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Children's (N=275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7=4+3 and thus 6+7=6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first grade to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-classattentivebehavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between capacity of the central executive component of working memory, controlling for intelligence and in-classattentivebehavior, and grade-related changes in children's use of these strategies. The predictor on intercept effects from multilevel models revealed that children with higher central executive capacity correctly retrieved more facts and used the most sophisticated counting procedure more frequently and accurately than their lower capacity peers at the beginning of first grade, but the predictor on slope effects indicated that this advantage disappeared (retrieval) or declined in importance (counting) from first grade to fourth grade. The predictor on slope effects also revealed that from first grade to fourth grade, children with higher capacity adopted the decomposition strategy more quickly than other children. The results remained robust with controls for children's sex, race, school site, speed of encoding Arabic numerals and articulating number words, and mathematics achievement in kindergarten. The results also revealed that intelligence and in-classattentivebehavior independently contributed to children's strategy development. PMID:22698947
Recent studies in the field of special education have shown that in combination with software technology, high-tech commercial products can be applied as useful assistive technology devices to help people with disabilities. This study extended this concept to turn a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, in order to evaluate whether two students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) could reduce their hyperactive behavior through an active reminder and stimulation in the form of the participants' preferred rewards. This study focused on one particular hyperactive behavior common to both students: standing up arbitrarily during class. The active reminder was in the form of vibration feedback provided via the built-in function of the Wii Remote Controller, which was controlled and triggered by a control system to remind participants when they were engaging in standing behavior. This study was performed according to a multiple baseline design across participants. The results showed that both participants significantly improved their control over their hyperactive behavior during the intervention phase, and retained this effective performance in the maintenance phase. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24881005
Behavioral and psychophysiological assays provide the most sensitive indication of whether a presumed neurotoxin has a deleterious effect on the nervous system. The effects of lead on the nervous system are strongly suggestive that this agent can produce disturbances in attention; moreover, there are clinical reports of such effects. The action of lead is also manifest in behaviors described as ''hyperactive,'' or reflecting ''minimal brain damage.'' The core symptom in both disorders is probably impairment in attention. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III) of the American Psychiatric Association uses the term Attention Deficit Disorder to replace such terms as hyperactivity and minimal brain damage. Prior studies of the behavioral toxicity of lead may have used inadequate or incomplete assays of attention; this could in part account for the variability in outcomes. Recent research on attention suggests that it is a complex behavior consisting of a number of elements or components, each of which may be in part dependent upon a different region of the central nervous system. Behavioral assays should examine the components of attentivebehavior using tests which are sensitive to the different elements. It is recommended that psychophysiological assays (using cognitive event-related potentials), although more difficult and costly to implement, be used as well. These assays may provide a more dynamic view of altered information processing in the brain and help to localize and characterize the behavioral impairment. 50 references.
This article reviews research on three behavioral subtypes of attention deficit disorder (ADD): (1) without hyperactivity (ADD/WO), (2) with hyperactivity, and (3) with hyperactivity and aggression (ADDHA). Children with ADDHA appear to be at increased risk of having oppositional and conduct disorders, whereas children with ADD/WO show symptoms…
Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed. PMID:24922613
Studying attentionbehavior has its social significance because such behavior is considered to lead the evolution of the friendship network. However, this type of behavior in social networks has attracted relatively little attention before, which is mainly because, in reality, such behaviors are always transitory and rarely recorded. In this paper, we collected the attentionbehaviors as well as the friendship network from Douban database and then carefully studied the attentionbehaviors in the friendship network as a latent metric space. The revealed similar patterns of attentionbehavior and friendship suggest that attentionbehavior may be the pre-stage of friendship to a certain extent, which can be further validated by the fact that pairwise nodes in Douban network connected by attention links beforehand are indeed far more likely to be connected by friendship links in the near future. This phenomenon can also be used to explain the high clustering of many social networks. More interestingly, it seems that attentionbehaviors are more likely to take place between individuals who have more mutual friends as well as more different friends, which seems a little different from the principles of many link prediction algorithms. Moreover, it is also found that forward attention is preferred to inverse attention, which is quite natural because, usually, an individual must be more interested in others that he is paying attention to than those paying attention to him. All of these findings can be used to guide the design of more appropriate social network models in the future.
In the present study, we explored the relation between performance on cognitive measures of attention (selection, sustained, and control) and behavioral ratings of inattention and hyperactivity in a sample of typically developing children aged 3 to 7 years. We also examined the influence of chronological age and IQ on both task performance and behavior ratings. Four well-documented attention paradigms were
Joint attention (JA) initiation is defined in cognitive-developmental psychology as a child's actions that verify or produce simultaneous attending by that child and an adult to some object or event in the environment so that both may experience the object or event together. This paper presents a contingency analysis of gaze shift in JA…
Dube, William V.; MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Mansfield, Renee C.; Holcomb, William L.; Ahearn, William H.
Neuronal oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain and contribute to perception and attention. However, most associated evidence derives from post hoc correlations between brain dynamics and behavior. Although a few recent studies demonstrate rhythms in behavior, it remains largely unknown whether behavioral performances manifest spectrotemporal dynamics in a neurophysiologically relevant manner (e.g., the temporal modulation of ongoing oscillations, the cross-frequency coupling). To investigate the issue, we examined fine spectrotemporal dynamics of behavioral time courses in a large sample of human participants (n = 49), by taking a high time-resolved psychophysical measurement in a precuing attentional task. We observed compelling dynamic oscillatory patterns directly in behavior. First, typical attentional effects are demonstrated in low-pass (0-2 Hz) filtered time courses of behavioral responses. Second, an uninformative peripheral cue elicits recurring ?-band (8-20 Hz) pulses in behavioral performances, and the elicited ? pulses for cued and uncued conditions are in a temporally alternating relationship. Finally, ongoing ?-band power is phase locked to ongoing ?-bands (3-5 Hz) in behavioral time courses. Our findings constitute manifestation of oscillations at physiologically relevant rhythms and power-phase locking, as widely observed in neurophysiological recordings, in behavior. The findings suggest that behavioral performance actually consists of rich dynamic information and may reflect underlying neuronal oscillatory substrates. Our data also speak to a neural mechanism for item attention based on successive cycles (?) of a sequential attentional sampling (?) process. PMID:24695703
The current study explored longitudinal associations between interparental aggression, the development of child attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems in a diverse sample of 636 families living in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. The results of latent-variable, cross-lagged longitudinal models revealed that maternal-reported interparental aggression in infancy predicted reduced observed attention skills in toddlerhood; no association was observed, however, between attention in infancy and interparental aggression during the toddler years. Further, reduced toddler attention and high interparental aggression were both associated with increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems at 3 years of age. Processes largely operated in similar ways regardless of child gender or low-income status, although a few differences were observed. Overall, the results suggest that interparental aggression undermines attention development, putting children’s early behavioral adjustment at risk.
TOWE-GOODMAN, NISSA R.; STIFTER, CYNTHIA A.; COCCIA, MICHAEL A.; COX, MARTHA J.
Adolescence is a critical transition period, during which fundamental changes prepare the adolescent for becoming an adult. Heuristic models of the neurobiology of adolescent behavior have emerged, promoting the central role of reward and motivation, coupled with cognitive immaturities. Here, we bring focus to two basic sets of processes, attention and conditioning, which are essential for adaptive behavior. Using the dual-attention model developed by Corbetta and Shulman (2002), which identifies a stimulus-driven and a goal-driven attention network, we propose a balance that favors stimulus-driven attention over goal-driven attention in youth. Regarding conditioning, we hypothesize that stronger associations tend to be made between environmental cues and appetitive stimuli, and weaker associations with aversive stimuli, in youth relative to adults. An attention system geared to prioritize stimulus-driven attention, together with more powerful associative learning with appetitive incentives, contribute to shape patterns of adolescent motivated behavior. This proposed bias in attention and conditioning function could facilitate the impulsive, novelty-seeking and risk-taking behavior that is typical of many adolescents.
A long-standing challenge for scientific and clinical work on suicidal behavior is that people often are motivated to deny or conceal suicidal thoughts. The authors proposed that people considering suicide would possess an objectively measurable attentional bias toward suicide-related stimuli and that this bias would predict future suicidal behavior. Participants were 124 adults presenting to a psychiatric emergency department who
Christine B. Cha; Sadia Najmi; Jennifer M. Park; Christine T. Finn; Matthew K. Nock
This study assessed the construct validity of the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist (RBPC) by measuring attention, autonomie arousal, and personality in 40 behaviorally disordered children aged 7 to 15 years. Conduct Disorder and Socialized Aggression subscales were characterized by high Psychoticism, Impulsivity, and Lie personality scores, by lower heart rate levels, and by more errors on a continuous performance reaction-time
Cell phones have become a norm within the collegiate environment but little research has examined their impact on academic attainment. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects that in-class texting behavior had on the final grade score in a freshmen level introductory social science course. Students in three different sections were…
Attention allows animals to respond selectively to competing stimuli, enabling some stimuli to evoke a behavioral response while others are ignored. How the brain does this remains mysterious, although it is increasingly evident that even animals with the smallest brains display this capacity. For example, insects respond selectively to salient visual stimuli, but it is unknown where such selectivity occurs in the insect brain, or whether neural correlates of attention might predict the visual choices made by an insect. Here, we investigate neural correlates of visual attention in behaving honeybees (Apis mellifera). Using a closed-loop paradigm that allows tethered, walking bees to actively control visual objects in a virtual reality arena, we show that behavioral fixation increases neuronal responses to flickering, frequency-tagged stimuli. Attention-like effects were reduced in the optic lobes during replay of the same visual sequences, when bees were not able to control the visual displays. When bees were presented with competing frequency-tagged visual stimuli, selectivity in the medulla (an optic ganglion) preceded behavioral selection of a stimulus, suggesting that modulation of early visual processing centers precedes eventual behavioral choices made by these insects. PMID:24639490
Paulk, Angelique C; Stacey, Jacqueline A; Pearson, Thomas W J; Taylor, Gavin J; Moore, Richard J D; Srinivasan, Mandyam V; van Swinderen, Bruno
In the course of a prospective longitudinal study, we examined age of onset of behavior problems in a group of boys and girls identified with attention deficit disorder (ADD) at age 11. Onset occurred during the preschool years, by the first year of schooling, or by the end of the second year of school Onset was strongly related to informant
Many theories of category learning incorporate mechanisms for selective attention, typically implemented as attention weights that change on a trial-by-trial basis. This is because there is relatively little data on within-trial changes in attention. We used eye tracking and mouse tracking as fine-grained measures of attention in three complex visual categorization tasks to investigate temporal patterns in overt attentionalbehavior within individual categorization decisions. In Experiments 1 and 2, we recorded participants' eye movements while they performed three different categorization tasks. We extended previous research by demonstrating that not only are participants less likely to fixate irrelevant features, but also, when they do, these fixations are shorter than fixations to relevant features. We also found that participants' fixation patterns show increasingly consistent temporal patterns. Participants were faster, although no more accurate, when their fixation sequences followed a consistent temporal structure. In Experiment 3, we replicated these findings in a task where participants used mouse movements to uncover features. Overall, we showed that there are important temporal regularities in information sampling during category learning that cannot be accounted for by existing models. These can be used to supplement extant models for richer predictions of how information is attended to during the buildup to a categorization decision. PMID:23151960
Chen, Lihan; Meier, Kimberly M; Blair, Mark R; Watson, Marcus R; Wood, Michael J
One of the ongoing challenges teachers of students who are deaf or hard of hearing face is managing the visual split attention implicit in multimedia learning. When a teacher presents various types of visual information at the same time, visual learners have no choice but to divide their attention among those materials and the teacher and…
The capacity to stabilize the content of attention over time varies among individuals, and its impairment is a hallmark of several mental illnesses. Impairments in sustained attention in patients with attention disorders have been associated with increased trial-to-trial variability in reaction time and event-related potential deficits during attention tasks. At present, it is unclear whether the ability to sustain attention
A. Lutz; H. A. Slagter; N. B. Rawlings; A. D. Francis; L. L. Greischar; R. J. Davidson
Although previous research indicates that certain types of attention (i.e., statements related to behavior, tickles) may be differentially reinforcing, only one or two forms of attention are typically provided contingent on problem behavior during the attention condition in experimental functional analyses. In the present investigation, various…
Attention skills may form an important developmental mechanism. A mediation model was examined in which behavioral problems of moderately preterm and term children at school age are explained by attention performance. Parents and teachers completed behavioral assessments of 348 moderately preterm children and 182 term children at 8 years of age. Children were administered a test of sustained selective attention. Preterm birth was associated with more behavioral and attention difficulties. Gestational age, prenatal maternal smoking, and gender were associated with mothers', fathers', and teachers' reports of children's problem behavior. Sustained selective attention partially mediated the relationship between birth status and problem behavior. Development of attention skills should be an important focus for future research in moderately preterm children. PMID:22448106
Three participants whose problem behavior was maintained by contingent attention were exposed to 45-min presessions in which attention was withheld, provided on a fixed-time (FT) 15-s schedule, or provided on an FT 120-s schedule. Following each presession, participants were then tested in a 15-min session similar to the social attention condition…
This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…
Neuropsychological and behavioral measures are used to assess attention, but little convergence has been found between these two assessment methods. However, many prior studies have not considered attention as a multicomponent system, which may contribute to this lack of agreement between neuropsychological and behavioral measures. To address this the current study examined the relationship between the neuropsychological measures that comprise
Sally J. Barney; Daniel N. Allen; Nicholas S. Thaler; Brandon S. Park; Gregory P. Strauss; Joan Mayfield
Objective: The present study investigated the behavioral and personality profile associated with difficulties in selective attention. Method: A group of participants with ADHD were assessed for ADHD behaviors. Adults with ADHD (n = 22) and without ADHD (n = 84) were tested on the conjunctive visual-search task for selective attention and…
In this article we describe the nature of attention deficit disorders (ADDs) within an individual differences model of abilities. In so doing, a model-based explanation for the sources of learning and performance difficulties among individuals identified with ADDs is provided. Earlier models of ADDs are discussed, and the proposed loci of ADDs…
The purpose of the current study was to investigate potential genetic and environmental correlations between working memory and three behavioral aspects of the attention network (i.e., executive, alerting, and orienting) using a twin design. Data were from 90 monozygotic (39% male) and 112 same-sex dizygotic (41% male) twins. Individual differences in working memory performance (digit span) and parent-rated measures of executive, alerting, and orienting attention included modest to moderate genetic variance, modest shared environmental variance, and modest to moderate nonshared environmental variance. As hypothesized, working memory performance was correlated with executive and alerting attention, but not orienting attention. The correlation between working memory, executive attention, and alerting attention was completely accounted for by overlapping genetic covariance, suggesting a common genetic mechanism or mechanisms underlying the links between working memory and certain parent-rated indicators of attentivebehavior. PMID:21948215
Wang, Zhe; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Cutting, Laurie; Thompson, Lee A; Petrill, Stephen A
Objective: The investigators examined relations between mindfulness and health behaviors in college students, as well as the role of stress in mediating these effects. Participants: Participants were 553 undergraduates (385 females; mean age = 18.8 years, SD = 2.1) recruited from a university in the northeastern United States. Methods: Participants completed questionnaires assessing mindfulness, perceived health, health behaviors, health-related activity
Visual attention improves perception for an attended location or feature and also modulates the responses of sensory neurons. In laboratory studies, the sensory stimuli and task instructions are held constant within an attentional condition, but despite experimenters' best efforts, attention likely varies from moment to moment. Because most previous studies have focused on single neurons, it has been impossible to use neuronal responses to identify attentional fluctuations and determine whether these are associated with changes in behavior. We show that an instantaneous measure of attention based on the responses of a modest number of neurons in area V4 of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) can reliably predict large changes in an animal's ability to perform a difficult psychophysical task. Unexpectedly, this measure shows that the amount of attention allocated at any moment to locations in opposite hemifields is uncorrelated, suggesting that animals allocate attention to each stimulus independently rather than moving their attentional focus from one location to another. PMID:21068329
Impulsivity is inherent to both problem gambling and ADHD. The purpose of this study is to examine ADHD key symptoms, and\\u000a gambling behaviors and problem severity among adolescents. Additionally, internalizing and externalizing behaviors exhibited\\u000a among these individuals and the role of these symptoms in gambling are examined. We used a cross-sectional study design and\\u000a survey 1,130 adolescents aged 12–19. Results
Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior…
Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of instructor in-class communicative behaviors on college student participation in out of class communication (OCC). Participants were 298 students enrolled in an introductory communication course at a Mid-Atlantic university who completed the Communication Functions Questionnaire, the modified Affinity-Seeking Strategy scale, and the Out of Class Interaction scale. Results of stepwise
Scott A. Myers; Matthew M. Martin; Jennifer L. Knapp
Objective: The investigators examined relations between mindfulness and health behaviors in college students, as well as the role of stress in mediating these effects. Participants: Participants were 553 undergraduates (385 females; mean age = 18.8 years, SD = 2.1) recruited from a university in the northeastern United States. Methods:…
The effectiveness of fixed-time delivery of attention to increase the on-task behavior of 2 students in general education was examined. The teacher in this study provided attention to students on a 5-min fixed-time schedule and responded to students in her typical manner between cued intervals. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to test the…
Riley, Jessica L.; McKevitt, Brian C.; Shriver, Mark D.; Allen, Keith D.
As more young children enter school settings to attend early childhood programs, early childhood teachers and school psychologists have been charged with supporting a growing number of young children with chronic problem behaviors that put them at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). There is a need for effective,…
Vo, Abigail K.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.
Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior studies examine the association between attention bias and BI before adolescence. The current study examined the interrelations among BI, attention biases to threat, and social withdrawal already manifest in early childhood. Children (N=187, 83 Male, Mage=61.96 months) were characterized for BI in toddlerhood (24 & 36 months). At 5 years, they completed an attention bias task and concurrent social withdrawal was measured. As expected, BI in toddlerhood predicted high levels of social withdrawal in early childhood. However, this relation was moderated by attention bias. The BI-withdrawal association was only evident for children who displayed an attention bias toward threat. The data provide further support for models associating attention with socioemotional development and the later emergence of clinical anxiety.
Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.
Behavior problems are a common challenge for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and constitute the primary clinical outcome domain in trials testing new FXS medications. However, little is known about the relationship between caregiver-reported behavior problems and co-occurring conditions such as anxiety and attention problems. In this study, 350 caregivers, each with at least one son or daughter with full-mutation FXS, rated one of their children with FXS using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Version (ABC-C); the Anxiety subscale of the Anxiety, Depression, and Mood Scale; and the Attention/Hyperactivity Items from the Symptom Inventories. In addition to examining family consequences of these behaviors, this study also sought to replicate psychometric findings for the ABC-C in FXS, to provide greater confidence for its use in clinical trials with this population. Psychometric properties and baseline ratings of problem behavior were consistent with other recent studies, further establishing the profile of problem behavior in FXS. Cross-sectional analyses suggest that selected dimensions of problem behavior, anxiety, and hyperactivity are age related; thus, age should serve as an important control in any studies of problem behavior in FXS. Measures of anxiety, attention, and hyperactivity were highly associated with behavior problems, suggesting that these factors at least coincide with problem behavior. However, these problems generally did not add substantially to variance in caregiver burden predicted by elevated behavior problems. The results provide further evidence of the incidence of problem behaviors and co-occurring conditions in FXS and the impact of these behaviors on the family. PMID:24352914
Wheeler, Anne; Raspa, Melissa; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen; Hessl, David; Sacco, Pat; Bailey, Donald B
Most empirical evidence on attentional control is based on brief presentations of rather abstract stimuli. Results revealed indications for a dynamic interplay between bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms. Here we used a more naturalistic task to examine temporal signatures of attentional mechanisms on fine and coarse time scales. Subjects had to inspect digitized copies of 60 paintings, each shown for 40 s. We simultaneously measured oculomotor behavior and electrophysiological correlates of brain activity to compare early and late intervals (1) of inspection time of each picture (picture viewing) and (2) of the full experiment (time on task). For picture viewing, we found an increase in fixation duration and a decrease of saccadic amplitude while these parameters did not change with time on task. Furthermore, early in picture viewing we observed higher spatial and temporal similarity of gaze behavior. Analyzing electrical brain activity revealed changes in three components (C1, N1 and P2) of the eye fixation-related potential (EFRP); during picture viewing; no variation was obtained for the power in the frontal beta- and in the theta activity. Time on task analyses demonstrated no effects on the EFRP amplitudes but an increase of power in the frontal theta and beta band activity. Thus, behavioral and electrophysiological measures similarly show characteristic changes during picture viewing, indicating a shifting balance of its underlying (bottom-up and top-down) attentional mechanisms. Time on task also modulated top-down attention but probably represents a different attentional mechanism.
Fischer, Thomas; Graupner, Sven-Thomas; Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Pannasch, Sebastian
Three children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a summer program designed to evaluate the influence of stimulant medication and a token economy on attentive and disruptive behavior during kickball games. Attentive and disruptive behavior were assessed using an interval coding system, and daily ratings on the ADHD Index of the Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised were also
David Reitman; Stephen D. A. Hupp; Patrick M. O’Callaghan; Veronica Gulley; John Northup
Objective: The present study aimed at testing the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) including an adapted five-item "DSM"-Oriented Attention Problem Scale for predicting attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). Methods: CBCL ratings were made both in a community sample (N = 390) and an outpatient child psychiatric sample (N = 392). Four…
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comprises a deficit in behavioral inhibition. A theoretical model is constructed that links inhibition to 4 executive neuropsychological functions that appear to depend on it for their effective execution: (a) working memory, (b) self-regulation of affect–motivation–arousal, (c) internalization of speech, and (d) reconstitution (behavioral analysis and synthesis). Extended to ADHD, the model predicts that ADHD
The current study examined the relations between individual differences in sustained attention in infancy, the temperamental trait behavioral inhibition in childhood, and social behavior in adolescence. The authors assessed 9-month-old infants using an interrupted-stimulus attention paradigm. Behavioral inhibition was subsequently assessed in the…
Perez-Edgar, Koraly; McDermott, Jennifer N. Martin; Korelitz, Katherine; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.
Examined the effect of heart rate and behavioral measures of attention on infants' distractibility. Found longer distraction latencies during attentional engagement as defined by heart rate changes or behavior than for inattentive periods. Infants had longest distraction latencies when heart rate and behavior measures both indicated engagement.…
In this study, we evaluated CUIDAR, a program that provides community-based 10-week parent training to reduce attention and behavior problems in preschool children. We recruited 154 predominantly low-income and Latino preschoolers and their parents to participate in this evaluation study. We collected data prior to and immediately following…
Relations between infant-mother attachment security at 15 months and infants' (N = 206) joint attentionbehaviors (a) with an experimenter at 8 and 15 months, and (b) with their mothers at 15 months were investigated. No concurrent or longitudinal relations were observed between attachment security and infants' tendency to respond to an…
In order to assess the effects of sugar ingestion on the behavior and academic performance of attention deficit disordered (ADD) boys, an investigation was undertaken employing a challenge design. The boys fasted overnight and then received in the morning a challenge drink containing either 1.75 gm\\/kg sucrose or a placebo (aspartame) of comparable sweetness. The study was run over the
Each patient with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), with or without hyperactivity, is unique in the variety and severity of the handicapping conditions associated with ADD. The use of a well- designed teacher rating scale can provide the clinician with a behavioral prafile of each patient. The importance of knowing the child's specific problems is emphasized by the results of this
It seems as if at no other time in the distant past has there been so much media coverage of bullies and bullying behavior within the schools. Has it always been present in some form? More than likely. Should it be brought to national attention? Absolutely. No one, student or not, deserves to feel unsafe, threatened, or invisible, whether it be at…
Mueller, Sterling-Turner, and Moore (2005) reported a novel escape-to-attention (ETA) functional analysis condition in a school setting with one child. The current study replicates Mueller et al.'s functional analysis procedures with three elementary school-age boys referred for problem behavior. Functional analysis verified the participant's…
Sarno, Jana M.; Sterling, Heather E.; Mueller, Michael M.; Dufrene, Brad; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe
Attention deficit disordered (ADD) boys fasted overnight and then received a drink containing sucrose or a placebo of comparable sweetness for four days. Examination of classroom behavior, academic productivity and accuracy, noncompliance with adult requests and peer interactions offered no support for the contention that sugar ingestion adversely…
Three experiments were conducted to examine the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of distractor discriminability on auditory selective attention to targets. The experiments differed in the range of overlap between the relevant and irrelevant channels and in the number of targets and distractors presented in each channel. In each experiment, participants attended and discriminated targets in one channel (ear) while ignoring
Previous studies have examined the influence of meditation on three functionally different components of attention: executive control, alerting, and orienting. These studies have consistently found that meditation training improves both executive attention and alerting, but there has not been a consistent and clear effect of meditation training on orienting. In addition, while previous studies have shown that the functional coupling of the alerting and executive networks increases the processing of task irrelevant stimuli, it is unknown if participating in a meditation retreat can decouple these components of attention and lead to improved performance. The current study investigated the influence of a week-long intensive meditation retreat on three components of attention by randomly assigning participants to either pre- or postretreat testing groups. A modified attention network test (ANT) was used. Executive attention was measured as the difference in response time (RT) between congruent and incongruent task irrelevant flankers (conflict effect). Reflexive and volitional orienting were measured by manipulating cue validity and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). The coupling of executive attention and alerting was measured by examining flanker interference as a function of the SOA of an alerting cue. The meditation retreat improved task based indices of executive attention, but not reflexive or volitional orienting. There was clear behavioral evidence of coupling between executive attention and alerting in the preretreat group, as the conflict effect peaked when an alerting cue was presented 300 ms before the target. Importantly, there was no increase in the conflict effect for the postretreat group. This is consistent with the notion that the retreat decoupled the executive and alerting networks. These results suggest that previously reported improvements in the executive and alerting networks after meditation training might be mediated by the same underlying mechanism.
Elliott, James C.; Wallace, B. Alan; Giesbrecht, Barry
PREVIOUS STUDIES HAVE EXAMINED THE INFLUENCE OF MEDITATION ON THREE FUNCTIONALLY DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF ATTENTION: executive control, alerting, and orienting. These studies have consistently found that meditation training improves both executive attention and alerting, but there has not been a consistent and clear effect of meditation training on orienting. In addition, while previous studies have shown that the functional coupling of the alerting and executive networks increases the processing of task irrelevant stimuli, it is unknown if participating in a meditation retreat can decouple these components of attention and lead to improved performance. The current study investigated the influence of a week-long intensive meditation retreat on three components of attention by randomly assigning participants to either pre- or postretreat testing groups. A modified attention network test (ANT) was used. Executive attention was measured as the difference in response time (RT) between congruent and incongruent task irrelevant flankers (conflict effect). Reflexive and volitional orienting were measured by manipulating cue validity and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). The coupling of executive attention and alerting was measured by examining flanker interference as a function of the SOA of an alerting cue. The meditation retreat improved task based indices of executive attention, but not reflexive or volitional orienting. There was clear behavioral evidence of coupling between executive attention and alerting in the preretreat group, as the conflict effect peaked when an alerting cue was presented 300 ms before the target. Importantly, there was no increase in the conflict effect for the postretreat group. This is consistent with the notion that the retreat decoupled the executive and alerting networks. These results suggest that previously reported improvements in the executive and alerting networks after meditation training might be mediated by the same underlying mechanism. PMID:24596550
Elliott, James C; Wallace, B Alan; Giesbrecht, Barry
Study Objectives: To identify baseline behavioral and physiologic markers that associate with individual differences in sustained attention during sleep deprivation. Design: In a retrospective study, ocular, electrocardiogram, and electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were compared in subjects who were characterized as resilient (n = 15) or vulnerable (n = 15) to the effects of total sleep deprivation on sustained attention. Setting: Chronobiology and Sleep Laboratory, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore. Participants: Healthy volunteers aged 22-32 years from the general population. Interventions: Subjects were kept awake for at least 26 hours under constant environmental conditions. Every 2 hours, sustained attention was assessed using a 10-minute psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Measurements and Results: During baseline sleep and recovery sleep, EEG slow wave activity was similar in resilient versus vulnerable subjects, suggesting that individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss were not related to differences in homeostatic sleep regulation. Rather, irrespective of time elapsed since wake, subjects who were vulnerable to sleep deprivation exhibited slower and more variable PVT response times, lower and more variable heart rate, and higher and more variable EEG spectral power in the theta frequency band (6.0-7.5 Hz). Conclusions: Performance decrements in sustained attention during sleep deprivation associate with instability in behavioral and physiologic measures at baseline. Small individual differences in sustained attention that are present at baseline are amplified during prolonged wakefulness, thus contributing to large between-subjects differences in performance and sleepiness. Citation: Chua EC; Yeo SC; Lee IT; Tan LC; Lau P; Cai S; Zhang X; Puvanendran K; Gooley JJ. Sustained attention performance during sleep deprivation associates with instability in behavior and physiologic measures at baseline. SLEEP 2014;37(1):27-39.
Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Lee, Ivan Tian-Guang; Tan, Luuan-Chin; Lau, Pauline; Cai, Shiwei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Puvanendran, Kathiravelu; Gooley, Joshua J.
Childhood hyperactivity (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) is a common behavior disorder among grade-school children. The characteristic symptoms are attentional problems and hyperkinesia. A number of animal models for ADHD syndrome have been developed, but very few of these models are truly representative in that they rarely describe both hyperactivity and attentional problems. Frequently the disorder has been induced in
Tarja Puumala; Sirja Ruotsalainen; Pekka Jäkälä; Esa Koivisto; Paavo Riekkinen Jr.; Jouni Sirviö
Objective self-awareness theory contends that focusing attention on the self initiates an automatic comparison of self to standards. To gain evidence for automatic self-standard comparison processes, two experiments manipulated attention to self with subliminal first-name priming. People completed a computer-based parity task after being instructed that the standard was to be fast or to be accurate. Subliminal first name priming increased behavioral adherence to the explicit standard. When told to be fast, self-focused people made more mistakes and had faster response times; when told to be accurate, self-focused people made fewer mistakes. A manipulation of conscious self-awareness (via a mirror) had the same self-regulatory effects. The findings suggest that comparing self to standards can occur automatically and that it is attention to self, not awareness of the self per se, that evokes self-evaluation. PMID:23226716
We measured behavior and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in 12 subjects performing on an audio-visual distraction paradigm to investigate the cerebral mechanisms of involuntary attention towards stimulus changes in the acoustic environment. Subjects classified odd\\/even numbers presented on a computer screen 300 ms after the occurrence of a task-irrelevant auditory stimulus, by pressing the corresponding response button. Auditory stimuli were
The authors investigated obsessive-compulsive behavior, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 50 healthy subjects, 50 patients with rheumatic fever without chorea, and 56 patients with Sydenham chorea. Obsessive-compulsive behavior, OCD, and ADHD were more frequent in the Sydenham chorea group (19%, 23.2%, 30.4%) than in the healthy subjects (11%, 4%, 8%) and in the rheumatic fever without chorea group (14%, 6%, 8%). ADHD was more common in persistent Sydenham chorea. PMID:15911817
Scrutiny of the numerous physiology and imaging studies of visual attention reveal that integration of results from neuroscience with the classic theories of visual attention based on behavioral work is not simple. The different subfields have pursued different questions, used distinct experimental paradigms and developed diverse models. The purpose of this review is to use statistical decision theory and computational modeling to relate classic theories of attention in psychological research to neural observables such as mean firing rate or functional imaging BOLD response, tuning functions, Fano factor, neuronal index of detectability and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). We focus on cueing experiments and attempt to distinguish two major leading theories in the study of attention: limited resources model/increased sensitivity vs. selection/differential weighting. We use Bayesian ideal observer (BIO) modeling, in which predictive cues or prior knowledge change the differential weighting (prior) of sensory information to generate predictions of behavioral and neural observables based on Gaussian response variables and Poisson process neural based models. The ideal observer model can be modified to represent a number of classic psychological theories of visual attention by including hypothesized human attentional limited resources in the same way sequential ideal observer analysis has been used to include physiological processing components of human spatial vision (Geisler, W. S. (1989). Sequential ideal-observer analysis of visual discrimination. Psychological Review 96, 267-314.). In particular we compare new biologically plausible implementations of the BIO and variant models with limited resources. We find a close relationship between the behavioral effects of cues predicted by the models developed in the field of human psychophysics and their neuron-based analogs. Critically, we show that cue effects on experimental observables such as mean neural activity, variance, Fano factor and neuronal index of detectability can be consistent with the two major theoretical models of attention depending on whether the neuron is assumed to be computing likelihoods, log-likelihoods or a simple model operating directly on the Poisson variable. Change in neuronal tuning functions can also be consistent with both theories depending on whether the change in tuning is along the dimension being experimentally cued or a different dimension. We show that a neuron's sensitivity appropriately measured using the area under the Receive Operating Characteristic curve can be used to distinguish across both theories and is robust to the many transformations of the decision variable. We provide a summary table with the hope that it might provide some guidance in interpreting past results as well as planning future studies. PMID:19138699
Eckstein, Miguel P; Peterson, Matthew F; Pham, Binh T; Droll, Jason A
The hippocampus is thought to have a critical role in episodic memory by incorporating the sensory input of an experience onto a spatial framework embodied by place cells. Although the formation and stability of place fields requires exploration, the interaction between discrete exploratory behaviors and the specific, immediate and persistent modifications of neural representations required by episodic memory has not been established. We recorded place cells in rats and found that increased neural activity during exploratory head-scanning behaviors predicted the formation and potentiation of place fields on the next pass through that location, regardless of environmental familiarity and across multiple testing days. These results strongly suggest that, during the attentivebehaviors that punctuate exploration, place cell activity mediates the one-trial encoding of ongoing experiences necessary for episodic memory. PMID:24686786
Monaco, Joseph D; Rao, Geeta; Roth, Eric D; Knierim, James J
Recent research suggests that an attentional bias towards threat may play a causal role in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with contamination concerns. However, the attentional components involved in this bias, as well as its behavioral correlates, remain unclear. In the present study, eye movements were recorded in individuals high and low in contamination fear (HCF, LCF) during 30 s exposures to stimulus arrays containing contamination threat, general threat, pleasant, and neutral images. HCF individuals oriented gaze towards contamination threat more often than LCF individuals in initial fixations, and this bias mediated group differences in responding to a behavioral challenge in a public restroom. No group differences were found in the maintenance of gaze on contamination threat, both in terms of initial gaze encounters as well as gaze duration over time. However, the HCF group made shorter fixations on contamination threat relative to other image types. The implications of these findings for further delineating the nature and function of attentional biases in contamination-based OCD are discussed.
Armstrong, Thomas; Sarawgi, Shivali; Olatunji, Bunmi O.
Working memory and attention interact in a way that enables us to focus on relevant items and maintain current goals. The influence of working memory on attention has been noted in several studies using dual task designs. Multitasking increases the demands on working memory and reduces the amount of resources available for cognitive control functions such as resolving stimulus conflict. However, few studies have investigated the temporal activation of the cortex while multitasking. The present study addresses the extent to which working memory load influences early (P1) and late (P300) attention-sensitive event-related potential components using a dual task paradigm. Participants performed an arrow flanker task alone (single task condition) or concurrently with a Sternberg memory task (dual task condition). In the flanker task, participants responded to the direction of a central arrow surrounded by congruent or incongruent arrows. In the dual task condition, participants were presented with a Sternberg task that consisted of either four or seven consonants to remember prior to a short block of flanker trials. Participants were slower and less accurate on incongruent versus congruent trials. Furthermore, accuracy on incongruent trials was reduced in both dual task conditions. Likewise, P300 amplitude to incongruent flanker stimuli decreased when working memory load increased. These findings suggest that interference from incongruent flankers was more difficult to suppress when working memory was taxed. In addition, P1 amplitude was diminished on all flanker trials in the dual task condition. This result indicates that top-down attentional control over early visual processing is diminished by increasing demands on working memory. Both the behavioral and electrophysiological results suggest that working memory is critical in maintaining attentional focus and resolving conflict. PMID:21716633
Working memory and attention interact in a way that enables us to focus on relevant items and maintain current goals. The influence of working memory on attention has been noted in several studies using dual task designs. Multitasking increases the demands on working memory and reduces the amount of resources available for cognitive control functions such as resolving stimulus conflict. However, few studies have investigated the temporal activation of the cortex while multitasking. The present study addresses the extent to which working memory load influences early (P1) and late (P300) attention-sensitive event-related potential components using a dual task paradigm. Participants performed an arrow flanker task alone (single task condition) or concurrently with a Sternberg memory task (dual task condition). In the flanker task, participants responded to the direction of a central arrow surrounded by congruent or incongruent arrows. In the dual task condition, participants were presented with a Sternberg task that consisted of either four or seven consonants to remember prior to a short block of flanker trials. Participants were slower and less accurate on incongruent versus congruent trials. Furthermore, accuracy on incongruent trials was reduced in both dual task conditions. Likewise, P300 amplitude to incongruent flanker stimuli decreased when working memory load increased. These findings suggest that interference from incongruent flankers was more difficult to suppress when working memory was taxed. In addition, P1 amplitude was diminished on all flanker trials in the dual task condition. This result indicates that top-down attentional control over early visual processing is diminished by increasing demands on working memory. Both the behavioral and electrophysiological results suggest that working memory is critical in maintaining attentional focus and resolving conflict.
Background Recent research suggests the efficacy of attention modification programs (AMP) in treating adult anxiety . Though some research supports the success of AMP treatment in anxious youths [2, 3], to date no study has examined the efficacy of AMP as an adjunctive treatment to other psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for anxious youths within the community. Methods In the current study we examined the efficacy of AMP as an adjunctive treatment to standard care at a residential anxiety treatment facility. Adolescents (N = 42) completed either an active (attention modification program, AMP; n = 21) or a control (attention control condition, ACC; n = 21) condition, in addition to the facility's standard treatment protocol, which included cognitive behavioral therapy with or without medication. Results While anxiety symptoms decreased for participants across both groups, participants in the AMP group experienced a significantly greater decrease in anxiety symptoms from point of intake to point of discharge, in comparison to participants in the ACC group. Conclusions These results suggest that AMP is an effective adjunctive treatment to the standard treatments of choice for anxiety disorders, and may hold promise for improving treatment response in highly anxious youths.
Riemann, Bradley C.; Kuckertz, Jennie M.; Rozenman, Michelle; Weersing, V. Robin; Amir, Nader
Most studies of attention-deficit0hyperactivity disorder ~ADHD! have focused on the combined type and emphasized a core problem in response inhibition. It is proposed here that the core problem in the truly inattentive type of ADHD ~not simply the subthreshold combined type! is in working memory. It is further proposed that laboratory measures, such as complex-span and dual-task dichotic listening tasks,
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to examine how attention control moderates the relationship between perceptions of others' entitlement behavior and employee attitudinal, behavioral, and health outcomes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In study 1, data were collected from 309 employees of a municipality. In the second study, the independent and dependent variables were collected two months apart (and matched) from
Wayne A. Hochwarter; James A. Meurs; Pamela L. Perrewé; M. Todd Royle; Timothy A. Matherly
Behaviors characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often interfere with students' and their classmates' learning, and interventions targeting these behaviors may be particularly important in schools. This article reviews studies in which researchers manipulated environmental stimulation during task presentation…
This case study was conducted with a student diagnosed with autism and Tourette syndrome who displayed severe self-injurious behavior (SIB). We conducted a functional behavioral assessment which indicated that SIB was maintained by multiple functions using an ABAC design to determine the effect of positive social attention and extinction. Results…
Banda, Devender R.; McAfee, James K.; Hart, Stephanie L.
Study evaluated effects of traditional recess on subsequent classroom behavior of children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Results showed that levels of inappropriate behavior were consistently higher on days when participants did not have recess. Optimal recess period(s) may potentially promote academic achievement by…
Ridgway, Andrea; Northup, John; Pellegrin, Angie; LaRue, Robert; Hightshoe, Anne
Kawaii (a Japanese word meaning "cute") things are popular because they produce positive feelings. However, their effect on behavior remains unclear. In this study, three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of viewing cute images on subsequent task performance. In the first experiment, university students performed a fine motor dexterity task before and after viewing images of baby or adult animals. Performance indexed by the number of successful trials increased after viewing cute images (puppies and kittens; M ± SE=43.9 ± 10.3% improvement) more than after viewing images that were less cute (dogs and cats; 11.9 ± 5.5% improvement). In the second experiment, this finding was replicated by using a non-motor visual search task. Performance improved more after viewing cute images (15.7 ± 2.2% improvement) than after viewing less cute images (1.4 ± 2.1% improvement). Viewing images of pleasant foods was ineffective in improving performance (1.2 ± 2.1%). In the third experiment, participants performed a global-local letter task after viewing images of baby animals, adult animals, and neutral objects. In general, global features were processed faster than local features. However, this global precedence effect was reduced after viewing cute images. Results show that participants performed tasks requiring focused attention more carefully after viewing cute images. This is interpreted as the result of a narrowed attentional focus induced by the cuteness-triggered positive emotion that is associated with approach motivation and the tendency toward systematic processing. For future applications, cute objects may be used as an emotion elicitor to induce careful behavioral tendencies in specific situations, such as driving and office work. PMID:23050022
High-level cognitive factors, including self-awareness, are believed to play an important role in human visual perception. The principal aim of this study was to determine whether oscillatory brain rhythms play a role in the neural processes involved in self-monitoring attentional status. To do so we measured cortical activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants were asked to self-monitor their internal status, only initiating the presentation of a stimulus when they perceived their attentional focus to be maximal. We employed a hierarchical Bayesian method that uses fMRI results as soft-constrained spatial information to solve the MEG inverse problem, allowing us to estimate cortical currents in the order of millimeters and milliseconds. Our results show that, during self-monitoring of internal status, there was a sustained decrease in power within the 7-13 Hz (alpha) range in the rostral cingulate motor area (rCMA) on the human medial wall, beginning approximately 430 msec after the trial start (p < 0.05, FDR corrected). We also show that gamma-band power (41-47 Hz) within this area was positively correlated with task performance from 40–640 msec after the trial start (r = 0.71, p < 0.05). We conclude: (1) the rCMA is involved in processes governing self-monitoring of internal status; and (2) the qualitative differences between alpha and gamma activity are reflective of their different roles in self-monitoring internal states. We suggest that alpha suppression may reflect a strengthening of top-down interareal connections, while a positive correlation between gamma activity and task performance indicates that gamma may play an important role in guiding visuomotor behavior.
This study compared differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) in the reduction of self-injurious behavior in three adult females with severe or profound mental retardation. Both procedures were highly effective in reducing self-injury, with NCR less limited than DRO. (Author/DB)
To test a theory that selective attention to threatening stimuli induces paranoia, an attempt was made to manipulate attention to threatening and nonthreatening statements among college students and examine the effects on three indices of paranoia. (Editor)
ObjectiveThe relationship between neuropsychological measures of inhibition and sustained attention and structural brain differences in the regions of the caudate and the frontal region was examined in males with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD\\/H).
MARGARET SEMRUD-CLIKEMAN; RONALD J. STEINGARD; PAULINE FILIPEK; JOSEPH BIEDERMAN; KAAREN BEKKEN; PERRY F. RENSHAW
Aberrant attention is a core feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS), however, little is known regarding the developmental trajectory and underlying physiological processes of attention deficits in FXS. Atypical visual attention is an early emerging and robust indicator of autism in idiopathic (non-FXS) autism. Using a biobehavioral approach with gaze…
Roberts, Jane E.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Long, Anna C. J.; Anello, Vittoria; Colombo, John
Evidence regarding the ability of attention to bias neural processing at the level of single features has been gathering steadily, but most of the experiments to date used arrays with multiple objects and locations, making it difficult to rule out indirect inf luences from object or spatial attention. To investigate feature-specific selective attention, we have as- sessed the ability to
Anna Christina Nobre; Anling Rao; Leonardo Chelazzi
The goal of this study was to examine the claim that amodal deficits in attentional shifting may be the source of reading acquisition disorders in phonological developmental dyslexia (sluggish attentional shifting, SAS, theory, Hari & Renvall, 2001). We investigated automatic attentional shifting in the auditory and visual modalities in 13…
Does the natural environment enhance positive human behaviors, behaviors which meet societal expectations? If that is the case, at what level of our social development does exposure and involvement with nature become a prerequisite? This study sought to discover an answer to the first question through examination of a small public school sample. The second will have to await future
Few behavioral parent training (BPT) treatment studies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have included and measured outcomes with fathers. In this study, fathers were randomly assigned to attend a standard BPT program or the Coaching Our Acting-Out Children: Heightening Essential Skills (COACHES) program. The COACHES program…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attentionbehaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…
Deficient behavioral inhibition (BI) processes are considered a core feature of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This meta-analytic review is the first to examine the potential influence of a wide range of subject and task variable moderator effects on BI processes--assessed by the stop-signal paradigm--in children with ADHD…
Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.
Research Findings: This study investigated the relationships between behavior and attention problems and early language and literacy outcomes for 4-year-olds who experienced varied early home literacy environments. Participants were 1,364 children enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care…
This paper explores research on use of medication and non-drug interventions to modify the behavior of preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It begins by discussing the symptoms of ADHD, neurological differences between children with ADHD and those without ADHD, and expected adolescent and adult outcomes for…
Sixty-three children between ages 6 and 12 who were enrolled in a summer treatment program for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a study designed to measure the relationship between social behaviors, athletic performance, and peer acceptance. Children were assessed on sport-specific skills of three major…
Lopez-Williams, Andy; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Seymour, Karen E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Pelham, William E.; Morris, Tracy L.
Objective: This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method: A diverse community sample (55% African American) of men (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of…
Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…
Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali
BackgroundThe development of the fetal endocannabinoid receptor system may be vulnerable to maternal cannabis use during pregnancy and may produce long-term consequences in children. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between gestational cannabis use and childhood attention problems and aggressive behavior.
Hanan El Marroun; James J. Hudziak; Henning Tiemeier; Hanneke Creemers; Eric A. P. Steegers; Vincent W. V. Jaddoe; Albert Hofman; Frank C. Verhulst; Wim van den Brink; Anja C. Huizink
Medical adherence to complex diabetes regimens can be challenging, particularly for adolescents, and therefore represents the most common reason for referral to behavioral psychologists among this population. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), when present in children and adolescents with diabetes, presents unique barriers to…
Sanchez, Lisa M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Hunter, Scott J.
It has been shown that healthy aging affects the ability to focus attention on a given task and to ignore distractors. Here, we asked whether long-term physical activity is associated with lower susceptibility to distraction of auditory attention, and how physically active and inactive seniors may differ regarding subcomponents of auditory attention. An auditory duration discrimination task was employed, and involuntary attentional shifts to task-irrelevant rare frequency deviations and subsequent reorientation were studied by analysis of behavioral data and event-related potential measures. The frequency deviations impaired performance more in physically inactive than active seniors. This was accompanied by a stronger frontal positivity (P3a) and increased activation of anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting a stronger involuntary shift of attention towards task-irrelevant stimulus features in inactive compared to active seniors. These results indicate a positive relationship between physical fitness and attentional control in elderly, presumably due to more focused attentional resources and enhanced inhibition of irrelevant stimulus features.
Getzmann, Stephan; Falkenstein, Michael; Gajewski, Patrick D.
Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years supporting this statement, there are still many misconceptions about ADHD. These include believing the disorder does not exist, that all children have symptoms of ADHD, that if it does exist it is grossly over-diagnosed and over-treated, and that the treatment is dangerous and leads to a propensity to drug addiction. Since most misconceptions contain elements of truth, where does the reality lie? Results We have reviewed the literature to evaluate some of the claims and counter-claims. The evidence suggests that ADHD is primarily a polygenic disorder involving at least 50 genes, including those encoding enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism, neurotransmitter transporters and receptors. Because of its polygenic nature, ADHD is often accompanied by other behavioral abnormalities. It is present in adults as well as children, but in itself it does not necessarily impair function in adult life; associated disorders, however, may do so. A range of treatment options is reviewed and the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of standard drug treatments are considered. Conclusion The genes so far implicated in ADHD account for only part of the total picture. Identification of the remaining genes and characterization of their interactions is likely to establish ADHD firmly as a biological disorder and to lead to better methods of diagnosis and treatment.
Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Blum, Kenneth; Mengucci, Julie F; Blum, Seth H; Meshkin, Brian
Background: Deficits in joint attention are considered by many researchers to be an early pre- dictor of childhood autism (e.g., Osterling & Dawson, 1994) and are considered to be pivotal to deficits in language, play, and social development in this population (Mundy, 1995). Although many researchers have noted the importance of joint attention deficits in the development of children with
This study investigated the utility of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) assessments in 70 children being evaluated for learning and attention problems, by assessing their relationship to auditory-based neuropsychological tests with varying degrees of attentional, linguistic, and cognitive complexity. Students were given several tests to…
One of the main contributing factors with intersection accidents is lack of information due to attention allocation. In many cases, drivers fail to yield right of way to other traffic participants. One reason is that drivers have inappropriate expectations about a traffic situation. They allocate their attention primarily to certain areas of the intersection but neglect others. In a driving simulator study, the influence of intersection complexity on drivers' expectations and their driving behavior was examined. In two T-intersections, the complexity was varied by the traffic density (low and high) using either one or two important objects: vehicles (left) with or without pedestrians (right). Additionally, the reaction to two critical incidents in close proximity of the intersections was examined. Gaze behavior, vehicle reactions, and subjective data were recorded. 40 subjects (26 male, 14 female, M=31.0 years, SD=11.9 years) participated in the study. Interestingly, the least complex intersections showed the most accidents which was interpreted as the result of inadequate attention allocation. It was shown that both the drivers' attention allocation and vehicle velocity when turning off were responsible for this effect. The results contribute to a better understanding of the role of drivers' expectation and attention allocation in the causation of intersection accidents. PMID:22269548
Objective This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method A diverse community sample (55% African-American) of males (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of age (M = 25.80) were randomly assigned to one of two beverage conditions (i.e., alcohol, no-alcohol control) and one of two distraction conditions (i.e., distraction, no-distraction). Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks and a verbal insult from a fictitious male opponent. Participants’ attention-allocation to aggression words (i.e., aggression bias) and physical aggression were measured using a dot probe task and a shock-based aggression task, respectively. Results Intoxicated men whose attention was distracted displayed significantly lower levels of aggression bias and enacted significantly less physical aggression than intoxicated men whose attention was not distracted. However, aggression bias did not account for the lower levels of alcohol-related aggression in the distraction, relative to the no-distraction, condition. Conclusions These results replicated and extended past evidence that cognitive distraction is associated with lower levels of alcohol-related aggression in highly provoked males and provide the first known cognitive data to support the attentional processes posited by the attention-allocation model. Discussion focused on how these data inform intervention programming for alcohol-related aggression.
This study of infants with low birthweight and significant or mild intraventricular hemorrhage showed that the association of mothers' interactive behaviors with infants' exploratory play responses was dependent on both the age and medical risk status of the child. The timing of mothers' attention-directing strategies and the level of structure…
To examine the impact of a computer-delivered, home-based, alcohol-specific attention modification program (AMP), 41 heavy drinking college students were randomly assigned to AMP or an attention control condition (ACC). Participants selected 10 alcohol-related words most relevant to their own drinking experience as well as 10 neutral words not related to alcohol. These personalized stimuli were used in an attention retaining program based upon the probe detection paradigm twice weekly for 4 weeks. Participants in the AMP condition reported decreased drinking, whereas those in the ACC condition reported no change in their drinking. These preliminary data suggest that a computer-delivered, home-delivered, attention-retraining for alcohol treatment may be an inexpensive and efficacious adjunct to standard alcohol treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24955674
McGeary, John E; Meadows, Sydney P; Amir, Nader; Gibb, Brandon E
Attention deficits are common in schizophrenics and sometimes reported in their healthy relatives. The aim of this study was to analyse the behavioural performance and the brain activation of healthy siblings of schizophrenic patients during a sustained-attention task.Eleven healthy siblings of schizophrenic patients and eleven matched controls performed a Continuous Performance Test (CPT), during 1.5 T fMRI. The stimuli were presented
Gianna Sepede; Antonio Ferretti; Mauro Gianni Perrucci; Francesco Gambi; Fiore Di Donato; Francesco Nuccetelli; Cosimo Del Gratta; Armando Tartaro; Rosa Maria Salerno; Filippo Maria Ferro; Gian Luca Romani
From behavioral studies it is known that auditory spatial resolution of azimuthal space declines over age. To date, it is not clear how age affects the respective sensory auditory processing at the pre-attentive level. Here we tested the hypothesis that pre-attentive processing of behaviorally perceptible spatial changes is preserved in older adults. An EEG-study was performed in older adults (65–82 years of age) and a mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm employed. Sequences of frequent standard stimuli of defined azimuthal positions were presented together with rarely occurring deviants shifted by 10° or 20° to the left or to the right of the standard. Standard positions were at +5° (central condition) from the midsagittal plane and at 65° in both lateral hemifields (±65°; lateral condition). The results suggest an effect of laterality on the pre-attentive change processing of spatial deviations in older adults: While for the central conditions deviants close to MAA threshold (i.e., 10°) yielded discernable MMNs, for lateral positions the respective MMN responses were only elicited by spatial deviations of 20° toward the midline (i.e., ±45°). Furthermore, MMN amplitudes were found to be insensitive to the magnitude of deviation (10°, 20°), which is contrary to recent studies with young adults (Bennemann et al., 2013) and hints to a deteriorated pre-attentive encoding of sound sources in older adults. The discrepancy between behavioral MAA data and present results are discussed with respect to the possibility that under the condition of active stimulus processing older adults might benefit from recruiting additional attentional top-down processes to detect small magnitudes of spatial deviations even within the lateral acoustic field.
In this paper, we extend previous work on the evolution of continuous-time recurrent neural networks for mini- mally cognitive behavior (the simplest behavior that raises issues of genuine cognitive interest). Previously, we evolved dynamical \\
Andrew C. Slocum; Douglas C. Downey; Randall D. Beer
A teacher scale based on DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was developed for the behavioral assessment of children in Brazil. A total of 2, 082 children (782 males and 1,300 females) with a mean age of 11.2 years who were attending a public school in the greater Rio de Janeiro area were the subjects of this
Gilberto N. O. Brito; Rita C. A. Pinto; Mauro F. C. Lins
Two studies were conducted to investigate the relative effects of sustained release methylphenidate (Ritalin [SR-20]) and standard methylphenidate (Ritalin, 10 mg, administered twice daily). In the first study, 13 boys with attention deficit disorder participating in a summer treatment program went through a double-blind, within-subject trial of each form of methylphenidate and placebo. Measures of social and cognitive behavior were
Pelham William E. Jr; James Sturges; JoAnn Hoza; Casey Schmidt; Jan Jaap Bijlsma; Richard Milich; Sam Moorer
This study applied an auditory distraction paradigm to investigate involuntary attention effects of unexpected deviations in speech and non-speech sounds on behavior (increase in response time and error rate) and event-related brain potentials (?N1/MMN and P3a). Our aim was to systematically compare identical speech sounds with physical vs. linguistic deviations and identical deviations (pitch) with speech vs. non-speech sounds in the same set of healthy volunteers. Sine tones and bi-syllabic pseudo-words were presented in a 2-alternative forced-choice paradigm with occasional phoneme deviants in pseudo-words, pitch deviants in pseudo-words, or pitch deviants in tones. Deviance-related ERP components were elicited in all conditions. Deviance-related negativities (?N1/MMN) differed in scalp distribution between phoneme and pitch deviants within phonemes, indicating that auditory deviance-detection partly operates in a deviance-specific manner. P3a as an indicator of attentional orienting was similar in all conditions, and was accompanied by behavioral indicators of distraction. Yet smaller behavioral effects and prolonged relative MMN-P3a latency were observed for pitch deviants within phonemes relative to the other two conditions. This suggests that the similarity and separability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information is essential for the extent of attentional capture and distraction. PMID:23123705
Reiche, M; Hartwigsen, G; Widmann, A; Saur, D; Schröger, E; Bendixen, A
When both detections and responses to visual stimuli are performed within one and the same hemisphere, manual reaction times (RTs) are faster than when the two operations are carried out in different hemispheres. A widely accepted explanation for this difference is that it reflects the time lost in callosal transmission. Interhemispheric transfer time can be estimated by subtracting RTs for uncrossed from RTs for crossed responses (crossed-uncrossed difference, or CUD). In the present study, we wanted to ascertain the role of spatial attention in affecting the CUD and to chart the brain areas whose activity is related to these attentional effects on interhemispheric transfer. To accomplish this, we varied the proportion of crossed and uncrossed trials in different blocks. With this paradigm subjects are likely to focus attention either on the hemifield contralateral to the responding hand (blocks with 80% crossed trials) or on the ipsilateral hemifield (blocks with 80% uncrossed trials). We found an inverse correlation between the proportion of crossed trials in a block and the CUD and this effect can be attributed to spatial attention. As to the imaging results, we found that in the crossed minus uncrossed subtraction, an operation that highlights the neural processes underlying interhemispheric transfer, there was an activation of the genu of the corpus callosum as well as of a series of cortical areas. In a further commonality analysis, we assessed those areas which were activated specifically during focusing of attention onto one hemifield either contra- or ipsilateral to the responding hand. We found an activation of a number of cortical and subcortical areas, notably, parietal area BA 7 and the superior colliculi. We believe that the main thrust of the present study is to have teased apart areas important in interhemispheric transmission from those involved in spatial attention. PMID:15701243
Weber, B; Treyer, V; Oberholzer, N; Jaermann, T; Boesiger, P; Brugger, P; Regard, M; Buck, A; Savazzi, S; Marzi, C A
This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of teacher attention given for specific responses children show when using building blocks. These included the responses of combining triangles to make rectangles, stacking diverse pieces to make a tower, making stairs, making a variation on a model, and making a house-like, enclosed, roofed…
The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11-15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7) completed measurements before, immediately after, 8…
van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Formsma, Anne R.; de Bruin, Esther I.; Bogels, Susan M.
Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…
Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions…
BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years
David E Comings; Thomas JH Chen; Kenneth Blum; Julie F Mengucci; Seth H Blum; Brian Meshkin
Individual differences in temperament and personality are closely linked to motor vehicle safety. However, 13% of Americans who die in transportation-related injuries are not killed in motor vehicle crashes, but rather in pedestrian injuries. This study was designed to study links between two individual difference measures, attentional control and high intensity pleasure, and pedestrian injury risk among college students, a
David C. Schwebel; Despina Stavrinos; Elizabeth M. Kongable
The present study examined the ability of Type A and Type B subjects to sustain attention during a 40-min visual vigilance task. It was predicted that Type A subjects would perform better than Type B subjects and that the performance of both groups would be related to the frequency of daydreams during the vigil. Type A subjects outperformed Type B
Thinking about the abstract concept power may automatically activate the spatial up-down image schema ("powerful up"; "powerless down") and consequently direct spatial attention to the image schema-congruent location. Participants indicated whether a word represented a powerful or powerless person (e.g. "king" or "servant"). Following each…
Zanolie, Kiki; van Dantzig, Saskia; Boot, Inge; Wijnen, Jasper; Schubert, Thomas W.; Giessner, Steffen R.; Pecher, Diane
Four rhesus monkeys learned both a color and tilt discrimination. The stimuli were combined to produce incompatible behavior. The behavior controlled by one set of stimuli was reinforced until “errors” virtually disappeared. The stimuli were tested separately again. Sixteen replications of the entire procedure indicated that the stimuli producing “errors” were ignored.
The investigation of the effect of normative amounts of caffeine on the behavior of six normal kindergarten children found that caffeine exerted only small and inconsistent effects on such classroom behaviors as time off-task and gross motor activity. (Author/DB)
Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament identified in early childhood, is associated with social reticence in childhood and an increased risk for anxiety problems in adolescence and adulthood. However, not all behaviorally inhibited children remain reticent or develop an anxiety disorder. One possible mechanism accounting for the variability in…
White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.
This study is a prospective, longitudinal attempt to explore behavioral self-regulation, private speech, and speech-action coordination in a sample of behaviorally at-risk preschool children. Preschoolers (N = 72) were classified at age 3 years into a behaviorally at-risk group or a comparison group on the basis of preschool teacher behavioral ratings. Children were videotaped on four different occasions across the span of almost 2 years as they completed problem-solving tasks, and private speech, task performance, executive functioning, and speech-action coordination were analyzed. Children identified 2 years earlier as being hard to manage were at risk for continued behavior problems at elementary school entry. Behaviorally at-risk children consistently used more spontaneous private speech than comparison children across all observations. Both groups of children demonstrated a pattern of increasing silence with task success over time. No group differences were observed in children's speech-action coordination at age 5 years. Intraindividual developmental changes in private speech for both groups were associated with task performance, speech-action coordination, and executive functioning at age 5, but not with teacher- and parent-reported problem behavior. PMID:11079430
Winsler, A; Diaz, R M; Atencio, D J; McCarthy, E M; Chabay, L A
Individual differences in temperament and personality are closely linked to motor vehicle safety. However, 13% of Americans who die in transportation-related injuries are not killed in motor vehicle crashes, but rather in pedestrian injuries. This study was designed to study links between two individual difference measures, attentional control and high intensity pleasure, and pedestrian injury risk among college students, a group at particular risk of pedestrian injury. A sample of 245 students completed a temperament questionnaire and engaged in a street-crossing task within an interactive, immersive virtual pedestrian environment. Individuals scoring high on attentional control (the capacity to focus and shift attention, one facet of conscientiousness) waited longer to choose gaps to cross within and showed some tendency to choose larger gaps after waiting. Individuals scoring high in high intensity pleasure (the tendency to desire novel, complex, and varied stimuli, one facet of sensation-seeking) were more likely to experience collisions with traffic in the virtual environment. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed. PMID:19393819
Schwebel, David C; Stavrinos, Despina; Kongable, Elizabeth M
Advances in obstetrics and neonatology have increased the survival rates of premature infants with very preterm (<32 weeks) and extremely preterm (<28 weeks) gestations. However, survivors have a high frequency of challenges in academic and social skills. There has been an increased emphasis on examination of outcomes beyond survival rates and rates of neurosensory disabilities at ages 18 to 24 months (eg, cerebral palsy, blindness, deafness, global development delay). One of the key strategies for understanding pathways of risk and resilience is to examine behavioral, social-emotional, and adaptive competencies. The purpose of this paper is to apply the International Classification of Functioning framework to a spectrum of behavioral outcomes after extreme prematurity, describe useful tools for measuring behavioral, social, and adaptive competencies, as well as review model outcome studies before middle childhood. Thus, we can use current information to begin to understand pathways underlying behavioral health, well-being, and social competence. PMID:18249239
This pilot, randomized controlled trial analyzed the effects of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, n = 20) for insomnia vs a sleep hygiene (SH, n = 20) program on the three attentional networks (alertness, orienting, and executive function) and other additional outcome measures (sleep, pain, depression, anxiety, and daily functioning) of fibromyalgia patients. The CBT group showed significant improvement in alertness (F(1, 28) = 11.84, p = .0018), executive functioning (F(1, 28) = 15.76, p = .00059), sleep quality ( F(1, 38) = 6.33, p = .016), and a trend to improvement in daily functioning (p > .06), as compared with the SH group. The improvement in executive functioning was significantly related to the changes in sleep (r = 0.40, p = .026). A CBT for insomnia represents a useful intervention in fibromyalgia patients not only regarding sleep disturbance but also attentional dysfunction and probably daily functioning. PMID:21346020
Miró, E; Lupiáñez, J; Martínez, M P; Sánchez, A I; Díaz-Piedra, C; Guzmán, M A; Buela-Casal, G
Evidence to validate the use of fixed-time (FT) reinforcer delivery (i.e., noncontingent reinforcement) with typically developing populations has been relatively rare in the behavioral literature. In those studies that have provided validation, reinforcer delivery schedules appeared to be prohibitively dense for sustained implementation of…
An important feature of human intelligence is the use of symbols. This is seen in our daily use of language and logical thinking. However, the use of symbols is not limited to humans. We observe planned action sequences in primate behavior and prediction-based action in higher mammals. For the representation and operation of symbols by the brain neural circuit, no
Takashi Omori; Akiko Mochizuki; Kentaro Mizutani; M. Nishizaki
Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder affecting 3-5% of children. Although ADHD is highly heritable, environmental factors like exposure during early development to various toxic substances like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may contribute to the prevalence. PCBs are a group of chemical industrial compounds with adverse effects on neurobiological and cognitive functioning, and may produce behavioral impairments that share significant similarities with ADHD. The present study examined the relation between exposure to PCB 153 and changes in ADHD-like behavior in an animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/NCrl), and in Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NHsd) controls. Methods SHR/NCrl and WKY/NHsd, males and females, were orally given PCB 153 dissolved in corn oil at around postnatal day (PND) 8, 14, and 20 at a dosage of 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg bodyweight at each exposure. The control groups were orally administered corn oil only. The animals were behaviorally tested for exposure effects from PND 37 to 64 using an operant procedure. Results Exposure to PCB 153 was associated with pronounced and long-lasting behavioral changes in SHR/NCrl. Exposure effects in the SHR/NCrl depended on dose, where 1 mg/kg tended to reduce ADHD-like behaviors and produce opposite behavioral effects compared to 3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg, especially in the females. In the WKY/NHsd controls and for the three doses tested, PCB 153 exposure produced a few specific behavioral changes only in males. The data suggest that PCB 153 exposure interacts with strain and sex, and also indicate a non-linear dose–response relation for the behaviors observed. Conclusions Exposure to PCB 153 seems to interact with several variables including strain, sex, dose, and time of testing. To the extent that the present findings can be generalized to humans, exposure effects of PCB 153 on ADHD behavior depends on amount of exposure, where high doses may aggravate ADHD symptoms in genetically vulnerable individuals. In normal controls, exposure may not constitute an environmental risk factor for developing the full range of ADHD symptoms, but can produce specific behavioral changes.
It is known that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show attention deficits and impulsivity. The main aim of this study was to explore the effects of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Mindfulness training (DBT-M), used as an adjunct to general psychiatric management (GPM), on attention variables in patients diagnosed with BPD. A second objective was to assess the relation of mindfulness formal practice on clinical variables. A sample of 60 patients with BPD was recruited. Forty of them were allocated to GPM + DBT-M treatment and the other 20 received GPM alone. At the termination of the mindfulness training, DBT-M + GPM group showed a significant improvement on commissions, hit reaction time, detectability scores from the CPT-II neuropsychological test, and also on the composite scores of inattention and impulsivity. Further, the more minutes of mindfulness practice were correlated to greater improvement in general psychiatric symptoms and affective symptomatology, but not in CPT-II measures. This is probably the first study so far assessing the effects of this single DBT module in patients with BPD. The results suggest a positive effect of such intervention on attention and impulsivity variables. PMID:22225697
Soler, Joaquim; Valdepérez, Ana; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Pascual, Juan C; Portella, Maria J; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Alvarez, Enrique; Pérez, Víctor
Several studies have examined impulsive choice behavior in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) as a possible pre-clinical model for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, this strain was not specifically selected for the traits of ADHD and as a result their appropriateness as a model has been questioned. The present study investigated whether SHRs would exhibit impulsive behavior in comparison to their control strain, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. In addition, we evaluated a strain that has previously shown high levels of impulsive choice, the Lewis (LEW) rats and compared them with their source strain, Wistar (WIS) rats. In the first phase, rats could choose between a Smaller-sooner (SS) reward of 1 pellet after 10 s and a Larger-later (LL) reward of 2 pellets after 30 s. Subsequently, the rats were exposed to increases in LL reward magnitude and SS delay. These manipulations were designed to assess sensitivity to magnitude and delay within the choice task to parse out possible differences in using the strains as models of specific deficits associated with ADHD. The SHR and WKY strains did not differ in their choice behavior under either delay or magnitude manipulations. In comparison to WIS, LEW showed deficits in choice behavior in the delay manipulation, and to a lesser extent in the magnitude manipulation. An examination of individual differences indicated that the SHR strain may not be sufficiently homogeneous in their impulsive choice behavior to be considered as a viable model for impulse control disorders such as ADHD. The LEW strain may be worthy of further consideration for their suitability as an animal model.
Background Adaptive behavior, the ability to respond successfully to everyday demands, may be especially sensitive to the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Similar adaptive dysfunction is common in other developmental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is frequently present in alcohol-exposed children and this overlap in clinical presentation makes identification of alcohol-exposed children difficult. Direct comparison of children with prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD may yield distinct patterns of cognitive and behavioral performance and add to growing knowledge of the neuropsychological and behavioral profile of prenatal alcohol exposure. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to compare adaptive behavior in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC), nonexposed children with ADHD (ADHD), and typically developing controls (CON). Methods Sixty-five children (ALC = 22, ADHD = 23, CON = 20) were selected from a larger ongoing study of the behavioral teratogenicity of alcohol. Alcohol-exposed and control participants were selected to match the ADHD subjects on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. Caregivers were administered the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, a semi-structured interview, and were asked to rate their child’s behavior on 3 domains of adaptive function. Data were analyzed using regression techniques. Results Relative to controls, children in both the ALC and ADHD groups showed adaptive behavior deficits on all 3 domains and children in the ALC group were significantly more impaired than the ADHD group on the daily living skills domain. Within the ALC group, socialization standard scores were lower at older ages. This negative relationship between age and standard scores in the ALC group was also observed on the communication domain, a finding not previously reported. Conclusions This study suggests that both children with prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD show impairments in adaptive function relative to controls, but that the pattern of impairment differs between these clinical groups. Adaptive ability in children with prenatal alcohol exposure is characterized by an arrest in development, as evidenced by a lack of improvement with age in socialization and communication scores. In contrast, children with ADHD exhibit a developmental delay in adaptive ability as their scores continued to improve with age, albeit not to the level of control children. Continued research focused on elucidating the patterns of deficits that exist in alcohol-exposed children ultimately will lead to improved differential diagnosis and effective interventions.
Crocker, Nicole; Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.
The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9-12 and/or 15-18 months. A quantitative…
Poon, Kenneth K.; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele D.
Objective: To assess the relative efficacy of antidepressant medication, alone and in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), on comorbid symptoms of anxiety, attention, and disruptive behavior disorders in participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method: Adolescents with selective serotonin…
Hilton, Robert C.; Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon; He, Jiayan; Mayes, Taryn; Emslie, Graham J.; Porta, Giovanna; Clarke, Greg N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.
This study examined the inclusion of peer attention within a functional assessment and the effectiveness of an assessment based intervention with an elementary student without disabilities who displayed high rates of inappropriate behavior in the classroom. A multiple assessment strategy was employed to generate hypotheses regarding the possible function of the problem behavior. An experimental manipulation was conducted to confirm
Speech contains a variety of acoustic cues to auditory and phonetic contrasts that are exploited by the listener in decoding the acoustic signal. In three experiments, we tried to elucidate whether listeners rely on formant peak frequencies or whole spectrum attributes in vowel discrimination. We created two vowel continua in which the acoustic distance in formant frequencies was constant but the continua differed in spectral moments (i.e., the whole spectrum modeled as a probability density function). In Experiment 1, we measured reaction times and response accuracy while listeners performed a go/no-go discrimination task. The results indicated that the performance of the listeners was based on the spectral moments (especially the first and second moments), and not on formant peaks. Behavioral results in Experiment 2 showed that, when the stimuli were presented in noise eliminating differences in spectral moments between the two continua, listeners employed formant peak frequencies. In Experiment 3, using the same listeners and stimuli as in Experiment 1, we measured an automatic brain potential, the mismatch negativity (MMN), when listeners did not attend to the auditory stimuli. Results showed that the MMN reflects sensitivity only to the formant structure of the vowels. We suggest that the auditory cortex automatically and pre-attentively encodes formant peak frequencies, whereas attention can be deployed for processing additional spectral information, such as spectral moments, to enhance vowel discrimination. PMID:23174416
This booklet provides basic information regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), in their separate modalities, with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Explanations are offered concerning short attention span, impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and beginning new activities before completing the previous one. Theories…
This article presents the results of video-based Human Robot Interaction (HRI) trials which investigated people’s perceptions\\u000a of different robot appearances and associated attention-seeking features and behaviors displayed by robots with different\\u000a appearance and behaviors. The HRI trials studied the participants’ preferences for various features of robot appearance and\\u000a behavior, as well as their personality attributions towards the robots compared to
Michael L. Walters; Dag S. Syrdal; Kerstin Dautenhahn; I. René J. A. Te Boekhorst; Kheng Lee Koay
The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of psychoeducation as compared with cognitive behavioral group therapy in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who still had significant symptoms and were in pharmacological treatment. This is the first study on psychoeducation in adults with ADHD. Thirty-two individuals were randomized to two treatment conditions: 15 were in the psychoeducation group and 11 were in the cognitive behavioral group therapy. A total of 30 completed treatment, and 26 completed the follow-up assessments. The results indicated that both treatments were associated with statistically significant improvements on inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and self-esteem. The patients in both groups showed a decrease in anxiety symptoms and obtained significantly lower scores in depression. Measures on functional impairment showed statistically significant differences on improved quality of life and on lower global severity as perceived in self-report and assessed by clinician report. Psychoeducation demonstrated to be an effective treatment in reducing ADHD core symptoms. PMID:24080677
Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive “control” strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more “drinking attempts” and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD.
Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young
The authors attempted to develop and validate the Toddler Attention Questionnaire (TAQ) by examining the relationship between attention and attachment to a professional caregiver. The psychometric reliability and validity of the TAQ was tested with 72 children ranging from 20 to 36 months old. Attentive processes were also measured by the Italian…
Abstract Objective To assess the effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System (OROS) methylphenidate (MPH) on a variety of measures evaluating academic performance, cognition, and social behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory school study enrolled 78 children aged 9–12 years with ADHD who responded to OROS MPH. After determining individualized OROS MPH dosing (18–54?mg/day), 71 subjects received blinded treatment (OROS MPH or placebo then vice versa) on each of 2 laboratory school days, separated by 1 week. Primary efficacy was measured by Permanent Product Measure of Performance at 4 hours after study drug administration. Results Treatment with OROS MPH resulted in statistically significant improvement in Permanent Product Measure of Performance and Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham scores, measures of response time, and of working memory compared to placebo. Other measures did not meet all pre-established criteria for significance (maintenance of the overall type I error rate at 5%). Adverse events were consistent with previous reports of stimulant medications used in the management of ADHD. There were no discontinuations due to adverse events, and no serious adverse events or deaths. Conclusions OROS MPH dosed to reduce core symptoms of ADHD to within the normal range also improved performance on a variety of academic tasks in school-aged children compared to placebo. Adverse effects reported were consistent with prior studies. Clinical Trial Registry Information Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Evaluating the Academic, Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of Concerta on Older Children with ADHD, URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00799409, unique identifier: NCT00799409.
Wigal, Sharon B.; Wigal, Tim; Schuck, Sabrina; Brams, Matthew; Williamson, David; Armstrong, Robert B.
Assessment of genetic influences on behavior depends on context, informants, and study design: We show (analytically) that, conditional on study design, informant specific genetic variance is included in the genetic variance component or in the environmental variance component. To aid the explanation, we present an illustrative empirical analysis of data from the Netherlands Twin Register. Subjects included 1,571 monozygotic and 2,672 dizygotic 12-year-old twin pairs whose attention problems (AP) were rated by their parents, teachers, and themselves. Heritability estimates (h (2)) of AP were about ~0.75 for same informant ratings (mother, father, and same teacher ratings) and ~0.54 for different informants' ratings (different parents', different teachers', and two twins' self-ratings). Awareness of assessment effects is relevant to research into psychiatric disorders. Differences in assessment can account for age effects, such as a drop in heritability of ADHD symptoms. In genome-wide association studies, effects of rating specific genetic influences will be undetectable. PMID:24797406
Kan, Kees-Jan; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I
A good model of a disorder is one that: (a) mimics, although in a simpler form than the full-blown clinical case, the fundamentals of the behavioral characteristics, in this case of people with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD\\/HD; face validity); (b) conforms with a theoretical rationale for the disorder (construct validity); and (c) is able to predict aspects of behavior, genetics and
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) compared with placebo for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the impact on substance treatment outcomes in adolescents concurrently receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders (SUD). Method: This was a…
Riggs, Paula D.; Winhusen, Theresa; Davies, Robert D.; Leimberger, Jeffrey D.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Klein, Constance; Macdonald, Marilyn; Lohman, Michelle; Bailey, Genie L.; Haynes, Louise; Jaffee, William B.; Haminton, Nancy; Hodgkins, Candace; Whitmore, Elizabeth; Trello-Rishel, Kathlene; Tamm, Leanne; Acosta, Michelle C.; Royer-Malvestuto, Charlotte; Subramaniam, Geetha; Fishman, Marc; Holmes, Beverly W.; Kaye, Mary Elyse; Vargo, Mark A.; Woody, George E.; Nunes, Edward V.; Liu, David
Currently behavior modification, stimulant medication, and combined treatments are supported as evidence-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in classroom settings. However, there has been little study of the relative effects of these two modalities and their combination in classrooms. Using a within-subject design, the…
Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran; Garefino, Allison; Keenan, Jenna K.; Onyango, Adia N.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Massetti, Greta M.; Robb, Jessica A.
The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…
Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan
Children with epilepsy are at risk for problems in daytime functioning. We assessed daytime sleepiness, on-task behavior and attention in 17 children (aged between 7 and 11 years) with epilepsy who visited a school for special education and compared these to 17 children from a control group who visited a regular school. Within the group of…
Didden, Robert; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Korzilius, Hubert
The present study aimed a t i dentifying specific brain mechanisms involved in d irecting attention to aud itory c hanges in du ration, frequency and intensity. Behavioral and electrophysiological cerebral responses (ERPs) were obtained in 12 subjects (23-20 years, 2 males) to the occurrence of t ask-irrelevant auditory c hanges during the performance of a visual discrimination task. Subjects
Ma José Corral; Elena Yago; Vanessa Carral; Carles Escera
Various explanations have been offered in the literature on the underlying cause of joint attention deficits in autism. One possible explanation is that children with autism are capable of producing joint attention but lack the social motivation to share their interests with others. The current study used a single-subject reversal design with…
Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association," 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity…
In the current study, we evaluated the effectiveness of attention training in individuals with subclinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We hypothesized that after completing attention training, participants would be more likely to complete steps in a hierarchy approaching their feared contaminant compared to participants in the control condition. Participants completed a probe detection task by identifying letters replacing one member of a pair of words (neutral or contamination-related). We trained attention by building a contingency between the location of the contamination-related word in the active condition and not in the control condition. Participants in the active group showed a significant reduction in attention bias for threat and completed significantly more steps approaching their feared objects compared to participants in the control group. Our results suggest that attention disengagement training may facilitate approaching feared objects in individuals with obsessive-compulsive symptoms.
For effective social interactions with other people, information about the physical environment must be integrated with information about the interaction partner. In order to achieve this, processing of social information is guided by two components: a bottom-up mechanism reflexively triggered by stimulus-related information in the social scene and a top-down mechanism activated by task-related context information. In the present study, we investigated whether these components interact during attentional orienting to gaze direction. In particular, we examined whether the spatial specificity of gaze cueing is modulated by expectations about the reliability of gaze behavior. Expectations were either induced by instruction or could be derived from experience with displayed gaze behavior. Spatially specific cueing effects were observed with highly predictive gaze cues, but also when participants merely believed that actually non-predictive cues were highly predictive. Conversely, cueing effects for the whole gazed-at hemifield were observed with non-predictive gaze cues, and spatially specific cueing effects were attenuated when actually predictive gaze cues were believed to be non-predictive. This pattern indicates that (i) information about cue predictivity gained from sampling gaze behavior across social episodes can be incorporated in the attentional orienting to social cues, and that (ii) beliefs about gaze behavior modulate attentional orienting to gaze direction even when they contradict information available from social episodes.
Wiese, Eva; Wykowska, Agnieszka; Muller, Hermann J.
Abstract This paper examines the phenomenon of stimulus overselectivity, or overselective attention, as it may impact AAC training and use in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Stimulus overselectivity is defined as an atypical limitation in the number of stimuli or stimulus features within an image that are attended to and subsequently learned. Within AAC, the term stimulus could refer to symbols or line drawings on speech-generating devices, drawings or pictures on low-technology systems, and/or the elements within visual scene displays. In this context, overselective attention may result in unusual or uneven error patterns such as confusion between two symbols that share a single feature, or difficulties with transitioning between different types of hardware. We review some of the ways that overselective attention has been studied behaviorally. We then examine how eye tracking technology allows a glimpse into some of the behavioral characteristics of overselective attention. We describe an intervention approach, differential observing responses, that may reduce or eliminate overselectivity, and we consider this type of intervention as it relates to issues of relevance for AAC. PMID:24773053
A number of studies document that physical exercise influences cognitive performance in a variety of ways. Some of these studies present the relationship between the workload of exercise and the activation level of the central nervous system as an inverted-U relationship. Among the factors that could be responsible for diverging results are the participants' individual fitness level and the athletic status. While athletes and non-athletes do not differ in general cognitive skills, athletes are better able to maintain these during physical exercise especially under high exercise intensities. Hence, we hypothesized that the inverted-U function applies for non-athletes but disappears in team sports experts. We compared athletes' and non-athletes' cognitive performance on a measure of attentionalbehavior under three different physical exercise intensities. Results showed an increase of non-athletes' attentional breadth right up to a certain level of maximal aerobic power before decreasing, as expected according to an inverted-U curve. In contrast, athletes' attentional breadth continued to increase with higher physical exercise intensities. We concluded that physical exercise influences participants' attentionalbehavior and that individual fitness acts as a moderator of this relationship. PMID:24747278
Rapidly identifying the potentially threatening movements of other people and objects-biological motion perception and action understanding-is critical to maintaining security in many civilian and military settings. A key approach to improving threat detection in these environments is to sense when less than ideal conditions exist for the human observer, assess that condition relative to an expected standard, and if necessary use tools to augment human performance. Action perception is typically viewed as a relatively "primitive," automatic function immune to top-down effects. However, recent research shows that attention is a top-down factor that has a critical influence on the identification of threat-related targets. In this paper we show that detection of motion-based threats is attention sensitive when surveillance images are obscured by other movements, when they are visually degraded, when other stimuli or tasks compete for attention, or when low-probability threats must be watched for over long periods of time-all features typical of operational security settings. Neuroimaging studies reveal that action understanding recruits a distributed network of brain regions, including the superior temporal cortex, intraparietal cortex, and inferior frontal cortex. Within this network, attention modulates activation of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and middle temporal gyrus. The dorsal frontoparietal network may provide the source of attention-modulation signals to action representation areas. Stimulation of this attention network should therefore enhance threat detection. We show that transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) at 2 mA accelerates perceptual learning of participants performing a challenging threat-detection task. Together, cognitive, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation studies provide converging evidence for the critical role of attention in the detection and understanding of threat-related intentional actions. PMID:23781194
Dysfunctional anger, though not a primary clinical diagnosis per se, does present clinically as a pathological mood for which treatment is sought. Few studies have probed the neurocortical correlates of dysfunctional anger or assessed if cognitive processes, such as attention, are altered in dysfunctional anger. Though dysfunctional and high trait anger appears to be associated with biased processing of anger-eliciting information, few studies have examined if dysfunctional anger modulates attention more generally. This is a notable gap as volitional attention control is associated with effective emotive regulation, which is impaired in dysfunctional anger and in associated acts of aggression. In this pilot study, we examined performance and electroencephalographic (EEG) profiles during a 12-min continuous performance task (CPT) of sustained attention in 15 adults with dysfunctional anger (Anger group) and 14 controls (control group). The Anger group had fewer hits at the end of the CPT, which correlated with decreased frontocortical activation, suggesting decreased engagement of frontal circuits when attention is taxed. The Anger group had more false alarms overall indicating impaired response inhibition. Increased right cortical activation during the initial portion of CPT existed in the Anger group, perhaps reflecting greater engagement of frontal circuits (i.e. effort) during initial stages of the task compared to controls. Finally, increased overall beta? power, suggesting increased cortical activation, was noted in the Anger group. These EEG patterns suggest a hypervigilant state in dysfunctional anger, which may interfere with effective attention control and decrease inhibition. Such impairments likely extend beyond the laboratory setting, and may associate with aggressive acts in real life. PMID:22969037
This article shares how the author explained her trans status to her students. Everyone has been extremely supportive of her decision to come out inclass and to completely mask the male secondary-sex characteristics, especially in the workplace. The department chair and the faculty in general have been willing to do whatever they can to assist…
Children participating in the Ben-Gurion Infant Development Study were assessed with a dynamic-tracking version of the stop-signal task at the age of 5 years. The sample consisted of 60 males. Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was correlated with concurrent ratings of the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms.…
To study the nature of the comorbidity of tic disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), patients with tic disorder with or without ADHD were compared on the basis of clinical ratings and neuropsychologic tests. Seventy-eight children were involved in this study: 16 with tic disorder, 19 with comorbid tic disorder and ADHD, 21 with ADHD, and 22 normal controls. Rating
The main objective of the present study was to characterize sex differences in the temporal discrimination and activity level of an animal model of attention deficit disorder (ADD) using a conjunctive 120-s variable interval 16-s differential reinforcement of low rate (VIDRL) schedule of reinforcement. The results showed that the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) male was generally hyperactive and that the SHR
Comorbidity with other psychological problems (PP) complicates the course of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and makes treatment more difficult. The purpose of the present study was to (a) study the correspondence between the perceptions of parents and teachers about PP, (b) determine which PP predict the severity of the…
Children with ADHD are characterized frequently as possessing underdeveloped executive functions and sustained attentional abilities, and recent commercial claims suggest that computer-based cognitive training can remediate these impairments and provide significant and lasting improvement in their attention, impulse control, social functioning, academic performance, and complex reasoning skills. The present review critically evaluates these claims through meta-analysis of 25 studies of facilitative intervention training (i.e., cognitive training) for children with ADHD. Random effects models corrected for publication bias and sampling error revealed that studies training short-term memory alone resulted in moderate magnitude improvements in short-term memory (d=0.63), whereas training attention did not significantly improve attention and training mixed executive functions did not significantly improve the targeted executive functions (both nonsignificant: 95% confidence intervals include 0.0). Far transfer effects of cognitive training on academic functioning, blinded ratings of behavior (both nonsignificant), and cognitive tests (d=0.14) were nonsignificant or negligible. Unblinded raters (d=0.48) reported significantly larger benefits relative to blinded raters and objective tests (both p<.05), indicating the likelihood of Hawthorne effects. Critical examination of training targets revealed incongruence with empirical evidence regarding the specific executive functions that are (a) most impaired in ADHD, and (b) functionally related to the behavioral and academic outcomes these training programs are intended to ameliorate. Collectively, meta-analytic results indicate that claims regarding the academic, behavioral, and cognitive benefits associated with extant cognitive training programs are unsupported in ADHD. The methodological limitations of the current evidence base, however, leave open the possibility that cognitive training techniques designed to improve empirically documented executive function deficits may benefit children with ADHD. PMID:24120258
Rapport, Mark D; Orban, Sarah A; Kofler, Michael J; Friedman, Lauren M
... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...
Human observers can selectively allocate processing resources to different areas of the visual field within a single fixation. This spatial attention system may affect either the quality of information extraction or the decisions and responses based on this information. This paper reviews evidence from behavioral, single-unit, and event-related potential paradigms; the evidence suggests a relatively “early” locus of spatial attention.
This brief paper summarizes information on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). First it identifies eight common characteristics of this disorder: (1) inattentiveness and distractibility, (2) impulsiveness, (3) hyperactivity, (4) attention-demanding behavior, (5) learning difficulties, (6) coordination difficulties, (7) unacceptable…
The current study examined competing predictions of the working memory and behavioral inhibition models of ADHD. Behavioral inhibition was measured using a conventional stop-signal task, and central executive, phonological, and visuospatial working memory components (Baddeley 2007) were assessed in 14 children with ADHD and 13 typically developing…
Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Hudec, Kristen L.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.
This study examines the effectiveness of symptom validity measures to detect suspect effort in cognitive testing and invalid completion of ADHD behavior rating scales in 268 adults referred for ADHD assessment. Patients were diagnosed with ADHD based on cognitive testing, behavior rating scales, and clinical interview. Suspect effort was diagnosed by at least two of the following: failure on embedded
Paul Marshall; Ryan Schroeder; Jeffrey O’Brien; Rebecca Fischer; Adam Ries; Brita Blesi; Jessica Barker
A convergence of research has established that attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a valid clinical syndrome\\u000a affecting individuals of all ages. ADHD is associated with significant impairment in many important life domains that often\\u000a requires clinical intervention. Although medications are a well-researched and effective first-line treatment option, many\\u000a adult patients with ADHD continue to experience significant functional impairment despite the symptom
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback...
Objective Deficient emotional self regulation (DESR) is characterized by deficits in self-regulating the physiological arousal caused by strong emotions. We examined whether a unique profile of the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL) would help identify DESR in children with Attention- Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods Subjects were 197 children with and 224 without ADHD. We defined DESR if a child had an aggregate cut-off score of > 180 but < 210 on the Anxiety/Depression, Aggression, and Attention scales of the CBCL (CBCL-DESR). This profile was selected because of 1) its conceptual congruence with the clinical concept of DESR and 2) because its extreme (>210) form had been previously associated with severe forms of mood and behavioral dysregulation in children with ADHD. All subjects were comprehensively assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and a wide range of functional measures. Results Forty four percent of children with ADHD had a positive CBCL- DESR profile vs. 2% of controls (p<0.001). The CBCL-DESR profile was associated with elevated rates of anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders, as well as significantly more impairments in emotional and interpersonal functioning. Conclusions The CBCL-DESR profile helped identify a subgroup of ADHD children with a psychopathological and functional profile consistent with the clinical concept of DESR.
Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V.; Surman, Craig B.H.; Petty, Carter; Clarke, Allison; Batchelder, Holly; Wozniak, Janet; Biederman, Joseph
The current study examined competing predictions of the working memory and behavioral inhibition models of ADHD. Behavioral inhibition was measured using a conventional stop-signal task, and central executive, phonological, and visuospatial working memory components (Baddeley 2007) were assessed in 14 children with ADHD and 13 typically developing (TD) children. Bootstrapped mediation analyses revealed that the visuospatial working memory system and central executive both mediated the relationship between group membership (ADHD, TD) and stop-signal task performance. Conversely, stop-signal task performance mediated the relationship between group membership and central executive processes, but was unable to account for the phonological and visuospatial storage/rehearsal deficits consistently found in children with ADHD. Comparison of effect size estimates for both models suggested that working memory deficits may underlie impaired stop-signal task performance in children with ADHD. The current findings therefore challenge existing models of ADHD that describe behavioral inhibition as a core deficit of the disorder. PMID:20140491
Alderson, R Matt; Rapport, Mark D; Hudec, Kristen L; Sarver, Dustin E; Kofler, Michael J
Objective: The present study examined the role of negative emotions on driving performance in relation to ADHD, by comparing young adults scoring high on measures of ADHD (n = 20) with a control group (n = 22). Method: The authors used cardiorespiratory physiological measures, simulated driving behavior, and self-report to examine how participants…
Oliver, Michele L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Cassavaugh, Nicholas D.; Backs, Richard W.
We present the case for a role of biologically plausible neural network modeling in bridging the gap between physiology and behavior. We argue that spiking-level networks can allow "vertical" translation between physiological properties of neural systems and emergent "whole-system" performance--enabling psychological results to be simulated from…
Emerging evidence suggests that some individuals may be simultaneously more responsive to the effects from environmental adversity "and" enrichment (i.e., differential susceptibility). Given that parenting behavior and a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3'untranslated region of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene…
The latest studies have adopted software technology which turns the Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, we assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulus through limb action. This study extends the functionality of the Wii Remote Controller to the correction of limb hyperactive behavior to assess whether two children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) would be able to actively reduce their limb hyperactive behavior through controlling their favorite stimuli by turning them on/off using a Wii Remote Controller. An ABAB design, in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases, was adopted in this study. Result showed that both participants significantly increased their time duration of maintaining a static limb posture (TDMSLP) to activate the control system in order to produce environmental stimulation in the intervention phases. Practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21444191
In our clinical practice, we have had good experiences with venlafaxine in the treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD)-like symptoms in patients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), and we report here three cases of possible therapeutic response: (A) a 17-year-old boy with autism and severe behavioral symptoms, including aggression toward self or property, SIB and hyperactivity, who appeared to respond to low-dose venlafaxine (18.75 mg/day); (B) a 23-year-old woman with autism hyperactivity who appeared to respond to low-dose venlafaxine (18.75 mg/day); (C) a 17-year-old girl with autism hyperactivity who appeared to respond to low-dose venlafaxine (18.75 mg/day). Follow-ups occurred respectively 18, 36 and 6 months after treatment initiation, making it possible to observe the stability of the clinical improvement in these cases. PMID:16307837
We used a multiple baseline across subjects design to investigate the effects of self-monitoring on the on-task behavior and spelling accuracy of three fifth-grade students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during an independent spelling practice period in the general education environment. We also compared their on-task levels to that of peers without disabilities in the same classroom context before and after the self-monitoring intervention. Our results showed that time on-task and spelling accuracy increased for the students diagnosed with ADHD during independent spelling practice after the teacher taught them how to self-monitor. These same students' on-task behavior also increased to levels comparable to that of their peers. Suggestions for educators interested in teaching their students self-monitoring strategies are included following a discussion of the results of the analysis.
Rafferty, Lisa A; Arroyo, Jenna; Ginnane, Shaunna; Wilczynski, Kelly
Objective Emerging evidence suggests that some individuals may be simultaneously more responsive to the effects from environmental adversity and enrichment (i.e., differential susceptibility). Given that parenting behavior and a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3?untranslated region of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene are each independently associated with ADHD, our goal was to evaluate the potential interactive effects of child DAT1 genotype with positive and negative parenting behaviors on childhood ADHD. Method We recruited an ethnically-diverse sample of 150 six to nine year-old boys and girls with and without ADHD. Children were genotyped for a common polymorphism of the DAT1 gene, and objective counts of observed parenting behavior (i.e., negativity and praise) were obtained from a valid parent-child interaction task. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the interactive effects of DAT1 and observed parenting with a latent ADHD factor. Results We detected a significant interaction between observed praise and child DAT1 (coded additively) which suggested that praise was associated with increased ADHD, but only among youth with the 9/10 genotype. In addition, a marginally significant interaction between DAT1 (coded additively and recessively) and observed negativity emerged for ADHD, such that negativity was positively associated with ADHD but only for youth with the 9/9 genotype. Conclusions Although differential susceptibility theory was not fully supported, These preliminary results suggest that interactive exchanges between parenting behavior and child genotype potentially contribute to the development of ADHD. Clinical implications for interactions between parenting behavior and child genotype are discussed.
Children participating in the Ben-Gurion Infant Development Study were assessed with a dynamic-tracking version of the stop-signal task at the age of 5 years. The sample consisted of 60 males. Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was correlated with concurrent ratings of the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Paternal symptoms measured in the child's early infancy predicted the child's performance in the stop-signal task: Paternal inattentiveness predicted SSRT, whereas hyperactivity predicted error proportion. Maternal symptoms were not correlated with the performance of the child in the task. A subsample of children, who were tested while electrophysiological brain activity was measured, showed that having higher ADHD symptomatology, especially hyperactivity, correlated with less activity in the brain areas that are usually recruited by children for successful inhibition. PMID:23448499
We examined associations between children’s peer relationships and (a) their parents’ social competence as well as (b) their\\u000a parents’ behaviors during the children’s peer interactions. Participants were families of 124 children ages 6–10 (68% male),\\u000a 62 with ADHD and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison youth. Children’s peer relationships were assessed via parent and teacher\\u000a report, and sociometric nominations in a
Amori Yee Mikami; Allison Jack; Christina C. Emeh; Haley F. Stephens
Homework, or practice of skills learned in treatment, is a critical component of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). However,\\u000a no matter how much effort clients put into their therapy homework, this effort can only be useful if adherence to homework\\u000a is related to improvement in symptoms. Although homework adherence (the extent to which clients practice skills learned in\\u000a therapy outside of sessions)
Abstract Cross-etiology comparisons provide important information that can help practitioners establish criteria for differential diagnosis and tailor interventions towards the source of children's difficulties. This study examined the extent to which parent rating scales of socioemotional behavioral difficulties differentiate cases of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from cases of specific language impairment (SLI), and typical development (TD). Parents of 60 children (7-8?years) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) and the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised (Conners, 2004). Significant differences were observed between ratings provided for the children with ADHD and the children with SLI and TD across several scales which assessed behavioral and emotional difficulties. Most of the observed differences between ratings provided for the SLI and TD groups were not significant when nonverbal IQ was treated as a covariate or when syndrome scales were adjusted for the presence of language and academic items. In contrast, these adjustments had little impact on observed differences between the children with ADHD and the other groups. These results highlight important and clinically useful differences between the scope and the scale of socioemotional behavior difficulties associated with ADHD and SLI. PMID:24456478
Cross-etiology comparisons provide important information that can help practitioners establish criteria for differential diagnosis and tailor interventions towards the source of children’s difficulties. This study examined the extent to which parent rating scales of socioemotional behavioral difficulties differentiate cases of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from cases of specific language impairment (SLI), and typical development (TD). Parents of 60 children (7–8?years) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) and the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised (Conners, 2004). Significant differences were observed between ratings provided for the children with ADHD and the children with SLI and TD across several scales which assessed behavioral and emotional difficulties. Most of the observed differences between ratings provided for the SLI and TD groups were not significant when nonverbal IQ was treated as a covariate or when syndrome scales were adjusted for the presence of language and academic items. In contrast, these adjustments had little impact on observed differences between the children with ADHD and the other groups. These results highlight important and clinically useful differences between the scope and the scale of socioemotional behavior difficulties associated with ADHD and SLI.
Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral effects of four doses of psychostimulant medication, combining extended-release methylphenidate (MPH) in the morning with immediate-release MPH in the afternoon. Method The sample comprised 24 children (19 boys; 5 girls) who met American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and had significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This sample consisted of elementary school-age, community-based children (mean chronological age=8.8 years, SD=1.7; mean intelligence quotient [IQ]=85; SD=16.8). Effects of four dose levels of MPH on parent and teacher behavioral ratings were investigated using a within-subject, crossover, placebo-controlled design. Results MPH treatment was associated with significant declines in hyperactive and impulsive behavior at both home and school. Parents noted significant declines in inattentive and oppositional behavior, and improvements in social skills. No exacerbation of stereotypies was noted, and side effects were similar to those seen in typically developing children with ADHD. Dose response was primarily linear in the dose range studied. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that MPH formulations are efficacious and well-tolerated for children with ASD and significant ADHD symptoms.
Santos, Cynthia W.; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Casat, Charles D.; Mansour, Rosleen; Lane, David M.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Jerger, Susan W.; Factor, Perry; Vanwoerden, Salome; Perez, Evelyn; Cleveland, Lynne A.
The present study evaluated the utility of the Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome for Children for discerning differences in executive functioning between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children and normal controls and examined its associations with real-life executive function as rated by parent reports on the Dysexecutive Questionnaire for Children. Sixty-three children diagnosed with ADHD and 60 normal healthy peers were recruited for this study. All participants completed the Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome for Children, while their parents completed the Dysexecutive Questionnaire for Children. Results revealed that the ADHD group exhibited significantly poorer performance than the controls on 3 subtests of the Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome for Children (ie, Playing Cards Test, Water Test, and Zoo Map Test 2), as well as on the total Dysexecutive Questionnaire for Children. Significant correlation was found between the total Dysexecutive Questionnaire for Children and the 6-Part Test. Findings suggested that some subtests of the Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome for Children were particularly useful for detecting real-life executive dysfunction in ADHD. Yet, further studies are needed to provide extended validity data. PMID:24453147
Cognitive impairment associated with prefrontal cortical dysfunction is a major component of disability in traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors. Specifically, deficits of cognitive flexibility and attentional set-shifting are present across all levels of injury severity. Though alterations in spatial learning have been extensively described in experimental models of TBI, studies investigating more complex cognitive deficits are relatively scarce. Hence, the aim of this preclinical study was to expand on this important issue by evaluating the effect of three injury levels on executive function and behavioral flexibility performance as assessed using an attentional set-shifting test (AST). Isoflurane-anesthetized male rats received a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury (2.6, 2.8, and 3.0 mm cortical depth at 4 m/sec) or sham injury, whereas an additional group had no surgical manipulation (naïve). Four weeks postsurgery, rats were tested on the AST, which involved a series of discriminative tasks of increasing difficulty, such as simple and compound discriminations, stimulus reversals, and intra- and extradimensional (ED) shifts. TBI produced accompanying impact depth-dependent increases in cortical lesion volumes, with the 3.0-mm cortical depth group displaying significantly larger injury volumes than the 2.6-mm group (p=0.05). Further, injury severity-induced deficits in ED set-shifting and stimulus reversals, as well as increases in total response error rates and total set loss errors, were observed. These novel findings demonstrate executive function and behavioral flexibility deficits in our animal model of CCI injury and provide the impetus to integrate the AST in the standard neurotrauma behavioral battery to further evaluate cognitive dysfunction after TBI. Ongoing experiments in our laboratory are assessing AST performance after pharmacological and rehabilitative therapies post-TBI, as well as elucidating possible mechanisms underlying the observed neuropsychological deficits. PMID:24397572
Bondi, Corina O; Cheng, Jeffrey P; Tennant, Heather M; Monaco, Christina M; Kline, Anthony E
Cognitive deficits represent a core symptom cluster in schizophrenia that are thought to reflect developmental dysregulations within a neural system involving the ventral hippocampus (VH), nucleus accumbens (NAC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present experiments determined the cognitive effects of transiently inactivating VH in rats during a sensitive period of development. Neonatal (postnatal day 7, PD7) and adolescent (PD32) male rats received a single bilateral infusion of saline or tetrodotoxin (TTX) within the VH to transiently inactivate local circuitry and efferent outflow. Rats were tested as adults on an attentional set-shifting task. Performance in this task depends upon the integrity of the PFC and NAC. TTX infusions did not affect the initial acquisition or ability to learn an intra-dimensional shift. However, TTX rats required a greater number of trials than did controls to acquire the first reversal and extra-dimensional shift (ED) stages. These impairments were age and region-specific as rats infused with TTX into the VH at PD32, or into the dorsal hippocampus at PD7, exhibited performance in the task similar to that of controls. Finally, acute systemic administration of the partial ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist SSR 180711 (3.0?mg/kg) eliminated the TTX-induced performance deficits. Given that patients with schizophrenia exhibit hippocampal pathophysiology and deficits in the ED stages of set-shifting tasks, our results support the significance of transient hippocampal inactivation as an animal model for studying the cognitive impairments in schizophrenia as well as the pro-cognitive therapeutic potential of ?7 nAChR agonists.
Brooks, Julie M; Pershing, Michelle L; Thomsen, Morten S; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Sarter, Martin; Bruno, John P
Most studies of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) youth have obtained data from the perspective of either children or parents, but not both simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent perspectives on parenting in a large community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. We identified children in grades 4-6 and their parents through surveys administered to a random sample of public schools. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent associations between child and parent characteristics and the presence of ADHD while controlling for covariates and clustering by school. Sufficient data were achieved for 2,509 child/parent dyads. Ten percent of youths (n = 240) had been diagnosed with ADHD. Compared with those without ADHD, those with ADHD were more commonly male (67.9 vs. 48.0 %, p < .001) and age 12 or over (16.3 vs. 10.3 %). After adjusting for covariates and clustering, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD were significantly more likely to report lower self-regulation (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI = 0.53, 0.88) and higher levels of rebelliousness (OR = 2.00, 95 % CI = 1.52, 2.69). Compared with parents whose children did not have ADHD, parents of children with ADHD rated their overall parental efficacy substantially lower (OR = 0.23, 95 % CI = 0.15, 0.33). However, child assessment of parenting style was similar by ADHD. Despite the internal challenges community-based youth with ADHD face, many parents of ADHD youth exhibit valuable parental skills from the perspective of their children. Feedback of this information to parents may improve parental self-efficacy, which is known to be positively associated with improved ADHD outcomes. PMID:22886756
Primack, Brian A; Hendricks, Kristy M; Longacre, Meghan R; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Weiss, Julia E; Titus, Linda J; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A
It is unclear whether adult smokers with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder history (CH) have more severe smoking behavior than non-CH smokers, while it is clearly suggested that CH adolescents have more severe smoking behavior than CH adolescents. The aim of the present comprehensive meta-analysis is to determine whether CH smokers have more severe smoking behavior characteristics than those without and the effect of age on the association between CH and smoking behavior. We included all case-control studies and first round data collection of observational studies addressing the difference in smoking behavior characteristics of CH smokers versus non-CH smokers, with validated scales or structured interviews, without any language or date restriction. Nine studies (including 365 smokers with CH and 1,708 smokers without) were included. Compared to non-CH smokers, CH smokers smoked significantly more cigarettes [standardized mean differences (SMD) = 0.15, 95 % CI 0.01-0.28, p = 0.04] and began to regularly smoke earlier (SMD = -0.28, 95 % CI -0.49; -0.07, p = 0.01) but were not significantly more nicotine dependent (SMD = 0.23, 95 % CI -0.04 to 0.48, p = 0.08). After removing the single adolescent study, the significant association between CH and number of daily smoked cigarettes disappeared, and subgroups analyses confirmed that the significant association between CH and number of daily smoked cigarettes disappeared as age increased. Our meta-analysis illustrates a clinically important link between CH and tobacco smoking in adolescence but not later in life. Further high-quality studies are needed to confirm this finding, as only two studies included participants with a mean age below 20 years. PMID:24619241
Background Expressed Emotions (EE) are associated with oppositional behavior (OPB) in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). EE has been linked to altered stress responses in some disorders, but ADHD has not been studied. We test the hypothesis that OPB in ADHD is mediated by altered stress-related cortisol reactivity to EE. Methods Two groups of children (with/without ADHD) and their respective parents were randomly assigned to two different conditions with/without negative emotion and participated in an emotion provocation task. Parents' EE, their ratings of their children's OPB and their children's salivary cortisol levels were measured. Results Low parental warmth was associated with OPB in ADHD. High levels of parental EE elicited a larger cortisol response. Stress-related cortisol reactivity mediated the EE-OPB link for all children. This highlights the general importance of parent-child interactions on externalizing behavior problems. Conclusion High EE is a salient stressor for ADHD children that leads to increased levels of cortisol and OPB. The development of OPB might be mediated by the stress-response to high EE.
During social interactions, people’s eyes convey a wealth of information about their direction of attention and their emotional and mental states. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of past and current research into the perception of gaze behavior and its effect on the observer. This encompasses the perception of gaze direction and its influence on perception of the other person, as well as gaze-following behavior such as joint attention, in infant, adult, and clinical populations. Particular focus is given to the gaze-cueing paradigm that has been used to investigate the mechanisms of joint attention. The contribution of this paradigm has been significant and will likely continue to advance knowledge across diverse fields within psychology and neuroscience.
Frischen, Alexandra; Bayliss, Andrew P.; Tipper, Steven P.
Fifty preschoolers participated in this study. Twenty-five preschoolers classified as ADHD were matched with 25 typically developing preschoolers, and assessed using three tests of attention (two vigilance tests, one visual-search test). Their behavior exhibited during these attention tests was also assessed. Compared to their peers, preschoolers classified as ADHD exhibited significantly more omission and commission errors on the visual attention test. On the visual-search attention test, preschoolers classified as ADHD exhibited significantly more commission errors, and they took significantly longer to complete it. They did not exhibit significantly more omission or commission errors on the auditory attention test. The preschoolers classified as ADHD were also more vocal, more often off-task and out-of-seat, and they required more adult redirectives to return to task. Discussion is focused on the clinical value of developmentally appropriate attention tests and behavioral observation systems in the early clinical assessment of attention in very young children. PMID:10806460
This study investigated two methods for establishing a systematic, selective, attending strategy in a memory task for children. One method was direct training of a specific strategy, employing instructions, fading, modeling, and prompts to direct the child's attention to the relevant features and to organize systematic looking behavior. The second…
A major problem for developmental science is understanding how the cognitive and emotional networks important in carrying out mental processes can be related to individual differences. The last five years have seen major advances in establishing links between alleles of specific genes and the neural networks underlying aspects of attention. These…
Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.
Despite a growing acceptance that attention and memory interact, and that attention can be focused on an active internal mental representation (i.e., reflective attention), there has been a paucity of work focusing on reflective attention to 'sound objects' (i.e., mental representations of actual sound sources in the environment). Further research on the dynamic interactions between auditory attention and memory, as well as its degree of neuroplasticity, is important for understanding how sound objects are represented, maintained, and accessed in the brain. This knowledge can then guide the development of training programs to help individuals with attention and memory problems. This review article focuses on attention to memory with an emphasis on behavioral and neuroimaging studies that have begun to explore the mechanisms that mediate reflective attentional orienting in vision and more recently, in audition. Reflective attention refers to situations in which attention is oriented toward internal representations rather than focused on external stimuli. We propose four general principles underlying attention to short-term memory. Furthermore, we suggest that mechanisms involved in orienting attention to visual object representations may also apply for orienting attention to sound object representations. PMID:24352689
The social cognitive capacities of dogs, including their communication skills and use of visual attention cues, have recently\\u000a been investigated in numerous experimental studies. This paper reports on research of domestic dog behavior in a natural setting,\\u000a which shows sensitivity to the visual attention of their partners when engaged in dyadic rough-and-tumble play. The sequential\\u000a behaviors and head-direction of both
Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive behavioral and cognitive profile, including widespread problems with attention. However, the specific nature of their attentional difficulties, such as inappropriate attentional allocation and/or poor attentional disengagement abilities, has yet to be…
Lense, Miriam D.; Key, Alexandra P.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.
Auditory sensory modulation difficulties and problems with automatic re-orienting to sound are well documented in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal preattentive arousal processes may contribute to these deficits. In this study, we investigated components of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) reflecting preattentive arousal in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children aged 3-8 years. Pairs of clicks (‘S1’ and ‘S2’) separated by a 1 sec S1-S2 interstimulus interval (ISI) and much longer (8-10 sec) S1-S1 ISIs were presented monaurally to either the left or right ear. In TD children, the P50, P100 and N1c CAEP components were strongly influenced by temporal novelty of clicks and were much greater in response to the S1 than the S2 click. Irrespective of the stimulation side, the ‘tangential’ P100 component was rightward lateralized in TD children, whereas the ‘radial’ N1c component had higher amplitude contralaterally to the stimulated ear. Compared to the TD children, children with ASD demonstrated 1) reduced amplitude of the P100 component under the condition of temporal novelty (S1) and 2) an attenuated P100 repetition suppression effect. The abnormalities were lateralized and depended on the presentation side. They were evident in the case of the left but not the right ear stimulation. The P100 abnormalities in ASD correlated with the degree of developmental delay and with the severity of auditory sensory modulation difficulties observed in early life. The results suggest that some rightward-lateralized brain networks that are crucially important for arousal and attention re-orienting are compromised in children with ASD and that this deficit contributes to sensory modulation difficulties and possibly even other behavioral deficits in ASD.
Stroganova, Tatiana A.; Kozunov, Vladimir V.; Posikera, Irina N.; Galuta, Ilia A.; Gratchev, Vitaliy V.; Orekhova, Elena V.
Regions of frontal and posterior parietal cortex are known to control the allocation of spatial attention across the visual field. However, the neural mechanisms underlying attentional control in the intact human brain remain unclear, with some studies supporting a hemispatial theory emphasizing a dominant function of the right hemisphere and others supporting an interhemispheric competition theory. We previously found neural evidence to support the latter account, in which topographically organized frontoparietal areas each generate a spatial bias, or “attentional weight,” toward the contralateral hemifield, with the sum of the weights constituting the overall bias that can be exerted across visual space. Here, we used a multimodal approach consisting of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of spatial attention signals, behavioral measures of spatial bias, and fMRI-guided single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to causally test this interhemispheric competition account. Across the group of fMRI subjects, we found substantial individual differences in the strengths of the frontoparietal attentional weights in each hemisphere, which predicted subjects’ respective behavioral preferences when allocating spatial attention, as measured by a landmark task. Using TMS to interfere with attentional processing within specific topographic frontoparietal areas, we then demonstrated that the attentional weights of individual subjects, and thus their spatial attentionbehavior, could be predictably shifted toward one visual field or the other, depending on the site of interference. The results of our multimodal approach, combined with an emphasis on neural and behavioral individual differences, provide compelling evidence that spatial attention is controlled through competitive interactions between hemispheres rather than a dominant right hemisphere in the intact human brain.
Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility inclasses and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…
This paper proposes a gaze-communicative stuffed-toy robot system with joint attention and eye-contact reactions based on ambient gaze-tracking. For free and natural interaction, we adopted our remote gaze-tracking method. Corresponding to the user's gaze, the gaze-reactive stuffed-toy robot is designed to gradually establish 1) joint attention using the direction of the robot's head and 2) eye-contact reactions from several sets
BACKGROUND: Low serotonergic (5-HT) activity correlates with increased impulsive-aggressive behavior, while the opposite association may apply to cognitive impulsiveness. Both types of impulsivity are associated with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and genes of functional significance for the 5-HT system are implicated in this disorder. Here we demonstrate the separation of aggressive and cognitive components of impulsivity from symptom ratings and test
Robert D. Oades; Jessica Lasky-Su; Hanna Christiansen; Stephen V. Faraone; Edmund J. S. Sonuga-Barke; Tobias Banaschewski; Wai Chen; Richard J. L. Anney; Jan K. Buitelaar; Richard P. Ebstein; Barbara Franke; Michael Gill; Ana Miranda; Herbert Roeyers; Aribert Rothenberger; Joseph A. Sergeant; Hans-Christoph Steinhausen; Eric A. Taylor; Margaret Thompson; Philip Asherson
In experimental models, prenatal cocaine exposure has been found to perturb monoaminergic development of systems implicated in modulating attention. To determine whether prenatal cocaine exposure affects infant attention, we assessed visual recognition memory and focused attention during free play. We enrolled at birth 380 infants, 113 cocaine exposed, using multiple biomarkers to assess drug exposure. Behavior was videotaped and coded
Claudia A. Chiriboga; Denise Starr; Louise Kuhn; Gail A. Wasserman
Affective modulation of attentional switching may have developed early in evolution and may therefore have primacy over other affective influences. This behavioral study investigated the influence of affect on attentional switching between emotionally neutral stimuli, whether limited-capacity control processes are involved, and whether attentional flexibility should be distinguished from attentional broadening. Experiment 1 showed that suboptimally presented happy faces facilitated switching from an automatized response routine, whereas angry faces had the opposite effect. In Experiment 2, participants with a dominant global (i.e., broad) or local (i.e., narrow) spatial bias switched more easily to the opposite bias after suboptimal happy faces than after neutral primes but less easily after angry faces. Affective modulation of attentional switching was probably incorporated during evolution in many more complex forms of information processing. PMID:23858953
Heerebout, Bram T; Todorovi?, Ana; Smedinga, Hilde E; Phaf, R Hans
Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review focuses on the ways in which animal models are used to better understand the neuronal mechanism of attention and how to develop new therapeutic treatments for attentional impairment. Several behavioral test methods have been developed for experimental animal studies of attention, including a 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), a signal detection task (SDT), and a novel object recognition (NOR) test. These tasks can be used together with genetic, lesion, pharmacological and behavioral models of attentional impairment to test the efficacy of novel therapeutic treatments. The most prominent genetic model is the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Well-characterized lesion models include frontal cortical or hippocampal lesions. Pharmacological models include challenge with the NMDA glutamate antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801), the nicotinic cholinergic antagonist mecamylamine and the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist scopolamine. Behavioral models include distracting stimuli and attenuated target stimuli. Important validation of these behavioral tests and models of attentional impairments for developing effective treatments for attentional dysfunction is the fact that stimulant treatments effective for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), such as methylphenidate (Ritalin®), are effective in the experimental animal models. Newer lines of treatment including nicotinic agonists, ?4?2 nicotinic receptor desensitizers, and histamine H? antagonists, have also been found to be effective in improving attention in these animal models. Good carryover has also been seen for the attentional improvement caused by nicotine in experimental animal models and in human populations. Animal models of attention can be effectively used for the development of new treatments of attentional impairment in ADHD and other syndromes in which have attentional impairments occur, such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:21334367
Levin, Edward D; Bushnell, Philip J; Rezvani, Amir H
The current study examined the incremental utility of rating scales, a structured diagnostic interview, and multiple informants in a comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample included 185 children with ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.22, SD = 0.95) and 82 children without ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.24, SD =…
Recent research suggests that symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may begin to emerge in children at a very young age. Given that early onset is associated with more deleterious outcomes, early intervention is imperative. In the current study, we evaluated the effectiveness of two different interventions with children aged 3-5…
Kern, Lee; DuPaul, George J.; Volpe, Robert J.; Sokol, Natalie G.; Lutz, J. Gary; Arbolino, Lauren A.; Pipan, Mary; VanBrakle, John D.
Examined effects of ethnic background on group interaction and student-teacher relations by observing 273 Turkish, Surinam, and Dutch 4-year olds and their teachers in 29 Dutch schools. Found Turkish and Surinam pupils were less involved in group activities than Dutch children and, in play situations, teachers appeared to give more attention to…
Children are diagnosed with AD/HD more often than any other disorder and interventions are needed in schools to increase on-task behavior. Most studies examining on-task behavior are conducted in special education classrooms or clinical laboratories. Previous studies have not combined video self-modeling and self-monitoring as an intervention to…
Using a sample of 268 patients and 137 community-based children with DSM-IV ADHD, and 268 school controls, aged 6-15, this study aimed to compare the emotional/behavioral problems and functional impairment between clinic- and community-based children with ADHD. Children's ADHD-related symptoms, a wide range of emotional/behavioral problems, and…
The behavioral phenomena of sensory attention are thought to reflect the allocation of a limited processing resource, but there is little consensus on the nature of the resource or why it should be limited. Here we argue that a fundamental bottleneck emerges naturally within Bayesian models of perception, and use this observation to frame a new computational account of the need for, and action of, attention – unifying diverse attentional phenomena in a way that goes beyond previous inferential, probabilistic and Bayesian models. Attentional effects are most evident in cluttered environments, and include both selective phenomena, where attention is invoked by cues that point to particular stimuli, and integrative phenomena, where attention is invoked dynamically by endogenous processing. However, most previous Bayesian accounts of attention have focused on describing relatively simple experimental settings, where cues shape expectations about a small number of upcoming stimuli and thus convey “prior” information about clearly defined objects. While operationally consistent with the experiments it seeks to describe, this view of attention as prior seems to miss many essential elements of both its selective and integrative roles, and thus cannot be easily extended to complex environments. We suggest that the resource bottleneck stems from the computational intractability of exact perceptual inference in complex settings, and that attention reflects an evolved mechanism for approximate inference which can be shaped to refine the local accuracy of perception. We show that this approach extends the simple picture of attention as prior, so as to provide a unified and computationally driven account of both selective and integrative attentional phenomena.
The relationship of gestural joint attentionbehaviors and the development of effective communication skills in autism and developmental language delay (DLD) was investigated. Autistic and DLD children matched for MA and MLU were compared on measures of gestural joint attentionbehavior, personal pronoun use, and spontaneous communicative behavior. DLD children responded correctly to joint attention interactions more often than autistic
No matter how hard subjects concentrate on a task, their minds wander (Raichle et al., 2001; Buckner et al., 2008; Christoff et al., 2009; Killingsworth and Gilbert, 2010). Internal fluctuations cannot be measured behaviorally or from conventional neurophysiological measures, so their effects on performance have been difficult to study. Previously, we measured fluctuations in visual attention using the responses of populations of simultaneously recorded neurons in macaque visual cortex (Cohen and Maunsell, 2010). Here, we use this ability to investigate how attentional fluctuations affect performance. We found that attentional fluctuations have large and complex effects on performance, the sign of which depends on the difficulty of the perceptual judgment. As expected, attention greatly improves the detection of subtle changes in a stimulus. Surprisingly, we found that attending too strongly to a particular stimulus impairs the ability to notice when that stimulus changes dramatically. Our results suggest that all previously reported measures of behavioral performance should be viewed as amalgamations of different attentional states, whether or not those studies specifically addressed attention. PMID:22049423
Observers often miss the 2nd of 2 visual targets (first target [T1] and second target [T2]) when these targets are presented closely in time; the attentional blink (AB). The authors hypothesized that the AB occurs because the attentional response to T2 is delayed by T1 processing, causing T2 to lose a competition for attention to the item that…
Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Chun, Marvin M.; van der Lubbe, Rob H. J.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.
Attention Process Training (APT), a hierarchical, multilevel treatment program, was designed to remediate attention deficits in brain-injured persons. The program incorporates current theories in the experimental attention literature. Four brain-injured subjects, varying widely in both etiology of injury and time post onset, underwent intensive cognitive remediation including 5 to 10 weeks of specific attention training. Results are displayed using a single subject multiple baseline across behaviors design. All four subjects demonstrated significant gains in attention following the initiation of attention training. Remediation of another cognitive function (visual processing) was not associated with alterations in attentionbehavior. The merits of a process-specific approach to cognitive rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:3558744
... attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , or ADHD . What is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD? ADHD is a ... hard for a child to focus and pay attention. Some children may be hyperactive or have trouble ...
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether an index of self-reported attention deficits predicts the pattern of visual field asymmetries observed in behavioral measures of attention. Studies of "normal" subjects do not present a consistent pattern of asymmetry in attention functions, with some studies showing better left visual field (LVF)…
Mating behavior in Macaca arctoides has several features unique to the macaques. Observations of laboratory groups of stumptail monkeys revealed that their single-mount copulations are exceptionally long, that male orgasm is unusually salient (being characterized by body rigidity followed by body spasms and a characteristic facial expression and vocalization), and that the couple generally remains united, or “tied,” in a
Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills which impede the acquisition of more complex behaviors and socialization, and are thus an important focus of early intervention programs for children with autism. This study used a multiple-baseline design across five young children with autism to assess the benefit of a…
Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) and cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) both have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating social anxiety, but how they compare with each other has not been investigated. The present study tested the prediction that both interventions would reduce anxiety relative to a…
Bowler, Jennifer O.; Mackintosh, Bundy; Dunn, Barnaby D.; Mathews, Andrew; Dalgleish, Tim; Hoppitt, Laura
Uncertainty in various forms plagues our interactions with the environment. In a Bayesian statistical framework, optimal inference and prediction, based on unreliable observations in changing contexts, require the representation and manipulation of different forms of uncertainty. We propose that the neuromodulators acetylcholine and norepinephrine play a major role in the brain's implementation of these uncertainty computations. Acetylcholine signals expected uncertainty, coming from known unreliability of predictive cues within a context. Norepinephrine signals unexpected uncertainty, as when unsignaled context switches produce strongly unexpected observations. These uncertainty signals interact to enable optimal inference and learning in noisy and changeable environments. This formulation is consistent with a wealth of physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral data implicating acetylcholine and norepinephrine in specific aspects of a range of cognitive processes. Moreover, the model suggests a class of attentional cueing tasks that involve both neuromodulators and shows how their interactions may be part-antagonistic, part-synergistic. PMID:15944135
Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to the discussion: attention to the olfactory modality. I will first clarify the position of attention to smells in a general taxonomy of attention. I will then review the mechanisms and neuroanatomy of attention and consciousness in the olfactory system before using the newly introduced system to provide evidence that attention is necessary for consciousness.
Visual selective attention is the brain function that modulates ongoing processing of retinal input in order for selected representations to gain privileged access to perceptual awareness and guide behavior. Enhanced analysis of currently relevant or otherwise salient information is often accompanied by suppressed processing of the less relevant or salient input. Recent findings indicate that rewards exert a powerful influence on the deployment of visual selective attention. Such influence takes different forms depending on the specific protocol adopted in the given study. In some cases, the prospect of earning a larger reward in relation to a specific stimulus or location biases attention accordingly in order to maximize overall gain. This is mediated by an effect of reward acting as a type of incentive motivation for the strategic control of attention. In contrast, reward delivery can directly alter the processing of specific stimuli by increasing their attentional priority, and this can be measured even when rewards are no longer involved, reflecting a form of reward-mediated attentional learning. As a further development, recent work demonstrates that rewards can affect attentional learning in dissociable ways depending on whether rewards are perceived as feedback on performance or instead are registered as random-like events occurring during task performance. Specifically, it appears that visual selective attention is shaped by two distinct reward-related learning mechanisms: one requiring active monitoring of performance and outcome, and a second one detecting the sheer association between objects in the environment (whether attended or ignored) and the more-or-less rewarding events that accompany them. Overall this emerging literature demonstrates unequivocally that rewards "teach" visual selective attention so that processing resources will be allocated to objects, features and locations which are likely to optimize the organism's interaction with the surrounding environment and maximize positive outcome. PMID:23262054
Chelazzi, Leonardo; Perlato, Andrea; Santandrea, Elisa; Della Libera, Chiara
Selectively attending to task-relevant sounds whilst ignoring background noise is one of the most amazing feats performed by the human brain. Here, we studied the underlying neural mechanisms by recording magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses of 14 healthy human subjects while they performed a near-threshold auditory discrimination task vs. a visual control task of similar difficulty. The auditory stimuli consisted of notch-filtered continuous noise masker sounds, and of 1020-Hz target tones occasionally () replacing 1000-Hz standard tones of 300-ms duration that were embedded at the center of the notches, the widths of which were parametrically varied. As a control for masker effects, tone-evoked responses were additionally recorded without masker sound. Selective attention to tones significantly increased the amplitude of the onset M100 response at 100 ms to the standard tones during presence of the masker sounds especially with notches narrower than the critical band. Further, attention modulated sustained response most clearly at 300–400 ms time range from sound onset, with narrower notches than in case of the M100, thus selectively reducing the masker-induced suppression of the tone-evoked response. Our results show evidence of a multiple-stage filtering mechanism of sensory input in the human auditory cortex: 1) one at early (100 ms) latencies bilaterally in posterior parts of the secondary auditory areas, and 2) adaptive filtering of attended sounds from task-irrelevant background masker at longer latency (300 ms) in more medial auditory cortical regions, predominantly in the left hemisphere, enhancing processing of near-threshold sounds.
The attention network test (ANT) is a brief computerized battery measuring three independent behavioral components of attention: Conflict resolution (ability to overcome distracting stimuli), spatial Orienting (the benefit of valid spatial pre-cues), and Alerting (the benefit of temporal pre-cues). Imaging, clinical, and behavioral evidence…
We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173) community controls. Parents rated children in the three ADHD groups comparably for
Sarit Guttmann-Steinmetz; Kenneth D. Gadow; Carla J. DeVincent
Attention is a central theme in cognitive science — it exemplifies the links between the brain and behaviour, and binds psychology to the techniques of neuroscience. A visionary model suggested by Michael Posner described attention as a set of independent control networks. This challenged the previously held view of attention as a uniform concept. The idea that disparate attentional networks
Empirical evidence is reviewed to show that two concepts--attention and intelligence--are related at the empirical level. Data are presented to demonstrate that intelligence correlates with different types of attention, including sustained attention, search, attention switching, and vigilance. (Author/PN)
The cognitive processes at work in masked priming exper- iments are usually considered automatic and independent of attention. We provide evidence against this view. Three behavioral experiments demonstrate that the occurrence of unconscious priming in a number- comparison task is determined by the allocation of temporal attention to the time window during which the prime-target pair is presented. Both response-congruity
Objective self-awareness theory and stimulus incongruity theory suggest that focusing one's attention on one's behavior in an unfamiliar situation will increase the drive to evaluate oneself, which may be manifested in social comparison. Videotapes of male undergraduates conversing with hand-held puppets were used to study direction of attention…
Dopamine D(3) receptors have eluded definitive linkage to neurologic and psychiatric disorders since their cloning over 20 years ago. We report a new method that does not employ a radiolabel for simultaneously defining in vivo receptor occupancy of D(3) and D(2) receptors in rat brain after systemic dosing using the tracer epidepride (N-[[(2S)-1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl]methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide). Decreases in epidepride binding in lobule 9 of cerebellum (rich in D(3) receptors) were compared with nonspecific binding in the lateral cerebellum. The in vivo occupancy of the dopamine D(3) receptors was dose dependently increased by SB-277011A (trans-N-[4-[2-(6-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl]cyclohexyl]-4-quinolinecarboxamide) and U99194 (2,3-dihydro-5,6-dimethoxy- N,N-dipropyl-1H-inden-2-amine). Both antagonists increased extracellular levels of acetylcholine (ACh) in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats and modified brain-tissue levels of ACh and choline. Consistent with these findings, the D(3) receptor antagonists enhanced the acquisition of learning of rats either alone or in the presence of the norepinephrine uptake blocker reboxetine as with the attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drug methylphenidate. Like reboxetine, the D(3) receptor antagonists also prevented deficits induced by scopolamine in object recognition memory of rats. Mice in which the dopamine transporter (DAT) has been deleted exhibit hyperactivity that is normalized by compounds that are effective in the treatment of ADHD. Both D(3) receptor antagonists decreased the hyperactivity of DAT(-/-) mice without affecting the activity of wild type controls. The present findings indicate that dopamine D(3) receptor antagonists engender cognition-enhancing and hyperactivity-dampening effects. Thus, D(3) receptor blockade could be considered as a novel treatment approach for cognitive deficits and hyperactivity syndromes, including those observed in ADHD. PMID:23197772
Barth, V; Need, A B; Tzavara, E T; Giros, B; Overshiner, C; Gleason, S D; Wade, M; Johansson, A M; Perry, K; Nomikos, G G; Witkin, J M
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem of not being able to focus, being overactive, not ... mostly inattentive symptoms are sometimes said to have attention deficit disorder (ADD). They tend to be less ...
This research effort measured the spectral and temporal dynamics of human auditory attentional control, concentrating on the requirements for efficient shifting of auditory attention within the frequency spectrum of normal human hearing.
This paper summarizes a series of studies investigating the nature of children's attention to television. In a study of distraction, children's visual attention was found to be affected by distractions in the environment, by the nature of the program and by the viewer's own patterns of attending. A study of the general patterns of attention to…
Gestural joint attentionbehaviors, personal pronoun use, and spontaneous communicative behavior were compared in 11 autistic children and 11 children with developmental language delay (DLD). DLD children responded correctly to joint attention interactions more often and their spontaneous gestural behavior was more communicative and…
Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…
ACCOUNTS OF THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INFORMATION ON BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE AND CURRENT MODELS OF EMOTION REGULATION ARE BASED ON TWO OPPOSED BUT INTERACTING PROCESSES: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with "bottom-up" attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control. PMID:24223546
Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control.
Provides most recent information on attention deficit disorder including: (1) diagnostic considerations according to the latest behavioral criteria and breakthroughs using neurometric EEG assessment; (2) prevalence; (3) etiologies; (4) neurological basis; and (5) treatments. Evaluates alternatives to medication, behavior modification, cognitive…
After attention has been involuntarily captured by a distractor, how is it reoriented toward a target? One possibility is that attention to the distractor passively fades over time, allowing the target to become attended. Another possibility is that the captured location is actively suppressed so that attention can be directed toward the target location. The present study investigated this issue with event-related potentials (ERPs), focusing on the N2pc component (a neural measure of attentional deployment) and the Pd component (a neural measure of attentional suppression). Observers identified a color-defined target in a search array, which was preceded by a task-irrelevant cue array. When the cue array contained an item that matched the target color, this item captured attention (as measured both behaviorally and with the N2pc component). This capture of attention was followed by active suppression (indexed by the Pd component), and this was then followed by a reorienting of attention toward the target in the search array (indexed by the N2pc component). These findings indicate that the involuntary capture of attention by a distractor is followed by an active suppression process that presumably facilitates the subsequent voluntary orienting of attention to the target.
The present study investigated whether emotionally expressive faces guide attention and modulate fMRI activity in fusiform gyrus in acquired prosopagnosia. Patient PS, a pure case of acquired prosopagnosia with intact right middle fusiform gyrus, performed two behavioral experiments and a functional imaging experiment to address these questions. In a visual search task involving face stimuli, PS was faster to select the target face when it was expressing fear or happiness as compared to when it was emotionally neutral. In a change detection task, PS detected significantly more changes when the changed face was fearful as compared to when it was neutral. Finally, an fMRI experiment showed enhanced activation to emotionally expressive faces and bodies in right fusiform gyrus. In addition, PS showed normal body-selective activation in right fusiform gyrus, partially overlapping the fusiform face area. Together these behavioral and neuroimaging results show that attention was preferentially allocated to emotional faces in patient PS, as observed in healthy subjects. We conclude that systems involved in the emotional guidance of attention by facial expression can function normally in acquired prosopagnosia, and can thus be dissociated from systems involved in face identification.
Background Low serotonergic (5-HT) activity correlates with increased impulsive-aggressive behavior, while the opposite association may apply to cognitive impulsiveness. Both types of impulsivity are associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and genes of functional significance for the 5-HT system are implicated in this disorder. Here we demonstrate the separation of aggressive and cognitive components of impulsivity from symptom ratings and test their association with 5-HT and functionally related genes using a family-based association test (FBAT-PC). Methods Our sample consisted of 1180 offspring from 607 families from the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. Impulsive symptoms were assessed using the long forms of the Conners and the Strengths and Difficulties parent and teacher questionnaires. Factor analysis showed that the symptoms aggregated into parent- and teacher-rated behavioral and cognitive impulsivity. We then selected 582 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 14 genes directly or indirectly related to 5-HT function. Associations between these SNPs and the behavioral/cognitive groupings of impulsive symptoms were evaluated using the FBAT-PC approach. Results In the FBAT-PC analysis for cognitive impulsivity 2 SNPs from the gene encoding phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT, the rate-limiting enzyme for adrenalin synthesis) attained corrected gene-wide significance. Nominal significance was shown for 12 SNPs from BDNF, DRD1, HTR1E, HTR2A, HTR3B, DAT1/SLC6A3, and TPH2 genes replicating reported associations with ADHD. For overt aggressive impulsivity nominal significance was shown for 6 SNPs from BDNF, DRD4, HTR1E, PNMT, and TPH2 genes that have also been reported to be associated with ADHD. Associations for cognitive impulsivity with a SERT/SLC6A4 variant (STin2: 12 repeats) and aggressive behavioral impulsivity with a DRD4 variant (exon 3: 3 repeats) are also described. Discussion A genetic influence on monoaminergic involvement in impulsivity shown by children with ADHD was found. There were trends for separate and overlapping influences on impulsive-aggressive behavior and cognitive impulsivity, where an association with PNMT (and arousal mechanisms affected by its activity) was more clearly involved in the latter. Serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms were implicated in both forms of impulsivity with a wider range of serotonergic mechanisms (each with a small effect) potentially influencing cognitive impulsivity. These preliminary results should be followed up with an examination of environmental influences and associations with performance on tests of impulsivity in the laboratory.
Oades, Robert D; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Christiansen, Hanna; Faraone, Stephen V; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund JS; Banaschewski, Tobias; Chen, Wai; Anney, Richard JL; Buitelaar, Jan K; Ebstein, Richard P; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph A; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Taylor, Eric A; Thompson, Margaret; Asherson, Philip
Four experiments were conducted to ascertain whether myopia is associated with deficits of visuospatial attention. In myopic and emmetropic control subjects, we studied: (1) automatic and voluntary orienting of attention, (2) focusing of attention and (3) performance on a visual search task. The results indicated that automatic orienting was defective in myopics and their performance in visual search was less efficient than that of controls. By contrast, myopics showed no deficits in voluntary orienting and in focusing. PMID:10556613
Turatto, M; Facoetti, A; Serra, G; Benso, F; Angi, M; Umiltà, C; Mascetti, G G
Attention is the process by which we select stimuli in our environment for perception and action. The ability to orient to salient visual stimuli and to parse the visual world begins to emerge in the first few months of life and continues to evolve through childhood. This review addresses how visuospatial attention develops, is deployed, and can be damaged in children. In particular, we discuss orienting, lateralized attention, and global vs local processing. Advances in our basic understanding of the cognitive neuroscience of visuospatial attention are beginning to inform pediatric neurology, but much work remains to be done. PMID:18852341
Objective: To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of…
This introduction to students with attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) covers a historical perspective of these disorders, definitions of ADHD, etiology, behaviors associated with ADD and ADHD, developmental course, identification and assessment, services, classroom interventions, medication…
We investigated the beneficial role of noise in a human higher brain function, namely visual attention control. We asked subjects to detect a weak gray-level target inside a marker box either in the left or the right visual field. Signal detection performance was optimized by presenting a low level of randomly flickering gray-level noise between and outside the two possible target locations. Further, we found that an increase in eye movement (saccade) rate helped to compensate for the usual deterioration in detection performance at higher noise levels. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence that noise can optimize a higher brain function which involves distinct brain regions above the level of primary sensory systems -- switching behavior between multi-stable attention states -- via the mechanism of stochastic resonance.
Kitajo, K.; Yamanaka, K.; Ward, L. M.; Yamamoto, Y.
The influence of attention on perceptual awareness was examined using metacontrast masking. Attention was manipulated with endogenous cues to assess the effects on the temporal and spatial parameters of target visibility. Experiment 1 examined the time course of effective masking when the target and mask set were presented at an attended vs. an…
The authors discuss methodological and theoretical issues in psychological investigations of infant attention, fixation times, habituation, and intelligence. A consensus on how to measure individual differences in habituation has not been reached. The relation between IQ and attention is discussed. (RD)
Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.
What is the role of attention in multiple-object tracking? Does attention enhance target representations, suppress distractor representations, or both? It is difficult to ask this question in a purely behavioral paradigm without altering the very attentional allocation one is trying to measure. In the present study, we used event-related potentials to examine the early visual evoked responses to task-irrelevant probes without requiring an additional detection task. Subjects tracked two targets among four moving distractors and four stationary distractors. Brief probes were flashed on targets, moving distractors, stationary distractors, or empty space. We obtained a significant enhancement of the visually evoked P1 and N1 components (~100–150 msec) for probes on targets, relative to distractors. Furthermore, good trackers showed larger differences between target and distractor probes than did poor trackers. These results provide evidence of early attentional enhancement of tracked target items and also provide a novel approach to measuring attentional allocation during tracking.
Drew, Trafton; McCollough, Andrew W.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Vogel, Edward K.
Research Findings: Part of the attention system of the brain is involved in the control of thoughts, emotions, and behavior. As attentional control develops, children are more able to control cognition and responses flexibly and to adjust their behavior in social interactions better. In this article, we discuss evidence from different levels of…
Rueda, M. Rosario; Checa, Purificacion; Rothbart, Mary K.
The natural world constantly inundates our senses with an abundance of information. Selective attention enables us to navigate this abundance intelligently by selecting the information that is most relevant, at each moment in time, for differential processing and decision-making. The attributes of attention have been studied in humans for over a century. In his influential 19(th) century treatise, The Principles of Psychology, philosopher and psychologist William James defined attention as: "… the taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought … It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others." (James, 1890). James' definition elegantly captures two key hallmarks of attention: the enhanced processing of task-relevant information (target information) and the suppression of task-irrelevant information (distracting information). PMID:24892907
Sridharan, Devarajan; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I
Summary The precise nature of the relationship among attention deficit, hyperkinesis, and specific learning disabilities remains a\\u000a mystery. They are encountered in one another’s company with far greater than chance frequency. It is clear, on the one hand,\\u000a that attention deficit and learning disability aggravate one another; that is, that what is difficult to learn is difficult\\u000a to attend to, and
The aims of this study were (a) to find out if attentional ability factors that are separate from the well-established ability factors (e.g., fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, and short-term acquisition and retrieval function) can be identified, and (b) to establish, through the use of part correlations, whether attentional abilities play a role in the changes in fluid and crystallized intelligence
The aim of this study was to delineate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of children with attention-deficit and language problems as compared to children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only Out of a cohort of 3208 children 6 to 11 years old, 5.2% were identified as having a primary ADHD. A teacher's behavioral questionnaire, pediatric interview and assessment, IQ, attention
The students in three sections of a class rated their knowledge and identified their view before and after each of five in-class debates. The degree of self-reported knowledge was significantly different after four of the five debates. Between 31% and 58% of participants changed their views after participating in or observing each debate. Some…
Impaired attention is a frequently reported side effect of anti-epileptic medication, as well as a frequent general complaint of epilepsy. It is thus important to evaluate the effect of new medications on attention processes. Attention was assessed weekly in ten subjects receiving topiramate over a 3 month period. Attention was evaluated with digit span, a widely used index of attention.
Voluntary visual spatial attention can be allocated in a goal-oriented manner to locations containing behaviorally relevant information. In contrast, involuntary attention is automatically captured by salient events. Allocation of attention is known to be modulated by release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in cerebral cortex. We used an anti-predictive spatial cueing task to assess the effects of pharmacological enhancement of cholinergic transmission on behavioral measures of voluntary and involuntary attention in healthy human participants. Each trial began with the presentation of a cue in a peripheral location. In 80% of the trials, a target then appeared in a location opposite the cue. In the remaining 20% of trials, the target appeared in the cue location. For trials with short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between cue and target, involuntary capture of attention resulted in shorter reaction times (RTs) to targets presented at the cue location. For long SOA trials, allocation of voluntary attention resulted in the opposite pattern: RTs were shorter when the target appeared in the expected (opposite) location. Each subject participated in two sessions: one in which the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil was administered to increase synaptic ACh levels and one in which placebo was administered. Donepezil selectively improved performance (reduced RT) for long SOA trials in which targets appeared in the expected location. Thus, cholinergic enhancement augments the benefits of voluntary attention but does not affect involuntary attention, suggesting that they rely on different neurochemical mechanisms.
Rokem, Ariel; Landau, Ayelet N; Garg, Dave; Prinzmetal, William; Silver, Michael A
The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learning (RL), where both these capabilities are involved. RL is deployed to learn how to allocate attentional resources in a behavior-based robotic system, while action selection is obtained as a side effect of the resulting motivated attentionalbehaviors. Moreover, the influence of intrinsic motivations in attention orientation is obtained by introducing rewards associated with curiosity drives. In this way, the learning process is affected not only by goal-specific rewards, but also by intrinsic motivations.
Di Nocera, Dario; Finzi, Alberto; Rossi, Silvia; Staffa, Mariacarla
It was hypothesized that infants' examining behavior, in contrast to other activity, reflects focused attention and active intake of information. The first study with 7- and 12-month-olds supported the hypothesis. The second and third studies investigated the effects of age and familiarity on both latency to and duration of examining. (Author/RH)
Normal functioning of the attentional orienting system is critical for effective behavior and is predicated on a balanced interaction between goal-directed (endogenous) processes and stimulus-driven (exogenous) processes. Although both systems have been subject to much investigation, little is known about the neural underpinnings of exogenous orient- ing. In the present study, we examined the early facilitatory effects and later inhibition
Presents study showing children with behaviors characteristic of attention disorder/hyperactivity deficit and high intelligence have more mixed laterality and allergies. Finds these children gather and use more diverse nonverbal and poorly focused information. Concludes such children use uncommon information when exhibiting novelty in nonverbal…
Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk of developing anxious behavior, toddlers' attention toward a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined…
The effect of a preshot attentional/behavioral routine on putting performance was investigated. Subjects were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) Male Routine (MR); (2) Female Routine (FR); (3) Male Control (MC); and (4) Female Control (FC). Subjects in the FR and MR groups were given individualized putting routines which focused on specific…
This paper updates the author's earlier hypothesis that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) reflects underactivity in Gray's Behavioral Inhibition System. Five areas of research are reviewed: (1) studies using the stop-signal task, (2) studies of errors of commission, (3) a study of inhibition indexed by eye movements, (4) a neuroimaging study of the corpus callosum, and (5) a study on
This paper examines the family of disorders referred to as attention deficit disorders (ADD). It addresses the topics of special education legislation; the history of ADD; associated conditions (learning disabilities, behavior/emotional disorders, and other health impairments); assessment; treatment (medical and educational, family counseling, and…
Social computing focuses on the interaction between social behavior and information, especially on how the latter propagates across social networks and is consumed and transformed in the process. At the same time the ubiquity of information has left it devoid of much monetary value. The scarce, and therefore valuable, resource is now attention, and its allocation gives rise to an attention economy that determines how content is consumed and propagated. Since two major factors involved in getting attention are novelty and popularity, we analyze the role that both play in attracting attention to web content and how to prioritize them in order to maximize it. We also demonstrate that the relative performance of strategies based on prioritizing either popularity or novelty exhibit an abrupt change around a critical value of the novelty decay time, resembling a phase transition.
Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive “digital fossil” of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of “collective attention” on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or “tweets.” Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. “Retweet” networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era.
We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…
Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.
Attention is a rich psychological and neurobiological construct that influences almost all aspects of cognitive behaviour. It enables enhanced processing of behaviourally relevant stimuli at the expense of irrelevant stimuli. At the cellular level, rhythmic synchronization at local and long-range spatial scales complements the attention-induced firing rate changes of neurons. The former is hypothesized to enable efficient communication between neuronal ensembles tuned to spatial and featural aspects of the attended stimulus. Recent modelling studies suggest that the rhythmic synchronization in the gamma range may be mediated by a fine balance between N-methyl-d-aspartate and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate postsynaptic currents, whereas other studies have highlighted the possible contribution of the neuromodulator acetylcholine. This review summarizes some recent modelling and experimental studies investigating mechanisms of attention in sensory areas and discusses possibilities of how glutamatergic and cholinergic systems could contribute to increased processing abilities at the cellular and network level during states of top-down attention.
Bartlett viewed thinking as a high level skill exhibiting ballistic properties that he called its “point of no return”. This paper explores one aspect of cognition through the use of a simple model task in which human subjects are asked to commit attention to a position in visual space other than fixation. This instruction is executed by orienting a covert
Substantive progress has been made in our understanding of children considered hyperactive, especially in the interpersonal sphere. Evolving conceptualizations of hyperactivity and attention deficits are reviewed briefly, including changes in clinical diagnostic practices and in knowledge about developmental course. The hypothesis is advanced that the cognitive and social difficulties of hyperactive children may be better understood in terms of motivational
The brain continuously adapts its processing machinery to behavioural demands. To achieve this, it rapidly modulates the operating mode of cortical circuits, controlling the way that information is transformed and routed. This article will focus on two experimental approaches by which the control of cortical information processing has been investigated: the study of state-dependent cortical processing in rodents and attention
The sustained attention of 16 mildly retarded and 16 nonretarded adults was assessed during 2 60-minute vigilance tests differing in memory demand. Performance of retarded subjects declined more rapidly in later stages than did that of the nonretarded subjects. Implications for the study of memory load are discussed. (SLD)
Prepared as part of a larger work on human intelligence, this report examines basic attentional and perceptual contributions to intelligence. The report is organized into two sections: the first summarizes and evaluates research that has tried to uncover basic information processing skills that account for individual differences in intelligence;…
This detailed booklet describes the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatments, with information on getting help and coping. Interventions described herein are psychotherapy, behavior therapy, social skills training, support groups, and parenting skills training. Some simple behavioral interventions are suggested because children with ADHD may…
The problem of how best to capture, direct, and enhance children's abilities to pay attention has been a central feature of educational thought and practices over a long duration. And, while having students pay attentioninclass has been a concern of teachers across the ages, beginning in the Enlightenment we find a significant shift in…
In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring, or not requiring, selective auditory attention. Appended to each stimulus presentation, and included in the calculation of each nSFOAE response, was a 30-ms silent period that was used to estimate the level of the inherent physiological noise in the ear canals of our subjects during each behavioral condition. Physiological-noise magnitudes were higher (noisier) for all subjects in the inattention task, and lower (quieter) in the selective auditory-attention tasks. These noise measures initially were made at the frequency of our nSFOAE probe tone (4.0 kHz), but the same attention effects also were observed across a wide range of frequencies. We attribute the observed differences in physiological-noise magnitudes between the inattention and attention conditions to different levels of efferent activation associated with the differing attentional demands of the behavioral tasks. One hypothesis is that when the attentional demand is relatively great, efferent activation is relatively high, and a decrease in the gain of the cochlear amplifier leads to lower-amplitude cochlear activity, and thus a smaller measure of noise from the ear. PMID:24732069
Walsh, Kyle P; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis
\\u000a Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 4–8% of the population\\u000a across the life span. Up to 90% of those with ADHD have at least one comorbid condition that may be more critical to the child’s\\u000a or adolescent’s health than is the ADHD. Those with neurodevelopmental disorders are at high risk for ADHD. Management involves
This document presents a brief synthesis of recent literature on attention deficit difficulties with hyperactivity, particularly literature concerning classroom interventions. It describes diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, its incidence, behavioral characteristics of students who exhibit attention difficulties and…
Observations of creep microstructures in the primary creep region inclass M materials show a remarkable similarity with those formed in the exponential creep regime. As a result, it is proposed that the constitutive creep law for normal primary creep is similar to that for the exponential creep regime. A phenomenological description is discussed to rationalize these microstructural observations in terms of a normalized strain rate vs. stress plot. The implications of this plot in describing different testing procedures, steady-state flow, and on the observed deviations from the universal creep law are discussed. The plot is also extended to explain the observed similarities in the transient creep behavior in pre-strained materials and in stress change experiments.
BACKGROUND: Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. METHODS: Fourteen university students
Processes of selective attention and emotion operate together in prioritizing thoughts and actions. Abundant evidence suggests that emotionally salient stimuli and affective states can determine how visual attention is allocated. However, the brain regions mediating the effects of attention and emotion include shared and reciprocally connected structures. This raises an intriguing question about a reciprocal effect: Does attention also influence
In naturalistic settings, observers often have to monitor multiple objects dispersed throughout the visual scene. However, the degree to which spatial attention can be divided across spatially noncontiguous objects has long been debated, particularly when those objects are in close proximity. Moreover, the temporal dynamics of divided attention are unclear: is the process of dividing spatial attention gradual and continuous, or does it onset in a discrete manner? To address these issues, we recorded steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as subjects covertly monitored two flickering targets while ignoring an intervening distractor that flickered at a different frequency. All three stimuli were clustered within either the lower left or the lower right quadrant, and our dependent measure was SSVEP power at the target and distractor frequencies measured over time. In two experiments, we observed a temporally discrete increase in power for target- vs. distractor-evoked SSVEPs extending from ?350 to 150 ms prior to correct (but not incorrect) responses. The divergence in SSVEP power immediately prior to a correct response suggests that spatial attention can be divided across noncontiguous locations, even when the targets are closely spaced within a single quadrant. In addition, the division of spatial attention appears to be relatively discrete, as opposed to slow and continuous. Finally, the predictive relationship between SSVEP power and behavior demonstrates that these neurophysiological measures of divided attention are meaningfully related to cognitive function.
Nicotine has been shown to improve attentiveness in smokers and attenuate attentional deficits in Alzheimer’s disease patients,\\u000a schizophrenics and adults with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study was conducted to determine\\u000a whether nicotine administered via transdermal patches would improve attentiveness in non-smoking adults without attentional\\u000a deficits. The subjects underwent the nicotine and placebo exposure in a counterbalanced double-blind manner. Measures
E. D. Levin; C. Keith Conners; Donna Silva; Sean C. Hinton; Warren H. Meck; John March; Jed E. Rose
Primary psychopathic individuals are less apt to re-evaluate or change their behavior in response to stimuli outside of their current focus of attention. According to the response modulation hypothesis, this tendency reflects a lack of responsivity to important peripheral information and undermines adaptive self-regulation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we administered a response competition (flanker-type) task and manipulated focus of visual attention. We predicted that psychopathic individuals would display significantly less interference to response incongruent information than non-psychopathic participants when attention was cued to the target location but display normal interference when there was no pre-potent focus of attention. The results confirmed this hypothesis and are consistent with the contention that attention moderates psychopathic individuals’ responsivity to inhibitory cues. Finally, we discuss the implications of this attentional anomaly for psychopathic traits and behavior.
Zeier, Joshua D.; Maxwell, Jeffrey S.; Newman, Joseph P.
We evaluated the interactive influences of attentional state and attentional inertia on infants' level of attentional engagement. We assessed infants' distraction latencies longitudinally at 6.5 and 9 months as they explored toys, and we coded both their attentional state (focused vs. casual) and how long they had been looking at the toy at each…
Oakes, Lisa M.; Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Kannass, Kathleen N.
Research on the focus of attention (FOA) in motor control has found a consistent advantage for focusing externally (on the effects of one's actions) compared to focusing internally (on one's body mechanics). However, most of this work has concentrated on movement outcomes, leaving open the question of how external attention changes the movement itself. Somewhat paradoxically, recent research has found that external attention also increases trial-by-trial movement variability. To explain these findings, we propose a theory of attention in motor control, grounded in optimal control theory, wherein variability is minimized along attended aspects of the movement. Internal attention thus reduces variability in individual bodily dimensions (positions and velocities of effectors), whereas external attention minimizes variability in the task outcome. Because the goal of a task defines a dimension in the movement space that is generally oblique to bodily dimensions, external attention should increase correlations among bodily dimensions while allowing their individual variances to grow. The current experiment tests these predictions in a dart-throwing task. External FOA led to more accurate performance and increased variability in the motion of the throwing arm, concomitant with stronger correlations among bodily dimensions (shoulder, elbow, and wrist positions and velocities) in a manner consistent with the task kinematics. These findings indicate a shift in the control policy of the motor system, consistent with the proposed theory. These results suggest an important role of attention as a control parameter in the regulation of the motor system, and more broadly illustrate the importance of cognitive mechanisms in motor behavior. PMID:23647310
Lohse, Keith R; Jones, Matt; Healy, Alice F; Sherwood, David E
Pathological gaming (PG) behaviors are behaviors which interfere with other life responsibilities. Continued debate exists regarding whether symptoms of PG behaviors are a unique phenomenon or arise from other mental health problems, including attention problems. Development of attention problems and occurrence of pathological gaming in 144 adolescents were followed during a 1-year prospective analysis. Teens and their parents reported on pathological gaming behaviors, attention problems, and current grade point average, as well as several social variables. Results were analyzed using regression and path analysis. Attention problems tended to precede pathological gaming behaviors, but the inverse was not true. Attention problems but not pathological gaming predicted lower GPA 1 year later. Current results suggest that pathological gaming arises from attention problems, but not the inverse. These results suggest that pathological gaming behaviors are symptomatic of underlying attention related mental health issues, rather than a unique phenomenon. PMID:24132870
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) negatively affects the cognitive and psychomotoric spheres of the pupil's social behavior and social adaptation. The review of many studies states that pupils with AD/HD achieve worse learning results because of insufficiently functioning cognitive processes, such as attention, (work) memory,…
A neural theory of visual attention (NTVA) is presented. NTVA is a neural interpretation of C. Bundesen's (1990) theory of visual attention (TVA). In NTVA, visual processing capacity is distributed across stimuli by dynamic remapping of receptive fields of cortical cells such that more processing resources (cells) are devoted to behaviorally…
The present study explored the relationship between theory of mind (ToM), attention, and executive function in 66 kindergarten boys drawn from four rural school districts. Three stories designed to test understanding of first and second order mental states were administered. Executive function and attention were assessed, respectively, by scores on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the
Mary Elizabeth McGlamery; Steven E. Ball; Tracy B. Henley; Megan Besozzi
The rush to label schoolchildren as suffering from attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reached nearly epidemic proportions. The diagnosis often meets parents' needs to assign behavior control to Ritalin; it should be an explanation leading to genuine help, not a license for unacceptable student…
Human subjects performed in several behavioral conditions requiring, or not requiring, selective attention to visual stimuli. Specifically, the attentional task was to recognize strings of digits that had been presented visually. A nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emission (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was collected during the visual presentation of the digits. The segment of the physiological response discussed here occurred during brief silent periods immediately following the SFOAE-evoking stimuli. For all subjects tested, the physiological-noise magnitudes were substantially weaker (less noisy) during the tasks requiring the most visual attention. Effect sizes for the differences were >2.0. Our interpretation is that cortico-olivo influences adjusted the magnitude of efferent activation during the SFOAE-evoking stimulation depending upon the attention task in effect, and then that magnitude of efferent activation persisted throughout the silent period where it also modulated the physiological noise present. Because the results were highly similar to those obtained when the behavioral conditions involved auditory attention, similar mechanisms appear to operate both across modalities and within modalities. Supplementary measurements revealed that the efferent activation was spectrally global, as it was for auditory attention. PMID:24732070
Walsh, Kyle P; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis
The relationship between attention and general intelligence was investigated considering the different types of attention: alertness, sustained attention, focused attention, attentional switching, divided attention, attention according to the supervisory attentional system, attention as inhibition, spatial attention, attention as planning,…
Schweizer, Karl; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Goldhammer, Frank
Adaptation and attention are two mechanisms by which sensory systems manage limited bioenergetic resources: Whereas adaptation decreases sensitivity for stimuli just previously encountered, attention increases sensitivity for behaviorally relevant stimuli. In the visual system, these changes in sensitivity are accompanied by a change in stimulus appearance of different dimensions, such as speed. Adaptation causes an underestimation, whereas attention leads to an overestimation of speed. Here we investigate whether the effects of these mechanisms interact and how they affect appearance. We tested the effects of adaptation and subsequent allocation of attention on perceived speed. A quickly moving adaptor decreased the perceived speed of subsequent stimuli, whereas a slow adaptor did not alter perceived speed. Attention increased perceived speed regardless of the adaptation effect, indicating that adaptation and attention affect perceived speed independently. Moreover, the finding that attention can alter perceived speed after adaptation indicates that adaptation is not merely neuronal fatigue.
Contextual cues are predictive and provide behaviorally relevant information; they are not the main objective of the current task but can make behavior more efficient. Using fMRI, we investigated the brain networks involved in representing contextual information and translating it into an attentional control signal. Human subjects performed a visual search task for a low-contrast target accompanied by a single non-target that was either perceptually similar or more salient (i.e., higher contrast). Shorter reaction times (RTs) and higher accuracy were found on salient trials, suggesting that the salient item was rapidly identified as a non-target and immediately acts as a spatial "anti-cue" to reorient attention to the target. The relative saliency of the non-target determined BOLD responses in the left temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). IFG correlated with RT specifically on salient non-target trials. In contrast, bilateral dorsal frontoparietal regions [including the frontal eye fields (FEFs)] were correlated with RT in all conditions. Effective connectivity analyses using dynamic causal modeling found an excitatory pathway from TPJ to IFG to FEF, suggesting that this was the pathway by which the contextual cue was translated into an attentional control signal that facilitated behavior. Additionally, the connection from FEF to TPJ was negatively modulated during target-similar trials, consistent with the inhibition of TPJ by dorsal attentional control regions during top-down serial visual search. We conclude that left TPJ and IFG form a sensory-driven network that integrates contextual knowledge with ongoing sensory information to provide an attentional control signal to FEF. PMID:22159116
Objectives. Atomoxetine seems to be as effective for treating attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity dis- order (ADHD) when the daily dose is administered once in the morning as when the dose is divided and admin- istered in the morning and evening. In the present study, the efficacy of atomoxetine administered once daily among children with ADHD was assessed throughout the day, including the evening
Douglas K. Kelsey; Calvin R. Sumner; Charles D. Casat; Daniel L. Coury; Humberto Quintana; Keith E. Saylor; Virginia K. Sutton; Jill Gonzales; Sandra K. Malcolm; Kory J. Schuh; Albert J. Allen
It has long been known that rewarding improves performance. However it is unclear whether this is due to high level modulations in the output modules of associated neural systems or due to low level mechanisms favoring more “generous” inputs? Some recent studies suggest that primary sensory areas, including V1 and A1, may form part of the circuitry of reward-based modulations, but there is no data indicating whether reward can be dissociated from attention or cross-trial forms of perceptual learning. Here we address this issue with a psychophysical dual task, to control attention, while perceptual performance on oriented targets associated with different levels of reward is assessed by measuring both orientation discrimination thresholds and behavioral tuning functions for tilt values near threshold. We found that reward, at any rate, improved performance. However, higher reward rates showed an improvement of orientation discrimination thresholds by about 50% across conditions and sharpened behavioral tuning functions. Data were unaffected by changing the attentional load and by dissociating the feature of the reward cue from the task-relevant feature. These results suggest that reward may act within the span of a single trial independently of attention by modulating the activity of early sensory stages through a improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio of task-relevant channels.
We begin with the suggestion that the definition of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) still faces some challenges. Conceptually, inhibition of the Pavlovian kind preexisted the "behavioral inhibition" popular in the USA; the difference between them has to be understood in order to understand ADHD. The present project examines the…
Background Cognitive deficits such as poor memory, the inability to concentrate, deficits in abstract reasoning, attention and set-shifting flexibility have been reported in middle-aged women. It has been suggested that cognitive decline may be due to several factors which include hormonal changes, individual differences, normal processes of aging and age-related changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a common functional polymorphism, has been related to executive performance in young healthy volunteers, old subjects and schizophrenia patients. The effect of this polymorphism on cognitive function in middle-aged healthy women is not well known. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether measures of executive function, sustained attention, selective attention and verbal fluency would be different depending on the COMT genotype and task demand. Method We genotyped 74 middle-aged healthy women (48 to 65 years old) for the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. We analyzed the effects of this polymorphism on executive functions (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test), selective attention (Stroop test), sustained attention (Continuous Performance Test) and word generation (Verbal Fluency test), which are cognitive functions that involve the frontal lobe. Results There were 27 women with the Val/Val COMT genotype, 15 with the Met/Met genotype, and 32 with the Val/Met genotype. Women carriers of the Val/Val genotype performed better in executive functions, as indicated by a lower number of errors committed in comparison with the Met/Met or Val/Met groups. The correct responses on selective attention were higher in the Val/Val group, and the number of errors committed was higher in the Met/Met group during the incongruence trial in comparison with the Val/Val group. Performance on sustained attention and the number of words generated did not show significant differences between the three genotypes. Conclusion These findings indicate that middle-aged women carriers of the Val158 allele, associated with high-activity COMT, showed significant advantage over Met allele in executive processes and cognitive flexibility. These results may help to explain, at least in part, individual differences in cognitive decline in middle-aged women with dopamine-related genes.
Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder.
Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder's pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656
Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A
The research examines the structural bottleneck account and the resource account of the substantial dual-task deficits among older adults. Procedures from two common dual-task methodologies-the psychological refractory period and the relative-priority manipulation-were used to encourage maximization of the joint performance. Performance and time-sharing strategies from subjects between the ages of 20 and 70 years were examined. Age-related declines in time-sharing efficiency and in the precision of the executive control process were observed. The age-related effect was larger when two manual responses were required than when one manual and one vocal response were required, but no evidence for obligatory sequential processing was found. Except for the most demanding conditions, comparable practice effects were observed between the younger and older subjects, suggesting considerable cognitive plasticity in the older subjects. Implications for the two attentional accounts were discussed. PMID:23281799
Psychopathic behavior has long been attributed to a fundamental deficit in fear that arises from impaired amygdala function. Growing evidence has demonstrated that fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and other psychopathy-related deficits are moderated by focus of attention, but to date, no work on adult psychopathy has examined attentional modulation of the amygdala or concomitant recruitment of relevant attention-related circuitry. Consistent with previous FPS findings, here we report that psychopathy-related differences in amygdala activation appear and disappear as a function of goal-directed attention. Specifically, decreased amygdala activity was observed in psychopathic offenders only when attention was engaged in an alternative goal-relevant task prior to presenting threat-relevant information. Under this condition, psychopaths also exhibited greater activation in selective-attention regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) than did nonpsychopaths, and this increased LPFC activation mediated psychopathy's association with decreased amygdala activation. In contrast, when explicitly attending to threat, amygdala activation did not differ in psychopaths and nonpsychopaths. This pattern of amygdala activation highlights the potential role of LPFC in mediating the failure of psychopathic individuals to process fear and other important information when it is peripheral to the primary focus of goal-directed attention. PMID:23712665
Larson, Christine L; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Stout, Daniel M; Balderston, Nicholas L; Curtin, John J; Schultz, Douglas H; Kiehl, Kent A; Newman, Joseph P
The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD.
Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver
It is widely held that there is a distinction between attentive and automatic cognitive processing. In research on attention using visual search tasks, the detection performance of human subjects in consistent mapping paradigms is generally regarded as in...
Attentional network functioning in emotionally neutral conditions and self-reported attentional control (AC) were analysed as predictors of the tendency to engage in dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies. Diminished attentional orienting predicted an increased tendency to engage in brooding rumination, and enhanced alertness predicted a greater chance of suppression, beyond trait anxiety and self-reported AC, which were not predictive of either rumination or suppression. This is the first study to show that some forms of dysfunctional emotion regulation are related to the attentional network functioning in emotionally neutral conditions. Results are discussed in relation to regulatory temperament and anxiety-related attentional biases literature. PMID:24295123
Six hypotheses regarding the attentionbehaviors of learning disabled children are reviewed and current findings discussed. Hypotheses concern hyperresponsiveness and distractibility; underselective attention; verbal rehearsal deficit; metacognition deficit; word retrieval/naming; speed deficit; and creative ability. (CL)
To provide a systematic review of scientific literature on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on sustained attention in psychosis. We searched PubMed to identify fMRI studies pertaining sustained attention in both affective and non-affective psychosis. Only studies conducted on adult patients using a sustained attention task during fMRI scanning were included in the final review. The search was conducted on September 10th, 2013. 15 fMRI studies met our inclusion criteria: 12 studies were focused on Schizophrenia and 3 on Bipolar Disorder Type?I?(BDI). Only half of the Schizophrenia studies and two of the BDI studies reported behavioral abnormalities, but all of them evidenced significant functional differences in brain regions related to the sustained attention system. Altered functioning of the insula was found in both Schizophrenia and BDI, and therefore proposed as a candidate trait marker for psychosis in general. On the other hand, other brain regions were differently impaired in affective and non-affective psychosis: alterations of cingulate cortex and thalamus seemed to be more common in Schizophrenia and amygdala dysfunctions in BDI. Neural correlates of sustained attention seem to be of great interest in the study of psychosis, highlighting differences and similarities between Schizophrenia and BDI.
Sepede, Gianna; Spano, Maria Chiara; Lorusso, Marco; De Berardis, Domenico; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Gambi, Francesco
A small but growing neuroimaging literature has begun to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the difficulty that substance-use dependent (SUD) groups have with ignoring salient, drug-related stimuli. Drug-related attentional bias appears to implicate the countermanding forces of cognitive control and reward salience. Basic cognitive neuroscience research suggests that ignoring emotionally evocative stimuli in our environment requires both up-regulation of control networks and down-regulation of processing in emotion and reward regions. Research to date suggests that attentional biases for drug-related stimuli emerge from a failure to sufficiently increase control of attention over salient, but task-irrelevant stimuli. While SUD samples have typically shown increased activity in the cognitive control regions (ie, lateral prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate), during attentional bias such increases appear to have been insufficient for the concomitant increases in processing by the emotion/reward regions (ie, amygdala, insula, and striatum). Given the potential contribution of attentional biases to perpetuating drug use and the development of interventions (both pharmaceutical and cognitive-behavioral) to treat biases, understanding the neural basis of successfully reducing bias remains an important, but as yet unanswered, question for our field. PMID:23919984
We introduce a surveillance video tractability adjustment system that employs a dynamic operator attention model. The tractability of the surveillance video is adjusted ac- cording to the instantaneous attention level of the operator (Fig.1). Our system has two novel major parts: (i) dynamic measurement of the operator attention levels and (ii) an on- line video tractability adjustment system that employs
Employees have an enormous amount of business information at their fingertips--more specifically, at their desktops. The floodgates are open; profitable possibilities abound. But having to handle all that information has pushed downsized staffs to the brink of an acute attention deficit disorder. To achieve corporate goals, business leaders need their employees' full attention--and that attention is in short supply. Authors Thomas Davenport and John Beck have studied how companies manage the attention of their employees and their site visitors. In this article, they analyze the components of attention management through three lenses--economic, psychobiological, and technological--and offer guidelines for keeping employees focused on crucial corporate tasks. Their lessons are drawn from the best practices employed by today's stickiest Web sites and by traditional attention industries such as advertising, film, and television. The authors say executives must manage attention knowing that it's a zero-sum game (there's only so much to go around). Managers should also consider capitalizing on the basic survival and competitive instincts we all have that help determine how much attention we pay to certain things. For instance, the threat of corporate demise--and the consequent loss of jobs and livelihoods--undoubtedly focuses workers' attention on the need to change. Likewise, internal competition among business units may give employees added incentive to pay attention to a profit or sales goal. Leaders today need to pay more attention to attention because it's widely misunderstood and widely mismanaged, the authors conclude. PMID:11143148
Explanations of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in terms of a weakness in Executive Function (EF) or related concepts, such as inhibition, are briefly reviewed. Some alternative views are considered, in particular a proposal by Manly and others that ADHD is a weakness primarily of sustained attention (plus control of attention),…
In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures.
This study investigates how more advanced joint attentional mechanisms, rather than only shared attention between two agents and an object, can be implemented and how they influence the results of language games played by these agents. We present computer simulations with language games showing that adding constructs that mimic the three stages of joint attention identified in children's early development
Johan Kwisthout; Paul Vogt; Pim Haselager; Ton Dijkstra
Phillips, Wellman, and Spelke (2002) suggest that by 12 to 14 months, infants can use a person’s emotional and attentional cues to predict that person’s actions. However, this work was conducted using only positive emotions, which is problematic because attention and positive emotions lead to the same prediction about a person’s actions, thus leaving unclear whether infants made predictions based upon attention and emotion or attention alone. To get around this problem, we used both positive and negative emotions in a looking-time paradigm to investigate whether 14-month-old infants can use emotional cues to predict a person’s actions. The findings suggest that infants used attentional but not emotional cues as predictors. We argue that while 14-month-olds can use another person’s emotion cues to modify their own behavior (as in social referencing situations), they do not yet use them robustly to predict the other’s behavior.
Visual attention can improve behavioral performance by allowing observers to focus on the important information in a complex scene. Attention also typically increases the firing rates of cortical sensory neurons. Rate increases improve the signal-to-noise ratio of individual neurons, and this improvement has been assumed to underlie attention-related improvements in behavior. We recorded dozens of neurons simultaneously in visual area V4 and found that changes in single neurons accounted for only a small fraction of the improvement in the sensitivity of the population. Instead, over 80% of the attentional improvement in the population signal was caused by decreases in the correlations between the trial-to-trial fluctuations in the responses of pairs of neurons. These results suggest that the representation of sensory information in populations of neurons and the way attention affects the sensitivity of the population may only be understood by considering the interactions between neurons. PMID:19915566
Most prior literature examining the relations among attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and substance use and abuse suggests that CD fully accounts for the ADHD-substance abuse relation. This study sought to test an alternate theory that individuals with symptoms of both ADHD and CD are at a special risk for substance abuse. Relations between childhood ADHD and CD symptoms,
Kate Flory; Richard Milich; Donald R. Lynam; Carl Leukefeld; Richard Clayton
We deployed the Multiple Necessary Cues (MNC) discrimination task to see if pigeons can simultaneously attend to four different dimensions of complex visual stimuli. Specifically, we trained nine pigeons (Columba livia) on a go/no go discrimination to peck only 1 of 16 compound stimuli created from all possible combinations of two stimulus values from four separable visual dimensions: shape (circle/square), size (large/small), line orientation (horizontal/vertical), and brightness (dark/light). Some of the pigeons had CLHD (circle, large, horizontal, dark) as the positive stimulus (S+), whereas others had SSVL (square, small, vertical, light) as the S+. We recorded touchscreen pecking during the first 15?s that each stimulus was presented on each training trial. Discrimination training continued until pigeons' rates of responding to all 15 negative stimuli (S-s) fell to less than 15% of their response rates to the S+. All pigeons acquired the MNC discrimination, suggesting that they attended to all four dimensions of the multidimensional stimuli. Learning rate was similar for all four dimensions, indicating equivalent salience of the discriminative stimuli. The more dimensions along which the S-s differed from the S+, the faster was discrimination learning, suggesting an added benefit from increasing perceptual disparities of the S-s from the S+. Finally, evidence of attentional tradeoffs among the four dimensions was seen during discrimination learning, raising interesting questions concerning the possible control of behavior by elemental and configural stimuli. PMID:24634281
Attention has been found to have a wide variety of effects on the responses of neurons in visual cortex. We describe a model of attention that exhibits each of these different forms of attentional modulation, depending on the stimulus conditions and the spread (or selectivity) of the attention field in the model. The model helps reconcile proposals that have been taken to represent alternative theories of attention. We argue that the variety and complexity of the results reported in the literature emerge from the variety of empirical protocols that were used, such that the results observed in any one experiment depended on the stimulus conditions and the subject’s attentional strategy, a notion that we define precisely in terms of the attention field in the model, but that has not typically been completely under experimental control.
Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review fo...
Children evaluated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have other disorders resembling ADHD leading to inappropriate stimulant medication use. This study was completed to identify relationships between referral complaints of ADHD, behavior problems or learning problems and age, gender, final diagnosis, and medication use. One hundred eighty-nine children ages 2 to 15 years referred for evaluation of ADHD, behavior
David A. Kube; Mario C. Petersen; Frederick B. Palmer
Behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures were used to elucidate the neural mechanisms of involuntary engagement of attention by novelty and change in the acoustic environment. The behavioral measures consisted of the reaction time (RT) and performance accuracy (hit rate) in a forced-choice visual RT task where subjects were to discriminate between odd and even numbers. Each visual stimulus
Carles Escera; Kimmo Alho; István Winkler; Risto Näätänen
Ever since Wheatstone initiated the scientific study of binocular rivalry, it has been debated whether the phenomenon is under attentional control. In recent years, the issue of attentional modulation of binocular rivalry has seen a revival. Here we review the classical studies as well as recent advances in the study of attentional modulation of binocular rivalry. We show that (1) voluntary control over binocular rivalry is possible, yet limited, (2) both endogenous and exogenous attention influence perceptual dominance during rivalry, (3) diverting attention from rival displays does not arrest perceptual alternations, and that (4) rival targets by themselves can also attract attention. From a theoretical perspective, we suggest that attention affects binocular rivalry by modulating the effective contrast of the images in competition. This contrast enhancing effect of top-down attention is counteracted by a response attenuating effect of neural adaptation at early levels of visual processing, which weakens the response to the dominant image. Moreover, we conclude that although frontal and parietal brain areas involved in both binocular rivalry and visual attention overlap, an adapting reciprocal inhibition arrangement at early visual cortex is sufficient to trigger switches in perceptual dominance independently of a higher-level “selection” mechanisms. Both of these processes are reciprocal and therefore self-balancing, with the consequence that complete attentional control over binocular rivalry can never be realized.
Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis.
Summary To characterize the computational processes by which attention improves behavioral performance, we measured activity in visual cortex with functional magnetic resonance imaging as humans performed a contrast-discrimination task with focal and distributed attention. Focal attention yielded robust improvements in behavioral performance that were accompanied by increases in cortical responses. Using a quantitative analysis, we determined that if performance were limited only by the sensitivity of the measured sensory signals, the improvements in behavioral performance would have corresponded to an unrealistically large (approximately 400%) reduction in response variability. Instead, behavioral performance was well characterized by a pooling and selection process for which the largest sensory responses, those most strongly modulated by attention, dominated the perceptual decision. This characterization predicts that high contrast distracters that evoke large sensory responses should have a negative impact on behavioral performance. We tested and confirmed this prediction. We conclude that attention enhanced behavioral performance predominantly by enabling efficient selection of the behaviorally relevant sensory signals.
Pestilli, Franco; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J.; Gardner, Justin L.
This paper introduces the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS), an observation tool that targets children’s interactions in preschool classrooms with teachers, peers, and tasks. In particular, initial evidence is reported of the extent to which the inCLASS meets the following psychometric criteria: inter-rater reliability, normal distributions and adequate range, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. These initial findings suggest that the inCLASS has the potential to provide an authentic, contextualized assessment of young children’s classroom behaviors. Future directions for research with the inCLASS are discussed.
Downer, Jason T.; Booren, Leslie M.; Lima, Olivia K.; Luckner, Amy E.; Pianta, Robert C.
Summary Nutrition might play an important role to ameliorate or to buffer age-related declines in attention and psychomotor functions.\\u000a The assessment of nutritional effects in aged subjects has to take into account that attention and psychomotor functions can\\u000a be subdivided in different functions that are differentially affected by age. This paper gives an overview of changes in different\\u000a facets of attention
Konrad Wolfgang Kallus; Jeroen A. J. Schmitt; David Benton
Challenging formal education's traditional monopoly over the mass-scale acculturation of youth, the technological infrastructure of the new economy brings in its wake a new attentional economy in which any connected adult or child owns and controls a full economic share of her or his own attention. For youth who have never known the text-bound…
The classic theory of spatial attention hypothesized 2 modes, voluntary and involuntary. Folk, Remington, and Johnston (1992) reported that even involuntary attention capture by stimuli requires a match between stimulus properties and what the observer is looking for. This surprising conclusion has been confirmed by many subsequent studies. In…
Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Johnston, James C.
The research reported in this thesis dealt with the attentional blink: a phenomenon that provides a window into the temporal and functional architecture of the processes mediating the selection and transfer of visual information into awareness. The main empirical hallmark of the attentional blink is the finding of an impairment in responses to the second of two stimuli presented briefly
Attentional capture for distractors is enhanced by increasing the difficulty of discrimination between the standard and the target in the three-stimulus oddball paradigm. In this study, we investigated the cognitive mechanism of this modulation of attentional capture. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from participants while they…
Research attempting to elucidate the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not only shed light on the disorder itself, it has simultaneously provided new insights into the mechanisms of normal cognition and attention. This review will highlight and integrate this bidirectional flow of information. Following a brief overview of ADHD clinical phenomenology, ADHD studies will be placed into a wider
Cholinergic neurotransmission has been shown to play an important role in modulating attentional processing of visual stimuli. However, it is not yet clear whether the neurochemical acetylcholine (ACh) is necessary exclusively for visual attention, or if it also contributes to attentional functions through some modality-independent (supramodal) mechanism. To answer this question, we examined the effects of reduced cortical cholinergic afferentation on both a traditional visual and a novel olfactory five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), the benchmark rodent test of sustained attention in rats. Following the successful acquisition of both modalities of the task, the rats underwent either a cholinergic immunotoxic- or sham-lesion surgery of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM), the basal forebrain nuclei that provide the majority of neocortical ACh. Reduced cholinergic afferentation to the neocortex was induced by bilaterally infusing the cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin into the NBM. After surgery, ACh-NBM-lesioned rats performed comparably to sham-lesioned rats under the conditions of low attentional demand, but displayed behavioral decrements relative to the sham-lesioned rats when the attentional demands of the task were increased. Moreover, this decrement in attentional functioning correlated significantly with the number of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive cells in the NBM. Importantly, the nature of this behavioral decrement was identical in the visual and olfactory 5-CSRTTs. Together, these data suggest the presence of a supramodal attentional modulatory cortical network whose activity is dependent on cholinergic innervation from the NBM. PMID:24501365
Attention deficit disorder (ADD) in adolescents has received scant attention when compared with that given to children. With or without hyperactivity, ADD does not disappear at puberty and is an important factor in scholastic and social failure in adolescents. As a condition associated with decreased metabolism in the premotor and prefrontal superior cerebral cortex, ADD in adolescents responds well to treatment with stimulants, tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Nonpharmacologic modalities such as behavior modification, individual and family therapy, and cognitive therapy are useful adjuncts to psychopharmacologic management. Without effective treatment, ADD often results in increased risk of trauma, substance abuse and conduct and affective disorders during adolescence, and marital disharmony, family dysfunction, divorce, and incarceration in adulthood. Properly treated with medication and counseling, adolescents with ADD succeed as well as their peers. PMID:7779826
Faigel, H C; Sznajderman, S; Tishby, O; Turel, M; Pinus, U
The mechanism by which visual-spatial attention affects the detection of faint signals has been the subject of considerable debate. It is well known that spatial cuing speeds signal detection. This may imply that attentional cuing modulates the processing of sensory information during detection or, alternatively, that cuing acts to create decision bias favoring input at the cued location. These possibilities
Harold L. Hawkins; Steven A. Hillyard; Steven J. Luck; Mustapha Mouloua
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the emotional significance of stimuli can influence spatial attention. BACKGROUND: Motivational and emotional factors may affect attention toward stimuli. However, this has never been examined in brain-damaged patients who present with unilateral inattention due to left spatial neglect. METHODS: The authors studied three patients with chronic left neglect and visual extinction after right parietal stroke. Shapes
This paper discusses the concept of joint at- tention and the dierent skills underlying its development. We argue that joint attention is much more than gaze following or simul- taneous looking because it implies a shared intentional relation to the world. The current state-of-the-art in robotic and computational models of the dierent prerequisites of joint attention is discussed in relation
The idea of two separate attention networks in the human brain for the voluntary deployment of attention and the reorientation to unexpected events, respectively, has inspired an enormous amount of research over the past years. In this review, we will reconcile these theoretical ideas on the dorsal and ventral attentional system with recent empirical findings from human neuroimaging experiments and studies in stroke patients. We will highlight how novel methods—such as the analysis of effective connectivity or the combination of neurostimulation with functional magnetic resonance imaging—have contributed to our understanding of the functionality and interaction of the two systems. We conclude that neither of the two networks controls attentional processes in isolation and that the flexible interaction between both systems enables the dynamic control of attention in relation to top-down goals and bottom-up sensory stimulation. We discuss which brain regions potentially govern this interaction according to current task demands.
Birth order is considered one of the most influential environmental factors in child development, affecting cognitive abilities and behavioral traits. This study investigates the effect of birth order in relation to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the most common neuro-behavioral disorder of childhood. The study describes birth order of 598 children aged 6 to 18 years diagnosed due to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The cohort contains relatively large size families because 47.1% of the participants were born in families of more than 4 children. The results show no statistically significant differences in birth order of children among all families. We conclude that the chances of first, middle, or later born children, as well as single children, to suffer from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are almost equal. This study provides evidence that birth order has no effect in relation to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:19211923
Two experiments investigated the effect of sustained selective spatial attention upon the perceptual analysis of stimuli within the center of gaze. Spatial attention has typically been studied in relation to peripheral stimuli, and its relevance to the processing of central stimuli has remained relatively ignored. Here, behavioral measures in normal human volunteer participants showed that focused spatial attention can also
Previously published as "Attention Deficit Disorder: ADHD and ADD Syndromes," this popular book is now in its fourth edition. It provides up-to-date research and more complete explanations of how Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) interfere with classroom learning, behavior at home, job…
Attentional dysfunction can be found in nearly every form of psychopathology, not just in attention deficit disorder (ADD). Being able to distinguish ADD from other psychiatric conditions is crucial for clinicians working with adolescents and young adults, particularly in the case of psychoses where making the correct diagnosis and beginning treatment promptly is extremely important. In this paper we review the literature on the attentional dysfunction found in schizophrenia and compare it to that found in ADD in an effort to increase our knowledge of etiology and underlying mechanisms. Investigators studying ADD may learn from the study of schizophrenia by realizing that ADD is also a complex disorder of attention that occurs across the developmental spectrum and is characterized by various predispositional, environmental, and maturational factors. PMID:11462744
The experimental investigation of language-mediated visual attention is a promising way to study the interaction of the cognitive systems involved in language, vision, attention, and memory. Here we highlight four challenges for a mechanistic account of this oculomotor behavior: the levels of representation at which language-derived and vision-derived representations are integrated; attentional mechanisms; types of memory; and the degree of individual and group differences. Central points in our discussion are (a) the possibility that local microcircuitries involving feedforward and feedback loops instantiate a common representational substrate of linguistic and non-linguistic information and attention; and (b) that an explicit working memory may be central to explaining interactions between language and visual attention. We conclude that a synthesis of further experimental evidence from a variety of fields of inquiry and the testing of distinct, non-student, participant populations will prove to be critical.
Huettig, Falk; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar; Olivers, Christian N. L.
Unilateral spatial neglect is a disabling condition, frequently observed after right-hemisphere damage (RHD), and associated with poor functional recovery. Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that attentional impairments are prominent in neglect. Recent brain imaging and behavioral studies in neglect patients and healthy individuals have provided insights into the mechanisms of attention and have revealed interactions between putative attentional networks. We recruited 16 RHD patients and 16 neurologically intact observers to perform a lateralized version of the Attention Network Test devised by Posner and co-workers (Fan et al., 2002). The results showed evidence of interaction between attentional networks during conflict resolution. Phasic alertness improved the orienting deficit to left-sided targets, reducing the interference of distracters in the neglected visual field, thus facilitating conflict resolution in the majority of patients. Modulating alertness may be an important way of improving basic deficits associated with neglect, such as those affecting spatial orienting. PMID:21377668
Chica, Ana B; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Toba, Monica; Malhotra, Paresh; Lupiáñez, Juan; Bartolomeo, Paolo
Do voluntary (endogenous) and involuntary (exogenous) attention have the same perceptual consequences? Here we used fMRI to examine activity in the fusiform face area (FFA-a region in ventral visual cortex responsive to faces) and frontal-parietal areas (dorsal regions involved in spatial attention) under voluntary and involuntary spatial cueing conditions. The trial and stimulus parameters were identical for both cueing conditions. However, the cue predicted the location of an upcoming target face in the voluntary condition but was nonpredictive in the involuntary condition. The predictable cue-condition led to increased activity in the FFA compared to the nonpredictable cue-condition. These results show that voluntary attention leads to more activity in areas of the brain associated with face processing than involuntary attention, and they are consistent with differential behavioral effects of attention on recognition-related processes.
Visual attention can be voluntarily directed toward stimuli and is attracted by stimuli that are emotionally significant. The present study explored the case when both processes coincide and attention is directed to emotional stimuli. Participants viewed a rapid and continuous stream of high-arousing erotica and mutilation stimuli as well as low-arousing control images. Each of the three stimulus categories served in separate runs as target or nontarget category. Event-related brain potential measures revealed that the interaction of attention and emotion varied for specific processing stages. The effects of attention and emotional significance operated additively during perceptual encoding indexed by negative-going potentials over posterior regions (approximately 200-350 ms after stimulus onset). In contrast, thought to reflect the process of stimulus evaluation, P3 target effects (approximately 400-600 ms after stimulus onset) were markedly augmented when erotica and mutilation compared with control stimuli were the focus of attention. Thus, emotion potentiated attention effects specifically during later stages of processing. These findings suggest to specify the interaction of attention and emotion in distinct processing stages. PMID:17267562
Schupp, Harald T; Stockburger, Jessica; Codispoti, Maurizio; Junghöfer, Markus; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O
Alcohol can disrupt goal-directed behavior by impairing the ability to inhibit attentional shifts toward salient but goal-irrelevant stimuli. Individuals who are highly sensitive to this effect of the drug may be at increased risk for problematic drinking, especially among those whose attention is drawn to alcohol-related cues in the environment (i.e., attentional bias). The current study examined the acute impairing effect of alcohol on inhibitory mechanisms of attentional control in a group of healthy social drinkers. We then examined whether increased sensitivity to this disinhibiting effect of alcohol was associated with heavy drinking, especially among those who have an attentional bias toward alcohol-related stimuli. Eighty nondependent social drinkers performed a delayed ocular response task that measured their inhibitory control of attention by their ability to suppress attentional shifts to irrelevant stimuli. Attentional bias was measured using a visual probe task. Inhibitory control was assessed following a moderate dose of alcohol (0.64 g/kg) and a placebo. Participants made more inhibitory failures (i.e., premature saccades) following 0.64 g/kg alcohol compared with placebo and the relation of this effect to their drinking habits did depend on the level of the drinker's attentional bias to alcohol-related stimuli. Among drinkers with higher attentional bias, greater impairment of inhibitory control was associated with heavier drinking. In contrast, drinkers with little or no attentional bias showed no relation between their sensitivity to the disinhibiting effects of alcohol and drinking habits. These findings have implications for understanding how heightened incentive-salience of alcohol cues and impaired attentional control can interactively contribute to excessive alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24611837
Roberts, Walter; Miller, Melissa A; Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T
Background Perceptual attention enhances the processing of items in the environment, whereas internal attention enhances processing of items encoded in visual working memory. In perceptual and internal attention cueing paradigms, cues indicate the to-be-probed item before (pre-cueing) or after (retro-cueing) the memory display, respectively. Pre- and retro- cues confer similar behavioral accuracy benefits (pre-: 14–19%, retro-: 11–17%) and neuroimaging data show that they activate overlapping frontoparietal networks (1). Yet reports of behavioral and neuroimaging differences suggest that pre- and retro-cueing differentially recruit frontal and parietal cortices (1). Objective/Hypothesis This study examined whether perceptual and internal attention are equally disrupted by neurostimulation to frontal and parietal cortices. We hypothesized that neurostimulation applied to frontal cortex would disrupt internal attention to a greater extent than perceptual attention. Methods Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was applied to frontal or parietal cortices. After stimulation, participants completed a change detection task coupled with either pre- or retro- cues. Results Cathodal tDCS across site (frontal, parietal) hindered performance. However, frontal tDCS had a greater negative impact on the retro-cued trials demonstrating greater frontal involvement during shifts of internal attention. Conclusions These results complement the neuroimaging data and provide further evidence suggesting that perceptual and internal attention are not identical processes. We conclude that although internal and perceptual attention are mediated by similar frontoparietal networks, the weight of contribution of these structures differs, with internal attention relying more heavily on the frontal cortex.
Tanoue, Ryan T.; Jones, Kevin T.; Peterson, Dwight J.; Berryhill, Marian E.
ADHD or ADD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) is one of the most frequently diagnosed mental and behavioral disorders of children. Children with ADHD are characterized by poor attention and distractibility and/or hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Although there is no "cure" for ADHD, there are accepted treatments that specifically…
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a relatively common childhood behavior disorder that typically is treated with psychotropic medication (e.g., methylphenidate), behavioral strategies, or their combination. This article provides an overview of the school-related difficulties associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.…
The present experiment extended and replicated the use of functional analysis and a peer-mediated intervention to decrease disruptive behavior displayed by children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in an afterschool program. After determining that the participants displayed off-task behavior maintained by peer attention via…
Grauvogel-MacAleese, Alicia N.; Wallace, Michele D.
In lower-income countries students face an important challenge that has not been well documented: selective teacher attention. Inclasses with many low-income students, teachers may concentrate on those few who can perform and neglect those who require more help. The latter may fail to learn, attend school less often, and eventually drop out.…
Predators are known to select food of the same type in non-random sequences or “runs” that are longer than would be expected by chance. If prey are conspicuous, predators will switch between available sources, interleaving runs of different prey types. However, when prey are cryptic, predators tend to focus on one food type at a time, effectively ignoring equally available sources. This latter finding is regarded as a key indicator that animal foraging is strongly constrained by attention. It is unknown whether human foraging is equally constrained. Here, using a novel iPad task, we demonstrate for the first time that it is. Participants were required to locate and touch 40 targets from 2 different categories embedded within a dense field of distractors. When individual target items “popped-out” search was organized into multiple runs, with frequent switching between target categories. In contrast, as soon as focused attention was required to identify individual targets, participants typically exhausted one entire category before beginning to search for the other. This commonality in animal and human foraging is compelling given the additional cognitive tools available to humans, and suggests that attention constrains search behavior in a similar way across a broad range of species.
Kristjansson, Arni; Johannesson, Omar I.; Thornton, Ian M.
This study sought to determine if children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have better long term outcomes when combined intervention (stimulant medication, counseling and environmental modification) are used rather than stimulant medi...
Attention selects stimuli for perceptual and cognitive processing according to an adaptive selection schedule. It has long been known that attention selects stimuli that are task relevant or perceptually salient. Recent evidence has shown that stimuli previously associated with reward persistently capture attention involuntarily, even when they are no longer associated with reward. Here we examine whether the capture of attention by previously reward-associated stimuli is modulated by the processing of current but unrelated rewards. Participants learned to associate two color stimuli with different amounts of reward during a training phase. In a subsequent test phase, these previously rewarded color stimuli were occasionally presented as to-be-ignored distractors while participants performed visual search for each of two differentially rewarded shape-defined targets. The results reveal that attentional capture by formerly rewarded distractors was the largest when both recently received and currently expected reward were the highest in the test phase, even though such rewards were unrelated to the color distractors. Our findings support a model in which value-driven attentional biases acquired through reward learning are maintained via the cognitive mechanisms involved in predicting future rewards.
Anderson, Brian A.; Laurent, Patryk A.; Yantis, Steven
The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) region is uniquely situated at the intersection of visual, somatosensory, and auditory association cortices, ideally located for processing of multisensory attention. We examined the internal architecture of the IPS region and its connectivity to other regions in the dorsal attention and cinguloinsular networks using maximal connectivity clustering. We show with resting state fMRI data from 58 healthy adolescent and young adult volunteers that points of maximal connectivity between the IPS and other regions in the dorsal attention and cinguloinsular networks are topographically organized, with at least seven maps of the IPS region in each hemisphere. Distinct clusters of the IPS exhibited differential connectivity to auditory, visual, somatosensory, and default mode networks, suggesting local specialization within the IPS region for different sensory modalities. In an independent task activation paradigm with 16 subjects, attention to different sensory modalities showed similar functional specialization within the left intraparietal sulcus region. The default mode network, in contrast, did not show a topographical relationship between regions in the network, but rather maximal connectivity in each region to a single central cluster of the other regions. The topographical architecture of multisensory attention may represent a mechanism for specificity in top-down control of attention from dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral orbitofrontal cortex and may represent an organizational unit for multisensory representations in the brain.
Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Ferguson, Michael A.; Lopez-Larson, Melissa; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah
Effective processing of threat-related stimuli is of significant evolutionary advantage. Given the intricate relationship between attention and the neural processing of threat-related emotions, this study manipulated attention allocation and emotional categories of threat-related stimuli as independent factors and investigated the time course of spatial-attention-modulated processing of disgusting and fearful stimuli. The participants were instructed to direct their attention either to the two vertical or to the two horizontal locations, where two faces and two houses would be presented. The task was to respond regarding the physical identity of the two stimuli at cued locations. Event-related potentials (ERP) evidences were found to support a two-stage model of attention-modulated processing of threat-related emotions. In the early processing stage, disgusted faces evoked larger P1 component at right occipital region despite the attention allocation while larger N170 component was elicited by fearful faces at right occipito-temporal region only when participants attended to houses. In the late processing stage, the amplitudes of the parietal P3 component enhanced for both disgusted and fearful facial expressions only when the attention was focused on faces. According to the results, we propose that the temporal dynamics of the emotion-by-attention interaction consist of two stages. The early stage is characterized by quick and specialized neural encoding of disgusting and fearful stimuli irrespective of voluntary attention allocation, indicating an automatic detection and perception of threat-related emotions. The late stage is represented by attention-gated separation between threat-related stimuli and neutral stimuli; the similar ERP pattern evoked by disgusted and fearful faces suggests a more generalized processing of threat-related emotions via top-down attentional modulation, based on which the defensive behavior in response to threat events is largely facilitated.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, also known as ADD or ADHD is a condition that makes it difficult for children to control their behavior. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is usually first diagnosed in childhood and may last into adulthood...
Responds to the article, "Blackboard's COURSEINFO: Supplementing In-Class Teaching with the Internet," by David M. Fahey. Focuses on the benefits and drawbacks to using this software to have a paperless course Includes an overall review of COURSEINFO. (CMK)
The underlying units of attention are often discrete visual objects. Perhaps the clearest form of evidence for this is the same-object advantage: Following a spatial cue, responses are faster to probes occurring on the same object than they are to probes occurring on other objects, while equating brute distance. Is this a fundamentally spatial effect, or can same-object advantages also occur in time? We explored this question using independently normed rhythmic temporal sequences, structured into phrases and presented either visually or auditorily. Detection was speeded when cues and probes both lay within the same rhythmic phrase, compared to when they spanned a phrase boundary, while equating brute duration. This same-phrase advantage suggests that object-based attention is a more general phenomenon than has been previously suspected: Perceptual structure constrains attention, in both space and time, and in both vision and audition. PMID:23586668
De Freitas, Julian; Liverence, Brandon M; Scholl, Brian J
Although variations of response time (RT) within a particular experimental condition are typically ignored, they may sometimes reflect meaningful changes in the efficiency of cognitive and neural processes. In the present study, we investigated whether trial-by-trial variations of response time (RT) in a cross-modal selective attention task were associated with variations of functional connectivity between brain regions that are thought to underlie attention. Sixteen healthy young adults performed an audiovisual selective attention task, which involved attending to a relevant visual letter while ignoring an irrelevant auditory letter, as we recorded their brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In line with predictions, variations of RT were associated with variations of functional connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and various other brain regions that are posited to underlie attentional control, such as the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral regions of the posterior parietal cortex. They were also linked to variations of functional connectivity between anatomically early and anatomically late regions of the relevant-modality visual cortex whose communication is thought to be modulated by attentional control processes. By revealing that variations of RT in a selective attention task are linked to variations of functional connectivity in the attentional network, the present findings suggest that variations of attention may contribute to trial-by-trial fluctuations of behavioral performance.
This article reviews the current treatment literature for attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschoolers.\\u000a Parent training studies show consistent behavioral improvements reported by teachers and observers as well as parents, with\\u000a evidence of clinically significant improvement in ADHD symptoms for up to 2 years. Few other behavioral interventions have\\u000a been evaluated, although data from a large psychosocial, multimodal intervention are forthcoming. There
A cardinal symptom of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a general distractibility where children and adults shift their attentional focus to stimuli that are irrelevant to the ongoing behavior. This has been attributed to a deficit in dopaminergic signaling in cortico-striatal networks that regulate goal-directed behavior. Furthermore, recent imaging evidence points to an impairment of large scale, antagonistic brain networks that normally contribute to attentional engagement and disengagement, such as the task-positive networks and the default mode network (DMN). Related networks are the ventral attentional network (VAN) involved in attentional shifting, and the salience network (SN) related to task expectancy. Here we discuss the tonic–phasic dynamics of catecholaminergic signaling in the brain, and attempt to provide a link between this and the activities of the large-scale cortical networks that regulate behavior. More specifically, we propose that a disbalance of tonic catecholamine levels during task performance produces an emphasis of phasic signaling and increased excitability of the VAN, yielding distractibility symptoms. Likewise, immaturity of the SN may relate to abnormal tonic signaling and an incapacity to build up a proper executive system during task performance. We discuss different lines of evidence including pharmacology, brain imaging and electrophysiology, that are consistent with our proposal. Finally, restoring the pharmacodynamics of catecholaminergic signaling seems crucial to alleviate ADHD symptoms; however, the possibility is open to explore cognitive rehabilitation strategies to top-down modulate network dynamics compensating the pharmacological deficits.
Unilateral spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following predominantly right hemisphere injuries to ventral fronto-parietal cortex. We propose that neglect reflects deficits in the coding of saliency, control of spatial attention, and representation within an egocentric frame of reference, in conjunction with non-spatial deficits of reorienting, target detection, and arousal/vigilance. In contrast to theories that link spatial neglect to structural damage of specific brain regions, we argue that neglect is better explained by the physiological dysfunction of distributed cortical networks. The ventral lesions in right parietal, temporal, and frontal cortex that cause neglect directly impair non-spatial functions and hypoactivate the right hemisphere, inducing abnormalities in task-evoked activity and functional connectivity of a dorsal frontal-parietal network that controls spatial attention. The anatomy and right hemisphere dominance of neglect follows from the anatomy and laterality of the ventral regions that interact with the dorsal attention network.
Research attempting to elucidate the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not only shed light on the disorder itself, it has simultaneously provided new insights into the mechanisms of normal cognition and attention. This review will highlight and integrate this bidirectional flow of information. Following a brief overview of ADHD clinical phenomenology, ADHD studies will be placed into a wider historical perspective by providing illustrative examples of how major models of attention have influenced the development of neurocircuitry models of ADHD. The review will then identify major components of neural systems potentially relevant to ADHD, including attention networks, reward/feedback-based processing systems, as well as a ‘default mode' resting state network. Further, it will suggest ways in which these systems may interact and be influenced by neuromodulatory factors. Recent ADHD imaging data will be selectively provided to both illustrate the field's current level of knowledge and to show how such data can inform our understanding of normal brain functions. The review will conclude by suggesting possible avenues for future research.
Validity of the distinction between oppositional disorder (OD) and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH) was examined in a sample of 6- to 12-year-old boys with behavior problems. Problem identification, cognitive\\/attentional, family context, and behavioral symptom differences were examined among nine boys with OD only, 20 with ADDH, 40 with comorbid OD and ADDH, and 28 with neither disruptive behavior
Cognitive behavioural models of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) propose that attention processes, specifically, enhanced selective attention to health-threat related cues, may play an important role in symptom maintenance. The current study investigated attentional bias towards health-threat stimuli in CFS. It also examined whether individuals with CFS have impaired executive attention, and whether this was related to attentional bias. 27 participants with CFS and 35 healthy controls completed a Visual Probe Task measuring attentional bias, and an Attention Network Test measuring executive attention, alerting and orienting. Participants also completed self-report measures of CFS and mood symptoms. Compared to the control group, the CFS group showed greater attentional bias for health-threat words than pictures; and the CFS group was significantly impaired in executive attention. Furthermore, CFS individuals with poor executive attention showed greater attentional bias to health-threat related words, compared not only to controls but also to CFS individuals with good executive attention. Thus, this study revealed a significant relationship between attentional bias and executive attention in CFS: attentional bias to threat was primarily evident in those with impaired executive attention control. Taking account of individual differences in executive attention control in current intervention models may be beneficial for CFS. PMID:24262484
Describes the occurrence of childhood Unwanted Sexual Attention (UWSA) and explores its relation to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings suggest that UWSA is an almost universal experience for girls that causes significant anger and fear. Assessing UWSA will be important from a public health perspective in evaluating if such behaviors pose a risk…
This article reviews the current research-based knowledge on nonpharmacological interventions for students with attention deficit disorder and highlights findings related to behavior management, academic instruction, home and school collaboration, and comprehensive programing. A lack of research is noted on interventions concerning daily classroom…
The article describes children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), noting it can contribute to school underachievement, learning disabilities, difficulties in social adjustment, and emotional disorders. It examines diagnosis, neurobehavioral factors, and outcome and discusses coping via behavior modification at home, classroom…
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether previously reported questionnaire-based differences in self-regulatory behaviors (Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2009, 2010) between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS) would also be reflected in their underlying attentional networks. Method: Participants…
Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F.; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.
To characterize infant reactions to jealousy evocation, 94 6-month-olds and their mothers were videotaped in an episode where the mothers directed positive attention toward a lifelike doll, and in 2 contrasting interactions: face-to-face play and a still-face perturbation. Cross-context comparisons of affects and behaviors revealed that jealousy…
Hart, Sybil L.; Carrington, Heather A.; Tronick, E. Z.; Carroll, Sebrina R.
It has been suggested that children with attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADDH) are likely to show allergic disorders, and that both ADDH and allergic disorders may share a common biological background. In a large sample of children from the general population we found no association between parent, teacher, and self-reports of ADDH behaviors and a history of allergic disorders (asthma, eczema,
This article reviews recent research findings, expanding an evolving neuropsychophysiological model of hypnosis (Crawford, 1989; Crawford & Gruzelier, 1992), that support the view that highly hypnotizable persons (highs) possess stronger attentional filtering abilities than do low hypnotizable persons, and that these differences are reflected in underlying brain dynamics. Behavioral, cognitive, and neurophysiological evidence is reviewed that suggests that highs can
Hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attention problems (HIA) in children and adolescents are stressful for parents. In this study, we used theories of parents' perceived power and attributions for youths' behaviors to develop a model to understand parents' reactions to their youths' HIA. We followed 706 youths (376 boys and 330 girls, aged 10-12 years…
This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…
Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.
The behavior ratings and psychometric profiles of children with attention deficit disorders (ADD) and children with developmental reading disorders (DRD) were compared. DRD children were more impaired in academic attainment and showed evidence of qualitative disturbances in reading and spelling. ADD children showed no qualitative reading or…
This study explored peer victimization in 9- to 14-year-old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 104 children, 52 of whom had a previous ADHD diagnosis. Children with ADHD had higher overall rates of self-reported victimization by peers and parent- and teacher-reported bullying behavior…
Recent neuroimaging evidence indicates that visual consciousness of objects is reflected by the activation in the lateral occipital cortex as well as in the frontal and parietal cortex. However, most previous studies used behavioral paradigms in which attention raised or enhanced visual consciousness (visibility or recognition performance). This co-occurrence made it difficult to reveal whether an observed cortical activation is
Recent neuroimaging evidence indicates that visual consciousness of objects is reflected by the activation in the lateral occipital cortex as well as in the frontal and parietal cortex. However, most previous studies used behavioral paradigms in which attention raised or enhanced visual consciousness (visibility or recognition performance). This co-occurrence made it difficult to reveal whether an observed cortical activation is
Recent neuroimaging evidence indicates that visual consciousness of objects is reflected by the activation in the lateral occipital cortex as well as in the frontal and parietal cortex. However, most previous studies used behavioral paradigms in which attention raised or enhanced visual consciousness (visibility or recognition performance). This co-occurrence made it difficult to reveal whether an observed cortical activation is
Previous research involving individuals facing chronic health problems suggests that an attentional style characterized by pronounced monitoring of threat-relevant information is associated with poorer behavioral and emotional adjustment. This study examined the hypothesis that a pronounced monitoring style would be associated with poorer medical regimen adherence in a sample of 51 chronic hemodialysis patients. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for demographic
Alan J. Christensen; Patricia J. Moran; William J. Lawton; Deanna Stallman; Anne L. Voigts
Previous research involving individuals facing chronic health problems suggests that an attentional style characterized by pronounced monitoring of threat-relevant information is associated with poorer behavioral and emotional adjustment. This study examined the hypothesis that a pronounced monitoring style would be associated with poorer medical regimen adherence in a sample of 51 chronic hemodialysis patients. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for demographic
Alan J. Christensen; Patricia J. Moran; William J. Lawton; Deanna Stallman; Anne L. Voigts
Two practice improvement projects that provided small group experiences for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior addressed: communication, friendship, self-control, and social problem solving. One provided activities for elementary students with ADHD (treated with medication only). Another provided…
Estimating the wandering visual focus of attention (WV- FOA) for multiple people is an important problem with many applications in human behavior understanding. One such application, addressed in this paper, monitors the at- tention of passers-by to outdoor advertisements. To solve the WVFOA problem, we propose a multi-person track- ing approach based on a hybrid Dynamic Bayesian Net- work that
Kevin Smith; Sileye O. Ba; Daniel Gatica-perez; Jean-marc Odobez
A discussion of the various modes of expression of attention deficit disorder (ADD) and hyperactivity in multiply disabled children is presented. Medical, behavioral, and educational management are discussed. The authors conclude that an integrated, developmental approach utilizing team management produces the most favorable outcome in this group.…
This article describes instruments and methods to assess the primary characteristics that define attention deficit disorder (ADD) for the purpose of identification. Issues in ADD assessment include identifying co-occurring disabilities, defining the severity of ADD, and determining the pervasiveness and situational nature of the behavioral…
This study examines the impact of family violence on the development of attention and conduct problems in girls and boys. Mothers (n = 287) were interviewed and given diagnostic assessment instruments to measure attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder in 1 of their children. Six years later, youths were interviewed about their delinquent behavior. Family violence related to attention and conduct problems in girls only. Girls who displayed these problems in childhood were not necessarily at risk for later delinquency. Family violence in childhood had a direct effect on delinquency in girls. Boys who developed attention problems were more likely to show conduct problems that eventually led to adolescent delinquency. Family violence failed to account for problems or delinquency in boys. PMID:14964597
Adaptive behavior in learning environments requires both the maintenance of an attentional focus on a task-set and suppression of distracting stimuli. This may be especially difficult when the competing information is more appealing than the target event. The aptitude to “pay attention” and resist distraction has often been noted as an important prerequisite of successful acquisition of intellectual abilities in children. This focused review draws on research that highlights interindividual differences in the temporal dynamics of attentional engagement and disengagement under competition, and their relation with age and cognitive/academic skills. Although basic strategies of attention control are present in very young children, the more refined ability to manage attentional resources over time in an economic and adaptive fashion appears during early school years, dramatically improves until the early teen years, and continues to develop into late adolescence. Across studies, parameters of attention control over time predict specific aspects of academic performance, rather than general intellectual ability. We conclude that the ability to strategically regulate the dynamic allocation of attention at rapid rates may represent an important element of cognitive and academic development.
Early selective attention skills are a crucial building block for cognitive development, as attention orienting serves as a primary means by which infants interact with and learn from the environment. Although several studies have examined infants’ attention orienting using the spatial cueing task, relatively few studies have examined neurodevelopmental factors associated with attention orienting during infancy. The present study examined the relationship between normative genetic polymorphisms affecting dopamine and acetylcholine signaling and attention orienting in 7-month-old infants during a spatial cueing task. We focused on 3 genes, including the CHRNA4 C1545T SNP (rs10344946), DAT1 3? UTR VNTR, and COMT Val158Met SNP (rs4680), as previous adult research has linked spatial attention skills to these polymorphisms. Behavioral measures included both facilitation of orienting at the cued location as well as inhibition of return (IOR), in which attention orienting is suppressed at the cued location. Results indicated that COMT Val carriers showed robust IOR relative to infants with the Met/Met genotype. However, COMT was unrelated to infants’ facilitation responses, and there were no effects of CHRNA4 or DAT1 on either facilitation or IOR. Overall, this study suggests that variations in dopamine signaling, likely in prefrontal cortex, contribute to individual differences in orienting during early development.
Markant, Julie; Cicchetti, Dante; Hetzel, Susan; Thomas, Kathleen M.
A novel, salient event in the environment powerfully captures attention. This stimulus-driven attentional capture not only includes orienting of attention toward the event, but also an evaluative process to determine the behavioral significance and appropriate response to the event. Whereas a network of human brain regions composed of prefrontal and temporoparietal regions have been associated with stimulus-driven attention, the neural substrates of orienting have never been teased apart from those of evaluative processes. Here we used fMRI to measure the human brain's response to the temporally extended presentations of salient, task-irrelevant stimuli, and found a clear functional dissociation in the stimulus-driven attention network; the anterior insula and cingulate cortex showed transient orienting responses to the onsets and offsets of the stimuli, whereas the temporoparietal cortex exhibited sustained activity throughout event evaluation. The lateral prefrontal cortex was implicated in both attentional and evaluative processes, pointing to its central, integrative role in stimulus-driven attention. PMID:24828649
The concepts of God and Devil are well known across many cultures and religions, and often involve spatial metaphors, but it is not well known if our mental representations of these concepts affect visual cognition. To examine if exposure to divine concepts produces shifts of attention, participants completed a target detection task in which they…
Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks between these episodes are punctuated by periods…
Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark
We tested 3 mechanisms of involuntary attention: (1) a perceptual enhancement mechanism, (2) a response-decision mechanism, and (3) a serial-search mechanism. Experiment 1 used a response deadline technique to compare the perceptual enhancement and the decision mechanisms and found evidence consistent with the decision mechanism. Experiment 2 used…
Plant modernization is not a new issue for the hydropower industry. Utilities and federal power suppliers in North America have been performing major overhauls and plant life extension programs for many years. However, several recent developments have caused the industry to refocus its attention on the advantages of rehabilitating older hydro plants. And, plant owners are finding that turbine rehabilitation
Hannula and Lehtinen (2001, 2005) defined spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) as the tendency to notice the relatively abstract attribute of number despite the presence of other attributes. According to nativists, an innate concept of one to three directs young children's attention to these "intuitive numbers" in everyday situations--even…
Metacognition refers to any knowledge or cognitive process that monitors or controls cognition. We highlight similarities between metacognitive and executive control functions, and ask how these processes might be implemented in the human brain. A review of brain imaging studies reveals a circuitry of attentional networks involved in these control processes, with its source located in midfrontal areas. These areas
Diego Fernandez-Duque; Jodie A. Baird; Michael I. Posner
Detoxified clients at an alcohol treatment centre (n=34) were administered a modified Stroop test, an index of attentional bias or distraction. Their performance was compared to controls (n=33) who were staff recruited from specialist substance misuse clinics based on the presumption of familiarity with the alcohol and addiction related terms of the Stroop task. The card-format Stroop test contained words
This review proposes a new taxonomy of automatic and controlled attention. The taxonomy distinguishes among the role of the attendee (puppet and robot, critic and actor), the attention process (stimulus orienting vs. response control), and the attention operation (activation vs. inhibition vs. adjustment), and identifies cognitive phenotypes by which attention is overtly expressed. We apply the taxonomy to four childhood attention disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, spina bifida meningomyelocele, traumatic brain injury, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Variations in attention are related to specific brain regions that support normal attention processes when intact, and produce disordered attention when impaired. The taxonomy explains group differences in behavioral inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness, as well as medication response. We also discuss issues relevant to theories of the cognitive and neural architecture of attention: functional dissociations within and between automatic and controlled attention; the relative importance of type of brain damage and developmental timing to attention profile; cognitive-energetic models of attention and white matter damage; temporal processing deficits, attention deficits and cerebellar damage; and the issue of cognitive phenotypes as candidate endophenotypes.
DENNIS, MAUREEN; SINOPOLI, KATIA J.; FLETCHER, JACK M.; SCHACHAR, RUSSELL
Previous neuroimaging studies have documented the existence of attention signals in human visual cortex, but little is known about the time course of these signals. A recent study reported persistent activity in early visual cortex whose duration was correlated with the duration of sustained attention1. The present study extends these findings by modeling the time course of sustained attention signals with a linear function with duration equal to the period of sustained attention but with variable amplitude and slope. Subjects performed a visual detection task in which a variable-duration delay period occurred before every target presentation. This design required the subjects to allocate visuospatial attention throughout the delay period. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to record activity in primary visual cortex (cortical area V1) during performance of the task. There were significant individual differences in the time course of attention signals, with some subjects displaying time courses consistent with constant amplitude attention signals, while others showed decreasing amplitude of attention-related activity during the delay period. These individual differences in time course of attention signals were correlated with behavioral response bias, suggesting that they may reflect differences in the types of attention used by the subjects to perform the detection task. In particular, those subjects who had constant amplitude sustained attention signals may have been employing relatively more endogenous, or top-down attention, while the subjects who exhibited attention signals that decreased over time may have been using relatively more exogenous, or bottom-up attention.
This review proposes a new taxonomy of automatic and controlled attention. The taxonomy distinguishes among the role of the attendee (puppet and robot, critic and actor), the attention process (stimulus orienting vs. response control), and the attention operation (activation vs. inhibition vs. adjustment), and identifies cognitive phenotypes by which attention is overtly expressed. We apply the taxonomy to four childhood attention disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, spina bifida meningomyelocele, traumatic brain injury, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Variations in attention are related to specific brain regions that support normal attention processes when intact, and produce disordered attention when impaired. The taxonomy explains group differences in behavioral inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness, as well as medication response. We also discuss issues relevant to theories of the cognitive and neural architecture of attention: functional dissociations within and between automatic and controlled attention; the relative importance of type of brain damage and developmental timing to attention profile; cognitive-energetic models of attention and white matter damage; temporal processing deficits, attention deficits and cerebellar damage; and the issue of cognitive phenotypes as candidate endophenotypes. PMID:18764966
Dennis, Maureen; Sinopoli, Katia J; Fletcher, Jack M; Schachar, Russell
Several recent behavioral studies have shown that the enumeration of a small number of items (a process termed subitizing) depends on the availability of attentional resources and is not a preattentive process as previously thought. Here we studied the neural correlates of visual enumeration under different attentional loads in a dual-task paradigm using fMRI. Relatively intact subitizing under low attentional load compared to impaired subitizing under high attentional load was associated with an increase in BOLD signal in the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ). Crucially, attentionally modulated response in the rTPJ was specific to small set sizes (up to 3 items) and did not occur at larger set sizes (5-7 items). This result has two implications: (1) Subitizing involves part of the fronto-parietal network for stimulus-driven attention providing neural evidence against preattentive subitizing. (2) Activity in rTPJ is set-size modulated. Together with similar evidence from studies probing visual short-term memory, this result suggests that rTPJ modulation might reflect the brain's ability to attentively handle small set sizes. Thus, the rTPJ may play an important role for the emergence of a capacity limit in both enumeration and visual short-term memory. PMID:20350059
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/ADD) is a neurobehavioral disorder of childhood onset characterized by severe, developmentally inappropriate motor hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsiveness that result in impairment in more than one setting. It affects the home, school, and community life of 39% of school-going children worldwide. There is increasing recognition that ADHD symptoms and clinically defined disorder can persist into adult life and are associated with later drug and alcohol misuse and social and work difficulties. Added to that is the extreme variability of the disorder over time, within the same individual, between individuals, and across different circumstances. Treatment with stimulants and nonstimulants has proven effective in different subgroups, with the effectiveness of specific agents most likely related to the primary neurotransmitter involved. However, stimulants with a short duration of action have been problematic for some patients. Parent training and cognitive behavioral therapies represent the most widely adjunct psychosocial interventions to pharmacotherapy.
Verma, Rohit; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mathur, Shachi
This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discriminability and appearance in tasks mediated by contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution; the effects of feature-based attention on basic visual processes, and a comparison of the effects of spatial and feature-based attention. The emphasis of this review is on psychophysical studies, but relevant electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies and models regarding how and where neuronal responses are modulated are also discussed.
A growing body of research suggests that the ability to regulate emotion remains stable or improves across the adult life span. Socioemotional selectivity theory maintains that this pattern of findings reflects the prioritization of emotional goals. Given that goal-directed behavior requires attentional control, the present study was designed to investigate age differences in selective attention to emotional lexical stimuli under conditions of emotional interference. Both neural and behavioral measures were obtained during an experiment in which participants completed a flanker task that required them to make categorical judgments about emotional and non-emotional stimuli. Older adults showed interference in both the behavioral and neural measures on control trials, but not on emotion trials. Although older adults typically show relatively high levels of interference and reduced cognitive control during non-emotional tasks, they appear to be able successfully to reduce interference during emotional tasks.
Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Robertson, Elaine R.; Mikels, Joseph A.; Carstensen, Laura L.; Gotlib, Ian H.
We examined sustained attention deficits in bipolar disorder and associated changes in brain activation assessed by functional MRI. We hypothesized that relative to healthy participants, those with mania or mixed mania would (1) exhibit incremental decrements in sustained attention over time, (2) overactivate brain regions required for emotional processing, and (3) progressively underactivate attentional regions of prefrontal cortex. Fifty participants with manic/mixed bipolar disorder (BP group) and 34 healthy comparison subjects (HC group) received a functional MRI scan while performing a 15-min Continuous Performance Task (CPT). The data were divided into three consecutive 5-min vigilance periods to analyze sustained attention. Composite brain activation maps indicated that both groups activated dorsal and ventral regions of an anterior-limbic network, but the BP group exhibited less activation over time relative to baseline. Consistent with hypotheses 1 and 2, the BP group demonstrated a marginally greater behavioral CPT sustained attention decrement and more bilateral amygdala activation than the HC group, respectively. Instead of differential activation in prefrontal cortex over time as predicted in hypothesis 3, the BP group progressively decreased activation in subcortical regions of striatum and thalamus relative to the HC group. These results suggest that regional activation decrements in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex accompany sustained attention decrements in both bipolar and healthy individuals. Stable amygdala overactivation across prolonged vigils may interfere with sustained attention and exacerbate attentional deficits in bipolar disorder. Differential striatal and thalamic deactivation in bipolar disorder is interpreted as a loss of amygdala (emotional brain) modulation by the ventrolateral prefrontal-subcortical circuit, which interferes with attentional maintenance.
Fleck, David E.; Eliassen, James C.; Durling, Michelle; Lamy, Martine; Adler, Caleb M.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Shear, Paula K.; Cerullo, Michael A.; Lee, Jing-Huei; Strakowski, Stephen M.
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Dimensions of psychopathy are theorized to be associated with distinct cognitive and emotional abnormalities that may represent unique neurobiological risk factors for the disorder. This hypothesis was investigated by examining whether the psychopathic personality dimensions of fearless-dominance and impulsive-antisociality moderated neural activity and behavioral responses associated with selective attention and emotional processing during an emotion-word Stroop task in 49 adults. As predicted, the dimensions evidenced divergent selective-attention deficits and sensitivity to emotional distraction. Fearless-dominance was associated with disrupted attentional control to positive words, and activation in right superior frontal gyrus mediated the relationship between fearless-dominance and errors to positive words. In contrast, impulsive-antisociality evidenced increased behavioral interference to both positive and negative words and correlated positively with recruitment of regions associated with motivational salience (amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion regulation (temporal cortex, superior frontal gyrus) and attentional control (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex). Individuals high on both dimensions had increased recruitment of regions related to attentional control (temporal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex), response preparation (pre-/post-central gyri) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) in response to negative words. These findings provide evidence that the psychopathy dimensions represent dual sets of risk factors characterized by divergent dysfunction in cognitive and affective processes.
Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Heller, Wendy; Herrington, John D.; Engels, Anna S.; Warren, Stacie L.; Crocker, Laura D.; Sutton, Bradley P.; Miller, Gregory A.
Dimensions of psychopathy are theorized to be associated with distinct cognitive and emotional abnormalities that may represent unique neurobiological risk factors for the disorder. This hypothesis was investigated by examining whether the psychopathic personality dimensions of fearless-dominance and impulsive-antisociality moderated neural activity and behavioral responses associated with selective attention and emotional processing during an emotion-word Stroop task in 49 adults. As predicted, the dimensions evidenced divergent selective-attention deficits and sensitivity to emotional distraction. Fearless-dominance was associated with disrupted attentional control to positive words, and activation in right superior frontal gyrus mediated the relationship between fearless-dominance and errors to positive words. In contrast, impulsive-antisociality evidenced increased behavioral interference to both positive and negative words and correlated positively with recruitment of regions associated with motivational salience (amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion regulation (temporal cortex, superior frontal gyrus) and attentional control (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex). Individuals high on both dimensions had increased recruitment of regions related to attentional control (temporal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex), response preparation (pre-/post-central gyri) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) in response to negative words. These findings provide evidence that the psychopathy dimensions represent dual sets of risk factors characterized by divergent dysfunction in cognitive and affective processes. PMID:22210673
Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Heller, Wendy; Herrington, John D; Engels, Anna S; Warren, Stacie L; Crocker, Laura D; Sutton, Bradley P; Miller, Gregory A
Orienting of spatial attention is a family of phylogenetically old mechanisms developed to select information for further processing. Information can be selected via top-down or endogenous mechanisms, depending on the goals of the observers or on the task at hand. Moreover, salient and potentially dangerous events also attract spatial attention via bottom-up or exogenous mechanisms, allowing a rapid and efficient reaction to unexpected but important events. Fronto-parietal brain networks have been demonstrated to play an important role in supporting spatial attentional orienting, although there is no consensus on whether there is a single attentional system supporting both endogenous and exogenous attention, or two anatomical and functionally different attentional systems. In the present paper we review behavioral evidence emphasizing the differential characteristics of both systems, as well as their possible interactions for the control of the final orienting response. Behavioral studies reporting qualitative differences between the effects of both systems as well as double dissociations of the effects of endogenous and exogenous attention on information processing, suggest that they constitute two independent attentional systems, rather than a single one. Recent models of attentional orienting in humans have put forward the hypothesis of a dorsal fronto-parietal network for orienting spatial attention, and a more ventral fronto-parietal network for detecting unexpected but behaviorally relevant events. Non-invasive neurostimulation techniques, as well as neuropsychological data, suggest that endogenous and exogenous attention are implemented in overlapping, although partially segregated, brain circuits. Although more research is needed in order to refine our anatomical and functional knowledge of the brain circuits underlying spatial attention, we conclude that endogenous and exogenous spatial orienting constitute two independent attentional systems, with different behavioral effects, and partially distinct neural substrates. PMID:23000534
We investigated the effects of visuo-spatial attention on the kinematics of grasping movements by employing a dual-task paradigm. Participants had to grasp cylindrical objects of different sizes (motor task) while simultaneously identifying a target digit presented at a different spatial location within a rapid serial visual presentation (perceptual task). The grasping kinematics in this dual-task situation were compared with the
While most parents would agree that playing videos games is the antithesis of time well spent for their children, recent advances involving NASA biofeedback technology are proving otherwise. The same techniques used to measure brain activity in NASA pilots during flight simulation exercises are now a part of a revolutionary video game system that is helping to improve overall mental awareness for Americans of all ages, including those who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common chronic disorder of childhood. No precise definition or approach to treatment is universally accepted; however, an extensive literature exists on which to base a rational approach to management. Symptomatic treatment with stimulant medication in selected patients is effective and safe, but not curative. Successful outcome depends on multimodality therapy, involving parents, teachers, and other professionals. Associated conditions, including learning disorders and emotional disturbance, must be identified and dealt with.
Infant joint attention is related to behavioral and social outcomes, as well as language in childhood. Recent research and theory suggests that the relations between joint attention and social-behavioral outcomes may reflect the role of executive self-regulatory processes in the development of joint attention. To test this hypothesis two- studies were conducted. The first, cross-sectional study examined the development of responding to joint attention skill (RJA) in terms of increasing executive efficiency of responding between 9 and 18 months of age. The results indicated that development of RJA was characterized by a decreased latency to shift attention in following another person’s gaze and head turn, as well as an increase in the proportion of correct RJA responses exhibited by older infants. The second study examined the longitudinal relations between 12-month measures of responding to joint attention (RJA) and 36-month attention regulation in a delay of gratification task. The results indicated that responding to joint attention at 12-months was significantly related to children’s use of three types of self-regulation behaviors while waiting for a snack reward at 36 months of age. These observations are discussed in light of a developmental theory of attention regulation and joint attention in infancy.
Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Mundy, Peter; Block, Jessica J.; Delgado, Christine E. F.; Parlade, Meaghan V.; Pomares, Yuly B.; Hobson, Jessica A.
In experimental models, prenatal cocaine exposure has been found to perturb monoaminergic development of systems implicated in modulating attention. To determine whether prenatal cocaine exposure affects infant attention, we assessed visual recognition memory and focused attention during free play. We enrolled at birth 380 infants, 113 cocaine exposed, using multiple biomarkers to assess drug exposure. Behavior was videotaped and coded off-line for sustained looking time (i.e. focused attention), banging and intrusion. Prenatal cocaine exposure was not associated with visual recognition memory, but was significantly associated with longer sustained looking times (average focused attention) at ages 6 months (p = 0.02) and 12 months (p = 0.04) in analyses that adjusted for variables, including maternal intelligence, education, depressive scores and other exposures (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana). Cocaine-exposed infants at age 12 months also spent significantly less time in banging activity (p = 0.02) after adjusting for confounding variables. This finding was not explained through cocaine effects on motor development, neurological findings or time spent in focused attention. Prenatal cocaine exposure was significantly associated with longer periods of sustained looking or focused attention in infancy, a finding that could interpreted as a measure of poor processing efficiency, or alternatively as precocious maturation of attentional systems. Either interpretation has implications for later cognitive development. Lower banging activity among cocaine exposed was not explained through cocaine effects on motor development or neurological findings, suggesting that activity level itself is diminished in these infants. Whether focused attention findings impact long term development awaits further study. PMID:19372695
Chiriboga, Claudia A; Starr, Denise; Kuhn, Louise; Wasserman, Gail A
Although most studies of visual attention have examined the effects of shifting attention between different locations in the visual field, attention can also be directed to particular visual features, such as a color, orientation or a direction of motion. Single-unit studies have shown that attention to a feature modulates neuronal signals in a range of areas in monkey visual cortex.
A previous activity suggested the importance of behavior to an animal with coincident coloration. If the stripe-legged frog fails to fold its legs, the disruptive markings on them lose much of their effectiveness. If, when at rest, a moth with coincident wing markings on them lose much of their effectiveness. If, when at rest, a moth with coincident wing markings leaves its wings spread too widely after alighting, the coincident pattern that normally cuts across them is broken into pieces. This activity considers further aspects of behavior that may influence the effectiveness of their concealing coloration. In the second activity, further attention is paid to the influence of behavior on concealment as students put to test much of their recently acquired knowledge by playing the Lizard Game.
Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert
This auto-ethnographic narrative presents the experiences of a teacher educator who came out to his preservice teachers. The narrative documents a diversity workshop in which some teacher candidates were uncomfortable after the instructor's previously undisclosed sexuality was revealed. The implications of this narrative raise questions about the role coming out inclass has for transformation of the self and for
Classroom experiments in economics continue to increase in popularity. While early experiments were often hand-run inclass, now computerized online experiments are also widely available. Using a quasiexperimental approach, the authors investigated whether any difference in student achievement (as measured by course scores and the "Test of…
Observations of creep microstructures in the primary creep region inclass M materials show a remarkable similarity with those formed in the exponential creep regime. As a result, it is proposed that the constitutive creep law for normal primary creep is ...
One way to create more class time and not lose education time is to have students take notes at home and do the work inclass. This article describes "flipping the classroom," a new instructional model that allows an educator to record a lesson plan on video in the same fashion it would be presented to students. The structure of the video is an…
Is the sound of pupils talking inclass an indication of disengagement and a cue for teacher intervention or an indication of active learning? According to Jennifer Richmond, second in science at Falinge Park High School in Rochdale and a lead teacher with Rochdale Local Authority, "pupils talking in groups can develop language skills; it's…
In-class debates are frequently used to encourage student engagement. Ideally, after researching both sides of the debate, students will form their own opinions based on what they have learned. However, in a large course of Environmental Science, opinions of students, when surveyed after the debate, were remarkably consistent with the position…
Research shows that antisocial behavior and learning are negatively related whereas prosocial behavior and learning are positively related, but evidence on how the social dynamics inclass influence learning attitudes is non-existent. We were interested in tracking unsystematic differences in learning attitudes on a class level and how they relate to social impact based on dominance or social status. 1,159 pupils from 43 7th to 9th grade classrooms filled in a questionnaire on learning attitudes (TPB, Ajzen, 1991) and nominated their classmates on participant roles in bullying, resource control strategies, and social status. Based on hierarchical linear modeling we analyzed whether and how specific pupils influence the learning attitude of their classmates. Results show that the average learning attitude inclass can be predicted by the most dominant individual. Nearly 9% of variance in individual learning attitude can be explained by group effects. The learning attitude of the individual identified highest on coercive and prosocial strategies and on social impact predicts 77% of the respective group variance. Educational implications need to focus on the psychological relevance of dominant children that may impede the developmentally appropriate progress of each individual in their classroom. PMID:23596900
We investigated the effects of instructions to “stay on task” on preschoolers' attention and cognitive performance in the face of either incomprehensible or comprehensible distraction. Three- and 4-year-olds completed problem-solving tasks while a distracting event played continuously in the background, under conditions of (a) no instruction, (b) moderate instruction, or (c) frequent instruction to “stay on task.” Under conditions where an incomprehensible distractor was present, any amount of instruction reduced looking to the distracting event. Under conditions where a comprehensible distractor was present, however, frequent instruction was the most effective in increasing looking to the task and decreasing looking to the distracting event.
Several studies have provided evidence for a phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia. However, recent studies provide evidence for a multimodal temporal processing deficit in dyslexia. In fact, dyslexics show both auditory and visual abnormalities, which could result from a more general problem in the perceptual selection of stimuli. Here we report the results of a behavioral study showing that children with dyslexia have both auditory and visual deficits in the automatic orienting of spatial attention. These findings suggest that a deficit of selective spatial attention may distort the development of phonological and orthographic representations that is essential for learning to read. PMID:12668226
Facoetti, Andrea; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Paganoni, Pierluigi; Cattaneo, Carmen; Galli, Raffaella; Umiltà, Carlo; Mascetti, Gian Gastone
A salient peripheral cue can capture attention, influencing subsequent responses to a target. Attentional cueing effects have been studied for head-restrained saccades; however, under natural conditions, the head contributes to gaze shifts. We asked whether attention influences head movements in combined eye–head gaze shifts and, if so, whether this influence is different for the eye and head components. Subjects made combined eye–head gaze shifts to horizontal visual targets. Prior to target onset, a behaviorally irrelevant cue was flashed at the same (congruent) or opposite (incongruent) location at various stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) times. We measured eye and head movements and neck muscle electromyographic signals. Reaction times for the eye and head were highly correlated; both showed significantly shorter latencies (attentional facilitation) for congruent compared with incongruent cues at the two shortest SOAs and the opposite pattern (inhibition of return) at the longer SOAs, consistent with attentional modulation of a common eye–head gaze drive. Interestingly, we also found that the head latency relative to saccade onset was significantly shorter for congruent than that for incongruent cues. This suggests an effect of attention on the head separate from that on the eyes.
Khan, Aarlenne Z.; Blohm, Gunnar; McPeek, Robert M.; Lefevre, Philippe
\\u000a A biological visual attention based object tracking algorithm is proposed. This algorithm combines the top-down, task dependent\\u000a attention and bottom-up, stimulus driven attention. The image is first decomposed into different feature maps according to\\u000a the bottom-up attention model. Then with the assumption that object region attracts more attention than background, logistic\\u000a regression is employed to tune the feature maps, which
Lili Ma; Jian Cheng; Jing Liu; Jinqiao Wang; Hanqing Lu
The serial reaction time task (SRTT) is a well-established experimental tool to study cognitive and neural mechanisms of sequential\\u000a performance in humans. We have recently developed a rodent version of the human serial reaction time task, in which rats have\\u000a to respond to visual stimuli by nose-poking into one of four spatial locations in order to obtain food reward. In
The ability to drive safely is disrupted by cell phone conversations, and this has been attributed to a diversion of attention from the visual environment. We employed behavioral and ERP measures to study whether the attentive processing of spoken messages is, in itself, sufficient to produce visual– attentional deficits. Participants searched for visual targets defined by a unique feature (Experiment
The ability to drive safely is disrupted by cell phone conversations, and this has been attributed to a diversion of attention from the visual environment. We employed behavioral and ERP measures to study whether the attentive processing of spoken messages is, in itself, sufficient to produce visual–attentional deficits. Participants searched for visual targets defined by a unique feature (Experiment 1)
Previous findings suggest some advantages to using an online format to deliver declarative knowledge and to using class time for active learning and discussion. During 4 weeks of an introductory psychology course, students were assigned on alternate weeks to attend one of two lecture formats: in-class lecture or online video lecture with an…
BACKGROUND: To determine whether early imitative responses fade out following the maturation of attentional mechanisms, the relationship between primitive imitation behaviors and the development of attention was examined in 4-month-old infants. They were divided into high and low imitators, based on an index of imitation. The status of attention was assessed by studying inhibition of return (IOR). Nine-month-old infants were
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common diagnosis among children. Symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder include inattention, motor restlessness, and impulsivity. Associated cognitive difficulties are also common. These symptoms are not specific to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and may also manifest in the behavior of children with sleep disorders such as restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea.
A model is described which predicts the allocation of attention to the features of a radar display. It uses the growth of uncertainty and the probability of near collision to call the eye to a feature of the display. The main source of uncertainty is forgetting following a fixation, which is modelled as a two dimensional diffusion process. The model was used to predict information overload in intercept controllers, and preliminary validation obtained by recording eye movements of intercept controllers in simulated and live (practice) interception.
Attention is a cognitive selection mechanism that allocates the limited processing resources of the brain to the sensory streams most relevant to our immediate goals, thereby enhancing responsiveness and behavioral performance. The underlying neural mecha...
A. Daitch A. Gunduz A. L. Ritaccio E. C. Leuthardt P. Brunner
This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)
A study aims to analyze whether behaviors of attention-deficit, hyperactivity among adolescents in Northern Finland reflect distinct subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results conclude that the majority of the Cohort falls into low-scoring groups of unaffecteds while a high-scoring minority group reflects an ADHD…
Lubke, Gitta H.; Muthen, Bengt; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Swanson, James M.; Yang, May H.; Taanila, Anja; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.
Two key characteristics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), problems with attention and behavioral control, represent the most common reasons for school referrals (Barkley & Edwards, 1998). This makes it essential for school psychologists to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to conduct a comprehensive assessment of ADHD…
Angello, Lisa Marie; Volpe, Robert J.; DiPerna, James C.; Gureasko-Moore, Sammi P.; Gureasko-Moore, David P.; Nebrig, Michelle R.; Ota, Kenji
As Titchener pointed out more than one hundred years ago, at- tention is at the center of the psychological enterprise. Attention research investigates how voluntary control and subjective experi- ence arise from and regulate our behavior. In recent years, attention has been one of the fastest growing of all fields within cognitive psy- chology and cognitive neuroscience. This review examines
Reviewed 39 empirical studies in which direct observational methods were used to assess children in whom attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had been diagnosed. Classroom studies distinguished ADHD children from comparison groups better than laboratory studies. Behaviors that most consistently distinguished ADHD children from comparison groups included measures of attention, activity, and vocalization. Suggests ways to improve the efficiency and
Kathleen A. Platzman; Mary R. Stoy; Ronald T. Brown; Claire D. Coles; Iris E. Smith; Arthur Falek
Clinical diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on evaluation of behavioral functioning in three domains: inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Caudate and frontal lobe function figures prominently in several neuroanatomic models of attentional functioning. Studies comparing children with and without ADHD have found differences in the size and symmetry of the caudate nuclei. Using multiple regression, we tested the
Gregory W. Schrimsher; Rebecca L. Billingsley; Edward F. Jackson; Bartlett D. Moore
Behavioral studies indicate that subjects are able to divide attention between multiple streams of information at different locations. However, it is still unclear to what extent the observed costs reflect processes specifically associated with spatial attention, versus more general interference due the concurrent monitoring of multiple streams of…
Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of attention problems using parent, teacher, and youth informants among a nationally representative Turkish sample. Method: The children and adolescents, 4 to 18 years old, were selected from a random household survey. Attention problems derived from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (N = 4,488), Teacher…
The current study examines the relationship between sustained attention and social competence in preschool children. While studies demonstrate that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit poor social competence, less is known about typically developing children. Since children with ADHD have associated behavior…
Murphy, Laura M. Bennett; Laurie-Rose, Cynthia; Brinkman, Tara M.; McNamara, Kelly A.
Background: Children reared in deprived environments, such as institutions for the care of orphaned or abandoned children, are at increased risk for attention and behavior regulation difficulties. This study examined the neurobehavioral correlates of executive attention in post institutionalized (PI) children. Methods: The performance and…
Loman, Michelle M.; Johnson, Anna E.; Westerlund, Alissa; Pollak, Seth D.; Nelson, Charles A.; Gunnar, Megan R.
Historically, pharmacological treatments for attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been considered to be the only type of interventions effective for reducing the core symptoms of this condition. However, during the past three decades, a series of case and controlled group studies examining the effects of EEG biofeedback have reported improved attention and behavioral control, increased cortical activation on quantitative electroencephalographic examination,
Vincent J. Monastra; Steven Lynn; Michael Linden; Joel F. Lubar; John Gruzelier; Theodore J. LaVaque
Used quantitative electroencephalogram analysis to examine difference in brain wave activity of attention deficit disorders (ADD) with and without hyperactivity while completing a computerized task measuring a variety of constructs associated with attention and impulsivity. Found that although behavioral ratings confirmed differential…
Stewart, Garth A.; Steffler, Dorothy J.; Lemoine, Daniel E.; Leps, Jolene D.
We investigated the effects of visuo-spatial attention on the kinematics of grasping movements by employing a dual-task paradigm. Participants had to grasp cylindrical objects of different sizes (motor task) while simultaneously identifying a target digit presented at a different spatial location within a rapid serial visual presentation (perceptual task). The grasping kinematics in this dual-task situation were compared with the those measured in a single-task condition. Likewise, the identification performance was also measured in a single-task condition. Additionally, we kept the visual input constant across conditions by asking participants to fixate. Without instructions about the priority of tasks (Experiment 1) participants showed a considerable drop of identification performance in the dual-task condition. Regarding grasping kinematics, the concurrent perceptual task resulted in a less accurate adaptation of the grip to object size in the early phase of the movement, while movement times and maximum grip aperture were unaffected. When participants were instructed to focus on the perceptual task (Experiment 2), the identification performance stayed at about the same level in the dual-task and the single-task conditions. The perceptual improvement was however associated with a further decrease in the accuracy of the early grip adjustment. We conclude that visual attention is needed for the effective control of the grasp kinematics, especially for a precise adjustment of the hand to object size when approaching the object. PMID:21458477
The current research explores how awareness of shared attention influences attitude formation. We theorized that sharing the experience of an object with fellow group members would increase elaborative processing, which in turn would intensify the effects of participant mood on attitude formation. Four experiments found that observing the same object as similar others produced more positive ratings among those in a positive mood, but more negative ratings among those in a negative mood. Participant mood had a stronger influence on evaluations when an object had purportedly been viewed by similar others than when (a) that same object was being viewed by dissimilar others, (b) similar others were viewing a different object, (c) different others were viewing a different object, or (d) the object was viewed alone with no others present. Study 4 demonstrated that these effects were driven by heightened cognitive elaboration of the attended object in the shared attention condition. These findings support the theoretical conjecture that an object attended with one's ingroup is subject to broader encoding in relation to existing knowledge structures. PMID:23317087
Shteynberg, Garriy; Hirsh, Jacob B; Galinsky, Adam D; Knight, Andrew P
The brain noradrenergic system is thought to facilitate neuronal processes that promote behavioral activation, alertness, and attention. One region in which norepinephrine may exert such effects is the medial prefrontal cortex, which has been implicated in many cognitive functions including arousal, attention, motivation, working memory, response inhibition, and behavioral flexibility. The present study addressed the modulatory influence of noradrenergic neurotransmission
The aim of the study was to explore the association between selective mutism (SM) and attention. In SM social anxiety seems central but language impairment and motor problems are also reported. Attention problems have been described in parental behavioral ratings, while neuropsychological studies are lacking. A neuropsychological test (the Trail Making Test) and parental ratings of attention- and anxiety problems were administered to a clinical sample of 23 children with SM (aged 7-16 years, 12 boys and 11 girls) and 46 non-referred matched controls. The SM group differed from controls on the Trail Making Test, but the group difference disappeared, when controlling for motor function and IQ. Parental ratings of attention problems were not significantly associated with the neuropsychological attention measure. Neuropsychological studies of attention controlled for IQ and motor function are needed as well as tests that measure different aspects of attention. PMID:17531438
Attentive user interfaces are user interfaces that aim to support the user's attentional capacities. By sensing the users' attention for objects and people in their everyday environment, and by treating user attention as a limited resource, these interfaces avoid today's ubiquitous patterns of interrup- tion. Focusing upon attention as a central interaction channel allows development of more sociable methods of
Roel Vertegaal; Jeffrey S. Shell; Daniel Chen; Aadil Mamuji
When paying attention to a feature (e.g., red), no attentional advantage is gained in perceiving items with this feature in very brief displays. Therefore, feature-based attention seems to be slow. In previous feature-based attention studies, attention has often been measured as the difference in performance in a secondary task. In our recent work…
This study examines infants' joint attentionbehavior and language development in a rural village in Nigeria. Participants included eight younger (1;0 to 1;5, M age=1;2) and eight older toddlers (1;7 to 2;7, M age=2;1). Joint attentionbehaviors in social interaction contexts were recorded and coded at two time points six months apart. Analyses…
Childers, Jane B.; Vaughan, Julie; Burquest, Donald A.
Examines subjects' processing in misleading test items. Suggests that the M-power for children, when assessed behaviorally, may increase with age in a discrete manner, and have the potential to generate interval scales of measurement. In addition, suggests that, in light of the results, what statisticians often consider "error of measurement"…
The authors evaluated the effects of an organization intervention for middle school students with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity\\u000a disorder. The organization intervention was administered to participants twice each week over a 5-month period. The relationship\\u000a between organization of academic materials and performance inclass was analyzed to evaluate the possibility that organization\\u000a was associated with improved grades. Finally, descriptive analyses of patterns of
Steven W. Evans; Brandon K. Schultz; L. Casey White; Christine Brady; Margaret H. Sibley; Kathryn Van Eck
Background: Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. Methods: We used the "perceptual load" paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. Results:…
Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Carr, Thomas H.