and occipital regions in ADHD. Measures of degree and between-centrality pointed to hyper-functioning in anterior cingulate cortex and hypo-functioning in orbito-frontal, middle-occipital, superior-temporal, supra-central, and supra-marginal gyri in ADHD. NBS demonstrated significantly reduced pair-wise connectivity in an inner-network, encompassing right parietal and temporal lobes and left occipital lobe, in the ADHD group. Conclusions: These data suggest that atypical topological features of the visual attention network contribute to classic ADHD symptomatology, and may underlie the inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity that are characteristics of this syndrome. PMID:24688465

  4. Attention deficit and attention training in early twentieth-century Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ando, Mizuho; Kumagai, Keiko

    2015-06-01

    Yuzero Motora (1856-1912), regarded as the first professional Japanese psychologist, tried to address students' attention difficulties through attention training methods of his own design. His reports contain the first description of ADHD-like symptoms in the history of Japan. Motora viewed "distractibility" as the irregular transition of attention. Students with low scores and attention difficulties who participated in Motora's exercises showed improvement in arithmetic, psychological testing, and certain aspects of daily life. This article describes Motora's theoretical conception of attention and attention training methodology, the history of attention deficit and attention training, and the significance of Motora's experiments. PMID:25512142

  5. Attention to Faces in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Jones, Nicola; Brown, Philippa H.; Robinson, Lucy J.; Langton, Stephen R. H.; Bruce, Vicki; Riby, Leigh M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with distinct social behaviours. One component of the WS social phenotype is atypically prolonged face fixation. This behaviour co-exists with attention difficulties. Attention is multi-faceted and may impact on gaze behaviour in several ways. Four experiments assessed (i) attention capture by faces, (ii)…

  6. Mental Attention in Gifted and Nongifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Jose I.; Ramiro, Pedro; Lopez, Jose M.; Aguilar, Manuel; Acosta, Manuel; Montero, Juan

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the construct of mental attention and "giftedness" is not well established. Gifted individuals could make effective use of their executive functions and this could be related to their mental attentional capacity. The dialectic constructivist model developed by Pascual-Leone introduced the concept of mental attention or…

  7. Attentional Orienting across the Sensory Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talsma, Durk; Kok, Albert; Slagter, Heleen A.; Cipriani, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    This event-related potential study investigated (i) to what extent incongruence between attention-directing cue and cued target modality affects attentional control processes that bias the system in advance to favor a particular stimulus modality and (ii) to what extent top-down attentional control mechanisms are generalized for the type of…

  8. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  9. Perceptual Load Influences Selective Attention across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couperus, Jane W.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that visual selective attention develops across childhood. However, there is relatively little understanding of the neurological changes that accompany this development, particularly in the context of adult theories of selective attention, such as N. Lavie's (1995) perceptual load theory of attention. This study examined visual…

  10. Target Predictability, Sustained Attention, and Response Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Leonie; Russell, Paul N.; Helton, William S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the sustained attention to response task is a better measure of response inhibition or sustained attention. Participants performed a number detection task for 37.3 min using either a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; high Go low No-Go) or a more traditionally formatted vigilance task (TFT; high No-Go low Go) response…

  11. Persistence of Value-Driven Attentional Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brian A.; Yantis, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Stimuli that have previously been associated with the delivery of reward involuntarily capture attention when presented as unrewarded and task-irrelevant distractors in a subsequent visual search task. It is unknown how long such effects of reward learning on attention persist. One possibility is that value-driven attentional biases are plastic…

  12. Causes and Consequences of Limited Attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reuven Dukas

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on the evolutionary causes and consequences of limited attention, defined as the restricted rate of information processing by the brain. The available data suggest, first, that limited attention is a major cognitive constraint determining animals’ search for cryptic food, and, second, that limited attention reduces animals’ ability to detect predators while involved in challenging tasks such as

  13. Behold: Silence and Attention in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, David

    2014-01-01

    Educators continually ask about the best means to engage students and how best to capture attention. These concerns often make the problematic assumption that students can directly govern their own attention. In order to address the role and limits of attention in education, some theorists have sought to recover the significance of silence or…

  14. On attention getting before topic nomination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUO Hong-feng

    In order to effectively accomplish his purpose the speaker must first of all get the attention of the target audience before nominating a topic. Attention getting may be either verbal or non -verbal. This paper discusses some verbal and non-verbal attention getting techniques frequently used in communication and comes to show that only according to the social relationship between the

  15. Attention Dysfunction Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowska, Monika; Milner, Rafa?; Ganc, Ma?gorzata; W?odarczyk, El?bieta; Skar?y?ski, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that many different aspects of attention are impaired in children diagnosed with developmental dyslexia (DD). The objective of the present study was to identify cognitive profiles of DD on the basis of attentional test performance. Material/Methods 78 children with DD (30 girls, 48 boys, mean age of 12 years ±8 months) and 32 age- and sex-matched non-dyslexic children (14 girls, 18 boys) were examined using a battery of standardized tests of reading, phonological and attentional processes (alertness, covert shift of attention, divided attention, inhibition, flexibility, vigilance, and visual search). Cluster analysis was used to identify subtypes of DD. Results Dyslexic children showed deficits in alertness, covert shift of attention, divided attention, flexibility, and visual search. Three different subtypes of DD were identified, each characterized by poorer performance on the reading, phonological awareness, and visual search tasks. Additionally, children in cluster no. 1 displayed deficits in flexibility and divided attention. In contrast to non-dyslexic children, cluster no. 2 performed poorer in tasks involving alertness, covert shift of attention, divided attention, and vigilance. Cluster no. 3 showed impaired covert shift of attention. Conclusions These results indicate different patterns of attentional impairments in dyslexic children. Remediation programs should address the individual child’s deficit profile. PMID:25387479

  16. Separable Attentional Predictors of Language Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Brenda; Panneton, Robin K.; Colombo, John

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the combined influences of infants' attention and use of social cues in the prediction of their language outcomes. This longitudinal study measured infants' visual attention on a distractibility task (11 months), joint attention (14 months), and language outcomes (word-object association, 14 months;…

  17. Attentional Engagement Deficits in Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffino, Milena; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Gori, Simone; Finzi, Alessandra; Giovagnoli, Sara; Menghini, Deny; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Molteni, Massimo; Bolzani, Roberto; Vicari, Stefano; Facoetti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Reading acquisition requires, in addition to appropriate phonological abilities, accurate and rapid selection of sublexical orthographic units by attentional letter string parsing. Spatio-temporal distribution of attentional engagement onto 3-pseudoletter strings was studied in 28 dyslexic and 55 normally reading children by measuring attentional

  18. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder outcome in adults].

    PubMed

    Bange, F

    2011-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood. Although some symptoms of ADHD may diminish this does not mean that functioning is unimpaired in adults. Follow-up studies of children with ADHD show that it persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. Due to genetic factors high rates of ADHD exist among the parents of children with ADHD. More females are identified and become diagnosed in adulthood. There is a greater persistence of inattentive than of hyperactive/impulsive childhood symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. Some experts conceptualise ADHD as primarily a deficit of executive functions impairing planification, time perception and emotional regulation. ADHD often presents as a lifelong condition in adults associated with a range of clinical and psychosocial impairments. Young adults with comorbid antisocial or substance use disorder in adolescence are at significantly increased risk for criminal behaviors. Some predictors of the outcome have been identified such as childhood symptom profile and severity, comorbidity and childhood family adversities. PMID:21652189

  19. Embodied attention and word learning by toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    Many theories of early word learning begin with the uncertainty inherent to learning a word from its co-occurrence with a visual scene. However, the relevant visual scene for infant word learning is neither from the adult theorist’s view nor the mature partner’s view, but is rather from the learner’s personal view. Here we show that when 18-month old infants interacted with objects in play with their parents, they created moments in which a single object was visually dominant. If parents named the object during these moments of bottom-up selectivity, later forced-choice tests showed that infants learned the name, but did not when naming occurred during a less visually selective moment. The momentary visual input for parents and toddlers was captured via head cameras placed low on each participant’s forehead as parents played with and named objects for their infant. Frame-by-frame analyses of the head camera images at and around naming moments were conducted to determine the visual properties at input that were associated with learning. The analyses indicated that learning occurred when bottom-up visual information was clean and uncluttered. The sensory-motor behaviors of infants and parents were also analyzed to determine how their actions on the objects may have created these optimal visual moments for learning. The results are discussed with respect to early word learning, embodied attention, and the social role of parents in early word learning. PMID:22878116

  20. Teaching Tommy: A Second-Grader with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fachin, Katharina

    1996-01-01

    Recounts a second-grade teacher's efforts to help a rough-and-tumble boy diagnosed with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). After comprehensive behavioral and academic programs (including token rewards, peer tutoring, resource room activities, an inclass aide) failed to stabilize Tommy's behavior, Ritalin was (successfully) prescribed…

  1. Prefrontal control of attention to threat

    PubMed Central

    Peers, Polly V.; Simons, Jon S.; Lawrence, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional control refers to the regulatory processes that ensure that our actions are in accordance with our goals. Dual-system accounts view temperament as consisting of both individual variation in emotionality (e.g., trait anxiety) and variation in regulatory attentional mechanisms that act to modulate emotionality. Increasing evidence links trait variation in attentional control to clinical mood and anxiety disorder symptoms, independent of trait emotionality. Attentional biases to threat have been robustly linked to mood and anxiety disorders. However, the role of variation in attentional control in influencing such biases, and the neural underpinnings of trait variation in attentional control, are unknown. Here, we show that individual differences in trait attentional control, even when accounting for trait and state anxiety, are related to the magnitude of an attentional blink (AB) following threat-related targets. Moreover, we demonstrate that activity in dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), is observed specifically in relation to control of attention over threatening stimuli, in line with neural theories of attentional control, such as guided activation theory. These results have key implications for neurocognitive theories of attentional bias and emotional resilience. PMID:23386824

  2. Visual attention, an indicator of human-animal relationships? A study of domestic horses (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Rochais, C.; Henry, S.; Sankey, C.; Nassur, F.; Góracka-Bruzda, A.; Hausberger, M.

    2014-01-01

    As visual attention is an intrinsic part of social relationships, and because relationships are built on a succession of interactions, their establishment involves learning and attention. The emotional, rewarding or punishing, content can modulate selective attention. In horses, the use of positive/negative reinforcement during training determines short and long-term human-horse relationships. In a recent study in horses, where either food or withers' grooming were used as a reward, it appeared that only the food-rewarded horses learned the task and show better relationship with humans. In the present study, we hypothesized that this differential effect of grooming/food rewards on learning performances could be due to attentional processes. Monitoring, gazes and behaviors directed towards the trainer revealed that the use of a food reward (FR) as positive reinforcement increased horses' selective attention towards their trainer. Conversely, horses trained with grooming reward (GR) expressed more inattentive responses and did not show a decrease of “agitated” behavior. However, individual plotting of attention vs. rate of learning performances revealed a complex pattern. Thus, while all FR horses showed a “window” of attention related to faster learning performances, GR horses' pattern followed an almost normal curve where the extreme animals (i.e., highest and lowest attention) had the slowest learning performances. On the other hand, learning was influenced by attention: at the end of training, the more attentive horses had also better learning performances. This study, based on horses, contributes to the general debate on the place of attentional processes at the interface of emotion and cognition and opens new lines of thought about individual sensitivities (only individuals can tell what an appropriate reward is), attentional processes and learning. PMID:24592244

  3. Plasticity of visual attention in Isha yoga meditation practitioners before and after a 3-month retreat

    PubMed Central

    Braboszcz, Claire; Cahn, B. Rael; Balakrishnan, Bhavani; Maturi, Raj K.; Grandchamp, Romain; Delorme, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Meditation has lately received considerable interest from cognitive neuroscience. Studies suggest that daily meditation leads to long lasting attentional and neuronal plasticity. We present changes related to the attentional systems before and after a 3 month intensive meditation retreat. We used three behavioral psychophysical tests - a Stroop task, an attentional blink task, and a global-local letter task-to assess the effect of Isha yoga meditation on attentional resource allocation. 82 Isha yoga practitioners were tested at the beginning and at the end of the retreat. Our results showed an increase in correct responses specific to incongruent stimuli in the Stroop task. Congruently, a positive correlation between previous meditation experience and accuracy to incongruent Stroop stimuli was also observed at baseline. We also observed a reduction of the attentional blink. Unexpectedly, a negative correlation between previous meditation experience and attentional blink performance at baseline was observed. Regarding spatial attention orientation as assessed using the global-local letter task, participants showed a bias toward local processing. Only slight differences in performance were found pre- vs. post- meditation retreat. Biasing toward the local stimuli in the global-local task and negative correlation of previous meditation experience with attentional blink performance is consistent with Isha practices being focused-attention practices. Given the relatively small effect sizes and the absence of a control group, our results do not allow clear support nor rejection of the hypothesis of meditation-driven neuronal plasticity in the attentional system for Isha yoga practice. PMID:24376429

  4. Metacognitive awareness of covert somatosensory attention corresponds to contralateral alpha power.

    PubMed

    Whitmarsh, Stephen; Barendregt, Henk; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Jensen, Ole

    2014-01-15

    Studies on metacognition have shown that participants can report on their performance on a wide range of perceptual, memory and behavioral tasks. We know little, however, about the ability to report on one's attentional focus. The degree and direction of somatosensory attention can, however, be readily discerned through suppression of alpha band frequencies in EEG/MEG produced by the somatosensory cortex. Such top-down attentional modulations of cortical excitability have been shown to result in better discrimination performance and decreased response times. In this study we asked whether the degree of attentional focus is also accessible for subjective report, and whether such evaluations correspond to the amount of somatosensory alpha activity. In response to auditory cues participants maintained somatosensory attention to either their left or right hand for intervals varying randomly between 5 and 32 seconds, while their brain activity was recorded with MEG. Trials were terminated by a probe sound, to which they reported their level of attention on the cued hand right before probe-onset. Using a beamformer approach, we quantified the alpha activity in left and right somatosensory regions, one second before the probe. Alpha activity from contra- and ipsilateral somatosensory cortices for high versus low attention trials were compared. As predicted, the contralateral somatosensory alpha depression correlated with higher reported attentional focus. Finally, alpha activity two to three seconds before the probe-onset was correlated with attentional focus. We conclude that somatosensory attention is indeed accessible to metacognitive awareness. PMID:23872154

  5. Space-based visual attention: a marker of immature selective attention in toddlers?

    PubMed

    Rivière, James; Brisson, Julie

    2014-11-01

    Various studies suggested that attentional difficulties cause toddlers' failure in some spatial search tasks. However, attention is not a unitary construct and this study investigated two attentional mechanisms: location selection (space-based attention) and object selection (object-based attention). We investigated how toddlers' attention is distributed in the visual field during a manual search task for objects moving out of sight, namely the moving boxes task. Results show that 2.5-year-olds who failed this task allocated more attention to the location of the relevant object than to the object itself. These findings suggest that in some manual search tasks the primacy of space-based attention over object-based attention could be a marker of immature selective attention in toddlers. PMID:25073804

  6. A Comparison of Behavioral and Cognitive–Behavioral Interventions for Bulimia Nervosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna E. Thackwray; Michael C. Smith; James W. Bodfish; Andrew W. Meyers

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the relative efficacy of cognitive–behavioral and behavioral treatment approaches for bulimia nervosa. Female bulimic Ss were randomly assigned to cognitive–behavioral, behavioral, or attention placebo conditions. At posttreatment, 92% of the cognitive–behavioral group, 100% of the behavioral group, and 69% of the nonspecific self-monitoring group were abstinent from binge eating–purging. At 6-month follow-up, 69% of the cognitive–behavioral group,

  7. Time courses of attentional modulation in neural amplification and synchronization measured with steady-state visual-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Kashiwase, Yoshiyuki; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2012-08-01

    Endogenous attention modulates the amplitude and phase coherence of steady-state visual-evoked potentials (SSVEPs). In efforts to decipher the neural mechanisms of attentional modulation, we compared the time course of attentional modulation of SSVEP amplitude (thought to reflect the magnitude of neural population activity) and phase coherence (thought to reflect neural response synchronization). We presented two stimuli flickering at different frequencies in the left and right visual hemifields and asked observers to shift their attention to either stimulus. Our results demonstrated that attention increased SSVEP phase coherence earlier than it increased SSVEP amplitude, with a positive correlation between the attentional modulations of SSVEP phase coherence and amplitude. Furthermore, the behavioral dynamics of attention shifts were more closely associated with changes in phase coherence than with changes in amplitude. These results are consistent with the possibility that attention increases neural response synchronization, which in turn leads to increased neural population activity. PMID:22360591

  8. Encoding attentional states during visuomotor adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Im, Hee Yeon; Bédard, Patrick; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that visuomotor adaptation acquired under attentional distraction is better recalled under a similar level of distraction compared to no distraction. This paradoxical effect suggests that attentional state (e.g., divided or undivided) is encoded as an internal context during visuomotor learning and should be reinstated for successful recall (Song & Bédard, 2015). To investigate if there is a critical temporal window for encoding attentional state in visuomotor memory, we manipulated whether participants performed the secondary attention-demanding task concurrently in the early or late phase of visuomotor learning. Recall performance was enhanced when the attentional states between recall and the early phase of visuomotor learning were consistent. However, it reverted to untrained levels when tested under the attentional state of the late-phase learning. This suggests that attentional state is primarily encoded during the early phase of learning before motor errors decrease and reach an asymptote. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when divided and undivided attentional states were mixed during visuomotor adaptation, only divided attention was encoded as an internal cue for memory retrieval. Therefore, a single attentional state appears to be primarily integrated with visuomotor memory while motor error reduction is in progress during learning. PMID:26114683

  9. Flexibility of foveal attention during ocular pursuit

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Stephen J.; Jin, Zhenlan; Watamaniuk, Scott N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Smooth pursuit of natural objects requires flexible allocation of attention to inspect features. However, it has been reported that attention is focused at the fovea during pursuit. We ask here if foveal attention is obligatory during pursuit, or if it can be disengaged. Observers tracked a stimulus composed of a central dot surrounded by four others, and identified one of the dots when it dimmed. Extinguishing the center dot before the dimming improved task performance, suggesting that attention was released from it. To determine if the center dot automatically usurped attention, we provided the pursuit system with an alternative sensory signal by adding peripheral motion that moved with the stimulus. This also improved identification performance, evidence that a central target does not necessarily require attention during pursuit. Identification performance at the central dot also improved, suggesting that the spatial extent of the background did not attract attention to the periphery; instead, peripheral motion freed pursuit attention from the central dot, affording better identification performance. The results show that attention can be flexibly allocated during pursuit, and imply that attention resources for pursuit of small and large objects come from different sources. PMID:21310885

  10. Endogenously and exogenously driven selective sustained attention: Contributions to learning in kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Lucy C; Thiessen, Erik D; Godwin, Karrie E; Dickerson, John P; Fisher, Anna V

    2015-10-01

    Selective sustained attention is vital for higher order cognition. Although endogenous and exogenous factors influence selective sustained attention, assessment of the degree to which these factors influence performance and learning is often challenging. We report findings from the Track-It task, a paradigm that aims to assess the contribution of endogenous and exogenous factors to selective sustained attention within the same task. Behavioral accuracy and eye-tracking data on the Track-It task were correlated with performance on an explicit learning task. Behavioral accuracy and fixations to distractors during the Track-It task did not predict learning when exogenous factors supported selective sustained attention. In contrast, when endogenous factors supported selective sustained attention, fixations to distractors were negatively correlated with learning. Similarly, when endogenous factors supported selective sustained attention, higher behavioral accuracy was correlated with greater learning. These findings suggest that endogenously and exogenously driven selective sustained attention, as measured through different conditions of the Track-It task, may support different kinds of learning. PMID:26044539

  11. Mirroring of attention by neurons in macaque parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Stephen V.; Klein, Jeffrey T.; Deaner, Robert O.; Platt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Macaques, like humans, rapidly orient their attention in the direction other individuals are looking. Both cortical and subcortical pathways have been proposed as neural mediators of social gaze following, but neither pathway has been characterized electrophysiologically in behaving animals. To address this gap, we recorded the activity of single neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of rhesus macaques to determine whether and how this area might contribute to gaze following. A subset of LIP neurons mirrored observed attention by firing both when the subject looked in the preferred direction of the neuron, and when observed monkeys looked in the preferred direction of the neuron, despite the irrelevance of the monkey images to the task. Importantly, the timing of these modulations matched the time course of gaze-following behavior. A second population of neurons was suppressed by social gaze cues, possibly subserving task demands by maintaining fixation on the observed face. These observations suggest that LIP contributes to sharing of observed attention and link mirror representations in parietal cortex to a well studied imitative behavior. PMID:19470477

  12. Dynamic connectivity at rest predicts attention task performance.

    PubMed

    Madhyastha, Tara M; Askren, Mary K; Boord, Peter; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Consistent spatial patterns of coherent activity, representing large-scale networks, have been reliably identified in multiple populations. Most often, these studies have examined "stationary" connectivity. However, there is a growing recognition that there is a wealth of information in the time-varying dynamics of networks which has neural underpinnings, which changes with age and disease and that supports behavior. Using factor analysis of overlapping sliding windows across 25 participants with Parkinson disease (PD) and 21 controls (ages 41-86), we identify factors describing the covarying correlations of regions (dynamic connectivity) within attention networks and the default mode network, during two baseline resting-state and task runs. Cortical regions that support attention networks are affected early in PD, motivating the potential utility of dynamic connectivity as a sensitive way to characterize physiological disruption to these networks. We show that measures of dynamic connectivity are more reliable than comparable measures of stationary connectivity. Factors in the dorsal attention network (DAN) and fronto-parietal task control network, obtained at rest, are consistently related to the alerting and orienting reaction time effects in the subsequent Attention Network Task. In addition, the same relationship between the same DAN factor and the alerting effect was present during tasks. Although reliable, dynamic connectivity was not invariant, and changes between factor scores across sessions were related to changes in accuracy. In summary, patterns of time-varying correlations among nodes in an intrinsic network have a stability that has functional relevance. PMID:25014419

  13. Attentional Bias in Snus Users: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Sætrevik, Bjørn; Molde, Helge; Wiium, Nora; Hetland, Jørn; Fagerland, Ida; Nordnes, Linn Tinnesand; Storemark, Sunniva Straume; Fossum, Ingrid Nesdal; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    The use of nicotine in the form of “snus” is substantial and increasing in some geographic areas, in particular among young people. It has previously been suggested that addictions may operate through a mechanism of attentional bias, in which stimuli representative of the dependent substance increase in salience, thus increasing the addictive behavior. However, this hypothesis has not been tested for the case of snus. The current experiment used a modified Stroop task and a dot-probe task to investigate whether 40 snus users show an attentional bias towards snus-relevant stimuli, compared to 40 non-snus users. There were no significant differences between the two groups on reaction times or accuracy on either Stroop or dot-probe task, thus failing to show an attentional bias towards snus-relevant stimuli for snus users. This could imply that other mechanisms may contribute to maintenance of snus use than for other addictions. However, this is the first experimental study investigating attentional bias in snus users, and more research is warranted. PMID:25296339

  14. Attentional bias in snus users: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Sætrevik, Bjørn; Molde, Helge; Wiium, Nora; Hetland, Jørn; Fagerland, Ida; Nordnes, Linn Tinnesand; Storemark, Sunniva Straume; Fossum, Ingrid Nesdal; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    The use of nicotine in the form of "snus" is substantial and increasing in some geographic areas, in particular among young people. It has previously been suggested that addictions may operate through a mechanism of attentional bias, in which stimuli representative of the dependent substance increase in salience, thus increasing the addictive behavior. However, this hypothesis has not been tested for the case of snus. The current experiment used a modified Stroop task and a dot-probe task to investigate whether 40 snus users show an attentional bias towards snus-relevant stimuli, compared to 40 non-snus users. There were no significant differences between the two groups on reaction times or accuracy on either Stroop or dot-probe task, thus failing to show an attentional bias towards snus-relevant stimuli for snus users. This could imply that other mechanisms may contribute to maintenance of snus use than for other addictions. However, this is the first experimental study investigating attentional bias in snus users, and more research is warranted. PMID:25296339

  15. CNTRICS final animal model task selection: Control of attention

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, C.; Kozak, R.; Sarter, M.; Young, J.W.; Robbins, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with impaired attention. The top-down control of attention, defined as the ability to guide and refocus attention in accordance with internal goals and representations, was identified by the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative as an important construct for task development and research. A recent CNTRICS meeting identified three tasks commonly used with rodent models as having high construct validity and promise for further development: The 5-choice serial reaction time task, the 5-choice continuous performance task, and the distractor condition sustained attention task. Here we describe their current status, including data on their neural substrates, evidence for sensitivity to neuropharmacological manipulations and genetic influences, and data from animal models of the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. A common strength is the development of parallel human tasks to facilitate connections to the neural circuitry and drug development research done in these animal models. We conclude with recommendations for the steps needed to improve testing so that it better represents the complex biological and behavioral picture presented by schizophrenia. PMID:22683929

  16. Dynamic Connectivity at Rest Predicts Attention Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Askren, Mary K.; Boord, Peter; Grabowski, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consistent spatial patterns of coherent activity, representing large-scale networks, have been reliably identified in multiple populations. Most often, these studies have examined “stationary” connectivity. However, there is a growing recognition that there is a wealth of information in the time-varying dynamics of networks which has neural underpinnings, which changes with age and disease and that supports behavior. Using factor analysis of overlapping sliding windows across 25 participants with Parkinson disease (PD) and 21 controls (ages 41–86), we identify factors describing the covarying correlations of regions (dynamic connectivity) within attention networks and the default mode network, during two baseline resting-state and task runs. Cortical regions that support attention networks are affected early in PD, motivating the potential utility of dynamic connectivity as a sensitive way to characterize physiological disruption to these networks. We show that measures of dynamic connectivity are more reliable than comparable measures of stationary connectivity. Factors in the dorsal attention network (DAN) and fronto-parietal task control network, obtained at rest, are consistently related to the alerting and orienting reaction time effects in the subsequent Attention Network Task. In addition, the same relationship between the same DAN factor and the alerting effect was present during tasks. Although reliable, dynamic connectivity was not invariant, and changes between factor scores across sessions were related to changes in accuracy. In summary, patterns of time-varying correlations among nodes in an intrinsic network have a stability that has functional relevance. PMID:25014419

  17. Learning to ignore: A modeling study of a decremental cholinergic pathway and its influence on attention and learning

    PubMed Central

    Oros, Nicolas; Chiba, Andrea A.; Nitz, Douglas A.; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to ignore irrelevant stimuli is essential to achieving efficient and fluid attention, and serves as the complement to increasing attention to relevant stimuli. The different cholinergic (ACh) subsystems within the basal forebrain regulate attention in distinct but complementary ways. ACh projections from the substantia innominata/nucleus basalis region (SI/nBM) to the neocortex are necessary to increase attention to relevant stimuli and have been well studied. Lesser known are ACh projections from the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band (MS/VDB) to the hippocampus and the cingulate that are necessary to reduce attention to irrelevant stimuli. We developed a neural simulation to provide insight into how ACh can decrement attention using this distinct pathway from the MS/VDB. We tested the model in behavioral paradigms that require decremental attention. The model exhibits behavioral effects such as associative learning, latent inhibition, and persisting behavior. Lesioning the MS/VDB disrupts latent inhibition, and drastically increases perseverative behavior. Taken together, the model demonstrates that the ACh decremental pathway is necessary for appropriate learning and attention under dynamic circumstances and suggests a canonical neural architecture for decrementing attention. PMID:24443744

  18. Cognitive-behavioral treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip C. Kendall; Susan M. Panichelli-Mindel

    1995-01-01

    The present paper provides an overview of the guiding theory and descriptive features of the cognitive-behavioral approach to psychosocial interventions for youths. Cognitive-behavioral treatment has been applied to various disorders including anxiety, aggression, depression, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, pain, and learning disabilities. Research on the nature of these disorders, a description of related treatment strategies, and an illustrative review of treatment

  19. Reward sensitivity predicts ice cream-related attentional bias assessed by inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Tao, Qian; Fang, Ya; Cheng, Chen; Hao, Yangyang; Qi, Jianjun; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-06-01

    The cognitive mechanism underlying the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving is unknown. The present study explored the mechanism by examining the role of reward sensitivity in attentional bias toward ice cream cues. Forty-nine college students who displayed high level of ice cream craving (HICs) and 46 who displayed low level of ice cream craving (LICs) performed an inattentional blindness (IB) task which was used to assess attentional bias for ice cream. In addition, reward sensitivity and coping style were assessed by the Behavior Inhibition System/Behavior Activation System Scales and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. Results showed significant higher identification rate of the critical stimulus in the HICs than LICs, suggesting greater attentional bias for ice cream in the HICs. It was indicated that attentional bias for food cues persisted even under inattentional condition. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the attentional bias and reward sensitivity after controlling for coping style, and reward sensitivity predicted attentional bias for food cues. The mediation analyses showed that attentional bias mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and food craving. Those findings suggest that the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving may be attributed to attentional bias for food-related cues. PMID:25681293

  20. Everyday attention and lecture retention: the effects of time, fidgeting, and mind wandering

    PubMed Central

    Farley, James; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

    2013-01-01

    We have all had our thoughts wander from the immediate task at hand. The emerging embodied cognition literature emphasizes the role that the body plays in human thought, and raises the possibility that changes in attentional focus may be associated with changes in body behavior. Recent research has found that when individuals view a lecture, mind wandering increases as a function of time. In the present study we asked whether this decline in attention during lecture viewing was associated with fidgeting. Participants were filmed while they watched a 40-min lecture video, and at regular 5-min intervals provided ratings of their attentiveness. Following the lecture, participant's memory for the material was assessed. Fidgeting behavior was coded from video recordings of each session. Results indicated that attention to, and retention of, lecture material declined as a function of time on task. Critically, and as predicted, fidgeting also increased with time on task. We also found that the relation between fidgeting and retention was significant even when the role of attention was factored into the equation, suggesting that fidgeting makes a unique contribution to retention of lecture material over and above that contributed by an individual's attention. We propose a novel non-attentional stress-based account of fidgeting and how this impacts retention for lecture material over and above changes in levels in mind wandering vis-a-vis changes in attention. PMID:24065933

  1. Multisensory attention training for treatment of tinnitus.

    PubMed

    D P, Spiegel; T, Linford; B, Thompson; M A, Petoe; K, Kobayashi; C M, Stinear; G D, Searchfield

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus is the conscious perception of sound with no physical sound source. Some models of tinnitus pathophysiology suggest that networks associated with attention, memory, distress and multisensory experience are involved in tinnitus perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a multisensory attention training paradigm which used audio, visual, and somatosensory stimulation would reduce tinnitus. Eighteen participants with predominantly unilateral chronic tinnitus were randomized between two groups receiving 20 daily sessions of either integration (attempting to reduce salience to tinnitus by binding with multisensory stimuli) or attention diversion (multisensory stimuli opposite side to tinnitus) training. The training resulted in small but statistically significant reductions in Tinnitus Functional Index and Tinnitus Severity Numeric Scale scores and improved attentional abilities. No statistically significant improvements in tinnitus were found between the training groups. This study demonstrated that a short period of multisensory attention training reduced unilateral tinnitus, but directing attention toward or away from the tinnitus side did not differentiate this effect. PMID:26020589

  2. Multisensory attention training for treatment of tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    D. P., Spiegel; T., Linford; B., Thompson; M. A., Petoe; K., Kobayashi; C. M., Stinear; G. D., Searchfield

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus is the conscious perception of sound with no physical sound source. Some models of tinnitus pathophysiology suggest that networks associated with attention, memory, distress and multisensory experience are involved in tinnitus perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a multisensory attention training paradigm which used audio, visual, and somatosensory stimulation would reduce tinnitus. Eighteen participants with predominantly unilateral chronic tinnitus were randomized between two groups receiving 20 daily sessions of either integration (attempting to reduce salience to tinnitus by binding with multisensory stimuli) or attention diversion (multisensory stimuli opposite side to tinnitus) training. The training resulted in small but statistically significant reductions in Tinnitus Functional Index and Tinnitus Severity Numeric Scale scores and improved attentional abilities. No statistically significant improvements in tinnitus were found between the training groups. This study demonstrated that a short period of multisensory attention training reduced unilateral tinnitus, but directing attention toward or away from the tinnitus side did not differentiate this effect. PMID:26020589

  3. Attentional processes and stress-related performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Freda Harmon Carpenter; Michael J. Mahoney

    1980-01-01

    The importance of attentional processes in stress-related performance is suggested by studies in divergent areas. Those of note here focus on the control of distress during performance. Borkovec and O'Brien (1977) assessed manipulation of autonomic awareness on components of fear during exposure to feared situations. They found that attentional focus to external stimuli tended to be more stress-reducing than attention

  4. Can Attention be Divided Between Perceptual Groups?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Robert S.; Foyle, David C.; Johnston, James C.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Previous work using Head-Up Displays (HUDs) suggests that the visual system parses the HUD and the outside world into distinct perceptual groups, with attention deployed sequentially to first one group and then the other. New experiments show that both groups can be processed in parallel in a divided attention search task, even though subjects have just processed a stimulus in one perceptual group or the other. Implications for models of visual attention will be discussed.

  5. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Editor: Vicki Contie Contributors: Vicki Contie, Alan Defibaugh (illustrations) and Dana Talesnik . Attention Editors: Reprint our articles and illustrations in your own publication. Our material is not ...

  6. Attention and curiosity in museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koran, John J., Jr.; Morrison, Laura; Lehman, Jeffrey R.; Koran, Mary Lou; Gandara, Luisa

    Two hundred and thirty-four museum visitors of all ages were observed as they entered the Object Gallery area of the Florida State Museum. Visitors were observed under conditions where objects were available for close inspection but could not be manipulated (baseline data) and later when the same objects were placed on tables and were available for visitors to touch, move, and use a variety of senses to inspect them (intervention data). Data were recorded on the sex, age, and number of subjects in these areas under each of the above conditions. The results obtained show a significant increase in the number of visitors entering this section of the museum when manipulatable objects were available. Baseline data showed that 58.5% of the people who entered the Object Gallery went into the drawer section. However, when manipulatable objects were made available this increased to 82.3%. Chi-square analysis was used to determine whether the presence of manipulatable objects in the area increased the number of people who entered the area. It did (p < 0.05). Chi-square analysis was also used to determine whether entering the drawer section depended on age or sex. It was found that more children entered the drawer section than adults (p < 0.05) and significantly more female children and female adults entered as a result of intervention (p < 0.05). At the same time, more male children than adults entered after intervention (p < 0.05) than before. These data are supported by considerable curiosity research indicating that both children and adults are attracted to novel as well as complex stimuli which can be manipulated in both formal and free-choice environments. The data also support the growing movement to hands-on exhibits in natural history museums and science centers around the country, as well as hands-on classroom activities from the perspective of their attention attracting and holding power and their curiosity evoking characteristics. Whether these positive factors also lead to increased knowledge or skill development is a question yet to be explored.

  7. Attention focusing and anomaly detection in systems monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    Any attempt to introduce automation into the monitoring of complex physical systems must start from a robust anomaly detection capability. This task is far from straightforward, for a single definition of what constitutes an anomaly is difficult to come by. In addition, to make the monitoring process efficient, and to avoid the potential for information overload on human operators, attention focusing must also be addressed. When an anomaly occurs, more often than not several sensors are affected, and the partially redundant information they provide can be confusing, particularly in a crisis situation where a response is needed quickly. The focus of this paper is a new technique for attention focusing. The technique involves reasoning about the distance between two frequency distributions, and is used to detect both anomalous system parameters and 'broken' causal dependencies. These two forms of information together isolate the locus of anomalous behavior in the system being monitored.

  8. Action Intentions Modulate Allocation of Visual Attention: Electrophysiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Schubö, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In line with the Theory of Event Coding (Hommel et al., 2001), action planning has been shown to affect perceptual processing – an effect that has been attributed to a so-called intentional weighting mechanism (Wykowska et al., 2009; Hommel, 2010). This paper investigates the electrophysiological correlates of action-related modulations of selection mechanisms in visual perception. A paradigm combining a visual search task for size and luminance targets with a movement task (grasping or pointing) was introduced, and the EEG was recorded while participants were performing the tasks. The results showed that the behavioral congruency effects, i.e., better performance in congruent (relative to incongruent) action-perception trials have been reflected by a modulation of the P1 component as well as the N2pc (an ERP marker of spatial attention). These results support the argumentation that action planning modulates already early perceptual processing and attention mechanisms. PMID:23060841

  9. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Viviane Freire; Kozasa, Elisa H.; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Alves, Tânia Maria; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues; Pompéia, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP), but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL), mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT) and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II), before and after intervention. Results. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT) and detectability (CPT II) and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. Conclusion. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls.

  10. Adapting the Behavior Education Program for Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…

  11. Self-Monitoring of Attention versus Self-Monitoring of Academic Performance: Effects among Students with ADHD in the General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R.; Friedlander, Barbara Danoff; Saddler, Bruce; Frizzelle, Remedios; Graham, Steve

    2005-01-01

    A counterbalanced, multiple-baseline, across-subjects design was used to determine if attention and performance monitoring had differential effects on the on-task and spelling study behavior of 6 elementary students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the general education classroom. Both self-monitoring of attention and…

  12. A controlled study of Tourette syndrome. I. Attention-deficit disorder, learning disorders, and school problems.

    PubMed Central

    Comings, D E; Comings, B G

    1987-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common, hereditary, neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. To determine the frequency of various behavioral manifestations, we have compared 47 random normal controls to 246 patients with TS, 17 with attention-deficit disorder (ADD), and 15 with ADD secondary to a TS gene (ADD 2(0) TS). All subjects were examined prospectively with a 425-item questionnaire based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III). The TS patients were divided into grade 1 (too mild to treat [17.5%]), grade 2 (requiring treatment [58.9%]), and grade 3 (severe [23.6%]). Patients in all three grades of TS were significantly different from controls for DSM III symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Sixty-two percent of TS patients had ADD, compared with 6.3% of controls; and 48.8% had ADD with hyperactivity (ADDH), compared with 4.2% of controls. In the majority of TS patients, the natural history of the disease was to start with ADDH and 2.4 years later develop motor and vocal tics. Among TS patients, 39% had previously received medication for ADDH or behavior problems, compared with 2% of the controls. Although stimulants can occasionally exacerbate tics, there was no evidence that stimulants cause TS and they are often a valuable adjunct to the treatment of TS. It is estimated that 10%-30% of ADDH is due to or associated with the presence of a TS gene. TS patients had a significantly increased frequency of (1) attending classes for the educationally handicapped, (2) placement in classes for the severely emotionally disturbed, (3) attending any special classes, (4) severe test anxiety, (5) stuttering, (6) letter, number, or word reversal, (7) reading very slowly, and (8) poor retention of material read. A reading-problem score (dyslexia) greater than or equal to 3 was present in 26.8% of TS patients, compared with 4.2% of controls. Number reversal, word reversal, and poor retention were significant even for the TS patients with tics too mild to treat. The multiple ways in which TS impacts school performance, as well as potential remedies, are discussed. PMID:2890294

  13. Goal-driven attentional capture by invisible colors: evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Kiss, Monika; Eimer, Martin

    2009-08-01

    We combined event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and behavioral measures to test whether subliminal visual stimuli can capture attention in a goal-dependent manner. Participants searched for visual targets defined by a specific color. Search displays served as metacontrast masks for preceding cue displays that contained one cue in the target color. Although this target-color cue was spatially uninformative, it produced behavioral spatial cuing effects and triggered an ERP correlate of attentional selection (i.e., the N2pc component). These results demonstrate that target-color cues captured attention, in spite of the fact that cue localization performance assessed in separate blocks was at chance level. We conclude that task-set contingent attentional capture is not restricted to supraliminal stimuli, but is also elicited by visual events that are not consciously perceived. PMID:19648447

  14. GRIN2B predicts attention problems among disadvantaged children.

    PubMed

    Riva, Valentina; Battaglia, Marco; Nobile, Maria; Cattaneo, Francesca; Lazazzera, Claudio; Mascheretti, Sara; Giorda, Roberto; Mérette, Chantal; Emond, Claudia; Maziade, Michel; Marino, Cecilia

    2014-10-16

    It is well established that adversities and GRIN2B (coding an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit) are independently associated with behavioral and cognitive impairments in childhood. However, a high proportion of children exposed to adversities have good, long-term outcomes. We hypothesized that among children exposed to adversities, GRIN2B variants would predict the worst cognitive and behavioral outcomes. 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms of GRIN2B were genotyped in 625 children aged 6-11 years from an Italian community-based sample. The interacting effect of GRIN2B variants with 4 measures of adversities [low socioeconomic status (SES), preterm delivery, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and absence of breastfeeding] was investigated upon blindly assessed cognitive abilities (vocabulary, block design, digit spans of Wechsler's Intelligence Scale, and Rey complex figure) and parents-rated behavioral problems (Child Behavior Checklist/6-18). Rs2268119 × SES interaction (Hotelling's Trace = 0.07; F(12,1154) = 3.53; p = 0.00004) influenced behavior, with more attention problems among children in the 'either A/T or T/T genotype and low SES' group, compared to all other groups. This interaction effect was not significant in an independent, replication sample of 475 subjects from an Italian community-based sample. GRIN2B variants predict children with the worst outcome in attention functioning among children exposed to low SES. Our findings, if replicated, could help in the identification of children with the highest risk and may prompt cost-effective preventive/treatment strategies. PMID:25316095

  15. Implicit Affective Cues and Attentional Tuning: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Ronald S.; Förster, Jens

    2010-01-01

    A large and growing number of studies support the notion that arousing positive emotional states expand, and that arousing negative states constrict, the scope of attention on both the perceptual and conceptual levels. However, these studies have predominantly involved the manipulation or measurement of conscious emotional experiences (e.g., subjective feelings of happiness or anxiety). This raises the question: Do cues that are merely associated with benign versus threatening situations, but that do not elicit conscious feelings of positive or negative emotional arousal, independently expand or contract attentional scope? Integrating theoretical advances in affective neuroscience, positive psychology, and social cognition, it is proposed that rudimentary intero- and exteroceptive stimuli may indeed become associated with the onset of arousing positive or negative emotional states and/or with appraisals that the environment is benign or threatening and thereby come to moderate the scope of attention in the absence of conscious emotional experience. Specifically, implicit “benign situation” cues are posited to broaden, and implicit “threatening situation” cues to narrow, the range of both perceptual as well as conceptual attentional selection. An extensive array of research findings involving a diverse set of such implicit affective cues (e.g., enactment of approach and avoidance behaviors, incidental exposure to colors signaling safety versus danger) is marshaled in support of this proposition. Potential alternative explanations for and moderators of these attentional tuning effects, as well as their higher-level neuropsychological underpinnings, are also discussed along with prospective extensions to a range of other situational cues and domains of social cognitive processing. PMID:20804240

  16. Minds Made for Sharing: Initiating Joint Attention Recruits Reward-related Neurocircuitry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonhard Schilbach; Marcus Wilms; Simon B. Eickhoff; Sandro Romanzetti; Ralf Tepest; Gary Bente; N. Jon Shah; Gereon R. Fink; Kai Vogeley

    2010-01-01

    The ability and motivation to share attention is a unique aspect of human cognition. Despite its significance, the neural basis remains elusive. To investigate the neural correlates of joint attention, we developed a novel, interactive research paradigm in which participants' gaze behavior—as measured by an eye tracking device—was used to contingently control the gaze of a computer-animated character. Instructed that

  17. The exploration of meditation in the neuroscience of attention and consciousness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonino Raffone; Narayanan Srinivasan

    2010-01-01

    Many recent behavioral and neuroscientific studies have revealed the importance of investigating meditation states and traits\\u000a to achieve an increased understanding of cognitive and affective neuroplasticity, attention and self-awareness, as well as\\u000a for their increasingly recognized clinical relevance. The investigation of states and traits related to meditation has especially\\u000a pronounced implications for the neuroscience of attention, consciousness, self-awareness, empathy and

  18. Successful nesting behavior of Puerto Rican parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.; Field, R.; Wilson, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed nesting behavior of five pairs of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) during eight successful nesting attempts. Each stage of the nesting cycle (egg laying, incubation, early chick rearing, and late chick rearing) was characterized by distinct trends or levels of behavior. During egg laying, female attentiveness to tile nest increased, and male attentiveness decreased. Throughout incubation and the first several days of early chick rearing, females were highly attentive to their nests, whereas males rarely entered the nest cavities. Female attentiveness then began to decline. Male attentiveness to the nest was sporadic until chicks were 10-12 days old. when all males began to enter their nests at least once each day. During late chick rearing, both male and female attentiveness were erratic and highly variable. Biologists may be able to use these results to identify nest problems and the need for management intervention when patterns of nest attentiveness deviate from the limits described in this study..

  19. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  20. Attention Theory and Mechanisms for Skilled Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Walter; Fisk, Arthur D.

    This report relates current attentional research and theory to the development of skilled performance, with emphasis on how performance changes with practice. Dual process attention theory is reviewed, and the distinction between automatic and controlled processing is examined. The changing interactions between automatic and controlled processing…

  1. Income Inequality in the Attention Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin S. McCurley

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web may be viewed as a gigantic market for information. In this market there are producers (au- thors) and consumers (readers) and the currency for infor- mation is attention. In this paper we examine the distri- bution of attention across the World Wide Web. Through study of the habits of web users, we conclude that the cur-

  2. An Economics of Attention: The Pure State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanham, Richard A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the need for human attention in an information economy to shift from data to information, or information to knowledge, and suggests it be called an economics of attention. Considers implications for higher education and how it will change the history of American higher education. (LRW)

  3. A New Approach to Attention Deficit Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    A recent study conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control estimated that approximately 7.8 percent of U.S. children ages 4-17 are currently diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). For decades, most educators, physicians, psychologists, and parents have thought of ADD/ADHD as…

  4. Spatial Reference Frame of Incidentally Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2013-01-01

    Visual attention prioritizes information presented at particular spatial locations. These locations can be defined in reference frames centered on the environment or on the viewer. This study investigates whether incidentally learned attention uses a viewer-centered or environment-centered reference frame. Participants conducted visual search on a…

  5. Categorically Defined Targets Trigger Spatiotemporal Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Bowman, Howard; Potter, Mary C.

    2009-01-01

    Transient attention to a visually salient cue enhances processing of a subsequent target in the same spatial location between 50 to 150 ms after cue onset (K. Nakayama & M. Mackeben, 1989). Do stimuli from a categorically defined target set, such as letters or digits, also generate transient attention? Participants reported digit targets among…

  6. Accuracy of Information Processing under Focused Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony

    This paper reports the results of an experiment on the accuracy of information processing during attention focused arousal under two conditions: single estimation and double estimation. The attention of 187 college students was focused by a task requiring high level competition for a monetary prize ($10) under severely limited time conditions. The…

  7. MESSAGE COMPLEXITY AND ATTENTION TO TELEVISION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ESTHER THORSON; BYRON REEVES; JOAN SCHLEUDER

    1985-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the processing costs of watching television messages. Processing costs were indexed with a secondary task reaction time measure in which subjects were asked to pay attention to commercial messages while responding with button presses to randomly occuring tones or flashes. Response time to the secondary tasks was used as a measure of attention to the primary task

  8. Attention and Communication in Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabio, Rosa Angela; Antonietti, Alessandro; Castelli, Ilaria; Marchetti, Antonella

    2009-01-01

    The study of selective attention and its influence on communication in patients with Rett Syndrome (RS), in which communication abilities are impaired is particularly relevant. The aim of this study was to analyse attention and communication abilities in RS. A sample of 20 children (10 girls with RS and 10 control girls, matched on mental age)…

  9. Development of attentional networks in childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rosario Rueda; Jin Fan; Bruce D. McCandliss; Jessica D. Halparin; Dana B. Gruber; Lisha Pappert Lercari; Michael I. Posner

    2004-01-01

    Recent research in attention has involved three networks of anatomical areas that carry out the functions of orienting, alerting and executive control (including conflict monitoring). There have been extensive cognitive and neuroimaging studies of these networks in adults. We developed an integrated Attention Network Test (ANT) to measure the efficiency of the three networks with adults. We have now adapted

  10. From Gaze Control to Attentive Interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aulikki Hyrskykari; Päivi Majaranta; Kari-Jouko Räihä

    2005-01-01

    Interactive applications that make use of eye tracking have traditionally been based on command-and-control. Applications that make more subtle use of eye gaze have recently become increasingly popular in the domain of attentive interfaces that adapt their behaviour based on the visual attention of the user. We provide a review of the main systems and application domains where this genre

  11. Object-Based Attention and Cognitive Tunneling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmasz, Jerzy; Herdman, Chris M.; Johannsdottir, Kamilla Run

    2005-01-01

    Simulator-based research has shown that pilots cognitively tunnel their attention on head-up displays (HUDs). Cognitive tunneling has been linked to object-based visual attention on the assumption that HUD symbology is perceptually grouped into an object that is perceived and attended separately from the external scene. The present research…

  12. Modal Control Of An Attentive Vision System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Clark; Nicola J. Ferrier

    1988-01-01

    Cambridge, MA A vision system for use in a mobile robot system, or in n fixed multi-tasking industrial robot requires attentive control. Attentive control refers to the process by which the direction of gaze of the visual sensors are determined, nlong with the determination of what processing is required to be applied to the sensed images based on the goals

  13. Tracking multiple targets with multifocal attention

    E-print Network

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    Tracking multiple targets with multifocal attention Patrick Cavanagh and George A. Alvarez to track four or more targets simultaneously. Although the mechanisms by which attention maintains contact of the tracking process, including properties defining a `trackable' target, the maximum number of targets

  14. Limited attention, information disclosure, and financial reporting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Hirshleifer; Siew Hong Teoh

    2003-01-01

    This paper models firms’ choices between alternative means of presenting information, and the effects of different presentations on market prices when investors have limited attention and processing power. In a market equilibrium with partially attentive investors, we examine the effects of alternative: levels of discretion in pro forma earnings disclosure, methods of accounting for employee option compensation, and degrees of

  15. Functions of Maladaptive Behavior in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Behavior Categories and Topographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Zaja, Rebecca H.; Turygin, Nicole; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that different maladaptive behavior categories may be maintained by different contingencies. We examined whether behavior categories or behavior topographies determine functional properties. The "Questions about Behavioral Function" with its five subscales ("Attention", "Escape", "Nonsocial", "Physical", and "Tangible") was…

  16. The temporal relationship between reduction of early imitative responses and the development of attention mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Atsuko; Sukigara, Masune; Benga, Oana

    2003-01-01

    Background To determine whether early imitative responses fade out following the maturation of attentional mechanisms, the relationship between primitive imitation behaviors and the development of attention was examined in 4-month-old infants. They were divided into high and low imitators, based on an index of imitation. The status of attention was assessed by studying inhibition of return (IOR). Nine-month-old infants were also tested to confirm the hypothesis. Results The IOR latency data replicate previous results that infants get faster to produce a covert shift of attention with increasing age. However, those 4-month-olds who showed less imitation had more rapid saccades to the cue before target presentation. Conclusion The cortical control of saccade planning appears to be related to an apparent drop in early imitation. We interpret the results as suggesting a relationship between the status of imitation and the neural development of attention-related eye movement. PMID:14693040

  17. Changing the Spatial Scope of Attention Alters Patterns of Neural Gain in Human Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Javier O.; Rungratsameetaweemana, Nuttida; Sprague, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last several decades, spatial attention has been shown to influence the activity of neurons in visual cortex in various ways. These conflicting observations have inspired competing models to account for the influence of attention on perception and behavior. Here, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) in human subjects and showed that highly focused spatial attention primarily enhanced neural responses to high-contrast stimuli (response gain), whereas distributed attention primarily enhanced responses to medium-contrast stimuli (contrast gain). Together, these data suggest that different patterns of neural modulation do not reflect fundamentally different neural mechanisms, but instead reflect changes in the spatial extent of attention. PMID:24381272

  18. Prefrontal Morphology, 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism, and Biased Attention for Emotional Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Beevers, Christopher G.; Pacheco, Jennifer; Clasen, Peter; McGeary, John E.; Schnyer, David

    2010-01-01

    Biased attention for emotional stimuli has been associated with vulnerability to psychopathology. This study examines the neural substrates of biased attention. Twenty-three adult women completed high-resolution structural imaging followed by a standard behavioral measure of biased attention (i.e., spatial cueing task). Participants were also genotyped for the serotonin transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) gene. Results indicated that lateral prefrontal cortex morphology was inversely associated with maintained attention for positive and negative stimuli, but only among short 5-HTTLPR allele carriers. No such associations were observed for the medial prefrontal cortex or the amygdala. Results from this study suggest that brain regions involved in cognitive control of emotion are also associated with attentional biases for emotion stimuli among short 5-HTTLPR allele carriers. PMID:20039945

  19. The role of attention problems and impulsiveness in media violence effects on aggression.

    PubMed

    Swing, Edward L; Anderson, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has established media violence as a causal risk factor for aggressive behavior. Several theoretical mechanisms have been identified to explain this effect. The present study assessed 422 undergraduate students to test the possibility that individual differences in attention problems and impulsiveness can help explain the link between violent media and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness proved to be a distinct construct from other processes believed to mediate aggression (aggressive beliefs, aggression related schemata, trait anger, and trait hostility). Attention problems and impulsiveness were uniquely related to both media exposure (total weekly hours and violent content) and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness were particularly related to impulsive (as opposed to premeditated) aggression. These results suggest that attention problems and impulsiveness may play an important role in violent media effects on aggression. PMID:24452487

  20. Where does attention go when you blink?

    PubMed

    Irwin, David E

    2011-07-01

    Many studies have shown that covert visual attention precedes saccadic eye movements to locations in space. The present research investigated whether the allocation of attention is similarly affected by eye blinks. Subjects completed a partial-report task under blink and no-blink conditions. Experiment 1 showed that blinking facilitated report of the bottom row of the stimulus array: Accuracy for the bottom row increased and mislocation errors decreased under blink, as compared with no-blink, conditions, indicating that blinking influenced the allocation of visual attention. Experiment 2 showed that this was true even when subjects were biased to attend elsewhere. These results indicate that attention moves downward before a blink in an involuntary fashion. The eyes also move downward during blinks, so attention may precede blink-induced eye movements just as it precedes saccades and other types of eye movements. PMID:21431994

  1. Does the corollary discharge of attention exist?

    PubMed

    Taylor, J G

    2012-03-01

    We discuss experimental support for the existence of a corollary discharge signal of attention movement control and its formulation in terms of the corollary discharge of attention model of attention movement (CODAM). The data is from fMRI, MEG and EEG activity observed about 200 ms after stimulus onset in various attention paradigms and in which the activity is mainly sited in parietal and extra-striate visual areas. Moreover the data arises from neural activity observed before report of a subject's experience occurs. The overall experimental support for the existence of a copy of the attention movement control signal generates, it is suggested, a viable route to explore the relation between this signal and human consciousness, as concluded in the paper. PMID:22265373

  2. Attention in dichoptic and binocular vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Rubin, Yifat; Gopher, Daniel; Raij, David

    1989-01-01

    The ability of human subjected to mobilize attention and cope with task requirements under dichoptic and binocular viewing was investigated in an experiment employing a target search task. Subjects were required to search for a target at either the global level, the local level, or at both levels of a compound stimulus. The tasks were performed in a focused attention condition in which subjects had to attend to the stimulus presented to one eye/field (under dichoptic and binocular viewings, respectively) and to ignore the stimulus presented to the irrelevant eye/field, and in a divided attention condition in which subjects had to attend to the stimuli presented to both eyes/fields. Subjects' performance was affected mainly by attention conditions which interacted with task requirements, rather than by viewing situation. An interesting effect of viewing was found for the local-directed search task in which the cost of dividing attention was higher under binocular than under dichoptic viewing.

  3. Attentive Monitoring of Multiple Video Streams Driven by a Bayesian Foraging Strategy.

    PubMed

    Napoletano, Paolo; Boccignone, Giuseppe; Tisato, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we shall consider the problem of deploying attention to the subsets of the video streams for collating the most relevant data and information of interest related to a given task. We formalize this monitoring problem as a foraging problem. We propose a probabilistic framework to model observer's attentive behavior as the behavior of a forager. The forager, moment to moment, focuses its attention on the most informative stream/camera, detects interesting objects or activities, or switches to a more profitable stream. The approach proposed here is suitable to be exploited for multistream video summarization. Meanwhile, it can serve as a preliminary step for more sophisticated video surveillance, e.g., activity and behavior analysis. Experimental results achieved on the UCR Videoweb Activities Data Set, a publicly available data set, are presented to illustrate the utility of the proposed technique. PMID:25966475

  4. Effect of vicarious fear learning on children's heart rate responses and attentional bias for novel animals.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris

    2014-10-01

    Research with children has shown that vicarious learning can result in changes to 2 of Lang's (1968) 3 anxiety response systems: subjective report and behavioral avoidance. The current study extended this research by exploring the effect of vicarious learning on physiological responses (Lang's final response system) and attentional bias. The study used Askew and Field's (2007) vicarious learning procedure and demonstrated fear-related increases in children's cognitive, behavioral, and physiological responses. Cognitive and behavioral changes were retested 1 week and 1 month later, and remained elevated. In addition, a visual search task demonstrated that fear-related vicarious learning creates an attentional bias for novel animals, which is moderated by increases in fear beliefs during learning. The findings demonstrate that vicarious learning leads to lasting changes in all 3 of Lang's anxiety response systems and is sufficient to create attentional bias to threat in children. PMID:25151521

  5. Scope of Attention, Control of Attention, and Intelligence in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Nelson; Fristoe, Nathanael M.; Elliott, Emily M.; Brunner, Ryan P.; Saults, J. Scott

    2006-01-01

    Recent experimentation has shown that cognitive aptitude measures are predicted by tests of the scope of an individual’s attention or capacity in simple working-memory tasks, and also by the ability to control attention. However, these experiments do not indicate how separate or related the scope and control of attention are. An experiment with 52 children 10 to 11 years old and 52 college students included measures of the scope and control of attention as well as verbal and nonverbal aptitude measures. The children showed little evidence of using sophisticated attentional control, but the scope of attention predicted intelligence in that group. In adults, the scope and control of attention both varied among individuals, and they accounted for considerable individual variance in intelligence. About 1/3 that variance was shared between scope and control, the rest being unique to one or the other. Scope and control of attention appear to be related but distinct contributors to intelligence. PMID:17489300

  6. The effects of an attentional training procedure on the performance of high and low test-anxious children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila C. Ribordy; Robert J. Tracy; Toni D. Bernotas

    1981-01-01

    Children, ages 9 through 12, who were either high or low in test anxiety were matched on sex and grade level, then randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1)attentional training, (2)placebo training, and (3)notraining control. The attentional training group was rewarded for successful inhibition of irrelevant responses and correct attending behavior on a task similar to the Stroop Color

  7. Enhancing Academic Achievement for Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence from School-Based Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; DuPaul, George J.; Someki, Fumio; Tresco, Katy E.

    2008-01-01

    Although children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit significant academic difficulties in school settings, considerably less attention is devoted to remediating their academic problems when compared to behavioral and social difficulties. The purpose of this article is to review empirically supported academic interventions…

  8. Proceedings of the Lake Wilderness Attention Conference. Interim Technical Report, August 1, 1980 through September 30, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansman, Marcy, Ed.; Hunt, Earl, Ed.

    This technical report contains papers prepared by the 11 speakers at the 1980 Lake Wilderness (Seattle, Washington) Conference on Attention. The papers are divided into general models, physiological evidence, and visual attention categories. Topics of the papers include the following: (1) willed versus automatic control of behavior; (2) multiple…

  9. Coincidence of homophone spelling errors and attention problems in schoolchildren: a survey study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Li-Hui; Meng, Ling-Fu; Hung, Li-Yu; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Lu, Chiu-Ping

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between writing and attention problems and hypothesizes that homophone spelling errors coincide with attention deficits. We analyze specific types of attention deficits, which may contribute to Attention Deficits Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); rather than studying ADHD, however, we focus on the inattention dimension of behavior. Our methodology was to develop a survey study for exploring the coincidence of homophone errors and attention problems in schoolchildren. Two sets of parent-questionnaires characterizing individually types of Chinese handwriting errors and behavioral problems in schoolchildren were developed by the research team. Our participants were 491 Taiwanese children from the first to fifth grades in an elementary school in Taipei; they all used traditional Chinese as their primary written language of communication. Based on the ratings of the parent-questionnaires, two groups with proficient and non-proficient homophonic writing were formed. One consisted of children known to have made heterographic homophone errors (words with correct pronunciation but different spellings). The other (control group) consisted of children known to be proficient in Chinese homophone spellings. In each group, there were 54 boy and girl pupils, matched by gender, age, school and grade. A significant correlation was found between attention deficits and homophone errors. This survey study confirms our hypothesis and strengthens a currently underdeveloped theory in the literature of handwriting that attention impairments play an important role in the production of homophone errors. PMID:20951545

  10. Attachment, attention, and cognitive control: Attachment style and performance on general attention tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omri Gillath; Barry Giesbrecht; Phillip R. Shaver

    2009-01-01

    Three studies examined the effects of attachment style on performance in non-attachment-related attention tasks; one study also assessed the effect of priming memories of experiences of attachment security or insecurity on attentional performance in a flanker task. In Study 1, participants performed a psychological refractory period (PRP) task assessing their ability to switch attention rapidly from one decision to another;

  11. Multiple measures of visual attention predict novice motor skill performance when attention is focused externally.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Ryan W; Elliott, James C; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2012-10-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the control of attention and motor skill performance are related. Athletes of various skill levels differ in terms of their control over the focus of attention and directing athletes to adopt an internal or external focus of attention modulates performance. However, it is unclear (a) whether the relationship between skill level and attentional control arises from preexisting individual differences in attention or from practice of the motor skill and (b) whether the effect of adopting an internal or external focus of attention on motor performance is influenced by individual differences in attention. To address these issues, individuals were measured on three distinct attention functions - orienting, alerting, and executive - prior to engaging in a novel golf-putting task performed with either external or internal focus instructions. The results indicated that, on average, attentional functioning and putting performance were related but that the strong relationships with orienting and executive attention were only present in the group given external focus instructions. These findings suggest that individual differences in attentional abilities are predictive of novel skill performance under an external focus of attention and they shed light on the mechanisms underlying the effects of focus instructions during motor performance. PMID:22516836

  12. Treating Attention in Mild Aphasia: Evaluation of Attention Process Training-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Laura L.; Keeton, R. Jessica; Karcher, Laura

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether attention processing training-II [Sohlberg, M. M., Johnson, L., Paule, L., Raskin, S. A., & Mateer, C. A. (2001). "Attention Process Training-II: A program to address attentional deficits for persons with mild cognitive dysfunction" (2nd ed.). Wake Forest, NC: Lash & Associates.; APT-II], when applied in the context of…

  13. Extended Attention Span Training System: Video Game Neurotherapy for Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system for modifying attention deficits, which takes the concept of biofeedback one step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brain waves indicate that attention is waning. Notes contributions of this technology to neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on…

  14. Saccade Preparation Is Required for Exogenous Attention but Not Endogenous Attention or IOR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel T.; Schenk, Thomas; Rorden, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Covert attention is tightly coupled with the control of eye movements, but there is controversy about how tight this coupling is. The premotor theory of attention proposes that activation of the eye movement system is necessary to produce shifts of attention. In this study, we experimentally prevented healthy participants from planning or…

  15. Sustained Attention at Age 5 Predicts Attention-Related Problems at Age 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether two aspects of sustained attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) measured at child age 5 predicted attention problems reported by mothers and teachers at age 9. Because lack of impulsivity reflects the executive control network, and ADHD is commonly characterized as a deficit in executive function, it was…

  16. Reading direction shifts visuospatial attention: an Interactive Account of attentional biases.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Luca; Di Luca, Samuel; Henik, Avishai; Girelli, Luisa

    2014-09-01

    A growing amount of evidence confirms the influence of reading and writing habits on visuospatial processing, although this phenomenon has been so far testified mainly as a lateralized shift of a single behavioral sign (e.g., line bisection), with lack of proof from pure right-to-left readers. The present study contributed to this issue by analyzing multiple attentional and motor indexes in monolingual Italian (i.e., reading from left-to-right), and monolingual (i.e., reading from right-to-left) and bilingual Israeli (i.e., reading from right-to-left in Hebrew but also from left-to-right in English) participants' visuospatial performance. Subjects were administered a computerized standard star cancellation task and a modified version in which English letters and words were replaced by Hebrew ones. Tasks were presented on a graphics tablet, allowing recording of both chronometric and spatial parameters (i.e., measured in (x, y) vector coordinates). Results showed that reading direction modulated the on-line visuomotor performance (i.e., left-to-right vs. right-to-left shifts) from the beginning (i.e., first mark) to the end of the task (i.e., spatial distribution of omissions and subjective epicenter). Additionally, the spatial bias observed in a computerized line bisection task was also related to the participants' habitual reading direction. Overall, the results favor the proposal of an Interactive Account of visuospatial asymmetries, according to which both cultural factors, such as the directional scanning associated with language processing, and biological factors, such as hemispheric specialization, modulate visuospatial processing. Results are discussed in light of recent behavioral and neuroanatomical findings. PMID:24968311

  17. Nutritional and dietary influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Natalie

    2008-10-01

    An abundance of research has investigated causes and treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The research includes identification of suboptimal levels of nutrients and sensitivities to certain foods and food additives. This review gives an overview of this research and provides an up-to-date account of clinical trials that have been conducted with zinc, iron, magnesium, Pycnogenol, omega-3 fatty acids, and food sensitivities. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar and included studies published before April 2008. Although further research is required, the current evidence supports indications of nutritional and dietary influences on behavior and learning in these children, with the strongest support to date reported for omega-3s and behavioral food reactions. PMID:18826452

  18. Neurophysical substrates of arousal and attention.

    PubMed

    Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Pop-Jordanova, Nada

    2009-02-01

    The study of arousal and attention could be of prominent importance for elucidating both fundamental and practical aspects of the mind-brain puzzle. Defined as "general activation of mind" (Kahnemann in Attention and effort. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1973), or "general operation of consciousness" (Thacher and John in Functional neuroscience: foundations of cognitive processing. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1977), arousal can be considered as a starting point of fundamental research on consciousness. Similar role could be assigned to attention, which can be defined by substituting the attributes "general" with "focused". Concerning the practical applications, the empirically established correlation between neuronal oscillations and arousal/attention levels is widely used in research and clinics, including neurofeedback, brain-computer communication, etc. However, the neurophysical mechanism underlying this correlation is still not clear enough. In this paper, after reviewing some present classical and quantum approaches, a transition probability concept of arousal based on field-dipole quantum interactions and information entropy is elaborated. The obtained analytical expressions and numerical values correspond to classical empirical results for arousal and attention, including the characteristic frequency dependence and intervals. Simultaneously, the fundamental (substrate) role of EEG spectrum has been enlightened, whereby the attention appears to be a bridge between arousal and the content of consciousness. Finally, some clinical implications, including the brain-rate parameter as an indicator of arousal and attention levels, are provided. PMID:18975019

  19. Measuring attention using flash-lag effect.

    PubMed

    Shioiri, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Ken; Oshida, Hiroki; Matsubara, Kazuya; Yaguchi, Hirohisa

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of attention on the flash-lag effect (FLE) in order to determine whether the FLE can be used to estimate the effect of visual attention. The FLE is the effect that a flash aligned with a moving object is perceived to lag the moving object, and several studies have shown that attention reduces its magnitude. We measured the FLE as a function of the number or speed of moving objects. The results showed that the effect of cueing, which we attributed the effect of attention, on the FLE increased monotonically with the number or the speed of the objects. This suggests that the amount of attention can be estimated by measuring the FLE, assuming that more amount of attention is required for a larger number or faster speed of objects to attend. On the basis of this presumption, we attempted to measure the spatial spread of visual attention by FLE measurements. The estimated spatial spreads were similar to those estimated by other experimental methods. PMID:20884475

  20. Orienting of spatial attention in Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Couette, Maryline; Bachoud-Levi, Anne-Catherine; Brugieres, Pierre; Sieroff, Eric; Bartolomeo, Paolo

    2008-04-01

    To explore the functioning of spatial attention in Huntington's Disease (HD), 14 HD patients and 14 age-matched controls performed a cued response time (RT) task with peripheral cues. In Experiment 1, cues were not informative about the future target location, thus eliciting a purely exogenous orienting of attention. At short stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA), controls showed an initial facilitation for cued locations, later replaced by a cost (inhibition of return, IOR). Patients had a larger and more persistent validity effect, with delayed IOR, resulting from a larger cost for uncued targets. This suggests an impairment of attentional disengaging from cued locations. In Experiment 2, 80% of the cues were valid, thus inducing an initially exogenous, and later endogenous, attentional shift towards the cued box. The validity effect was larger in patients than in controls, again as a result of a disproportionate cost for uncued targets. In Experiment 3, 80% of the cues were invalid, thus inviting participants to endogenously re-orient attention towards the uncued box. Patients could take advantage of invalid cues to re-orient their attention towards the uncued targets but at a longer SOA than controls, thus suggesting that endogenous orienting is preserved in HD, but slowed down by the disengage deficit. The disengage deficit correlated with several radiological and biological markers of HD, thus suggesting a causal relationship between HD and attentional impairments. Cued RT tasks are promising tools for the clinical monitoring of HD and of its potential treatments. PMID:18242648

  1. Investigating bottom-up auditory attention.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up attention is a sensory-driven selection mechanism that directs perception toward a subset of the stimulus that is considered salient, or attention-grabbing. Most studies of bottom-up auditory attention have adapted frameworks similar to visual attention models whereby local or global "contrast" is a central concept in defining salient elements in a scene. In the current study, we take a more fundamental approach to modeling auditory attention; providing the first examination of the space of auditory saliency spanning pitch, intensity and timbre; and shedding light on complex interactions among these features. Informed by psychoacoustic results, we develop a computational model of auditory saliency implementing a novel attentional framework, guided by processes hypothesized to take place in the auditory pathway. In particular, the model tests the hypothesis that perception tracks the evolution of sound events in a multidimensional feature space, and flags any deviation from background statistics as salient. Predictions from the model corroborate the relationship between bottom-up auditory attention and statistical inference, and argues for a potential role of predictive coding as mechanism for saliency detection in acoustic scenes. PMID:24904367

  2. Visual attention in behaving cats: attention shifts and sustained attention episodes are accompanied by distinct electrocortical activities.

    PubMed

    Buser, Pierre; Rougeul-Buser, Arlette

    2005-10-14

    We analyse a particular class of fast electrocortical rhythms that occur in a limited part of the primary visual cortex (BA 18) during eye saccades in behaving cats placed in a lit environment. Their high frequency (50-132 Hz) contrasts with that of two other classes of rhythms recorded in the same cortical area, the 25-45 Hz visual rhythms (40 Hz) that we previously showed to accompany sustained focused attention, and the alpha rhythms (approximately 10 Hz), that occur in situations of rest. These "very fast visual rhythms" (VFVRs) consist of two brief successive trains, a first one of low amplitude preceding the saccade onset, and a second one, much larger, during the saccade itself. The possibility is considered, that the first train subtends a presaccadic attention shift, and the second, a change of gaze towards a new target through the interception saccade. ECoG activities can thus well distinguish between attention shift and sustained attention. PMID:16055203

  3. Anticipatory remapping of attentional priority across the entire visual field

    PubMed Central

    Mirpour, Koorosh; Bisley, James W.

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that one way we may create a stable percept of the visual world across multiple eye movements is to pass information from one set of neurons to another around the time of each eye movement. Previous studies have shown that some neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) exhibit anticipatory remapping: these neurons produce a visual response to a stimulus that will enter their receptive field after a saccade, but before it actually does so. LIP responses during fixation are thought to represent attentional priority, behavioral relevance or value. In this study, we test whether the remapped response represents this attentional priority, by examining the activity of LIP neurons while animals perform a visual foraging task. We find that the population responds more to a target than to a distractor before the saccade even begins to bring the stimulus into the receptive field. Within 20 ms of the saccade ending, the responses in almost a third of LIP neurons closely resemble the responses that will emerge during stable fixation. Finally, we show that in these neurons and in the population as a whole, this remapping occurs for all stimuli in all locations across the visual field and for both long and short saccades. We conclude that this complete remapping of attentional priority across the visual field could underlie spatial stability across saccades. PMID:23152627

  4. Integrating audiovisual information for the control of overt attention.

    PubMed

    Onat, Selim; Libertus, Klaus; König, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In everyday life, our brains decide about the relevance of huge amounts of sensory input. Further complicating this situation, this input is distributed over different modalities. This raises the question of how different sources of information interact for the control of overt attention during free exploration of the environment under natural conditions. Different modalities may work independently or interact to determine the consequent overt behavior. To answer this question, we presented natural images and lateralized natural sounds in a variety of conditions and we measured the eye movements of human subjects. We show that, in multimodal conditions, fixation probabilities increase on the side of the image where the sound originates showing that, at a coarser scale, lateralized auditory stimulation topographically increases the salience of the visual field. However, this shift of attention is specific because the probability of fixation of a given location on the side of the sound scales with the saliency of the visual stimulus, meaning that the selection of fixation points during multimodal conditions is dependent on the saliencies of both auditory and visual stimuli. Further analysis shows that a linear combination of both unimodal saliencies provides a good model for this integration process, which is optimal according to information-theoretical criteria. Our results support a functional joint saliency map, which integrates different unimodal saliencies before any decision is taken about the subsequent fixation point. These results provide guidelines for the performance and architecture of any model of overt attention that deals with more than one modality. PMID:17997680

  5. Attentional prioritisation of threatening information: examining the role of the size of the attentional window.

    PubMed

    Notebaert, Lies; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan; Durnez, Wouter; Theeuwes, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In line with most models of emotion, research has shown that threatening information receives attentional priority over neutral information. Recently, it has been suggested that the degree to which participants divide their attention across the visual field (the attentional window) may modulate the extent to which salient objects are attentionally prioritised. In the current study, participants were required to identify a target inside one of a variable number of coloured circles. One colour (Conditioned Stimulus, CS +) was fear-conditioned using an electrocutaneous stimulus at tolerance level. This search task was combined with a go/no-go task that required participants to either divide attention across the visual field to create a broad attentional window (global group), or focus their attention on the fixation point to create a narrow attentional window (local group). The results showed that only in the global group was the CS + colour prioritised over the neutral colours, indicating that a broader attentional window leads to enhanced attentional prioritisation of threat. Implications for research on attentional bias to threat are discussed. PMID:23061792

  6. In-Class Robot Flyby of an Endoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, A. J.; Capaldi, T.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    For our Introduction to Computing class, we have developed a miniature robotic spacecraft mission that performs a flyby of an in-class 'endoplanet.' Our constructed endoplanet contains an internal dipole magnet, tilted with a dip angle that is unknown a priori. The spacecraft analog is a remotely controlled LEGO MINDSTORMS robot programmed using LabVIEW. Students acquire magnetic field data via a first spacecraft flyby past the endoplanet. This dataset is then imported into MATLAB, and is inverted to create a model of the magnet's orientation and dipole moment. Students use their models to predict the magnetic field profile along a different flyby path. They then test the accuracy of their models, comparing their predictions against the data acquired from this secondary flyby. We will be demonstrating this device at our poster in the Moscone Center.

  7. Control of Spatial and Feature-Based Attention in Frontoparietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Adam S.; Esterman, Michael; Wilson, Daryl; Serences, John T.; Yantis, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Visual attention selects task-relevant information from scenes to help achieve behavioral goals. Attention can be deployed within multiple domains to select specific spatial locations, features, or objects. Recent evidence has shown that voluntary shifts of attention in multiple domains are consistently associated with transient increases in cortical activity in medial superior parietal lobule (mSPL), suggesting that this may be the source of a domain-independent control signal that initiates the reconfiguration of attention. To investigate this hypothesis, we used fMRI to measure changes in cortical activation while human subjects shifted attention between spatial locations or between colors at a location. Univariate multiple regression analysis revealed a common, domain-independent transient signal (in PPC and prefrontal cortex) time-locked to shifts of attention in both domains. However, multivariate pattern classification conducted on the cortical surface revealed that the spatiotemporal pattern of activity within PPC differed reliably for spatial and feature-based attention shifts. These results suggest that the posterior parietal cortex is a common hub for the control of attention shifts but contains subpopulations of neurons with domain-specific tuning for cognitive control. PMID:20980588

  8. Attentional Modulation of Receptive Field Structure in Area 7a of the Behaving Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Quraishi, Salma; Heider, Barbara; Siegel, Ralph M.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial attention modulates the activity of inferior parietal neurons. A statistically rigorous approach to classical retinotopic mapping was used to quantify the receptive fields of area 7a neurons under two attentional conditions. Measurements were made with retinal stimulation held constant and the locus of attention manipulated covertly. Both tasks required central fixation but differed in the locus of covert attention (either on the center fixation point, or on a peripheral square target in one of 25 locations). The neuron's identity over the recording session was confirmed using chaos theory to characterize unique temporal patterns. Sixty-six percent of the neurons changed prestimulus activity based on task state. Retinotopic mapping showed no evidence for foveal sparing. Attentional factors influenced visual responses for ?30% of the neurons. Two types of modulation were equally observed. One group of cells had a multiplicative scaling of response, with equal instances of enhancement and suppression. A second group of cells had a complex interaction of visual and attentional signals, such that spatial tuning was subject to a non-linear modulation across the visual field based on attentional constraints. These two cell groups may have different roles in the shift of attention preceding motor behaviors and may underlie shifts in parietal retinotopic maps observed with intrinsic optical imaging. PMID:17077161

  9. Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Flannery-Schroeder; Alexis N. Lamb

    Increasingly, attention is turning to the significance of children's mental health. This attention results from a confluence\\u000a of information sources col lectively emphasizing the prevalence of childhood problems. Epidemiologi-cal estimates for the\\u000a prevalence rates of childhood emotional and behavioral disorders range between 15 and 22% (e.g., McCracken, 1992; Roberts,\\u000a Att-kisson,&Rosenblatt, 1998; Rutter, 1989; Kazdin&Weisz, 2003a; WHO, 2001). These rates may

  10. Sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we advocate the need for better understanding and treatment of children exhibiting inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive behaviors, by in-depth questioning on sleepiness, sleep-disordered breathing or problematic behaviors at bedtime, during the night and upon awakening, as well as night-to-night sleep duration variability. The relationships between sleep and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are complex and are routinely overlooked by practitioners. Motricity and somnolence, the most consistent complaints and objectively measured sleep problems in children with ADHD, may develop as a consequence of multidirectional and multifactorial pathways. Therefore, subjectively perceived or reported restless sleep should be evaluated with specific attention to restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder, and awakenings should be queried with regard to parasomnias, dyssomnias and sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep hygiene logs detailing sleep onset and offset quantitatively, as well as qualitatively, are required. More studies in children with ADHD are needed to reveal the 24-h phenotype, or its sleep comorbidities. PMID:21469929

  11. Attention to Learning of School Subjects1

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    In this brief comment we add to our previous discussion (Posner, Rothbart & Tang, 2013) of the importance of control mechanisms related to attention networks by dealing with how control influences what is learned and how wide the generalization of the learned information will be. A brain network connecting the anterior cingulate to the hippocampus appears to be important for the registration of new learning. This network provides a mechanism for how attention influences learning. Information coming to mind spontaneously or during testing activates a parietal area related to orienting of attention. Information about attentional control systems related to learning holds promise for new applications to acquiring expertise related to all school subjects. PMID:24860726

  12. Biological motion cues trigger reflexive attentional orienting.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinfu; Weng, Xuchu; He, Sheng; Jiang, Yi

    2010-12-01

    The human visual system is extremely sensitive to biological signals around us. In the current study, we demonstrate that biological motion walking direction can induce robust reflexive attentional orienting. Following a brief presentation of a central point-light walker walking towards either the left or right direction, observers' performance was significantly better on a target in the walking direction compared with that in the opposite direction even when participants were explicitly told that walking direction was not predictive of target location. Interestingly, the effect disappeared when the walker was shown upside-down. Moreover, the reflexive attentional orienting could be extended to motions of other biological entities but not inanimate objects, and was not due to the viewpoint effect of the point-light figure. Our findings provide strong evidence that biological motion cues can trigger reflexive attentional orienting, and highlight the intrinsic sensitivity of the human visual attention system to biological signals. PMID:20883983

  13. FMRI indices of auditory attention in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Todd N; Dorflinger, Jill M; Marlow-O'Connor, Megan; Pendergrass, Jo Cara; Hartzell, Aileen; All, Sherrie D; Charles, David

    2009-02-01

    The present study sought to identify abnormalities in activation in several brain regions in response to an auditory attention task in patients with schizophrenia. Ten patients and twenty healthy control participants were examined using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI) measures acquired during an auditory attention task. Region of interest analyses of activation of targeted regions implicated in attention included: anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and superior temporal gyrus (STG). The results indicated over-activation in patients with schizophrenia. While the control group showed notable coherence in activation within and across hemispheres the schizophrenia group showed relatively less coherence overall that was only present in the right hemisphere. These findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia show both an over-engagement of brain regions during attention task as well as a lack of communication among neural regions involved. PMID:18957312

  14. CNTRICS Final Task Selection: Control of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Luck, Steven J.; Lustig, Cindy; Sarter, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The construct of attention has many facets that have been examined in human and animal research and in healthy and psychiatrically disordered conditions. The Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) group concluded that control of attention—the processes that guide selection of task-relevant inputs—is particularly impaired in schizophrenia and could profit from further work with refined measurement tools. Thus, nominations for cognitive tasks that provide discrete measures of control of attention were sought and were then evaluated at the third CNTRICS meeting for their promise for future use in treatment development. This article describes the 5 nominated measures and their strengths and weaknesses for cognitive neuroscience work relevant to treatment development. Two paradigms, Guided Search and the Distractor Condition Sustained Attention Task, were viewed as having the greatest immediate promise for development into tools for treatment research in schizophrenia and are described in more detail by their nominators. PMID:19074499

  15. Attentional Modulation and Selection – An Integrated Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rothenstein, Albert L.; Tsotsos, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Various models of the neural mechanisms of attentional modulation in the visual cortex have been proposed. In general, these models assume that an ‘attention’ parameter is provided separately. Its value as well as the selection of neuron(s) to which it applies are assumed, but its source and the selection mechanism are unspecified. Here we show how the Selective Tuning model of visual attention can account for the modulation of the firing rate at the single neuron level, and for the temporal pattern of attentional modulations in the visual cortex, in a self-contained formulation that simultaneously determines the stimulus elements to be attended while modulating the relevant neural processes. PMID:24963827

  16. Persistence and Success in the Attention Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Wu; Bernardo A. Huberman

    2009-01-01

    A hallmark of the attention economy is the competition for the attention of\\u000aothers. Thus people persistently upload content to social media sites, hoping\\u000afor the highly unlikely outcome of topping the charts and reaching a wide\\u000aaudience. And yet, an analysis of the production histories and success dynamics\\u000aof 10 million videos from \\\\texttt{YouTube} revealed that the more frequently

  17. Depression and self-focused attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. Smith; Jeff Greenberg

    1981-01-01

    Recent research on self-focused attention has indicated effects that parallel several cognitive and affective phenomena associated with depression. Specifically, discrepancies between perceived real and ideal self, increased affective response, self-attribution for negative events, and accurate self-reports occur both in depression and as a result of self-focused attention. A study is reported that investigated the relationship between depression and a measure

  18. Temporal Attention Fusion For Sports Event Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reede Ren; Yue Feng; Joemon Jose

    The employment of psychological measurement,attention, alleviates the semantic uncertainty around video events and leads to an effective general event detection approach. This paper proposes a multi-resolution autoregressive framework to estimate a unified attention curve from multi-modality salient features at different temporal resolutions. The highlights of this work are: (1) the capability of using data at very coarse temporal resolutions, e.g.

  19. Predicting moment-to-moment attentional state.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Monica D; Finn, Emily S; Constable, R Todd; Chun, Marvin M

    2015-07-01

    Although fluctuations in sustained attention are ubiquitous, most psychological experiments treat them as noise, averaging performance over many trials. The current study uses multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to decode whether, on each trial of a cognitive task, participants are in an optimal or suboptimal attentional state. During fMRI, participants performed n-back tasks, composed of central face images overlaid on distractor scenes, with low, perceptual, and working memory load. Instructions were to respond to novel faces and withhold response to rare repeats. To index attentional state, reaction time variability was calculated at each correct response. Participants' 50% least variable trials were labeled optimal, or "in the zone," and their 50% most erratic trials were labeled suboptimal, or "out of the zone." Support vector machine classifiers trained on activity in the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), and task-relevant fusiform face area (FFA) distinguished in-the-zone and out-of-the-zone trials in all tasks. Consistent with evidence that distractors are processed when central task load is low, parahippocampal place area (PPA) classifiers were only successful in the low load task. Classification in anatomical regions across the brain revealed widespread coding of attentional state. In contrast to these robust pattern analyses, univariate signal in DMN, DAN, FFA, and PPA did not distinguish states, suggesting a nuanced relationship to sustained attention. In sum, MVPA can be used to decode trial-by-trial attentional state throughout much of cortex, helping to characterize how attention network fluctuations correlate with performance variability. PMID:25800207

  20. Limited Attention, Information Disclosure, and Financial Reporting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Hirshleifer; Siew Hong Teoh

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: This paper models firms' choices between alternative means of presentinginformation, and the e#ects of di#erent presentations on marketprices when investors have limited attention and processing power. Ina market equilibrium with partially attentive investors, we examine thee#ects of alternative: levels of discretion in pro forma earnings disclosure,methods of accounting for employee option compensation, and degrees ofaggregation in reporting.