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1

Independent Contributions of the Central Executive, Intelligence, and In-Class Attentive Behavior to Developmental Change in the Strategies Used to Solve Addition Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's (N = 275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7 = 4+3 and thus 6+7 = 6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first grade to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-class attentive behavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between…

Geary, David C.; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara

2012-01-01

2

Independent contributions of the central executive, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior to developmental change in the strategies used to solve addition problems.  

PubMed

Children's (N=275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7=4+3 and thus 6+7=6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first grade to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-class attentive behavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between capacity of the central executive component of working memory, controlling for intelligence and in-class attentive behavior, and grade-related changes in children's use of these strategies. The predictor on intercept effects from multilevel models revealed that children with higher central executive capacity correctly retrieved more facts and used the most sophisticated counting procedure more frequently and accurately than their lower capacity peers at the beginning of first grade, but the predictor on slope effects indicated that this advantage disappeared (retrieval) or declined in importance (counting) from first grade to fourth grade. The predictor on slope effects also revealed that from first grade to fourth grade, children with higher capacity adopted the decomposition strategy more quickly than other children. The results remained robust with controls for children's sex, race, school site, speed of encoding Arabic numerals and articulating number words, and mathematics achievement in kindergarten. The results also revealed that intelligence and in-class attentive behavior independently contributed to children's strategy development. PMID:22698947

Geary, David C; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara

2012-09-01

3

Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.  

PubMed

Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed. PMID:24922613

Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang

2014-10-01

4

Developing Attention: Behavioral and Brain Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Brain networks underlying attention are present even during infancy and are critical for the developing ability of children to control their emotions and thoughts. For adults, individual differences in the efficiency of attentional networks have been related to neuromodulators and to genetic variations. We have examined the development of attentional networks and child temperament in a longitudinal study from infancy (7 months) to middle childhood (7 years). Early temperamental differences among infants, including smiling and laughter and vocal reactivity, are related to self-regulation abilities at 7 years. However, genetic variations related to adult executive attention, while present in childhood, are poor predictors of later control, in part because individual genetic variationmay have many small effects and in part because their influence occurs in interaction with caregiver behavior and other environmental influences. While brain areas involved in attention are present during infancy, their connectivity changes and leads to improvement in control of behavior. It is also possible to influence control mechanisms through training later in life. The relation between maturation and learning may allow advances in our understanding of human brain development. PMID:25110757

Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.; Voelker, Pascale

2014-01-01

5

Empirical Analysis of Attention Behaviors in Online Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying attention behavior has its social significance because such behavior is considered to lead the evolution of the friendship network. However, this type of behavior in social networks has attracted relatively little attention before, which is mainly because, in reality, such behaviors are always transitory and rarely recorded. In this paper, we collected the attention behaviors as well as the friendship network from Douban database and then carefully studied the attention behaviors in the friendship network as a latent metric space. The revealed similar patterns of attention behavior and friendship suggest that attention behavior may be the pre-stage of friendship to a certain extent, which can be further validated by the fact that pairwise nodes in Douban network connected by attention links beforehand are indeed far more likely to be connected by friendship links in the near future. This phenomenon can also be used to explain the high clustering of many social networks. More interestingly, it seems that attention behaviors are more likely to take place between individuals who have more mutual friends as well as more different friends, which seems a little different from the principles of many link prediction algorithms. Moreover, it is also found that forward attention is preferred to inverse attention, which is quite natural because, usually, an individual must be more interested in others that he is paying attention to than those paying attention to him. All of these findings can be used to guide the design of more appropriate social network models in the future.

Du, Fang; Xuan, Qi; Wu, Tie-Jun

6

Toward a Behavioral Analysis of Joint Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joint attention (JA) initiation is defined in cognitive-developmental psychology as a child's actions that verify or produce simultaneous attending by that child and an adult to some object or event in the environment so that both may experience the object or event together. This paper presents a contingency analysis of gaze shift in JA…

Dube, William V.; MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Mansfield, Renee C.; Holcomb, William L.; Ahearn, William H.

2004-01-01

7

Cognitive and behavioral attention in children with math difficulties.  

PubMed

Cognitive assessments and behavioral ratings of attention were used to examine the relation of inattention to math performance in children. Third grade students with math difficulties (MD; n?=?17) and math and reading difficulties (MDRD; n?=?35) were administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT), as well as achievement and intelligence measures. Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behavior-IV (SWAN-IV) Inattention ratings were collected from teachers. Two comparison groups were also recruited: a typically achieving group (n?=?23) and a group that responded to a math-tutoring intervention (responders; n?=?54). On the ANT, children with MD and MDRD did not perform significantly different than typically achieving children or responders on measures of alerting and orienting attention and executive control. All subgroups did demonstrate performance patterns that were expected on the ANT. However, performance across blocks of the task was inconsistent, suggesting poor reliability. There were no relations between ANT performance and SWAN-IV behavioral inattention scores, though behavioral ratings of inattention correlated significantly with math performance. Children with MD and MDRD may have more difficulty with distraction and attention to detail in contextual situations, as opposed to impulsive responding in these settings. The lack of relation between cognitive attention and math performance may suggest that either the ANT does not assess the relevant attention constructs associated with math difficulties or may parallel studies of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in which cognitive and behavioral assessments are weakly related. PMID:22686370

Gold, Alanna B; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Cirino, Paul; Fuchs, Lynn S; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M

2013-01-01

8

Mental training enhances attentional stability: Neural and behavioral evidence  

PubMed Central

The capacity to stabilize the content of attention over time varies among individuals and its impairment is a hallmark of several mental illnesses. Impairments in sustained attention in patients with attention disorders have been associated with increased trial-to-trial variability in reaction time and event-related potential (ERP) deficits during attention tasks. At present, it is unclear whether the ability to sustain attention and its underlying brain circuitry are transformable through training. Here, we show, with dichotic listening task performance and electroencephalography (EEG), that training attention, as cultivated by meditation, can improve the ability to sustain attention. Three months of intensive meditation training reduced variability in attentional processing of target tones, as indicated by both enhanced theta-band phase consistency of oscillatory neural responses over anterior brain areas and reduced reaction time variability. Furthermore, those individuals who showed the greatest increase in neural response consistency showed the largest decrease in behavioral response variability. Notably, we also observed reduced variability in neural processing, in particular in low-frequency bands, regardless of whether the deviant tone was attended or unattended. Focused attention meditation may thus affect both distracter and target processing, perhaps by enhancing entrainment of neuronal oscillations to sensory input rhythms; a mechanism important for controlling the content of attention. These novel findings highlight the mechanisms underlying focused attention meditation, and support the notion that mental training can significantly affect attention and brain function. PMID:19846729

Lutz, Antoine; Slagter, Heleen A.; Rawlings, Nancy B.; Francis, Andrew D.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Davidson, Richard J.

2009-01-01

9

Selective attention in the honeybee optic lobes precedes behavioral choices  

PubMed Central

Attention allows animals to respond selectively to competing stimuli, enabling some stimuli to evoke a behavioral response while others are ignored. How the brain does this remains mysterious, although it is increasingly evident that even animals with the smallest brains display this capacity. For example, insects respond selectively to salient visual stimuli, but it is unknown where such selectivity occurs in the insect brain, or whether neural correlates of attention might predict the visual choices made by an insect. Here, we investigate neural correlates of visual attention in behaving honeybees (Apis mellifera). Using a closed-loop paradigm that allows tethered, walking bees to actively control visual objects in a virtual reality arena, we show that behavioral fixation increases neuronal responses to flickering, frequency-tagged stimuli. Attention-like effects were reduced in the optic lobes during replay of the same visual sequences, when bees were not able to control the visual displays. When bees were presented with competing frequency-tagged visual stimuli, selectivity in the medulla (an optic ganglion) preceded behavioral selection of a stimulus, suggesting that modulation of early visual processing centers precedes eventual behavioral choices made by these insects. PMID:24639490

Paulk, Angelique C.; Stacey, Jacqueline A.; Pearson, Thomas W. J.; Taylor, Gavin J.; Moore, Richard J. D.; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.; van Swinderen, Bruno

2014-01-01

10

Attentional bias modification for addictive behaviors: clinical implications.  

PubMed

When a person has a goal of drinking alcohol or using another addictive substance, the person appears to be automatically distracted by stimuli related to the goal. Because the attentional bias might propel the person to use the substance, an intervention might help modify it. In this article, we discuss techniques that have been developed to help people overcome their attentional bias for alcohol, smoking-related stimuli, drugs, or unhealthy food. We also discuss how these techniques are being adapted for use on mobile devices. The latter would allow people with an addictive behavior to use the attentional training in privacy and as frequently as needed. The attentional training techniques discussed here appear to have several advantages. They are inexpensive, can be fun to use, and have flexibility in when, where, and how often they are used. The evidence so far also suggests that they are effective. PMID:24642267

Cox, W Miles; Fadardi, Javad S; Intriligator, James M; Klinger, Eric

2014-06-01

11

Attitude-behavior congruity, mindfulness, and self-focused attention: A behavior-analytic reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Social psychologists have responded to research reporting low agreement between attitude measures and related behavior with attempts to explain the incongruities and enhance agreement. This article examines attitude-behavior incongruity from a behavior-analytic point of view. Traditional and behavior-analytic views of attitudes and behaviors are compared. In the behavior-analytic view, answering an attitude scale should be considered as behavior displayed by a person under rather unusual social conditions, not as a reflection of an enduring personal disposition. Reasons why questionnaire-answering behavior will not resemble behavior in other functionally different social conditions are reviewed. Special attention is extended to two representative lines of attitude-behavior research: mindfulness and self-focused attention. Discriminative stimuli in both areas of study have produced more predictable agreement between questionnaire-answering behavior and behavior in other settings. PMID:22478180

Street, Warren R.

1994-01-01

12

Attention to Novelty in Behaviorally Inhibited Adolescents Moderates Risk for Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Individual differences in specific components of attention contribute to behavioral reactivity and regulation. Children with the temperament of behavioral inhibition (BI) provide a good context for considering the manner in which certain components of attention shape behavior. Infants and children characterized as behaviorally

Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Vanderwert, Ross E.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Marshall, Peter J.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

2009-01-01

13

Illuminating the role of cholinergic signaling in circuits of attention and emotionally salient behaviors  

E-print Network

Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. Alterations in ACh signaling are involved in the pathophysiology of ...

Luchicchi, Antonio

14

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive The Cross-Modal Spread of Attention Reveals Differential  

E-print Network

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive The Cross-Modal Spread of Attention Reveals Differential Constraints for the Temporal and Spatial Linking of Visual and Auditory Stimulus Events Sarah E. Donohue,1,3 Kenneth C. Roberts as to be influenced by attention. Here we used neural measures of the multisensory spread of attention to investigate

15

Neuropsychological and Behavioral Measures of Attention Assess Different Constructs in Children With Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological and behavioral measures are used to assess attention, but little convergence has been found between these two assessment methods. However, many prior studies have not considered attention as a multicomponent system, which may contribute to this lack of agreement between neuropsychological and behavioral measures. To address this the current study examined the relationship between the neuropsychological measures that comprise

Sally J. Barney; Daniel N. Allen; Nicholas S. Thaler; Brandon S. Park; Gregory P. Strauss; Joan Mayfield

2011-01-01

16

Which Behavioral and Personality Characteristics Are Associated with Difficulties in Selective Attention?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study investigated the behavioral and personality profile associated with difficulties in selective attention. Method: A group of participants with ADHD were assessed for ADHD behaviors. Adults with ADHD (n = 22) and without ADHD (n = 84) were tested on the conjunctive visual-search task for selective attention and…

Avisar, Alon

2011-01-01

17

Growth and change in attention problems, disruptive behavior, and achievement from kindergarten to fifth grade.  

PubMed

Despite widespread interest in children's adjustment problems, existing research does not provide conclusive evidence regarding the direction of the associations of achievement with classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior over the course of elementary school. Using a nationally representative sample of 16,260 kindergarteners, this study examined the temporal sequence of achievement, classroom attention problems, and disruptive behavior, focusing on how changes in skills and problems unfold across key periods between kindergarten and fifth grade. Results indicate that improvements in attention during the earliest years of schooling predict achievement gains through third grade. However, changes in disruptive behavior do not predict subsequent changes in achievement. Evidence linking changes in achievement to changes in classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior was less consistent. These findings point to the need to develop and examine early interventions that can improve attention skills as a mechanism for improving children's academic trajectories in elementary school. PMID:25376191

Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle

2014-12-01

18

Intelligence and Behavior among Individuals Identified with Attention Deficit Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we describe the nature of attention deficit disorders (ADDs) within an individual differences model of abilities. In so doing, a model-based explanation for the sources of learning and performance difficulties among individuals identified with ADDs is provided. Earlier models of ADDs are discussed, and the proposed loci of ADDs…

Dillon, Ronna F.; Osborne, Susan S.

2006-01-01

19

Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior…

Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

2011-01-01

20

An observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to measure in-class learner engagement: a validation study  

PubMed Central

Background Efforts are made to enhance in-class learner engagement because it stimulates and enhances learning. However, it is not easy to quantify learner engagement. This study aimed to develop and validate an observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to determine and compare in-class learner engagement levels in four different class types delivered by the same instructor. Methods Observer pairs observed instructor and student behaviors during lectures in large class (LLC, n=2) with third-year medical students, lectures in small class (LSC, n=6) and case-based teaching sessions (CBT, n=4) with fifth-year students, and problem-based learning (PBL) sessions (~7 hours) with second-year students. The observation tool was a revised form of STROBE, an instrument for recording behaviors of an instructor and four randomly selected students as snapshots for 5-min cycles. Instructor and student behaviors were scored 1–5 on this tool named ‘in-class engagement measure (IEM)’. The IEM scores were parallel to the degree of behavior's contribution to active student engagement, so higher scores were associated with more in-class learner engagement. Additionally, the number of questions asked by the instructor and students were recorded. A total of 203 5-min observations were performed (LLC 20, LSC 85, CBT 50, and PBL 48). Results Interobserver agreement on instructor and student behaviors was 93.7% (?=0.87) and 80.6% (?=0.71), respectively. Higher median IEM scores were found in student-centered and problem-oriented methods such as CBT and PBL. A moderate correlation was found between instructor and student behaviors (r=0.689). Conclusions This study provides some evidence for validity of the IEM scores as a measure of student engagement in different class types. PMID:25308966

Alimoglu, Mustafa K.; Sarac, Didar B.; Alparslan, Derya; Karakas, Ayse A.; Altintas, Levent

2014-01-01

21

Social Attention in Nonhuman Primates: A Behavioral Review Christine M. Johnson1  

E-print Network

Social Attention in Nonhuman Primates: A Behavioral Review Christine M. Johnson1 and M. Rosalyn with nonhuman primates. In this review, we focus on the behav- ior of the participants in this research issues and the sensorimotor constraints on primate attention, we describe the ethological

Kirsh, David

22

A Reference Model of Soldier Attention and Behavior MAJ Jonathan K. Alt  

E-print Network

of situation awareness and behavior. Building on previous work, the researchers developed an integrated and tractable modeling framework for the representation of a soldier's visual attention, situation awareness an integrated conceptual model of a soldier's visual attention (search), situation awareness, and target

Darken, Christian J.

23

Attention Demands Influence 10- and 12-Month-Old Infants' Perseverative Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the role of attentional demand on infants' perseverative behavior in a noncommunicative looking version of an A-not-B task. The research aimed at clarifying age-related improvements in the attention process that presumably underlies the development of cognitive control. In a between-subjects design, forty 10-month-olds…

Watanabe, Hama; Forssman, Linda; Green, Dorota; Bohlin, Gunilla; von Hofsten, Claes

2012-01-01

24

Attentional Modulation of Lexical Effects on Speech Perception: Computational and Behavioral Experiments  

E-print Network

Attentional Modulation of Lexical Effects on Speech Perception: Computational and Behavioral Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA Abstract A number of studies suggest that attention can modulate as a neurophysiologically-plausible computational mechanism that can account for this type of modulation in the context

Holt, Lori L.

25

Relations Among Student Attention Behaviors, Teacher Practices, and Beginning Word Reading Skill  

PubMed Central

The role of student attention for predicting kindergarten word reading was investigated among 432 students. Using SWAN behavior rating scores, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded three distinct factors that reflected selective attention. In this study, we focused on the role of one of these factors, which we labeled attention-memory behaviors, for predicting reading performance. Teacher ratings of attention predicted word reading above and beyond the contribution of phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. In addition, the relations between four teacher practices and attention ratings for predicting reading performance were examined. Using HLM, significant interactions between student attention and teacher practices observed during literacy instruction were found. In general, as ratings of attention improved, better kindergarten word reading performance was associated with high levels of classroom behavior management. However, by mid-year, better word reading performance was not associated with high levels of teacher task- orienting. A significant three-way interaction was also found among attention, individualized instruction, and teacher task re-directions. The role of regulating kindergarten student attention to support beginning word reading skill development is discussed. PMID:22207616

Sáez, Leilani; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher

2011-01-01

26

Modification of Preschool Children's Bathroom Behaviors by Contingent Teacher Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repeated measures of the frequency of paper towel litter, unflushed toilets, dirty sinks, and running water faucets were used to evaluate effectiveness of contingent teacher praise for appropriate bathroom use by preschool children. Contingent praise for appropriate bathroom behaviors resulted in markedly decreased frequencies of four target…

Taylor, Marjorie J.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

1978-01-01

27

Mindfulness and Health Behaviors: Is Paying Attention Good for You?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The investigators examined relations between mindfulness and health behaviors in college students, as well as the role of stress in mediating these effects. Participants: Participants were 553 undergraduates (385 females; mean age = 18.8 years, SD = 2.1) recruited from a university in the northeastern United States. Methods:…

Roberts, Kimberly C.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

2010-01-01

28

Improving the Effectiveness of Behavioral Classroom Interventions for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study reports how modifications to an existing behavior management plan improved the behavioral intervention of a third-grade boy diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A multiple baseline design across setting was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the modified intervention. Teachers overwhelmingly accepted the…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.

2003-01-01

29

Peer Tutoring for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects on Classroom Behavior and Academic Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on classroom behavior and academic performance of 18 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). CWPT led to improvements in performance in math or spelling for 50% of students with ADHD, along with reductions in off-task behavior for most participants. (Author/CR)

DuPaul, George J.; Ervin, Ruth A.; Hook, Christine L.; McGoey, Kara E.

1998-01-01

30

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Mental Training Enhances Attentional Stability: Neural and  

E-print Network

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Mental Training Enhances Attentional Stability: Neural and Behavioral, as indicated by both enhanced theta-band phase consistency of oscillatory neural responses over anterior brain increase in neural response consistency showed the largest decrease in behav- ioral response variability

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

31

Perceived Instructor In-class Communicative Behaviors As a Predictor of Student Participation in Out of Class Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of instructor in-class communicative behaviors on college student participation in out of class communication (OCC). Participants were 298 students enrolled in an introductory communication course at a Mid-Atlantic university who completed the Communication Functions Questionnaire, the modified Affinity-Seeking Strategy scale, and the Out of Class Interaction scale. Results of stepwise

Scott A. Myers; Matthew M. Martin; Jennifer L. Knapp

2005-01-01

32

Top-down search strategies determine attentional capture in visual search: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.  

PubMed

To investigate how attentional capture in visual search is affected by generalized top-down search strategies, ERPs and behavioral performance were measured in two experiments where spatially nonpredictive color singleton cues preceded visual search arrays that contained one of two equally likely color singletons. When both singletons served as targets, irrelevant-color singleton cues produced behavioral attentional capture effects and elicited an N2pc component, indicative of a singleton search mode. When responses were required to only one of the two color singletons, the same cues no longer elicited behavioral spatial cuing effects, and the N2pc to these cues was attenuated and delayed, in line with the hypothesis that search was now guided by a feature-specific search strategy. Results demonstrate that the ability of visual singleton stimuli to capture attention is not simply determined by their bottom-up salience, but strongly modulated by top-down task sets. PMID:20436192

Eimer, Martin; Kiss, Monika

2010-05-01

33

Attentional dynamics during free picture viewing: Evidence from oculomotor behavior and electrocortical activity  

PubMed Central

Most empirical evidence on attentional control is based on brief presentations of rather abstract stimuli. Results revealed indications for a dynamic interplay between bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms. Here we used a more naturalistic task to examine temporal signatures of attentional mechanisms on fine and coarse time scales. Subjects had to inspect digitized copies of 60 paintings, each shown for 40 s. We simultaneously measured oculomotor behavior and electrophysiological correlates of brain activity to compare early and late intervals (1) of inspection time of each picture (picture viewing) and (2) of the full experiment (time on task). For picture viewing, we found an increase in fixation duration and a decrease of saccadic amplitude while these parameters did not change with time on task. Furthermore, early in picture viewing we observed higher spatial and temporal similarity of gaze behavior. Analyzing electrical brain activity revealed changes in three components (C1, N1 and P2) of the eye fixation-related potential (EFRP); during picture viewing; no variation was obtained for the power in the frontal beta- and in the theta activity. Time on task analyses demonstrated no effects on the EFRP amplitudes but an increase of power in the frontal theta and beta band activity. Thus, behavioral and electrophysiological measures similarly show characteristic changes during picture viewing, indicating a shifting balance of its underlying (bottom-up and top-down) attentional mechanisms. Time on task also modulated top-down attention but probably represents a different attentional mechanism. PMID:23759704

Fischer, Thomas; Graupner, Sven-Thomas; Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Pannasch, Sebastian

2013-01-01

34

The benefits of simply observing: Mindful attention modulates the link between motivation and behavior.  

PubMed

Mindful attention, a central component of mindfulness meditation, can be conceived as becoming aware of one's thoughts and experiences and being able to observe them as transient mental events. Here, we present a series of studies demonstrating the effects of applying this metacognitive perspective to one's spontaneous reward responses when encountering attractive stimuli. Taking a grounded cognition perspective, we argue that reward simulations in response to attractive stimuli contribute to appetitive behavior and that motivational states and traits enhance these simulations. Directing mindful attention at these thoughts and seeing them as mere mental events should break this link, such that motivational states and traits no longer affect reward simulations and appetitive behavior. To test this account, we trained participants to observe their thoughts in reaction to appetitive stimuli as mental events, using a brief procedure designed for nonmeditators. Across 3 experiments, we found that adopting the mindful attention perspective reduced the effects of motivational states and traits on appetitive behavior in 2 domains, in both the laboratory and the field. Specifically, after applying mindful attention, participants' sexual motivation no longer made opposite-sex others seem more attractive and thus desirable as partners. Similarly, participants' levels of hunger no longer boosted the attractiveness of unhealthy foods, resulting in healthier eating choices. We discuss these results in the context of mechanisms and applications of mindful attention and explore how mindfulness and mindful attention can be conceptualized in psychological research more generally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25347126

Papies, Esther K; Pronk, Tila M; Keesman, Mike; Barsalou, Lawrence W

2015-01-01

35

Abstract The ability of animals to use behavioral/facial cues in detection of human attention has been widely in-  

E-print Network

Abstract The ability of animals to use behavioral/facial cues in detection of human attention has to the visibility of the eyes because they showed increased hesitative behavior when approaching a blind- folded are able to rely on the same set of human facial cues for detection of attention, which form the behavioral

Indiana University

36

Behavioral Inhibition, Sustained Attention, and Executive Functions: Constructing a Unifying Theory of ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comprises a deficit in behavioral inhibition. A theoretical model is constructed that links inhibition to 4 executive neuropsychological functions that appear to depend on it for their effective execution: (a) working memory, (b) self-regulation of affect–motivation–arousal, (c) internalization of speech, and (d) reconstitution (behavioral analysis and synthesis). Extended to ADHD, the model predicts that ADHD

Russell A. Barkley

1997-01-01

37

Individual Differences in Infants' Joint Attention Behaviors with Mother and a New Social Partner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations between infant-mother attachment security at 15 months and infants' (N = 206) joint attention behaviors (a) with an experimenter at 8 and 15 months, and (b) with their mothers at 15 months were investigated. No concurrent or longitudinal relations were observed between attachment security and infants' tendency to respond to an…

Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; Arnott, Bronia; Vittorini, Lucia; Turner, Michelle; Leekam, Susan R.; Parkinson, Kathryn

2011-01-01

38

Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Treatment for Mothers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An adaptation of the Coping With Depression Course (CWDC) was evaluated in mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a population at risk for depression. Mothers were randomly assigned to receive the CWDC either immediately following an intensive summer treatment program targeting their child's behavior or after a…

Chronis, Andrea M.; Gamble, Stephanie A.; Roberts, John E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.

2006-01-01

39

"Gaze Leading": Initiating Simulated Joint Attention Influences Eye Movements and Choice Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research in adults has made great use of the gaze cuing paradigm to understand the behavior of the follower in joint attention episodes. We implemented a gaze leading task to investigate the initiator--the other person in these triadic interactions. In a series of gaze-contingent eye-tracking studies, we show that fixation dwell time upon…

Bayliss, Andrew P.; Murphy, Emily; Naughtin, Claire K.; Kritikos, Ada; Schilbach, Leonhard; Becker, Stefanie I.

2013-01-01

40

Effects on Science Summarization of a Reading Comprehension Intervention for Adolescents with Behavior and Attention Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-three adolescent boys with behavioral disorders (BD), 31 of whom had comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), participated in a self-regulated strategy development intervention called Think Before Reading, Think While Reading, Think After Reading, With Written Summarization (TWA-WS). TWA-WS adapted Linda Mason's TWA…

Rogevich, Mary E.; Perin, Dolores

2008-01-01

41

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Attention Enhances the Neural Processing of Relevant  

E-print Network

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Attention Enhances the Neural Processing of Relevant Features- tions (Moran and Desimone, 1985). Similarly, attending to an object enhances neural processing- tending to a specific feature lead to enhancement of neural pro- cessing for the attended feature

Jonides, John

42

Sex Differences in the Experience of Unwanted Sexual Attention and Behaviors during Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Girls receive considerable amounts of unwanted sexual attention (UWSA) and behaviors (UWSB). Less is known about boys' unwanted sexual experiences. The primary goal of this study was to obtain a descriptive profile of the types and perpetrators of childhood UWSA/B. Secondary goals were to examine sex differences in emotional reactions to UWSA/B…

Whealin, Julia M.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.; Jackson, Joan L.

2007-01-01

43

Teaching Elementary Students with Behavior Disorders to Recruit Positive Teacher Attention: Effects on Math Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four elementary students with behavior disorders attending a day treatment facility were trained to recruit positive teacher attention. Data on student recruiting and academic productivity were collected across 59 twenty-minute sessions. A multiple baseline across students design demonstrated a functional relationship of recruitment training on…

Alber, Sheila R.; Anderson, Lara L.; Martin, Christa M.; Moore, Karen J.

2005-01-01

44

A week-long meditation retreat decouples behavioral measures of the alerting and executive attention networks  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have examined the influence of meditation on three functionally different components of attention: executive control, alerting, and orienting. These studies have consistently found that meditation training improves both executive attention and alerting, but there has not been a consistent and clear effect of meditation training on orienting. In addition, while previous studies have shown that the functional coupling of the alerting and executive networks increases the processing of task irrelevant stimuli, it is unknown if participating in a meditation retreat can decouple these components of attention and lead to improved performance. The current study investigated the influence of a week-long intensive meditation retreat on three components of attention by randomly assigning participants to either pre- or postretreat testing groups. A modified attention network test (ANT) was used. Executive attention was measured as the difference in response time (RT) between congruent and incongruent task irrelevant flankers (conflict effect). Reflexive and volitional orienting were measured by manipulating cue validity and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). The coupling of executive attention and alerting was measured by examining flanker interference as a function of the SOA of an alerting cue. The meditation retreat improved task based indices of executive attention, but not reflexive or volitional orienting. There was clear behavioral evidence of coupling between executive attention and alerting in the preretreat group, as the conflict effect peaked when an alerting cue was presented 300 ms before the target. Importantly, there was no increase in the conflict effect for the postretreat group. This is consistent with the notion that the retreat decoupled the executive and alerting networks. These results suggest that previously reported improvements in the executive and alerting networks after meditation training might be mediated by the same underlying mechanism. PMID:24596550

Elliott, James C.; Wallace, B. Alan; Giesbrecht, Barry

2014-01-01

45

Sustained Attention Performance during Sleep Deprivation Associates with Instability in Behavior and Physiologic Measures at Baseline  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To identify baseline behavioral and physiologic markers that associate with individual differences in sustained attention during sleep deprivation. Design: In a retrospective study, ocular, electrocardiogram, and electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were compared in subjects who were characterized as resilient (n = 15) or vulnerable (n = 15) to the effects of total sleep deprivation on sustained attention. Setting: Chronobiology and Sleep Laboratory, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore. Participants: Healthy volunteers aged 22-32 years from the general population. Interventions: Subjects were kept awake for at least 26 hours under constant environmental conditions. Every 2 hours, sustained attention was assessed using a 10-minute psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Measurements and Results: During baseline sleep and recovery sleep, EEG slow wave activity was similar in resilient versus vulnerable subjects, suggesting that individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss were not related to differences in homeostatic sleep regulation. Rather, irrespective of time elapsed since wake, subjects who were vulnerable to sleep deprivation exhibited slower and more variable PVT response times, lower and more variable heart rate, and higher and more variable EEG spectral power in the theta frequency band (6.0-7.5 Hz). Conclusions: Performance decrements in sustained attention during sleep deprivation associate with instability in behavioral and physiologic measures at baseline. Small individual differences in sustained attention that are present at baseline are amplified during prolonged wakefulness, thus contributing to large between-subjects differences in performance and sleepiness. Citation: Chua EC; Yeo SC; Lee IT; Tan LC; Lau P; Cai S; Zhang X; Puvanendran K; Gooley JJ. Sustained attention performance during sleep deprivation associates with instability in behavior and physiologic measures at baseline. SLEEP 2014;37(1):27-39. PMID:24470693

Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Lee, Ivan Tian-Guang; Tan, Luuan-Chin; Lau, Pauline; Cai, Shiwei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Puvanendran, Kathiravelu; Gooley, Joshua J.

2014-01-01

46

Neuropsychological function and suicidal behavior: attention control, memory and executive dysfunction in suicide attempt  

PubMed Central

Background Executive dysfunction, distinct from other cognitive deficits in depression, has been associated with suicidal behavior. However, this dysfunction is not found consistently across samples. Method Medication-free subjects with DSM-IV major depressive episode (major depressive disorder and bipolar type I disorder) and a past history of suicidal behavior (n=72) were compared to medication-free depressed subjects with no history of suicidal behavior (n=80) and healthy volunteers (n=56) on a battery of tests assessing neuropsychological functions typically affected by depression (motor and psychomotor speed, attention, memory) and executive functions reportedly impaired in suicide attempters (abstract/contingent learning, working memory, language fluency, impulse control). Results All of the depressed subjects performed worse than healthy volunteers on motor, psychomotor and language fluency tasks. Past suicide attempters, in turn, performed worse than depressed non-attempters on attention and memory/working memory tasks [a computerized Stroop task, the Buschke Selective Reminding Task (SRT), the Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT) and an N-back task] but not on other executive function measures, including a task associated with ventral prefrontal function (Object Alternation). Deficits were not accounted for by current suicidal ideation or the lethality of past attempts. A small subsample of those using a violent method in their most lethal attempt showed a pattern of poor executive performance. Conclusions Deficits in specific components of attention control, memory and working memory were associated with suicidal behavior in a sample where non-violent attempt predominated. Broader executive dysfunction in depression may be associated with specific forms of suicidal behavior, rather than suicidal behavior per se. PMID:22781400

Keilp, J. G.; Gorlyn, M.; Russell, M.; Oquendo, M. A.; Burke, A. K.; Harkavy-Friedman, J.; Mann, J. J.

2013-01-01

47

The process of assisting behavior modification in a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological disease among children. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of assisting with behavior modification in a child with ADHD. The patient had undergone medical treatment for a year with no obvious effect. With the guidance of other professional people, the child's teachers and nursing instructors, the researchers proceeded with behavioral modification in conjunction with medication for another year. The medication treatment followed doctors' prescriptions, and, as regards the behavioral treatment, doctors and experts drafted and decided the content of the behavioral contract. The main basic techniques were skillful reinforcement and punishment. Then, via interviews with his parents and teachers, information was obtained that provided an understanding of the patient's condition and progress. It was found that the improvements were very significant. On the basis of the research results, the researchers submit that: (1) drug treatment combined with behavioral treatment apparently improves the daily behaviors of hyperactive children; (2) good communication with parents and psychological preparation are the most critical keys to the success of substantial behavioral improvement among hyperactive children; (3) establishment and integration of social resources, including provision of transitional parenting education solutions, and cooperation and sound interaction from school teachers, which fosters consolidated team work, are the critical factors to behavioral improvement among hyperactive children. PMID:17551896

Chang, Hsin-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Sheng; Shih, Ying-Ling

2007-06-01

48

Patterns of Sustained Attention in Infancy Shape the Developmental Trajectory of Social Behavior From Toddlerhood Through Adolescence  

PubMed Central

The current study examined the relations between individual differences in sustained attention in infancy, the temperamental trait behavioral inhibition in childhood, and social behavior in adolescence. The authors assessed 9-month-old infants using an interrupted-stimulus attention paradigm. Behavioral inhibition was subsequently assessed in the laboratory at 14 months, 24 months, 4 years, and 7 years. At age 14 years, adolescents acted out social scenarios in the presence of an unfamiliar peer as observers rated levels of social discomfort. Relative to infants with high levels of sustained attention, infants with low levels of sustained attention showed increasing behavioral inhibition throughout early childhood. Sustained attention also moderated the relation between childhood behavioral inhibition and adolescent social discomfort, such that initial levels of inhibition at 14 months predicted later adolescent social difficulties only for participants with low levels of sustained attention in infancy. These findings suggest that early individual differences in attention shape how children respond to their social environments, potentially via attention’s gate-keeping role in framing a child’s environment for processing. PMID:20873921

Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Martin McDermott, Jennifer N.; Korelitz, Katherine; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

2013-01-01

49

Peer tutoring for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects on classroom behavior and academic performance.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on the classroom behavior and academic performance of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Typical instructional activities were contrasted with CWPT for 18 children with ADHD and 10 peer comparison students attending first- through fifth-grade general education classes. CWPT led to increases in active engagement in academic tasks along with reductions in off-task behavior for most participants. Of students with ADHD, 50% exhibited improvements in academic performance in math or spelling during CWPT conditions, as measured by a treatment success index. Participating teachers and students reported a high level of satisfaction with intervention procedures. Our results suggest that peer tutoring appears to be an effective strategy for addressing the academic and behavioral difficulties associated with ADHD in general education settings. PMID:9891395

DuPaul, G J; Ervin, R A; Hook, C L; McGoey, K E

1998-01-01

50

Attentive Scanning Behavior Drives One-Trial Potentiation of Hippocampal Place Fields  

PubMed Central

The hippocampus is thought to play a critical role in episodic memory by incorporating the sensory input of an experience onto a spatial framework embodied by place cells. Although the formation and stability of place fields requires exploration, the interaction between discrete exploratory behaviors and the specific, immediate, and persistent modifications of neural representations required by episodic memory has not been established. We recorded place cells in rats and found that increased neural activity during exploratory head-scanning behaviors predicted the formation and potentiation of place fields on the next pass through that location, regardless of environmental familiarity and across multiple testing days. These results strongly suggest that, during the attentive behaviors that punctuate exploration, place cell activity mediates the one-trial encoding of ongoing experiences necessary for episodic memory. PMID:24686786

Monaco, Joseph D.; Rao, Geeta; Roth, Eric D.; Knierim, James J.

2014-01-01

51

Circadian modulation of dopamine levels and dopaminergic neuron development contributes to attention deficiency and hyperactive behavior.  

PubMed

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adults. While ADHD patients often display circadian abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we found that the zebrafish mutant for the circadian gene period1b (per1b) displays hyperactive, impulsive-like, and attention deficit-like behaviors and low levels of dopamine, reminiscent of human ADHD patients. We found that the circadian clock directly regulates dopamine-related genes monoamine oxidase and dopamine ? hydroxylase, and acts via genes important for the development or maintenance of dopaminergic neurons to regulate their number and organization in the ventral diencephalic posterior tuberculum. We then found that Per1 knock-out mice also display ADHD-like symptoms and reduced levels of dopamine, thereby showing highly conserved roles of the circadian clock in ADHD. Our studies demonstrate that disruption of a circadian clock gene elicits ADHD-like syndrome. The circadian model for attention deficiency and hyperactive behavior sheds light on ADHD pathogenesis and opens avenues for exploring novel targets for diagnosis and therapy for this common psychiatric disorder. PMID:25673850

Huang, Jian; Zhong, Zhaomin; Wang, Mingyong; Chen, Xifeng; Tan, Yicheng; Zhang, Shuqing; He, Wei; He, Xiong; Huang, Guodong; Lu, Haiping; Wu, Ping; Che, Yi; Yan, Yi-Lin; Postlethwait, John H; Chen, Wenbiao; Wang, Han

2015-02-11

52

Motivational intensity modulates attentional scope: evidence from behavioral and ERP studies.  

PubMed

Previous studies have found that affective states with high motivational intensity narrow attentional scope, whereas affective states with low motivational intensity broaden attentional scope. This conclusion, however, is based on fragmented evidence based on several separate studies. The present study tests this conclusion within a single study using both behavioral (Experiment 1) and neurophysiological (Experiment 2) measures. Experiment 1 showed that individuals had the global precedence effect in the neutral affective state. However, the global precedence effect was reduced for affective states with high motivational intensity, whereas the global precedence effect was not significantly enhanced for those with low motivational intensity. Experiment 2 replicated these results with event-related potential (ERP) recording. ERP results showed that affective states with high motivational intensity induced smaller N2 and greater late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes than low motivational intensity and neutral affective states. However, no differences were found between the low motivational intensity and neutral affective states. Furthermore, smaller LPP predicted the tendency a global attentional focus in the frontal and central areas and larger LPP predicted a narrowed focus in the frontal area. The findings suggested that high motivational intensity of affective states can affect attentional scope. PMID:24961740

Liu, Lei; Zhang, Guangnan; Zhou, Renlai; Wang, Zuowei

2014-10-01

53

Effects of Working Memory Load on Visual Selective Attention: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence  

PubMed Central

Working memory and attention interact in a way that enables us to focus on relevant items and maintain current goals. The influence of working memory on attention has been noted in several studies using dual task designs. Multitasking increases the demands on working memory and reduces the amount of resources available for cognitive control functions such as resolving stimulus conflict. However, few studies have investigated the temporal activation of the cortex while multitasking. The present study addresses the extent to which working memory load influences early (P1) and late (P300) attention-sensitive event-related potential components using a dual task paradigm. Participants performed an arrow flanker task alone (single task condition) or concurrently with a Sternberg memory task (dual task condition). In the flanker task, participants responded to the direction of a central arrow surrounded by congruent or incongruent arrows. In the dual task condition, participants were presented with a Sternberg task that consisted of either four or seven consonants to remember prior to a short block of flanker trials. Participants were slower and less accurate on incongruent versus congruent trials. Furthermore, accuracy on incongruent trials was reduced in both dual task conditions. Likewise, P300 amplitude to incongruent flanker stimuli decreased when working memory load increased. These findings suggest that interference from incongruent flankers was more difficult to suppress when working memory was taxed. In addition, P1 amplitude was diminished on all flanker trials in the dual task condition. This result indicates that top-down attentional control over early visual processing is diminished by increasing demands on working memory. Both the behavioral and electrophysiological results suggest that working memory is critical in maintaining attentional focus and resolving conflict. PMID:21716633

Pratt, Nikki; Willoughby, Adrian; Swick, Diane

2011-01-01

54

The time-course of threat processing in children: a temporal dissociation between selective attention and behavioral interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although selective attention to threatening information is an adaptive mechanism, exaggerated attention to threat may be related to anxiety disorders. However, studies examining threat processing in children have obtained mixed findings. In the present study, the time-course of attentional bias for threat and behavioral interference was analyzed in a community sample of 8–18-year-old children (N=33) using a pictorial dot probe

Lidewij H. Wolters; Else de Haan; Leentje Vervoort; Sanne M. Hogendoorn; Frits Boer; Pier J. M. Prins

2012-01-01

55

The time-course of threat processing in children: a temporal dissociation between selective attention and behavioral interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although selective attention to threatening information is an adaptive mechanism, exaggerated attention to threat may be related to anxiety disorders. However, studies examining threat processing in children have obtained mixed findings. In the present study, the time-course of attentional bias for threat and behavioral interference was analyzed in a community sample of 8–18-year-old children (N=33) using a pictorial dot probe

Lidewij H. Wolters; Else de Haan; Leentje Vervoort; Sanne M. Hogendoorn; Frits Boer; Pier J. M. Prins

2011-01-01

56

The effects of yoga on the attention and behavior of boys with Attention-Deficit\\/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boys diagnosed with ADHD by specialist pediatricians and stabilized on medication were randomly assigned to a 20-session yoga group (n = 11) or a control group (cooperative activities; n = 8). Boys were assessed pre- and post-intervention on the Conners’ Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Long (CPRS-R:L & CTRS-R:L; Conners, 1997), the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA; Greenberg, Cormna,

Pauline. S. Jensen; Dianna T. Kenny

2004-01-01

57

Modeling paternal attentiveness: distressed pups evoke differential neurobiological and behavioral responses in paternal and nonpaternal mice.  

PubMed

With the exception of parturition and lactation, male California deer mice (Peromyscus californicus) exhibit the same parental responses toward offspring as conspecific females. A closely related species, Peromyscus maniculatus, however, rarely exhibits paternal responses. In the current study, a comparative species approach was used to assess paternal responses in both Peromyscus species with varying levels of paternal experience (biological fathers, pup-exposed virgins, and pup-naïve virgins). Of special interest was the persistence of the males to direct their attention toward a distressed pup housed in a small enclosure (i.e., a barrier existed between males and pups). In addition to pup-directed responses, non-pup-directed responses such as grooming, resting and jumping were recorded. Subsequently, all animals' brains were assessed for fos-immunoreactivity (ir) in several areas previously associated with the paternal brain circuit. Overall, P. californicus exhibited more pup-directed responses as well as less fos-ir in brain areas involved in emotional integration and processing such as the insula and anterior cingulate. In addition to increased activation of emotional regulatory areas, P. maniculatus males, observed to direct their behavior away from the pup, exhibited higher fos-ir in the nucleus accumbens (involved in goal acquisition), perhaps due to a heightened motivation to avoid the pups. Interestingly, experience with pups altered the lateral septum and amygdala activation of P. maniculatus to levels similar to P. californicus biological fathers. Finally, fos-ir was increased in the medial preoptic area, involved in the maintenance of maternal behavior, in the biological fathers of both species. Thus, although biological predispositions toward pup-directed behaviors were observed in P. californicus males, evidence of a few shifts toward the paternal neural activation profile was apparent in P. maniculatus males. Specifically, modifications in fear responses and social processing may represent the cornerstones of the gradual shift from social tentativeness to social attentiveness in the presence of pups. PMID:23262236

Lambert, K G; Franssen, C L; Hampton, J E; Rzucidlo, A M; Hyer, M M; True, M; Kaufman, C; Bardi, M

2013-03-27

58

Illuminating the role of cholinergic signaling in circuits of attention and emotionally salient behaviors.  

PubMed

Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. Alterations in ACh signaling are involved in the pathophysiology of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. In the central nervous system, ACh transmission is mainly guaranteed by dense innervation of select cortical and subcortical regions from disperse groups of cholinergic neurons within the basal forebrain (BF; e.g., diagonal band, medial septal, nucleus basalis) and the pontine-mesencephalic nuclei, respectively. Despite the fundamental role of cholinergic signaling in the CNS and the long standing knowledge of the organization of cholinergic circuitry, remarkably little is known about precisely how ACh release modulates cortical and subcortical neural activity and the behaviors these circuits subserve. Growing interest in cholinergic signaling in the CNS focuses on the mechanism(s) of action by which endogenously released ACh regulates cognitive functions, acting as a neuromodulator and/or as a direct transmitter via nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The development of optogenetic techniques has provided a valuable toolbox with which we can address these questions, as it allows the selective manipulation of the excitability of cholinergic inputs to the diverse array of cholinergic target fields within cortical and subcortical domains. Here, we review recent papers that use the light-sensitive opsins in the cholinergic system to elucidate the role of ACh in circuits related to attention and emotionally salient behaviors. In particular, we highlight recent optogenetic studies which have tried to disentangle the precise role of ACh in the modulation of cortical-, hippocampal- and striatal-dependent functions. PMID:25386136

Luchicchi, Antonio; Bloem, Bernard; Viaña, John Noel M; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Role, Lorna W

2014-01-01

59

Illuminating the role of cholinergic signaling in circuits of attention and emotionally salient behaviors  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. Alterations in ACh signaling are involved in the pathophysiology of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. In the central nervous system, ACh transmission is mainly guaranteed by dense innervation of select cortical and subcortical regions from disperse groups of cholinergic neurons within the basal forebrain (BF; e.g., diagonal band, medial septal, nucleus basalis) and the pontine-mesencephalic nuclei, respectively. Despite the fundamental role of cholinergic signaling in the CNS and the long standing knowledge of the organization of cholinergic circuitry, remarkably little is known about precisely how ACh release modulates cortical and subcortical neural activity and the behaviors these circuits subserve. Growing interest in cholinergic signaling in the CNS focuses on the mechanism(s) of action by which endogenously released ACh regulates cognitive functions, acting as a neuromodulator and/or as a direct transmitter via nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The development of optogenetic techniques has provided a valuable toolbox with which we can address these questions, as it allows the selective manipulation of the excitability of cholinergic inputs to the diverse array of cholinergic target fields within cortical and subcortical domains. Here, we review recent papers that use the light-sensitive opsins in the cholinergic system to elucidate the role of ACh in circuits related to attention and emotionally salient behaviors. In particular, we highlight recent optogenetic studies which have tried to disentangle the precise role of ACh in the modulation of cortical-, hippocampal- and striatal-dependent functions. PMID:25386136

Luchicchi, Antonio; Bloem, Bernard; Viaña, John Noel M.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Role, Lorna W.

2014-01-01

60

Decreasing Self-Injurious Behavior in a Student with Autism and Tourette Syndrome through Positive Attention and Extinction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study was conducted with a student diagnosed with autism and Tourette syndrome who displayed severe self-injurious behavior (SIB). We conducted a functional behavioral assessment which indicated that SIB was maintained by multiple functions using an ABAC design to determine the effect of positive social attention and extinction. Results…

Banda, Devender R.; McAfee, James K.; Hart, Stephanie L.

2009-01-01

61

The Effects of Highlighting on the Math Computation Performance and Off-Task Behavior of Students with Attention Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effects of color highlighting during a math computation task on performance accuracy and behavior of students with attention problems. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, three students solved math computation problems on worksheets with and without highlighting. Off-task behavior recorded from videotape…

Kercood, Suneeta; Grskovic, Janice A.

2009-01-01

62

Effects of Environmental Stimulation on Students Demonstrating Behaviors Related to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behaviors characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often interfere with students' and their classmates' learning, and interventions targeting these behaviors may be particularly important in schools. This article reviews studies in which researchers manipulated environmental stimulation during task presentation…

Vostal, Brooks R.; Lee, David L.; Miller, Faith

2013-01-01

63

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Like Behavioral Problems and Parenting Stress in Pediatric Allergic Rhinitis  

PubMed Central

Objective Previous studies have reported comorbidity of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and allergic diseases. The current study investigated ADHD like behavioral symptoms and parenting stress in pediatric allergic rhinitis. Methods Eighty-seven children (6-13 years old) with allergic rhinitis and 73 age- and sex-matched children of control group were recruited. Diagnosis and severity assessments of allergic rhinitis were determined by a pediatric allergist. The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), ADHD Rating Scale (ARS), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were completed by their mothers. Results In the allergic rhinitis group, the total PSI-SF score (p<0.01), ARS score (p<0.01), the subscale scores of the CBCL including somatization, attentional problems and emotional instability (p=0.01; p<0.01; p<0.01) and prevalence of ADHD (p=0.03) were significantly higher than those of the control group. Among mothers of children with allergic rhinitis, those of children with comorbid ADHD demonstrated significantly higher parenting stress than those without comorbid ADHD (p<0.01). Parenting stress was correlated with severity of child's allergic symptoms and the ARS total score (beta=0.50, p<0.01; beta=0.39, p<0.01). There was a significant correlation between allergic symptom severity and the ARS total score (B=8.4, SD=2.5, t=3.3, p<0.01). Conclusion This study demonstrated that ADHD symptoms were common in children with allergic rhinitis, and this factor increased parenting stress and disrupted the parent-child relationship. Routine evaluation and early management of ADHD symptoms in pediatric allergic rhinitis may benefit families of children with allergic rhinitis. PMID:25110499

Lee, Young Sik; Kim, Se Hee; You, Ji Hee; Baek, Hyung Tae; Na, Chul; Kim, Bung Nyun

2014-01-01

64

The Power of Kawaii: Viewing Cute Images Promotes a Careful Behavior and Narrows Attentional Focus  

PubMed Central

Kawaii (a Japanese word meaning “cute”) things are popular because they produce positive feelings. However, their effect on behavior remains unclear. In this study, three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of viewing cute images on subsequent task performance. In the first experiment, university students performed a fine motor dexterity task before and after viewing images of baby or adult animals. Performance indexed by the number of successful trials increased after viewing cute images (puppies and kittens; M ± SE?=?43.9±10.3% improvement) more than after viewing images that were less cute (dogs and cats; 11.9±5.5% improvement). In the second experiment, this finding was replicated by using a non-motor visual search task. Performance improved more after viewing cute images (15.7±2.2% improvement) than after viewing less cute images (1.4±2.1% improvement). Viewing images of pleasant foods was ineffective in improving performance (1.2±2.1%). In the third experiment, participants performed a global–local letter task after viewing images of baby animals, adult animals, and neutral objects. In general, global features were processed faster than local features. However, this global precedence effect was reduced after viewing cute images. Results show that participants performed tasks requiring focused attention more carefully after viewing cute images. This is interpreted as the result of a narrowed attentional focus induced by the cuteness-triggered positive emotion that is associated with approach motivation and the tendency toward systematic processing. For future applications, cute objects may be used as an emotion elicitor to induce careful behavioral tendencies in specific situations, such as driving and office work. PMID:23050022

Nittono, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Michiko; Yano, Akihiro; Moriya, Hiroki

2012-01-01

65

The effects of yoga on the attention and behavior of boys with Attention-Deficit/ hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).  

PubMed

Boys diagnosed with ADHD by specialist pediatricians and stabilized on medication were randomly assigned to a 20-session yoga group (n = 11) or a control group (cooperative activities; n = 8). Boys were assessed pre- and post-intervention on the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Long (CPRS-R:L & CTRS-R:L; Conners, 1997), the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA; Greenberg, Cormna, & Kindschi, 1997), and the Motion Logger Actigraph. Data were analyzed using one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant improvements from pre-test to post-test were found for the yoga, but not for the control group on five subscales of the Conners' Parents Rating Scales (CPRS): Oppositional, Global Index Emotional Lability, Global Index Total, Global Index Restless/Impulsive and ADHD Index. Significant improvements from pre-test to post-test were found for the control group, but not the yoga group on three CPRS subscales: Hyperactivity, Anxious/Shy, and Social Problems. Both groups improved significantly on CPRS Perfectionism, DSM-IV Hyperactive/ Impulsive, and DSM-IV Total. For the yoga group, positive change from pre- to post-test on the Conners' Teacher Rating Scales (CTRS) was associated with the number of sessions attended on the DSM-IV Hyperactive-Impulsive subscale and with a trend on DSM-IV Inattentive subscale. Those in the yoga group who engaged in more home practice showed a significant improvement on TOVA Response Time Variability with a trend on the ADHD score, and greater improvements on the CTRS Global Emotional Lability subscale. Results from the Motion Logger Actigraph were inconclusive. Although these data do not provide strong support for the use of yoga for ADHD, partly because the study was under-powered, they do suggest that yoga may have merit as a complementary treatment for boys with ADHD already stabilized on medication, particularly for its evening effect when medication effects are absent. Yoga remains an investigational treatment, but this study supports further research into its possible uses for this population. These findings need to be replicated on larger groups with a more intensive supervised practice program. PMID:15487477

Jensen, Pauline S; Kenny, Dianna T

2004-05-01

66

The Contributions of Image Content and Behavioral Relevancy to Overt Attention  

PubMed Central

During free-viewing of natural scenes, eye movements are guided by bottom-up factors inherent to the stimulus, as well as top-down factors inherent to the observer. The question of how these two different sources of information interact and contribute to fixation behavior has recently received a lot of attention. Here, a battery of 15 visual stimulus features was used to quantify the contribution of stimulus properties during free-viewing of 4 different categories of images (Natural, Urban, Fractal and Pink Noise). Behaviorally relevant information was estimated in the form of topographical interestingness maps by asking an independent set of subjects to click at image regions that they subjectively found most interesting. Using a Bayesian scheme, we computed saliency functions that described the probability of a given feature to be fixated. In the case of stimulus features, the precise shape of the saliency functions was strongly dependent upon image category and overall the saliency associated with these features was generally weak. When testing multiple features jointly, a linear additive integration model of individual saliencies performed satisfactorily. We found that the saliency associated with interesting locations was much higher than any low-level image feature and any pair-wise combination thereof. Furthermore, the low-level image features were found to be maximally salient at those locations that had already high interestingness ratings. Temporal analysis showed that regions with high interestingness ratings were fixated as early as the third fixation following stimulus onset. Paralleling these findings, fixation durations were found to be dependent mainly on interestingness ratings and to a lesser extent on the low-level image features. Our results suggest that both low- and high-level sources of information play a significant role during exploration of complex scenes with behaviorally relevant information being more effective compared to stimulus features. PMID:24736751

Onat, Selim; Aç?k, Alper; Schumann, Frank; König, Peter

2014-01-01

67

Selective Attention to Specific Features within Objects: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence regarding the ability of attention to bias neural processing at the level of single features has been gathering steadily, but most of the experiments to date used arrays with multiple objects and locations, making it difficult to rule out indirect inf luences from object or spatial attention. To investigate feature-specific selective attention, we have as- sessed the ability to

Anna Christina Nobre; Anling Rao; Leonardo Chelazzi

2006-01-01

68

The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in\\u000a pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two\\u000a different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis\\u000a of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes

Jinah Kim; Tony Wigram; Christian Gold

2008-01-01

69

Improving Compliance with Diabetes Management in Young Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Using Behavior Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical adherence to complex diabetes regimens can be challenging, particularly for adolescents, and therefore represents the most common reason for referral to behavioral psychologists among this population. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), when present in children and adolescents with diabetes, presents unique barriers to…

Sanchez, Lisa M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Hunter, Scott J.

2006-01-01

70

A Comparison of Behavioral Parent Training Programs for Fathers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few behavioral parent training (BPT) treatment studies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have included and measured outcomes with fathers. In this study, fathers were randomly assigned to attend a standard BPT program or the Coaching Our Acting-Out Children: Heightening Essential Skills (COACHES) program. The COACHES program…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Chacko, Anil; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Robb, Jessica; Walker, Kathryn S.; Wymbs, Frances; Sastry, Amber L.; Flammer, Lizette; Keenan, Jenna K.; Visweswaraiah, Hema; Shulman, Simon; Herbst, Laura; Pirvics, Lauma

2009-01-01

71

Athletic Performance and Social Behavior as Predictors of Peer Acceptance in Children Diagnosed With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-three children between ages 6 and 12 who were enrolled in a summer treatment program for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a study designed to measure the relationship between social behaviors, athletic performance, and peer acceptance. Children were assessed on sport-specific skills of three major…

Lopez-Williams, Andy; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Seymour, Karen E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Pelham, William E.; Morris, Tracy L.

2005-01-01

72

Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

2011-01-01

73

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Behavioral Inhibition: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Stop-Signal Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deficient behavioral inhibition (BI) processes are considered a core feature of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This meta-analytic review is the first to examine the potential influence of a wide range of subject and task variable moderator effects on BI processes--assessed by the stop-signal paradigm--in children with ADHD…

Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.

2007-01-01

74

The Effects of Block Scheduling on Students with Emotional Behavioral Disorders and/or Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study discusses the outcomes of a survey of 23 educators from 19 high schools on a block schedule in New Hampshire. Educators from each school were asked their perceptions of the effects of the block schedule on students identified as having emotional/behavioral disorders and/or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in comparison…

Tenney, Mark G.

75

Discriminant Validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Parent Form for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, with concomitant executive function deficits often being the focus of empirical and clinical investigation. This study explored the validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Parent Form (BRIEF; Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000) for…

Reddy, Linda A.; Hale, James B.; Brodzinsky, Lara K.

2011-01-01

76

The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…

Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

2008-01-01

77

Comparison of Parent's and Teachers' Perceptions of Children's Behavior: A Study of Attentional Problems in a Natural Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate concordance of reports of hyperactive and distractible behavior from three different sources: parents, teachers, and the child, using two different instruments, the ADHD Rating Scale and the Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS). The incidence rate of attentional problems that any of the sources reported in…

Rappaport, Lisa N.

2006-01-01

78

Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation? A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method: A diverse community sample (55% African American) of men (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of…

Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

2011-01-01

79

Long-Term Cardiovascular Fitness Is Associated with Auditory Attentional Control in Old Adults: Neuro-Behavioral Evidence  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that healthy aging affects the ability to focus attention on a given task and to ignore distractors. Here, we asked whether long-term physical activity is associated with lower susceptibility to distraction of auditory attention, and how physically active and inactive seniors may differ regarding subcomponents of auditory attention. An auditory duration discrimination task was employed, and involuntary attentional shifts to task-irrelevant rare frequency deviations and subsequent reorientation were studied by analysis of behavioral data and event-related potential measures. The frequency deviations impaired performance more in physically inactive than active seniors. This was accompanied by a stronger frontal positivity (P3a) and increased activation of anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting a stronger involuntary shift of attention towards task-irrelevant stimulus features in inactive compared to active seniors. These results indicate a positive relationship between physical fitness and attentional control in elderly, presumably due to more focused attentional resources and enhanced inhibition of irrelevant stimulus features. PMID:24023949

Getzmann, Stephan; Falkenstein, Michael; Gajewski, Patrick D.

2013-01-01

80

The effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in autistic children: a randomized controlled study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes in children with autism. The overall results indicated that improvisational music therapy was more effective at facilitating joint attention behaviors and non-verbal social communication skills in children than play. Session analysis showed significantly more and lengthier events of eye contact and turn-taking in improvisational music therapy than play sessions. The implications of these findings are discussed further. PMID:18592368

Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

2008-10-01

81

Behavioral sleep problems and internalizing and externalizing comorbidities in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Behavioral sleep problems are common in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as are internalizing and externalizing comorbidities. The prevalence of these difficulties and the extent to which they co-exist in children with ADHD could inform clinical practice, but remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the association between sleep problems and internalizing and externalizing comorbidities in children with ADHD. Children aged 5-13 years were recruited from 21 pediatric practices across Victoria, Australia (N = 392). Internalizing and externalizing comorbidities (none, internalizing, externalizing, co-occurring) were assessed by the telephone-administered Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children IV/Parent version. Sleep problem severity was assessed by primary caregiver report (no, mild, moderate or severe problem). Moderate/severe sleep problems were confirmed using International Classification of Sleep Disorders. Seven specific sleep problem domains (bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, sleep onset delay, sleep duration, night waking, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness) were assessed using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using adjusted logistic and linear regression models. Compared to children without comorbidities, children with co-occurring internalizing and externalizing comorbidities were more likely to have moderate/severe sleep problems (adjusted OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.2; 4.5, p = 0.009) and problematic sleep across six of seven sleep domains. Children with either comorbidity alone were not at risk of moderate/severe sleep problems, but at the sleep domain level, children with internalizing alone had more sleep anxiety, and those with externalizing alone had less night waking. In conclusion, children with ADHD experiencing co-occurring internalizing and externalizing comorbidities are at an increased risk of sleep problems. PMID:24633694

Lycett, Kate; Sciberras, Emma; Mensah, Fiona K; Hiscock, Harriet

2015-01-01

82

Neurogenetic interactions and aberrant behavioral co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dispelling myths  

PubMed Central

Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years supporting this statement, there are still many misconceptions about ADHD. These include believing the disorder does not exist, that all children have symptoms of ADHD, that if it does exist it is grossly over-diagnosed and over-treated, and that the treatment is dangerous and leads to a propensity to drug addiction. Since most misconceptions contain elements of truth, where does the reality lie? Results We have reviewed the literature to evaluate some of the claims and counter-claims. The evidence suggests that ADHD is primarily a polygenic disorder involving at least 50 genes, including those encoding enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism, neurotransmitter transporters and receptors. Because of its polygenic nature, ADHD is often accompanied by other behavioral abnormalities. It is present in adults as well as children, but in itself it does not necessarily impair function in adult life; associated disorders, however, may do so. A range of treatment options is reviewed and the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of standard drug treatments are considered. Conclusion The genes so far implicated in ADHD account for only part of the total picture. Identification of the remaining genes and characterization of their interactions is likely to establish ADHD firmly as a biological disorder and to lead to better methods of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:16375770

Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Blum, Kenneth; Mengucci, Julie F; Blum, Seth H; Meshkin, Brian

2005-01-01

83

Cardiac and Behavioral Evidence for Emotional Influences on Attention in 7-Month-Old Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the ontogeny of emotion-attention interactions, we investigated whether infants exhibit adult-like biases in automatic and voluntary attentional processes towards fearful facial expressions. Heart rate and saccadic eye movements were measured from 7-month-old infants (n = 42) while viewing non-face control stimuli, and neutral, happy,…

Leppanen, Jukka; Peltola, Mikko J.; Mantymaa, Mirjami; Koivuluoma, Mikko; Salminen, Anni; Puura, Kaija

2010-01-01

84

Attention Shift towards Smoking Cues Relates to Severity of Dependence, Smoking Behavior and Breath Carbon Monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the severity of dependence as a factor affecting the attentional bias of smokers towards smoking-related stimuli and to clarify contradictory results of previous studies. A visual dot probe task was administered to 51 smokers and 41 nonsmokers to assess the attentional bias. Smokers were classified into a group of less severely dependent

Sabine Vollstädt-Klein; Sabine Loeber; Sebastian Winter; Tagrid Leménager; Christoph von der Goltz; Christina Dinter; Anne Koopmann; Carsten Wied; Georg Winterer; Falk Kiefer

2011-01-01

85

Bupropion Improves Attention but Does Not Affect Impulsive Behavior in Healthy Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bupropion is an effective abstinence aid for cessation of smoking and possibly other drug use as well. There is evidence that bupropion improves attention and impulse control in certain patient populations, and improvements in these processes could mediate its efficacy as an abstinence aid. In the present study, we tested the effects of acute bupropion on measures of attention and

Ashley Acheson; Harriet de Wit

2008-01-01

86

Pre-attentive cortical processing of behaviorally perceptible spatial changes in older adults—a mismatch negativity study  

PubMed Central

From behavioral studies it is known that auditory spatial resolution of azimuthal space declines over age. To date, it is not clear how age affects the respective sensory auditory processing at the pre-attentive level. Here we tested the hypothesis that pre-attentive processing of behaviorally perceptible spatial changes is preserved in older adults. An EEG-study was performed in older adults (65–82 years of age) and a mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm employed. Sequences of frequent standard stimuli of defined azimuthal positions were presented together with rarely occurring deviants shifted by 10° or 20° to the left or to the right of the standard. Standard positions were at +5° (central condition) from the midsagittal plane and at 65° in both lateral hemifields (±65°; lateral condition). The results suggest an effect of laterality on the pre-attentive change processing of spatial deviations in older adults: While for the central conditions deviants close to MAA threshold (i.e., 10°) yielded discernable MMNs, for lateral positions the respective MMN responses were only elicited by spatial deviations of 20° toward the midline (i.e., ±45°). Furthermore, MMN amplitudes were found to be insensitive to the magnitude of deviation (10°, 20°), which is contrary to recent studies with young adults (Bennemann et al., 2013) and hints to a deteriorated pre-attentive encoding of sound sources in older adults. The discrepancy between behavioral MAA data and present results are discussed with respect to the possibility that under the condition of active stimulus processing older adults might benefit from recruiting additional attentional top-down processes to detect small magnitudes of spatial deviations even within the lateral acoustic field. PMID:24982611

Freigang, Claudia; Rübsamen, Rudolf; Richter, Nicole

2014-01-01

87

Cognitive behavioral group therapy for social phobia with or without attention training: A controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Self-Regulatory Executive Function model [S-REF; Wells, A., & Matthews, G. (1996). Modelling cognition in emotional disorder: the S-REF model. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 881–888] proposes that metacognitive beliefs, inflexible self-focused attention, and perseverative thinking (rumination and worry) play an important role in maintaining emotional dysfunction. Attention training [ATT; Wells, A. (1990). Panic disorder in association with relaxation induced

Peter M. McEvoy; Sarah J. Perini

2009-01-01

88

Attentional deficits in cocaine-dependent patients: Converging behavioral and electrophysiological evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are several reports of patients with cocaine dependence displaying cognitive deficits, the nature of their information processing deficits is not well characterized. In the present study, the attentional performance of cocaine-dependent patients (n=14) was examined and compared with that of healthy control individuals (n=15). Attention was assessed using an auditory oddball event-related task as well as the Continuous

Diane Carol Gooding; Scott Burroughs; Nash N. Boutros

2008-01-01

89

Increased attention and memory for beloved-related information during infatuation: behavioral and electrophysiological data.  

PubMed

Emotionally salient information is well attended and remembered. It has been shown that infatuated individuals have increased attention for their beloved. It is unknown whether this attention bias generalizes to information related to the beloved. Moreover, infatuated individuals report to remember trivial things about their beloved, but this has not yet been tested empirically. In two studies, we tested whether infatuated individuals have increased attention and memory for beloved-related information. In a passive viewing task (Study 1), the late positive potential, an event-related potential (ERP) component reflecting motivated attention, was enhanced for beloved-related vs friend-related words/phrases. In a recognition task (Study 2), memory performance and the frontal and parietal ERP old/new effects, reflecting familiarity and recollection, respectively, were not enhanced for beloved-related compared with friend-related words/phrases. In free recall tasks in both studies, memory was better for beloved-related than friend-related words/phrases. This research reveals that attention and memory are enhanced for beloved-related information. These attention and memory biases for beloved-related information were not due to valence, semantic relatedness, or experience, but to arousal. To conclude, romantic love has profound effects on cognition that play a clear role in daily life. PMID:24526182

Langeslag, Sandra J E; Olivier, Jamie R; Köhlen, Martine E; Nijs, Ilse M; Van Strien, Jan W

2015-01-01

90

Behavioral impairments in rats with chronic epilepsy suggest comorbidity between epilepsy and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder  

PubMed Central

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is encountered among epilepsy patients at a significantly higher rate than in the general population. Mechanisms of epilepsy-ADHD comorbidity remain largely unknown. We investigated whether a model of chronic epilepsy in rats produces signs of ADHD, and thus, whether it can be used for studying mechanisms of this comorbidity. Epilepsy was induced in male Wistar rats via pilocarpine status epilepticus. Half of the animals exhibited chronic ADHD-like abnormalities, particularly increased impulsivity and diminished attention in the lateralized reaction time task. These impairments correlated with the suppressed noradrenergic transmission in locus coeruleus outputs. The other half of animals exhibited depressive behavior in the forced swimming test congruently with the diminished serotonergic transmission in raphe nucleus outputs. ADHD and depressive behavior appeared mutually exclusive. Therefore, pilocarpine model of epilepsy affords a system for reproducing and studying mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and both ADHD and/or depression. PMID:24262783

Pineda, Eduardo; Jentsch, J. David; Shin, Don; Griesbach, Grace; Sankar, Raman; Mazarati, Andrey

2013-01-01

91

An analysis of challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Fragile X Syndrome.  

PubMed

The present study sought to investigate the relationship between challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in Fragile X Syndrome (FRAX). Additionally, this study sought to examine how such disorders are predicted by gender, presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and presence of intellectual disability (ID). A total of 47 children and adolescents with FRAX were assessed. Results revealed high levels of challenging behavior and AD/HD symptoms within the sample, with some participants exhibiting symptoms of comorbid psychopathology. Further analysis revealed that challenging behavior and comorbid psychopathology were positively correlated, with stereotypy correlating most strongly with comorbid psychopathology. In addition, ASD was found to predict challenging behavior, and gender was found to predict AD/HD symptoms. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25543996

Newman, Isabel; Leader, Geraldine; Chen, June L; Mannion, Arlene

2015-03-01

92

Association between symptoms of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder and bulimic behaviors in a clinical sample of severely obese adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Preliminary evidence suggests a comorbidity between attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. This study was carried out to identify the clinical characteristics of obese adolescents with a higher probability of ADHD and advance the understanding of the potential factors underlying the comorbidity between obesity and ADHD. We evaluated the association between ADHD symptoms and bulimic behaviors, depressive and anxiety symptoms, degree

S Cortese; P Isnard; M L Frelut; G Michel; L Quantin; A Guedeney; B Falissard; E Acquaviva; B Dalla Bernardina; M C Mouren

2007-01-01

93

Involuntary attentional capture by speech and non-speech deviations: a combined behavioral-event-related potential study.  

PubMed

This study applied an auditory distraction paradigm to investigate involuntary attention effects of unexpected deviations in speech and non-speech sounds on behavior (increase in response time and error rate) and event-related brain potentials (?N1/MMN and P3a). Our aim was to systematically compare identical speech sounds with physical vs. linguistic deviations and identical deviations (pitch) with speech vs. non-speech sounds in the same set of healthy volunteers. Sine tones and bi-syllabic pseudo-words were presented in a 2-alternative forced-choice paradigm with occasional phoneme deviants in pseudo-words, pitch deviants in pseudo-words, or pitch deviants in tones. Deviance-related ERP components were elicited in all conditions. Deviance-related negativities (?N1/MMN) differed in scalp distribution between phoneme and pitch deviants within phonemes, indicating that auditory deviance-detection partly operates in a deviance-specific manner. P3a as an indicator of attentional orienting was similar in all conditions, and was accompanied by behavioral indicators of distraction. Yet smaller behavioral effects and prolonged relative MMN-P3a latency were observed for pitch deviants within phonemes relative to the other two conditions. This suggests that the similarity and separability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information is essential for the extent of attentional capture and distraction. PMID:23123705

Reiche, M; Hartwigsen, G; Widmann, A; Saur, D; Schröger, E; Bendixen, A

2013-01-15

94

Experimental Analysis of Effects of Teacher Attention of Preschool Children's Block Building Behavior. Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of teacher attention given for specific responses children show when using building blocks. These included the responses of combining triangles to make rectangles, stacking diverse pieces to make a tower, making stairs, making a variation on a model, and making a house-like, enclosed, roofed…

Cooper, Margaret L.

95

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Bihemispheric Leftward Bias in a Visuospatial Attention-  

E-print Network

documented in both disease and healthy states: right-hemisphere (RH) lesions are more frequently associated Center, Bnei Brak 51544, Israel Asymmetry of spatial attention has long been described in both disease related to RH specialization in the mediation of spatial at- tention; however, the underlying mechanisms

Pessoa, Luiz

96

The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training on Behavioral Problems and Attentional Functioning in Adolescents with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11-15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7) completed measurements before, immediately after, 8…

van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Formsma, Anne R.; de Bruin, Esther I.; Bogels, Susan M.

2012-01-01

97

Mighty Metaphors: Behavioral and ERP Evidence that Power Shifts Attention on a Vertical Dimension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thinking about the abstract concept power may automatically activate the spatial up-down image schema ("powerful up"; "powerless down") and consequently direct spatial attention to the image schema-congruent location. Participants indicated whether a word represented a powerful or powerless person (e.g. "king" or "servant"). Following each…

Zanolie, Kiki; van Dantzig, Saskia; Boot, Inge; Wijnen, Jasper; Schubert, Thomas W.; Giessner, Steffen R.; Pecher, Diane

2012-01-01

98

Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions…

Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

99

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

2012-01-01

100

Temporal Context in Speech Processing and Attentional Stream Selection: A Behavioral and Neural Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The human capacity for processing speech is remarkable, especially given that information in speech unfolds over multiple time scales concurrently. Similarly notable is our ability to filter out of extraneous sounds and focus our attention on one conversation, epitomized by the "Cocktail Party" effect. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying on-line…

Golumbic, Elana M. Zion; Poeppel, David; Schroeder, Charles E.

2012-01-01

101

Effects of Caffeine on Classroom Behavior, Sustained Attention, and a Memory Task in Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation of the effect of normative amounts of caffeine on the behavior of six normal kindergarten children found that caffeine exerted only small and inconsistent effects on such classroom behaviors as time off-task and gross motor activity. (Author/DB)

Baer, Ruth A.

1987-01-01

102

Dolphin pointing is linked to the attentional behavior of a receiver  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, Xitco et al. (Anim Cogn 4:115–123) described spontaneous behaviors in two bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus) that resembled pointing and gaze alternation. The dolphins’ spontaneous behavior was influenced by the presence of a potential receiver, and the distance between the dolphin and the receiver. The present study adapted the technique of Call and Tomasello [(1994) J Comp Psychol

Mark J. Xitco; John D. Gory; Stan A. Kuczaj

2004-01-01

103

Behavioral Inhibition and Anxiety: The Moderating Roles of Inhibitory Control and Attention Shifting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament identified in early childhood, is associated with social reticence in childhood and an increased risk for anxiety problems in adolescence and adulthood. However, not all behaviorally inhibited children remain reticent or develop an anxiety disorder. One possible mechanism accounting for the variability in…

White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

2011-01-01

104

Distinguishing between autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by using behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and neuropsychological test battery.  

PubMed

Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share many common symptoms, including attention deficit, behavioral problems, and difficulties with social skills. The aim of this study was to distinguish between ASD and ADHD by identifying the characteristic features of both the disorders, by using multidimensional assessments, including screening behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and comprehensive neurological battery. After screening for comorbid disorders, we carefully selected age-, sex-, IQ-, and socio-economic status-matched children with typical development (TD). In the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, a lower score was observed for the ASD group than for the TD group in Picture concept, which is a subscale of perceptual reasoning. A lower score was shown by the ADHD group than by the TD group in the spatial working memory test in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB(®)). Although ASD and ADHD have many similar symptoms, they can be differentiated by focusing on the behavioral and cognitive characteristics of executive function. PMID:25440561

Matsuura, Naomi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Arai, Sumiyoshi; Kawamura, Kaori; Asano, Mizuki; Inohara, Keisuke; Narimoto, Tadamasa; Wada, Yuji; Hiratani, Michio; Kosaka, Hirotaka

2014-12-01

105

The spectrum of behavioral outcomes after extreme prematurity: regulatory, attention, social, and adaptive dimensions.  

PubMed

Advances in obstetrics and neonatology have increased the survival rates of premature infants with very preterm (<32 weeks) and extremely preterm (<28 weeks) gestations. However, survivors have a high frequency of challenges in academic and social skills. There has been an increased emphasis on examination of outcomes beyond survival rates and rates of neurosensory disabilities at ages 18 to 24 months (eg, cerebral palsy, blindness, deafness, global development delay). One of the key strategies for understanding pathways of risk and resilience is to examine behavioral, social-emotional, and adaptive competencies. The purpose of this paper is to apply the International Classification of Functioning framework to a spectrum of behavioral outcomes after extreme prematurity, describe useful tools for measuring behavioral, social, and adaptive competencies, as well as review model outcome studies before middle childhood. Thus, we can use current information to begin to understand pathways underlying behavioral health, well-being, and social competence. PMID:18249239

Msall, Michael E; Park, Jennifer J

2008-02-01

106

Establishment of Joint Attention in Dyads Involving Hearing Mothers of Deaf and Hearing Children, and Its Relation to Adaptive Social Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mounting evidence points to joint attention as a mediating variable in children's adaptive behavior. Joint attention in interactions between hearing mothers and congenitally deaf (n = 27) and hearing (n = 29) children, ages 18-36 months, was examined. All deaf children had severe to profound hearing loss. Mother-child interactions were coded for…

Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Tasker, Susan L.; Schmidt, Louis A.

2009-01-01

107

Behavioral changes following PCB 153 exposure in the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat – an animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder affecting 3-5% of children. Although ADHD is highly heritable, environmental factors like exposure during early development to various toxic substances like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may contribute to the prevalence. PCBs are a group of chemical industrial compounds with adverse effects on neurobiological and cognitive functioning, and may produce behavioral impairments that share significant similarities with ADHD. The present study examined the relation between exposure to PCB 153 and changes in ADHD-like behavior in an animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/NCrl), and in Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NHsd) controls. Methods SHR/NCrl and WKY/NHsd, males and females, were orally given PCB 153 dissolved in corn oil at around postnatal day (PND) 8, 14, and 20 at a dosage of 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg bodyweight at each exposure. The control groups were orally administered corn oil only. The animals were behaviorally tested for exposure effects from PND 37 to 64 using an operant procedure. Results Exposure to PCB 153 was associated with pronounced and long-lasting behavioral changes in SHR/NCrl. Exposure effects in the SHR/NCrl depended on dose, where 1 mg/kg tended to reduce ADHD-like behaviors and produce opposite behavioral effects compared to 3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg, especially in the females. In the WKY/NHsd controls and for the three doses tested, PCB 153 exposure produced a few specific behavioral changes only in males. The data suggest that PCB 153 exposure interacts with strain and sex, and also indicate a non-linear dose–response relation for the behaviors observed. Conclusions Exposure to PCB 153 seems to interact with several variables including strain, sex, dose, and time of testing. To the extent that the present findings can be generalized to humans, exposure effects of PCB 153 on ADHD behavior depends on amount of exposure, where high doses may aggravate ADHD symptoms in genetically vulnerable individuals. In normal controls, exposure may not constitute an environmental risk factor for developing the full range of ADHD symptoms, but can produce specific behavioral changes. PMID:24405777

2014-01-01

108

Enhancing behavioral and social skill functioning in children newly diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in a pediatric setting.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-week behavioral and social skill (BSS) class for children newly diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their parents, initiating stimulant treatment in primary care. The subjects were 100 children, aged 5 to 12 years, recently diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medication, and their parents or guardians. Eligible families were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG: n = 59) or control group (CG: n = 41). The BSS function of each child was assessed using DuPaul's ADHD Parent Rating Scale (18-item) and Child Attention Profile (12-item) during blinded baseline and follow-up interviews. Parent discipline practice was assessed using a five-item inventory based on Likert-scale ratings during identical periods. Computerized pharmacy records were used to track psychostimulant use over time. IG children exhibited significantly lower parent-rated ADHD symptoms, whereas IG parents reported significantly better and more consistent discipline practices compared with CG parents across time. No significant differences were found between groups in Child Attention Profile scores across time. Psychostimulant use did not significantly differ between groups across time. BSS training was well accepted and seemed to significantly improve BSS functioning among IG children in the home setting only. PMID:12584485

Tutty, Steve; Gephart, Harlan; Wurzbacher, Kathie

2003-02-01

109

Infant Attention and Visual Preferences: Converging Evidence From Behavior, Event-Related Potentials, and Cortical Source Localization  

PubMed Central

In this study, we had 3 major goals. The 1st goal was to establish a link between behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures of infant attention and recognition memory. To assess the distribution of infant visual preferences throughout ERP testing, we designed a new experimental procedure that embeds a behavioral measure (paired comparison trials) in the modified-oddball ERP procedure. The 2nd goal was to measure infant ERPs during the paired comparison trials. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to identify and to remove eye-movement components from the electroencephalographic data, thus allowing for the analysis of ERP components during paired comparison trials. The 3rd goal was to localize the cortical sources of infant visual preferences. Equivalent current dipole analysis was performed on the ICA components related to experimental events. Infants who demonstrated novelty preferences in paired comparison trials demonstrated greater amplitude Negative central ERP components across tasks than infants who did not demonstrate novelty preferences. Visual preference also interacted with attention and stimulus type. The cortical sources of infant visual preferences were localized to inferior and superior prefrontal cortex and to the anterior cingulate cortex. PMID:20604609

Reynolds, Greg D.; Courage, Mary L.; Richards, John E.

2014-01-01

110

Infant attention and visual preferences: converging evidence from behavior, event-related potentials, and cortical source localization.  

PubMed

In this study, we had 3 major goals. The 1st goal was to establish a link between behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures of infant attention and recognition memory. To assess the distribution of infant visual preferences throughout ERP testing, we designed a new experimental procedure that embeds a behavioral measure (paired comparison trials) in the modified-oddball ERP procedure. The 2nd goal was to measure infant ERPs during the paired comparison trials. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to identify and to remove eye-movement components from the electroencephalographic data, thus allowing for the analysis of ERP components during paired comparison trials. The 3rd goal was to localize the cortical sources of infant visual preferences. Equivalent current dipole analysis was performed on the ICA components related to experimental events. Infants who demonstrated novelty preferences in paired comparison trials demonstrated greater amplitude Negative central ERP components across tasks than infants who did not demonstrate novelty preferences. Visual preference also interacted with attention and stimulus type. The cortical sources of infant visual preferences were localized to inferior and superior prefrontal cortex and to the anterior cingulate cortex. PMID:20604609

Reynolds, Greg D; Courage, Mary L; Richards, John E

2010-07-01

111

Parenting behaviors during risky driving by teens with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Parenting practices for teen drivers with ADHD were observed via a video monitor installed in vehicles. All teens had recently completed a driver education course and were in the driving permit stage of a graduated driver-licensing program. Parent behaviors were coded during drives when teens were driving safely and during drives when teens engaged in risky driving. The overall frequency of positive parenting strategies was low, regardless of whether teens drove safely or engaged in risky driving. Although the rate of negative feedback was also low, parents engaged in significantly more criticism and were rated by an observer to appear angrier when teens were driving in a risky manner. No other differences in parent behaviors associated with the quality of teen driving were observed. The inconsistencies between observed parenting behaviors and those parenting practices recommended as effective with teens with ADHD are discussed. The need for further research addressing effective strategies for teaching teens with ADHD to drive is highlighted. PMID:24491192

Schatz, Nicole K; Fabiano, Gregory A; Morris, Karen L; Shucard, Jennifer M; Leo, Brittany A; Bieniek, Courtney

2014-03-01

112

Empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in 6- to 7-year olds diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Empathy has been associated with decreased antisocial and increased prosocial behavior. This study examined empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Six- and 7-year-old children with DBD (with and without ADHD) (n = 67) and with ADHD only (n = 27) were compared to typically developing children (TD) (n = 37). Parents and teachers rated affective empathy in response to sadness and distress on the Griffith Empathy Measure. Children reported affective empathic ability in response to sad story vignettes. Empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress was assessed with a computer task, the Interpersonal Response Task (IRT). Compared to TD, children with DBD (with and without ADHD) and those with ADHD only were rated as less empathic by their teachers, but not by their parents. No differences between groups were observed in children who reported affect correspondence. Children with DBD (with and without ADHD) showed less prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress compared to TD. Children with ADHD only did not differ from TD. An additional analysis comparing all children with a diagnosis to the TD group revealed that the difference in prosocial behavior remained after controlling for ADHD symptoms, but not after controlling for DBD symptoms. These findings of impaired empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in young children with DBD suggest that interventions to ameliorate peer relationships may benefit from targeting on increasing prosocial behavior in these children. PMID:24643447

Deschamps, P K H; Schutter, D J L G; Kenemans, J L; Matthys, W

2015-01-01

113

Association between phthalates and externalizing behaviors and cortical thickness in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Background. Previous studies have implicated the relationship between environmental phthalate exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms of childhood, but no studies have been conducted in children who have a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD obtained through meticulous diagnostic testing. We aimed to determine whether phthalate metabolites in urine would be higher in children with ADHD than in those without ADHD and would correlate with symptom severity and cortical thickness in ADHD children. Method. A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate metabolite concentrations was performed; scores for ADHD symptoms, externalizing problems, and continuous performance tests were obtained from 180 children with ADHD, and brain-imaging data were obtained from 115 participants. For the control group, children without ADHD (N = 438) were recruited. Correlations between phthalate metabolite concentrations and clinical measures and brain cortical thickness were investigated. Results. Concentrations of phthalate metabolites, particularly the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite, were significantly higher in boys with ADHD than in boys without ADHD. Concentrations of the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite were significantly higher in the combined or hyperactive-impulsive subtypes compared to the inattentive subtype, and the metabolite was positively correlated with the severity of externalizing symptoms. Concentrations of the DEHP metabolite were negatively correlated with cortical thickness in the right middle and superior temporal gyri. Conclusions. The results of this study suggest an association between phthalate concentrations and both the diagnosis and symptom severity of ADHD. Imaging findings suggest a negative impact of phthalates on regional cortical maturation in children with ADHD. PMID:25388623

Park, S; Lee, J-M; Kim, J-W; Cheong, J H; Yun, H J; Hong, Y-C; Kim, Y; Han, D H; Yoo, H J; Shin, M-S; Cho, S-C; Kim, B-N

2014-11-12

114

To What Extent Do Joint Attention, Imitation, and Object Play Behaviors in Infancy Predict Later Communication and Intellectual Functioning in ASD?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9-12 and/or 15-18 months. A quantitative…

Poon, Kenneth K.; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele D.

2012-01-01

115

Lack of neuronal nitric oxide synthase results in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behaviors in mice.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule for the proper development and function of the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the behavioral alterations in the neuronal NO synthase knockout mice (NOS1 KO) with a deficient NO production mechanism in the brain, characterizing it as a potential rodent model for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). NOS1 KO exhibited higher locomotor activity than their wildtype counterparts in a novel environment, as measured by open field (OF) test. In a 2-way active avoidance paradigm (TWAA), we found sex-dependent effects, where male KO displayed deficits in avoidance and escape behavior, sustained higher incidences of shuttle crossings, and higher incidences of intertrial interval crossings, suggesting learning, and/or performance impairments. On the other hand, female KO demonstrated few deficits in TWAA. Molsidomine (MSD), a NO donor, rescued TWAA deficits in male KO when acutely administered before training. In a passive avoidance paradigm, KO of both sexes displayed significantly shorter step-through latencies after training. Further, abnormal spontaneous motor activity rhythms were found in the KO during the dark phase of the day, indicating dysregulation of rhythmic activities. These data indicate that NOS1 KO mimics certain ADHD-like behaviors and could potentially serve as a novel rodent model for ADHD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25621792

Gao, Yudong; Heldt, Scott A

2015-02-01

116

A behavioral assessment scale for attention deficit disorder in Brazilian children based on DSM-IIIR criteria.  

PubMed

A teacher scale based on DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was developed for the behavioral assessment of children in Brazil. A total of 2,082 children (782 males and 1,300 females) with a mean age of 11.2 years who were attending a public school in the greater Rio de Janeiro area were the subjects of this study. Two factors (Hyperactivity-Impulsivity and Inattention) were extracted from a principal-factor analysis conducted on the data, and the factor structure of the scale was found to be stable. Ratings of boys were higher than ratings of girls, and younger children had higher ratings than older children for both factors. Test-retest reliability for each item of the scale ranged from .56 to .70. The data are discussed in view of current controversies in the factor structure of teacher ratings of DSM-III-R ADHD symptoms. PMID:7560559

Brito, G N; Pinto, R C; Lins, M F

1995-08-01

117

Behavioral and Cardiovascular Responses to Frustration During Simulated Driving Tasks in Young Adults With and Without Attention Disorder Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study examined the role of negative emotions on driving performance in relation to ADHD, by comparing young adults scoring high on measures of ADHD (n = 20) with a control group (n = 22). Method The authors used cardiorespiratory physiological measures, simulated driving behavior, and self-report to examine how participants with high and low ADHD symptoms responded to frustration and to determine how frustration affected simulated driving performance. Results Groups did not differ in operational driving skills, but participants with high ADHD symptoms reported more frustration and exhibited more impairment at the tactical level of driving performance than the controls. There was significant suppression of respiratory sinus arrhythmia from resting baseline during tasks, but it did not differ between groups during driving. Conclusion This article proposes that remedial driver training for ADHD populations should focus more on the control of negative emotions rather than on attention or fundamental driving skills. PMID:21490175

Oliver, Michele L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Cassavaugh, Nicholas D.; Backs, Richard W.

2015-01-01

118

Pointing Behavior in Infants Reflects the Communication Partner’s Attentional and Knowledge States: A Possible Case of Spontaneous Informing  

PubMed Central

Inferring the epistemic states of others is considered to be an essential requirement for humans to communicate; however, the developmental trajectory of this ability is unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine developmental trends in this ability by using pointing behavior as a dependent measure. Infants aged 13 to 18 months (n?=?32, 16 females) participated in the study. The experiment consisted of two phases. In the Shared Experience Phase, both the participant and the experimenter experienced (played with) an object, and the participant experienced a second object while the experimenter was absent. In the Pointing Phase, the participant was seated on his/her mother’s lap, facing the experimenter, and the same two objects from the Shared Experience Phase were presented side-by-side behind the experimenter. The participants’ spontaneous pointing was analyzed from video footage. While the analysis of the Shared Experience Phase suggested that there was no significant difference in the duration of the participants’ visual attention to the two objects, the participants pointed more frequently to the object that could be considered “new” for the experimenter (in Experiment 1). This selective pointing was not observed when the experimenter could be considered unfamiliar with both of the objects (in Experiment 2). These findings suggest that infants in this age group spontaneously point, presumably to inform about an object, reflecting the partner’s attentional and knowledge states. PMID:25211279

Meng, Xianwei; Hashiya, Kazuhide

2014-01-01

119

Exposure to neurotoxicants and the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its related behaviors in childhood.  

PubMed

The purpose of this manuscript is to review the literature to determine evidence of associations between exposure to prenatal and postnatal environmental agents and the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related behaviors. A review of published research literature was conducted on associations between exposures to prenatal and postnatal cigarette smoke, prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, childhood exposure to lead, and prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and outcomes of ADHD or behaviors related to ADHD. Review of the literature in these areas provides some evidence of associations between each of the exposures and ADHD-related behaviors, with the strongest evidence from prenatal cigarette and alcohol exposure and postnatal lead exposure. However, research on each exposure also produced evidence of weaknesses in these hypothesized links due to imprecise research methodologies and issues of confounding and inaccurate covariate adjustment. More rigorous studies are needed to provide definitive evidence of associations between each of these prenatal or postnatal exposures and the development of ADHD or symptoms of ADHD. Future studies need to clarify the underlying mechanisms between these exposures and the increased risk for ADHD and associated behaviors. More research is also needed utilizing study designs that include genetic information, as ADHD is highly heritable and there appear to be some protective mechanisms offered by certain genetic characteristics as evidenced in gene by environmental studies. Finally, while studies focusing on individual drugs and chemicals are an important first step, we cannot ignore the fact that children are exposed to combinations of drugs and chemicals, which can interact in complex ways with each other, as well as with the child's genetic makeup and psychosocial environment to influence ADHD risk. PMID:24846602

Yolton, Kimberly; Cornelius, Marie; Ornoy, Asher; McGough, James; Makris, Susan; Schantz, Susan

2014-01-01

120

The Impact of Adenotonsillectomy on Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity and Disruptive Behavioral Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of adenotonsillectomy on the neuropsychology of children using the Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-Scale). Materials And Methods: Thirty children admitted to an otolaryngology clinic for treatment of sleep-disordered breathing or recurrent tonsillitis and who underwent adenotonsillectomy were included the study. All parents completed the T-DSM-IV-Scale before surgery and after 3 months of surgery. The T-DSM-IV-Scale consists of four sub-scales: inattention, hyperactivity, oppositional-defiant disorders, and conduct disorders. SPSS 15 por Windows was used to evaluate the datas. Results: Of the 30 children, 17 (56.7%) were boys and13 (43.3 %) were girls. The age range was between four and fourteen years, and the mean age was 6.6±2.6 years. The most common complaints of the children in their first admission to the otorhinolaryngology clinic were snoring (n = 25, or 83.3%), breathing from the mouth (n = 25, or 83.3%), stuffiness (n = 16, or 53.3%), post-nasal drip (n = 15, or 50%), halitosis (n = 14, or 46.7%), and odontoprisis (n = 12, or 40%). We found a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of the inattention, hyperactivity, oppositional-defiant disorders, and conduct disorder sub-scales of T-DSM-IV-Scale before and three months post-tonsillectomy (P<0.05). Conclusion: In SDB inattention, hyperactivity and other neurobehavioral problems can be seen. This may cause a delay in accurate diagnosis and treatment. Children having neurobehavioral problems such as inattention, hyperactivity, oppositional-defiant disorders, and conduct disorder symptoms can be assessed for sleep-disordered breathing. After adenotonsillectomy, these neurobehavioral problems can improve without psychiatric medication; thus, adenotonsillectomy may have a positive impact on the neurobehavioral problems of children with sleep-disordered breathing.

Fidan, Tulin; Fidan, Vural

2008-01-01

121

Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well documented nor well understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound…

Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

2008-01-01

122

The Single and Combined Effects of Multiple Intensities of Behavior Modification and Methylphenidate for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Classroom Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently behavior modification, stimulant medication, and combined treatments are supported as evidence-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in classroom settings. However, there has been little study of the relative effects of these two modalities and their combination in classrooms. Using a within-subject design, the…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran; Garefino, Allison; Keenan, Jenna K.; Onyango, Adia N.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Massetti, Greta M.; Robb, Jessica A.

2007-01-01

123

The Effects of the First Step to Success Program on Academic Engagement Behaviors of Turkish Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluated the effectiveness of the First Step to Success (FSS) early intervention program with Turkish children identified with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Intervention effectiveness on target children's academic engagement behaviors was studied. Participants were four 7-year-old first-grade students in…

Ozdemir, Selda

2011-01-01

124

CHANGES IN FREQUENCY, DURATION OR INTENSITY OF THE AUDITORY INPUT TRIGGER INVOLUNTARY SWITCHES OF ATTENTION: A BEHAVIORAL AND EVENT-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIAL STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed a t i dentifying specific brain mechanisms involved in d irecting attention to aud itory c hanges in du ration, frequency and intensity. Behavioral and electrophysiological cerebral responses (ERPs) were obtained in 12 subjects (23-20 years, 2 males) to the occurrence of t ask-irrelevant auditory c hanges during the performance of a visual discrimination task. Subjects

Ma José Corral; Elena Yago; Vanessa Carral; Carles Escera

125

The Use of Stimulant Medication and Behavioral Interventions for the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Survey of Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined parents' knowledge, attitudes, and information sources regarding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including treatment with stimulant medication and behavioral interventions. Responses from parents with a child diagnosed with ADHD and parents without a child diagnosed with ADHD were also compared. Participants consisted…

Stroh, Jennifer; Frankenberger, William; Cornell-Swanson, La Vonne; Wood, Courtney; Pahl, Stephanie

2008-01-01

126

Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) compared with placebo for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the impact on substance treatment outcomes in adolescents concurrently receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders (SUD). Method: This was a…

Riggs, Paula D.; Winhusen, Theresa; Davies, Robert D.; Leimberger, Jeffrey D.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Klein, Constance; Macdonald, Marilyn; Lohman, Michelle; Bailey, Genie L.; Haynes, Louise; Jaffee, William B.; Haminton, Nancy; Hodgkins, Candace; Whitmore, Elizabeth; Trello-Rishel, Kathlene; Tamm, Leanne; Acosta, Michelle C.; Royer-Malvestuto, Charlotte; Subramaniam, Geetha; Fishman, Marc; Holmes, Beverly W.; Kaye, Mary Elyse; Vargo, Mark A.; Woody, George E.; Nunes, Edward V.; Liu, David

2011-01-01

127

Characteristics of Students at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties Predicting Arithmetic Word Problem Solving Performance: The Role of Attention, Behavior, and Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were (a) to evaluate differences in arithmetic word problem solving between high and low at-risk students for mathematics difficulties (MD) and (b) to assess the influence of attention, behavior, reading, and socio-economic status (SES) in predicting the word problem solving performance of third-grade students with MD.…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Corroy, Kelly Cozine; Dupuis, Danielle N.

2013-01-01

128

Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

2012-01-01

129

The Impact of Mindfulness Training on Hyperactive Behaviors Demonstrated by Elementary Age Children with a Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders in the United States. Although many children with an ADHD diagnosis are prescribed medication to control symptoms, behavioral concerns are still regularly noted in the classroom, home, and other settings. Therefore, school psychologists are often…

Carboni, Jessica A.

2012-01-01

130

Using Perseverative Interests to Elicit Joint Attention Behaviors in Young Children with Autism: Theoretical and Clinical Implications for Understanding Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various explanations have been offered in the literature on the underlying cause of joint attention deficits in autism. One possible explanation is that children with autism are capable of producing joint attention but lack the social motivation to share their interests with others. The current study used a single-subject reversal design with…

Vismara, Laurie A.; Lyons, Gregory L.

2007-01-01

131

Association between Severity of Behavioral Phenotype and Comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association," 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity…

Rao, Patricia A.; Landa, Rebecca J.

2014-01-01

132

Behavioral and ERP measures of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task: poor reliability and lack of correlation with anxiety  

PubMed Central

The dot-probe task is often considered a gold standard in the field for investigating attentional bias to threat. However, serious issues with the task have been raised. Specifically, a number of studies have demonstrated that the traditional reaction time (RT) measure of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task has poor internal reliability and poor test-retest reliability. In addition, although threatening stimuli capture attention in other paradigms, attentional bias to threat has not usually been found in typical research participants in the dot-probe task. However, when attention is measured in the dot-probe task with the N2pc component of the event-related potential waveform, substantial attentional orienting to threat is observed, and the internal reliability is moderate. To provide a rigorous comparison of the reliability of this N2pc measure and the conventional behavioral measure, as well as to examine the relationship of these measures to anxiety, the present study examined the N2pc in conjunction with RT in the dot-probe task in a large sample of participants (N = 96). As in previous studies, RT showed no bias to threatening images across the sample and exhibited poor internal reliability. Moreover, this measure did not relate to trait anxiety. By contrast, the N2pc revealed a significant initial shift of attention to threat, and this measure was internally reliable. However, the N2pc was not correlated with trait anxiety, indicating that it does not provide a meaningful index of individual differences in anxiety in the dot-probe task. Together, these results indicate a serious need to develop new tasks and methods to more reliably investigate attentional bias to threat and its relationship to anxiety in both clinical and non-clinical populations.

Kappenman, Emily S.; Farrens, Jaclyn L.; Luck, Steven J.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

2014-01-01

133

The Use of Stimulant Medication and Behavioral Interventions for the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Survey of Parents’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and information sources regarding Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),\\u000a including treatment with stimulant medication and behavioral interventions. Responses from parents with a child diagnosed\\u000a with ADHD and parents without a child diagnosed with ADHD were also compared. Participants consisted of 146 parents of elementary\\u000a age children from Wisconsin. The surveyed parents were aware of issues surrounding ADHD

Jennifer Stroh; William Frankenberger; La Vonne Cornell-Swanson; Courtney Wood; Stephanie Pahl

2008-01-01

134

Psychoactive Drug Effects in a Hyperactive Child: A Case Study Analysis of Behavior Change and Teacher Attention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of methylphenidate on the behavior and teacher interactions of a nine-year-old hyperactive female were analyzed. Results suggest that the use of medication may enable the hyperactive child to profit both behaviorally and academically. (Author)

Baxley, Gladys B.; Ullmann, Rina K.

1979-01-01

135

A pilot study of electrocortical activity in dysfunctional anger: decreased frontocortical activation, impaired attention control, and diminished behavioral inhibition.  

PubMed

Dysfunctional anger, though not a primary clinical diagnosis per se, does present clinically as a pathological mood for which treatment is sought. Few studies have probed the neurocortical correlates of dysfunctional anger or assessed if cognitive processes, such as attention, are altered in dysfunctional anger. Though dysfunctional and high trait anger appears to be associated with biased processing of anger-eliciting information, few studies have examined if dysfunctional anger modulates attention more generally. This is a notable gap as volitional attention control is associated with effective emotive regulation, which is impaired in dysfunctional anger and in associated acts of aggression. In this pilot study, we examined performance and electroencephalographic (EEG) profiles during a 12-min continuous performance task (CPT) of sustained attention in 15 adults with dysfunctional anger (Anger group) and 14 controls (control group). The Anger group had fewer hits at the end of the CPT, which correlated with decreased frontocortical activation, suggesting decreased engagement of frontal circuits when attention is taxed. The Anger group had more false alarms overall indicating impaired response inhibition. Increased right cortical activation during the initial portion of CPT existed in the Anger group, perhaps reflecting greater engagement of frontal circuits (i.e. effort) during initial stages of the task compared to controls. Finally, increased overall beta? power, suggesting increased cortical activation, was noted in the Anger group. These EEG patterns suggest a hypervigilant state in dysfunctional anger, which may interfere with effective attention control and decrease inhibition. Such impairments likely extend beyond the laboratory setting, and may associate with aggressive acts in real life. PMID:22969037

Jaworska, Natalia; Berrigan, Lindsay; Fisher, Derek; Ahmed, Adekunle G; Gray, Jonathan; Bradford, John; Korovessis, Athanassia; Fedoroff, Paul; Knott, Verner

2012-01-01

136

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

137

Peering through the smoke: The effect of parental smoking behavior and addiction on daily smokers’ attentional bias to smoking cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous research has demonstrated that individuals with parents who smoke are more likely to become smokers and are less successful in smoking cessation efforts compared with those without a smoking parent, the reasons for this link have not been established. In the current study, implicit attentional bias to smoking-related cues was investigated in college-age smokers, based on models of

Cheryl L. Dickter; Catherine A. Forestell

138

Working Memory, Attention, Inhibition, and Their Relation to Adaptive Functioning and Behavioral/Emotional Symptoms in School-Aged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child…

Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnove; Troberg, Anna-Maria; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri; Saarinen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T.

2013-01-01

139

Physical exercise and catecholamine reuptake inhibitors affect orienting behavior and social interaction in a rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

The effects of methylphenidate (MPH), atomoxetine (ATMX), and/or physical exercise (EX) on orienting behavior and social interaction were examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). During the orienting procedure, rats received repeated presentations of a nonreinforced visual stimulus. As observed previously, orienting behavior (rearing up on the hind legs) habituated across trials in normo-active control rats (Wistars) but not in SHRs, suggesting that SHRs have difficulty ignoring irrelevant behavioral stimuli. Treatment with MPH (0.125 mg/kg), ATMX (0.125 mg/kg), or EX (3 weeks of access to a running wheel), alone or in combination, reduced rearing behavior in SHRs to the level observed in the Wistar control group. Similarly, drug treatment and/or EX reduced the number of social interactions exhibited by SHRs, while having no effects on locomotor activity. It is important to note that EX was just as effective as MPH or ATMX in reducing orienting behavior and social interaction. In contrast to the SHRs, neither MPH nor ATMX affected orienting or social behavior in Wistar rats. Together, these findings support the growing literature that EX may be useful as an adjunctive or replacement therapy in ADHD. PMID:23067385

Robinson, Andrea M; Eggleston, Rachel L; Bucci, David J

2012-12-01

140

Development of a Brief, Behavioral Homework Intervention for Middle School Students with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the vast literature on treatments for children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there\\u000a is a relative paucity of research examining the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for adolescents with ADHD. Furthermore,\\u000a only a handful of ADHD treatment studies employ educational interventions to improve academic functioning, and no study to\\u000a date has examined a parent training intervention for targeting homework

Veronica L. Raggi; Andrea Chronis-Tuscano; Howard Fishbein; Amber Groomes

2009-01-01

141

Explanatory models and help-seeking behavior for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among a cohort of postsecondary students.  

PubMed

The authors present findings from a qualitative descriptive study that explored how a diverse ethnic group of postsecondary students diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) conceptualized their condition and how this conceptualization shaped their efforts to seek help. Kleinman's explanatory model, the organizing framework, called for participants to describe the etiology, symptom onset, pathophysiology, course, and treatment of ADHD. Twenty-seven participants from four academic institutions took part in the study. A common explanatory model of ADHD was not shared; however, gender and age differences were apparent. These finding have implications for nurses when providing culturally appropriate care to individuals with ADHD in their practice settings. PMID:20650370

Waite, Roberta; Tran, Mary

2010-08-01

142

Interaction of Dopamine Transporter Gene and Observed Parenting Behaviors on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emerging evidence suggests that some individuals may be simultaneously more responsive to the effects from environmental adversity "and" enrichment (i.e., differential susceptibility). Given that parenting behavior and a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3'untranslated region of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene…

Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

2013-01-01

143

Bridging the Gap between Physiology and Behavior: Evidence from the sSoTS Model of Human Visual Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present the case for a role of biologically plausible neural network modeling in bridging the gap between physiology and behavior. We argue that spiking-level networks can allow "vertical" translation between physiological properties of neural systems and emergent "whole-system" performance--enabling psychological results to be simulated from…

Mavritsaki, Eirini; Heinke, Dietmar; Allen, Harriet; Deco, Gustavo; Humphreys, Glyn W.

2011-01-01

144

Different Behavioral and Eye Movement Patterns of Dyslexic Readers with and without Attentional Deficits during Single Word Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comorbidity of learning disabilities is a very common phenomenon which is intensively studied in genetics, neuropsychology, prevalence studies and causal deficit research. In studies on the behavioral manifestation of learning disabilities, however, comorbidity is often neglected. In the present study, we systematically examined the reading…

Thaler, Verena; Urton, Karolina; Heine, Angela; Hawelka, Stefan; Engl, Verena; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2009-01-01

145

Response inhibition in preschoolers at familial risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a behavioral and electrophysiological stop-signal study.  

PubMed

Children participating in the Ben-Gurion Infant Development Study were assessed with a dynamic-tracking version of the stop-signal task at the age of 5 years. The sample consisted of 60 males. Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was correlated with concurrent ratings of the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Paternal symptoms measured in the child's early infancy predicted the child's performance in the stop-signal task: Paternal inattentiveness predicted SSRT, whereas hyperactivity predicted error proportion. Maternal symptoms were not correlated with the performance of the child in the task. A subsample of children, who were tested while electrophysiological brain activity was measured, showed that having higher ADHD symptomatology, especially hyperactivity, correlated with less activity in the brain areas that are usually recruited by children for successful inhibition. PMID:23448499

Berger, Andrea; Alyagon, Uri; Hadaya, Hadas; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G

2013-01-01

146

Effects of Extended Release Methylphenidate Treatment on Ratings of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Associated Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and ADHD Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral effects of four doses of psychostimulant medication, combining extended-release methylphenidate (MPH) in the morning with immediate-release MPH in the afternoon. Method The sample comprised 24 children (19 boys; 5 girls) who met American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and had significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This sample consisted of elementary school-age, community-based children (mean chronological age=8.8 years, SD=1.7; mean intelligence quotient [IQ]=85; SD=16.8). Effects of four dose levels of MPH on parent and teacher behavioral ratings were investigated using a within-subject, crossover, placebo-controlled design. Results MPH treatment was associated with significant declines in hyperactive and impulsive behavior at both home and school. Parents noted significant declines in inattentive and oppositional behavior, and improvements in social skills. No exacerbation of stereotypies was noted, and side effects were similar to those seen in typically developing children with ADHD. Dose response was primarily linear in the dose range studied. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that MPH formulations are efficacious and well-tolerated for children with ASD and significant ADHD symptoms. PMID:23782128

Santos, Cynthia W.; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Casat, Charles D.; Mansour, Rosleen; Lane, David M.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Jerger, Susan W.; Factor, Perry; Vanwoerden, Salome; Perez, Evelyn; Cleveland, Lynne A.

2013-01-01

147

A cross-etiology comparison of the socio-emotional behavioral profiles associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

Cross-etiology comparisons provide important information that can help practitioners establish criteria for differential diagnosis and tailor interventions towards the source of children’s difficulties. This study examined the extent to which parent rating scales of socioemotional behavioral difficulties differentiate cases of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from cases of specific language impairment (SLI), and typical development (TD). Parents of 60 children (7–8?years) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) and the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised (Conners, 2004). Significant differences were observed between ratings provided for the children with ADHD and the children with SLI and TD across several scales which assessed behavioral and emotional difficulties. Most of the observed differences between ratings provided for the SLI and TD groups were not significant when nonverbal IQ was treated as a covariate or when syndrome scales were adjusted for the presence of language and academic items. In contrast, these adjustments had little impact on observed differences between the children with ADHD and the other groups. These results highlight important and clinically useful differences between the scope and the scale of socioemotional behavior difficulties associated with ADHD and SLI. PMID:24456478

Ash, Andrea C.

2014-01-01

148

Coming out in Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article shares how the author explained her trans status to her students. Everyone has been extremely supportive of her decision to come out in class and to completely mask the male secondary-sex characteristics, especially in the workplace. The department chair and the faculty in general have been willing to do whatever they can to assist…

McKinnon, Rachel

2012-01-01

149

Parental Influence on Children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder: I. Relationships Between Parent Behaviors and Child Peer Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined associations between children’s peer relationships and (a) their parents’ social competence as well as (b) their\\u000a parents’ behaviors during the children’s peer interactions. Participants were families of 124 children ages 6–10 (68% male),\\u000a 62 with ADHD and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison youth. Children’s peer relationships were assessed via parent and teacher\\u000a report, and sociometric nominations in a

Amori Yee Mikami; Allison Jack; Christina C. Emeh; Haley F. Stephens

2010-01-01

150

Measuring Homework Utility in Psychotherapy: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as an Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homework, or practice of skills learned in treatment, is a critical component of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). However,\\u000a no matter how much effort clients put into their therapy homework, this effort can only be useful if adherence to homework\\u000a is related to improvement in symptoms. Although homework adherence (the extent to which clients practice skills learned in\\u000a therapy outside of sessions)

Iftah Yovel; Steven A. Safren

2007-01-01

151

Parental Influence on Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: I. Relationships Between Parent Behaviors and Child Peer Status  

PubMed Central

We examined associations between children's peer relationships and (a) their parents' social competence as well as (b) their parents' behaviors during the children's peer interactions. Participants were families of 124 children ages 6–10 (68% male), 62 with ADHD and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison youth. Children's peer relationships were assessed via parent and teacher report, and sociometric nominations in a lab-based playgroup. Parental characteristics were assessed via parent self-report and observations of behavior during their child's playgroup. After statistical control of relevant covariates, parents of children with ADHD reported poorer social skills of their own, arranged fewer playdates for their children, and displayed more criticism during their child's peer interaction than did parents of comparison youth. Parents' socialization with other parents and facilitation of the child's peer interactions predicted their children having good peer relationships as reported by teachers and peers, whereas parental corrective feedback to the child and praise predicted poor peer relationships. Parents' ratings of their child's social skills were positively associated with ratings of their own social skills, but negatively associated with criticism and facilitation of the child's peer interactions. Relationships between parental behaviors and peer relationships were stronger for youth with ADHD than for comparison youth. The relevance of findings to interventions is discussed. PMID:20339912

Jack, Allison; Emeh, Christina C.; Stephens, Haley F.

2010-01-01

152

Shifting Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

Ingram, Jenni

2014-01-01

153

Transient Inactivation of the Neonatal Ventral Hippocampus Impairs Attentional Set-Shifting Behavior: Reversal with an ?7 Nicotinic Agonist  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits represent a core symptom cluster in schizophrenia that are thought to reflect developmental dysregulations within a neural system involving the ventral hippocampus (VH), nucleus accumbens (NAC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present experiments determined the cognitive effects of transiently inactivating VH in rats during a sensitive period of development. Neonatal (postnatal day 7, PD7) and adolescent (PD32) male rats received a single bilateral infusion of saline or tetrodotoxin (TTX) within the VH to transiently inactivate local circuitry and efferent outflow. Rats were tested as adults on an attentional set-shifting task. Performance in this task depends upon the integrity of the PFC and NAC. TTX infusions did not affect the initial acquisition or ability to learn an intra-dimensional shift. However, TTX rats required a greater number of trials than did controls to acquire the first reversal and extra-dimensional shift (ED) stages. These impairments were age and region-specific as rats infused with TTX into the VH at PD32, or into the dorsal hippocampus at PD7, exhibited performance in the task similar to that of controls. Finally, acute systemic administration of the partial ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist SSR 180711 (3.0?mg/kg) eliminated the TTX-induced performance deficits. Given that patients with schizophrenia exhibit hippocampal pathophysiology and deficits in the ED stages of set-shifting tasks, our results support the significance of transient hippocampal inactivation as an animal model for studying the cognitive impairments in schizophrenia as well as the pro-cognitive therapeutic potential of ?7 nAChR agonists. PMID:22781844

Brooks, Julie M; Pershing, Michelle L; Thomsen, Morten S; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Sarter, Martin; Bruno, John P

2012-01-01

154

Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain-behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8-12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain-behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN-occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON-DMN connections. For all CON-DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON-DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON-DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN-occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children. PMID:25610768

Barber, Anita D; Jacobson, Lisa A; Wexler, Joanna L; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

2015-01-01

155

Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  

PubMed Central

Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain–behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8–12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain–behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN–occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON–DMN connections. For all CON–DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children. PMID:25610768

Barber, Anita D.; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Wexler, Joanna L.; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

2014-01-01

156

Gaze Cueing of Attention  

PubMed Central

During social interactions, people’s eyes convey a wealth of information about their direction of attention and their emotional and mental states. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of past and current research into the perception of gaze behavior and its effect on the observer. This encompasses the perception of gaze direction and its influence on perception of the other person, as well as gaze-following behavior such as joint attention, in infant, adult, and clinical populations. Particular focus is given to the gaze-cueing paradigm that has been used to investigate the mechanisms of joint attention. The contribution of this paradigm has been significant and will likely continue to advance knowledge across diverse fields within psychology and neuroscience. PMID:17592962

Frischen, Alexandra; Bayliss, Andrew P.; Tipper, Steven P.

2007-01-01

157

Increased cognitive functioning in symptomatic Huntington's disease as revealed by behavioral and event-related potential indices of auditory sensory memory and attention.  

PubMed

Cognitive functions are thought to deteriorate globally in late stages of various neurodegenerative disorders. Here we describe that this general assumption is not justified and fails in Huntington's disease (HD). Presymptomatic gene mutation carriers (pHDs) and healthy controls performed worse compared with symptomatic HDs in an auditory signal detection task. During task performance, behavioral data and event-related potentials (ERPs) [i.e., MMN (mismatch negativity), P3a, and RON (reorienting negativity)] were recorded. Not only behavioral performance but also neurophysiological correlates of auditory sensory memory and attentional reorientation indicate enhanced performance occurring primal in late stages of a neurodegenerative disorder. Increased activity of the NMDA-receptor system, an assumed pathogenic mechanism in HD, might facilitate signal propagation at striatal level that enables more efficient task execution through a winner-take-all process. The results challenge the view that late stage neurodegeneration is necessarily related to a global decline in cognitive abilities in HD. In contrast, selectively enhanced cognitive functioning can emerge together with otherwise impaired cognitive functioning. PMID:18987205

Beste, Christian; Saft, Carsten; Güntürkün, Onur; Falkenstein, Michael

2008-11-01

158

Attention Genes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major problem for developmental science is understanding how the cognitive and emotional networks important in carrying out mental processes can be related to individual differences. The last five years have seen major advances in establishing links between alleles of specific genes and the neural networks underlying aspects of attention. These…

Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.

2007-01-01

159

Attentional Routes to Conscious Perception  

PubMed Central

The relationships between spatial attention and conscious perception are currently the object of intense debate. Recent evidence of double dissociations between attention and consciousness cast doubt on the time-honored concept of attention as a gateway to consciousness. Here we review evidence from behavioral, neurophysiologic, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging experiments, showing that distinct sorts of spatial attention can have different effects on visual conscious perception. While endogenous, or top-down attention, has weak influence on subsequent conscious perception of near-threshold stimuli, exogenous, or bottom-up forms of spatial attention appear instead to be a necessary, although not sufficient, step in the development of reportable visual experiences. Fronto-parietal networks important for spatial attention, with peculiar inter-hemispheric differences, constitute plausible neural substrates for the interactions between exogenous spatial attention and conscious perception. PMID:22279440

Chica, Ana B.; Bartolomeo, Paolo

2012-01-01

160

Engaging Students via In-Class Worksheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mathematical Association of America (MAA) is creating a series of instructional materials for mathematics teachers, and they are drawing on the expertise of high-quality instructors from across the country. One such teacher is Cindy Wyels, who teaches math at California State University, Channel Islands. She recently created this useful set of materials that will help teachers with the use of worksheets in the classroom. As she remarks in her introduction to these materials, "Worksheets used in class can also help direct students' learning out-of-class." This site contains links to discussion and illustrative examples, and also offers tips on how to focus students' attention in class, delivering content efficiently, and teaching students how to learn from their textbooks.

Wyels, Cindy

2007-07-31

161

An Operant Analysis of Joint Attention Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joint attention, a synchronizing of the attention of two or more persons, has been an increasing focus of research in cognitive developmental psychology. Research in this area has progressed mainly outside of behavior analysis, and behavior-analytic research and theory has tended to ignore the work on joint attention. It is argued here, on the one…

Holth, Per

2005-01-01

162

Attentional Disengagement in Adults with Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive behavioral and cognitive profile, including widespread problems with attention. However, the specific nature of their attentional difficulties, such as inappropriate attentional allocation and/or poor attentional disengagement abilities, has yet to be…

Lense, Miriam D.; Key, Alexandra P.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

2011-01-01

163

Combining attention training with cognitive-behavior therapy in Internet-based self-help for social anxiety: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Guided Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD) by several independent research groups. However, since the extent of clinically significant change demonstrated leaves room for improvement, new treatments should be developed and investigated. A novel treatment, which has generally been found to be effective, is cognitive bias modification (CBM). This study aims to evaluate the combination of CBM and ICBT. It is intended that two groups will be compared; one group randomized to receiving ICBT and CBM towards threat cues and one group receiving ICBT and control training. We hypothesize that the group receiving ICBT plus CBM will show superior treatment outcomes. Methods/design Participants with SAD (N = 128), will be recruited from the general population. A composite score combining the scores obtained from three social anxiety questionnaires will serve as the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures include self-reported depression and quality of life. All treatments and assessments will be conducted via the Internet and measurement points will be baseline, Week 2, post-treatment, and 4 months post-treatment. Discussion There is no direct evidence of the effects of combining CBM and ICBT in SAD. Adding attention-training sessions to ICBT protocols could increase the proportion of participants who improve and recover through Internet-based self-help. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01570400 PMID:23497513

2013-01-01

164

Neural synchrony and selective attention  

E-print Network

A complex visual scene will typically contain many different objects, few of which are currently relevant to behavior. Thus, attentional mechanisms are needed to select the relevant objects from the scene and to reject the ...

Desimone, Robert

165

Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and adolescent behavioral problems has been well established\\u000a (Lee, Mulsow & Reifman, 2003). For example, adolescents with ADHD have been found to be more likely than adolescents without\\u000a ADHD to engage in risk-taking behaviors such as substance use and abuse, risky driving, risky sexual behaviors, and behaviors\\u000a indicative of conduct disorder or oppositional defiant

Melinda Corwin; Kirti N. Kanitkar; Adam Schwebach; Miriam Mulsow

166

Shifting Attentional Priorities: Control of Spatial Attention through Hemispheric Competition  

PubMed Central

Regions of frontal and posterior parietal cortex are known to control the allocation of spatial attention across the visual field. However, the neural mechanisms underlying attentional control in the intact human brain remain unclear, with some studies supporting a hemispatial theory emphasizing a dominant function of the right hemisphere and others supporting an interhemispheric competition theory. We previously found neural evidence to support the latter account, in which topographically organized frontoparietal areas each generate a spatial bias, or “attentional weight,” toward the contralateral hemifield, with the sum of the weights constituting the overall bias that can be exerted across visual space. Here, we used a multimodal approach consisting of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of spatial attention signals, behavioral measures of spatial bias, and fMRI-guided single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to causally test this interhemispheric competition account. Across the group of fMRI subjects, we found substantial individual differences in the strengths of the frontoparietal attentional weights in each hemisphere, which predicted subjects’ respective behavioral preferences when allocating spatial attention, as measured by a landmark task. Using TMS to interfere with attentional processing within specific topographic frontoparietal areas, we then demonstrated that the attentional weights of individual subjects, and thus their spatial attention behavior, could be predictably shifted toward one visual field or the other, depending on the site of interference. The results of our multimodal approach, combined with an emphasis on neural and behavioral individual differences, provide compelling evidence that spatial attention is controlled through competitive interactions between hemispheres rather than a dominant right hemisphere in the intact human brain. PMID:23516306

Szczepanski, Sara M.; Kastner, Sabine

2013-01-01

167

Abnormal Pre-Attentive Arousal in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Contributes to Their Atypical Auditory Behavior: An ERP Study  

PubMed Central

Auditory sensory modulation difficulties and problems with automatic re-orienting to sound are well documented in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal preattentive arousal processes may contribute to these deficits. In this study, we investigated components of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) reflecting preattentive arousal in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children aged 3-8 years. Pairs of clicks (‘S1’ and ‘S2’) separated by a 1 sec S1-S2 interstimulus interval (ISI) and much longer (8-10 sec) S1-S1 ISIs were presented monaurally to either the left or right ear. In TD children, the P50, P100 and N1c CAEP components were strongly influenced by temporal novelty of clicks and were much greater in response to the S1 than the S2 click. Irrespective of the stimulation side, the ‘tangential’ P100 component was rightward lateralized in TD children, whereas the ‘radial’ N1c component had higher amplitude contralaterally to the stimulated ear. Compared to the TD children, children with ASD demonstrated 1) reduced amplitude of the P100 component under the condition of temporal novelty (S1) and 2) an attenuated P100 repetition suppression effect. The abnormalities were lateralized and depended on the presentation side. They were evident in the case of the left but not the right ear stimulation. The P100 abnormalities in ASD correlated with the degree of developmental delay and with the severity of auditory sensory modulation difficulties observed in early life. The results suggest that some rightward-lateralized brain networks that are crucially important for arousal and attention re-orienting are compromised in children with ASD and that this deficit contributes to sensory modulation difficulties and possibly even other behavioral deficits in ASD. PMID:23935931

Stroganova, Tatiana A.; Kozunov, Vladimir V.; Posikera, Irina N.; Galuta, Ilia A.; Gratchev, Vitaliy V.; Orekhova, Elena V.

2013-01-01

168

Evaluation of Access to Care and Medical and Behavioral Outcomes in a School-Based Intervention Program for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The San Diego (California) school-based Project for Attention-Related Disorders helped improve access to care and increase treatment for children with attentional problems. Of 110 intervention children followed for 3 years, 60-70% showed improvement after enrollment, evaluation, and treatment. Medical and nonmedical interventions were helpful in…

Williams, Richard A.; And Others

1993-01-01

169

Brain Connectivity and Visual Attention  

PubMed Central

Abstract Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures. PMID:23597177

Parks, Emily L.

2013-01-01

170

Visuospatial selective attention in chickens  

PubMed Central

Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d?) increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an “indecision” model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens—a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies—as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention. PMID:24753566

Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L.; Schwarz, Jason S.; Knudsen, Eric I.

2014-01-01

171

The influence of serotonin- and other genes on impulsive behavioral aggression and cognitive impulsivity in children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Findings from a family-based association test (FBAT) analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Low serotonergic (5-HT) activity correlates with increased impulsive-aggressive behavior, while the opposite association may apply to cognitive impulsiveness. Both types of impulsivity are associated with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and genes of functional significance for the 5-HT system are implicated in this disorder. Here we demonstrate the separation of aggressive and cognitive components of impulsivity from symptom ratings and test

Robert D. Oades; Jessica Lasky-Su; Hanna Christiansen; Stephen V. Faraone; Edmund J. S. Sonuga-Barke; Tobias Banaschewski; Wai Chen; Richard J. L. Anney; Jan K. Buitelaar; Richard P. Ebstein; Barbara Franke; Michael Gill; Ana Miranda; Herbert Roeyers; Aribert Rothenberger; Joseph A. Sergeant; Hans-Christoph Steinhausen; Eric A. Taylor; Margaret Thompson; Philip Asherson

2008-01-01

172

Adaptive allocation of attentional gain  

PubMed Central

Humans are adept at distinguishing between stimuli that are very similar, an ability that is particularly crucial when the outcome is of serious consequence (e.g. for a surgeon or air traffic controller). Traditionally, selective attention was thought to facilitate perception by increasing the gain of sensory neurons tuned to the defining features of a behaviorally relevant object (e.g. color, orientation, etc.). In contrast, recent mathematical models counter-intuitively suggest that in many cases attentional gain should be applied to neurons that are tuned away from relevant features, especially when discriminating highly similar stimuli. Here we used psychophysical methods to critically evaluate these ‘ideal observer’ models. The data demonstrate that attention enhances the gain of the most informative sensory neurons, even when these neurons are tuned away from the behaviorally relevant target feature. Moreover, the degree to which an individual adopted optimal attentional gain settings by the end of testing predicted success rates on a difficult visual discrimination task, as well as the amount of task improvement that occurred across repeated testing sessions (learning). Contrary to most traditional accounts, these observations suggest that the primary function of attentional gain is not simply to enhance the representation of target features, but to optimize performance on the current perceptual task. Additionally, individual differences in gain suggest that the operating characteristics of low-level attentional phenomena are not stable trait-like attributes and that variability in how attention is deployed may play an important role in determining perceptual abilities. PMID:19776279

Scolari, Miranda; Serences, John T.

2009-01-01

173

Joint attention and language in autism and developmental language delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of gestural joint attention behaviors and the development of effective communication skills in autism and developmental language delay (DLD) was investigated. Autistic and DLD children matched for MA and MLU were compared on measures of gestural joint attention behavior, personal pronoun use, and spontaneous communicative behavior. DLD children responded correctly to joint attention interactions more often than autistic

Katherine A. Loveland; Susan H. Landry

1986-01-01

174

An Investigation of the Technical Adequacy of a Daily Behavior Report Card (DBRC) for Monitoring Progress of Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Special Education Placements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are eligible for special education services because of problems with academic and/or social functioning. Thus, a considerable proportion of children with ADHD have individualized education plans (IEPs) that list operationalized goals and objectives for each student. Conceptually,…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Vujnovic, Rebecca; Naylor, Justin; Pariseau, Meaghan; Robins, Melissa

2009-01-01

175

The Incremental Utility of Behavioral Rating Scales and a Structured Diagnostic Interview in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the incremental utility of rating scales, a structured diagnostic interview, and multiple informants in a comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample included 185 children with ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.22, SD = 0.95) and 82 children without ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.24, SD =…

Vaughn, Aaron J.; Hoza, Betsy

2013-01-01

176

The Effects of a Self-Monitoring and Video Self-Modeling Intervention to Increase On-Task Behavior for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are diagnosed with AD/HD more often than any other disorder and interventions are needed in schools to increase on-task behavior. Most studies examining on-task behavior are conducted in special education classrooms or clinical laboratories. Previous studies have not combined video self-modeling and self-monitoring as an intervention to…

Schmitt, Rachel Calkins Oxnard

2009-01-01

177

Gaze Behaviors of Preterm and Full-Term Infants in Nonsocial and Social Contexts of Increasing Dynamics: Visual Recognition, Attention Regulation, and Gaze Synchrony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research has demonstrated poor visual skills in premature infants, few studies assessed infants' gaze behaviors across several domains of functioning in a single study. Thirty premature and 30 full-term 3-month-old infants were tested in three social and nonsocial tasks of increasing complexity and their gaze behavior was micro-coded. In…

Harel, Hagar; Gordon, Ilanit; Geva, Ronny; Feldman, Ruth

2011-01-01

178

Teaching Reciprocal Imitation Skills to Young Children with Autism Using a Naturalistic Behavioral Approach: Effects on Language, Pretend Play, and Joint Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills which impede the acquisition of more complex behaviors and socialization, and are thus an important focus of early intervention programs for children with autism. This study used a multiple-baseline design across five young children with autism to assess the benefit of a naturalistic behavioral technique for teaching object imitation. Participants increased

Brooke Ingersoll; Laura Schreibman

2006-01-01

179

Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Functional Impairment in Clinic- and Community-Based Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a sample of 268 patients and 137 community-based children with DSM-IV ADHD, and 268 school controls, aged 6-15, this study aimed to compare the emotional/behavioral problems and functional impairment between clinic- and community-based children with ADHD. Children's ADHD-related symptoms, a wide range of emotional/behavioral problems, and…

Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lin, Yu-Ju; Shang, Chi-Yung; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Soong, Wei-Tsuen

2010-01-01

180

The duration of disgusted and fearful faces is judged longer and shorter than that of neutral faces: the attention-related time distortions as revealed by behavioral and electrophysiological measurements  

PubMed Central

Time perception has been shown to be altered by emotions. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of two threat-related emotions on the judgment of time intervals in the range of 490–910 ms. We demonstrated that disgust and fear have distinct influences on time perception. At the behavioral level, disgusted faces were estimated longer and fearful faces were estimated shorter (i.e., the generalization gradient for the disgusted faces was shifted left while the generalization gradient for the fearful faces was shifted right) when compared with neutral faces. Accordingly, the contingent negative variation, an online ERP index of timing, displayed larger area in disgust and smaller area in fear conditions when compared with neutral condition (disgust = 1.94 ± 2.35 ?V•s, neutral = 1.40 ± 2.5 ?V•s, and fear = 1.00 ± 2.26 ?V•s). These findings indicated that specific neural mechanisms may underlie the attention effects of different subtypes of threat-related emotions on timing; compared with neutral faces, fearful faces are likely to attract more attentional resources while disgusted faces may attract less attentional resources for emotional processing. The major contribution of the current study is to provide neural correlates of fear vs. disgust divergence in the aspect of time perception and to demonstrate beyond the behavioral level that the categorization of threat-related emotions should be refined so to highlight the adaptability of the human defense system. PMID:25221488

Zhang, Dandan; Liu, Yunzhe; Wang, Xiaochun; Chen, Yuming; Luo, Yuejia

2014-01-01

181

Divided Attention Issues in Attention Research  

E-print Network

1 Divided Attention Issues in Attention Research · What happens to unattended information? · What factors affect our ability to divide our attention? Dual Task Performance · Task Similarity · Task in auditory modality · Pictures (presented visually) ­ Memory for: · Words ­ terrible · Pictures ­ excellent

Coulson, Seana

182

Broken Expec tations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention  

E-print Network

Broken Expec tations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention Franc in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture expectations, as opposed to novelty detection, in behavioral auditory attentional capture. Keywords: learned

Royal Holloway, University of London

183

Extended attention span training system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

1991-01-01

184

Visual Field Asymmetries in Attention Vary with Self-Reported Attention Deficits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether an index of self-reported attention deficits predicts the pattern of visual field asymmetries observed in behavioral measures of attention. Studies of "normal" subjects do not present a consistent pattern of asymmetry in attention functions, with some studies showing better left visual field (LVF)…

Poynter, William; Ingram, Paul; Minor, Scott

2010-01-01

185

Joint Attention in Autism: Teaching Smiling Coordinated with Gaze to Respond to Joint Attention Bids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism demonstrate early deficits in joint attention and expressions of affect. Interventions to teach joint attention have addressed gaze behavior, gestures, and vocalizations, but have not specifically taught an expression of positive affect such as smiling that tends to occur during joint attention interactions. Intervention was…

Krstovska-Guerrero, Ivana; Jones, Emily A.

2013-01-01

186

Measuring Attention in the Hemispheres: The Lateralized Attention Network Test (LANT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attention network test (ANT) is a brief computerized battery measuring three independent behavioral components of attention: Conflict resolution (ability to overcome distracting stimuli), spatial Orienting (the benefit of valid spatial pre-cues), and Alerting (the benefit of temporal pre-cues). Imaging, clinical, and behavioral evidence…

Greene, Deanna J.; Barnea, Anat; Herzberg, Kristin; Rassis, Anat; Neta, Maital; Raz, Amir; Zaidel, Eran

2008-01-01

187

Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder versus Several Comparison Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173)…

Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

2009-01-01

188

A Comparison of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation and Computerized Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Effects on Anxiety, Depression, Attentional Control, and Interpretive Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) and cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) both have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating social anxiety, but how they compare with each other has not been investigated. The present study tested the prediction that both interventions would reduce anxiety relative to a…

Bowler, Jennifer O.; Mackintosh, Bundy; Dunn, Barnaby D.; Mathews, Andrew; Dalgleish, Tim; Hoppitt, Laura

2012-01-01

189

Two-Stage Processing of Sounds Explains Behavioral Performance Variations due to Changes in Stimulus Contrast and Selective Attention: An MEG Study  

PubMed Central

Selectively attending to task-relevant sounds whilst ignoring background noise is one of the most amazing feats performed by the human brain. Here, we studied the underlying neural mechanisms by recording magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses of 14 healthy human subjects while they performed a near-threshold auditory discrimination task vs. a visual control task of similar difficulty. The auditory stimuli consisted of notch-filtered continuous noise masker sounds, and of 1020-Hz target tones occasionally () replacing 1000-Hz standard tones of 300-ms duration that were embedded at the center of the notches, the widths of which were parametrically varied. As a control for masker effects, tone-evoked responses were additionally recorded without masker sound. Selective attention to tones significantly increased the amplitude of the onset M100 response at 100 ms to the standard tones during presence of the masker sounds especially with notches narrower than the critical band. Further, attention modulated sustained response most clearly at 300–400 ms time range from sound onset, with narrower notches than in case of the M100, thus selectively reducing the masker-induced suppression of the tone-evoked response. Our results show evidence of a multiple-stage filtering mechanism of sensory input in the human auditory cortex: 1) one at early (100 ms) latencies bilaterally in posterior parts of the secondary auditory areas, and 2) adaptive filtering of attended sounds from task-irrelevant background masker at longer latency (300 ms) in more medial auditory cortical regions, predominantly in the left hemisphere, enhancing processing of near-threshold sounds. PMID:23071654

Kauramäki, Jaakko; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Hänninen, Jarno L.; Auranen, Toni; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Lampinen, Jouko; Sams, Mikko

2012-01-01

190

Learning, Memory, & Attention Instructor  

E-print Network

1 COGS 101B: Learning, Memory, & Attention · Welcome! · Instructor ­ Dr. Coulson ­ Email: coulson Attention ­ Divided Attention ­ Automaticity ­ Attentional Capture · Immediate Memory ­ Sensory Memory ­ Short-Term Memory ­ Working Memory · Long-Term Memory ­ Levels of Processing ­ Memory Systems

Coulson, Seana

191

Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder With and Without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Versus Several Comparison Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173) community controls. Parents rated children in the three ADHD groups comparably for

Sarit Guttmann-Steinmetz; Kenneth D. Gadow; Carla J. DeVincent

2009-01-01

192

Attentional Spreading in Object-Based Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated 2 effects of object-based attention: the spread of attention within an attended object and the prioritization of search across possible target locations within an attended object. Participants performed a flanker task in which the location of the task-relevant target was fixed and known to participants. A spreading…

Richard, Ashleigh M.; Lee, Hyunkyu; Vecera, Shaun P.

2008-01-01

193

Voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency  

PubMed Central

Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carrasco, 2008). Therefore, we ask whether voluntary attention affects the subjective appearance of spatial frequency—a fundamental dimension of visual perception underlying spatial resolution. We used a demanding rapid serial visual presentation task to direct voluntary attention and measured perceived spatial frequency at the attended and unattended locations. Attention increased the perceived spatial frequency of suprathreshold stimuli and also improved performance on a concurrent orientation discrimination task. In the control experiment, we ruled out response bias as an alternative account by using a lengthened interstimulus interval, which allows observers to disengage attention from the cued location. In contrast to the main experiment, the observers showed neither increased perceived spatial frequency nor improved orientation discrimination at the attended location. Thus, this study establishes that voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency. This phenomenological consequence links behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the effects of attention. PMID:20675797

Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

2010-01-01

194

Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)  

MedlinePLUS

... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...

195

A backward progression of attentional effects in the ventral stream  

E-print Network

The visual processing of behaviorally relevant stimuli is enhanced through top-down attentional feedback. One possibility is that feedback targets early visual areas first and the attentional enhancement builds up at ...

Desimone, Robert

196

Constructing Your In-Class Persona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features an article with suggestions for considering, as an instructor, an in-class persona. Factors that combine to create an in-class persona are considered, as well as possible results, such as improving relationships with students and ensuring that the in-class persona remains in charge.

Carroll, Jill; Education, The C.

197

Training Visual Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of brain waves and alpha rhythms on attentiveness to visual stimuli are discussed, and preliminary research findings and research needs are considered in connection with measuring and training for attention. (LH)

Mulholland, Thomas B.

1974-01-01

198

Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network  

PubMed Central

Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control. PMID:24223546

Viviani, Roberto

2013-01-01

199

Attention competition with advertisement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

2014-09-01

200

Integrating Conflict Detection and Attentional Control Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Human behavior involves monitoring and adjusting performance to meet established goals. Performance-monitoring systems that act by detecting conflict in stimulus and response processing have been hypothesized to influence cortical control systems to adjust and improve performance. Here we used fMRI to investigate the neural mechanisms of conflict monitoring and resolution during voluntary spatial attention. We tested the hypothesis that the ACC would be sensitive to conflict during attentional orienting and influence activity in the frontoparietal attentional control network that selectively modulates visual information processing. We found that activity in ACC increased monotonically with increasing attentional conflict. This increased conflict detection activity was correlated with both increased activity in the attentional control network and improved speed and accuracy from one trial to the next. These results establish a long hypothesized interaction between conflict detection systems and neural systems supporting voluntary control of visual attention. PMID:21126158

Walsh, Bong J.; Buonocore, Michael H.; Carter, Cameron S.; Mangun, George R.

2011-01-01

201

Behaviorism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

Moore, J.

2011-01-01

202

Attention Deficit Disorder: Diagnosis, Etiology and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides most recent information on attention deficit disorder including: (1) diagnostic considerations according to the latest behavioral criteria and breakthroughs using neurometric EEG assessment; (2) prevalence; (3) etiologies; (4) neurological basis; and (5) treatments. Evaluates alternatives to medication, behavior modification, cognitive…

Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed

1996-01-01

203

The Role of Attention in Conscious Recollection  

PubMed Central

Most research on the relationship between attention and consciousness has been limited to perception. However, perceptions are not the only kinds of mental contents of which we can be conscious. An important set of conscious states that has not received proper treatment within this discussion is that of memories. This paper reviews compelling evidence indicating that attention may be necessary, but probably not sufficient, for conscious recollection. However, it is argued that unlike the case of conscious perception, the kind of attention required during recollection is internal, as opposed to external, attention. As such, the surveyed empirical evidence is interpreted as suggesting that internal attention is necessary, but probably not sufficient, for conscious recollection. The paper begins by justifying the need for clear distinctions among different kinds of attention, and then emphasizes the difference between internal and external attention. Next, evidence from behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies suggesting that internal attention is required for the successful retrieval of memorial contents is reviewed. In turn, it is argued that internal attention during recollection is what makes us conscious of the contents of retrieved memories; further evidence in support of this claim is also provided. Finally, it is suggested that internal attention is probably not sufficient for conscious recollection. Open questions and possible avenues for future research are also mentioned. PMID:22363305

De Brigard, Felipe

2012-01-01

204

Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Attentional Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of…

Konrad, Kerstin; Gunther, Thomas; Hanisch, Charlotte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

2004-01-01

205

A chaotic model of sustaining attention problem in attention deficit disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of keeping an attention level is one of the common symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Dopamine deficiency is introduced as one of the causes of this disorder. Based on some physiological facts about the attention control mechanism and chaos intermittency, a behavioral model is presented in this paper. This model represents the problem of undesired alternation of attention level, and can also suggest different valuable predictions about a possible cause of attention deficit disorder. The proposed model reveals that there is a possible interaction between different neurotransmitters which help the individual to adaptively inhibit the attention switching over time. The result of this study can be used to examine and develop a new practical and more appropriate treatment for the problem of sustaining attention.

Baghdadi, G.; Jafari, S.; Sprott, J. C.; Towhidkhah, F.; Hashemi Golpayegani, M. R.

2015-01-01

206

Stochastic resonance in attention control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the beneficial role of noise in a human higher brain function, namely visual attention control. We asked subjects to detect a weak gray-level target inside a marker box either in the left or the right visual field. Signal detection performance was optimized by presenting a low level of randomly flickering gray-level noise between and outside the two possible target locations. Further, we found that an increase in eye movement (saccade) rate helped to compensate for the usual deterioration in detection performance at higher noise levels. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence that noise can optimize a higher brain function which involves distinct brain regions above the level of primary sensory systems -- switching behavior between multi-stable attention states -- via the mechanism of stochastic resonance.

Kitajo, K.; Yamanaka, K.; Ward, L. M.; Yamamoto, Y.

2006-12-01

207

Joint Attention and Imitative Learning in Children, Chimpanzees, and Enculturated  

E-print Network

Articles Joint Attention and Imitative Learning in Children, Chimpanzees, and Enculturated University Abstract In this study we compared the nature of the joint attentional interactions that occurred of such looks in periods of joint engagement with E, and gestural attempts to direct E's attention or behavior

Carpenter, M.alinda

208

Visual attention and the acquisition of information in human crowds  

E-print Network

, and context dependence of socially transmitted visual attention. In our first study, we instructed stimulusVisual attention and the acquisition of information in human crowds Andrew C. Gallupa,1,2 , Joseph of important socially contagious behaviors, including propagation of visual attention, violence, opinions

Couzin, Iain D.

209

Directed and motivated attention during processing of natural scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual attention can be voluntarily oriented to detect target stimuli in order to facilitate goal-directed behaviors. Other visual stimuli capture attention because of motivational significance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between directed and motivated attention using event-related potentials. Affectively engaging pictures were presented either as target stimuli or as nontargets in a categorization task.

Vera Ferrari; Maurizio Codispoti; Rossella Cardinale; Margaret M. Bradley

2008-01-01

210

Auditory and visual attention modulate motion processing in area MT+  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral and physiological studies have established that visual attention to a given feature or location can modulate early visual processing. In the present experiment, we asked whether auditory attention can likewise influence visual processing. We used a visual illusion, the motion aftereffect (MAE), to assess the effects of visual and auditory attention on motion processing in human area MT+. We

Rebecca A Berman; Carol L Colby

2002-01-01

211

Attentional Modulation of Adaptation in V4  

PubMed Central

Adaptation and visual attention are two processes that alter neural responses to luminance contrast. Rapid contrast adaptation changes response size and dynamics at all stages of visual processing while visual attention has been shown to modulate both contrast gain and response gain in macaque extrastriate visual cortex. Since attention aims to enhance behaviorally relevant sensory responses while adaptation acts to attenuate neural activity, the question we asked is, how does attention alter adaptation? We present here single-unit recordings from V4 of two rhesus macaques performing a cued target detection task. The study was designed to characterize the effects of attention on the size and dynamics of a sequence of responses produced by a series of flashed oriented gratings parametric in luminance contrast. We found that the effect of attention on the response dynamics of V4 neurons is inconsistent with a mechanism that only alters the effective stimulus contrast, or only rescales the gain of the response. Instead, the action of attention modifies contrast gain early in the task, and modifies both response gain and contrast gain later in the task. We also show that responses to attended stimuli are more closely locked to the stimulus cycle than unattended responses, and that attended responses show less of the phase lag produced by adaptation than unattended responses. The phase advance generated by attention of the adapted responses suggests that the attentional gain control operates in some ways like a contrast gain control utilizing a neural measure of contrast to influence dynamics. PMID:19558603

Hudson, Andrew E.; Schiff, Nicholas D.; Victor, Jonathan D.; Purpura, Keith P.

2009-01-01

212

Contingent Attentional Capture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

1994-01-01

213

A Vasopressin Metabolite Increases Attentional Selectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two behavioral paradigms were used to assess the effect of a vasopressin metabolite, AVP4?9, on selectivity of attention. The effects observed in a multiple-cue task indicated that AVP4?9 treatment increased the extent to which attention was controlled by the dominant cues in the environment. When these stimuli predicted reward, the peptide treatment facilitated learning, but when these cues were nonpredictive,

Michael Bunsey; David Kramer; Marilyn Kesler; Barbara J. Strupp

1990-01-01

214

Attention, Awareness, and Foreign Language Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the role of awareness in relation to R. W. Schmidt's noticing hypothesis in second language acquisition. The study analyzed the think-aloud protocols of adult learners of Spanish as a second language as they were completing a problem-solving task as well as their immediate performances on two post-exposure assessment tasks, a recognition…

Leow, Ronald P.

1997-01-01

215

The Goldilocks effect in infant auditory attention.  

PubMed

Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant auditory attention, and none have directly tested theorized mechanisms of attentional selection based on stimulus complexity. This work utilizes model-based behavioral methods that were recently developed to examine visual attention in infants (e.g., Kidd, Piantadosi, & Aslin, 2012). The present results demonstrate that 7- to 8-month-old infants selectively attend to nonsocial auditory stimuli that are intermediately predictable/complex with respect to their current implicit beliefs and expectations. These findings provide evidence of a broad principle of infant attention across modalities and suggest that sound-to-sound transitional statistics heavily influence the allocation of auditory attention in human infants. PMID:24990627

Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T; Aslin, Richard N

2014-01-01

216

ERP Measures of Multiple Attention Deficits Following Prefrontal Damage  

E-print Network

and Robert T. Knight 339 ABSTRACT Maintaining a goal-directed behavior requires selec- tively attending mechanism must be in operation, so that deviant or novel events may bring about reorientation of attention Maintaining a goal-directed behavior requires attention, that is, biased processing of a subset of sensory

Knight, Robert T.

217

Contributions of Attentional Control to Socioemotional and Academic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Part of the attention system of the brain is involved in the control of thoughts, emotions, and behavior. As attentional control develops, children are more able to control cognition and responses flexibly and to adjust their behavior in social interactions better. In this article, we discuss evidence from different levels of…

Rueda, M. Rosario; Checa, Purificacion; Rothbart, Mary K.

2010-01-01

218

Role of Attention in the Regulation of Fear and Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion regulation makes use of specific aspects of attention and executive functions that are critical for the development of adaptive social functioning, and perturbations in these processes can result in maladaptive behavior and psychopathology. Both involuntary and voluntary attention processes have been examined at both the behavioral and the neural levels and are implicated in the maintenance of fearful or

Lauren K. White; Sarah M. Helfinstein; Bethany C. Reeb-Sutherland; Kathryn A. Degnan; Nathan A. Fox

2009-01-01

219

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... 2 Items) Treatments (2 Items) Q: What is ADHD? A: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a ... aged children. Q: What are the symptoms of ADHD? A: ADHD has a wide range of symptoms ...

220

Attentional Processes in Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attentional processes in individuals with high-functioning autism were compared with a matched control group. Participants for the study were 103 children and adults with autism and 103 control subjects. Measures administered corresponded to Mirsky et al.'s (1991) factor analysis of tests of attention. Diminished performance was noted on measures that loaded on the Focus-Execute and Shift factors, but not on

Gerald Goldstein; Cynthia R. Johnson; Nancy J. Minshew

2001-01-01

221

Baseline Shifts do not Predict Attentional Modulation of Target Processing During Feature-Based Visual Attention  

PubMed Central

Cues that direct selective attention to a spatial location have been observed to increase baseline neural activity in visual areas that represent a to-be-attended stimulus location. Analogous attention-related baseline shifts have also been observed in response to attention-directing cues for non-spatial stimulus features. It has been proposed that baseline shifts with preparatory attention may serve as the mechanism by which attention modulates the responses to subsequent visual targets that match the attended location or feature. Using functional MRI, we localized color- and motion-sensitive visual areas in individual subjects and investigated the relationship between cue-induced baseline shifts and the subsequent attentional modulation of task-relevant target stimuli. Although attention-directing cues often led to increased background neural activity in feature specific visual areas, these increases were not correlated with either behavior in the task or subsequent attentional modulation of the visual targets. These findings cast doubt on the hypothesis that attention-related shifts in baseline neural activity result in selective sensory processing of visual targets during feature-based selective attention. PMID:18958221

Fannon, Sean P.; Saron, Clifford D.; Mangun, George R.

2007-01-01

222

Baseline shifts do not predict attentional modulation of target processing during feature-based visual attention.  

PubMed

Cues that direct selective attention to a spatial location have been observed to increase baseline neural activity in visual areas that represent a to-be-attended stimulus location. Analogous attention-related baseline shifts have also been observed in response to attention-directing cues for non-spatial stimulus features. It has been proposed that baseline shifts with preparatory attention may serve as the mechanism by which attention modulates the responses to subsequent visual targets that match the attended location or feature. Using functional MRI, we localized color- and motion-sensitive visual areas in individual subjects and investigated the relationship between cue-induced baseline shifts and the subsequent attentional modulation of task-relevant target stimuli. Although attention-directing cues often led to increased background neural activity in feature specific visual areas, these increases were not correlated with either behavior in the task or subsequent attentional modulation of the visual targets. These findings cast doubt on the hypothesis that attention-related shifts in baseline neural activity result in selective sensory processing of visual targets during feature-based selective attention. PMID:18958221

Fannon, Sean P; Saron, Clifford D; Mangun, George R

2007-01-01

223

The role of intrinsic motivations in attention allocation and shifting  

PubMed Central

The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learning (RL), where both these capabilities are involved. RL is deployed to learn how to allocate attentional resources in a behavior-based robotic system, while action selection is obtained as a side effect of the resulting motivated attentional behaviors. Moreover, the influence of intrinsic motivations in attention orientation is obtained by introducing rewards associated with curiosity drives. In this way, the learning process is affected not only by goal-specific rewards, but also by intrinsic motivations. PMID:24744746

Di Nocera, Dario; Finzi, Alberto; Rossi, Silvia; Staffa, Mariacarla

2014-01-01

224

Toddlers' Duration of Attention toward Putative Threat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk of developing anxious behavior, toddlers' attention toward a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined…

Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

2011-01-01

225

There is no Such Thing as Attention.  

PubMed

Given that the core issues of attention research have been recognized for millenia, we do not know as much about attention as we should. I argue that the reasons for this failure are (1) we create spurious dichotomies, (2) we reify attention, treating it as a cause, when it is an effect, and (3) we equate a collection of facts with a theory. In order to correct these errors, we need a new technical vocabulary that allows for attentional effects to be continuously distributed, rather than merely present or absent, and that provides a basis for quantitative behavioral predictions that map onto neural substrates. The terminology of the Bayesian decision process has already proved useful for structuring conceptual discussions in other psychological domains, such as perception and decision making under uncertainty, and it had demonstrated early success in the domain of attention. By rejecting a reified, causal conception of attention, in favor of theories that produce attentional effects as consequences, psychologists will be able to conduct more definitive experiments. Such conceptual advances will then enhance the productivity of neuroscientists by allowing them to concentrate their data collection efforts on the richest soil. PMID:21977019

Anderson, Britt

2011-01-01

226

Components of attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Divides the study of human attention into 3 components: alertness, selectivity, and processing capacity. Experimental techniques designed to separate these components and examine their interrelations within comparable tasks are outlined. It is shown that a stimulus may be used to increase alertness for processing all external information, to improve selection of particular stimuli, or to do both simultaneously. Development of

Michael I. Posner; Stephen J. Boies

1971-01-01

227

Attention Capture by Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

2008-01-01

228

Visual Attention during Spatial Language Comprehension  

PubMed Central

Spatial terms such as “above”, “in front of”, and “on the left of” are all essential for describing the location of one object relative to another object in everyday communication. Apprehending such spatial relations involves relating linguistic to object representations by means of attention. This requires at least one attentional shift, and models such as the Attentional Vector Sum (AVS) predict the direction of that attention shift, from the sausage to the box for spatial utterances such as “The box is above the sausage”. To the extent that this prediction generalizes to overt gaze shifts, a listener’s visual attention should shift from the sausage to the box. However, listeners tend to rapidly look at referents in their order of mention and even anticipate them based on linguistic cues, a behavior that predicts a converse attentional shift from the box to the sausage. Four eye-tracking experiments assessed the role of overt attention in spatial language comprehension by examining to which extent visual attention is guided by words in the utterance and to which extent it also shifts “against the grain” of the unfolding sentence. The outcome suggests that comprehenders’ visual attention is predominantly guided by their interpretation of the spatial description. Visual shifts against the grain occurred only when comprehenders had some extra time, and their absence did not affect comprehension accuracy. However, the timing of this reverse gaze shift on a trial correlated with that trial’s verification time. Thus, while the timing of these gaze shifts is subtly related to the verification time, their presence is not necessary for successful verification of spatial relations. PMID:25607540

Burigo, Michele; Knoeferle, Pia

2015-01-01

229

Visual Attention during Spatial Language Comprehension.  

PubMed

Spatial terms such as "above", "in front of", and "on the left of" are all essential for describing the location of one object relative to another object in everyday communication. Apprehending such spatial relations involves relating linguistic to object representations by means of attention. This requires at least one attentional shift, and models such as the Attentional Vector Sum (AVS) predict the direction of that attention shift, from the sausage to the box for spatial utterances such as "The box is above the sausage". To the extent that this prediction generalizes to overt gaze shifts, a listener's visual attention should shift from the sausage to the box. However, listeners tend to rapidly look at referents in their order of mention and even anticipate them based on linguistic cues, a behavior that predicts a converse attentional shift from the box to the sausage. Four eye-tracking experiments assessed the role of overt attention in spatial language comprehension by examining to which extent visual attention is guided by words in the utterance and to which extent it also shifts "against the grain" of the unfolding sentence. The outcome suggests that comprehenders' visual attention is predominantly guided by their interpretation of the spatial description. Visual shifts against the grain occurred only when comprehenders had some extra time, and their absence did not affect comprehension accuracy. However, the timing of this reverse gaze shift on a trial correlated with that trial's verification time. Thus, while the timing of these gaze shifts is subtly related to the verification time, their presence is not necessary for successful verification of spatial relations. PMID:25607540

Burigo, Michele; Knoeferle, Pia

2015-01-01

230

Orbitofrontal Cortex Biases Attention to Emotional Events  

PubMed Central

We examined the role of orbitofrontal (OF) cortex in regulating emotion-attention interaction and the balance between involuntary and voluntary attention allocation. We studied patients with OF lesion applying reaction time (RT) and event-related potential (ERP) measures in a lateralized visual discrimination task with novel task-irrelevant affective pictures (unpleasant, pleasant or neutral) preceding a neutral target. This allowed for comparing the effects of automatic attention allocation to emotional vs neutral stimuli on subsequent voluntary attention allocation to target stimuli. N2-P3a and N2-P3b ERP components served as measures of involuntary and voluntary attention allocation correspondingly. Enhanced N2-P3a amplitudes to emotional distractors and reduced N2-P3b amplitudes to targets preceded by emotional distractors were observed in healthy subjects, suggesting automatic emotional orienting interfered with subsequent voluntary orienting. OF patients showed an opposite pattern with tendency towards reduced N2-P3a responses to emotional distractors, suggesting impaired automatic orienting to emotional stimuli due to orbitofrontal damage. Enhanced N2-P3b responses to targets preceded by any affective distractor was observed in OF patients, suggesting bias towards voluntary target-related attention allocation due to orbitofrontal lesion. Behavioral evidence indicated that LVF attention performance was modulated by emotional stimuli. Specifically, OF patients responded faster to LVF targets subsequent to pleasant emotional distractors. We suggest damage to the orbitofrontal circuitry leads to dysbalance between voluntary and involuntary attention allocation in the context of affective distracters with predisposition to posterior target related processing over frontal novelty and affect related processing. Furthermore, we suggest orbitofrontal influence on emotion- attention interaction is valence and hemisphere dependent. PMID:22413757

Hartikainen, K.M.; Ogawa, K.H.; Knight, R.T.

2012-01-01

231

Brain Mechanisms Mediating Auditory Attentional Capture in Humans  

E-print Network

to a stream of auditory stimuli with no measure of the effects of deviant auditory stimulus on behavior. Without a concurrent behavioral measure of the effects of such deviants on attention, such studies cannot task, is often critical for adaptive behavior. This stimulus-driven allocation of processing resources

Lavie, Nilli

232

The Effect of Interactive Music Therapy on Joint Attention Skills in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of interactive music sessions on joint attention behaviors in preschool children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Joint attention, the ability to share attention ...

Arezina, Clare Helene

233

What Is a Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrician?  

MedlinePLUS

... including Learning disorders including dyslexia, writing diffi culties, math disorders, and other school-related learning problems Attention and behavioral disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity ...

234

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 4–8% of the population\\u000a across the life span. Up to 90% of those with ADHD have at least one comorbid condition that may be more critical to the child’s\\u000a or adolescent’s health than is the ADHD. Those with neurodevelopmental disorders are at high risk for ADHD. Management involves

Donald E. Greydanus

235

Inhibition drives early feature-based attention  

PubMed Central

Attention can modulate processing of visual input according to task-relevant features, even as early as ~100 ms after stimulus presentation. In the present study, ERP and behavioral data reveal that inhibition of distractor features, rather than activation of target features, is the primary driver of early feature-based selection in human observers. This discovery of inhibition consistent with task goals during early visual processing suggests that inhibition plays a much larger role at an earlier stage of target selection than previously recognized, and highlights the importance of understanding the role of inhibition (in addition to activation) in attention. PMID:24390823

Moher, Jeff; Lakshmanan, Balaji M.; Egeth, Howard E.; Ewen, Joshua B.

2013-01-01

236

Attention in risky choice.  

PubMed

Previous research on the processes involved in risky decisions has rarely linked process data to choice directly. We used a simple measure based on the relative amount of attentional deployment to different components (gains/losses and their probabilities) of a risky gamble during the choice process, and we related this measure to the actual choice. In an experiment we recorded the decisions, decision times, and eye movements of 80 participants who made decisions on 11 choice problems. We used the number of eye fixations and fixation transitions to trace the deployment of attention during the choice process and obtained the following main results. First, different components of a gamble attracted different amounts of attention depending on participants' actual choice. This was reflected in both the number of fixations and the fixation transitions. Second, the last-fixated gamble but not the last-fixated reason predicted participants' choices. Third, a comparison of data obtained with eye tracking and data obtained with verbal protocols from a previous study showed a large degree of convergence regarding the process of risky choice. Together these findings tend to support dimensional decision strategies such as the priority heuristic. PMID:25226548

Brandstätter, Eduard; Körner, Christof

2014-10-01

237

Attentional retraining can reduce chocolate consumption.  

PubMed

There is emerging evidence that attentional biases are related to the consumption of substances such as alcohol and tobacco, and that attentional bias modification can reduce unwanted consumption of these substances. We present evidence for the first time to our knowledge that the same logical argument applies in the food and eating domain. We conducted two experiments that used a modified dot probe paradigm to train undergraduate women to direct their attention toward ("attend") or away from ("avoid") food cues (i.e., pictures of chocolate). In Experiment 1, attentional bias for chocolate cues increased in the "attend" group, and decreased in the "avoid" group. Experiment 2 showed that these training effects generalized to novel, previously unseen chocolate pictures. Importantly, attentional retraining affected chocolate consumption and craving. In both experiments, participants in the "avoid" group ate less chocolate in a so-called taste test than did those in the "attend" group. In addition, in Experiment 2, but not in Experiment 1, the "attend" group reported stronger chocolate cravings following training, whereas the "avoid" group reported less intense cravings. The results support predictions of cognitive-motivational models of craving and consumption that attentional biases play a causal role in consumption behavior. Furthermore, they present a promising avenue for tackling unwanted food cravings and (over)eating. PMID:24079387

Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Orr, Jenna; Grear, Justine

2014-03-01

238

The Power of In-Class Debates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The students in three sections of a class rated their knowledge and identified their view before and after each of five in-class debates. The degree of self-reported knowledge was significantly different after four of the five debates. Between 31% and 58% of participants changed their views after participating in or observing each debate. Some…

Kennedy, Ruth R.

2009-01-01

239

Dyadic Orienting and Joint Attention in Preschool Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acts of dyadic orienting (responses to attention bids by a researcher) and acts of joint attention (e.g. pointing and showing behaviors) were observed in preschool children with autism and children with developmental delay. Children with autism responded to fewer adult vocal and non-vocal attention bids that were made singly and by combining modalities (e.g. name call plus touch). Sensitivity in

Susan R. Leekam; Christopher A. H. Ramsden

2006-01-01

240

Differentiation of attention-related problems in childhood absence epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the specific types of attention-related problems children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) experience and the role of disease factors in the development of attention-related problems. Thirty-eight subjects with CAE and 46 healthy controls, aged 6 to 16, participated in the study. The Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) was completed by parents, and the Attention Problems

Clemente Vega; Matthew Vestal; Matthew DeSalvo; Rachel Berman; MiHae Chung; Hal Blumenfeld; Marisa N. Spann

2010-01-01

241

Joint Attention and Attachment in Toddlers with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joint attention is often referred to as a triadic relation between self, other and object. Young children with autism show deficiencies in the use of joint attention behaviors. Individual differences may be expected, and they may be determined by the children's cognitive development or the characteristics of the relationship of the child with the…

Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van Engeland, Herman

2007-01-01

242

Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

2012-01-01

243

Octave effect in auditory attention Tobias Borraa,b  

E-print Network

, and Behavior, Philips Research, 5656 AE, Eindhoven, The Netherlands; and h Laboratory of Experimental to other tones. Current auditory models explain this phenomenon by a simple bandpass attention filter. Here­5). This process is thought to be mediated by attention (6) and, to date, is characterized by a bandpass filter

van Ee, Raymond

244

Saliency, attention, and visual search: An information theoretic approach  

E-print Network

Saliency, attention, and visual search: An information theoretic approach Department of Computer that a variety of visual search behaviors appear as emergent properties of the model and therefore basic: saliency, visual attention, visual search, eye movements, information theory, efficient coding, pop

245

Attention control: explorations of the work of an executive controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution reviews three lines of studies set to investigate attention control and executive control operations, in the general context of the interplay between bottom-up and top-down processes in the conduct of proficient behavior. One line of studies focused on the act of switching attention between tasks and the mental costs associated with it. A second group of experiments investigated

Daniel Gopher

1996-01-01

246

A Neural Theory of Visual Attention: Bridging Cognition and Neurophysiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A neural theory of visual attention (NTVA) is presented. NTVA is a neural interpretation of C. Bundesen's (1990) theory of visual attention (TVA). In NTVA, visual processing capacity is distributed across stimuli by dynamic remapping of receptive fields of cortical cells such that more processing resources (cells) are devoted to behaviorally

Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas; Kyllingsbaek, Soren

2005-01-01

247

Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. II: visual attention.  

PubMed

Human subjects performed in several behavioral conditions requiring, or not requiring, selective attention to visual stimuli. Specifically, the attentional task was to recognize strings of digits that had been presented visually. A nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emission (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was collected during the visual presentation of the digits. The segment of the physiological response discussed here occurred during brief silent periods immediately following the SFOAE-evoking stimuli. For all subjects tested, the physiological-noise magnitudes were substantially weaker (less noisy) during the tasks requiring the most visual attention. Effect sizes for the differences were >2.0. Our interpretation is that cortico-olivo influences adjusted the magnitude of efferent activation during the SFOAE-evoking stimulation depending upon the attention task in effect, and then that magnitude of efferent activation persisted throughout the silent period where it also modulated the physiological noise present. Because the results were highly similar to those obtained when the behavioral conditions involved auditory attention, similar mechanisms appear to operate both across modalities and within modalities. Supplementary measurements revealed that the efferent activation was spectrally global, as it was for auditory attention. PMID:24732070

Walsh, Kyle P; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

2014-06-01

248

Joint attention and language evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates how more advanced joint attentional mechanisms, rather than only shared attention between two agents and an object, can be implemented and how they influence the results of language games played by these agents. We present computer simulations with language games showing that adding constructs that mimic the three stages of joint attention identified in children's early development (checking attention, following attention, and directing attention) substantially increase the performance of agents in these language games. In particular, the rates of improved performance for the individual attentional mechanisms have the same ordering as that of the emergence of these mechanisms in infants' development. These results suggest that language evolution and joint attentional mechanisms have developed in a co-evolutionary way, and that the evolutionary emergence of the individual attentional mechanisms is ordered just like their developmental emergence.

Kwisthout, Johan; Vogt, Paul; Haselager, Pim; Dijkstra, Ton

2008-06-01

249

In-class Polling for All Learners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource website for the IPAL project provides a free and open-source Moodle module to support in-class student polling. A stand-alone program for non-Moodle users is also available. This module provides a web-based interface for teachers and students engaged in peer instruction or other classroom quizzing and a database of ready-to-use, peer reviewed questions. Students can use cell phones, laptops, other web-enabled devices, and clickers to respond to in-class polling questions. A goal of the IPAL project is to determine if an analysis of student response patterns during polling sessions may allow an early identification of students who are at risk of dropping a course or dropping out of school.

Junkin, William

2012-06-13

250

Attention, Attention Rating and Cognitive Assessment: A Review and a Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We begin with the suggestion that the definition of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) still faces some challenges. Conceptually, inhibition of the Pavlovian kind preexisted the "behavioral inhibition" popular in the USA; the difference between them has to be understood in order to understand ADHD. The present project examines the…

Boersma, Hester; Das, J.P.

2008-01-01

251

Neural correlates of attentional bias in addiction.  

PubMed

A small but growing neuroimaging literature has begun to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the difficulty that substance-use dependent (SUD) groups have with ignoring salient, drug-related stimuli. Drug-related attentional bias appears to implicate the countermanding forces of cognitive control and reward salience. Basic cognitive neuroscience research suggests that ignoring emotionally evocative stimuli in our environment requires both up-regulation of control networks and down-regulation of processing in emotion and reward regions. Research to date suggests that attentional biases for drug-related stimuli emerge from a failure to sufficiently increase control of attention over salient, but task-irrelevant stimuli. While SUD samples have typically shown increased activity in the cognitive control regions (ie, lateral prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate), during attentional bias such increases appear to have been insufficient for the concomitant increases in processing by the emotion/reward regions (ie, amygdala, insula, and striatum). Given the potential contribution of attentional biases to perpetuating drug use and the development of interventions (both pharmaceutical and cognitive-behavioral) to treat biases, understanding the neural basis of successfully reducing bias remains an important, but as yet unanswered, question for our field. PMID:23919984

Hester, Robert; Luijten, Maartje

2014-06-01

252

ATTENTIONAL BIAS AND ALCOHOL ABUSE.  

E-print Network

??Selective attention towards alcohol-related cues (i.e., “attentional bias”) is thought to reflect increased incentive motivational value of alcohol and alcohol cues acquired through a history… (more)

Weafer, Jessica Jane

2012-01-01

253

Getting the attention you need.  

PubMed

Employees have an enormous amount of business information at their fingertips--more specifically, at their desktops. The floodgates are open; profitable possibilities abound. But having to handle all that information has pushed downsized staffs to the brink of an acute attention deficit disorder. To achieve corporate goals, business leaders need their employees' full attention--and that attention is in short supply. Authors Thomas Davenport and John Beck have studied how companies manage the attention of their employees and their site visitors. In this article, they analyze the components of attention management through three lenses--economic, psychobiological, and technological--and offer guidelines for keeping employees focused on crucial corporate tasks. Their lessons are drawn from the best practices employed by today's stickiest Web sites and by traditional attention industries such as advertising, film, and television. The authors say executives must manage attention knowing that it's a zero-sum game (there's only so much to go around). Managers should also consider capitalizing on the basic survival and competitive instincts we all have that help determine how much attention we pay to certain things. For instance, the threat of corporate demise--and the consequent loss of jobs and livelihoods--undoubtedly focuses workers' attention on the need to change. Likewise, internal competition among business units may give employees added incentive to pay attention to a profit or sales goal. Leaders today need to pay more attention to attention because it's widely misunderstood and widely mismanaged, the authors conclude. PMID:11143148

Davenport, T H; Beck, J C

2000-01-01

254

Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers  

PubMed Central

In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

2012-01-01

255

Is Attention Impaired in ADHD?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explanations of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in terms of a weakness in Executive Function (EF) or related concepts, such as inhibition, are briefly reviewed. Some alternative views are considered, in particular a proposal by Manly and others that ADHD is a weakness primarily of sustained attention (plus control of attention),…

Wilding, John

2005-01-01

256

A Phenomenological Description of Primary Creep in Class M Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of creep microstructures in the primary creep region in class M materials show a remarkable similarity with those formed in the exponential creep regime. As a result, it is proposed that the constitutive creep law for normal primary creep is similar to that for the exponential creep regime. A phenomenological description is discussed to rationalize these microstructural observations in terms of a normalized strain rate vs. stress plot. The implications of this plot in describing different testing procedures, steady-state flow, and on the observed deviations from the universal creep law are discussed. The plot is also extended to explain the observed similarities in the transient creep behavior in pre-strained materials and in stress change experiments.

Raj, S. V.; Freed, A. D.

1999-01-01

257

Attentional tradeoffs in the pigeon.  

PubMed

We deployed the Multiple Necessary Cues (MNC) discrimination task to see if pigeons can simultaneously attend to four different dimensions of complex visual stimuli. Specifically, we trained nine pigeons (Columba livia) on a go/no go discrimination to peck only 1 of 16 compound stimuli created from all possible combinations of two stimulus values from four separable visual dimensions: shape (circle/square), size (large/small), line orientation (horizontal/vertical), and brightness (dark/light). Some of the pigeons had CLHD (circle, large, horizontal, dark) as the positive stimulus (S+), whereas others had SSVL (square, small, vertical, light) as the S+. We recorded touchscreen pecking during the first 15?s that each stimulus was presented on each training trial. Discrimination training continued until pigeons' rates of responding to all 15 negative stimuli (S-s) fell to less than 15% of their response rates to the S+. All pigeons acquired the MNC discrimination, suggesting that they attended to all four dimensions of the multidimensional stimuli. Learning rate was similar for all four dimensions, indicating equivalent salience of the discriminative stimuli. The more dimensions along which the S-s differed from the S+, the faster was discrimination learning, suggesting an added benefit from increasing perceptual disparities of the S-s from the S+. Finally, evidence of attentional tradeoffs among the four dimensions was seen during discrimination learning, raising interesting questions concerning the possible control of behavior by elemental and configural stimuli. PMID:24634281

Vyazovska, O V; Teng, Y; Wasserman, E A

2014-05-01

258

Measuring Attention in the Hemispheres: The Lateralized Attention Network Test (LANT)  

PubMed Central

The Attention Network Test (ANT) is a brief computerized battery measuring three independent behavioral components of attention: Conflict resolution (ability to overcome distracting stimuli), spatial Orienting (the benefit of valid spatial pre-cues), and Alerting (the benefit of temporal pre-cues). Imaging, clinical, and behavioral evidence demonstrate hemispheric asymmetries in these attentional networks. We constructed a lateralized version of the ANT (LANT), with brief targets flashed in one or the other visual hemifield. We also modified the tests by including invalid spatial cues in order to measure the cost component of Orienting. In a series of experiments, we investigated the efficiency of the attention networks separately in each hemisphere. Participants exhibited significant estimates of all networks measured by the LANT, comparable to the ANT. The three networks were represented in each hemisphere separately and were largely comparable across the two hemispheres. We suggest that the LANT is an informative extension of the original ANT, allowing for measurement of the three attention networks in each hemisphere separately. PMID:17590491

Greene, Deanna J.; Barnea, Anat; Herzberg, Kristin; Rassis, Anat; Neta, Maital; Raz, Amir; Zaidel, Eran

2008-01-01

259

Attention-Modulating Effects of Cognitive Enhancers  

EPA Science Inventory

Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review fo...

260

Dysfunctional attention in autistic savants.  

PubMed

A dysfunctional attention hypothesis of the basis of savant skills was tested with a series of computerized tasks that assessed the ability to divide, shift, direct, and sustain attention. Ten healthy men with pervasive developmental disorders and unusual calendar-calculating skill, and 10 age- and sex-matched controls were tested. There were four general findings. First, the savants and controls did not differ on a measure of visual sustained attention. Second, the savants failed to detect rare auditory targets significantly more than did the controls. Third, the savants were unable to efficiently divide their attention when required to detect both visual and auditory targets simultaneously. Finally, deficient orienting or a deficit in shifting selective attention from one stimulus location to another was evidenced in overall slower reaction times for the savants across tasks requiring shifts and redirecting of attention. This deficit was attributed to an inability to disengage attention as a result of deficient orienting and overselectivity. PMID:8120129

Casey, B J; Gordon, C T; Mannheim, G B; Rumsey, J M

1993-11-01

261

Early Social Attention Impairments in Autism: Social Orienting, Joint Attention, and Attention to Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated social attention impairments in autism (social orienting, joint attention, and attention to another's distress) and their relations to language ability. Three- to four-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 72), 3- to 4-year-old developmentally delayed children (n = 34), and 12- to 46-month-old typically…

Dawson, Geraldine; Toth, Karen; Abbott, Robert; Osterling, Julie; Munson, Jeff; Estes, Annette; Liaw, Jane

2004-01-01

262

Neural Mechanisms of Involuntary Attention to Acoustic Novelty and Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures were used to elucidate the neural mechanisms of involuntary engagement of attention by novelty and change in the acoustic environment. The behavioral measures consisted of the reaction time (RT) and performance accuracy (hit rate) in a forced-choice visual RT task where subjects were to discriminate between odd and even numbers. Each visual stimulus

Carles Escera; Kimmo Alho; István Winkler; Risto Näätänen

1998-01-01

263

Dissociable Mechanisms of Attentional Control within the Human Prefrontal Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological tests that require shifting an attentional set, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, are sensitive to frontal lobe damage. Although little information is available for humans, an animal experiment suggested that different regions of the prefrontal cortex may contribute to set shifting behavior at different levels of processing. Behavioral studies also suggest that set shifting trials are more

Yasuhiro Nagahama; Tomohisa Okada; Yukinori Katsumi; Takuya Hayashi; Hiroshi Yamauchi; Chisako Oyanagi; Junji Konishi; Hidenao Fukuyama; Hiroshi Shibasaki

2001-01-01

264

EEG Markers for Attention Deficit Disorder: Pharmacological and Neurofeedback Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined contribution of EEG findings in the classification and treatment of attention deficit and related behavioral problems in children. Found that quantitative EEG methods disclosed patterns of abnormality in children with ADD, suggested improved guidelines for pharmacological treatment, and introduced neurofeedback, a behavioral treatment for…

Sterman, M. Barry

2000-01-01

265

Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis. PMID:22478393

Salzinger, Kurt

2003-01-01

266

Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior.  

PubMed

Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as "mere" verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis. PMID:22478393

Salzinger, Kurt

2003-01-01

267

Early Effects of the Tomatis Listening Method in Children with Attention Deficit.  

E-print Network

??This study investigated the early effects of the Tomatis Method, hypothesizing improvement in processing speed, phonological awareness, reading efficiency, attention, behavior and brain physiology by… (more)

Sacarin, Liliana

2013-01-01

268

Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care  

MedlinePLUS

Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care Selecting quality behavioral health care services for yourself, a relative or friend requires special thought and attention. The Joint Commission on ...

269

Attentional capture by dynamic cues.  

PubMed

Attention orients to an object that abruptly onsets, because the object's appearance alters the visual scene. In this report, the question was whether there would, similarly, be attentional prioritization of an existing object that changes its dynamic status. Attention may be deployed immediately to the object because its new dynamic status, potentially, also could alter the visual environment. This report focused on the capture capacity of an object-made up of four spots-that abruptly began rotating, thereby endowing it with two dynamic features: motion-onset, apparent when the object transitioned from stationary to moving, and its specific motion trajectory. Because the rotating spots were irrelevant to the main letter-identification task, there ought not to be top-down attentional orienting to them. We asked two questions: (a) whether the rotating object captures attention automatically, and (b) whether both its dynamic features contribute to attentional capture. Four experiments were reported. The observer's attentional set was manipulated by varying, across experiments, the target's diagnostic feature. We examined how the different attentional sets modulated capture. The results showed that the rotating object only succeeded in capturing attention when the attentional system was set to monitor dynamic features. PMID:25205064

Chua, Fook K

2015-01-01

270

Attentional Modulation of Binocular Rivalry  

PubMed Central

Ever since Wheatstone initiated the scientific study of binocular rivalry, it has been debated whether the phenomenon is under attentional control. In recent years, the issue of attentional modulation of binocular rivalry has seen a revival. Here we review the classical studies as well as recent advances in the study of attentional modulation of binocular rivalry. We show that (1) voluntary control over binocular rivalry is possible, yet limited, (2) both endogenous and exogenous attention influence perceptual dominance during rivalry, (3) diverting attention from rival displays does not arrest perceptual alternations, and that (4) rival targets by themselves can also attract attention. From a theoretical perspective, we suggest that attention affects binocular rivalry by modulating the effective contrast of the images in competition. This contrast enhancing effect of top-down attention is counteracted by a response attenuating effect of neural adaptation at early levels of visual processing, which weakens the response to the dominant image. Moreover, we conclude that although frontal and parietal brain areas involved in both binocular rivalry and visual attention overlap, an adapting reciprocal inhibition arrangement at early visual cortex is sufficient to trigger switches in perceptual dominance independently of a higher-level “selection” mechanisms. Both of these processes are reciprocal and therefore self-balancing, with the consequence that complete attentional control over binocular rivalry can never be realized. PMID:22046156

Paffen, Chris L. E.; Alais, David

2011-01-01

271

Social Attention and the Brain  

PubMed Central

Humans and other animals pay attention to other members of their groups to acquire valuable social information about them, including information about their identity, dominance, fertility, emotions, and likely intent. In primates, attention to other group members and the objects of their attention is mediated by neural circuits that transduce sensory information about others and translate that information into value signals that bias orienting. This process likely proceeds via two distinct but integrated pathways: an ancestral, subcortical route that mediates crude but fast orienting to animate objects and faces; and a more derived route involving cortical orienting circuits that mediate nuanced and context-dependent social attention. PMID:19889376

Klein, Jeffrey T.; Shepherd, Stephen V.; Platt, Michael L.

2012-01-01

272

High-level attention Attention in complex tasks  

E-print Network

is lengthened. S1 R1 S2 R2 ADHD and Sustained Attention · Selecting among tasks and perceptual inputs attention to one set of inputs and actions · Distractors are a problem in ADHD ­ Milich & Lorch: Sustained better than ADHD · ADHD kids remembered more of the posters on the wall #12;4 Skilled performance · How

Pillow, Jonathan

273

A dissociation between attention and selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is widely assumed that the allocatian of spatial attention results in the "selection" of attended objects or regions of space. That is, once a stimulus is attended, all its feature dimensions are processed irrespective of their relevance to behavioral goals. This assumption is based in part on experiments showing significant interference for attended stimuli when the response to an irrelevant dimension conflicts with the response to the relevant dimension (e.g., the Stroop effect). Here we show that such interference is not due to attending per se. In two spatial cuing experiments, we found that it was possible to restrict processing of attended stimuli to task-relevant dimensions. This new evidence supports two novel conclusions: (a) Selection involves more than the focusing of attention per se: and (b) task expectations play a key role in detertnining the depth of processing of the elementary feature dimensions of attended stimuli.

Remington, R. W.; Folk, C. L.

2001-01-01

274

Effectiveness of Training Parents to Teach Joint Attention in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children with autism have deficits in initiating and responding to joint attention bids. This study was designed to examine a parent-implemented intervention targeting joint attention responding in children with autism. Parents were trained to increase their joint attention bids using behavior analytic techniques to facilitate appropriate…

Rocha, M. L.; Schreibman, L.; Stahmer, A. C.

2007-01-01

275

Detecting Hands in Children's Egocentric Views to Understand Embodied Attention during Social Interaction  

E-print Network

can attend to a location outside the area targeted by eye gaze (Shepherd, Findlay, & Hockey, 1986 streams of behavior in free-flowing tasks with multiple goals and targets for attention. Attention goals. Visual attention changes from moment to moment according to the child's own actions

Menczer, Filippo

276

Selective Attention and Inhibitory Deficits in ADHD: Does Subtype or Comorbidity Modulate Negative Priming Effects?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selective attention has durable consequences for behavior and neural activation. Negative priming (NP) effects are assumed to reflect a critical inhibitory component of selective attention. The performance of adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was assessed across two conceptually based NP tasks within a selective…

Pritchard, Verena E.; Neumann, Ewald; Rucklidge, Julia J.

2008-01-01

277

Brain Mechanisms of Attentional Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lack of attentional control--inability to concentrate--has often made the difference between successful and unsuccessful performance on the part of athletes. Attention is controlled neurologically by a very complex interaction of a large portion of the cerebrum and is not localized to any one structure. The mechanism involves a memory retrieval…

Wilke, Thomas

278

Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

2010-01-01

279

Dorsal and Ventral Attention Systems  

PubMed Central

The idea of two separate attention networks in the human brain for the voluntary deployment of attention and the reorientation to unexpected events, respectively, has inspired an enormous amount of research over the past years. In this review, we will reconcile these theoretical ideas on the dorsal and ventral attentional system with recent empirical findings from human neuroimaging experiments and studies in stroke patients. We will highlight how novel methods—such as the analysis of effective connectivity or the combination of neurostimulation with functional magnetic resonance imaging—have contributed to our understanding of the functionality and interaction of the two systems. We conclude that neither of the two networks controls attentional processes in isolation and that the flexible interaction between both systems enables the dynamic control of attention in relation to top-down goals and bottom-up sensory stimulation. We discuss which brain regions potentially govern this interaction according to current task demands. PMID:23835449

Geng, Joy J.; Fink, Gereon R.

2014-01-01

280

Attentional misguidance in visual search.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that a task-irrelevant sudden onset of an object will capture an observer's visual attention or draw it to that object (e.g., Yantis & Jonides, 1984). However, further research has demonstrated the apparent inability of an object with a task-irrelevant but unique color or luminance to capture attention (Jonides & Yantis, 1988). In the experiments reported here, we reexplore the question of whether task-irrelevant properties other than sudden onset may capture attention. Our results suggest that uniquely colored or luminous objects, as well as salient though irrelevant boundaries, do not appear to capture attention. However, these irrelevant features do appear to serve as landmarks for a top-down search strategy which becomes increasingly likely with larger display set sizes. These findings are described in terms of stimulus-driven and goal-directed aspects of attentional control. PMID:7971120

Todd, S; Kramer, A F

1994-08-01

281

Faking Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common malady in the general population, with up to 8.1 percent of adults meeting criteria for this syndrome. In the college setting, the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may offer specific academic advantages. Once the diagnosis is assigned, the prescription of stimulant medication may provide additional secondary gains through misuse and/or diversion. For example, these drugs may be used by college consumers to increase alertness, energy, academic performance, and athletic performance. Stimulants may also decrease psychological distress, alleviate restlessness and weight concerns, and be used for recreational purposes. According to the findings of five studies, the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be believably faked, particularly when assessed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom checklists. Thus, the faking of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a realistic concern in both psychiatric and primary care settings. PMID:21922064

Sansone, Lori A.

2011-01-01

282

Attention to natural auditory signals Emily Caporello Bluvas a,b,*, Timothy Q. Gentner a,c,d  

E-print Network

Review Attention to natural auditory signals Emily Caporello Bluvas a,b,*, Timothy Q. Gentner a auditory attention has been well-studied behaviorally, very little is known about how selective auditory attention shapes the processing on natural auditory signals, and how the mechanisms of auditory attention

Gentner, Timothy

283

Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model  

PubMed Central

Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, artificial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. On human vision, it is also well established that these units of attention are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects). This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. While the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG), which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention) surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multi-resolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP). Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such as color and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed. PMID:25177289

Marfil, Rebeca; Palomino, Antonio J.; Bandera, Antonio

2014-01-01

284

Auditory attentional shifts in reading-disabled students: quantification of attentional effectiveness by the Attentional Shift Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

A controversy has existed for some years regarding auditory attentional skills in reading-disabled children. Data have suggested highly developed attentional skills in groups of reading-disabled students, but reduced attentional shifts have also been documented in equivalent groups. Attentional shifts in dichotic listening with forced or directed attention are usually inferred from a significant interaction between attentional task and ear. However,

Arve E Asbjørnsen; M. P Bryden

1998-01-01

285

Selective attention to facial emotion in physically abused children.  

PubMed

The ability to allocate attention to emotional cues in the environment is an important feature of adaptive self-regulation. Existing data suggest that physically abused children overattend to angry expressions, but the attentional mechanisms underlying such behavior are unknown. The authors tested 8-11-year-old physically abused children to determine whether they displayed specific information-processing problems in a selective attention paradigm using emotional faces as cues. Physically abused children demonstrated delayed disengagement when angry faces served as invalid cues. Abused children also demonstrated increased attentional benefits on valid angry trials. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of early adverse experience on children's selective attention to threat-related signals as a mechanism in the development of psychopathology. PMID:12943012

Pollak, Seth D; Tolley-Schell, Stephanie A

2003-08-01

286

Learning-Induced Changes in Attentional Allocation during Categorization: A Sizable Catalog of Attention Change as Measured by Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

Learning how to allocate attention properly is essential for success at many categorization tasks. Advances in our understanding of learned attention are stymied by a chicken-and-egg problem: there are no theoretical accounts of learned attention that predict patterns of eye movements, making data collection difficult to justify, and there are not enough datasets to support the development of a rich theory of learned attention. The present work addresses this by reporting five measures relating to the overt allocation of attention across 10 category learning experiments: accuracy, probability of fixating irrelevant information, number of fixations to category features, the amount of change in the allocation of attention (using a new measure called Time Proportion Shift - TIPS), and a measure of the relationship between attention change and erroneous responses. Using these measures, the data suggest that eye-movements are not substantially connected to error in most cases and that aggregate trial-by-trial attention change is generally stable across a number of changing task variables. The data presented here provide a target for computational models that aim to account for changes in overt attentional behaviors across learning. PMID:24497915

McColeman, Caitlyn M.; Barnes, Jordan I.; Chen, Lihan; Meier, Kimberly M.; Walshe, R. Calen; Blair, Mark R.

2014-01-01

287

School-Based Interventions for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a relatively common childhood behavior disorder that typically is treated with psychotropic medication (e.g., methylphenidate), behavioral strategies, or their combination. This article provides an overview of the school-related difficulties associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.…

DuPaul, George J.

2007-01-01

288

Neurophysiological evidence for selective auditory attention deficits in children with specific language impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent behavioral studies suggest that children with poor language abilities have difficulty with attentional filtering, or noise exclusion. However, as behavioral performance represents the summed activity of multiple stages of processing, the temporal locus of the filtering deficit remains unclear. Here, we used an event-related potential (ERP) paradigm to compare the earliest mechanisms of selective auditory attention in 12 children

Courtney Stevens; Lisa Sanders; Helen Neville

2006-01-01

289

Use of Digital Console Game for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ADHD or ADD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) is one of the most frequently diagnosed mental and behavioral disorders of children. Children with ADHD are characterized by poor attention and distractibility and/or hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Although there is no "cure" for ADHD, there are accepted treatments that specifically…

Chuang, Tsung-Yen; Lee, I-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chih

2010-01-01

290

The Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS): Preliminary Reliability and Validity of a System for Observing Preschoolers’ Competence in Classroom Interactions  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS), an observation tool that targets children’s interactions in preschool classrooms with teachers, peers, and tasks. In particular, initial evidence is reported of the extent to which the inCLASS meets the following psychometric criteria: inter-rater reliability, normal distributions and adequate range, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. These initial findings suggest that the inCLASS has the potential to provide an authentic, contextualized assessment of young children’s classroom behaviors. Future directions for research with the inCLASS are discussed. PMID:23175598

Downer, Jason T.; Booren, Leslie M.; Lima, Olivia K.; Luckner, Amy E.; Pianta, Robert C.

2012-01-01

291

Attentional control in the attentional blink is modulated by odor.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests that `aromas have distinctive effects on the allocation of attention in space: Arousing olfactory fragrances (e.g., peppermint) are supposed to induce a more focused state, and calming olfactory fragrances (e.g., lavender) a broader attentional state. Here, we investigate whether odors have similar effects on the allocation of attention in time. Participants performed the attentional blink (AB) task, known to produce a deficit in reporting the second of two target stimuli presented in close succession in a rapid sequence of distractors, while being exposed to either a peppermint or a lavender aroma. In two experiments using a between-subjects and a within-subjects design, respectively, we show that the two odors have specific effects on attentional control: As compared with the calming lavender aroma, the arousing peppermint condition yielded a larger AB. Our results demonstrate that attentional control is systematically modulated by factors that induce a more or a less distributed state of mind. PMID:25070746

Colzato, Lorenza S; Sellaro, Roberta; Rossi Paccani, Claudia; Hommel, Bernhard

2014-08-01

292

An Evaluation of Three Time-Out Procedures for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavior modification is an evidence-based treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Time-out from positive reinforcement is one behavior-modification procedure commonly recommended to manage disruptive or noncompliant behavior. This investigation examined the effects of time-out on children's behavior within the…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E.; Manos, Michael J.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Onyango, Adia N.; Lopez-Williams, Andy; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Meichenbaum, David L.; Caserta, Donald A.; Swain, Sara

2004-01-01

293

Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n?=?36) and in healthy controls (n?=?35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

2014-01-01

294

Topographic maps of multisensory attention  

PubMed Central

The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) region is uniquely situated at the intersection of visual, somatosensory, and auditory association cortices, ideally located for processing of multisensory attention. We examined the internal architecture of the IPS region and its connectivity to other regions in the dorsal attention and cinguloinsular networks using maximal connectivity clustering. We show with resting state fMRI data from 58 healthy adolescent and young adult volunteers that points of maximal connectivity between the IPS and other regions in the dorsal attention and cinguloinsular networks are topographically organized, with at least seven maps of the IPS region in each hemisphere. Distinct clusters of the IPS exhibited differential connectivity to auditory, visual, somatosensory, and default mode networks, suggesting local specialization within the IPS region for different sensory modalities. In an independent task activation paradigm with 16 subjects, attention to different sensory modalities showed similar functional specialization within the left intraparietal sulcus region. The default mode network, in contrast, did not show a topographical relationship between regions in the network, but rather maximal connectivity in each region to a single central cluster of the other regions. The topographical architecture of multisensory attention may represent a mechanism for specificity in top-down control of attention from dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral orbitofrontal cortex and may represent an organizational unit for multisensory representations in the brain. PMID:21041658

Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Ferguson, Michael A.; Lopez-Larson, Melissa; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

2010-01-01

295

Topographic maps of multisensory attention.  

PubMed

The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) region is uniquely situated at the intersection of visual, somatosensory, and auditory association cortices, ideally located for processing of multisensory attention. We examined the internal architecture of the IPS region and its connectivity to other regions in the dorsal attention and cinguloinsular networks using maximal connectivity clustering. We show with resting state fMRI data from 58 healthy adolescent and young adult volunteers that points of maximal connectivity between the IPS and other regions in the dorsal attention and cinguloinsular networks are topographically organized, with at least seven maps of the IPS region in each hemisphere. Distinct clusters of the IPS exhibited differential connectivity to auditory, visual, somatosensory, and default mode networks, suggesting local specialization within the IPS region for different sensory modalities. In an independent task activation paradigm with 16 subjects, attention to different sensory modalities showed similar functional specialization within the left intraparietal sulcus region. The default mode network, in contrast, did not show a topographical relationship between regions in the network, but rather maximal connectivity in each region to a single central cluster of the other regions. The topographical architecture of multisensory attention may represent a mechanism for specificity in top-down control of attention from dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral orbitofrontal cortex and may represent an organizational unit for multisensory representations in the brain. PMID:21041658

Anderson, Jeffrey S; Ferguson, Michael A; Lopez-Larson, Melissa; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

2010-11-16

296

Students Use of Laptops in Large Lecture Classes: Distraction, Partial Attention or Productive Use?  

E-print Network

Students Use of Laptops in Large Lecture Classes: Distraction, Partial Attention or Productive Use@igw.tuwien.ac.at Key words: large classes, laptops in class, task-based approaches Abstract: An increasing number of students are bringing personal laptops to their classes and are using laptops during lectures

297

Selective Teacher Attention in Lower-Income Countries: A Phenomenon Linked to Dropout and Illiteracy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In lower-income countries students face an important challenge that has not been well documented: selective teacher attention. In classes with many low-income students, teachers may concentrate on those few who can perform and neglect those who require more help. The latter may fail to learn, attend school less often, and eventually drop out.…

Abadzi, Helen; Llambiri, Stavri

2011-01-01

298

Impaired attention and network connectivity in childhood absence epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) often demonstrate impaired interictal attention, even with control of their seizures. No previous study has investigated the brain networks involved in this impairment. We used the Continuous Performance Task (CPT) of attentional vigilance and the Repetitive Tapping Task (RTT), a control motor task, to examine interictal attention in 26 children with CAE and 22 matched healthy controls. Each subject underwent simultaneous 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging-electroencephalography (fMRI-EEG) and CPT/RTT testing. Areas of activation on fMRI during the CPT task were correlated with behavioral performance and used as seed regions for resting functional connectivity analysis. All behavioral measures reflecting inattention were significantly higher in patients. Correlation analysis revealed that impairment on all measures of inattention on the CPT task was associated with decreased medial frontal cortex (MFC) activation during CPT. In addition, analysis of resting functional connectivity revealed an overall decrease within an ‘attention network’ in patients relative to controls. Patients demonstrated significantly impaired connectivity between the right anterior insula/frontal operculum (In/FO) and MFC relative to controls. Our results suggest that there is impaired function in an attention network comprising anterior In/FO and MFC in patients with CAE. These findings provide an anatomical and functional basis for impaired interictal attention in CAE, which may allow the development of improved treatments targeted at these networks. PMID:21421063

Killory, Brendan D; Bai, Xiaoxiao; Negishi, Michiro; Vega, Clemente; Spann, Marisa N; Vestal, Matthew; Guo, Jennifer; Berman, Rachel; Danielson, Nathan; Trejo, Gerardo; Shisler, David; Novotny, Edward J; Constable, R Todd; Blumenfeld, Hal

2011-01-01

299

Irrelevant stimulus processing in ADHD: catecholamine dynamics and attentional networks  

PubMed Central

A cardinal symptom of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a general distractibility where children and adults shift their attentional focus to stimuli that are irrelevant to the ongoing behavior. This has been attributed to a deficit in dopaminergic signaling in cortico-striatal networks that regulate goal-directed behavior. Furthermore, recent imaging evidence points to an impairment of large scale, antagonistic brain networks that normally contribute to attentional engagement and disengagement, such as the task-positive networks and the default mode network (DMN). Related networks are the ventral attentional network (VAN) involved in attentional shifting, and the salience network (SN) related to task expectancy. Here we discuss the tonic–phasic dynamics of catecholaminergic signaling in the brain, and attempt to provide a link between this and the activities of the large-scale cortical networks that regulate behavior. More specifically, we propose that a disbalance of tonic catecholamine levels during task performance produces an emphasis of phasic signaling and increased excitability of the VAN, yielding distractibility symptoms. Likewise, immaturity of the SN may relate to abnormal tonic signaling and an incapacity to build up a proper executive system during task performance. We discuss different lines of evidence including pharmacology, brain imaging and electrophysiology, that are consistent with our proposal. Finally, restoring the pharmacodynamics of catecholaminergic signaling seems crucial to alleviate ADHD symptoms; however, the possibility is open to explore cognitive rehabilitation strategies to top-down modulate network dynamics compensating the pharmacological deficits. PMID:24723897

Aboitiz, Francisco; Ossandón, Tomás; Zamorano, Francisco; Palma, Bárbara; Carrasco, Ximena

2014-01-01

300

Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience  

E-print Network

1 23 Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience ISSN 1530-7026 Volume 13 Number 4 Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci (2013) 13:757-770 DOI 10.3758/s13415-013-0172-8 The interplay of attention and emotion

Larson, Christine L.

301

Brain Dynamics and Hypnosis: Attentional and Disattentional Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent research findings, expanding an evolving neuropsychophysiological model of hypnosis (Crawford, 1989; Crawford & Gruzelier, 1992), that support the view that highly hypnotizable persons (highs) possess stronger attentional filtering abilities than do low hypnotizable persons, and that these differences are reflected in underlying brain dynamics. Behavioral, cognitive, and neurophysiological evidence is reviewed that suggests that highs can

Helen J. Crawford

1994-01-01

302

Cognition,Attention and Anxiety: Implications for Everyday  

E-print Network

Cognition,Attention and Anxiety: Implications for Everyday Functioning for individuals with VCFS/22, 2011 Intro/Overview Cognitive Impairments several interacting areas of dysfunction Arousal, Stress and Anxiety coping modulates cognitive/academic/behavioral function risk/protection for psychiatric outcomes

Nguyen, Danh

303

Multiple Effects of Joint Attention Intervention for Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joint attention refers to an early developing set of behaviors that plays a critical role in both social and language development and is specifically impaired in children with autism. In a series of three studies, preschool teachers demonstrated the effectiveness of discrete trial instruction and pivotal response training strategies to teach joint…

Jones, Emily A.; Carr, Edward G.; Feeley, Kathleen M.

2006-01-01

304

Parents' Reactions to Youths' Hyperactivity, Impulsivity, and Attention Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attention problems (HIA) in children and adolescents are stressful for parents. In this study, we used theories of parents' perceived power and attributions for youths' behaviors to develop a model to understand parents' reactions to their youths' HIA. We followed 706 youths (376 boys and 330 girls, aged 10-12 years…

Glatz, Terese; Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret

2011-01-01

305

The Efficiency of Attentional Networks in Children Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether previously reported questionnaire-based differences in self-regulatory behaviors (Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2009, 2010) between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS) would also be reflected in their underlying attentional networks. Method: Participants…

Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F.; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.

2012-01-01

306

Attentional Enhancement via Selection and Pooling of Early Sensory Responses  

E-print Network

better by enhancing behavioral sensitivity and is associated with increased neural activity in earlyNeuron Article Attentional Enhancement via Selection and Pooling of Early Sensory ResponsesDepartment of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA 3Mahoney

Carrasco, Marisa

307

Attention Deficit Disorder: Help for the Classroom Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers are instrumental in the diagnosis and management of the Attention Deficit Disorder. They should monitor the affected child's behavior; organize the child with regard to rules, homework and distractions; and provide directions, classroom management and self-esteem building. The importance of the parent teacher partnership should be…

Buchoff, Rita

1990-01-01

308

SPATIAL NEGLECT AND ATTENTION NETWORKS  

PubMed Central

Unilateral spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following predominantly right hemisphere injuries to ventral fronto-parietal cortex. We propose that neglect reflects deficits in the coding of saliency, control of spatial attention, and representation within an egocentric frame of reference, in conjunction with non-spatial deficits of reorienting, target detection, and arousal/vigilance. In contrast to theories that link spatial neglect to structural damage of specific brain regions, we argue that neglect is better explained by the physiological dysfunction of distributed cortical networks. The ventral lesions in right parietal, temporal, and frontal cortex that cause neglect directly impair non-spatial functions and hypoactivate the right hemisphere, inducing abnormalities in task-evoked activity and functional connectivity of a dorsal frontal-parietal network that controls spatial attention. The anatomy and right hemisphere dominance of neglect follows from the anatomy and laterality of the ventral regions that interact with the dorsal attention network. PMID:21692662

Corbetta, Maurizio; Shulman, Gordon L.

2013-01-01

309

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Networks  

PubMed Central

Research attempting to elucidate the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not only shed light on the disorder itself, it has simultaneously provided new insights into the mechanisms of normal cognition and attention. This review will highlight and integrate this bidirectional flow of information. Following a brief overview of ADHD clinical phenomenology, ADHD studies will be placed into a wider historical perspective by providing illustrative examples of how major models of attention have influenced the development of neurocircuitry models of ADHD. The review will then identify major components of neural systems potentially relevant to ADHD, including attention networks, reward/feedback-based processing systems, as well as a ‘default mode' resting state network. Further, it will suggest ways in which these systems may interact and be influenced by neuromodulatory factors. Recent ADHD imaging data will be selectively provided to both illustrate the field's current level of knowledge and to show how such data can inform our understanding of normal brain functions. The review will conclude by suggesting possible avenues for future research. PMID:19759528

Bush, George

2010-01-01

310

Now, Pay Attention! The Effects of Instruction on Children's Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the effects of instructions to "stay on task" on preschoolers' attention and cognitive performance in the face of either incomprehensible or comprehensible distraction. Three- and 4-year-olds completed problem-solving tasks while a distracting event played continuously in the background under conditions of (a) no instruction, (b)…

Kannass, Kathleen N.; Colombo, John; Wyss, Nancy

2010-01-01

311

Developmental Trajectories of Regulating Attentional Selection Over Time  

PubMed Central

Adaptive behavior in learning environments requires both the maintenance of an attentional focus on a task-set and suppression of distracting stimuli. This may be especially difficult when the competing information is more appealing than the target event. The aptitude to “pay attention” and resist distraction has often been noted as an important prerequisite of successful acquisition of intellectual abilities in children. This focused review draws on research that highlights interindividual differences in the temporal dynamics of attentional engagement and disengagement under competition, and their relation with age and cognitive/academic skills. Although basic strategies of attention control are present in very young children, the more refined ability to manage attentional resources over time in an economic and adaptive fashion appears during early school years, dramatically improves until the early teen years, and continues to develop into late adolescence. Across studies, parameters of attention control over time predict specific aspects of academic performance, rather than general intellectual ability. We conclude that the ability to strategically regulate the dynamic allocation of attention at rapid rates may represent an important element of cognitive and academic development. PMID:22905028

Heim, Sabine; Keil, Andreas

2012-01-01

312

Relating dopaminergic and cholinergic polymorphisms to spatial attention in infancy.  

PubMed

Early selective attention skills are a crucial building block for cognitive development, as attention orienting serves as a primary means by which infants interact with and learn from the environment. Although several studies have examined infants' attention orienting using the spatial cueing task, relatively few studies have examined neurodevelopmental factors associated with attention orienting during infancy. The present study examined the relationship between normative genetic polymorphisms affecting dopamine and acetylcholine signaling and attention orienting in 7-month-old infants during a spatial cueing task. We focused on 3 genes, including the CHRNA4 C¹???T SNP (rs10344946), DAT1 3'UTR VNTR, and COMT Val¹??Met SNP (rs4680), as previous adult research has linked spatial attention skills to these polymorphisms. Behavioral measures included both facilitation of orienting at the cued location as well as inhibition of return (IOR), in which attention orienting is suppressed at the cued location. Results indicated that COMT Val carriers showed robust IOR relative to infants with the Met/Met genotype. However, COMT was unrelated to infants' facilitation responses, and there were no effects of CHRNA4 or DAT1 on either facilitation or IOR. Overall, this study suggests that variations in dopamine signaling, likely in prefrontal cortex, contribute to individual differences in orienting during early development. PMID:23731290

Markant, Julie; Cicchetti, Dante; Hetzel, Susan; Thomas, Kathleen M

2014-02-01

313

Visual Attention Modulates Insight Versus Analytic Solving of Verbal Problems  

PubMed Central

Behavioral and neuroimaging findings indicate that distinct cognitive and neural processes underlie solving problems with sudden insight. Moreover, people with less focused attention sometimes perform better on tests of insight and creative problem solving. However, it remains unclear whether different states of attention, within individuals, influence the likelihood of solving problems with insight or with analysis. In this experiment, participants (N = 40) performed a baseline block of verbal problems, then performed one of two visual tasks, each emphasizing a distinct aspect of visual attention, followed by a second block of verbal problems to assess change in performance. After participants engaged in a center-focused flanker task requiring relatively focused visual attention, they reported solving more verbal problems with analytic processing. In contrast, after participants engaged in a rapid object identification task requiring attention to broad space and weak associations, they reported solving more verbal problems with insight. These results suggest that general attention mechanisms influence both visual attention task performance and verbal problem solving. PMID:24459538

Wegbreit, Ezra; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Kounios, John; Beeman, Mark

2013-01-01

314

Capture of attention to threatening stimuli without perceptual awareness  

PubMed Central

Summary Visual images that convey threatening information can automatically capture attention [1-4]. One example is an object looming in the direction of the observer—presumably because such a stimulus signals an impending collision [5]. A critical question for understanding the relationship between attention and conscious awareness is whether awareness is required for this type of prioritized attentional selection [6]. Although it has been suggested that visual spatial attention can only be affected by consciously perceived events [7], we show that automatic allocation of attention can occur even without conscious awareness of impending threat. We used a visual search task to show that a looming stimulus on a collision path with an observer captures attention but a looming stimulus on a near-miss path does not. Critically, observers were unaware of any difference between collision and near-miss stimuli even when explicitly asked to discriminate between them in separate experiments. These results counter traditional salience-based models of attentional capture, demonstrating that in the absence of perceptual awareness, the visual system can extract behaviorally relevant details from a visual scene and automatically categorize threatening versus non-threatening images at a level of precision beyond our conscious perceptual capabilities. PMID:19523828

Lin, Jeffrey Y.; Murray, Scott O.; Boynton, Geoffrey M.

2009-01-01

315

Demand and Modality of Directed Attention Modulate “Pre-attentive” Sensory Processes in Schizophrenia Patients and Nonpsychiatric Controls  

PubMed Central

Background Mismatch negativity (MNN) and P3a are event related potential (ERP) measures of early sensory information processing. These components are usually conceptualized as being “pre-attentive” and therefore immune to changes with variations in attentional functioning. This study aimed to determine whether manipulations of attention influence the amplitudes and latencies of MMN and P3a and, if so, the extent to which these early sensory processes govern concurrent behavioral vigilance performance in schizophrenia patients and normal subjects. Methods Schizophrenia patients (SZ; n=20) and Nonpsychiatric Control Subjects (NCS; n=20) underwent auditory ERP testing to assess MMN and P3a across 4 EEG recording sessions in which attentional demand (low vs. high) and sensory modality of directed attention (visual vs. auditory) were experimentally varied. Results Across conditions, SZ patients exhibited deficits in MMN and P3a amplitudes. Significant amplitude and latency modulation were observed in both SZ and NCS but there were no group-by- condition interactions. The amount of MMN amplitude attenuation from low- to-high-demand tasks was significantly associated with increased vigilance performance in both SZ and NCS groups (r=-0.67 and r=-0.60). Conclusions Attentional demand and modality of directed attention significantly influence the amplitude and latencies of “pre-attentive” ERP components in both SZ and NCS. Deficits in MMN and P3a were not “normalized” when attention was directed to the auditory stimuli in schizophrenia patients. The adaptive modulation of early sensory information processing appears to govern concurrent attentional task performance. MMN and P3a may serve as a gateway to some higher order cognitive operations necessary for psychosocial functioning. PMID:23490760

Rissling, Anthony J.; Park, Sung-Hyouk; Young, Jared W.; Rissling, Michelle B.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Sprock, Joyce; Mathias, Daniel J.; Pela, Marlena; Sharp, Richard F.; Braff, David L.; Light, Gregory A.

2013-01-01

316

Puppets, robots, critics, and actors within a taxonomy of attention for developmental disorders.  

PubMed

This review proposes a new taxonomy of automatic and controlled attention. The taxonomy distinguishes among the role of the attendee (puppet and robot, critic and actor), the attention process (stimulus orienting vs. response control), and the attention operation (activation vs. inhibition vs. adjustment), and identifies cognitive phenotypes by which attention is overtly expressed. We apply the taxonomy to four childhood attention disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, spina bifida meningomyelocele, traumatic brain injury, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Variations in attention are related to specific brain regions that support normal attention processes when intact, and produce disordered attention when impaired. The taxonomy explains group differences in behavioral inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness, as well as medication response. We also discuss issues relevant to theories of the cognitive and neural architecture of attention: functional dissociations within and between automatic and controlled attention; the relative importance of type of brain damage and developmental timing to attention profile; cognitive-energetic models of attention and white matter damage; temporal processing deficits, attention deficits and cerebellar damage; and the issue of cognitive phenotypes as candidate endophenotypes. PMID:18764966

Dennis, Maureen; Sinopoli, Katia J; Fletcher, Jack M; Schachar, Russell

2008-09-01

317

Does attention bias modification improve attentional control? A double-blind randomized experiment with individuals with social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

People with anxiety disorders often exhibit an attentional bias for threat. Attention bias modification (ABM) procedure may reduce this bias, thereby diminishing anxiety symptoms. In ABM, participants respond to probes that reliably follow non-threatening stimuli (e.g., neutral faces) such that their attention is directed away from concurrently presented threatening stimuli (e.g., disgust faces). Early studies showed that ABM reduced anxiety more than control procedures lacking any contingency between valenced stimuli and probes. However, recent work suggests that no-contingency training and training toward threat cues can be as effective as ABM in reducing anxiety, implying that any training may increase executive control over attention, thereby helping people inhibit their anxious thoughts. Extending this work, we randomly assigned participants with DSM-IV diagnosed social anxiety disorder to either training toward non-threat (ABM), training toward threat, or no-contingency condition, and we used the attention network task (ANT) to assess all three components of attention. After two training sessions, subjects in all three conditions exhibited indistinguishably significant declines from baseline to post-training in self-report and behavioral measures of anxiety on an impromptu speech task. Moreover, all groups exhibited similarly significant improvements on the alerting and executive (but not orienting) components of attention. Implications for ABM research are discussed. PMID:25465885

Heeren, Alexandre; Mogoa?e, Cristina; McNally, Richard J; Schmitz, Anne; Philippot, Pierre

2014-11-24

318

Attention: The Mechanisms of Consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent papers and books discuss theoretical efforts toward a scientific understanding of consciousness. Progress in imaging networks of brain areas active when people perform simple tasks may provide a useful empirical background for distinguishing conscious and unconscious informations processing. Attention networks include those involved in orienting to sensory stimuli, activating ideas from memory, and maintaining the alert

Michael I. Posner

1994-01-01

319

The Mechanisms of Involuntary Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested 3 mechanisms of involuntary attention: (1) a perceptual enhancement mechanism, (2) a response-decision mechanism, and (3) a serial-search mechanism. Experiment 1 used a response deadline technique to compare the perceptual enhancement and the decision mechanisms and found evidence consistent with the decision mechanism. Experiment 2 used…

Prinzmetal, William; Ha, Ruby; Khani, Aniss

2010-01-01

320

Attention maps in the brain  

PubMed Central

Over 20 distinct cerebral cortical areas contain spatial map representations of the visual field. These retinotopic, or visuotopic, cortical areas occur not only in the occipital lobe but also in the parietal, temporal, and frontal lobes. The cognitive influences of visuospatial attention operate via these cortical maps and can support selection of multiple objects at the same time. In early visual cortical areas, spatial attention enhances responses of selected items and diminishes the responses to distracting items. In higher order cortex, the maps support a spatial indexing role, keeping track of the items to be attended. These maps also support visual short-term memory (VSTM) representations. In each hemisphere, all the known maps respond selectively to stimuli presented within the contralateral visual field. However, a hemispheric asymmetry emerges when the attentional or VSTM demands of a task become significant. In the parietal lobe, the right hemisphere visuotopic maps switch from coding only contralateral visual targets to coding memory and attention targets across the entire visual field. This emergent asymmetry has important implications for understanding hemispatial neglect syndrome, and supports a dynamic network form of the representational model of neglect. PMID:25089167

Somers, David C.; Sheremata, Summer L.

2014-01-01

321

Attentional Episodes in Visual Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks between these episodes are punctuated by periods…

Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

2011-01-01

322

Visual Attention Spotlight Model (Posner)  

E-print Network

­ Respond to probe as quickly as possible · H O U S E · _ _ _ 7 _ · Condition 2 ­ Categorize a five letter word ­ Respond to probe as quickly as possible · H O U S E · _ _ _ 7 _ Visual Attention · Can be directed at particular regions of space ­ Exogenous Cues ­ Endogenous Cues · Facilitates/Inhibits target

Coulson, Seana

323

Attention Aware Systems Claudia Roda  

E-print Network

and practitioners in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) have concentrated on the design of systems capable of adapting.g. Communication of the ACM 46(3) 2003, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 58(5) 2003Attention Aware Systems Claudia Roda American University of Paris Computer Science Department 147

Corran, Ruth

324

Children's relative age in class and use of medication for ADHD: a Danish Nationwide Study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies from North America and Iceland have shown that the youngest children within a grade are up to twice as likely to be diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with their older classmates. We aimed to investigate whether younger age in class is associated with an increased probability of being prescribed medication for ADHD among school-aged children in Denmark. Methods We followed all Danish children between 2000 and 2012 from 1st through 6th grade (7–12 years). Among children who started school on their age-assigned grade level, we estimated the prevalence proportion ratio (PPR) of receiving ADHD medication between the youngest children in class (born in October–December) and the oldest in class (born in January–March), specified by grade level, calendar year and gender. As a sensitivity analysis, we added children not on their age-assigned grade level to the main calculations. Results We identified 932,032 eligible children for the main analysis, of whom 17.3% were among the youngest and 26.5% among the oldest in class. In total, 1.2% eligible children filled at least one prescription for ADHD medication in 2000–2012. The average PPR over the study period was 1.08 (95% CI, 1.04–1.12) and remained stable across subgroups and sensitivity analyses. Overall, 40% of children born October–December had entered school a year after their age-assigned grade level. Conclusions Contrary to previous study results, we observed almost no relative age effect on medication use for ADHD among children in Denmark. We postulate that this may be due to the high proportion of relatively young children held back by 1 year in the Danish school system and/or a generally low prevalence of ADHD medication use in the country. PMID:24813478

Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Díaz, Hernández; Zoëga, Helga

2014-01-01

325

Visual attention in mixed-gender groups  

PubMed Central

A basic principle of objectification theory is that a mere glance from a stranger represents the potential to be sexualized, triggering women to take on the perspective of others and become vigilant to their appearance. However, research has yet to document gendered gaze patterns in social groups. The present study examined visual attention in groups of varying gender composition to understand how gender and minority status influence gaze behavior. One hundred undergraduates enrolled in psychology courses were photographed, and an additional 76 participants viewed groupings of these photographs while their point of gaze was recorded using a remote eye-tracking device. Participants were not told that their gaze was being recorded. Women were viewed more frequently and for longer periods of time than men in mixed-gender groups. Women were also more likely to be looked at first and last by observers. Men spent more time attending to pictures of women when fewer women were in the group. The opposite effect was found for pictures of men, such that male pictures were viewed less when fewer pictures of men were in the group. Female observers spent more time looking at men compared to male observers, and male observers spent more time looking at women than female observers, though both female and male observers looked at women more than men overall. Consistent with objectification theory, women's appearance garners more attention and interest in mixed-gender social groups.

Amon, Mary Jean

2015-01-01

326

Visual attention in mixed-gender groups.  

PubMed

A basic principle of objectification theory is that a mere glance from a stranger represents the potential to be sexualized, triggering women to take on the perspective of others and become vigilant to their appearance. However, research has yet to document gendered gaze patterns in social groups. The present study examined visual attention in groups of varying gender composition to understand how gender and minority status influence gaze behavior. One hundred undergraduates enrolled in psychology courses were photographed, and an additional 76 participants viewed groupings of these photographs while their point of gaze was recorded using a remote eye-tracking device. Participants were not told that their gaze was being recorded. Women were viewed more frequently and for longer periods of time than men in mixed-gender groups. Women were also more likely to be looked at first and last by observers. Men spent more time attending to pictures of women when fewer women were in the group. The opposite effect was found for pictures of men, such that male pictures were viewed less when fewer pictures of men were in the group. Female observers spent more time looking at men compared to male observers, and male observers spent more time looking at women than female observers, though both female and male observers looked at women more than men overall. Consistent with objectification theory, women's appearance garners more attention and interest in mixed-gender social groups. PMID:25628589

Amon, Mary Jean

2014-01-01

327

Visual attention: The past 25 years  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discriminability and appearance in tasks mediated by contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution; the effects of feature-based attention on basic visual processes, and a comparison of the effects of spatial and feature-based attention. The emphasis of this review is on psychophysical studies, but relevant electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies and models regarding how and where neuronal responses are modulated are also discussed. PMID:21549742

Carrasco, Marisa

2012-01-01

328

Single-Trial Inference on Visual Attention Mads Dyrholm, Sren Kyllingsbk, Signe Vangkilde, Thomas Habekost  

E-print Network

, Denmark Abstract. In this paper we take a step towards single-trial behavioral modeling within a Theory (producing smooth looking ERPs in the case of EEG). To link single-trial fluctuations in EEG with behavior component. BEHAVIORAL MODELING WITH TVA The Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) by Bundesen [4] offers

Dyrholm, Mads

329

Attention Matters: Pitch vs. Pattern Processing in Adolescence  

PubMed Central

From the moment we wake up, we are flooded with more sensory inputs than we can possibly process. Selective attention mechanisms serve to limit the sensory onslaught, while facilitating the ability to perform everyday tasks. However, not much is known about the typical development of selective attention mechanisms during childhood even though impairments of attention are commonly noted in neurodevelopmental disorders. The current study focuses on a transitional time in child development, adolescence, to determine in what way specific auditory tasks have a modulatory effect on underlying brain activity to facilitate behavioral goals. Neural mechanisms of selective attention were tested through auditory pitch and pattern perception, using a measure of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) called the mismatch negativity (MMN). Sounds with a regular five-tone pattern were presented in three conditions. The conditions differed only in how participants were instructed to listen to the sounds. Focus was either on the pitch of the sounds, the pattern of the sounds, or on a close-captioned movie. Even though the sound input was identical in all conditions, task-specific modifications were manifest in the MMN evoked by the deviant sounds embedded in the test sequences. The results demonstrate that in adolescence, as in adults, selective attention alters neural activity specific to performance goals, thus indicating specific neural adaptation modulated by behavior. PMID:23772217

Sussman, Elyse S.

2013-01-01

330

Selective Attention, Breadth of Attention, and Shifting Attention in Chronic Nonparanoid Schizophrenics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines certain theoretical explanations of attention disorders in chronic nonparanoid schizophrenics that have been presented by several authors in the context of interference theory. Attempts to clarify divergencies in their theoretical assumptions by replicating and extending their research findings. (Author/RK)

Davies-Osterkamp, Susanne; And Others

1977-01-01

331

Octave effect in auditory attention  

PubMed Central

After hearing a tone, the human auditory system becomes more sensitive to similar tones than to other tones. Current auditory models explain this phenomenon by a simple bandpass attention filter. Here, we demonstrate that auditory attention involves multiple pass-bands around octave-related frequencies above and below the cued tone. Intriguingly, this “octave effect” not only occurs for physically presented tones, but even persists for the missing fundamental in complex tones, and for imagined tones. Our results suggest neural interactions combining octave-related frequencies, likely located in nonprimary cortical regions. We speculate that this connectivity scheme evolved from exposure to natural vibrations containing octave-related spectral peaks, e.g., as produced by vocal cords. PMID:24003112

Borra, Tobias; Versnel, Huib; Kemner, Chantal; van Opstal, A. John; van Ee, Raymond

2013-01-01

332

Concealing Behavior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A previous activity suggested the importance of behavior to an animal with coincident coloration. If the stripe-legged frog fails to fold its legs, the disruptive markings on them lose much of their effectiveness. If, when at rest, a moth with coincident wing markings on them lose much of their effectiveness. If, when at rest, a moth with coincident wing markings leaves its wings spread too widely after alighting, the coincident pattern that normally cuts across them is broken into pieces. This activity considers further aspects of behavior that may influence the effectiveness of their concealing coloration. In the second activity, further attention is paid to the influence of behavior on concealment as students put to test much of their recently acquired knowledge by playing the Lizard Game.

David Ipsen

2008-04-01

333

Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits  

PubMed Central

We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that visuospatial attention deficits do not underlie these dyslexias. PMID:25628578

Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

2014-01-01

334

A Real Attention-Getter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While most parents would agree that playing videos games is the antithesis of time well spent for their children, recent advances involving NASA biofeedback technology are proving otherwise. The same techniques used to measure brain activity in NASA pilots during flight simulation exercises are now a part of a revolutionary video game system that is helping to improve overall mental awareness for Americans of all ages, including those who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

2003-01-01

335

Unsupervised inference of auditory attention from biosensors  

E-print Network

Unsupervised inference of auditory attention from biosensors Melih Kandemir1 , Arto Klami1 , Akos mechanism in auditory interfaces. In particular, we demonstrate how the level of attention can be inferred, Auditory attention, Canonical corre- lation analysis 1 Introduction Attention to external stimulation

Kaski, Samuel

336

Unsupervised Inference of Auditory Attention from Biosensors  

E-print Network

Unsupervised Inference of Auditory Attention from Biosensors Melih Kandemir1 , Arto Klami1 , Akos mechanism in auditory interfaces. In particular, we demonstrate how the level of attention can be inferred, Auditory attention, Canonical corre- lation analysis. 1 Introduction Attention to external stimulation

Kaski, Samuel

337

Neurocognitive development of attention across genetic syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the neural circuits underpinning adult attention has been heavily informed by the impact of distinct brain lesions on attentional processes. In a similar fashion, the genetics, molecular, and systems neuroscience of attention can be informed by the impact of developmental disorders of known genetic origin on attentional processes. Here, we focus on three developmental disorders of known genetic

Gaia Scerif; Ann Steele

2011-01-01

338

Quantifying Pilot Visual Attention in Low Visibility Terminal Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantifying pilot visual behavior allows researchers to determine not only where a pilot is looking and when, but holds implications for specific behavioral tracking when these data are coupled with flight technical performance. Remote eye tracking systems have been integrated into simulators at NASA Langley with effectively no impact on the pilot environment. This paper discusses the installation and use of a remote eye tracking system. The data collection techniques from a complex human-in-the-loop (HITL) research experiment are discussed; especially, the data reduction algorithms and logic to transform raw eye tracking data into quantified visual behavior metrics, and analysis methods to interpret visual behavior. The findings suggest superior performance for Head-Up Display (HUD) and improved attentional behavior for Head-Down Display (HDD) implementations of Synthetic Vision System (SVS) technologies for low visibility terminal area operations. Keywords: eye tracking, flight deck, NextGen, human machine interface, aviation

Ellis, Kyle K.; Arthur, J. J.; Latorella, Kara A.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Norman, Robert M.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.

2012-01-01

339

Attentional Modulation of Auditory Steady-State Responses  

PubMed Central

Auditory selective attention enables task-relevant auditory events to be enhanced and irrelevant ones suppressed. In the present study we used a frequency tagging paradigm to investigate the effects of attention on auditory steady state responses (ASSR). The ASSR was elicited by simultaneously presenting two different streams of white noise, amplitude modulated at either 16 and 23.5 Hz or 32.5 and 40 Hz. The two different frequencies were presented to each ear and participants were instructed to selectively attend to one ear or the other (confirmed by behavioral evidence). The results revealed that modulation of ASSR by selective attention depended on the modulation frequencies used and whether the activation was contralateral or ipsilateral. Attention enhanced the ASSR for contralateral activation from either ear for 16 Hz and suppressed the ASSR for ipsilateral activation for 16 Hz and 23.5 Hz. For modulation frequencies of 32.5 or 40 Hz attention did not affect the ASSR. We propose that the pattern of enhancement and inhibition may be due to binaural suppressive effects on ipsilateral stimulation and the dominance of contralateral hemisphere during dichotic listening. In addition to the influence of cortical processing asymmetries, these results may also reflect a bias towards inhibitory ipsilateral and excitatory contralateral activation present at the level of inferior colliculus. That the effect of attention was clearest for the lower modulation frequencies suggests that such effects are likely mediated by cortical brain structures or by those in close proximity to cortex. PMID:25334021

Mahajan, Yatin; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

2014-01-01

340

Multiple object tracking: anticipatory attention doesn't "bounce".  

PubMed

We investigated motion extrapolation in object tracking in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we used a multiple-object-tracking task (MOT; three targets, three distractors) combined with a probe detection task to investigate the distribution of attention around a target object. We found anisotropic probe detection rates with increased probe detection at locations where a target is heading. In Experiment 2, we introduced a black line (wall) in the center of the screen and block-wise manipulated the object's motion: either objects bounced realistically against the wall or objects went through the wall. Just before a target coincided with the wall, a probe could appear either along the bounce path or along the straight path. In addition to MOT, we included a single-object-tracking task (SOT; one target, five distractors) to control for attentional load. We found that linear extrapolation is dominant (better probe detection along the straight path than bounce path) regardless of attentional load and the motion condition. Anticipation of bouncing behavior did occur but only when attentional load was low. We conclude that attention is not tightly bound to moving target objects but encompasses the object's current position and the area in front of it. Furthermore, under the present experimental conditions, the visuo-attentional system does not seem to anticipate object bounces in the MOT task. PMID:23211268

Atsma, Jeroen; Koning, Arno; van Lier, Rob

2012-01-01

341

Joint attention and disorganized attachment status in infants at risk.  

PubMed

The development of joint attention skills is a major milestone of infancy. Recent research suggests that the development of these skills may be affected by disorganized (D) attachment. This hypothesis was examined in a longitudinal study of attachment and joint attention skill development in a sample of infants at risk for developmental-behavioral morbidity. The results revealed that toddlers with D classifications initiated joint attention with an experimenter significantly less often than did secure, or even other insecure, toddlers. However, no group differences in the capacity to respond to the joint attention bids of others were observed in this study. These data suggest that a disturbance in the tendency to initiate episodes of joint attention with others may be indicative of early social-cognitive and social-emotional disturbance among infants affected by disorganized attachment status. Theory and research is reviewed to suggest that an early impairment in joint attention facility may make a significant contribution to risk for negative cognitive and emotional outcomes among these infants. PMID:12030692

Claussen, Angelika H; Mundy, Peter C; Mallik, Sangeeta A; Willoughby, Jennifer C

2002-01-01

342

The Implications of Early Attentional Regulation for School Success among Low-Income Children  

PubMed Central

This study examined the longitudinal associations between attentional regulation in preschool and children’s school success in later elementary school within an at-risk sample (N = 2,595). Specifically, two facets of attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) at age 5 were explored as independent predictors of children’s achievement and behavioral competence at age 9. Overall, the pattern of results indicates specificity between the facets of attention and school success, such that focused attention was predictive of achievement outcomes while impulsivity was predictive of behavioral outcomes. Both facets of attention predicted teacher ratings of children’s approaches to learning, which suggests that they jointly influence skills that span both domains of school success. Poverty status, maternal warmth, and infant temperament did not moderate these associations. Implications of these findings for interventions targeting school readiness and success among at-risk children are discussed. PMID:23243330

Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2012-01-01

343

Active Listening Impairs Visual Perception and Selectivity: An ERP Study of Auditory Dual-task Costs on Visual Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to drive safely is disrupted by cell phone conversations, and this has been attributed to a diversion of attention from the visual environment. We employed behavioral and ERP measures to study whether the attentive processing of spoken messages is, in itself, sufficient to produce visual– attentional deficits. Participants searched for visual targets defined by a unique feature (Experiment

Elena Gherri; Martin Eimer

2010-01-01

344

Active Listening Impairs Visual Perception and Selectivity: An ERP Study of Auditory Dual-task Costs on Visual Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to drive safely is disrupted by cell phone conversations, and this has been attributed to a diversion of attention from the visual environment. We employed behavioral and ERP measures to study whether the attentive processing of spoken messages is, in itself, sufficient to produce visual–attentional deficits. Participants searched for visual targets defined by a unique feature (Experiment 1)

Elena Gherri; Martin Eimer

2011-01-01

345

A component analysis of attentional problems of educationally handicapped boys.  

PubMed

Seventy-three educationally handicapped (EH) and 78 regular class, normally achieving (NA) boys grades 3-8 were tested with a series of measures selected to test three components of attention: coming to attention, decision making, and maintaining attention over time. EH and NA samples were subdivided into three gropus by grade level (grades 3-4, 5-6, and 7-8). Based on a teacher-completed behavioral check list, the EH group was further subdivided according to pupils perceived by teachers as hyperactive or nonhyperactive. With the exception of the youngest group, EH and NA samples did not differ from each other on CA, but regular class boys had slightly higher IQs and better reading scores than did their EH peers; EH hyperactives and EH nonhyperactives differed significantly on reading scores, the difference favoring the nonhyperactives. All pupils were individually administered the Children's Embedded Figures Test (CEFT), the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT), and the Children's Checking Task (CCT), the last designed specifically to assess ability to maintain attention over time. EH pupils did not function as efficiently or as accurately on the attentional tasks as did their normally achieving age peers. Significant differences between EH and NA samples were found for CEFT and MFFT errors, as well as for CCT errors of omission and commission. Analyses of the EH group according to hyperactive--nonhyperactive status were for the most part nonsignificant. Correlational analyses yielded low but statistically significant relationships among the attentional measures, but nonsignificant relationships between IQ and the attentional test scores. Findings were consistent with the interpretation that the three hypothesized components of attention are partially independent and thus may have differential influence on pupils performance in school. PMID:1002947

Keogh, B K; Margolis, J S

1976-01-01

346

Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

2013-01-01

347

Income Inequality in the Attention Economy Kevin S. McCurley  

E-print Network

Income Inequality in the Attention Economy Kevin S. McCurley Google Research ABSTRACT The World Applications]: Social and Behavioral Sci- ences--Economics General Terms Welfare Economics, Attention Economy information markets fall under this classical view. The World Wide Web has changed that somewhat however

Tomkins, Andrew

348

Establishing Response and Stimulus Classes for Initiating Joint Attention in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The absence of the fundamental skill of "initiating joint attention" reflects the social-communicative impairment characterizing autism. Initiating joint attention is related to social and communication development as well as intervention outcomes for children with autism. A behaviorally based intervention was used to teach an expanded class of…

Jones, Emily A.

2009-01-01

349

Monitoring Attention During Operant Conditioning in Six and Seven Month Old Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate more directly the effects of content and repetition of contingent visual feedback on a discrete operant pulling response and accompanying visual attention in 24 six- to seven-month old infants. Simultaneous recording was made of infant operant behavior and visual attention. Results indicated…

Strain, Barbara; Vietze, Peter M.

350

Attending to Multiple Visual Streams: Interactions between Location-based and Category-based Attentional Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral studies indicate that subjects are able to divide attention between multiple streams of information at different locations. However, it is still unclear to what extent the observed costs reflect processes specifically associated with spatial attention, versus more general interference due the concurrent monitoring of multiple streams of stimuli. Here we used a factorial design to disentangle the correlates of

Sabrina Fagioli; Emiliano Macaluso

2009-01-01

351

Attending to Multiple Visual Streams: Interactions between Location-based and Category-based Attentional Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral studies indicate that subjects are able to divide attention between multiple streams of information at different locations. However, it is still unclear to what extent the observed costs reflect processes specifically associated with spatial attention, versus more general interference due the concurrent monitoring of multiple streams of stimuli. Here we used a factorial design to disentangle the correlates of

Sabrina Fagioli; Emiliano Macaluso

2008-01-01

352

A Forced-Attention Dichotic Listening fMRI Study on 113 Subjects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report fMRI and behavioral data from 113 subjects on attention and cognitive control using a variant of the classic dichotic listening paradigm with pairwise presentations of consonant-vowel syllables. The syllable stimuli were presented in a block-design while subjects were in the MR scanner. The subjects were instructed to pay attention to…

Kompus, Kristiina; Specht, Karsten; Ersland, Lars; Juvodden, Hilde T.; van Wageningen, Heidi; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Westerhausen, Rene

2012-01-01

353

The Effect of Early Deprivation on Executive Attention in Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children reared in deprived environments, such as institutions for the care of orphaned or abandoned children, are at increased risk for attention and behavior regulation difficulties. This study examined the neurobehavioral correlates of executive attention in post institutionalized (PI) children. Methods: The performance and…

Loman, Michelle M.; Johnson, Anna E.; Westerlund, Alissa; Pollak, Seth D.; Nelson, Charles A.; Gunnar, Megan R.

2013-01-01

354

Concurrent Validity of the Pediatric Attention Disorders Diagnostic Screener for Children with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the concurrent validity of a new computer-assisted ADHD screening system, the Pediatric Attention Disorders Diagnostic Screener (PADDS; Pedigo, Pedigo, & Scott, 2006) in relation to the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA; Greenberg, 1999), the Conner's Continuous Performance Test- II (CPT-II; Conners & MHS Staff, 2000), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF; Gioia,

Linda A. Reddy; Erik Newman; Thomas K. Pedigo; Vann Scott

2010-01-01

355

Affective sharing in the context of joint attention interactions of normal, autistic, and mentally retarded children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbances in the development of joint attention behaviors and the ability to share affect with others are two important components of the social deficits of young autistic children. We examined the association of shared positive affect during two different communicative contexts, joint attention and requesting. The pattern for the normal children was one of frequent positive affect displayed toward the

Connie Kasari; Marian Sigman; Peter Mundy; Nurit Yirmiya

1990-01-01

356

Attending to Multiple Visual Streams: Interactions between Location-Based and Category-Based Attentional Selection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral studies indicate that subjects are able to divide attention between multiple streams of information at different locations. However, it is still unclear to what extent the observed costs reflect processes specifically associated with spatial attention, versus more general interference due the concurrent monitoring of multiple streams of…

Fagioli, Sabrina; Macaluso, Emiliano

2009-01-01

357

Do Quantitative EEG Measures Differentiate Hyperactivity in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used quantitative electroencephalogram analysis to examine difference in brain wave activity of attention deficit disorders (ADD) with and without hyperactivity while completing a computerized task measuring a variety of constructs associated with attention and impulsivity. Found that although behavioral ratings confirmed differential…

Stewart, Garth A.; Steffler, Dorothy J.; Lemoine, Daniel E.; Leps, Jolene D.

2001-01-01

358

The CBCL Bipolar Profile and Attention, Mood, and Behavior Dysregulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biederman and colleagues reported that a CBCL profile identified youngsters who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Some studies found that this CBCL profile does not reliably identify children who present with bipolar disorder, but nonetheless this CBCL does identify youngsters with severe dysfunction. However, the nature of the impairment of…

Doerfler, Leonard A.; Connor, Daniel F.; Toscano, Peter F.

2011-01-01

359

Attention in selective mutism--an exploratory case-control study.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to explore the association between selective mutism (SM) and attention. In SM social anxiety seems central but language impairment and motor problems are also reported. Attention problems have been described in parental behavioral ratings, while neuropsychological studies are lacking. A neuropsychological test (the Trail Making Test) and parental ratings of attention- and anxiety problems were administered to a clinical sample of 23 children with SM (aged 7-16 years, 12 boys and 11 girls) and 46 non-referred matched controls. The SM group differed from controls on the Trail Making Test, but the group difference disappeared, when controlling for motor function and IQ. Parental ratings of attention problems were not significantly associated with the neuropsychological attention measure. Neuropsychological studies of attention controlled for IQ and motor function are needed as well as tests that measure different aspects of attention. PMID:17531438

Oerbeck, Beate; Kristensen, Hanne

2008-01-01

360

Joint Attention and Word Learning in Ngas-Speaking Toddlers in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines infants' joint attention behavior and language development in a rural village in Nigeria. Participants included eight younger (1;0 to 1;5, M age=1;2) and eight older toddlers (1;7 to 2;7, M age=2;1). Joint attention behaviors in social interaction contexts were recorded and coded at two time points six months apart. Analyses…

Childers, Jane B.; Vaughan, Julie; Burquest, Donald A.

2007-01-01

361

Visual Attention to Radar Displays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is described which predicts the allocation of attention to the features of a radar display. It uses the growth of uncertainty and the probability of near collision to call the eye to a feature of the display. The main source of uncertainty is forgetting following a fixation, which is modelled as a two dimensional diffusion process. The model was used to predict information overload in intercept controllers, and preliminary validation obtained by recording eye movements of intercept controllers in simulated and live (practice) interception.

Moray, N.; Richards, M.; Brophy, C.

1984-01-01

362

Focusing attention on turbine rehabilitation  

SciTech Connect

Plant modernization is not a new issue for the hydropower industry. Utilities and federal power suppliers in North America have been performing major overhauls and plant life extension programs for many years. However, several recent developments have caused the industry to refocus its attention on the advantages of rehabilitating older hydro plants. And, plant owners are finding that turbine rehabilitation is one of the most cost-effective options to increase plant value while extending plant life. Achieving the potential improvements and benefits of turbine rehabilitation, however, is not necessarily guaranteed. Management and control of the engineering decision process is needed to ensure that the desired unit performance and output are met.

Froehlich, D.R.; Veatch, J.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States))

1991-02-01

363

Behavioral syndromes: an ecological and evolutionary overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that populations and species often exhibit behavioral syndromes; that is, suites of correlated behaviors across situations. An example is an aggression syndrome where some individuals are more aggressive, whereas others are less aggressive across a range of situations and contexts. The existence of behavioral syndromes focuses the attention of behavioral ecologists on limited (less than optimal) behavioral

Andrew Sih; Alison Bell; J. Chadwick Johnson

2004-01-01

364

Down syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).  

PubMed

Clinicians might minimize the prevalence of behavioral disorders among mentally retarded people. Decreased attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are frequently reported in children with Down syndrome, yet the exact prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been clearly estimated in this population. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ADHD in children with Down syndrome and to emphasize the possible relationship between ADHD symptoms and the level of mental retardation and common medical comorbidity. In this study, the prevalence of ADHD among Down syndrome children was very high, reaching 43.9%. No significant correlation was found between ADHD symptoms and the level of mental retardation, but significant correlation was found with ophthalmologic problems. We conclude that children with Down syndrome are at increased risk for ADHD. When evaluating children with Down syndrome for attention deficits, psychiatric comorbidity as well as medical problems should be carefully taken into consideration. PMID:21628698

Ekstein, Sivan; Glick, Benjamin; Weill, Michal; Kay, Barrie; Berger, Itai

2011-10-01

365

Attention in the real world: toward understanding its neural basis.  

PubMed

The efficient selection of behaviorally relevant objects from cluttered environments supports our everyday goals. Attentional selection has typically been studied in search tasks involving artificial and simplified displays. Although these studies have revealed important basic principles of attention, they do not explain how the brain efficiently selects familiar objects in complex and meaningful real-world scenes. Findings from recent neuroimaging studies indicate that real-world search is mediated by 'what' and 'where' attentional templates that are implemented in high-level visual cortex. These templates represent target-diagnostic properties and likely target locations, respectively, and are shaped by object familiarity, scene context, and memory. We propose a framework for real-world search that incorporates these recent findings and specifies directions for future study. PMID:24630872

Peelen, Marius V; Kastner, Sabine

2014-05-01

366

The Speed of Feature-Based Attention: Attentional Advantage Is Slow, but Selection Is Fast  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When paying attention to a feature (e.g., red), no attentional advantage is gained in perceiving items with this feature in very brief displays. Therefore, feature-based attention seems to be slow. In previous feature-based attention studies, attention has often been measured as the difference in performance in a secondary task. In our recent work…

Huang, Liqiang

2010-01-01

367

Attention Modulates Visual-Tactile Interaction in Spatial Pattern Matching  

PubMed Central

Factors influencing crossmodal interactions are manifold and operate in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up fashion, as well as via top-down control. Here, we evaluate the interplay of stimulus congruence and attention in a visual-tactile task. To this end, we used a matching paradigm requiring the identification of spatial patterns that were concurrently presented visually on a computer screen and haptically to the fingertips by means of a Braille stimulator. Stimulation in our paradigm was always bimodal with only the allocation of attention being manipulated between conditions. In separate blocks of the experiment, participants were instructed to (a) focus on a single modality to detect a specific target pattern, (b) pay attention to both modalities to detect a specific target pattern, or (c) to explicitly evaluate if the patterns in both modalities were congruent or not. For visual as well as tactile targets, congruent stimulus pairs led to quicker and more accurate detection compared to incongruent stimulation. This congruence facilitation effect was more prominent under divided attention. Incongruent stimulation led to behavioral decrements under divided attention as compared to selectively attending a single sensory channel. Additionally, when participants were asked to evaluate congruence explicitly, congruent stimulation was associated with better performance than incongruent stimulation. Our results extend previous findings from audiovisual studies, showing that stimulus congruence also resulted in behavioral improvements in visuotactile pattern matching. The interplay of stimulus processing and attentional control seems to be organized in a highly flexible fashion, with the integration of signals depending on both bottom-up and top-down factors, rather than occurring in an ‘all-or-nothing’ manner. PMID:25203102

Göschl, Florian; Engel, Andreas K.; Friese, Uwe

2014-01-01

368

Effect of tone mapping operators on visual attention deployment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Dynamic Range (HDR) images/videos require the use of a tone mapping operator (TMO) when visualized on Low Dynamic Range (LDR) displays. From an artistic intention point of view, TMOs are not necessarily transparent and might induce different behavior to view the content. In this paper, we investigate and quantify how TMOs modify visual attention (VA). To that end both objective and subjective tests in the form of eye-tracking experiments have been conducted on several still image content that have been processed by 11 different TMOs. Our studies confirm that TMOs can indeed modify human attention and fixation behavior significantly. Therefore our studies suggest that VA needs consideration for evaluating the overall perceptual impact of TMOs on HDR content. Since the existing studies so far have only considered the quality or aesthetic appeal angle, this study brings in a new perspective regarding the importance of VA in HDR content processing for visualization on LDR displays.

Narwaria, Manish; Perreira Da Silva, Matthieu; Le Callet, Patrick; Pepion, Romuald

2012-10-01

369

Attention in ASA It is now believed that attention plays a much more prominent role in ASA -attention does  

E-print Network

of Binaural Auditory Selective Attention Stuart N. Wrigley and Guy J. Brown Department of Computer Science, University of Sheffield, UK Abstract A model of auditory grouping is described in which auditory attention of attention and unilateral neglect on auditory stream segregation. JEP:HPP 27(1) 115-127. Darwin, C. J., Hukin

Wrigley, Stuart

370

Developmental Measurement of Mental Attention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines subjects' processing in misleading test items. Suggests that the M-power for children, when assessed behaviorally, may increase with age in a discrete manner, and have the potential to generate interval scales of measurement. In addition, suggests that, in light of the results, what statisticians often consider "error of measurement"…

Pascual-Leone, Juan; Baillargeon, Raymond

1994-01-01

371

Attentional Focus, Dispositional Reinvestment, and Skilled Motor Performance Under Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attentional processes governing skilled motor behavior were examined in two studies. In Experiment 1, fi eld hockey players performed a dribbling task under single-task, dual-task, and skill-focused conditions under both low and high pressure situations. In Experiment 2, skilled soccer players performed a dribbling task under single-task, skill-focused, and process-goal conditions, again under low and high pressure situations. Results replicated

Robin C. Jackson; Kelly J. Ashford; Glen Norsworthy

372

Development and Evaluation of an Attention Maintenance Training Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

One paragraph abstract: This proposed,research,focuses,on one of the key attributes that puts younger,drivers at increased risk. In particular, we will focus on the finding that younger drivers pay less attention to the,forward,roadway,and\\/or are more,likely to be,engaged,in a,distracting behavior. Distractions are estimated,to cause some 20% - 30% of crashes among,older teen drivers, and to be larger among newly licensed drivers than

Michael A. Knodler; Donald L. Fisher

373

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Medicalization of Misbehavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade, there has been an increase in the diagnosis and treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This syndrome, typically diagnosed in childhood, is characterized by inattention, hyperactive motor behavior, and distractibility. Current prevalence rates obtained in various countries generally exceed the 3–5% reported by DSM-IV. Reasons for increased ADHD prevalence include changes in diagnostic standards, overlap between

H. Russell Searight; A. Lesley McLaren

1998-01-01

374

Computerized attention retraining for individuals with elevated health anxiety.  

PubMed

Background and Objectives: Current cognitive-behavioral theorists conceptualize hypochondriasis as excessive health anxiety (HA). Growing evidence suggests that elevated HA is associated with attentional bias (AB) toward potential health-threat information. Design: This study aimed to examine the effects of attention retraining among individuals with elevated HA, using the established attention modification programs (AMP) designed to train participants to disengage attention from ideographically chosen health-threat words. Methods: Thirty-six randomly assigned individuals with elevated HA completed eight twice-weekly sessions of the AMP (n = 18) or the attention control condition (ACC; n = 18). Results: Despite using the well-established AMP protocol widely used within the field of anxiety disorders, we did not find evidence for change in AB following training. Further, AMP did not outperform ACC in reducing HA and other relevant emotional symptoms. However, both AMP and ACC evidenced overall significant symptom reduction in most of the outcome measures, including overall HA, anxiety sensitivity, general depression and anxiety, and somatic complaints. Conclusions: Further research is needed to better understand the effects and mechanisms of AMP as a possible cognitive intervention for HA. PMID:24773231

Lee, Han-Joo; Goetz, Amy R; Turkel, Jennifer E; Siwiec, Stephan G

2014-05-27

375

Audiovisual integration of speech falters under high attention demands.  

PubMed

One of the most commonly cited examples of human multisensory integration occurs during exposure to natural speech, when the vocal and the visual aspects of the signal are integrated in a unitary percept. Audiovisual association of facial gestures and vocal sounds has been demonstrated in nonhuman primates and in prelinguistic children, arguing for a general basis for this capacity. One critical question, however, concerns the role of attention in such multisensory integration. Although both behavioral and neurophysiological studies have converged on a preattentive conceptualization of audiovisual speech integration, this mechanism has rarely been measured under conditions of high attentional load, when the observers' attention resources are depleted. We tested the extent to which audiovisual integration was modulated by the amount of available attentional resources by measuring the observers' susceptibility to the classic McGurk illusion in a dual-task paradigm. The proportion of visually influenced responses was severely, and selectively, reduced if participants were concurrently performing an unrelated visual or auditory task. In contrast with the assumption that crossmodal speech integration is automatic, our results suggest that these multisensory binding processes are subject to attentional demands. PMID:15886102

Alsius, Agnès; Navarra, Jordi; Campbell, Ruth; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

2005-05-10

376

Superior Colliculus and Visual Spatial Attention  

PubMed Central

The superior colliculus (SC) has long been known to be part of the network of brain areas involved in spatial attention, but recent findings have dramatically refined our understanding of its functional role. The SC both implements the motor consequences of attention and plays a crucial role in the process of target selection that precedes movement. Moreover, even in the absence of overt orienting movements, SC activity is related to shifts of covert attention and is necessary for the normal control of spatial attention during perceptual judgments. The neuronal circuits that link the SC to spatial attention may include attention-related areas of the cerebral cortex, but recent results show that the SC's contribution involves mechanisms that operate independently of the established signatures of attention in visual cortex. These findings raise new issues and suggest novel possibilities for understanding the brain mechanisms that enable spatial attention. PMID:23682659

Krauzlis, Richard J.; Lovejoy, Lee P.; Zénon, Alexandre

2013-01-01

377

Superior colliculus and visual spatial attention.  

PubMed

The superior colliculus (SC) has long been known to be part of the network of brain areas involved in spatial attention, but recent findings have dramatically refined our understanding of its functional role. The SC both implements the motor consequences of attention and plays a crucial role in the process of target selection that precedes movement. Moreover, even in the absence of overt orienting movements, SC activity is related to shifts of covert attention and is necessary for the normal control of spatial attention during perceptual judgments. The neuronal circuits that link the SC to spatial attention may include attention-related areas of the cerebral cortex, but recent results show that the SC's contribution involves mechanisms that operate independently of the established signatures of attention in visual cortex. These findings raise new issues and suggest novel possibilities for understanding the brain mechanisms that enable spatial attention. PMID:23682659

Krauzlis, Richard J; Lovejoy, Lee P; Zénon, Alexandre

2013-07-01

378

Electrocortical indices of selective attention predict adolescent executive functioning.  

PubMed

Executive functioning is considered a powerful predictor of behavioral and mental health outcomes during adolescence. Our question was whether executive functioning skills, normally considered "top-down" processes, are related to automatic aspects of selective attention. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from typically-developing 12-14-year-old adolescents as they responded to tones presented in attended and unattended channels in an auditory selective attention task. Examining these ERPs in relation to parental reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) revealed that an early frontal positivity (EFP) elicited by to-be-ignored/unattended tones was larger in those with poorer executive functions, driven by scores on the BRIEF Metacognition Index. As is traditionally found, N1 amplitudes were more negative for the to-be-attended rather than unattended tones. Additionally, N1 latencies to unattended tones correlated with parent-ratings on the BRIEF Behavior Regulation Index, where shorter latencies predicted better executive functions. Results suggest that the ability to disengage attention from distractor information in the early stages of stimulus processing is associated with adolescent executive functioning skills. PMID:23528784

Lackner, Christine L; Santesso, Diane L; Dywan, Jane; Wade, Terrance J; Segalowitz, Sidney J

2013-05-01

379

Attentional enhancement via selection and pooling of early sensory responses in human visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Summary To characterize the computational processes by which attention improves behavioral performance, we measured activity in visual cortex with functional magnetic resonance imaging as humans performed a contrast-discrimination task with focal and distributed attention. Focal attention yielded robust improvements in behavioral performance that were accompanied by increases in cortical responses. Using a quantitative analysis, we determined that if performance were limited only by the sensitivity of the measured sensory signals, the improvements in behavioral performance would have corresponded to an unrealistically large (approximately 400%) reduction in response variability. Instead, behavioral performance was well characterized by a pooling and selection process for which the largest sensory responses, those most strongly modulated by attention, dominated the perceptual decision. This characterization predicts that high contrast distracters that evoke large sensory responses should have a negative impact on behavioral performance. We tested and confirmed this prediction. We conclude that attention enhanced behavioral performance predominantly by enabling efficient selection of the behaviorally relevant sensory signals. PMID:22153378

Pestilli, Franco; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J.; Gardner, Justin L.

2011-01-01

380

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.  

PubMed

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological condition of childhood onset with the hallmarks of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Inattention includes excessive daydreaming, disorganization, and being easily distracted. Impulsivity manifests as taking an action before fully thinking of the consequences. Hyperactivity includes an excessive rate of speech and motor activity. Complications of ADHD include academic failure, low self-esteem, poor work performance, substance abuse, criminal justice issues, and social problems. ADHD is predominately due to decreased activity in the frontal lobe. Dopamine and norepinephrine are the main neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Pharmacological treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, ?2 agonists, bupropion, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most effective medications are the psychostimulants. Nonpharmacological treatment of ADHD includes coaching, providing structure, academic accommodations, and work accommodations. PMID:25092688

Bokor, Gyula; Anderson, Peter D

2014-08-01

381

Attention theory and training research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study used elements of attention theory as a methodological basis to decompose a complex training task in order to improve training efficiency. The complex task was a microcomputer flight simulation where subjects were required to control the stability of their own helicopter while acquiring and engaging enemy helicopers in a threat enviroment. Subjects were divided into whole-task, part-task, and part/open loop adaptive task groups in a transfer of training paradigm. The effect of reducing mental workload at the early stages of learning was examined with respect to the degree that subordinate elements of the complex task could be automated through practice of consistent, learnable stimulus-response relationships. Results revealed trends suggesting the benefit of isolating consistently mapped sub-tasks for part-task training and the presence of a time-sharing skill over and above the skill required for the separate subtasks.

Connelly, James G., Jr.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Lintern, Gavan; Harwood, Kelly

1987-01-01

382

Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mindfulness is defined as paying attention in the present moment. We investigate the hypothesis that mindfulness training may alter or\\u000a enhance specific aspects of attention. We examined three functionally and neuroanatomically distinct but overlapping attentional\\u000a subsystems: alerting, orienting, and conflict monitoring. Functioning of each subsystem was indexed by performance on the\\u000a Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, &

Amishi P. Jha; Jason Krompinger; Michael J. Baime

2007-01-01

383

Neural Processes Involved in Directing Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural processes associated with two aspects of visual-spatial attention were investigated with event-related potential (ERPs): those that direct spatial attention to a given point in space and those that modulate the processing of sensory input after attention has been directed. The subjects were 6- to 9-year-old children (51 boys and 35 girls). An arrow cue directed attention from the central

M. Russell Harter; Steven L. Miller; Natalie J. Price; Margaret E. LaLonde; Alvin L. Keyes

1989-01-01

384

The Effect of Early Deprivation on Executive Attention in Middle Childhood  

PubMed Central

Background Children reared in deprived environments, such as institutions for the care of orphaned or abandoned children, are at increased risk for attention and behavior regulation difficulties. This study examined the neurobehavioral correlates of executive attention in post-institutionalized (PI) children. Methods The performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) of 10- and 11-year-old internationally adopted PI children on two executive attention tasks, Go/No-go and Flanker, were compared to two groups: children internationally adopted early from foster care (PF) and non-adopted children (NA). Results Behavioral measures suggested problems with sustained attention, with PIs performing more poorly on Go trials and not on No-go trials of the Go/No-go and made more errors on both congruent and incongruent trials on the Flanker. ERPs suggested differences in inhibitory control and error monitoring, as PIs had smaller N2 amplitude on Go/No-go and smaller error-related negativity on Flanker. Conclusions This pattern of results raises questions regarding the nature of attention difficulties for PI children. The behavioral errors are not specific to executive attention and instead likely reflect difficulties in overall sustained attention. The ERP results are consistent with neural activity related to deficits in inhibitory control (N2) and error monitoring (error-related negativity). Questions emerge regarding the similarity of attention regulatory difficulties in PIs to those experienced by non-PI children with ADHD. PMID:22924462

Loman, Michelle M.; Johnson, Anna E.; Westerlund, Alissa; Pollak, Seth D.; Nelson, Charles A.; Gunnar, Megan R.

2012-01-01

385

Attentional Orienting across the Sensory Modalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This event-related potential study investigated (i) to what extent incongruence between attention-directing cue and cued target modality affects attentional control processes that bias the system in advance to favor a particular stimulus modality and (ii) to what extent top-down attentional control mechanisms are generalized for the type of…

Talsma, Durk; Kok, Albert; Slagter, Heleen A.; Cipriani, Giuseppe

2008-01-01

386

Selective attention deficits during human pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a longitudinal design we provide evidence that selective attention – a key component of cognition concerned with selection and preparation – is compromised during pregnancy. Selective attention was operationalized by means of the finger precuing technique, which selectively prepares two of four finger responses. The precuing benefit was taken as a measure of selective attention. Pregnant women showed a

R. H. M. de Groot; Jos J. Adam; G. Hornstra

2003-01-01

387

Modeling Visual Attention via Selective Tuning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for aspects of visual attention based on the concept of selective tuning is presented. It provides for a solution to the problems of selection in an image, information routing through the visual processing hierarchy and task-specific attentional bias. The central thesis is that attention acts to optimize the search procedure inherent in a solution to vision. It does

John K. Tsotsos; Sean M. Culhane; Winky Yan Kei Wai; Yuzhong Lai; Neal Davis; Fernando Nuflo

1995-01-01

388

Persistence of Value-Driven Attentional Capture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stimuli that have previously been associated with the delivery of reward involuntarily capture attention when presented as unrewarded and task-irrelevant distractors in a subsequent visual search task. It is unknown how long such effects of reward learning on attention persist. One possibility is that value-driven attentional biases are plastic…

Anderson, Brian A.; Yantis, Steven

2013-01-01

389

Separable Attentional Predictors of Language Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the combined influences of infants' attention and use of social cues in the prediction of their language outcomes. This longitudinal study measured infants' visual attention on a distractibility task (11 months), joint attention (14 months), and language outcomes (word-object association, 14 months;…

Salley, Brenda; Panneton, Robin K.; Colombo, John

2013-01-01

390

Behold: Silence and Attention in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators continually ask about the best means to engage students and how best to capture attention. These concerns often make the problematic assumption that students can directly govern their own attention. In order to address the role and limits of attention in education, some theorists have sought to recover the significance of silence or…

Lewin, David

2014-01-01

391

Attentional Functions in Dorsal and Ventral Simultanagnosia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole report of brief letter arrays is used to analyse basic attentional deficits in dorsal and ventral variants of simultanagnosia. Using Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), a number of previous theoretical suggestions are formalised and tested, including primary deficit in processing more than one display element, attentional stickiness, foveal bias, and global weakness of the visual representation. Interestingly, data

John Duncan; Claus Bundesen; Andrew Olson; Glyn Humphreys; Robert Ward; Søren Kyllingsbæk; Monique van Raamsdonk; Chris Rorden; Swarup Chavda

2003-01-01

392

Attentional Bias for Exercise-Related Images  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined attentional bias toward exercise-related images using a visual probe task. It was hypothesized that more-active participants would display attentional bias toward the exercise-related images. The results showed that men displayed attentional bias for the exercise images. There was a significant interaction of activity level…

Berry, Tanya R.; Spence, John C.; Stolp, Sean M.

2011-01-01

393

Attention to Affect in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As language teachers, we have to pay attention to many things in our work so why add "attention to affect"? Perhaps the simplest, most direct answer is that whatever we focus most on in our particular context, be it general English, morphosyntax, phonetics, literature, English for academic writing or any other special area, attention to affect…

Arnold, Jane

2011-01-01

394

A Feature-Integration Theory of Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new hypothesis about the role of focused attention is proposed. The feature-integration theory of attention suggests that attention must be directed serially to each stimulus in a display whenever conjunctions of more than one separable feature are needed to characterize or distinguish the possible objects presented. A number of predictions were tested in a variety of paradigms includ- ing

ANNE M. TREISMAN; GARRY GELADE

1980-01-01

395

Context-Dependent Control over Attentional Capture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of studies have demonstrated that the likelihood of a salient item capturing attention is dependent on the "attentional set" an individual employs in a given situation. The instantiation of an attentional set is often viewed as a strategic, voluntary process, relying on working memory systems that represent immediate task priorities.…

Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

2013-01-01

396

Attentional modulation in human primary olfactory cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central to the concept of attention is the fact that identical stimuli can be processed in different ways. In olfaction, attention may designate the identical flow of air through the nose as either respiration or olfactory exploration. Here we have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe this attentional mechanism in primary olfactory cortex (POC). We report a dissociation

Moustafa Bensafi; Jess Porter; Joel Mainland; Brad Johnson; Elizabeth Bremner; Christina Telles; Rehan Khan; Christina Zelano; Noam Sobel

2004-01-01

397

Mental Attention in Gifted and Nongifted Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between the construct of mental attention and "giftedness" is not well established. Gifted individuals could make effective use of their executive functions and this could be related to their mental attentional capacity. The dialectic constructivist model developed by Pascual-Leone introduced the concept of mental attention or…

Navarro, Jose I.; Ramiro, Pedro; Lopez, Jose M.; Aguilar, Manuel; Acosta, Manuel; Montero, Juan

2006-01-01

398

Attention to Faces in Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with distinct social behaviours. One component of the WS social phenotype is atypically prolonged face fixation. This behaviour co-exists with attention difficulties. Attention is multi-faceted and may impact on gaze behaviour in several ways. Four experiments assessed (i) attention capture by faces, (ii)…

Riby, Deborah M.; Jones, Nicola; Brown, Philippa H.; Robinson, Lucy J.; Langton, Stephen R. H.; Bruce, Vicki; Riby, Leigh M.

2011-01-01

399

Bilingualism and enhanced attention in early adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study investigated executive attention during nonverbal and verbal processing among adults with a range of bilingual experience. Previous research has found that bilingual children control their attention better than their monolingual peers and that superior attentional control in some processing contexts persists into adulthood among lifelong bilinguals. An open question is whether late-acquired experience learning and using two

Catherine A. Stafford

2011-01-01

400

Auditory attention switching in hyperactive children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to rapidly reorient attention in the auditory modality was studied in hyperactive children. Hyperactive and nonhyperactive subjects matched on age, sex, and IQ listened to dichotically presented lists for prespecified targets. Reorientation was studied by comparing performance on trials requiring subjects to reorient their attention during a list to performance on trials requiring no switching of attention. The

Deborah A. Pearson; James M. Swanson

1991-01-01

401

Object continuity enhances selective auditory attention  

E-print Network

Object continuity enhances selective auditory attention Virginia Best, Erol J. Ozmeral, Norbert, the identity of an auditory object can build up across seconds. Given that attention operates on perceptual ob- jects, this perceptual buildup may alter the efficacy of selective auditory attention over time. Here

Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

402

Attention deficits predict phenotypic outcomes in syndrome-specific and domain-specific ways.  

PubMed

Attentional difficulties, both at home and in the classroom, are reported across a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, exactly how attention influences early socio-cognitive learning remains unclear. We addressed this question both concurrently and longitudinally in a cross-syndrome design, with respect to the communicative domain of vocabulary and to the cognitive domain of early literacy, and then extended the analysis to social behavior. Participants were young children (aged 4-9?years at Time 1) with either Williams syndrome (WS, N?=?26) or Down syndrome (DS, N?=?26) and typically developing controls (N?=?103). Children with WS displayed significantly greater attentional deficits (as indexed by teacher report of behavior typical of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than children with DS, but both groups had greater attentional problems than the controls. Despite their attention differences, children with DS and those with WS were equivalent in their cognitive abilities of reading single words, both at Time 1 and 12?months later, at Time 2, although they differed in their early communicative abilities in terms of vocabulary. Greater ADHD-like behaviors predicted poorer subsequent literacy for children with DS, but not for children with WS, pointing to syndrome-specific attentional constraints on specific aspects of early development. Overall, our findings highlight the need to investigate more precisely whether and, if so, how, syndrome-specific profiles of behavioral difficulties constrain learning and socio-cognitive outcomes across different domains. PMID:22798954

Cornish, K; Steele, A; Monteiro, C Rondinelli Cobra; Karmiloff-Smith, A; Scerif, G

2012-01-01

403

rTMS of medial parieto-occipital cortex interferes with attentional reorienting during attention and reaching tasks.  

PubMed

Unexpected changes in the location of a target for an upcoming action require both attentional reorienting and motor planning update. In both macaque and human brain, the medial posterior parietal cortex is involved in both phenomena but its causal role is still unclear. Here we used on-line rTMS over the putative human V6A (pV6A), a reach-related region in the dorsal part of the anterior bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus, during an attention and a reaching task requiring covert shifts of attention and planning of reaching movements toward cued targets in space. We found that rTMS increased RTs to invalidly cued but not to validly cued targets during both the attention and reaching task. Furthermore, we found that rTMS induced a deviation of reaching endpoints toward visual fixation and that this deviation was larger for invalidly cued targets. The results suggest that reorienting signals are used by human pV6A area to rapidly update the current motor plan or the ongoing action when a behaviorally relevant object unexpectedly occurs in an unattended location. The current findings suggest a direct involvement of the action-related dorso-medial visual stream in attentional reorienting and a more specific role of pV6A area in the dynamic, on-line control of reaching actions. PMID:23647519

Ciavarro, Marco; Ambrosini, Ettore; Tosoni, Annalisa; Committeri, Giorgia; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio

2013-09-01

404

Psychopathy-related differences in selective attention are captured by an early event-related potential.  

PubMed

According to the response modulation model, the poorly regulated behavior of psychopathic individuals reflects a problem reallocating attention to process peripheral information while engaged in goal-directed behavior (Patterson & Newman, 1993). We evaluated this tenet using male prisoners and an early event-related potential component (P140) to index attentional processing. In all task conditions, participants viewed and categorized letter stimuli that could also be used to predict electric shocks. Instructions focused attention either on the threat-relevant dimension of the letters or an alternative, threat-irrelevant dimension. Offenders with high scores on Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised displayed a larger P140 under alternative versus threat conditions. Beyond demonstrating psychopathy-related differences in early attention, these findings suggest that psychopathic individuals find it easier to ignore threat-related distractors when they are peripheral versus central to their goal-directed behavior. PMID:22452763

Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Curtin, John J; Li, Wen; Newman, Joseph P

2012-10-01

405

Increasing Low-Responding Students' Participation in Class Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in six sections of a large undergraduate class were asked to record their class comments on notecards in all course units. Additionally, in some units, they received points toward their course grade based on their reported comments in class discussion. The study was conducted over a two-semester period, with slight variation in both the…

Foster, Lisa N.; Krohn, Katherine R.; McCleary, Daniel F.; Aspiranti, Kathleen B.; Nalls, Meagan L.; Quillivan, Colin C.; Taylor, Cora M.; Williams, Robert L.

2009-01-01

406

Assigned Positions for In-Class Debates Influence Student Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In-class debates are frequently used to encourage student engagement. Ideally, after researching both sides of the debate, students will form their own opinions based on what they have learned. However, in a large course of Environmental Science, opinions of students, when surveyed after the debate, were remarkably consistent with the position…

Lilly, Emily

2012-01-01

407

Emotional Contagion at Work: An In-Class Experiential Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an in-class exercise designed to demonstrate the concept of emotional contagion. Empirical research has found that leader emotional displays at work relate to various member work attitudes and performance. However, students may have a difficult time understanding how and why emotions can influence organizational outcomes.…

Schaefer, Rebecca A. Bull; Palanski, Michael E.

2014-01-01

408

In-Class vs. Online Experiments: Is There a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom experiments in economics continue to increase in popularity. While early experiments were often hand-run in class, now computerized online experiments are also widely available. Using a quasiexperimental approach, the authors investigated whether any difference in student achievement (as measured by course scores and the "Test of…

Carter, Linda K.; Emerson, Tisha L. N.

2012-01-01

409

Canadian In-Class Question-Charge Distribution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this set of in-class questions, a solid sphere carrying a positive charge is placed next to a negatively charged circular plate. The questions address the topic of charge distribution. All questions are available for download in PDF format.

Harrison, David; Sharma, Manjula

2010-03-22

410

Factors Affecting Educational Innovation with in Class Electronic Response Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the use of Rogers' diffusion of innovation perspective to understand the factors affecting educational innovation decisions, specifically in regard to in class electronic response systems. Despite decreasing costs and four decades of research showing strong student support, academic adoption is limited. Using data collected from…

Freeman, Mark; Bell, Amani; Comerton-Forde, Carole; Pickering, Joanne; Blayney, Paul

2007-01-01

411

Nicotine and attention: event-related potential investigations in nonsmokers.  

PubMed

Research into the effects of nicotine and smoking on cognition has largely confirmed the subjective reports of smoking in smokers on mental functions, showing smoking abstinence to disrupt and smoking/nicotine to restore cognitive functioning. Evidence of performance improvements in nonsmokers has provided partial support for the absolute effects of nicotine on cognitive processes, which are independent of withdrawal relief, but the mechanisms underlying its pro-cognitive properties still remain elusive. The attentional facilitation frequently reported with smoking/nicotine may be indirectly related to its diffuse arousal-enhancing actions, as evidenced by electroencephalographic (EEG) fast frequency power increments, or it may reflect nicotine's direct modulating effects on specific neural processes governing stimulus encoding, selection and rejection. Event-related potential (ERP) components extracted during the performance of cognitive tasks have proven to be sensitive to early pre-attentive and later attention-dependent processes that are not otherwise reflected in behavioral probes. To date, the majority of ERP studies have been conducted with smokers using passive non-task paradigms or relatively non-demanding "oddball" tasks. This paper will emphasize our recent ERP investigations with acute nicotine polacrilex (6 mg) administered to nonsmokers, and with a battery of ERP and behavioral performance paradigms focusing on intra- and inter-modal selective attention and distraction processes. These ERP findings of nicotine-augmented early attentional processing add support to the contention that nicotine may be be used by smokers as a "pharmacological tool" for tuning cognitive functions relating to the automatic and controlled aspects of sensory input detection and selection. PMID:19278128

Knott, Verner; Shah, Dhrasti; Fisher, Derek; Millar, Anne; Prise, Stephanie; Scott, Terri Lynn; Thompson, Mackenzie

2009-01-01

412

Consciousness and Attention: On Sufficiency and Necessity  

PubMed Central

Recent research has slowly corroded a belief that selective attention and consciousness are so tightly entangled that they cannot be individually examined. In this review, we summarize psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence for a dissociation between top-down attention and consciousness. The evidence includes recent findings that show subjects can attend to perceptually invisible objects. More contentious is the finding that subjects can become conscious of an isolated object, or the gist of the scene in the near absence of top-down attention; we critically re-examine the possibility of “complete” absence of top-down attention. We also cover the recent flurry of studies that utilized independent manipulation of attention and consciousness. These studies have shown paradoxical effects of attention, including examples where top-down attention and consciousness have opposing effects, leading us to strengthen and revise our previous views. Neuroimaging studies with EEG, MEG, and fMRI are uncovering the distinct neuronal correlates of selective attention and consciousness in dissociative paradigms. These findings point to a functional dissociation: attention as analyzer and consciousness as synthesizer. Separating the effects of selective visual attention from those of visual consciousness is of paramount importance to untangle the neural substrates of consciousness from those for attention. PMID:21833272

van Boxtel, Jeroen J. A.; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof

2010-01-01

413

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pelham, Wheeler, and Chronis (1998) reviewed the treatment literature on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and concluded behavioral parent training (BPT) and behavioral classroom management (BCM) were well-established treatments for children with ADHD. This review updates and extends the finding of the prior review. Studies conducted…

Pelham, William E., Jr.; Fabiano, Gregory A.

2008-01-01

414

Teaching Tommy: A Second-Grader with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts a second-grade teacher's efforts to help a rough-and-tumble boy diagnosed with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). After comprehensive behavioral and academic programs (including token rewards, peer tutoring, resource room activities, an inclass aide) failed to stabilize Tommy's behavior, Ritalin was (successfully) prescribed…

Fachin, Katharina

1996-01-01

415

A Cueing Procedure to Control Impulsivity in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the efficacy of a cueing procedure for improving the impulse regulation of four boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) during social skills training. Impulse regulationwas defined as raising hands before speaking. Effects on collateral behaviors i.e., talking out of turn) were also assessed. A reversal design was used. Behavioral data collected by independent observers suggested that

Heidi D. Posavac; Susan M. Sheridan; Steven S. Posavac

1999-01-01

416

Clinical assessment and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder that frequently persists into adulthood, with significant levels of inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behavior. Impairments associated with adult ADHD include distress from the symptoms, impaired ability to function in work and academic settings, and problems sustaining stable relationships. The disorder is commonly associated with volatile moods, antisocial behavior, and drug

Philip Asherson

2005-01-01

417

Visual attention and the acquisition of information in human crowds  

PubMed Central

Pedestrian crowds can form the substrate of important socially contagious behaviors, including propagation of visual attention, violence, opinions, and emotional state. However, relating individual to collective behavior is often difficult, and quantitative studies have largely used laboratory experimentation. We present two studies in which we tracked the motion and head direction of 3,325 pedestrians in natural crowds to quantify the extent, influence, and context dependence of socially transmitted visual attention. In our first study, we instructed stimulus groups of confederates within a crowd to gaze up to a single point atop of a building. Analysis of passersby shows that visual attention spreads unevenly in space and that the probability of pedestrians adopting this behavior increases as a function of stimulus group size before saturating for larger groups. We develop a model that predicts that this gaze response will lead to the transfer of visual attention between crowd members, but it is not sufficiently strong to produce a tipping point or critical mass of gaze-following that has previously been predicted for crowd dynamics. A second experiment, in which passersby were presented with two stimulus confederates performing suspicious/irregular activity, supports the predictions of our model. This experiment reveals that visual interactions between pedestrians occur primarily within a 2-m range and that gaze-copying, although relatively weak, can facilitate response to relevant stimuli. Although the above aspects of gaze-following response are reproduced robustly between experimental setups, the overall tendency to respond to a stimulus is dependent on spatial features, social context, and sex of the passerby. PMID:22529369

Gallup, Andrew C.; Hale, Joseph J.; Sumpter, David J. T.; Garnier, Simon; Kacelnik, Alex; Krebs, John R.; Couzin, Iain D.

2012-01-01

418

Transcranial magnetic stimulation measures in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Children affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder demonstrate diminished intrahemispheric inhibition (short interval cortical inhibition), as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation. This study determined whether interhemispheric inhibition (ipsilateral silent period latency) correlates with clinical behavioral rating and motor control deficits of affected children. In 114 right-handed children (aged 8-12 years; age/sex-matched; 50 affected, 64 controls), we performed comprehensive assessments of behavior, motor skills, and cognition. Transcranial magnetic stimulation reliably elicited ipsilateral silent periods in 54 children (23 affected); all were on average older than those with unobtainable measures. Mean ipsilateral silent period latency was 5 milliseconds longer in the affected group (P = 0.007). Longer latencies correlated with more severe behavioral symptom scores (r = 0.38, P = 0.007), particularly hyperactivity (r = 0.39, P = 0.006), and with worse motor ratings on the Physical and Neurological Examination for Soft Signs (r = 0.27, P = 0.05). Longer latency also correlated with short interval cortical inhibition (r = 0.36, P = 0.008). Longer ipsilateral silent period latencies suggest interhemispheric inhibitory signaling is slower in affected children. The deficit in this inhibitory measure may underlie developmental, behavioral, and motor impairments in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. PMID:22883282

Wu, Steve W; Gilbert, Donald L; Shahana, Nasrin; Huddleston, David A; Mostofsky, Stewart H

2012-09-01

419

Parsing the intrinsic networks underlying attention: A resting state study.  

PubMed

The attention system functionally modulates brain activity to exert control over thoughts, feelings and actions. Three distinct but mutually interacting components of attention have been hypothesized: alerting, which mediates the maintenance of a state of vigilance toward an upcoming stimulus; orienting, which supports the selection of sensory information, and executive control that is involved in detecting and resolving cognitive conflicts. The performance of tasks probing these components engages fronto-parietal and thalamic regions. Also, general attention has been associated with the activity of resting-state networks (RSNs), which are sets of brain regions with synchronous temporal fluctuations. Importantly, the association between the intrinsic brain activity of RSNs and the efficiency and integration of the specific attentional components remains largely unexplored. For this aim, we recruited twenty healthy volunteers who performed the Attention Network Test-Revised (ANT-R), assessing the alerting, orienting and executive control components as well as their interactions, and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. For each participant RSNs were estimated using double regression. The RSNs spanning across areas previously implicated in attentional processing were correlated with ANT-R scores using multiple regressions. Significant brain behavior correlations emerged between ANT-R scores and RSNs comprising the regions relevant for attentional processing, i.e., left and right prefronto-parietal (PFC-PC), dorsal attentional (DAN), salience (SN), and default mode (DMN) networks. The activity of PFC-PC networks was correlated with alerting in parietal and frontal regions, and with location conflict in the frontal regions. The DAN connectivity was correlated with flanker, location conflict, and their interaction in parietal regions. SN was associated with flanker by location and flanker by orienting interactions in the inferior frontal regions. Finally, the activity of the DMN was associated with flanker conflict in midline structures such as precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex and also in right angular gyrus. These results suggest that the brain is endowed with an intrinsic functional organization to support attention, not only in its global function, but also in its distinct components. PMID:25311282

Visintin, Eleonora; De Panfilis, Chiara; Antonucci, Camilla; Capecci, Cinzia; Marchesi, Carlo; Sambataro, Fabio

2014-10-13

420

Visual attention, an indicator of human-animal relationships? A study of domestic horses (Equus caballus).  

PubMed

As visual attention is an intrinsic part of social relationships, and because relationships are built on a succession of interactions, their establishment involves learning and attention. The emotional, rewarding or punishing, content can modulate selective attention. In horses, the use of positive/negative reinforcement during training determines short and long-term human-horse relationships. In a recent study in horses, where either food or withers' grooming were used as a reward, it appeared that only the food-rewarded horses learned the task and show better relationship with humans. In the present study, we hypothesized that this differential effect of grooming/food rewards on learning performances could be due to attentional processes. Monitoring, gazes and behaviors directed towards the trainer revealed that the use of a food reward (FR) as positive reinforcement increased horses' selective attention towards their trainer. Conversely, horses trained with grooming reward (GR) expressed more inattentive responses and did not show a decrease of "agitated" behavior. However, individual plotting of attention vs. rate of learning performances revealed a complex pattern. Thus, while all FR horses showed a "window" of attention related to faster learning performances, GR horses' pattern followed an almost normal curve where the extreme animals (i.e., highest and lowest attention) had the slowest learning performances. On the other hand, learning was influenced by attention: at the end of training, the more attentive horses had also better learning performances. This study, based on horses, contributes to the general debate on the place of attentional processes at the interface of emotion and cognition and opens new lines of thought about individual sensitivities (only individuals can tell what an appropriate reward is), attentional processes and learning. PMID:24592244

Rochais, C; Henry, S; Sankey, C; Nassur, F; Góracka-Bruzda, A; Hausberger, M

2014-01-01

421

Space-based visual attention: a marker of immature selective attention in toddlers?  

PubMed

Various studies suggested that attentional difficulties cause toddlers' failure in some spatial search tasks. However, attention is not a unitary construct and this study investigated two attentional mechanisms: location selection (space-based attention) and object selection (object-based attention). We investigated how toddlers' attention is distributed in the visual field during a manual search task for objects moving out of sight, namely the moving boxes task. Results show that 2.5-year-olds who failed this task allocated more attention to the location of the relevant object than to the object itself. These findings suggest that in some manual search tasks the primacy of space-based attention over object-based attention could be a marker of immature selective attention in toddlers. PMID:25073804

Rivière, James; Brisson, Julie

2014-11-01

422

Plasticity of visual attention in Isha yoga meditation practitioners before and after a 3-month retreat.  

PubMed

Meditation has lately received considerable interest from cognitive neuroscience. Studies suggest that daily meditation leads to long lasting attentional and neuronal plasticity. We present changes related to the attentional systems before and after a 3 month intensive meditation retreat. We used three behavioral psychophysical tests - a Stroop task, an attentional blink task, and a global-local letter task-to assess the effect of Isha yoga meditation on attentional resource allocation. 82 Isha yoga practitioners were tested at the beginning and at the end of the retreat. Our results showed an increase in correct responses specific to incongruent stimuli in the Stroop task. Congruently, a positive correlation between previous meditation experience and accuracy to incongruent Stroop stimuli was also observed at baseline. We also observed a reduction of the attentional blink. Unexpectedly, a negative correlation between previous meditation experience and attentional blink performance at baseline was observed. Regarding spatial attention orientation as assessed using the global-local letter task, participants showed a bias toward local processing. Only slight differences in performance were found pre- vs. post- meditation retreat. Biasing toward the local stimuli in the global-local task and negative correlation of previous meditation experience with attentional blink performance is consistent with Isha practices being focused-attention practices. Given the relatively small effect sizes and the absence of a control group, our results do not allow clear support nor rejection of the hypothesis of meditation-driven neuronal plasticity in the attentional system for Isha yoga practice. PMID:24376429

Braboszcz, Claire; Cahn, B Rael; Balakrishnan, Bhavani; Maturi, Raj K; Grandchamp, Romain; Delorme, Arnaud

2013-01-01

423

Exploring the function of selective attention and hypervigilance for threat in anxiety.  

PubMed

Theoretical frameworks of anxiety propose that attentional biases to threat-related stimuli cause or maintain anxious states. The current paper draws on theoretical frameworks and key empirical studies to outline the distinctive attentional processes highlighted as being important in understanding anxiety. We develop a conceptual framework to make a distinction between two attentional biases: selective attention to threat and hypervigilance for threat. We suggest that these biases each have a different purpose and can account for the typical patterns of facilitated and impaired attention evident in anxious individuals. The framework is novel in its specification of the eye movement behavior associated with these attentional biases. We highlight that selective attention involves narrowing overt attention onto threat to ensure that these stimuli receive processing priority, leading to rapid engagement with task-relevant threat and delayed disengagement from task-irrelevant threat. We show that hypervigilance operates in the presence and absence of threat and involves monitoring for potential dangers via attentional broadening or excessive scanning of the environment with numerous eye movements, leading to improved threat detection and increased distraction from task-irrelevant threat. We conclude that future research could usefully employ eye movement measures to more clearly understand the diverse roles of attention in anxiety. PMID:24286750

Richards, Helen J; Benson, Valerie; Donnelly, Nick; Hadwin, Julie A

2014-02-01

424

Plasticity of visual attention in Isha yoga meditation practitioners before and after a 3-month retreat  

PubMed Central

Meditation has lately received considerable interest from cognitive neuroscience. Studies suggest that daily meditation leads to long lasting attentional and neuronal plasticity. We present changes related to the attentional systems before and after a 3 month intensive meditation retreat. We used three behavioral psychophysical tests - a Stroop task, an attentional blink task, and a global-local letter task-to assess the effect of Isha yoga meditation on attentional resource allocation. 82 Isha yoga practitioners were tested at the beginning and at the end of the retreat. Our results showed an increase in correct responses specific to incongruent stimuli in the Stroop task. Congruently, a positive correlation between previous meditation experience and accuracy to incongruent Stroop stimuli was also observed at baseline. We also observed a reduction of the attentional blink. Unexpectedly, a negative correlation between previous meditation experience and attentional blink performance at baseline was observed. Regarding spatial attention orientation as assessed using the global-local letter task, participants showed a bias toward local processing. Only slight differences in performance were found pre- vs. post- meditation retreat. Biasing toward the local stimuli in the global-local task and negative correlation of previous meditation experience with attentional blink performance is consistent with Isha practices being focused-attention practices. Given the relatively small effect sizes and the absence of a control group, our results do not allow clear support nor rejection of the hypothesis of meditation-driven neuronal plasticity in the attentional system for Isha yoga practice. PMID:24376429

Braboszcz, Claire; Cahn, B. Rael; Balakrishnan, Bhavani; Maturi, Raj K.; Grandchamp, Romain; Delorme, Arnaud

2013-01-01

425

Multisensory Integration and Attention in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

PubMed Central

Successful integration of various simultaneously perceived perceptual signals is crucial for social behavior. Recent findings indicate that this multisensory integration (MSI) can be modulated by attention. Theories of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) suggest that MSI is affected in this population while it remains unclear to what extent this is related to impairments in attentional capacity. In the present study Event-related potentials (ERPs) following emotionally congruent and incongruent face-voice pairs were measured in 23 high-functioning, adult ASD individuals and 24 age- and IQ-matched controls. MSI was studied while the attention of the participants was manipulated. ERPs were measured at typical auditory and visual processing peaks, namely, P2 and N170. While controls showed MSI during divided attention and easy selective attention tasks, individuals with ASD showed MSI during easy selective attention tasks only. It was concluded that individuals with ASD are able to process multisensory emotional stimuli, but this is differently modulated by attention mechanisms in these participants, especially those associated with divided attention. This atypical interaction between attention and MSI is also relevant to treatment strategies, with training of multisensory attentional control possibly being more beneficial than conventional sensory integration therapy. PMID:21887382

Magnée, Maurice J. C. M.; de Gelder, Beatrice; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal

2011-01-01

426

Multisensory integration and attention in autism spectrum disorder: evidence from event-related potentials.  

PubMed

Successful integration of various simultaneously perceived perceptual signals is crucial for social behavior. Recent findings indicate that this multisensory integration (MSI) can be modulated by attention. Theories of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) suggest that MSI is affected in this population while it remains unclear to what extent this is related to impairments in attentional capacity. In the present study Event-related potentials (ERPs) following emotionally congruent and incongruent face-voice pairs were measured in 23 high-functioning, adult ASD individuals and 24 age- and IQ-matched controls. MSI was studied while the attention of the participants was manipulated. ERPs were measured at typical auditory and visual processing peaks, namely, P2 and N170. While controls showed MSI during divided attention and easy selective attention tasks, individuals with ASD showed MSI during easy selective attention tasks only. It was concluded that individuals with ASD are able to process multisensory emotional stimuli, but this is differently modulated by attention mechanisms in these participants, especially those associated with divided attention. This atypical interaction between attention and MSI is also relevant to treatment strategies, with training of multisensory attentional control possibly being more beneficial than conventional sensory integration therapy. PMID:21887382

Magnée, Maurice J C M; de Gelder, Beatrice; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal

2011-01-01

427

Through their eyes: selective attention in peahens during courtship  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Conspicuous, multicomponent ornamentation in male animals can be favored by female mate choice but we know little about the cognitive processes females use to evaluate these traits. Sexual selection may favor attention mechanisms allowing the choosing females to selectively and efficiently acquire relevant information from complex male display traits and, in turn, may favor male display traits that effectively capture and hold female attention. Using a miniaturized telemetric gaze-tracker, we show that peahens (Pavo cristatus) selectively attend to specific components of peacock courtship displays and virtually ignore other, highly conspicuous components. Females gazed at the lower train but largely ignored the head, crest and upper train. When the lower train was obscured, however, females spent more time gazing at the upper train and approached the upper train from a distance. Our results suggest that peahens mainly evaluate the lower train during close-up courtship but use the upper train as a long-distance attraction signal. Furthermore, we found that behavioral display components (train rattling and wing shaking) captured and maintained female attention, indicating that interactions between display components may promote the evolution of multicomponent displays. Taken together, these findings suggest that selective attention plays a crucial role in sexual selection and likely influences the evolution of male display traits. PMID:23885088

Yorzinski, Jessica L.; Patricelli, Gail L.; Babcock, Jason S.; Pearson, John M.; Platt, Michael L.

2013-01-01

428

Attentional Bias in Snus Users: An Experimental Study  

PubMed Central

The use of nicotine in the form of “snus” is substantial and increasing in some geographic areas, in particular among young people. It has previously been suggested that addictions may operate through a mechanism of attentional bias, in which stimuli representative of the dependent substance increase in salience, thus increasing the addictive behavior. However, this hypothesis has not been tested for the case of snus. The current experiment used a modified Stroop task and a dot-probe task to investigate whether 40 snus users show an attentional bias towards snus-relevant stimuli, compared to 40 non-snus users. There were no significant differences between the two groups on reaction times or accuracy on either Stroop or dot-probe task, thus failing to show an attentional bias towards snus-relevant stimuli for snus users. This could imply that other mechanisms may contribute to maintenance of snus use than for other addictions. However, this is the first experimental study investigating attentional bias in snus users, and more research is warranted. PMID:25296339

Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Sætrevik, Bjørn; Molde, Helge; Wiium, Nora; Hetland, Jørn; Fagerland, Ida; Nordnes, Linn Tinnesand; Storemark, Sunniva Straume; Fossum, Ingrid Nesdal; Pallesen, Ståle

2014-01-01

429

Contingent attentional capture by conceptually relevant images.  

PubMed

Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined attentional-control settings of the viewer. Contingent capture has been demonstrated for low-level features, such as color, motion, and orientation. In the present paper we show that contingent capture can also occur for conceptual information at the superordinate level (e.g., sports equipment, marine animal, dessert food). This effect occurs rapidly (i.e., within 200 ms), is a spatial form of attention, and is contingent on attentional-control settings that change on each trial, suggesting that natural images can be decoded into their conceptual meaning to drive shifts of attention within the time course of a single fixation. PMID:23163786

Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C

2013-06-01

430

In-class Exercise: Sources of Variation in Populations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To prepare for this in-class exercise, students read relevant background material in their textbook and then hear a lecture about sources of variation in populations. Students then form small groups (5 individuals per group) and spend time examining specimens sampled from natural populations of three species. They make sketches and discuss the different types of morphological variation seen, then assign different components of the observed varation to the following sources: Genetic, ontogentic, sexual and ecophenotypic.

Jack Farmer

431

Everyday attention and lecture retention: the effects of time, fidgeting, and mind wandering  

PubMed Central

We have all had our thoughts wander from the immediate task at hand. The emerging embodied cognition literature emphasizes the role that the body plays in human thought, and raises the possibility that changes in attentional focus may be associated with changes in body behavior. Recent research has found that when individuals view a lecture, mind wandering increases as a function of time. In the present study we asked whether this decline in attention during lecture viewing was associated with fidgeting. Participants were filmed while they watched a 40-min lecture video, and at regular 5-min intervals provided ratings of their attentiveness. Following the lecture, participant's memory for the material was assessed. Fidgeting behavior was coded from video recordings of each session. Results indicated that attention to, and retention of, lecture material declined as a function of time on task. Critically, and as predicted, fidgeting also increased with time on task. We also found that the relation between fidgeting and retention was significant even when the role of attention was factored into the equation, suggesting that fidgeting makes a unique contribution to retention of lecture material over and above that contributed by an individual's attention. We propose a novel non-attentional stress-based account of fidgeting and how this impacts retention for lecture material over and above changes in levels in mind wandering vis-a-vis changes in attention. PMID:24065933

Farley, James; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

2013-01-01

432

Attention and curiosity in museums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two hundred and thirty-four museum visitors of all ages were observed as they entered the Object Gallery area of the Florida State Museum. Visitors were observed under conditions where objects were available for close inspection but could not be manipulated (baseline data) and later when the same objects were placed on tables and were available for visitors to touch, move, and use a variety of senses to inspect them (intervention data). Data were recorded on the sex, age, and number of subjects in these areas under each of the above conditions. The results obtained show a significant increase in the number of visitors entering this section of the museum when manipulatable objects were available. Baseline data showed that 58.5% of the people who entered the Object Gallery went into the drawer section. However, when manipulatable objects were made available this increased to 82.3%. Chi-square analysis was used to determine whether the presence of manipulatable objects in the area increased the number of people who entered the area. It did (p < 0.05). Chi-square analysis was also used to determine whether entering the drawer section depended on age or sex. It was found that more children entered the drawer section than adults (p < 0.05) and significantly more female children and female adults entered as a result of intervention (p < 0.05). At the same time, more male children than adults entered after intervention (p < 0.05) than before. These data are supported by considerable curiosity research indicating that both children and adults are attracted to novel as well as complex stimuli which can be manipulated in both formal and free-choice environments. The data also support the growing movement to hands-on exhibits in natural history museums and science centers around the country, as well as hands-on classroom activities from the perspective of their attention attracting and holding power and their curiosity evoking characteristics. Whether these positive factors also lead to increased knowledge or skill development is a question yet to be explored.

Koran, John J., Jr.; Morrison, Laura; Lehman, Jeffrey R.; Koran, Mary Lou; Gandara, Luisa

433

Context-dependent control over attentional capture  

PubMed Central

A number of studies have demonstrated that the likelihood of a salient item capturing attention is dependent on the “attentional set” an individual employs in a given situation. The instantiation of an attentional set is often viewed as a strategic, voluntary process, relying on working memory systems that represent immediate task priorities. However, influential theories of attention and automaticity propose that goal-directed control can operate more or less automatically on the basis of longer-term task representations, a notion supported by a number of recent studies. Here, we provide evidence that longer-term contextual learning can rapidly and automatically influence the instantiation of a given attentional set. Observers learned associations between specific attentional sets and specific task-irrelevant background scenes during a training session, and in the ensuing test session simply reinstating particular scenes on a trial by trial basis biased observers to employ the associated attentional set. This directly influenced the magnitude of attentional capture, suggesting that memory for the context in which a task is performed can play an important role in the ability to instantiate a particular attentional set and overcome distraction by salient, task-irrelevant information. PMID:23025581

Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

2014-01-01

434

The effects of early foster care intervention on attention biases in previously institutionalized children in Romania.  

PubMed

Children raised in institutions experience psychosocial deprivation that can negatively impact attention skills and emotion regulation, which subsequently may influence behavioral regulation and social relationships. The current study examined visual attention biases in 8-year-old children who were part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). Relations among attention biases and concurrent social outcomes were also investigated. In early childhood, 136 children abandoned at birth or shortly thereafter into institutional care were randomized to receive a high-quality foster care intervention or care-as-usual within the context of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). At 8 years of age, 50 care-as-usual, 55 foster care, and 52 community controls performed a behavioral dot-probe task, and indices of attention biases to threat and positive stimuli were calculated. Concurrent data on social behavior were collected. Children placed into the foster care intervention had a significant attention bias toward positive stimuli, while children who received care-as-usual had a significant bias toward threat. Children in the foster care intervention had a significantly larger positive bias when compared to the care-as-usual group. A positive bias was related to more social engagement, more prosocial behavior, less externalizing disorders, and less emotionally withdrawn behavior. The magnitude of positive bias was predicted by age of placement into foster care among children with a history of institutionalization. An attention bias towards positive stimuli was associated with reduced risk for behavioral problems amongst children who experienced early psychosocial deprivation. Research assessing attention biases in children experiencing early environmental stress may refine our understanding of the mechanisms underlying risk for later psychiatric and social disorders and inform prevention efforts. PMID:25439678

Troller-Renfree, Sonya; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A

2014-11-28

435

The effects of neural gain on attention and learning  

PubMed Central

Attention is commonly thought to be manifest through local variations in neural gain. However, what would be the effects of brain-wide changes in gain? Here, we hypothesize that global fluctuations in gain modulate the breadth of attention, and thus, the degree to which processing is focused on aspects of the environment to which one is predisposed to attend. In accordance with this hypothesis, we show that measures of pupil diameter, which are thought to track levels of LC-NE activity and neural gain, are correlated with the degree to which learning is focused on stimulus dimensions that individual human participants are more predisposed to process. In support of our interpretation of this effect in terms of global changes in gain, we further show that the measured pupillary and behavioral variables are strongly correlated with global changes in the strength and clustering of functional connectivity, as brain-wide fluctuations of gain would predict. PMID:23770566

Eldar, Eran; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Niv, Yael

2013-01-01

436

Action Intentions Modulate Allocation of Visual Attention: Electrophysiological Evidence  

PubMed Central

In line with the Theory of Event Coding (Hommel et al., 2001), action planning has been shown to affect perceptual processing – an effect that has been attributed to a so-called intentional weighting mechanism (Wykowska et al., 2009; Hommel, 2010). This paper investigates the electrophysiological correlates of action-related modulations of selection mechanisms in visual perception. A paradigm combining a visual search task for size and luminance targets with a movement task (grasping or pointing) was introduced, and the EEG was recorded while participants were performing the tasks. The results showed that the behavioral congruency effects, i.e., better performance in congruent (relative to incongruent) action-perception trials have been reflected by a modulation of the P1 component as well as the N2pc (an ERP marker of spatial attention). These results support the argumentation that action planning modulates already early perceptual processing and attention mechanisms. PMID:23060841

Wykowska, Agnieszka; Schubö, Anna

2012-01-01

437

Attention focusing and anomaly detection in systems monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Any attempt to introduce automation into the monitoring of complex physical systems must start from a robust anomaly detection capability. This task is far from straightforward, for a single definition of what constitutes an anomaly is difficult to come by. In addition, to make the monitoring process efficient, and to avoid the potential for information overload on human operators, attention focusing must also be addressed. When an anomaly occurs, more often than not several sensors are affected, and the partially redundant information they provide can be confusing, particularly in a crisis situation where a response is needed quickly. The focus of this paper is a new technique for attention focusing. The technique involves reasoning about the distance between two frequency distributions, and is used to detect both anomalous system parameters and 'broken' causal dependencies. These two forms of information together isolate the locus of anomalous behavior in the system being monitored.

Doyle, Richard J.

1994-01-01

438

Reward and Attentional Control in Visual Search  

PubMed Central

It has long been known that the control of attention in visual search depends both on voluntary, top-down deployment according to context-specific goals, and on involuntary, stimulus-driven capture based on the physical conspicuity of perceptual objects. Recent evidence suggests that pairing target stimuli with reward can modulate the voluntary deployment of attention, but there is little evidence that reward modulates the involuntary deployment of attention to task-irrelevant distractors. We report several experiments that investigate the role of reward learning on attentional control. Each experiment involved a training phase and a test phase. In the training phase, different colors were associated with different amounts of monetary reward. In the test phase, color was not task-relevant and participants searched for a shape singleton; in most experiments no reward was delivered in the test phase. We first show that attentional capture by physically salient distractors is magnified by a previous association with reward. In subsequent experiments we demonstrate that physically inconspicuous stimuli previously associated with reward capture attention persistently during extinction—even several days after training. Furthermore, vulnerability to attentional capture by high-value stimuli is negatively correlated across individuals with working memory capacity and positively correlated with trait impulsivity. An analysis of intertrial effects reveals that value-driven attentional capture is spatially specific. Finally, when reward is delivered at test contingent on the task-relevant shape feature, recent reward history modulates value-driven attentional capture by the irrelevant color feature. The influence of learned value on attention may provide a useful model of clinical syndromes characterized by similar failures of cognitive control, including addiction, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and obesity. PMID:23437631

Anderson, Brian A.; Wampler, Emma K.; Laurent, Patryk A.

2015-01-01

439

Attention effects on auditory scene analysis in children.  

PubMed

Auditory scene analysis begins in infancy, making it possible for the baby to distinguish its mother's voice from other noises in the environment. Despite the importance of this process for human behavior, the question of how perceptual sound organization develops during childhood is not well understood. The current study investigated the role of attention for perceiving sound streams in a group of school-aged children and young adults. We behaviorally determined the frequency separation at which a set of sounds was detected as one integrated or two separated streams and compared these measures with passively and actively obtained electrophysiological indices (mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3b) of the same sounds. In adults, there was a high degree of concordance between passive and active electrophysiological indices of stream segregation that matched with perception. In contrast, there was a large disparity in children. Active electrophysiological indices of streaming were concordant with behavioral measures of perception, whereas passive indices were not. In addition, children required larger frequency separations to perceive two streams compared to adults. Our results suggest that differences in stream segregation between children and adults reflect an under-development of basic auditory processing mechanisms, and indicate a developmental role of attention for shaping physiological responses that optimize processes engaged during passive audition. PMID:19124031

Sussman, Elyse; Steinschneider, Mitchell

2009-02-01

440

Attentional Switching in Humans and Flies: Rivalry in Large and Miniature Brains  

PubMed Central

Human perception, and consequently behavior, is driven by attention dynamics. In the special case of rivalry, where attention alternates between competing percepts, such dynamics can be measured and their determinants investigated. A recent study in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, now shows that the origins of attentional rivalry may be quite ancient. Furthermore, individual variation exists in the rate of attentional rivalry in both humans and flies, and in humans this is under substantial genetic influence. In the pathophysiological realm, slowing of rivalry rate is associated with the heritable psychiatric condition, bipolar disorder. Fly rivalry may therefore prove a powerful model to examine genetic and molecular influences on rivalry rate, and may even shed light on human cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. PMID:22279432

Miller, Steven Mark; Ngo, Trung Thanh; van Swinderen, Bruno

2012-01-01

441

Self-Monitoring of Attention versus Self-Monitoring of Academic Performance: Effects among Students with ADHD in the General Education Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A counterbalanced, multiple-baseline, across-subjects design was used to determine if attention and performance monitoring had differential effects on the on-task and spelling study behavior of 6 elementary students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the general education classroom. Both self-monitoring of attention and…

Harris, Karen R.; Friedlander, Barbara Danoff; Saddler, Bruce; Frizzelle, Remedios; Graham, Steve

2005-01-01

442

Behavioral Intervention to Reduce Child and Parent Distress During Venipuncture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated a behavioral intervention incorporating parent coaching, attentional distraction, and positive reinforcement to control child distress during invasive cancer treatment. Children (N = 23) requiring physical restraint to complete venipuncture were alternately assigned to either a behavioral intervention or an attention control condition. Child distress behaviors were recorded, and self-reports of parent, child, and nurse distress were obtained.

Sharon L. Manne; William H. Redd; Paul B. Jacobsen; Kenneth Gorfinkle; Ora Schorr; Bruce Rapkin

1990-01-01

443

Emotions and personality traits as high-level factors in visual attention: a review  

PubMed Central

The visual sense has outstanding significance for human perception and behavior, and visual attention plays a central role in the processing of the sensory input. Thereby, multiple low- and high-level factors contribute to the guidance of attention. The present review focuses on two neglected high-level factors: emotion and personality. The review starts with an overview of different models of attention, providing a conceptual framework and illustrating the nature of low- and high-level factors in visual attention. Then, the ambiguous concept of emotion is described, and recommendations are made for the experimental practice. In the following, we present several studies showing the influence of emotion on overt attention, whereby the distinction between internally and externally located emotional impacts are emphasized. We also provide evidence showing that emotional stimuli influence perceptual processing outside of the focus of attention, whereby results in this field are mixed. Then, we present some detached studies showing the reversed causal effect: attention can also affect emotional responses. The final section on emotion–attention interactions addresses the interplay on the neuronal level, which has been neglected for a long time in neuroscience. In this context, several conceptual recommendations for future research are made. Finally, based on findings showing inter-individual differences in human sensitivity to emotional items, we introduce the wide range of time-independent personality traits that also influence attention, and in this context we try to raise awareness of the consideration of inter-individual differences in the field of neuroscience. PMID:23226124

Kaspar, Kai; König, Peter

2012-01-01

444

Attention and consciousness: two distinct brain processes  

E-print Network

Attention and consciousness: two distinct brain processes Christof Koch1 and Naotsugu Tsuchiya2 1 relationship between attention and consciousness has led many scholars to conflate these processes. Subjects can become conscious of an iso- lated object or the gist of a scene despite the near absence

Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

445

Categorically Defined Targets Trigger Spatiotemporal Visual Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transient attention to a visually salient cue enhances processing of a subsequent target in the same spatial location between 50 to 150 ms after cue onset (K. Nakayama & M. Mackeben, 1989). Do stimuli from a categorically defined target set, such as letters or digits, also generate transient attention? Participants reported digit targets among…

Wyble, Brad; Bowman, Howard; Potter, Mary C.

2009-01-01

446

Attention: control in the visual cortex.  

PubMed

A recent study in which the human visual cortex was directly stimulated to create visual percepts has shown that visual spatial attention can act directly on neural activity in sensory cortex without involving attentional modulation of subcortical visual inputs. PMID:17339016

Mangun, George R; Fannon, Sean P

2007-03-01

447

Neural processing of emotional faces requires attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention gates the processing of stimuli relatively early in visual cortex. Yet, existing data suggest that emotional stimuli activate brain regions automatically, largely immune from attentional control. To resolve this puzzle, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to first measure activation in regions that responded differentially to faces with emotional expressions (fearful and happy) compared with neutral faces. We then

L. Pessoa; M. McKenna; E. Gutierrez; L. G. Ungerleider

2002-01-01

448

Asymmetric attention networks: the case of children.  

PubMed

Visuospatial attention-networks are represented in both hemispheres, with right-hemisphere dominance in adults. Little is known about the lateralization of the attentional-networks in children. To assess the lateralization of attentional-networks in children aged 5 years, performance on a Lateralized-Attention-Network-Test specifically designed for children (LANT-C) was compared with performance on the Attention-Network-Test for children (ANT-C). Participants were 82 children, aged 5-6 years (55% boys, middle-class, mainstream schooling). They were examined with both the ANT-C and the LANT-C along with evaluation of intelligence and attention questionnaires. Multiple analysis of variance showed a main effect for network, with high efficiency for orienting and lower executive efficiency (accuracy; p < .001; ?2 = .282). An effect for procedure, elucidated higher efficiency in the ANT-C relatively to the LANT-C (accuracy; p < .01; ?2 = .097). A procedure × network interaction effect was also found, showing that this procedure difference is present in the alerting and executive networks (accuracy; p < .05; ?2 = .096). LANT-C analysis showed a left visual-field advantage in alerting, (accuracy; p < .05; ?2 = .066), while executing with the right hand benefitted executive performance (response-time; p < .05; ?2 = .06). Results extend previous findings manifesting a right-hemisphere advantage in children's alerting-attention, pointing to the importance of lateralization of brain function to the understanding of the integrity of attention-networks in children. PMID:24621562

Yaakoby-Rotem, Sarit; Geva, Ronny

2014-04-01

449

Attention and movement execution during handwriting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were performed in order to test the hypothesis that movement execution during handwriting in skilled writers is independent of attention. Study I examined the relationship between attentional functioning and kinematic aspects of handwriting movements in 24 adult participants. A digitizing tablet was used for the assessment of handwriting movements. Participants were asked to perform a simple writing task

Oliver Tucha; Lara Mecklinger; Susanne Walitza; Klaus W. Lange

2006-01-01

450

Attention and Communication in Rett Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of selective attention and its influence on communication in patients with Rett Syndrome (RS), in which communication abilities are impaired is particularly relevant. The aim of this study was to analyse attention and communication abilities in RS. A sample of 20 children (10 girls with RS and 10 control girls, matched on mental age)…

Fabio, Rosa Angela; Antonietti, Alessandro; Castelli, Ilaria; Marchetti, Antonella

2009-01-01

451

Attention Training for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attentional bias toward negative social cues is thought to serve an etiological and\\/or maintaining role in social anxiety disorder (SAD). The current study tested whether training patients to disengage from negative social cues may ameliorate social anxiety in patients (N = 36) with a primary diagnosis of generalized SAD. Patients were randomly assigned to either an attention training condition (n

Norman B. Schmidt; J. Anthony Richey; Julia D. Buckner; Kiara R. Timpano

2009-01-01

452

Attention Theory and Mechanisms for Skilled Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report relates current attentional research and theory to the development of skilled performance, with emphasis on how performance changes with practice. Dual process attention theory is reviewed, and the distinction between automatic and controlled processing is examined. The changing interactions between automatic and controlled processing…

Schneider, Walter; Fisk, Arthur D.

453

Object-Based Attention and Cognitive Tunneling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simulator-based research has shown that pilots cognitively tunnel their attention on head-up displays (HUDs). Cognitive tunneling has been linked to object-based visual attention on the assumption that HUD symbology is perceptually grouped into an object that is perceived and attended separately from the external scene. The present research…

Jarmasz, Jerzy; Herdman, Chris M.; Johannsdottir, Kamilla Run

2005-01-01

454

Development of attentional networks in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research in attention has involved three networks of anatomical areas that carry out the functions of orienting, alerting and executive control (including conflict monitoring). There have been extensive cognitive and neuroimaging studies of these networks in adults. We developed an integrated Attention Network Test (ANT) to measure the efficiency of the three networks with adults. We have now adapted

M. Rosario Rueda; Jin Fan; Bruce D. McCandliss; Jessica D. Halparin; Dana B. Gruber; Lisha Pappert Lercari; Michael I. Posner

2004-01-01

455

Active Inference, Attention, and Motor Preparation  

PubMed Central

Perception is the foundation of cognition and is fundamental to our beliefs and consequent action planning. The Editorial (this issue) asks: “what mechanisms, if any, mediate between perceptual and cognitive processes?” It has recently been argued that attention might furnish such a mechanism. In this paper, we pursue the idea that action planning (motor preparation) is an attentional phenomenon directed toward kinesthetic signals. This rests on a view of motor control as active inference, where predictions of proprioceptive signals are fulfilled by peripheral motor reflexes. If valid, active inference suggests that attention should not be limited to the optimal biasing of perceptual signals in the exteroceptive (e.g., visual) domain but should also bias proprioceptive signals during movement. Here, we investigate this idea using a classical attention (Posner) paradigm cast in a motor setting. Specially, we looked for decreases in reaction times when movements were preceded by valid relative to invalid cues. Furthermore, we addressed the hierarchical level at which putative attentional effects were expressed by independently cueing the nature of the movement and the hand used to execute it. We found a significant interaction between the validity of movement and effector cues on reaction times. This suggests that attentional bias might be mediated at a low level in the motor hierarchy, in an intrinsic frame of reference. This finding is consistent with attentional enabling of top-down predictions of proprioceptive input and may rely upon the same synaptic mechanisms that mediate directed spatial attention in the visual system. PMID:21960978

Brown, Harriet; Friston, Karl; Bestmann, Sven

2011-01-01

456

Spatial Reference Frame of Incidentally Learned Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual attention prioritizes information presented at particular spatial locations. These locations can be defined in reference frames centered on the environment or on the viewer. This study investigates whether incidentally learned attention uses a viewer-centered or environment-centered reference frame. Participants conducted visual search on a…

Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

2013-01-01

457

The Conundrum of Attention Deficit Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broadly examines diagnostic category of attention deficit disorder (ADD), which affects individuals from childhood to or through adult life, with special attention to cases in which predominant characteristic seems to be inattentiveness. To work with individuals with ADD, counselors need to understand nomenclature, etiology, unique symptoms, and…

Erk, Robert R.

1995-01-01

458

Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

2013-01-01

459

Shared attention for smooth pursuit and saccades  

PubMed Central

Identification of brief luminance decrements on parafoveal stimuli presented during smooth pursuit improves when a spot pursuit target is surrounded by a larger random dot cinematogram (RDC) that moves with it (Heinen, Jin, & Watamaniuk, 2011). This was hypothesized to occur because the RDC provided an alternative, less attention-demanding pursuit drive, and therefore released attentional resources for visual perception tasks that are shared with those used to pursue the spot. Here, we used the RDC as a tool to probe whether spot pursuit also shares attentional resources with the saccadic system. To this end, we set out to determine if the RDC could release attention from pursuit of the spot to perform a saccade task. Observers made a saccade to one of four parafoveal targets that moved with the spot pursuit stimulus. The targets either moved alone or were surrounded by an RDC (100% coherence). Saccade latency decreased with the RDC, suggesting that the RDC released attention needed to pursue the spot, which was then used for the saccade task. Additional evidence that attention was released by the RDC was obtained in an experiment in which attention was anchored to the fovea by requiring observers to detect a brief color change applied 130 ms before the saccade target appeared. This manipulation eliminated the RDC advantage. The results imply that attentional resources used by the pursuit and saccadic eye movement control systems are shared. PMID:23487159

Jin, Zhenlan; Reeves, Adam; Watamaniuk, Scott N. J.; Heinen, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

460

Central Auditory Processing and Attention Deficit Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen children who met criteria for attention deficit disorder (ADD) received neurodevelopmental attention testing and central auditory processing (CAP) tests. The CAP tests consisted of the Staggered Spondaic Word (SSW) test and the Willeford battery of tests. Teacher and parent questionnaires (originally devised at the Learning Disabilities Clinic, The Children's Hospital, Boston) were obtained. There was a very high concordance

Generoso G. Gascon; Ron Johnson; Larry Burd

1986-01-01

461

Muscle tension patterns during auditory attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is much evidence demonstrating muscle tension changes during mental work, there are few data concerning muscle tension patterns during effortful attention to simple sensory stimuli. In the present study, sensory attention was evoked by a pitch discrimination task at three levels of difficulty, with a digit retention task administered for comparison. Twenty-four females each performed both tasks at

Barry H. Cohen; Richard J. Davidson; Joseph A. Senulis; Clifford D. Saron; Douglas R. Weisman

1992-01-01

462

A controlled study of Tourette syndrome. I. Attention-deficit disorder, learning disorders, and school problems.  

PubMed Central

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common, hereditary, neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. To determine the frequency of various behavioral manifestations, we have compared 47 random normal controls to 246 patients with TS, 17 with attention-deficit disorder (ADD), and 15 with ADD secondary to a TS gene (ADD 2(0) TS). All subjects were examined prospectively with a 425-item questionnaire based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III). The TS patients were divided into grade 1 (too mild to treat [17.5%]), grade 2 (requiring treatment [58.9%]), and grade 3 (severe [23.6%]). Patients in all three grades of TS were significantly different from controls for DSM III symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Sixty-two percent of TS patients had ADD, compared with 6.3% of controls; and 48.8% had ADD with hyperactivity (ADDH), compared with 4.2% of controls. In the majority of TS patients, the natural history of the disease was to start with ADDH and 2.4 years later develop motor and vocal tics. Among TS patients, 39% had previously received medication for ADDH or behavior problems, compared with 2% of the controls. Although stimulants can occasionally exacerbate tics, there was no evidence that stimulants cause TS and they are often a valuable adjunct to the treatment of TS. It is estimated that 10%-30% of ADDH is due to or associated with the presence of a TS gene. TS patients had a significantly increased frequency of (1) attending classes for the educationally handicapped, (2) placement in classes for the severely emotionally disturbed, (3) attending any special classes, (4) severe test anxiety, (5) stuttering, (6) letter, number, or word reversal, (7) reading very slowly, and (8) poor retention of material read. A reading-problem score (dyslexia) greater than or equal to 3 was present in 26.8% of TS patients, compared with 4.2% of controls. Number reversal, word reversal, and poor retention were significant even for the TS patients with tics too mild to treat. The multiple ways in which TS impacts school performance, as well as potential remedies, are discussed. PMID:2890294

Comings, D E; Comings, B G

1987-01-01

463

Attention in dichoptic and binocular vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of human subjected to mobilize attention and cope with task requirements under dichoptic and binocular viewing was investigated in an experiment employing a target search task. Subjects were required to search for a target at either the global level, the local level, or at both levels of a compound stimulus. The tasks were performed in a focused attention condition in which subjects had to attend to the stimulus presented to one eye/field (under dichoptic and binocular viewings, respectively) and to ignore the stimulus presented to the irrelevant eye/field, and in a divided attention condition in which subjects had to attend to the stimuli presented to both eyes/fields. Subjects' performance was affected mainly by attention conditions which interacted with task requirements, rather than by viewing situation. An interesting effect of viewing was found for the local-directed search task in which the cost of dividing attention was higher under binocular than under dichoptic viewing.

Kimchi, Ruth; Rubin, Yifat; Gopher, Daniel; Raij, David

1989-01-01

464

Visual Attention and Applications in Multimedia Technologies  

PubMed Central

Making technological advances in the field of human-machine interactions requires that the capabilities and limitations of the human perceptual system are taken into account. The focus of this report is an important mechanism of perception, visual selective attention, which is becoming more and more important for multimedia applications. We introduce the concept of visual attention and describe its underlying mechanisms. In particular, we introduce the concepts of overt and covert visual attention, and of bottom-up and top-down processing. Challenges related to modeling visual attention and their validation using ad hoc ground truth are also discussed. Examples of the usage of visual attention models in image and video processing are presented. We emphasize multimedia delivery, retargeting and quality assessment of image and video, medical imaging, and the field of stereoscopic 3D images applications. PMID:24489403

Le Callet, Patrick; Niebur, Ernst

2013-01-01

465

Top-down control over involuntary attention switching in the auditory modality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the effects of predictability on involuntary attention switching to task-irrelevant sound changes (distraction).\\u000a Behavioral and neurophysiological evidence are provided, showing that the p