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1

Independent Contributions of the Central Executive, Intelligence, and In-Class Attentive Behavior to Developmental Change in the Strategies Used to Solve Addition Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's (N = 275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7 = 4+3 and thus 6+7 = 6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first grade to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-class attentive behavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between…

Geary, David C.; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara

2012-01-01

2

Independent contributions of the central executive, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior to developmental change in the strategies used to solve addition problems.  

PubMed

Children's (N=275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7=4+3 and thus 6+7=6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first grade to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-class attentive behavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between capacity of the central executive component of working memory, controlling for intelligence and in-class attentive behavior, and grade-related changes in children's use of these strategies. The predictor on intercept effects from multilevel models revealed that children with higher central executive capacity correctly retrieved more facts and used the most sophisticated counting procedure more frequently and accurately than their lower capacity peers at the beginning of first grade, but the predictor on slope effects indicated that this advantage disappeared (retrieval) or declined in importance (counting) from first grade to fourth grade. The predictor on slope effects also revealed that from first grade to fourth grade, children with higher capacity adopted the decomposition strategy more quickly than other children. The results remained robust with controls for children's sex, race, school site, speed of encoding Arabic numerals and articulating number words, and mathematics achievement in kindergarten. The results also revealed that intelligence and in-class attentive behavior independently contributed to children's strategy development. PMID:22698947

Geary, David C; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara

2012-09-01

3

How Long Can Students Pay Attention in Class? A Study of Student Attention Decline Using Clickers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students enrolled in three levels of general chemistry self-reported their attention decline during both lecture and other teaching approaches via personal response devices (clickers). Students report attention declines of 1 min or less more often than longer attention lapses. The data suggest that student engagement alternates between attention

Bunce, Diane M.; Flens, Elizabeth A.; Neiles, Kelly Y.

2010-01-01

4

Assisting children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to reduce the hyperactive behavior of arbitrary standing in class with a Nintendo Wii remote controller through an active reminder and preferred reward stimulation.  

PubMed

Recent studies in the field of special education have shown that in combination with software technology, high-tech commercial products can be applied as useful assistive technology devices to help people with disabilities. This study extended this concept to turn a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, in order to evaluate whether two students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) could reduce their hyperactive behavior through an active reminder and stimulation in the form of the participants' preferred rewards. This study focused on one particular hyperactive behavior common to both students: standing up arbitrarily during class. The active reminder was in the form of vibration feedback provided via the built-in function of the Wii Remote Controller, which was controlled and triggered by a control system to remind participants when they were engaging in standing behavior. This study was performed according to a multiple baseline design across participants. The results showed that both participants significantly improved their control over their hyperactive behavior during the intervention phase, and retained this effective performance in the maintenance phase. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24881005

Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Hui; Wang, Yun-Ting

2014-09-01

5

Behavioral and psychophysiological markers of disordered attention  

SciTech Connect

Behavioral and psychophysiological assays provide the most sensitive indication of whether a presumed neurotoxin has a deleterious effect on the nervous system. The effects of lead on the nervous system are strongly suggestive that this agent can produce disturbances in attention; moreover, there are clinical reports of such effects. The action of lead is also manifest in behaviors described as ''hyperactive,'' or reflecting ''minimal brain damage.'' The core symptom in both disorders is probably impairment in attention. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III) of the American Psychiatric Association uses the term Attention Deficit Disorder to replace such terms as hyperactivity and minimal brain damage. Prior studies of the behavioral toxicity of lead may have used inadequate or incomplete assays of attention; this could in part account for the variability in outcomes. Recent research on attention suggests that it is a complex behavior consisting of a number of elements or components, each of which may be in part dependent upon a different region of the central nervous system. Behavioral assays should examine the components of attentive behavior using tests which are sensitive to the different elements. It is recommended that psychophysiological assays (using cognitive event-related potentials), although more difficult and costly to implement, be used as well. These assays may provide a more dynamic view of altered information processing in the brain and help to localize and characterize the behavioral impairment. 50 references.

Mirsky, A.F.

1987-10-01

6

Principal Led In-Class Positive Behavioral Support Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of this one-year study supported the use of an in-class behavioral intervention program that allowed 8th-grade students to reclaim themselves after verbally disruptive behavioral incidences with direct principal led administrator assistance resulting in student return to differentiated individualized instructional classroom activities. Students involved in a second verbally disruptive incident in the classroom were identified for intervention. Academic and behavioral

David Lavender; John W. Hill

2010-01-01

7

Behavioral inhibition and attentional network functioning.  

PubMed

The goal of the present study was to examine the interrelations between the sensitivity of the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and attentional network functioning (i.e., the orienting, alerting, and executive attentional networks), with the aim of identifying a potentially relevant mechanism for understanding the relation between BIS sensitivity and the pathogenesis of anxiety and its disorders. To this end, 99 participants were recruited from the community and administered a questionnaire assessing BIS sensitivity, as well as the Attentional Network Test. Results demonstrated a significant association between BIS sensitivity and enhanced orienting attention. Further, BIS sensitivity predicted orienting attention above and beyond relevant covariates, including state negative affect. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the role of BIS sensitivity in the pathogenesis of pathological anxiety. PMID:22017656

Tull, Matthew T; Maack, Danielle J; Viana, Andres G; Gratz, Kim L

2012-01-01

8

Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.  

PubMed

Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed. PMID:24922613

Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang

2014-10-01

9

Developing Attention: Behavioral and Brain Mechanisms.  

PubMed

Brain networks underlying attention are present even during infancy and are critical for the developing ability of children to control their emotions and thoughts. For adults, individual differences in the efficiency of attentional networks have been related to neuromodulators and to genetic variations. We have examined the development of attentional networks and child temperament in a longitudinal study from infancy (7 months) to middle childhood (7 years). Early temperamental differences among infants, including smiling and laughter and vocal reactivity, are related to self-regulation abilities at 7 years. However, genetic variations related to adult executive attention, while present in childhood, are poor predictors of later control, in part because individual genetic variationmay have many small effects and in part because their influence occurs in interaction with caregiver behavior and other environmental influences. While brain areas involved in attention are present during infancy, their connectivity changes and leads to improvement in control of behavior. It is also possible to influence control mechanisms through training later in life. The relation between maturation and learning may allow advances in our understanding of human brain development. PMID:25110757

Posner, Michael I; Rothbart, Mary K; Sheese, Brad E; Voelker, Pascale

2014-05-01

10

Effectiveness of Noncontingent Attention to Decrease Attention-Maintained Disruptive Behaviors in the General Education Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of noncontingent attention (NCA) on disruptive talking-out behavior in a student diagnosed with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in the general education classroom. Functional analysis indicated that the talking-out behavior was maintained by teacher attention. We used an ABAB design in which the teacher implemented NCA. Results indicated that the strategy decreased

Devender R. Banda; Stephanie Sokolosky

2012-01-01

11

Effectiveness of Noncontingent Attention to Decrease Attention-Maintained Disruptive Behaviors in the General Education Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of noncontingent attention (NCA) on disruptive talking-out behavior in a student diagnosed with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in the general education classroom. Functional analysis indicated that the talking-out behavior was maintained by teacher attention. We used an ABAB…

Banda, Devender R.; Sokolosky, Stephanie

2012-01-01

12

Behavioral assessment of joint attention: A methodological report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a highly structured assessment protocol with objective behavioral measures for joint attention responding and initiation. The assessment was given to 26 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and 21 typically developing children, aged two to four years. Interobserver agreement was high for all behavioral measures. Children with autism had relatively minor deficits in joint attention responding and

Rebecca MacDonald; Jennifer Anderson; William V. Dube; Amy Geckeler; Gina Green; William Holcomb; Renee Mansfield; June Sanchez

2006-01-01

13

New perspectives on adolescent motivated behavior: attention and conditioning  

PubMed Central

Adolescence is a critical transition period, during which fundamental changes prepare the adolescent for becoming an adult. Heuristic models of the neurobiology of adolescent behavior have emerged, promoting the central role of reward and motivation, coupled with cognitive immaturities. Here, we bring focus to two basic sets of processes, attention and conditioning, which are essential for adaptive behavior. Using the dual-attention model developed by Corbetta and Shulman (2002), which identifies a stimulus-driven and a goal-driven attention network, we propose a balance that favors stimulus-driven attention over goal-driven attention in youth. Regarding conditioning, we hypothesize that stronger associations tend to be made between environmental cues and appetitive stimuli, and weaker associations with aversive stimuli, in youth relative to adults. An attention system geared to prioritize stimulus-driven attention, together with more powerful associative learning with appetitive incentives, contribute to shape patterns of adolescent motivated behavior. This proposed bias in attention and conditioning function could facilitate the impulsive, novelty-seeking and risk-taking behavior that is typical of many adolescents. PMID:21977221

Ernst, Monique; Daniele, Teresa; Frantz, Kyle

2011-01-01

14

Using brief assessments to evaluate aberrant behavior maintained by attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the use of brief functional assessments to identify idiosyncratic variables associated with aberrant behavior maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention. Two participants with severe developmental disabilities and their parents were involved in the assessment and treatment evaluation process. A modified attention con- dition was introduced, which involved both parents interacting with a third person. Results

MARK F. O'REILLY; GIULIO E. LANCIONI; LISA KING; G RAINNE LALLY; ORLA NIC DHOMHNAILL

2000-01-01

15

Cognitive and behavioral attention in children with math difficulties  

PubMed Central

Cognitive assessments and behavioral ratings of attention were used to examine the relation of inattention to math performance in children. Third grade students with math difficulties (MD; n = 17) and math and reading difficulties (MDRD; n = 35) were administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT), as well as achievement and intelligence measures. Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behavior-IV (SWAN-IV) Inattention ratings were collected from teachers. Two comparison groups were also recruited: a typically achieving group (n = 23) and a group that responded to a math-tutoring intervention (responders; n = 54). On the ANT, children with MD and MDRD did not perform significantly different than typically achieving children or responders on measures of alerting and orienting attention and executive control. All subgroups did demonstrate performance patterns that were expected on the ANT. However, performance across blocks of the task was inconsistent, suggesting poor reliability. There were no relations between ANT performance and SWAN-IV behavioral inattention scores, though behavioral ratings of inattention correlated significantly with math performance. Children with MD and MDRD may have more difficulty with distraction and attention to detail in contextual situations, as opposed to impulsive responding in these settings. The lack of relation between cognitive attention and math performance may suggest that either the ANT does not assess the relevant attention constructs associated with math difficulties or may parallel studies of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in which cognitive and behavioral assessments are weakly related. PMID:22686370

Gold, Alanna B.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Cirino, Paul; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.

2014-01-01

16

Attention, autonomic arousal, and personality in behaviorally disordered children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the construct validity of the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist (RBPC) by measuring attention, autonomie arousal, and personality in 40 behaviorally disordered children aged 7 to 15 years. Conduct Disorder and Socialized Aggression subscales were characterized by high Psychoticism, Impulsivity, and Lie personality scores, by lower heart rate levels, and by more errors on a continuous performance reaction-time

Adrian Raine; Fiona Jones

1987-01-01

17

Behavioral Assessment of Joint Attention: A Methodological Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a highly structured assessment protocol with objective behavioral measures for joint attention responding and initiation. The assessment was given to 26 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and 21 typically developing children, aged two to four years. Interobserver agreement was high for all behavioral measures.…

MacDonald, Rebecca; Anderson, Jennifer; Dube, William V.; Geckeler, Amy; Green, Gina; Holcomb, William; Mansfield, Renee; Sanchez, June

2006-01-01

18

Effects of therapist gender and type of attention on assessment and treatment of attention?maintained destructive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult attention frequently serves as a maintaining variable for problem behavior (Iwata et al., 1994). In addition, different aspects of attention such as the content of a statement or the person delivering the attention may moderate the rate of problem behavior and potentially affect treatment outcome (Fisher, Ninness, Piazza, & Owen-DeSchryver, 1996). In the current study, we examined the effects

Linda A. LeBlanc; Louis P. Hagopian; Jean M. Marhefka; Arthur E. Wilke

2001-01-01

19

An Evaluation of The Types of Attention That Maintain Problem Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous research indicates that certain types of attention (i.e., statements related to behavior, tickles) may be differentially reinforcing, only one or two forms of attention are typically provided contingent on problem behavior during the attention condition in experimental functional analyses. In the present investigation, various forms of attention were provided contingent on problem behavior to identify the influence of

Tiffany Kodak; John Northup; MICHAEL E. KELLEY

2007-01-01

20

Neural and behavioral correlates of expectancy violations in attention-deficit hyperactivity  

E-print Network

Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neuropsychiatric disorderMRI, expectancy, fronto- cerebellar. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterizedNeural and behavioral correlates of expectancy violations in attention-deficit hyperactivity

Scheres, Anouk

21

Social Attention in Nonhuman Primates: A Behavioral Review Christine M. Johnson1  

E-print Network

factors in primate social attention. Key Words: social attention, primate behavior, ethology, micro-ethologySocial Attention in Nonhuman Primates: A Behavioral Review Christine M. Johnson1 and M. Rosalyn issues and the sensorimotor constraints on primate attention, we describe the ethological

Kirsh, David

22

An Issue of Learning: The Effect of Visual Split Attention in Classes for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the ongoing challenges teachers of students who are deaf or hard of hearing face is managing the visual split attention implicit in multimedia learning. When a teacher presents various types of visual information at the same time, visual learners have no choice but to divide their attention among those materials and the teacher and…

Mather, Susan M.; Clark, M. Diane

2012-01-01

23

Attention to Novelty in Behaviorally Inhibited Adolescents Moderates Risk for Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Individual differences in specific components of attention contribute to behavioral reactivity and regulation. Children with the temperament of behavioral inhibition (BI) provide a good context for considering the manner in which certain components of attention shape behavior. Infants and children characterized as behaviorally

Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Vanderwert, Ross E.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Marshall, Peter J.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

2009-01-01

24

Four minutes of in-class high-intensity interval activity improves selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.  

PubMed

The amount of time allocated to physical activity in schools is declining. Time-efficient physical activity solutions that demonstrate their impact on academic achievement-related outcomes are needed to prioritize physical activity within the school curricula. "FUNtervals" are 4-min, high-intensity interval activities that use whole-body actions to complement a storyline. The purpose of this study was to (i) explore whether FUNtervals can improve selective attention, an executive function posited to be essential for learning and academic success; and (ii) examine whether this relationship is predicted by students' classroom off-task behaviour. Seven grade 3-5 classes (n = 88) were exposed to a single-group, repeated cross-over design where each student's selective attention was compared between no-activity and FUNtervals days. In week 1, students were familiarized with the d2 test of attention and FUNterval activities, and baseline off-task behaviour was observed. In both weeks 2 and 3 students completed the d2 test of attention following either a FUNterval break or a no-activity break. The order of these breaks was randomized and counterbalanced between weeks. Neither motor nor passive off-task behaviour predicted changes in selective attention following FUNtervals; however, a weak relationship was observed for verbal off-task behaviour and improvements in d2 test performance. More importantly, students made fewer errors during the d2 test following FUNtervals. In supporting the priority of physical activity inclusion within schools, FUNtervals, a time efficient and easily implemented physical activity break, can improve selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds. PMID:25675352

Ma, Jasmin K; Le Mare, Lucy; Gurd, Brendon J

2015-03-01

25

Attention!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor art/environmental activity, learners create designs that will attract attention to animals and plants in particular habitats, and then test whether their designs attracted the "right" organisms. Learners come to understand more about how features of animal and plant appearance, including color, shape, and design patterns, serve to attract pollinators and mates, scare away predators, or serve as warning. The activity can be extended by discussing other ways plants and animals attract attention, such as by smell, sound, or sight.

2012-06-26

26

Illuminating the role of cholinergic signaling in circuits of attention and emotionally salient behaviors  

E-print Network

Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. Alterations in ACh signaling are involved in the pathophysiology of ...

Luchicchi, Antonio

27

A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

2012-01-01

28

Relations among Student Attention Behaviors, Teacher Practices, and Beginning Word Reading Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of student attention for predicting kindergarten word reading was investigated among 432 students. Using "Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior Rating Scale" behavior rating scores, the authors conducted an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded three distinct factors that reflected selective attention. In this…

Saez, Leilani; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher

2012-01-01

29

Which Behavioral and Personality Characteristics Are Associated with Difficulties in Selective Attention?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study investigated the behavioral and personality profile associated with difficulties in selective attention. Method: A group of participants with ADHD were assessed for ADHD behaviors. Adults with ADHD (n = 22) and without ADHD (n = 84) were tested on the conjunctive visual-search task for selective attention and…

Avisar, Alon

2011-01-01

30

Attention  

E-print Network

deficit-hyperactivity disorder and early-onset bipolar disorder: two facets of one entity? Florian D. Zepf, MD Early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficithyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have recently been the subject of highly controversial debate, due to theories regarding underlying pathophysiological processes and a clinical overlap of symptoms. Epidemiological data, clinical aspects, neuroimaging, neurochemical, and genetic studies suggest that there may be a possible relationship between biological factors and clinical characteristics in the development of symptoms. However, longitudinal data supporting the hypothesis of a diagnostic shift from BD to ADHD symptoms and vice versa are currently not available. These would be essential to enable further investigations into whether these two disorders possibly represent two different aspects of an underlying common psychopathophysiological entity.

unknown authors

31

Working Memory and Parent-Rated Components of Attention in Middle Childhood: A Behavioral Genetic Study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the current study was to investigate potential genetic and environmental correlations between working memory and three behavioral aspects of the attention network (i.e., executive, alerting, and orienting) using a twin design. Data were from 90 monozygotic (39% male) and 112 same-sex dizygotic (41% male) twins. Individual differences in working memory performance (digit span) and parent-rated measures of executive, alerting, and orienting attention included modest to moderate genetic variance, modest shared environmental variance, and modest to moderate nonshared environmental variance. As hypothesized, working memory performance was correlated with executive and alerting attention, but not orienting attention. The correlation between working memory, executive attention, and alerting attention was completely accounted for by overlapping genetic covariance, suggesting a common genetic mechanism or mechanisms underlying the links between working memory and certain parent-rated indicators of attentive behavior. PMID:21948215

Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Cutting, Laurie; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.

2012-01-01

32

Testing the Behavioral Interaction and Integration of Attentional Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One current conceptualization of attention subdivides it into functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Alerting describes the function of tonically maintaining the alert state and phasically responding to a warning signal. Automatic and voluntary orienting are involved in the selection of information among multiple sensory inputs.…

Fan, Jin; Gu, Xiaosi; Guise, Kevin G.; Liu, Xun; Fossella, John; Wang, Hongbin; Posner, Michael I.

2009-01-01

33

An observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to measure in-class learner engagement: a validation study  

PubMed Central

Background Efforts are made to enhance in-class learner engagement because it stimulates and enhances learning. However, it is not easy to quantify learner engagement. This study aimed to develop and validate an observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to determine and compare in-class learner engagement levels in four different class types delivered by the same instructor. Methods Observer pairs observed instructor and student behaviors during lectures in large class (LLC, n=2) with third-year medical students, lectures in small class (LSC, n=6) and case-based teaching sessions (CBT, n=4) with fifth-year students, and problem-based learning (PBL) sessions (~7 hours) with second-year students. The observation tool was a revised form of STROBE, an instrument for recording behaviors of an instructor and four randomly selected students as snapshots for 5-min cycles. Instructor and student behaviors were scored 1–5 on this tool named ‘in-class engagement measure (IEM)’. The IEM scores were parallel to the degree of behavior's contribution to active student engagement, so higher scores were associated with more in-class learner engagement. Additionally, the number of questions asked by the instructor and students were recorded. A total of 203 5-min observations were performed (LLC 20, LSC 85, CBT 50, and PBL 48). Results Interobserver agreement on instructor and student behaviors was 93.7% (?=0.87) and 80.6% (?=0.71), respectively. Higher median IEM scores were found in student-centered and problem-oriented methods such as CBT and PBL. A moderate correlation was found between instructor and student behaviors (r=0.689). Conclusions This study provides some evidence for validity of the IEM scores as a measure of student engagement in different class types. PMID:25308966

Alimoglu, Mustafa K.; Sarac, Didar B.; Alparslan, Derya; Karakas, Ayse A.; Altintas, Levent

2014-01-01

34

The influence of activity choice on problem behaviors maintained by escape versus attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed whether the function of an individual's problem behavior was related to the effectiveness of an intervention involving choice among tasks. Analogue functional analyses were conducted with 7 students with various diagnoses to determine whether problem behaviors were maintained by escape or attention. Following identification of the function of each student's problem behavior, reversal designs were used to

Cathryn Romaniuk; Raymond Miltenberger; Carole Conyers; Nicole Jenner; Mandy Jurgens; Crystal Ringenberg

2002-01-01

35

Increasing On-Task Behavior Using Teacher Attention Delivered on a Fixed-Time Schedule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of fixed-time delivery of attention to increase the on-task behavior of 2 students in general education was examined. The teacher in this study provided attention to students on a 5-min fixed-time schedule and responded to students in her typical manner between cued intervals. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to test the…

Riley, Jessica L.; McKevitt, Brian C.; Shriver, Mark D.; Allen, Keith D.

2011-01-01

36

A Reference Model of Soldier Attention and Behavior MAJ Jonathan K. Alt  

E-print Network

of situation awareness and behavior. Building on previous work, the researchers developed an integrated and tractable modeling framework for the representation of a soldier's visual attention, situation awareness an integrated conceptual model of a soldier's visual attention (search), situation awareness, and target

Darken, Christian J.

37

Attention Demands Influence 10- and 12-Month-Old Infants' Perseverative Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the role of attentional demand on infants' perseverative behavior in a noncommunicative looking version of an A-not-B task. The research aimed at clarifying age-related improvements in the attention process that presumably underlies the development of cognitive control. In a between-subjects design, forty 10-month-olds…

Watanabe, Hama; Forssman, Linda; Green, Dorota; Bohlin, Gunilla; von Hofsten, Claes

2012-01-01

38

The influence of activity choice on problem behaviors maintained by escape versus attention.  

PubMed Central

This study assessed whether the function of an individual's problem behavior was related to the effectiveness of an intervention involving choice among tasks. Analogue functional analyses were conducted with 7 students with various diagnoses to determine whether problem behaviors were maintained by escape or attention. Following identification of the function of each student's problem behavior, reversal designs were used to assess the effectiveness of an intervention that allowed the students to choose their own instructional tasks. Results showed that students who displayed escape-maintained problem behavior showed substantial reductions in such behavior when they were provided with opportunities to choose among tasks. On the other hand, students who displayed attention-maintained problem behavior did not show any effects as a result of the choice intervention. These findings are discussed in terms of the effective use of behavior management programs involving choice and the reduction of problem behavior. PMID:12555907

Romaniuk, Cathryn; Miltenberger, Raymond; Conyers, Carole; Jenner, Nicole; Jurgens, Mandy; Ringenberg, Crystal

2002-01-01

39

Modification of Preschool Children's Bathroom Behaviors by Contingent Teacher Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repeated measures of the frequency of paper towel litter, unflushed toilets, dirty sinks, and running water faucets were used to evaluate effectiveness of contingent teacher praise for appropriate bathroom use by preschool children. Contingent praise for appropriate bathroom behaviors resulted in markedly decreased frequencies of four target…

Taylor, Marjorie J.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

1978-01-01

40

Mindfulness and Health Behaviors: Is Paying Attention Good for You?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The investigators examined relations between mindfulness and health behaviors in college students, as well as the role of stress in mediating these effects. Participants: Participants were 553 undergraduates (385 females; mean age = 18.8 years, SD = 2.1) recruited from a university in the northeastern United States. Methods:…

Roberts, Kimberly C.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

2010-01-01

41

Relationships Between Problem Behaviors and Academic Achievement in AdolescentsThe Unique Role of Attention Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have documented relationships between a variety of problem behaviors and academic achievement measures. However, the results of these studies should be interpreted cautiously, given the considerable comorbidity of problem behaviors that often exists among school-age youth.This study addressed the relationships between 8 teacher-reported problem behavior syndromes (withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety\\/depression, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent behavior,

Alvaro Q. Barriga; Jeffrey W. Doran; Stephanie B. Newell; Elizabeth M. Morrison; Victor Barbetti; Brent Dean Robbins

2002-01-01

42

Perceived Instructor In-class Communicative Behaviors As a Predictor of Student Participation in Out of Class Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of instructor in-class communicative behaviors on college student participation in out of class communication (OCC). Participants were 298 students enrolled in an introductory communication course at a Mid-Atlantic university who completed the Communication Functions Questionnaire, the modified Affinity-Seeking Strategy scale, and the Out of Class Interaction scale. Results of stepwise

Scott A. Myers; Matthew M. Martin; Jennifer L. Knapp

2005-01-01

43

Associations between sleep problems and attentional and behavioral functioning in children with anxiety disorders and ADHD.  

PubMed

This study examined associations between sleep problems and attentional and behavioral functioning in 137 children aged 7 to 13 years with anxiety disorders (n = 39), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 38), combined anxiety disorder and ADHD (n = 25), and 35 controls. Diagnoses were made using the semistructured diagnostic interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. Sleep problems were assessed using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, attention was measured by the Attention Network Test, and behavioral problems were measured by teacher ratings on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, Teacher Report Form. Sleep problems were associated with reduced efficiency of the alerting attention system for all children and with increased internalizing problems in children with anxiety disorders. PMID:23461477

Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Skirbekk, Benedicte; Oerbeck, Beate; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Kristensen, Hanne

2014-01-01

44

Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children  

PubMed Central

Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior studies examine the association between attention bias and BI before adolescence. The current study examined the interrelations among BI, attention biases to threat, and social withdrawal already manifest in early childhood. Children (N=187, 83 Male, Mage=61.96 months) were characterized for BI in toddlerhood (24 & 36 months). At 5 years, they completed an attention bias task and concurrent social withdrawal was measured. As expected, BI in toddlerhood predicted high levels of social withdrawal in early childhood. However, this relation was moderated by attention bias. The BI-withdrawal association was only evident for children who displayed an attention bias toward threat. The data provide further support for models associating attention with socioemotional development and the later emergence of clinical anxiety. PMID:21318555

Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

2013-01-01

45

Sensory gain outperforms efficient readout mechanisms in predicting attention-related improvements in behavior.  

PubMed

Spatial attention has been postulated to facilitate perceptual processing via several different mechanisms. For instance, attention can amplify neural responses in sensory areas (sensory gain), mediate neural variability (noise modulation), or alter the manner in which sensory signals are selectively read out by postsensory decision mechanisms (efficient readout). Even in the context of simple behavioral tasks, it is unclear how well each of these mechanisms can account for the relationship between attention-modulated changes in behavior and neural activity because few studies have systematically mapped changes between stimulus intensity, attentional focus, neural activity, and behavioral performance. Here, we used a combination of psychophysics, event-related potentials (ERPs), and quantitative modeling to explicitly link attention-related changes in perceptual sensitivity with changes in the ERP amplitudes recorded from human observers. Spatial attention led to a multiplicative increase in the amplitude of an early sensory ERP component (the P1, peaking ?80-130 ms poststimulus) and in the amplitude of the late positive deflection component (peaking ?230-330 ms poststimulus). A simple model based on signal detection theory demonstrates that these multiplicative gain changes were sufficient to account for attention-related improvements in perceptual sensitivity, without a need to invoke noise modulation. Moreover, combining the observed multiplicative gain with a postsensory readout mechanism resulted in a significantly poorer description of the observed behavioral data. We conclude that, at least in the context of relatively simple visual discrimination tasks, spatial attention modulates perceptual sensitivity primarily by modulating the gain of neural responses during early sensory processing. PMID:25274817

Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Ester, Edward F; Deering, Sean; Serences, John T

2014-10-01

46

Estimating Latent Attentional States Based on Simultaneous Binary and Continuous Behavioral Measures  

PubMed Central

Cognition is a complex and dynamic process. It is an essential goal to estimate latent attentional states based on behavioral measures in many sequences of behavioral tasks. Here, we propose a probabilistic modeling and inference framework for estimating the attentional state using simultaneous binary and continuous behavioral measures. The proposed model extends the standard hidden Markov model (HMM) by explicitly modeling the state duration distribution, which yields a special example of the hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM). We validate our methods using computer simulations and experimental data. In computer simulations, we systematically investigate the impacts of model mismatch and the latency distribution. For the experimental data collected from a rodent visual detection task, we validate the results with predictive log-likelihood. Our work is useful for many behavioral neuroscience experiments, where the common goal is to infer the discrete (binary or multinomial) state sequences from multiple behavioral measures.

Chen, Zhe

2015-01-01

47

Estimating latent attentional States based on simultaneous binary and continuous behavioral measures.  

PubMed

Cognition is a complex and dynamic process. It is an essential goal to estimate latent attentional states based on behavioral measures in many sequences of behavioral tasks. Here, we propose a probabilistic modeling and inference framework for estimating the attentional state using simultaneous binary and continuous behavioral measures. The proposed model extends the standard hidden Markov model (HMM) by explicitly modeling the state duration distribution, which yields a special example of the hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM). We validate our methods using computer simulations and experimental data. In computer simulations, we systematically investigate the impacts of model mismatch and the latency distribution. For the experimental data collected from a rodent visual detection task, we validate the results with predictive log-likelihood. Our work is useful for many behavioral neuroscience experiments, where the common goal is to infer the discrete (binary or multinomial) state sequences from multiple behavioral measures. PMID:25883639

Chen, Zhe

2015-01-01

48

The Influence of a Token Economy and Methylphenidate on Attentive and Disruptive Behavior during Sports with Adhd-Diagnosed Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a summer program designed to evaluate the influence of stimulant medication and a token economy on attentive and disruptive behavior during kickball games. Attentive and disruptive behavior were assessed using an interval coding system, and daily ratings on the ADHD Index of the Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised were also

David Reitman; Stephen D. A. Hupp; Patrick M. O’Callaghan; Veronica Gulley; John Northup

2001-01-01

49

Anxiety, attention problems, hyperactivity, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in fragile X syndrome.  

PubMed

Behavior problems are a common challenge for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and constitute the primary clinical outcome domain in trials testing new FXS medications. However, little is known about the relationship between caregiver-reported behavior problems and co-occurring conditions such as anxiety and attention problems. In this study, 350 caregivers, each with at least one son or daughter with full-mutation FXS, rated one of their children with FXS using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Version (ABC-C); the Anxiety subscale of the Anxiety, Depression, and Mood Scale; and the Attention/Hyperactivity Items from the Symptom Inventories. In addition to examining family consequences of these behaviors, this study also sought to replicate psychometric findings for the ABC-C in FXS, to provide greater confidence for its use in clinical trials with this population. Psychometric properties and baseline ratings of problem behavior were consistent with other recent studies, further establishing the profile of problem behavior in FXS. Cross-sectional analyses suggest that selected dimensions of problem behavior, anxiety, and hyperactivity are age related; thus, age should serve as an important control in any studies of problem behavior in FXS. Measures of anxiety, attention, and hyperactivity were highly associated with behavior problems, suggesting that these factors at least coincide with problem behavior. However, these problems generally did not add substantially to variance in caregiver burden predicted by elevated behavior problems. The results provide further evidence of the incidence of problem behaviors and co-occurring conditions in FXS and the impact of these behaviors on the family. PMID:24352914

Wheeler, Anne; Raspa, Melissa; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen; Hessl, David; Sacco, Pat; Bailey, Donald B

2014-01-01

50

Attentional dynamics during free picture viewing: Evidence from oculomotor behavior and electrocortical activity  

PubMed Central

Most empirical evidence on attentional control is based on brief presentations of rather abstract stimuli. Results revealed indications for a dynamic interplay between bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms. Here we used a more naturalistic task to examine temporal signatures of attentional mechanisms on fine and coarse time scales. Subjects had to inspect digitized copies of 60 paintings, each shown for 40 s. We simultaneously measured oculomotor behavior and electrophysiological correlates of brain activity to compare early and late intervals (1) of inspection time of each picture (picture viewing) and (2) of the full experiment (time on task). For picture viewing, we found an increase in fixation duration and a decrease of saccadic amplitude while these parameters did not change with time on task. Furthermore, early in picture viewing we observed higher spatial and temporal similarity of gaze behavior. Analyzing electrical brain activity revealed changes in three components (C1, N1 and P2) of the eye fixation-related potential (EFRP); during picture viewing; no variation was obtained for the power in the frontal beta- and in the theta activity. Time on task analyses demonstrated no effects on the EFRP amplitudes but an increase of power in the frontal theta and beta band activity. Thus, behavioral and electrophysiological measures similarly show characteristic changes during picture viewing, indicating a shifting balance of its underlying (bottom-up and top-down) attentional mechanisms. Time on task also modulated top-down attention but probably represents a different attentional mechanism. PMID:23759704

Fischer, Thomas; Graupner, Sven-Thomas; Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Pannasch, Sebastian

2013-01-01

51

The benefits of simply observing: mindful attention modulates the link between motivation and behavior.  

PubMed

Mindful attention, a central component of mindfulness meditation, can be conceived as becoming aware of one's thoughts and experiences and being able to observe them as transient mental events. Here, we present a series of studies demonstrating the effects of applying this metacognitive perspective to one's spontaneous reward responses when encountering attractive stimuli. Taking a grounded cognition perspective, we argue that reward simulations in response to attractive stimuli contribute to appetitive behavior and that motivational states and traits enhance these simulations. Directing mindful attention at these thoughts and seeing them as mere mental events should break this link, such that motivational states and traits no longer affect reward simulations and appetitive behavior. To test this account, we trained participants to observe their thoughts in reaction to appetitive stimuli as mental events, using a brief procedure designed for nonmeditators. Across 3 experiments, we found that adopting the mindful attention perspective reduced the effects of motivational states and traits on appetitive behavior in 2 domains, in both the laboratory and the field. Specifically, after applying mindful attention, participants' sexual motivation no longer made opposite-sex others seem more attractive and thus desirable as partners. Similarly, participants' levels of hunger no longer boosted the attractiveness of unhealthy foods, resulting in healthier eating choices. We discuss these results in the context of mechanisms and applications of mindful attention and explore how mindfulness and mindful attention can be conceptualized in psychological research more generally. PMID:25347126

Papies, Esther K; Pronk, Tila M; Keesman, Mike; Barsalou, Lawrence W

2015-01-01

52

Attentional bias in injection phobia: overt components, time course, and relation to behavior.  

PubMed

Blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia is an anxiety disorder that can cause serious health consequences by interfering with medical treatment. Although attentional bias for threat appears to be a core feature of many anxiety disorders and a potential target of treatment, very little is known about attentional bias in BII phobia. In the present study, eye movements were recorded in individuals high and low in injection fear (HIF, LIF) during 18-s exposures to stimulus arrays containing injection, attack, appetitive, and neutral images. Evidence for attentional vigilance was mixed, as HIF individuals oriented to injection images more often than LIF individuals, but did not orient to injection images more often than other emotional images. In contrast, evidence of attentional avoidance was highly robust. HIF individuals rapidly disengaged from injection images on initial viewing and viewed these images less overall compared to other image types, a pattern not observed in the LIF group. Furthermore, attentional avoidance of injection threat was found to uniquely predict behavioral avoidance on an injection behavioral avoidance task (BAT), and group differences on the BAT were mediated by group differences in attentional avoidance. The implications of these findings for further delineating the nature and function of attentional biases in BII phobia are discussed. PMID:23523867

Armstrong, Thomas; Hemminger, Adam; Olatunji, Bunmi O

2013-06-01

53

Abstract The ability of animals to use behavioral/facial cues in detection of human attention has been widely in-  

E-print Network

Abstract The ability of animals to use behavioral/facial cues in detection of human attention has to the visibility of the eyes because they showed increased hesitative behavior when approaching a blind- folded are able to rely on the same set of human facial cues for detection of attention, which form the behavioral

Indiana University

54

Behavioral Inhibition, Sustained Attention, and Executive Functions: Constructing a Unifying Theory of ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comprises a deficit in behavioral inhibition. A theoretical model is constructed that links inhibition to 4 executive neuropsychological functions that appear to depend on it for their effective execution: (a) working memory, (b) self-regulation of affect–motivation–arousal, (c) internalization of speech, and (d) reconstitution (behavioral analysis and synthesis). Extended to ADHD, the model predicts that ADHD

Russell A. Barkley

1997-01-01

55

Artificial potential functions based camera movements and visual behaviors in attentive robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attentive robot needs to exhibit a plethora of different visual behaviors including free viewing, detecting visual onsets,\\u000a search, remaining fixated and tracking depending on the vision task at hand. The robot’s associated camera movements—ranging\\u000a from saccades to smooth pursuit—direct its optical axis in a manner that is dependent on the current visual behavior. This\\u000a paper proposes a closed-loop dynamical

Ö. Erkent; H. I??l Bozma

56

Attentional bias in addictive behaviors: a review of its development, causes, and consequences.  

PubMed

A wealth of research from the past two decades shows that addictive behaviors are characterized by attentional biases for substance-related stimuli. We review the relevant evidence and present an integration of existing theoretical models to explain the development, causes, and consequences of addiction-related attentional biases. We suggest that through classical conditioning, substance-related stimuli elicit the expectancy of substance availability, and this expectancy causes both attentional bias for substance-related stimuli and subjective craving. Furthermore, attentional bias and craving have a mutual excitatory relationship such that increases in one lead to increases in the other, a process that is likely to result in substance self-administration. Cognitive avoidance strategies, impulsivity, and impaired inhibitory control appear to influence the strength of attentional biases and subjective craving. However, some measures of attentional bias, particularly the addiction Stroop, might reflect multiple underlying processes, so results need to be interpreted cautiously. We make several predictions that require testing in future research, and we discuss implications for the treatment of addictive behaviors. PMID:18479844

Field, Matt; Cox, W Miles

2008-09-01

57

Attention, memory, and behavioral adjustment in children with frontal lobe epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore whether attention, memory, and behavior would be more affected in children with frontal lobe epilepsy than in children with other types of epilepsy, we compared 16 children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), 8 with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and 8 with generalized absence (GEA) seizures on the Performance Speed (PS) and Freedom of Distraction (FD) indices of the

Maria-Teresa Hernandez; Hannelore C. Sauerwein; Isabelle Jambaque; Elaine de Guise; Francine Lussier; Anne Lortie; Olivier Dulac; Maryse Lassondea

2003-01-01

58

Positive Illusory Bias and Response to Behavioral Treatment among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigates the accuracy of self-perceptions of competence among 43 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ages 6.9-11.9; 37 boys) attending an 8-week empirically supported behavioral summer treatment program. Having inflated self-perceptions about one's competence at the beginning of the summer predicted poorer…

Mikami, Amori Yee; Calhoun, Casey D.; Abikoff, Howard B.

2010-01-01

59

"Gaze Leading": Initiating Simulated Joint Attention Influences Eye Movements and Choice Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research in adults has made great use of the gaze cuing paradigm to understand the behavior of the follower in joint attention episodes. We implemented a gaze leading task to investigate the initiator--the other person in these triadic interactions. In a series of gaze-contingent eye-tracking studies, we show that fixation dwell time upon…

Bayliss, Andrew P.; Murphy, Emily; Naughtin, Claire K.; Kritikos, Ada; Schilbach, Leonhard; Becker, Stefanie I.

2013-01-01

60

Reaction time indices of attention deficits in boys with disruptive behavior disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boys with diagnoses in the disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) spectrum and normal controls were tested in two reaction time (RT) experiments. In Experiment I simple warned RT was measured and the length and regularity of the preparatory intervals were varied in order to study sustained attention in the sense of preparation. With age and IQ controlled, DBD boys had slower

Theodore P. Zahn; Markus J. P. Kruesi; Judith L. Rapoport

1991-01-01

61

Individual Differences in Infants' Joint Attention Behaviors with Mother and a New Social Partner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations between infant-mother attachment security at 15 months and infants' (N = 206) joint attention behaviors (a) with an experimenter at 8 and 15 months, and (b) with their mothers at 15 months were investigated. No concurrent or longitudinal relations were observed between attachment security and infants' tendency to respond to an…

Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; Arnott, Bronia; Vittorini, Lucia; Turner, Michelle; Leekam, Susan R.; Parkinson, Kathryn

2011-01-01

62

Attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder symptoms moderate cognition and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent estimates suggest that 31% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) meet diagnostic criteria for attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and another 24% of children with ASD exhibit subthreshold clinical ADHD symptoms. Presence of ADHD symptoms in the context of ASD could have a variety of effects on cognition, autistic traits, and adaptive\\/maladaptive behaviors including: exacerbating core ASD impairments; adding

Benjamin E. Yerys; Gregory L. Wallace; Jennifer L. Sokoloff; Devon A. Shook; Joette D. James; Lauren Kenworthy

2009-01-01

63

A week-long meditation retreat decouples behavioral measures of the alerting and executive attention networks  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have examined the influence of meditation on three functionally different components of attention: executive control, alerting, and orienting. These studies have consistently found that meditation training improves both executive attention and alerting, but there has not been a consistent and clear effect of meditation training on orienting. In addition, while previous studies have shown that the functional coupling of the alerting and executive networks increases the processing of task irrelevant stimuli, it is unknown if participating in a meditation retreat can decouple these components of attention and lead to improved performance. The current study investigated the influence of a week-long intensive meditation retreat on three components of attention by randomly assigning participants to either pre- or postretreat testing groups. A modified attention network test (ANT) was used. Executive attention was measured as the difference in response time (RT) between congruent and incongruent task irrelevant flankers (conflict effect). Reflexive and volitional orienting were measured by manipulating cue validity and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). The coupling of executive attention and alerting was measured by examining flanker interference as a function of the SOA of an alerting cue. The meditation retreat improved task based indices of executive attention, but not reflexive or volitional orienting. There was clear behavioral evidence of coupling between executive attention and alerting in the preretreat group, as the conflict effect peaked when an alerting cue was presented 300 ms before the target. Importantly, there was no increase in the conflict effect for the postretreat group. This is consistent with the notion that the retreat decoupled the executive and alerting networks. These results suggest that previously reported improvements in the executive and alerting networks after meditation training might be mediated by the same underlying mechanism. PMID:24596550

Elliott, James C.; Wallace, B. Alan; Giesbrecht, Barry

2014-01-01

64

Attention alters neural responses to evocative faces in behaviorally inhibited adolescents.  

PubMed

Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a risk factor for anxiety disorders. While the two constructs bear behavioral similarities, previous work has not extended these parallels to the neural level. This study examined amygdala reactivity during a task previously used with clinically anxious adolescents. Adolescents were selected for enduring patterns of BI or non-inhibition (BN). We examined amygdala response to evocative emotion faces in BI (N=10, mean 12.8 years) and BN (N=17, mean 12.5 years) adolescents while systematically manipulating attention. Analyses focused on amygdala response during subjective ratings of internal fear (constrained attention) and passive viewing (unconstrained attention) during the presentation of emotion faces (Happy, Angry, Fearful, and Neutral). BI adolescents, relative to BN adolescents, showed exaggerated amygdala response during subjective fear ratings and deactivation during passive viewing, across all emotion faces. In addition, the BI group showed an abnormally high amygdala response to a task condition marked by novelty and uncertainty (i.e., rating fear state to a Happy face). Perturbations in amygdala function are evident in adolescents temperamentally at risk for anxiety. Attention state alters the underlying pattern of neural processing, potentially mediating the observed behavioral patterns across development. BI adolescents also show a heightened sensitivity to novelty and uncertainty, which has been linked to anxiety. These patterns of reactivity may help sustain early temperamental biases over time and contribute to the observed relation between BI and anxiety. PMID:17376704

Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Hardin, Michael G; Poeth, Kaitlin; Guyer, Amanda E; Nelson, Eric E; McClure, Erin B; Henderson, Heather A; Fox, Nathan A; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

2007-05-01

65

The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training on Behavioral Problems and Attentional Functioning in Adolescents with ADHD.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11-15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7) completed measurements before, immediately after, 8 weeks after and 16 weeks after training. Adolescents reported on their attention and behavioral problems and mindful awareness, and were administered two computerized sustained attention tasks. Parents as well as tutors reported on adolescents' attention and behavioral problems and executive functioning. Parents further reported on their own parenting, parenting stress and mindful awareness. Both the mindfulness training for the adolescents and their parents was delivered in group format. First, after mindfulness training, adolescents' attention and behavior problems reduced, while their executive functioning improved, as indicated by self-report measures as well as by father and teacher report. Second, improvements in adolescent' actual performance on attention tests were found after mindfulness training. Moreover, fathers, but not mothers, reported reduced parenting stress. Mothers reported reduced overreactive parenting, whereas fathers reported an increase. No effect on mindful awareness of adolescents or parents was found. Effects of mindfulness training became stronger at 8-week follow-up, but waned at 16-week follow-up. Our study adds to the emerging body of evidence indicating that mindfulness training for adolescents with ADHD (and their parents) is an effective approach, but maintenance strategies need to be developed in order for this approach to be effective in the longer term. PMID:22993482

van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Formsma, Anne R; de Bruin, Esther I; Bögels, Susan M

2012-10-01

66

Sustained Attention Performance during Sleep Deprivation Associates with Instability in Behavior and Physiologic Measures at Baseline  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To identify baseline behavioral and physiologic markers that associate with individual differences in sustained attention during sleep deprivation. Design: In a retrospective study, ocular, electrocardiogram, and electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were compared in subjects who were characterized as resilient (n = 15) or vulnerable (n = 15) to the effects of total sleep deprivation on sustained attention. Setting: Chronobiology and Sleep Laboratory, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore. Participants: Healthy volunteers aged 22-32 years from the general population. Interventions: Subjects were kept awake for at least 26 hours under constant environmental conditions. Every 2 hours, sustained attention was assessed using a 10-minute psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Measurements and Results: During baseline sleep and recovery sleep, EEG slow wave activity was similar in resilient versus vulnerable subjects, suggesting that individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss were not related to differences in homeostatic sleep regulation. Rather, irrespective of time elapsed since wake, subjects who were vulnerable to sleep deprivation exhibited slower and more variable PVT response times, lower and more variable heart rate, and higher and more variable EEG spectral power in the theta frequency band (6.0-7.5 Hz). Conclusions: Performance decrements in sustained attention during sleep deprivation associate with instability in behavioral and physiologic measures at baseline. Small individual differences in sustained attention that are present at baseline are amplified during prolonged wakefulness, thus contributing to large between-subjects differences in performance and sleepiness. Citation: Chua EC; Yeo SC; Lee IT; Tan LC; Lau P; Cai S; Zhang X; Puvanendran K; Gooley JJ. Sustained attention performance during sleep deprivation associates with instability in behavior and physiologic measures at baseline. SLEEP 2014;37(1):27-39. PMID:24470693

Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Lee, Ivan Tian-Guang; Tan, Luuan-Chin; Lau, Pauline; Cai, Shiwei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Puvanendran, Kathiravelu; Gooley, Joshua J.

2014-01-01

67

Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): A neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity)  

PubMed Central

Most studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on the combined type and emphasized a core problem in response inhibition. It is proposed here that the core problem in the truly inattentive type of ADHD (not simply the subthreshold combined type) is in working memory. It is further proposed that laboratory measures, such as complex-span and dual-task dichotic listening tasks, can detect this. Children with the truly inattentive type of ADHD, rather than being distractible, may instead be easily bored, their problem being more in motivation (under-arousal) than in inhibitory control. Much converging evidence points to a primary disturbance in the striatum (a frontal–striatal loop) in the combined type of ADHD. It is proposed here that the primary disturbance in truly inattentive-type ADHD (ADD) is in the cortex (a frontal–parietal loop). Finally, it is posited that these are not two different types of ADHD, but two different disorders with different cognitive and behavioral profiles, different patterns of comorbidities, different responses to medication, and different underlying neurobiologies. PMID:16262993

DIAMOND, ADELE

2006-01-01

68

Disentangling the attention network test: behavioral, event related potentials, and neural source analyses  

PubMed Central

Background: The study of the attentional system remains a challenge for current neuroscience. The “Attention Network Test” (ANT) was designed to study simultaneously three different attentional networks (alerting, orienting, and executive) based in subtraction of different experimental conditions. However, some studies recommend caution with these calculations due to the interactions between the attentional networks. In particular, it is highly relevant that several interpretations about attentional impairment have arisen from these calculations in diverse pathologies. Event related potentials (ERPs) and neural source analysis can be applied to disentangle the relationships between these attentional networks not specifically shown by behavioral measures. Results: This study shows that there is a basic level of alerting (tonic alerting) in the no cue (NC) condition, represented by a slow negative trend in the ERP trace prior to the onset of the target stimuli. A progressive increase in the CNV amplitude related to the amount of information provided by the cue conditions is also shown. Neural source analysis reveals specific modulations of the CNV related to a task-related expectancy presented in the NC condition; a late modulation triggered by the central cue (CC) condition and probably representing a generic motor preparation; and an early and late modulation for spatial cue (SC) condition suggesting specific motor and sensory preactivation. Finally, the first component in the information processing of the target stimuli modulated by the interaction between orienting network and the executive system can be represented by N1. Conclusions: The ANT is useful as a paradigm to study specific attentional mechanisms and their interactions. However, calculation of network effects is based in subtractions with non-comparable experimental conditions, as evidenced by the present data, which can induce misinterpretations in the study of the attentional capacity in human subjects. PMID:25352800

Galvao-Carmona, Alejandro; González-Rosa, Javier J.; Hidalgo-Muñoz, Antonio R.; Páramo, Dolores; Benítez, María L.; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Vázquez-Marrufo, Manuel

2014-01-01

69

Effectiveness of Self-Management on Attentional Behavior and Reading Comprehension for Children with Attention Deficit Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a self-management program with three elementary-aged students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD). An ABABC with follow-up single subject design was employed to evaluate the impact of self-management procedures on attention to task and reading comprehension. During the first self-recording phase, students were cued to record attention to task at

Laurie Edwards; Valdene Salant; Vikki F. Howard; Janet Brougher; T F McLaughlin

1995-01-01

70

Peer-mediated reinforcement plus prompting as treatment for off-task behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed Central

Functional analyses revealed that peer attention was one variable maintaining the off-task behavior exhibited by 3 students with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Peer-mediated reinforcement plus prompting was then used to reduce off-task behavior in a simulated classroom environment. Implications for future applications of this procedure with children diagnosed with ADHD are discussed. PMID:12102141

Flood, William A; Wilder, David A; Flood, Amy L; Masuda, Akihiko

2002-01-01

71

Perplexities in Discrimination of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Specific Behaviors that may hold some Answers  

E-print Network

, such as depression, anxiety, withdrawal, aggression, delinquent conduct, and inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior? (p. 354). Scores on the sixteen primary subscales of the teacher (TRS) and parent rating (PRS) scales, of the BASC-2 are measures... and critical items on the published BASC-2. Critical items are ?special? items. Practitioners can interpret these items cautiously as stand-alone items. The sixteen primary subscales are aggression, attention problems, adaptability, anxiety, atypicality...

Harrison, Judith R.

2010-07-14

72

The Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Psychopathology and Behavior  

PubMed Central

Background The present study examined prevalence of psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems in children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Primary caregivers of 344 children (8–16y, M=12.28) completed the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (C-DISC-4.0) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Subjects comprised 4 groups: AE with ADHD (AE+, n=85) and without ADHD (AE?, n=52), and non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=74) and without ADHD (CON, n=133). The frequency of specific psychiatric disorders, number of psychiatric disorders (comorbidity), and CBCL behavioral scores were examined using chi-square and ANCOVA techniques. Results Clinical groups had greater frequency of all psychiatric disorders, except for anxiety, where the AE? and CON groups did not differ. There was a synergistic effect of AE and ADHD on conduct disorder. For Comorbidity, children with ADHD had increased psychiatric disorders regardless of AE, which did not have an independent effect on comorbidity. For CBCL scores, there were significant main effects of AE and ADHD on all scores and significant AE X ADHD interactions for Withdrawn/Depressed, Somatic Complaints, Attention, and all Summary scores. There was a synergistic effect of AE and ADHD on Externalizing, Total Problems, and Attention Problems. Conclusion Findings indicate that ADHD diagnosis elevates children’s risk of psychiatric diagnoses, regardless of AE, but suggest a synergistic relation between AE and ADHD on conduct disorder and externalizing behavioral problems in children. Findings affirm a poorer behavioral prognosis for alcohol-exposed children with ADHD and suggest that more than one neurobehavioral profile may exist for individuals with AE. PMID:22974279

Ware, Ashley L.; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

2012-01-01

73

Attentive Scanning Behavior Drives One-Trial Potentiation of Hippocampal Place Fields  

PubMed Central

The hippocampus is thought to play a critical role in episodic memory by incorporating the sensory input of an experience onto a spatial framework embodied by place cells. Although the formation and stability of place fields requires exploration, the interaction between discrete exploratory behaviors and the specific, immediate, and persistent modifications of neural representations required by episodic memory has not been established. We recorded place cells in rats and found that increased neural activity during exploratory head-scanning behaviors predicted the formation and potentiation of place fields on the next pass through that location, regardless of environmental familiarity and across multiple testing days. These results strongly suggest that, during the attentive behaviors that punctuate exploration, place cell activity mediates the one-trial encoding of ongoing experiences necessary for episodic memory. PMID:24686786

Monaco, Joseph D.; Rao, Geeta; Roth, Eric D.; Knierim, James J.

2014-01-01

74

Circadian modulation of dopamine levels and dopaminergic neuron development contributes to attention deficiency and hyperactive behavior.  

PubMed

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adults. While ADHD patients often display circadian abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we found that the zebrafish mutant for the circadian gene period1b (per1b) displays hyperactive, impulsive-like, and attention deficit-like behaviors and low levels of dopamine, reminiscent of human ADHD patients. We found that the circadian clock directly regulates dopamine-related genes monoamine oxidase and dopamine ? hydroxylase, and acts via genes important for the development or maintenance of dopaminergic neurons to regulate their number and organization in the ventral diencephalic posterior tuberculum. We then found that Per1 knock-out mice also display ADHD-like symptoms and reduced levels of dopamine, thereby showing highly conserved roles of the circadian clock in ADHD. Our studies demonstrate that disruption of a circadian clock gene elicits ADHD-like syndrome. The circadian model for attention deficiency and hyperactive behavior sheds light on ADHD pathogenesis and opens avenues for exploring novel targets for diagnosis and therapy for this common psychiatric disorder. PMID:25673850

Huang, Jian; Zhong, Zhaomin; Wang, Mingyong; Chen, Xifeng; Tan, Yicheng; Zhang, Shuqing; He, Wei; He, Xiong; Huang, Guodong; Lu, Haiping; Wu, Ping; Che, Yi; Yan, Yi-Lin; Postlethwait, John H; Chen, Wenbiao; Wang, Han

2015-02-11

75

Attention problems and parent-rated behavior and stress in young children at risk for developmental delay.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to characterize the neurobehavior of young children at risk for developmental delay and attention problems. Two hundred and eighty-one children, ages 18 to 70 months, were evaluated. All parents/guardians completed the Child Development Inventory, Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½ to 5, Inventory for Client and Agency Planning, and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. All children had significant delays (developmental ratios <.70). A Mann-Whitney U test compared those with and without attention problems (T score >70). A 2-tailed P value of <.05 indicated statistical significance. Children with attention problems were more likely to have withdrawn behavior, sleep problems, and aggressive behavior. All had severe problem behaviors, and their families experienced significant stress. Attention problems and other serious problem behaviors occur frequently in young children at risk for developmental delay. Parental stress warrants prompt intervention for their children and positive supports for them. PMID:20223747

Tervo, Raymond C

2010-11-01

76

Media Attention, Institutional Response, and Health Behavior ChangeThe Case of Drunk Driving, 1978-1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers media effects on behavior that are mediated through other social institutions. Examined is the extent to which changes over time in the amount of media attention to the issue of drunk driving (DD) may have contributed to the reduction in DD behavior between 1978 and 1996. It was hypothesized that media effects on DD behavior were mediated

ITZHAK YANOVITZKY; COURTNEY BENNETT

1999-01-01

77

Interactive Pharmacological and Behavioral Management of a Hyperactive Attention Deficit Disordered Child in an Elective Pharmacy Clerkship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principles of behavior analysis and basic behavioral definitions were utilized by clinical pharmacy students within an interdisciplinary setting to recognize and reinforce the spontaneously occurring on-task desirable behaviors of an 8-year-old hyperactive, attention deficit disordered child. Data gathered by pharmacy students from a case…

Hill, John W.; Gourley, Dick R.

78

Development and validation of an attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) executive function and behavior rating screening battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention problems are ubiquitous in clinical practice, commonly found in many childhood learning and behavior disorders. Practitioners need cost- and time-effective methods for determining whether children have attention problems due to attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or numerous other conditions. This study examined the utility of a 15-minute ADHD screening battery designed to differentiate ADHD (including inattentive, IT, and combined, CT, subtypes),

James B. Hale; Linda A. Reddy; Scott L. Decker; Rebecca Thompson; Julie Henzel; Annemarie Teodori; Elizabeth Forrest; Eleazar Eusebio; Martha Bridge Denckla

2009-01-01

79

Impulsivity and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Subtype Classification Using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale  

PubMed Central

This study examined the classification accuracy of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS) in discriminating several attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes, including predominantly inattentive type (ADHD/I), combined type (ADHD/C), and combined type with behavioral problems (ADHD/ODD), between each other and a non-ADHD control group using logistic regression analyses. The sample consisted of 88 children ranging in age from 9.0 years to 12.8 years, with a mean of 10.9 years. Children were predominantly male (74%) and Caucasian (86%) and in grades 3–7. Results indicated that the UPPS performed well in classifying ADHD subtypes relative to traditional diagnostic measures. In addition, analyses indicated that differences in symptoms between subtypes can be explained by specific pathways to impulsivity. Implications for the assessment of ADHD and conceptual issues are discussed. PMID:21765593

Derefinko, Karen J.; Lynam, Donald R.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

2011-01-01

80

Sustained Attention Development during the Toddlerhood to Preschool Period: Associations with Toddlers' Emotion Regulation Strategies and Maternal Behavior  

PubMed Central

The current study examined the role of maternal behavior and toddlers' emotion regulation strategies in the development of children's sustained attention abilities. Participants for this study included 447 children (232 girls) obtained from three different cohorts participating in a larger ongoing longitudinal study. When the children were 2 years of age, mothers brought their children to the laboratory and were videotaped during several tasks designed to elicit emotion regulation and mother– child interaction. Sustained attention was also measured at the same visit via a laboratory task and in a subsequent visit when children were 4.5 years of age. Results indicated that toddlers' use of help-seeking emotion regulation strategies was positively related to sustained attention while avoidance behaviors and maternal behavior characterized by high levels of overcontrolling/intrusiveness were negatively related to sustained attention at age 2. Significant interactions emerged such that high levels of maternal warmth/responsiveness buffered the negative associations between low use of distraction and high use of self-comforting emotion regulation strategies and sustained attention at age 2. Maternal behavior characterized by high levels of warmth/responsiveness also predicted greater growth in sustained attention from age 2 to 4.5. These findings are discussed in terms of how maternal behaviors and children's use of active versus passive emotion regulation strategies relate to sustained attention abilities. PMID:22121338

Graziano, Paulo A.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

2011-01-01

81

The effects of noncontingent delivery of high- and low-preference stimuli on attention-maintained destructive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adolescent with severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy who displayed attention- maintained destructive behavior was exposed to noncontingent reinforcer delivery (NCR) with either a high-preference or a low-preference stimulus while reinforcement for de- structive behavior with attention remained in effect (i.e., NCR without extinction). NCR without extinction was effective only when the high-preference stimulus was available, suggesting that systematic

W W Fisher; J ULIA T. O'CONNOR; P F Kurtz; ISER G. DELEON; DEIDRE L. GOTJEN

2000-01-01

82

Effects of Task Difficulty and Teacher Attention on the Off-Task Behavior of High-Ability Students with Behavior Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used traditional behavioral assessment procedures (functional behavioral assessment and structural analysis) in a single-subject design to determine whether a functional relationship existed between (a) levels of task difficulty and teacher attention and (b) off-task behavior in 3 students identified as highly able in mathematics who…

Simonsen, Brandi; Little, Catherine A.; Fairbanks, Sarah

2010-01-01

83

Check In\\/Check Out: Effects on Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders with Attention or Escape-Maintained Behavior in a Residential Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Check In\\/Check Out (CICO) is a secondary tier intervention for those students who are not responsive to universal tier, school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. The present study extended the implementation of CICO to six students with emotional and behavioral disorders in a residential facility whose behaviors were maintained by either attention or escape. Results of a nonconcurrent multiple baseline

Nicole Cain Swoszowski; Kristine Jolivette; Laura D. Fredrick; L. Juane Heflin

2012-01-01

84

Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit\\/ hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): A neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of attention-deficit0hyperactivity disorder ~ADHD! have focused on the combined type and emphasized a core problem in response inhibition. It is proposed here that the core problem in the truly inattentive type of ADHD ~not simply the subthreshold combined type! is in working memory. It is further proposed that laboratory measures, such as complex-span and dual-task dichotic listening tasks,

ADELE DIAMOND

2005-01-01

85

Illuminating the role of cholinergic signaling in circuits of attention and emotionally salient behaviors  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. Alterations in ACh signaling are involved in the pathophysiology of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. In the central nervous system, ACh transmission is mainly guaranteed by dense innervation of select cortical and subcortical regions from disperse groups of cholinergic neurons within the basal forebrain (BF; e.g., diagonal band, medial septal, nucleus basalis) and the pontine-mesencephalic nuclei, respectively. Despite the fundamental role of cholinergic signaling in the CNS and the long standing knowledge of the organization of cholinergic circuitry, remarkably little is known about precisely how ACh release modulates cortical and subcortical neural activity and the behaviors these circuits subserve. Growing interest in cholinergic signaling in the CNS focuses on the mechanism(s) of action by which endogenously released ACh regulates cognitive functions, acting as a neuromodulator and/or as a direct transmitter via nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The development of optogenetic techniques has provided a valuable toolbox with which we can address these questions, as it allows the selective manipulation of the excitability of cholinergic inputs to the diverse array of cholinergic target fields within cortical and subcortical domains. Here, we review recent papers that use the light-sensitive opsins in the cholinergic system to elucidate the role of ACh in circuits related to attention and emotionally salient behaviors. In particular, we highlight recent optogenetic studies which have tried to disentangle the precise role of ACh in the modulation of cortical-, hippocampal- and striatal-dependent functions. PMID:25386136

Luchicchi, Antonio; Bloem, Bernard; Viaña, John Noel M.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Role, Lorna W.

2014-01-01

86

Effects of Environmental Stimulation on Students Demonstrating Behaviors Related to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behaviors characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often interfere with students' and their classmates' learning, and interventions targeting these behaviors may be particularly important in schools. This article reviews studies in which researchers manipulated environmental stimulation during task presentation…

Vostal, Brooks R.; Lee, David L.; Miller, Faith

2013-01-01

87

Video editing based on behaviors-for-attention - an approach to professional editing using a simple scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

In desktop manipulations such as cooking or assembly instruction videos, a performer often draws the viewers' attention to significant portions of the video's content by means of a specific set of physical behaviors. We verified the efficacy of videos edited based on those behaviors by observing television programs and simulating them with the use of our editing scheme. We first

Motoyuki Ozeki; Yuichi Nakamura; Yuichi Ohta

2004-01-01

88

The Effects of Highlighting on the Math Computation Performance and Off-Task Behavior of Students with Attention Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effects of color highlighting during a math computation task on performance accuracy and behavior of students with attention problems. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, three students solved math computation problems on worksheets with and without highlighting. Off-task behavior recorded from videotape…

Kercood, Suneeta; Grskovic, Janice A.

2009-01-01

89

Decreasing Self-Injurious Behavior in a Student with Autism and Tourette Syndrome through Positive Attention and Extinction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study was conducted with a student diagnosed with autism and Tourette syndrome who displayed severe self-injurious behavior (SIB). We conducted a functional behavioral assessment which indicated that SIB was maintained by multiple functions using an ABAC design to determine the effect of positive social attention and extinction. Results…

Banda, Devender R.; McAfee, James K.; Hart, Stephanie L.

2009-01-01

90

The Benefits of Simply Observing: Mindful Attention Modulates the Link Between Motivation and Behavior  

E-print Network

The Benefits of Simply Observing: Mindful Attention Modulates the Link Between Motivation of mechanisms and applications of mindful attention and explore how mindfulness and mindful attention can be conceptu- alized in psychological research more generally. Keywords: mindfulness, decentering, grounded

Barsalou, Lawrence W.

91

The Power of Kawaii: Viewing Cute Images Promotes a Careful Behavior and Narrows Attentional Focus  

PubMed Central

Kawaii (a Japanese word meaning “cute”) things are popular because they produce positive feelings. However, their effect on behavior remains unclear. In this study, three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of viewing cute images on subsequent task performance. In the first experiment, university students performed a fine motor dexterity task before and after viewing images of baby or adult animals. Performance indexed by the number of successful trials increased after viewing cute images (puppies and kittens; M ± SE?=?43.9±10.3% improvement) more than after viewing images that were less cute (dogs and cats; 11.9±5.5% improvement). In the second experiment, this finding was replicated by using a non-motor visual search task. Performance improved more after viewing cute images (15.7±2.2% improvement) than after viewing less cute images (1.4±2.1% improvement). Viewing images of pleasant foods was ineffective in improving performance (1.2±2.1%). In the third experiment, participants performed a global–local letter task after viewing images of baby animals, adult animals, and neutral objects. In general, global features were processed faster than local features. However, this global precedence effect was reduced after viewing cute images. Results show that participants performed tasks requiring focused attention more carefully after viewing cute images. This is interpreted as the result of a narrowed attentional focus induced by the cuteness-triggered positive emotion that is associated with approach motivation and the tendency toward systematic processing. For future applications, cute objects may be used as an emotion elicitor to induce careful behavioral tendencies in specific situations, such as driving and office work. PMID:23050022

Nittono, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Michiko; Yano, Akihiro; Moriya, Hiroki

2012-01-01

92

Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. A sample of 240 maltreated early adolescents (ages 9–11) and their caregivers were interviewed within 14 months of being removed from the home. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems were partial mediators of the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. These associations were significant even after controlling for children's intellectual functioning, sex, age, and severity of other maltreatment types. Possible explanations for the detrimental impact of physical abuse on behavior are discussed, along with the implications of the current study's results for interventions aimed at reducing early adolescent aggressive behavior. PMID:21966081

Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

2010-01-01

93

The Role of Attention in the Treatment of Attention-Maintained Self-Injurious Behavior: Noncontingent Reinforcement and Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) in the reduction of self-injurious behavior in three adult females with severe or profound mental retardation. Both procedures were highly effective in reducing self-injury, with NCR less limited than DRO. (Author/DB)

Iwata, Brian A.; And Others

1993-01-01

94

Selective Attention to Threatening Stimuli and Field Independence as Factors in the Etiology of Paranoid Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test a theory that selective attention to threatening stimuli induces paranoia, an attempt was made to manipulate attention to threatening and nonthreatening statements among college students and examine the effects on three indices of paranoia. (Editor)

Locasio, Joseph J.; Snyder, C. R.

1975-01-01

95

Behavioral and ERP Evidence for Amodal Sluggish Attentional Shifting in Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to examine the claim that amodal deficits in attentional shifting may be the source of reading acquisition disorders in phonological developmental dyslexia (sluggish attentional shifting, SAS, theory, Hari & Renvall, 2001). We investigated automatic attentional shifting in the auditory and visual modalities in 13…

Lallier, Marie; Tainturier, Marie-Josephe; Dering, Benjamin; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane; Thierry, Guillaume

2010-01-01

96

College Students' Attention Behaviors during Independent Study and Course Level Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in college make daily choices about how to use their independent study time, including choices about allocation of attention. Based on theoretical considerations and clinical studies, attention and the dividing of attention through multitasking is thought to have a relationship to performance levels. Research is only beginning to explore,…

Wagner, Linda G.

2012-01-01

97

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Mental Training Enhances Attentional Stability: Neural and  

E-print Network

, that training attention, as cultivated by meditation, can improve the ability to sustain atten- tion. Three months of intensive meditation training reduced variability in attentional processing of target tones, regardless of whether the deviant tone was attended or unattended. Focused attention meditation may thus

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

98

Visual Attention and Autistic Behavior in Infants with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aberrant attention is a core feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS), however, little is known regarding the developmental trajectory and underlying physiological processes of attention deficits in FXS. Atypical visual attention is an early emerging and robust indicator of autism in idiopathic (non-FXS) autism. Using a biobehavioral approach with gaze…

Roberts, Jane E.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Long, Anna C. J.; Anello, Vittoria; Colombo, John

2012-01-01

99

The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in\\u000a pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two\\u000a different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis\\u000a of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes

Jinah Kim; Tony Wigram; Christian Gold

2008-01-01

100

The Importance of Parental Attributions in Families of Children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity and Disruptive Behavior Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a social-cognitive model outlining the role of parental attributions for child behavior in parent–child interactions. Examples of studies providing evidence for the basic model are presented, with particular reference to applications of the model in families of children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and\\/or oppositional defiant\\/conduct disordered behavior. Parent or child factors that may moderate the operation of links within

Charlotte Johnston; Jeneva L. Ohan

2005-01-01

101

Mother-Son Interactions in Families of Boys with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder with and without Oppositional Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting responsiveness and over-reactivity were assessed among 25 mothers of 7-9-year-old sons with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and oppositional behavior (Oppositional Defiant, OD), 24 mothers of sons with ADHD only, and 38 mothers of nonproblem sons. Responsiveness was observed during mother-son play and clean-up…

Seipp, Carla M.; Johnston, Charlotte

2005-01-01

102

The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…

Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

2008-01-01

103

Athletic Performance and Social Behavior as Predictors of Peer Acceptance in Children Diagnosed With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-three children between ages 6 and 12 who were enrolled in a summer treatment program for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a study designed to measure the relationship between social behaviors, athletic performance, and peer acceptance. Children were assessed on sport-specific skills of three major…

Lopez-Williams, Andy; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Seymour, Karen E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Pelham, William E.; Morris, Tracy L.

2005-01-01

104

Improving Compliance with Diabetes Management in Young Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Using Behavior Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical adherence to complex diabetes regimens can be challenging, particularly for adolescents, and therefore represents the most common reason for referral to behavioral psychologists among this population. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), when present in children and adolescents with diabetes, presents unique barriers to…

Sanchez, Lisa M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Hunter, Scott J.

2006-01-01

105

A Comparison of Behavioral Parent Training Programs for Fathers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few behavioral parent training (BPT) treatment studies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have included and measured outcomes with fathers. In this study, fathers were randomly assigned to attend a standard BPT program or the Coaching Our Acting-Out Children: Heightening Essential Skills (COACHES) program. The COACHES program…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Chacko, Anil; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Robb, Jessica; Walker, Kathryn S.; Wymbs, Frances; Sastry, Amber L.; Flammer, Lizette; Keenan, Jenna K.; Visweswaraiah, Hema; Shulman, Simon; Herbst, Laura; Pirvics, Lauma

2009-01-01

106

Non-Drug Interventions for Improving Classroom Behavior and Social Functioning of Young Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores research on use of medication and non-drug interventions to modify the behavior of preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It begins by discussing the symptoms of ADHD, neurological differences between children with ADHD and those without ADHD, and expected adolescent and adult outcomes for…

Radcliff, David

107

An adaptive visual attentive tracker for human communicational behaviors using HMM-based TD learning with new State distinction capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a nonverbal communication channel between an operator and a system, we built a tracking system called the Adaptive Visual Attentive Tracker (AVAT) to track and zoom in to the operator's behavioral sequence which represents his\\/her intention. In our system, hidden Markov models (HMMs) first roughly model the gesture pattern. Then, the state transition probabilities in HMMs are used

Minh Anh Thi Ho; Yoji Yamada; Yoji Umetani

2005-01-01

108

Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

2011-01-01

109

Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation? A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method: A diverse community sample (55% African American) of men (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of…

Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

2011-01-01

110

Comparison of Parent's and Teachers' Perceptions of Children's Behavior: A Study of Attentional Problems in a Natural Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate concordance of reports of hyperactive and distractible behavior from three different sources: parents, teachers, and the child, using two different instruments, the ADHD Rating Scale and the Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS). The incidence rate of attentional problems that any of the sources reported in…

Rappaport, Lisa N.

2006-01-01

111

The Importance of Parental Attributions in Families of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Disruptive Behavior Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a social-cognitive model outlining the role of parental attributions for child behavior in parent?child interactions. Examples of studies providing evidence for the basic model are presented, with particular reference to applications of the model in families of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or…

Johnston, Charlotte; Ohan, Jeneva L.

2005-01-01

112

Long-Term Cardiovascular Fitness Is Associated with Auditory Attentional Control in Old Adults: Neuro-Behavioral Evidence  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that healthy aging affects the ability to focus attention on a given task and to ignore distractors. Here, we asked whether long-term physical activity is associated with lower susceptibility to distraction of auditory attention, and how physically active and inactive seniors may differ regarding subcomponents of auditory attention. An auditory duration discrimination task was employed, and involuntary attentional shifts to task-irrelevant rare frequency deviations and subsequent reorientation were studied by analysis of behavioral data and event-related potential measures. The frequency deviations impaired performance more in physically inactive than active seniors. This was accompanied by a stronger frontal positivity (P3a) and increased activation of anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting a stronger involuntary shift of attention towards task-irrelevant stimulus features in inactive compared to active seniors. These results indicate a positive relationship between physical fitness and attentional control in elderly, presumably due to more focused attentional resources and enhanced inhibition of irrelevant stimulus features. PMID:24023949

Getzmann, Stephan; Falkenstein, Michael; Gajewski, Patrick D.

2013-01-01

113

The speed of visual attention in schizophrenia: Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia is characterized by a substantial slowing of manual response times and by impairments in attention. However, prior research has not investigated whether attention itself is slowed in schizophrenia, and this was the goal of the present study. In Experiment 1, the N2pc component of the event-related potential waveform–an electrophysiological correlate of the focusing of attention–was recorded from 24 schizophrenia

Steven J. Luck; Rebecca L. Fuller; Elsie L. Braun; Benjamin Robinson; Ann Summerfelt; James M. Gold

2006-01-01

114

The development of attention to simple and complex visual stimuli in infants: Behavioral and psychophysiological measures  

PubMed Central

The study of visual attention in infants has used presentation of single simple stimuli, multi-dimensional stimuli, and complex dynamic video presentations. There are both continuities and discontinuities in the findings on attention and attentiveness to stimulus complexity. A continuity is a pattern of looking that is found in the early part of infancy that remains throughout adulthood. A discontinuity is an emerging sensitivity to the content of the information in the stimulus presentations and alterations in patterns of attention based upon stimulus comprehensibility. The current paper reviews some of these findings with particular application to complex video presentations. PMID:20526452

Richards, John E.

2010-01-01

115

Behavioral sleep problems and internalizing and externalizing comorbidities in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Behavioral sleep problems are common in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as are internalizing and externalizing comorbidities. The prevalence of these difficulties and the extent to which they co-exist in children with ADHD could inform clinical practice, but remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the association between sleep problems and internalizing and externalizing comorbidities in children with ADHD. Children aged 5-13 years were recruited from 21 pediatric practices across Victoria, Australia (N = 392). Internalizing and externalizing comorbidities (none, internalizing, externalizing, co-occurring) were assessed by the telephone-administered Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children IV/Parent version. Sleep problem severity was assessed by primary caregiver report (no, mild, moderate or severe problem). Moderate/severe sleep problems were confirmed using International Classification of Sleep Disorders. Seven specific sleep problem domains (bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, sleep onset delay, sleep duration, night waking, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness) were assessed using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using adjusted logistic and linear regression models. Compared to children without comorbidities, children with co-occurring internalizing and externalizing comorbidities were more likely to have moderate/severe sleep problems (adjusted OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.2; 4.5, p = 0.009) and problematic sleep across six of seven sleep domains. Children with either comorbidity alone were not at risk of moderate/severe sleep problems, but at the sleep domain level, children with internalizing alone had more sleep anxiety, and those with externalizing alone had less night waking. In conclusion, children with ADHD experiencing co-occurring internalizing and externalizing comorbidities are at an increased risk of sleep problems. PMID:24633694

Lycett, Kate; Sciberras, Emma; Mensah, Fiona K; Hiscock, Harriet

2015-01-01

116

Relationship between theta-phase gamma-amplitude coupling and attention-deficit/hyperactivity behavior in children.  

PubMed

The Continuous Performance Test (CPT) is a valuable tool for assessing behavior in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a promising tool for the diagnosis of ADHD. Recently, theta-phase gamma-amplitude coupling (TGC) measurement has received attention because it is a feasible method of assessing brain function. We investigated the relationship between CPT performance and EEG measures such as TGC and theta and gamma activity. EEGs were recorded from 68 volunteers from a camp for hyperactive children using a 19-electrode system. Their TGC, theta and 40Hz gamma activity were estimated and compared with results obtained on the Korean ADHD Rating Scale (KARS) and the Intermediate Visual and Auditory (IVA) CPT. The results demonstrated significant negative partial correlations between TGC and the IVA CPT, such as the Response Control Quotient (RCQ) and Attention Quotient (AQ). TGC successfully identified the level of dysfunctional interaction of the attention/arousal system at a multi-scale large network level. It is thought that as the TGC increases, the efficacy of the system is very low or dysfunctional. Compensatory hyper-arousal patterns of the dysfunctional attention/arousal system may account for this effect. TGC is a promising neurophysiological marker for ADHD behavior in children. PMID:25637702

Kim, Jun Won; Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Young Sik; Min, Kyung Joon

2015-03-17

117

Separable roles for attentional control sub-systems in reading tasks: a combined behavioral and FMRI study.  

PubMed

Attentional control is important both for learning to read and for performing difficult reading tasks. A previous study invoked 2 mechanisms to explain reaction time (RT) differences between reading tasks with variable attentional demands. The present study combined behavioral and neuroimaging measures to test the hypotheses that there are 2 mechanisms of interaction between attentional control and reading; that these mechanisms are dissociable both behaviorally and neuro-anatomically; and that the 2 mechanisms involve functionally separable control systems. First, RT evidence was found in support of the 2-mechanism model, corroborating the previous study. Next, 2 sets of brain regions were identified as showing functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level-dependent activity that maps onto the 2-mechanism distinction. One set included bilateral Cingulo-opercular regions and mostly right-lateralized Dorsal Attention regions (CO/DA+). This CO/DA+ region set showed response properties consistent with a role in reporting which processing pathway (phonological or lexical) was biased for a particular trial. A second set was composed primarily of left-lateralized Frontal-parietal (FP) regions. Its signal properties were consistent with a role in response checking. These results demonstrate how the subcomponents of attentional control interact with subcomponents of reading processes in healthy young adults. PMID:24275830

Ihnen, S K Z; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

2015-05-01

118

Cardiac and Behavioral Evidence for Emotional Influences on Attention in 7-Month-Old Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the ontogeny of emotion-attention interactions, we investigated whether infants exhibit adult-like biases in automatic and voluntary attentional processes towards fearful facial expressions. Heart rate and saccadic eye movements were measured from 7-month-old infants (n = 42) while viewing non-face control stimuli, and neutral, happy,…

Leppanen, Jukka; Peltola, Mikko J.; Mantymaa, Mirjami; Koivuluoma, Mikko; Salminen, Anni; Puura, Kaija

2010-01-01

119

Pre-attentive cortical processing of behaviorally perceptible spatial changes in older adults—a mismatch negativity study  

PubMed Central

From behavioral studies it is known that auditory spatial resolution of azimuthal space declines over age. To date, it is not clear how age affects the respective sensory auditory processing at the pre-attentive level. Here we tested the hypothesis that pre-attentive processing of behaviorally perceptible spatial changes is preserved in older adults. An EEG-study was performed in older adults (65–82 years of age) and a mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm employed. Sequences of frequent standard stimuli of defined azimuthal positions were presented together with rarely occurring deviants shifted by 10° or 20° to the left or to the right of the standard. Standard positions were at +5° (central condition) from the midsagittal plane and at 65° in both lateral hemifields (±65°; lateral condition). The results suggest an effect of laterality on the pre-attentive change processing of spatial deviations in older adults: While for the central conditions deviants close to MAA threshold (i.e., 10°) yielded discernable MMNs, for lateral positions the respective MMN responses were only elicited by spatial deviations of 20° toward the midline (i.e., ±45°). Furthermore, MMN amplitudes were found to be insensitive to the magnitude of deviation (10°, 20°), which is contrary to recent studies with young adults (Bennemann et al., 2013) and hints to a deteriorated pre-attentive encoding of sound sources in older adults. The discrepancy between behavioral MAA data and present results are discussed with respect to the possibility that under the condition of active stimulus processing older adults might benefit from recruiting additional attentional top-down processes to detect small magnitudes of spatial deviations even within the lateral acoustic field. PMID:24982611

Freigang, Claudia; Rübsamen, Rudolf; Richter, Nicole

2014-01-01

120

Behavioral impairments in rats with chronic epilepsy suggest comorbidity between epilepsy and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder  

PubMed Central

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is encountered among epilepsy patients at a significantly higher rate than in the general population. Mechanisms of epilepsy-ADHD comorbidity remain largely unknown. We investigated whether a model of chronic epilepsy in rats produces signs of ADHD, and thus, whether it can be used for studying mechanisms of this comorbidity. Epilepsy was induced in male Wistar rats via pilocarpine status epilepticus. Half of the animals exhibited chronic ADHD-like abnormalities, particularly increased impulsivity and diminished attention in the lateralized reaction time task. These impairments correlated with the suppressed noradrenergic transmission in locus coeruleus outputs. The other half of animals exhibited depressive behavior in the forced swimming test congruently with the diminished serotonergic transmission in raphe nucleus outputs. ADHD and depressive behavior appeared mutually exclusive. Therefore, pilocarpine model of epilepsy affords a system for reproducing and studying mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and both ADHD and/or depression. PMID:24262783

Pineda, Eduardo; Jentsch, J. David; Shin, Don; Griesbach, Grace; Sankar, Raman; Mazarati, Andrey

2013-01-01

121

Increased attention and memory for beloved-related information during infatuation: behavioral and electrophysiological data.  

PubMed

Emotionally salient information is well attended and remembered. It has been shown that infatuated individuals have increased attention for their beloved. It is unknown whether this attention bias generalizes to information related to the beloved. Moreover, infatuated individuals report to remember trivial things about their beloved, but this has not yet been tested empirically. In two studies, we tested whether infatuated individuals have increased attention and memory for beloved-related information. In a passive viewing task (Study 1), the late positive potential, an event-related potential (ERP) component reflecting motivated attention, was enhanced for beloved-related vs friend-related words/phrases. In a recognition task (Study 2), memory performance and the frontal and parietal ERP old/new effects, reflecting familiarity and recollection, respectively, were not enhanced for beloved-related compared with friend-related words/phrases. In free recall tasks in both studies, memory was better for beloved-related than friend-related words/phrases. This research reveals that attention and memory are enhanced for beloved-related information. These attention and memory biases for beloved-related information were not due to valence, semantic relatedness, or experience, but to arousal. To conclude, romantic love has profound effects on cognition that play a clear role in daily life. PMID:24526182

Langeslag, Sandra J E; Olivier, Jamie R; Köhlen, Martine E; Nijs, Ilse M; Van Strien, Jan W

2015-01-01

122

Development and validation of an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) executive function and behavior rating screening battery.  

PubMed

Attention problems are ubiquitous in clinical practice, commonly found in many childhood learning and behavior disorders. Practitioners need cost- and time-effective methods for determining whether children have attention problems due to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or numerous other conditions. This study examined the utility of a 15-minute ADHD screening battery designed to differentiate ADHD (including inattentive, IT, and combined, CT, subtypes), specific learning disability (SLD), and typical child samples. Results for the 368 children (age 6 to 12 years) revealed that the Trail Making Test-Part B (Time/Errors), Hale-Denckla Cancellation Test (Time/Correct), and Child Attention Profile (Inattention/Overactivity) teacher ratings discriminated between typical and ADHD groups (87% correct classification; sensitivity = .64; specificity = .92) and differentiated between IT, CT, and SLD groups (80% correct classification; IT sensitivity = .82, and specificity = .96; CT sensitivity = .84, and specificity = .82). Discriminant function and Bonferroni post hoc results revealed different neuropsychological and behavioral patterns among groups. PMID:19308775

Hale, James B; Reddy, Linda A; Decker, Scott L; Thompson, Rebecca; Henzel, Julie; Teodori, Annemarie; Forrest, Elizabeth; Eusebio, Eleazar; Denckla, Martha Bridge

2009-11-01

123

An analysis of challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Fragile X Syndrome.  

PubMed

The present study sought to investigate the relationship between challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in Fragile X Syndrome (FRAX). Additionally, this study sought to examine how such disorders are predicted by gender, presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and presence of intellectual disability (ID). A total of 47 children and adolescents with FRAX were assessed. Results revealed high levels of challenging behavior and AD/HD symptoms within the sample, with some participants exhibiting symptoms of comorbid psychopathology. Further analysis revealed that challenging behavior and comorbid psychopathology were positively correlated, with stereotypy correlating most strongly with comorbid psychopathology. In addition, ASD was found to predict challenging behavior, and gender was found to predict AD/HD symptoms. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25543996

Newman, Isabel; Leader, Geraldine; Chen, June L; Mannion, Arlene

2015-03-01

124

Paternal influences on treatment outcome of behavioral parent training in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

This study aims to explore the influence of paternal variables on outcome of behavioral parent training (BPT) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 83 referred, school-aged children with ADHD were randomly assigned to BPT plus ongoing routine clinical care (RCC) or RCC alone. Treatment outcome was based on parent-reported ADHD symptoms and behavioral problems. Moderator variables included paternal ADHD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and parenting self-efficacy. We conducted repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) for all variables, and then analyzed the direction of interaction effects by repeated measures ANOVA in high and low scoring subgroups. Paternal ADHD symptoms and parenting self-efficacy played a moderating role in decreasing behavioral problems, but not in decreasing ADHD symptoms. Paternal depressive symptoms did not moderate either treatment outcome. BPT is most beneficial in reducing children's behavioral problems when their fathers have high levels of ADHD symptoms or high-parenting self-efficacy. PMID:24878676

van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Sytema, Sjoerd; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Minderaa, Ruud B; Nauta, Maaike H

2014-11-01

125

Mother–Son Interactions in Families of Boys With Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder With and Without Oppositional Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parenting responsiveness and over-reactivity were assessed among 25 mothers of 7–9-year-old sons with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and oppositional behavior (Oppositional Defiant, OD), 24 mothers of sons with ADHD only, and 38 mothers of nonproblem sons. Responsiveness was observed during mother–son play and clean-up interactions and over-reactivity was assessed using self-reports of parenting in discipline situations. Mothers of sons with ADHD\\/OD

Carla M. Seipp; Charlotte Johnston

2005-01-01

126

Neural response during attentional control and emotion processing predicts improvement after cognitive behavioral therapy in generalized social anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (gSAD) exhibit attentional bias to salient stimuli, which is reduced in patients whose symptoms improve after treatment, indicating that mechanisms of bias mediate treatment success. Therefore, pre-treatment activity in regions implicated in attentional control over socio-emotional signals (e.g. anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) may predict response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), evidence-based psychotherapy for gSAD. Method During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 21 participants with gSAD viewed images comprising a trio of geometric shapes (circles, rectangles or triangles) alongside a trio of faces (angry, fearful or happy) within the same field of view. Attentional control was evaluated with the instruction to ‘match shapes’, directing attention away from faces, which was contrasted with ‘match faces’, whereby attention was directed to emotional faces. Results Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses showed that symptom improvement was predicted by enhanced pre-treatment activity in the presence of emotional face distractors in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and dorsal medial pre-frontal cortex. Additionally, CBT success was foretold by less activity in the amygdala and/or increased activity in the medial orbitofrontal gyrus during emotion processing. Conclusions CBT response was predicted by pre-treatment activity in prefrontal regions and the amygdala. The direction of activity suggests that individuals with intact attentional control in the presence of emotional distractors, regulatory capacity over emotional faces and/or less reactivity to such faces are more likely to benefit from CBT. Findings indicate that baseline neural activity in the context of attentional control and emotion processing may serve as a step towards delineating mechanisms by which CBT exerts its effects. PMID:25066308

Klumpp, H.; Fitzgerald, D. A.; Angstadt, M.; Post, D.; Phan, K. L.

2015-01-01

127

Involuntary attentional capture by speech and non-speech deviations: a combined behavioral-event-related potential study.  

PubMed

This study applied an auditory distraction paradigm to investigate involuntary attention effects of unexpected deviations in speech and non-speech sounds on behavior (increase in response time and error rate) and event-related brain potentials (?N1/MMN and P3a). Our aim was to systematically compare identical speech sounds with physical vs. linguistic deviations and identical deviations (pitch) with speech vs. non-speech sounds in the same set of healthy volunteers. Sine tones and bi-syllabic pseudo-words were presented in a 2-alternative forced-choice paradigm with occasional phoneme deviants in pseudo-words, pitch deviants in pseudo-words, or pitch deviants in tones. Deviance-related ERP components were elicited in all conditions. Deviance-related negativities (?N1/MMN) differed in scalp distribution between phoneme and pitch deviants within phonemes, indicating that auditory deviance-detection partly operates in a deviance-specific manner. P3a as an indicator of attentional orienting was similar in all conditions, and was accompanied by behavioral indicators of distraction. Yet smaller behavioral effects and prolonged relative MMN-P3a latency were observed for pitch deviants within phonemes relative to the other two conditions. This suggests that the similarity and separability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information is essential for the extent of attentional capture and distraction. PMID:23123705

Reiche, M; Hartwigsen, G; Widmann, A; Saur, D; Schröger, E; Bendixen, A

2013-01-15

128

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

2012-01-01

129

Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions…

Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

130

Pre-target activity in visual cortex predicts behavioral performance on spatial and feature attention tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological studies in humans and monkeys have revealed that, in response to an instruction to attend, areas of sensory cortex that code the attributes of the expected stimulus exhibit increases in neural activity prior to the arrival of the stimulus. Models of selective visual attention posit that these increases in activity give attended stimuli a processing advantage over distracting stimuli.

Barry Giesbrecht; Daniel H. Weissman; Marty G. Woldorff; George R. Mangun

2006-01-01

131

Mighty Metaphors: Behavioral and ERP Evidence that Power Shifts Attention on a Vertical Dimension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thinking about the abstract concept power may automatically activate the spatial up-down image schema ("powerful up"; "powerless down") and consequently direct spatial attention to the image schema-congruent location. Participants indicated whether a word represented a powerful or powerless person (e.g. "king" or "servant"). Following each…

Zanolie, Kiki; van Dantzig, Saskia; Boot, Inge; Wijnen, Jasper; Schubert, Thomas W.; Giessner, Steffen R.; Pecher, Diane

2012-01-01

132

The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training on Behavioral Problems and Attentional Functioning in Adolescents with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11-15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7) completed measurements before, immediately after, 8…

van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Formsma, Anne R.; de Bruin, Esther I.; Bogels, Susan M.

2012-01-01

133

A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Study of Children's Selective Attention under Neutral and Affective Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven-year-olds completed a Posner cued attention task, under both neutral and affectively charged conditions. Compared to the traditional (affect-neutral) Posner task, performance in the affective Posner task was marked by dramatic decreases in reaction times (RTs), an increase in errors, an increased validity effect (difference in RTs to the…

Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Fox, Nathan A.

2005-01-01

134

Temporal Context in Speech Processing and Attentional Stream Selection: A Behavioral and Neural Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The human capacity for processing speech is remarkable, especially given that information in speech unfolds over multiple time scales concurrently. Similarly notable is our ability to filter out of extraneous sounds and focus our attention on one conversation, epitomized by the "Cocktail Party" effect. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying on-line…

Golumbic, Elana M. Zion; Poeppel, David; Schroeder, Charles E.

2012-01-01

135

Covert attention in touch: Behavioral and ERP evidence for costs and benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the mechanism underlying tactile spatial attention, reaction times (RTs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to mechanical stimuli delivered to the hands. At the start of each trial cues indicated either the correct (valid) or incorrect (invalid) tactile stimulus location or were uninformative (neutral). RT costs (suppression of invalid compared to neutral trials) were found to

Bettina Forster; Martin Eimer

2005-01-01

136

Cognitive Behavior Therapy for College Students with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental syndrome that persists into adulthood for the majority of children with ADHD. Other individuals may not experience the full negative effects of undiagnosed ADHD until they face the demands of adult life. College counseling centers in particular are seeing a rise in the number of students seeking therapeutic services for issues related to ADHD.

J. Russell Ramsay; Anthony L. Rostain

2006-01-01

137

Behavioral impairments in rats with chronic epilepsy suggest comorbidity between epilepsy and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is encountered among patients with epilepsy at a significantly higher rate than in the general population. Mechanisms of epilepsy-ADHD comorbidity remain largely unknown. We investigated whether a model of chronic epilepsy in rats produces signs of ADHD, and thus, whether it can be used for studying mechanisms of this comorbidity. Epilepsy was induced in male Wistar rats via pilocarpine status epilepticus. Half of the animals exhibited chronic ADHD-like abnormalities, particularly increased impulsivity and diminished attention in the lateralized reaction-time task. These impairments correlated with the suppressed noradrenergic transmission in locus coeruleus outputs. The other half of animals exhibited depressive behavior in the forced swimming test congruently with the diminished serotonergic transmission in raphe nucleus outputs. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depressive behavior appeared mutually exclusive. Therefore, the pilocarpine model of epilepsy affords a system for reproducing and studying mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and both ADHD and/or depression. PMID:24262783

Pineda, Eduardo; Jentsch, J David; Shin, Don; Griesbach, Grace; Sankar, Raman; Mazarati, Andrey

2014-02-01

138

Effects of Caffeine on Classroom Behavior, Sustained Attention, and a Memory Task in Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation of the effect of normative amounts of caffeine on the behavior of six normal kindergarten children found that caffeine exerted only small and inconsistent effects on such classroom behaviors as time off-task and gross motor activity. (Author/DB)

Baer, Ruth A.

1987-01-01

139

Attention alters neural responses to evocative faces in behaviorally inhibited adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a risk factor for anxiety disorders. While the two constructs bear behavioral similarities, previous work has not extended these parallels to the neural level. This study examined amygdala reactivity during a task previously used with clinically anxious adolescents. Adolescents were selected for enduring patterns of BI or non-inhibition (BN). We examined amygdala response to evocative emotion

Koraly Pérez-Edgar; Roxann Roberson-Nay; Michael G. Hardin; Kaitlin Poeth; Amanda E. Guyer; Eric E. Nelson; Erin B. McClure; Heather A. Henderson; Nathan A. Fox; Daniel S. Pine; Monique Ernst

2007-01-01

140

Expectations induced by natural-like temporal fluctuations are independent of attention decrement: evidence from behavior and early visual evoked potentials.  

PubMed

Temporal expectations and attention decrement affect human behavior in opposing ways: the former positively, the latter negatively yet both exhibit similar neural signatures - i.e., reduction in the early event-related potential components' amplitude - despite different underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, there is a significant and growing debate in the literature regarding the putative role of attention in the encoding of expectations in perception. The question then arises as to what are the behavioral and neural consequences, if any, of attention decrement on temporal expectations and related enhancement of sensory information processing. Here, we investigated behavioral performance and visual N1a, N1p and P1 components during a sustained attention reaction time task inducing attention decrement under two conditions. In one condition, the inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) were randomly distributed to impede expectation effects while for the other, the ISI exhibited natural-like long-term correlations supposed to induce temporal expectations. Behavioral results show that natural-like fluctuations in ISI indeed induced faster RT due to temporal expectations. These temporal expectations were beneficial even under attention decrement circumstances. Further, temporal expectations were associated with reduced N1a amplitude while attention decrement was associated with reduced N1p amplitude. Our findings provide evidence that the effects of temporal expectations and attention decrement induced in a single task can be independent at the behavioral level, and are supported at separate information processing stages at the neural level in vision. PMID:25224996

Derosiere, Gerard; Farrugia, Nicolas; Perrey, Stéphane; Ward, Tomas; Torre, Kjerstin

2015-01-01

141

Attentional control, high intensity pleasure, and risky pedestrian behavior in college students.  

PubMed

Individual differences in temperament and personality are closely linked to motor vehicle safety. However, 13% of Americans who die in transportation-related injuries are not killed in motor vehicle crashes, but rather in pedestrian injuries. This study was designed to study links between two individual difference measures, attentional control and high intensity pleasure, and pedestrian injury risk among college students, a group at particular risk of pedestrian injury. A sample of 245 students completed a temperament questionnaire and engaged in a street-crossing task within an interactive, immersive virtual pedestrian environment. Individuals scoring high on attentional control (the capacity to focus and shift attention, one facet of conscientiousness) waited longer to choose gaps to cross within and showed some tendency to choose larger gaps after waiting. Individuals scoring high in high intensity pleasure (the tendency to desire novel, complex, and varied stimuli, one facet of sensation-seeking) were more likely to experience collisions with traffic in the virtual environment. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed. PMID:19393819

Schwebel, David C; Stavrinos, Despina; Kongable, Elizabeth M

2009-05-01

142

Distinguishing between autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by using behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and neuropsychological test battery.  

PubMed

Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share many common symptoms, including attention deficit, behavioral problems, and difficulties with social skills. The aim of this study was to distinguish between ASD and ADHD by identifying the characteristic features of both the disorders, by using multidimensional assessments, including screening behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and comprehensive neurological battery. After screening for comorbid disorders, we carefully selected age-, sex-, IQ-, and socio-economic status-matched children with typical development (TD). In the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, a lower score was observed for the ASD group than for the TD group in Picture concept, which is a subscale of perceptual reasoning. A lower score was shown by the ADHD group than by the TD group in the spatial working memory test in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB(®)). Although ASD and ADHD have many similar symptoms, they can be differentiated by focusing on the behavioral and cognitive characteristics of executive function. PMID:25440561

Matsuura, Naomi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Arai, Sumiyoshi; Kawamura, Kaori; Asano, Mizuki; Inohara, Keisuke; Narimoto, Tadamasa; Wada, Yuji; Hiratani, Michio; Kosaka, Hirotaka

2014-12-01

143

Behavioral Inhibition and Anxiety: The Moderating Roles of Inhibitory Control and Attention Shifting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament identified in early childhood, is associated with social reticence in childhood\\u000a and an increased risk for anxiety problems in adolescence and adulthood. However, not all behaviorally inhibited children\\u000a remain reticent or develop an anxiety disorder. One possible mechanism accounting for the variability in the developmental\\u000a trajectories of BI is a child’s ability to successfully recruit

Lauren K. White; Jennifer Martin McDermott; Kathryn A. Degnan; Heather A. Henderson; Nathan A. Fox

2011-01-01

144

Measures of attentional bias and relational responding are associated with behavioral treatment outcome for cocaine dependence  

PubMed Central

Background Psychosocial interventions for substance dependence have demonstrated efficacy. However, the mechanisms by which specific intervention strategies exert their effect have not been clearly identified. Objective This study investigated the prospective relationships between two psychological processes, an attentional bias towards cocaine stimuli and beliefs about the consequences of cocaine use, and treatment outcome. Method Twenty-five cocaine dependent participants enrolled in a 6-month outpatient treatment program that included voucher incentives for abstinence. All participants were asked to complete two implicit assessment procedures, a Drug Stroop protocol and an Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), as well as explicit measures of cocaine craving and the consequences of cocaine use, prior to beginning treatment. Pearson-correlation coefficients tested the prospective relationships between treatment outcome and the implicit and explicit assessments. Results Stronger implicit beliefs about the positive effects of cocaine use prior to treatment were associated with poorer treatment outcome when an escalating voucher incentive program was in place. Further, an attentional bias for cocaine-related stimuli was associated with better treatment outcome when an escalating voucher incentive program was removed. No association between cocaine use beliefs and treatment outcome was found when beliefs were measured with self-report instruments. Conclusions and Scientific Significance These findings highlight the potential utility of performance based measures for delineating the psychological mechanisms associated with variation in response to treatment for drug dependence. PMID:22220556

Carpenter, Kenneth M.; Martinez, Diana; Vadhan, Nehal P.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Nunes, Edward V.

2012-01-01

145

Behavioral disinhibition, anxiety, and response to methylphenidate and behavior management in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy boys ages seven to thirteen who met stringent ADHD criteria were subjects for the investigation of the relationships between parent and teacher-rated disinhibition (impulsivity plus hyperactivity) and anxiety symptoms in children with ADHD, and response to Methylphenidate (MPH) and behavior intervention. Few subjects (N = 3) displayed clinically significant anxiety as assessed by the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale

Susan Haines Beery

1994-01-01

146

Behavioral changes following PCB 153 exposure in the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat – an animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder affecting 3-5% of children. Although ADHD is highly heritable, environmental factors like exposure during early development to various toxic substances like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may contribute to the prevalence. PCBs are a group of chemical industrial compounds with adverse effects on neurobiological and cognitive functioning, and may produce behavioral impairments that share significant similarities with ADHD. The present study examined the relation between exposure to PCB 153 and changes in ADHD-like behavior in an animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/NCrl), and in Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NHsd) controls. Methods SHR/NCrl and WKY/NHsd, males and females, were orally given PCB 153 dissolved in corn oil at around postnatal day (PND) 8, 14, and 20 at a dosage of 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg bodyweight at each exposure. The control groups were orally administered corn oil only. The animals were behaviorally tested for exposure effects from PND 37 to 64 using an operant procedure. Results Exposure to PCB 153 was associated with pronounced and long-lasting behavioral changes in SHR/NCrl. Exposure effects in the SHR/NCrl depended on dose, where 1 mg/kg tended to reduce ADHD-like behaviors and produce opposite behavioral effects compared to 3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg, especially in the females. In the WKY/NHsd controls and for the three doses tested, PCB 153 exposure produced a few specific behavioral changes only in males. The data suggest that PCB 153 exposure interacts with strain and sex, and also indicate a non-linear dose–response relation for the behaviors observed. Conclusions Exposure to PCB 153 seems to interact with several variables including strain, sex, dose, and time of testing. To the extent that the present findings can be generalized to humans, exposure effects of PCB 153 on ADHD behavior depends on amount of exposure, where high doses may aggravate ADHD symptoms in genetically vulnerable individuals. In normal controls, exposure may not constitute an environmental risk factor for developing the full range of ADHD symptoms, but can produce specific behavioral changes. PMID:24405777

2014-01-01

147

AN EVALUATION OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN QUALITY OF ATTENTION AND NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT WITH CHILDREN WHO DISPLAY ESCAPE-MAINTAINED PROBLEM BEHAVIOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice-making behavior of 2 typically developing children who engaged in problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement was evaluated within a concurrent-operants assessment that varied the quality of attention across free-play and demand conditions. The results demonstrated that it was possible to bias responding towards academic demands for both participants by providing high-quality attention, despite the continuous availability of negative

ANDREW W. GARDNER; D AVID P. WACKER; ERIC W. BOELTER

2009-01-01

148

Parent Agreement on Ratings of Children's Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Broadband Externalizing Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mothers and fathers often disagree in their ratings of child behavior, as evidenced clinically and as supported by a substantial literature examining parental agreement on broadband rating scales. The present study examined mother-father agreement on "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual"-based symptom-specific ratings of…

Langberg, Joshua M.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Simon, John O.; Loren, Richard E. A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hechtman, Lily; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; Pelham, William E.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy

2010-01-01

149

Attentional Learning and Flexible Induction: How Mundane Mechanisms Give Rise to Smart Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children often exhibit flexible behaviors relying on different kinds of information in different situations. This flexibility has been traditionally attributed to conceptual knowledge. Reported research demonstrates that flexibility can be acquired implicitly and it does not require conceptual knowledge. In Experiment 1, 4- to 5-year-olds…

Sloutsky, Vladimir M.; Fisher, Anna V.

2008-01-01

150

Empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in 6- to 7-year olds diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Empathy has been associated with decreased antisocial and increased prosocial behavior. This study examined empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Six- and 7-year-old children with DBD (with and without ADHD) (n = 67) and with ADHD only (n = 27) were compared to typically developing children (TD) (n = 37). Parents and teachers rated affective empathy in response to sadness and distress on the Griffith Empathy Measure. Children reported affective empathic ability in response to sad story vignettes. Empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress was assessed with a computer task, the Interpersonal Response Task (IRT). Compared to TD, children with DBD (with and without ADHD) and those with ADHD only were rated as less empathic by their teachers, but not by their parents. No differences between groups were observed in children who reported affect correspondence. Children with DBD (with and without ADHD) showed less prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress compared to TD. Children with ADHD only did not differ from TD. An additional analysis comparing all children with a diagnosis to the TD group revealed that the difference in prosocial behavior remained after controlling for ADHD symptoms, but not after controlling for DBD symptoms. These findings of impaired empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in young children with DBD suggest that interventions to ameliorate peer relationships may benefit from targeting on increasing prosocial behavior in these children. PMID:24643447

Deschamps, P K H; Schutter, D J L G; Kenemans, J L; Matthys, W

2015-01-01

151

The outcome of parent training using the behavior management flow chart with mothers and their children with oppositional defiant disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

The effects of parent training, using parameters established in the Behavior Management Flow Chart, on mother behavior and on the disruptive behavior of eight children who emitted behavior consistent with the diagnoses of both Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder were evaluated. There are important differences between the Behavior Management Flow Chart and well-known parent-training programs that are based on the Hanf model. Parent training was conducted within a multiple baseline design across children. Direct observation of mother and child behavior, phone interviews, and standardized rating scales showed that training improved parenting behavior, reduced maternal stress, and reduced oppositional child behavior. A 6-month follow-up revealed that parenting and child behavior remained stable. The results are comparable with prior research on behavioral parent training for families that have children with oppositional/hyperactive behavior. PMID:9755646

Danforth, J S

1998-10-01

152

Distinguishing and Improving Mouse Behavior with Educational Computer Games in Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Executive Function-Based Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this exploratory multiple case study, it is examined how a computer game focused on improving ineffective learning behavior can be used as a tool to assess, improve, and study real-time mouse behavior (MB) in different types of children: 18 children (3.8-6.3 years) with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder…

Veenstra, Baukje; van Geert, Paul L. C.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.

2012-01-01

153

To What Extent Do Joint Attention, Imitation, and Object Play Behaviors in Infancy Predict Later Communication and Intellectual Functioning in ASD?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9-12 and/or 15-18 months. A quantitative…

Poon, Kenneth K.; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele D.

2012-01-01

154

Learning Disabilities and Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents: A Comparison of Those with and without Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risk-taking behavior includes alcohol and drug use, delinquency, acts of aggression, sexual activity, and so on. Many studies have explored the relationship between adolescents and risk-taking behavior; however, only a few studies have examined this link in adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder…

McNamara, John; Vervaeke, Sherri-Leigh; Willoughby, Teena

2008-01-01

155

Impact of Treatments for Depression on Comorbid Anxiety, Attentional, and Behavioral Symptoms in Adolescents with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the relative efficacy of antidepressant medication, alone and in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), on comorbid symptoms of anxiety, attention, and disruptive behavior disorders in participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method: Adolescents with selective serotonin…

Hilton, Robert C.; Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon; He, Jiayan; Mayes, Taryn; Emslie, Graham J.; Porta, Giovanna; Clarke, Greg N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

2013-01-01

156

RESEARCH BRIEF Towards Developing a Classroom-Based Functional Analysis Condition to Assess Escape-to-Attention as a Variable Maintaining Problem Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional behavior assessment (FBA) incorporating a functional analy- sis is emerging as an effective model used to assess classroom behavior problems. However, conducting an FBA in a classroom presents challenges for school psy- chologists such as determining which environmental variables to evaluate in the assessment. Because teacher attention is often delivered at the same time a child is escaping academic

Michael M. Mueller

2005-01-01

157

Descriptive and experimental analysis of teacher and peer attention and the use of assessment-based intervention to improve pro-social behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the inclusion of peer attention within a functional assessment and the effectiveness of an assessment based intervention with an elementary student without disabilities who displayed high rates of inappropriate behavior in the classroom. A multiple assessment strategy was employed to generate hypotheses regarding the possible function of the problem behavior. An experimental manipulation was conducted to confirm

Timothy J. Lewis; George Sugai

1996-01-01

158

Blood manganese levels in relation to comorbid behavioral and emotional problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appear to be more vulnerable to the development of other psychiatric disorders than the general population. The proposed neurotoxic mechanisms of manganese involve striatal dopamine neurotransmission, implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD. We investigated whether the adverse impact of manganese is particularly pronounced in children with ADHD. Blood manganese concentration and diagnosis of ADHD were assessed in a general population of 890 children, aged 8-11 years. The main outcome measure was the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). A significant interaction was found between ADHD status and blood manganese level in predicting CBCL total problems score as well as anxiety/depression, social problems, delinquent behavior, aggressive behavior, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. The directions of the interactions indicated that blood manganese level was more positively correlated with CBCL scores in ADHD children than in the healthy population. In ADHD children, only the fifth quintile of blood manganese concentration was significantly associated with the CBCL total problems score. ADHD children may be more vulnerable than the general school-age population to the neurotoxic effects of manganese exposure, which lead to an elevated risk of developing comorbid mental conditions. PMID:25064383

Hong, Soon-Beom; Kim, Jae-Won; Choi, Bum-Sung; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Eun-Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Cho, In-Hee; Bhang, Soo-Young; Cho, Soo-Churl

2014-12-15

159

Behavioral and Cardiovascular Responses to Frustration During Simulated Driving Tasks in Young Adults With and Without Attention Disorder Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study examined the role of negative emotions on driving performance in relation to ADHD, by comparing young adults scoring high on measures of ADHD (n = 20) with a control group (n = 22). Method The authors used cardiorespiratory physiological measures, simulated driving behavior, and self-report to examine how participants with high and low ADHD symptoms responded to frustration and to determine how frustration affected simulated driving performance. Results Groups did not differ in operational driving skills, but participants with high ADHD symptoms reported more frustration and exhibited more impairment at the tactical level of driving performance than the controls. There was significant suppression of respiratory sinus arrhythmia from resting baseline during tasks, but it did not differ between groups during driving. Conclusion This article proposes that remedial driver training for ADHD populations should focus more on the control of negative emotions rather than on attention or fundamental driving skills. PMID:21490175

Oliver, Michele L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Cassavaugh, Nicholas D.; Backs, Richard W.

2015-01-01

160

Pointing Behavior in Infants Reflects the Communication Partner’s Attentional and Knowledge States: A Possible Case of Spontaneous Informing  

PubMed Central

Inferring the epistemic states of others is considered to be an essential requirement for humans to communicate; however, the developmental trajectory of this ability is unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine developmental trends in this ability by using pointing behavior as a dependent measure. Infants aged 13 to 18 months (n?=?32, 16 females) participated in the study. The experiment consisted of two phases. In the Shared Experience Phase, both the participant and the experimenter experienced (played with) an object, and the participant experienced a second object while the experimenter was absent. In the Pointing Phase, the participant was seated on his/her mother’s lap, facing the experimenter, and the same two objects from the Shared Experience Phase were presented side-by-side behind the experimenter. The participants’ spontaneous pointing was analyzed from video footage. While the analysis of the Shared Experience Phase suggested that there was no significant difference in the duration of the participants’ visual attention to the two objects, the participants pointed more frequently to the object that could be considered “new” for the experimenter (in Experiment 1). This selective pointing was not observed when the experimenter could be considered unfamiliar with both of the objects (in Experiment 2). These findings suggest that infants in this age group spontaneously point, presumably to inform about an object, reflecting the partner’s attentional and knowledge states. PMID:25211279

Meng, Xianwei; Hashiya, Kazuhide

2014-01-01

161

Exposure to neurotoxicants and the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its related behaviors in childhood.  

PubMed

The purpose of this manuscript is to review the literature to determine evidence of associations between exposure to prenatal and postnatal environmental agents and the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related behaviors. A review of published research literature was conducted on associations between exposures to prenatal and postnatal cigarette smoke, prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, childhood exposure to lead, and prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and outcomes of ADHD or behaviors related to ADHD. Review of the literature in these areas provides some evidence of associations between each of the exposures and ADHD-related behaviors, with the strongest evidence from prenatal cigarette and alcohol exposure and postnatal lead exposure. However, research on each exposure also produced evidence of weaknesses in these hypothesized links due to imprecise research methodologies and issues of confounding and inaccurate covariate adjustment. More rigorous studies are needed to provide definitive evidence of associations between each of these prenatal or postnatal exposures and the development of ADHD or symptoms of ADHD. Future studies need to clarify the underlying mechanisms between these exposures and the increased risk for ADHD and associated behaviors. More research is also needed utilizing study designs that include genetic information, as ADHD is highly heritable and there appear to be some protective mechanisms offered by certain genetic characteristics as evidenced in gene by environmental studies. Finally, while studies focusing on individual drugs and chemicals are an important first step, we cannot ignore the fact that children are exposed to combinations of drugs and chemicals, which can interact in complex ways with each other, as well as with the child's genetic makeup and psychosocial environment to influence ADHD risk. PMID:24846602

Yolton, Kimberly; Cornelius, Marie; Ornoy, Asher; McGough, James; Makris, Susan; Schantz, Susan

2014-01-01

162

Executive Function Predicts Adaptive Behavior in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Study Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these two domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, non-exposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. Methods As part of a multisite study, three groups of children (8-18y, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, N=142), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD, N=82), and typically developing controls (CON, N=133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS). Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with three of the four EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. Conclusion These results support prior research in ADHD suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory measures of executive function. PMID:22587709

Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

2011-01-01

163

The outcome of group parent training for families of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and defiant/aggressive behavior.  

PubMed

The effects of group parent training on parent behavior, and on the behavior of 45 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and defiant aggressive behavior, were evaluated with a pre-post design. Parent training included didactics on the features and etiology of ADHD and its relationship to defiant/aggressive behavior, as well as parenting skills that adhered to parameters established in the Behavior Management Flow Chart (BMFC). The logic that guided the construction of the program and the unique aspects in the form and content of the parent training are identified. Outcome data show that training reduced childrens' hyperactive, defiant, and aggressive behavior, improved parenting behavior, and reduced parent stress. These data are comparable to previous outcome research evaluating the efficacy of parent training with the BMFC. The advantages of programs that are efficacious in group settings are discussed. PMID:16112077

Danforth, Jeffrey S; Harvey, Elizabeth; Ulaszek, Wendy R; McKee, Tara Eberhardt

2006-09-01

164

Attention and Attachment Related Behavior toward Professional Caregivers in Child Care Centers: A New Measure for Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors attempted to develop and validate the Toddler Attention Questionnaire (TAQ) by examining the relationship between attention and attachment to a professional caregiver. The psychometric reliability and validity of the TAQ was tested with 72 children ranging from 20 to 36 months old. Attentive processes were also measured by the Italian…

Pallini, Susanna; Laghi, Fiorenzo

2012-01-01

165

Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well documented nor well understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound…

Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

2008-01-01

166

Comparison of neuropsychological performances and behavioral patterns of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and severe mood dysregulation.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate the similarities and differences in neuropsychological test performance, demographic features and behavioral patterns of children and adolescents with the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined type (ADHD-C), and the severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Study includes 112 children: 67 with ADHD-C, 24 with SMD and 21 healthy controls. These groups were identified by using the schedule for affective disorders, and schizophrenia for the school-age children-present and lifetime version (KSADS-PL) and the K-SADS-PL-SMD Module. Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scale-revised long form (CPRS-R:L and CTRS-R:L) and neuropsychological tests were administered to the research groups. ADHD-C group's performances in Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test, Stroop Test TBAG form and Controlled Oral Word Association Test were significantly poorer than the control group's performances (p < 0.05). Performance of the SMD group was only descriptively intermediate between performances of the ADHD-C and control group. In the "Oppositional", "Hyperactivity", "Social Problems", "Impulsive", "Emotional Lability" and "Conners' Global Index" subscales of CPRS-R:L, the average scores of the SMD group were significantly higher than the ADHD-C and control group's average scores (p < 0.05). ADHD-C group (but not SMD) could be significantly differentiated from healthy controls with the neuropsychological tests used. SMD group could be differentiated from the ADHD-C and healthy control groups with CPRS-R:L; i.e., ADHD-C versus SMD could be differentiated at the behavioral level only. PMID:24619769

Uran, P?nar; K?l?ç, Birim Günay

2015-01-01

167

Behavioral validation of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) as an animal model of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (AD\\/HD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good model of a disorder is one that: (a) mimics, although in a simpler form than the full-blown clinical case, the fundamentals of the behavioral characteristics, in this case of people with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD\\/HD; face validity); (b) conforms with a theoretical rationale for the disorder (construct validity); and (c) is able to predict aspects of behavior, genetics and

Terje Sagvolden

2000-01-01

168

Behavioral Attention: A Longitudinal Study of Whether and How It Influences the Development of Word Reading and Reading Comprehension among At-Risk Readers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which teacher ratings of behavioral attention predicted responsiveness to word reading instruction in first grade and third-grade reading comprehension performance. Participants were 110 first grade students identified as at-risk for reading difficulties who received 20 weeks of intensive reading intervention in combination with classroom reading instruction. Path analysis indicated that teacher ratings of student attention significantly predicted students' word reading growth in first grade even when they were competed against other relevant predictors (phonological awareness, nonword reading, sight word efficiency, vocabulary, listening comprehension, hyperactivity, nonverbal reasoning, and short term memory). Also, student attention demonstrated a significant indirect effect on third grade reading comprehension via word reading, but not via listening comprehension. Results suggest that student attention (indexed by teacher ratings) is an important predictor of at-risk readers' responsiveness to reading instruction in first grade and that first-grade reading growth mediates the relationship between students' attention and their future level of reading comprehension. The importance of considering ways to manage and improve behavioral attention when implementing reading instruction is discussed. PMID:25110548

Miller, Amanda C; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S; Compton, Donald L; Kearns, Devin; Zhang, Wenjuan; Yen, Loulee; Patton, Samuel; Kirchner, Danielle

2014-07-01

169

Spelling difficulties in school-aged girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive, and graphomotor correlates.  

PubMed

Writing difficulties are common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the nature of these difficulties has not been well studied. Here we relate behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive (memory/executive), and graphomotor measures to spelling skills in school-age girls with ADHD (n = 30) and an age-matched group of typically developed spellers (TYPSP, n = 35). When subdividing the ADHD group into those with poor (ADHDPSP, n = 19) and typical spelling (ADHDTYPSP, n = 11), the two subgroups did not differ with regard to inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity according to parent or teacher ratings. Both ADHD subgroups also had equally severe difficulties in graphomotor control-handwriting and (parent ratings of) written expression as compared to the TYPSP group. In contrast, ADHDPSP had problems relative to ADHDTYPSP and TYPSP on phonological and orthographic recoding (choice tasks) and verbal memory (digit span) and were more likely to make commissions on a continuous performance task (CPT). Further analyses using the collapsed ADHD group showed that both digit span and the presence of CPT commissions predicted spelling performance independently of each other. Finally, results showed that phonological recoding skills mediated the association between digit span and spelling performance in ADHD. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed. PMID:23213048

Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Kopp, Svenny; Gillberg, Christopher

2014-01-01

170

Social norms, self-identity, and attention to social comparison information in the context of exercise and healthy diet behavior.  

PubMed

Social norms research has identified a range of distinct norms based on different referent groups that confer influence across a number of behaviors. The current survey study extends social norms research in two ways. First, this research tests the distinctiveness of four types of social norms: distal peer descriptive, distal peer injunctive, proximal peer descriptive, and proximal peer injunctive norms. Second, the current study examines the relationship between social norms and intentions to exercise and maintain a healthy diet, and includes self-identity and attention to social comparison information as moderators of the social norms and intention relationship. Results revealed the distinctiveness of the four types of social norms. Proximal peer descriptive and proximal peer injunctive norms were related to intention to exercise and intention to maintain a healthy diet, while distal peer injunctive norms were related only to intention to have a healthy diet. Additionally, self-identity was a significant moderator. Results are discussed within the context of implications for social norms campaigns. PMID:21400325

Yun, Doshik; Silk, Kami J

2011-04-01

171

Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well-documented nor well-understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound recognition when task and critical stimuli were identical across attention conditions. We propose modulation of lexical activation as a neurophysiologically-plausible computational mechanism that can account for this type of modulation. Contrary to the claims of critics, this mechanism can account for attentional modulation without violating the principle of interactive processing. Simulations of the interactive TRACE model extended to include two different ways of modulating lexical activation showed that each can account for attentional modulation of lexical feedback effects. Experiment 2 tested conflicting predictions from the two implementations and provided evidence that is consistent with bias input as the mechanism of attentional control of lexical activation. PMID:18509503

Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

2008-01-01

172

Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The association between deficient behavioral inhibition, attentional processes, and objectively measured activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary models of ADHD hypothesize that hyperactivity reflects a byproduct of inhibition deficits. The current study investigated the relationship between children's motor activity and behavioral inhibition by experimentally manipulating demands placed on the limited-resource inhibition system. Twenty-two boys (ADHD = 11, TD = 11) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a conventional stop-signal task, two choice-task variants

R. Matt Alderson; Mark D. Rapport; Lisa J. Kasper; Dustin E. Sarver; Michael J. Kofler

2012-01-01

173

Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The association between deficient behavioral inhibition, attentional processes, and objectively measured activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary models of ADHD hypothesize that hyperactivity reflects a byproduct of inhibition deficits. The current study investigated the relationship between children's motor activity and behavioral inhibition by experimentally manipulating demands placed on the limited-resource inhibition system. Twenty-two boys (ADHD = 11, TD = 11) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a conventional stop-signal task, two choice-task variants

R. Matt Alderson; Mark D. Rapport; Lisa J. Kasper; Dustin E. Sarver; Michael J. Kofler

2011-01-01

174

Tonic and Phasic Alertness Training: A Novel Behavioral Therapy to Improve Spatial and Non-Spatial Attention in Patients with Hemispatial Neglect  

PubMed Central

Hemispatial neglect is a debilitating disorder marked by a constellation of spatial and non-spatial attention deficits. Patients’ alertness deficits have shown to interact with lateralized attention processes and correspondingly, improving tonic/general alertness as well as phasic/moment-to-moment alertness has shown to ameliorate spatial bias. However, improvements are often short-lived and inconsistent across tasks and patients. In an attempt to more effectively activate alertness mechanisms by exercising both tonic and phasic alertness, we employed a novel version of a continuous performance task (tonic and phasic alertness training, TAPAT). Using a between-subjects longitudinal design and employing sensitive outcome measures of spatial and non-spatial attention, we compared the effects of 9 days of TAPAT (36?min/day) in a group of patients with chronic neglect (N?=?12) with a control group of chronic neglect patients (N?=?12) who simply waited during the same training period. Compared to the control group, the group trained on TAPAT significantly improved on both spatial and non-spatial measures of attention with many patients failing to exhibit a lateralized attention bias at the end of training. TAPAT was effective for patients with a range of behavioral profiles and lesions, suggesting that its effectiveness may rely on distributed or lower-level attention mechanisms that are largely intact in patients with neglect. In a follow-up experiment, to determine if TAPAT is more effective in improving spatial attention than an active treatment that directly trains spatial attention, we trained three chronic neglect patients on both TAPAT and search training. In all three patients, TAPAT training was more effective in improving spatial attention than search training suggesting that, in chronic neglect, training alertness is a more effective treatment approach than directly training spatial attention. PMID:20838474

DeGutis, Joseph M.; Van Vleet, Thomas M.

2010-01-01

175

Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

2012-01-01

176

Sleepiness, On-Task Behavior and Attention in Children with Epilepsy Who Visited a School for Special Education: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with epilepsy are at risk for problems in daytime functioning. We assessed daytime sleepiness, on-task behavior and attention in 17 children (aged between 7 and 11 years) with epilepsy who visited a school for special education and compared these to 17 children from a control group who visited a regular school. Within the group of…

Didden, Robert; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Korzilius, Hubert

2009-01-01

177

The Impact of Mindfulness Training on Hyperactive Behaviors Demonstrated by Elementary Age Children with a Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders in the United States. Although many children with an ADHD diagnosis are prescribed medication to control symptoms, behavioral concerns are still regularly noted in the classroom, home, and other settings. Therefore, school psychologists are often…

Carboni, Jessica A.

2012-01-01

178

The Single and Combined Effects of Multiple Intensities of Behavior Modification and Methylphenidate for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Classroom Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently behavior modification, stimulant medication, and combined treatments are supported as evidence-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in classroom settings. However, there has been little study of the relative effects of these two modalities and their combination in classrooms. Using a within-subject design, the…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran; Garefino, Allison; Keenan, Jenna K.; Onyango, Adia N.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Massetti, Greta M.; Robb, Jessica A.

2007-01-01

179

Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) compared with placebo for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the impact on substance treatment outcomes in adolescents concurrently receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders (SUD). Method: This was a…

Riggs, Paula D.; Winhusen, Theresa; Davies, Robert D.; Leimberger, Jeffrey D.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Klein, Constance; Macdonald, Marilyn; Lohman, Michelle; Bailey, Genie L.; Haynes, Louise; Jaffee, William B.; Haminton, Nancy; Hodgkins, Candace; Whitmore, Elizabeth; Trello-Rishel, Kathlene; Tamm, Leanne; Acosta, Michelle C.; Royer-Malvestuto, Charlotte; Subramaniam, Geetha; Fishman, Marc; Holmes, Beverly W.; Kaye, Mary Elyse; Vargo, Mark A.; Woody, George E.; Nunes, Edward V.; Liu, David

2011-01-01

180

Three ways to resist temptation: The independent contributions of executive attention, inhibitory control, and affect regulation to the impulse control of eating behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally assumed that impulse control plays a major role in many areas of self-regulation such as eating behavior. However, the exact mechanisms that enable the control of impulsive determinants such as automatic affective reactions toward tempting stimuli are not well understood. “The present research investigated the separate moderator effects of three factors of impulse control, executive attention, inhibitory

Wilhelm Hofmann; Malte Friese; Anne Roefs

2009-01-01

181

Assessment of executive function and attention in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: Relationships between cognitive measures and real-world behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine functional attention and executive deficits present in everyday living in a large sample of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Data are presented from 199 children with NF1 and 55 unaffected sibling controls who were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and Conners' ADHD DSM-IV Scales (CADS). Convergent validity

Jonathan M. Payne; Shelley L. Hyman; E. Arthur Shores; Kathryn N. North

2011-01-01

182

"Nothing Works!" A Case Study Using Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions to Engage Parents, Educators, and Children in the Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains one of the most prevalent mental health diagnoses identified in school-age children. Affected children show an increased risk for school failure, social difficulties, and the development of psychiatric comorbidities. Despite the availability of evidence-based behavioral protocols for managing…

Levine, Eva S.; Anshel, Daphne J.

2011-01-01

183

Behavioral Attention: A Longitudinal Study of Whether and How It Influences the Development of Word Reading and Reading Comprehension among At-Risk Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which teacher ratings of behavioral attention predicted responsiveness to word reading instruction in first-grade and third-grade reading comprehension performance. Participants were 110 first-grade students identified as at risk for reading difficulties who received 20 weeks of intensive…

Miller, Amanda C.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald; Kearns, Devin; Zhang, Wenjuan; Yen, Loulee; Patton, Samuel; Kirchner, Danielle Peterson

2014-01-01

184

Increased Erythrocyte Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Are Associated With Improved Attention and Behavior in Children With ADHD in a Randomized Controlled Three-Way Crossover Trial.  

PubMed

Objective: To investigate effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on attention, literacy, and behavior in children with ADHD. Method: Ninety children were randomized to consume supplements high in EPA, DHA, or linoleic acid (control) for 4 months each in a crossover design. Erythrocyte fatty acids, attention, cognition, literacy, and Conners' Parent Rating Scales (CPRS) were measured at 0, 4, 8, 12 months. Results: Fifty-three children completed the treatment. Outcome measures showed no significant differences between the three treatments. However, in children with blood samples (n = 76-46), increased erythrocyte EPA + DHA was associated with improved spelling (r = .365, p < .001) and attention (r = -.540, p < .001) and reduced oppositional behavior (r = -.301, p < .003), hyperactivity (r = -.310, p < .001), cognitive problems (r = -.326, p < .001), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) hyperactivity (r = -.270, p = .002) and DSM-IV inattention (r = -.343, p < .001). Conclusion: Increasing erythrocyte DHA and EPA via dietary supplementation may improve behavior, attention, and literacy in children with ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24214970

Milte, Catherine M; Parletta, Natalie; Buckley, Jonathan D; Coates, Alison M; Young, Ross M; Howe, Peter R C

2013-11-01

185

Association between Severity of Behavioral Phenotype and Comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association," 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity…

Rao, Patricia A.; Landa, Rebecca J.

2014-01-01

186

Teaching reciprocal imitation skills to young children with autism using a naturalistic behavioral approach: effects on language, pretend play, and joint attention.  

PubMed

Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills which impede the acquisition of more complex behaviors and socialization, and are thus an important focus of early intervention programs for children with autism. This study used a multiple-baseline design across five young children with autism to assess the benefit of a naturalistic behavioral technique for teaching object imitation. Participants increased their imitation skills and generalized these skills to novel environments. In addition, participants exhibited increases in other social-communicative behaviors, including language, pretend play, and joint attention. These results provide support for the effectiveness of a naturalistic behavioral intervention for teaching imitation and offer a new and potentially important treatment option for young children who exhibit deficits in social-communicative behaviors. PMID:16568355

Ingersoll, Brooke; Schreibman, Laura

2006-05-01

187

Behavioral and ERP measures of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task: poor reliability and lack of correlation with anxiety  

PubMed Central

The dot-probe task is often considered a gold standard in the field for investigating attentional bias to threat. However, serious issues with the task have been raised. Specifically, a number of studies have demonstrated that the traditional reaction time (RT) measure of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task has poor internal reliability and poor test-retest reliability. In addition, although threatening stimuli capture attention in other paradigms, attentional bias to threat has not usually been found in typical research participants in the dot-probe task. However, when attention is measured in the dot-probe task with the N2pc component of the event-related potential waveform, substantial attentional orienting to threat is observed, and the internal reliability is moderate. To provide a rigorous comparison of the reliability of this N2pc measure and the conventional behavioral measure, as well as to examine the relationship of these measures to anxiety, the present study examined the N2pc in conjunction with RT in the dot-probe task in a large sample of participants (N = 96). As in previous studies, RT showed no bias to threatening images across the sample and exhibited poor internal reliability. Moreover, this measure did not relate to trait anxiety. By contrast, the N2pc revealed a significant initial shift of attention to threat, and this measure was internally reliable. However, the N2pc was not correlated with trait anxiety, indicating that it does not provide a meaningful index of individual differences in anxiety in the dot-probe task. Together, these results indicate a serious need to develop new tasks and methods to more reliably investigate attentional bias to threat and its relationship to anxiety in both clinical and non-clinical populations. PMID:25538644

Kappenman, Emily S.; Farrens, Jaclyn L.; Luck, Steven J.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

2014-01-01

188

Association between severity of behavioral phenotype and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is sometimes comorbid with autism spectrum disorder. In the current study, we examined rates of parent-reported clinically significant symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children (4-8 years) with autism spectrum disorder, most of whom were first enrolled in our research protocols as toddlers. Results revealed that children with autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had lower cognitive functioning, more severe social impairment, and greater delays in adaptive functioning than children with autism spectrum disorder only. Implications for clinical practice include the need to assess for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms at an early age in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Research is needed to determine efficacious interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to optimize outcomes. PMID:23739542

Rao, Patricia A; Landa, Rebecca J

2014-04-01

189

Dopamine modulates attentional control of auditory perception: DARPP-32 (PPP1R1B) genotype effects on behavior and cortical evoked potentials.  

PubMed

Using a specific variant of the dichotic listening paradigm, we studied the influence of dopamine on attentional modulation of auditory perception by assessing effects of allelic variation of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs907094 in the DARPP-32 gene (dopamine and adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein 32 kilodations; also known as PPP1R1B) on behavior and cortical evoked potentials. A frequent DARPP-32 haplotype that includes the A allele of this SNP is associated with higher mRNA expression of DARPP-32 protein isoforms, striatal dopamine receptor function, and frontal-striatal connectivity. As we hypothesized, behaviorally the A homozygotes were more flexible in selectively attending to auditory inputs than any G carriers. Moreover, this genotype also affected auditory evoked cortical potentials that reflect early sensory and late attentional processes. Specifically, analyses of event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that amplitudes of an early component of sensory selection (N1) and a late component (N450) reflecting attentional deployment for conflict resolution were larger in A homozygotes than in any G carriers. Taken together, our data lend support for dopamine's role in modulating auditory attention both during the early sensory selection and late conflict resolution stages. PMID:23639477

Li, Shu-Chen; Passow, Susanne; Nietfeld, Wilfried; Schröder, Julia; Bertram, Lars; Heekeren, Hauke R; Lindenberger, Ulman

2013-07-01

190

Keeping Their Attention: Classroom Practices Associated with Behavioral Engagement in First Grade Mathematics Classes in China and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated variation in students' behavioral engagement across mathematics classes in China and the United States. Student behavioral engagement was examined along with two aspects of the classroom (group size and teacher instructions given about classroom behavior). Video observational data were collected and coded over 1051 time…

Lan, Xuezhao; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Miller, Kevin F.; Li, Su; Cortina, Kai; Perry, Michelle; Fang, Ge

2009-01-01

191

Sensing, assessing, and augmenting threat detection: behavioral, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation evidence for the critical role of attention  

PubMed Central

Rapidly identifying the potentially threatening movements of other people and objects—biological motion perception and action understanding—is critical to maintaining security in many civilian and military settings. A key approach to improving threat detection in these environments is to sense when less than ideal conditions exist for the human observer, assess that condition relative to an expected standard, and if necessary use tools to augment human performance. Action perception is typically viewed as a relatively “primitive,” automatic function immune to top-down effects. However, recent research shows that attention is a top-down factor that has a critical influence on the identification of threat-related targets. In this paper we show that detection of motion-based threats is attention sensitive when surveillance images are obscured by other movements, when they are visually degraded, when other stimuli or tasks compete for attention, or when low-probability threats must be watched for over long periods of time—all features typical of operational security settings. Neuroimaging studies reveal that action understanding recruits a distributed network of brain regions, including the superior temporal cortex, intraparietal cortex, and inferior frontal cortex. Within this network, attention modulates activation of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and middle temporal gyrus. The dorsal frontoparietal network may provide the source of attention-modulation signals to action representation areas. Stimulation of this attention network should therefore enhance threat detection. We show that transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) at 2 mA accelerates perceptual learning of participants performing a challenging threat-detection task. Together, cognitive, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation studies provide converging evidence for the critical role of attention in the detection and understanding of threat-related intentional actions. PMID:23781194

Parasuraman, Raja; Galster, Scott

2013-01-01

192

The spontaneously hypertensive rat/Izm (SHR/Izm) shows attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-like behaviors but without impulsive behavior: therapeutic implications of low-dose methylphenidate.  

PubMed

The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been used as a genetic animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). SHR/Izm is derived from stroke-resistant SHR as SHR/NIH and SHR/NCrl but from 22nd to 23rd generation descendants of the SHR/NIH ancestor and therefore may show different behavioral phenotypes compared to other SHR sub-strains. In this study, ADHD-like behaviors in SHR/Izm were evaluated compared to Wistar rats. SHR/Izm showed high locomotor activity in the habituation phase in a novel environment, although locomotor activity in the initial exploratory phase was low. In a behavioral test for attention, spontaneous alternation behavior in the Y-maze test was impaired in SHR/Izm. However, impulsive behavior in the elevated-plus maze test, which is designed to detect anxiety-related behavior but also reflects impulsivity for novelty seeking, was comparable to Wistar rats. Hyperactivity and inattention, detected as ADHD-like behaviors in SHR/Izm, were ameliorated with methylphenidate at a low dose (0.05mg/kg, i.p.). Therefore, SHR/Izm represents a unique animal model of ADHD without anxiety-related impulsive behavior. PMID:25151620

Kishikawa, Yuki; Kawahara, Yukie; Yamada, Makiko; Kaneko, Fumi; Kawahara, Hiroshi; Nishi, Akinori

2014-11-01

193

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

194

Response Inhibition in Preschoolers at Familial Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Stop-Signal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children participating in the Ben-Gurion Infant Development Study were assessed with a dynamic-tracking version of the stop-signal task at the age of 5 years. The sample consisted of 60 males. Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was correlated with concurrent ratings of the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms.…

Berger, Andrea; Alyagon, Uri; Hadaya, Hadas; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G.

2013-01-01

195

Descriptions of Personal Experiences: Effects on Students' Learning and Behavioral Intentions toward Peers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-school students were shown an educational video designed to dispel 12 common myths regarding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by describing each myth and then presenting accurate information. The experimental group viewed a video that was supplemented by the speaker acknowledging that he had ADHD and providing descriptions of…

Saecker, Lee B.; Skinner, Amy L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Rowland, Emily; Kirk, Emily

2010-01-01

196

Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Impact of Age and Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comorbidity with other psychological problems (PP) complicates the course of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and makes treatment more difficult. The purpose of the present study was to (a) study the correspondence between the perceptions of parents and teachers about PP, (b) determine which PP predict the severity of the…

Miranda, Ana; Soriano, Manuel; Fernandez, Inmaculada; Melia, Amanda

2008-01-01

197

Relationships between computer-based testing and behavioral ratings in the assessment of attention and activity in a pediatric ADHD stimulant crossover trial.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships between computer-based testing and behavioral ratings in the assessment of stimulant-induced changes in attention and activity in a pediatric ADHD crossover trial with methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, and a placebo. Here 36 children between 9 and 14 years old were randomly and evenly assigned to each of six counterbalanced drug orders. A computer-based continuous performance test combined with a motion-tracking system (cb-CPT-MTS) and an ADHD questionnaire rated by teachers constituted the outcome measures. All outcome measures responded to stimulants in a comparable way at the group level, as shown by significant treatment effects of similar size for the two stimulants compared with a placebo. Computer-based and rating-based measures were unrelated in the assessment of stimulant-induced changes in attention and activity in individual children; no significant correlations between these measures in the assessment of change from placebo to stimulant conditions across the sample were detected. Results suggest that computer-based testing and behavioral ratings cannot be considered equivalent in the assessment of stimulant-induced changes in attention and activity among ADHD children. PMID:25249305

Ramtvedt, Bjørn Erik; Sundet, Kjetil

2014-01-01

198

Working Memory, Attention, Inhibition, and Their Relation to Adaptive Functioning and Behavioral/Emotional Symptoms in School-Aged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child…

Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnove; Troberg, Anna-Maria; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri; Saarinen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T.

2013-01-01

199

Classroom Interventions: Methods to Improve Academic Performance and Classroom Behavior for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavior management techniques are essential components of any treatment method for students with ADHD. Further, they appear to be the only line of treatment to which school personnel have direct access. Research has suggested that nearly all educators employ some form of behavioral modification techniques in their classroom. This paper will…

Reiber, Christopher; McLaughlin, T. F.

2004-01-01

200

Check In/Check out: Effects on Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders with Attention- or Escape-Maintained Behavior in a Residential Facility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Check In/Check Out (CICO) is a secondary tier intervention for those students who are not responsive to universal tier, school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. The present study extended the implementation of CICO to six students with emotional and behavioral disorders in a residential facility whose behaviors were maintained…

Swoszowski, Nicole Cain; Jolivette, Kristine; Fredrick, Laura D.; Heflin, L. Juane

2012-01-01

201

Behavioral support to parents through a cellular-phone website that provides the degree of urgency for medical attention of a child.  

PubMed

When a child suddenly falls ill, the child's family assesses if medical attention is required immediately. However, even in case of minor illnesses, it is not possible to approach a medical institution after consultation hours, and the burden on doctors from overtime-emergency medical examinations becomes a social problem. This study proposes the use of a cellular-phone website that provides information about the degree of urgency for medical attention to parents, who can choose the child's symptoms on the cellular-phone website regardless of the time or place. Therefore, through this study, parents experimentally evaluated the cellular-phone website; also, the effectiveness of this method as a behavioral support for parents was also evaluated. When an advice about the degree of urgency for a child's treatment was taken from the cellular-phone website, the parents felt relieved. Thus, the distress faced by pediatricians may change completely. PMID:23920889

Iwasawa, Mariko; Miyahara, Jyutaro; Noriaki, Terasawa; Nozue, Hiroki; Sumazaki, Ryo

2013-01-01

202

Development of a Brief, Behavioral Homework Intervention for Middle School Students with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the vast literature on treatments for children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there\\u000a is a relative paucity of research examining the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for adolescents with ADHD. Furthermore,\\u000a only a handful of ADHD treatment studies employ educational interventions to improve academic functioning, and no study to\\u000a date has examined a parent training intervention for targeting homework

Veronica L. Raggi; Andrea Chronis-Tuscano; Howard Fishbein; Amber Groomes

2009-01-01

203

Over the past two decades, the feeding behavior of lizards has received increasing attention (reviewed by Schwenk, 2000;  

E-print Network

exhibited by the North American horned lizards (Phrynosoma) and the Australian thorny devil Moloch horridus and overall feeding behavior in two highly specialized ant-eating lizards (Moloch horridus and Phrynosoma

Nishikawa, Kiisa

204

Bridging the Gap between Physiology and Behavior: Evidence from the sSoTS Model of Human Visual Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present the case for a role of biologically plausible neural network modeling in bridging the gap between physiology and behavior. We argue that spiking-level networks can allow "vertical" translation between physiological properties of neural systems and emergent "whole-system" performance--enabling psychological results to be simulated from…

Mavritsaki, Eirini; Heinke, Dietmar; Allen, Harriet; Deco, Gustavo; Humphreys, Glyn W.

2011-01-01

205

Parental Influence on Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: I. Relationships between Parent Behaviors and Child Peer Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined associations between children's peer relationships and (a) their parents' social competence as well as (b) their parents' behaviors during the children's peer interactions. Participants were families of 124 children ages 6-10 (68% male), 62 with ADHD and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison youth. Children's peer relationships were…

Mikami, Amori Yee; Jack, Allison; Emeh, Christina C.; Stephens, Haley F.

2010-01-01

206

Interaction of Dopamine Transporter Gene and Observed Parenting Behaviors on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emerging evidence suggests that some individuals may be simultaneously more responsive to the effects from environmental adversity "and" enrichment (i.e., differential susceptibility). Given that parenting behavior and a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3'untranslated region of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene…

Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

2013-01-01

207

Interaction of Dopamine Transporter Gene and Observed Parenting Behaviors on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach  

PubMed Central

Objective Emerging evidence suggests that some individuals may be simultaneously more responsive to the effects from environmental adversity and enrichment (i.e., differential susceptibility). Given that parenting behavior and a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3?untranslated region of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene are each independently associated with ADHD, our goal was to evaluate the potential interactive effects of child DAT1 genotype with positive and negative parenting behaviors on childhood ADHD. Method We recruited an ethnically-diverse sample of 150 six to nine year-old boys and girls with and without ADHD. Children were genotyped for a common polymorphism of the DAT1 gene, and objective counts of observed parenting behavior (i.e., negativity and praise) were obtained from a valid parent-child interaction task. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the interactive effects of DAT1 and observed parenting with a latent ADHD factor. Results We detected a significant interaction between observed praise and child DAT1 (coded additively) which suggested that praise was associated with increased ADHD, but only among youth with the 9/10 genotype. In addition, a marginally significant interaction between DAT1 (coded additively and recessively) and observed negativity emerged for ADHD, such that negativity was positively associated with ADHD but only for youth with the 9/9 genotype. Conclusions Although differential susceptibility theory was not fully supported, These preliminary results suggest that interactive exchanges between parenting behavior and child genotype potentially contribute to the development of ADHD. Clinical implications for interactions between parenting behavior and child genotype are discussed. PMID:23153115

Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

2012-01-01

208

Dealing with Difficult Children: Attention Deficit  

E-print Network

Dealing with Difficult Children: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Strong Willed Hyperactivity Disorder and Strong Willed Children 2 Increasing our Understanding of Attention Deficit audiences consider whether a child's behavior fits the criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

209

Effects of an open-label pilot study with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates on plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurological condition in children. This pilot study evaluated the effects of high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on the isolated plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with ADHD (primarily inattentive subtype and combined subtype). Methods Nine children were initially supplemented with 16.2 g EPA/DHA concentrates per day. The dosage was adjusted dependent on the ratio of arachidonic acid (AA) to EPA in the isolated plasma phospholipids at four weeks to reach a level normally found in the Japanese population. Results At the end of the eight-week study, supplementation resulted in significant increases in EPA and DHA, as well as a significant reduction in the AA:EPA ratio (20.78 ± 5.26 to 5.95 ± 7.35, p < 0.01). A psychiatrist (blind to supplement compliance or dosage modifications) reported significant improvements in behavior (inattention, hyperactivity, oppositional/defiant behavior, and conduct disorder). There was also a significant correlation between the reduction in the AA:EPA ratio and global severity of illness scores. Conclusion The findings of this small pilot study suggest supplementation with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates may improve behavior in children with ADHD. PMID:17629918

Sorgi, Paul J; Hallowell, Edward M; Hutchins, Heather L; Sears, Barry

2007-01-01

210

Effects of Extended Release Methylphenidate Treatment on Ratings of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Associated Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and ADHD Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral effects of four doses of psychostimulant medication, combining extended-release methylphenidate (MPH) in the morning with immediate-release MPH in the afternoon. Method The sample comprised 24 children (19 boys; 5 girls) who met American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and had significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This sample consisted of elementary school-age, community-based children (mean chronological age=8.8 years, SD=1.7; mean intelligence quotient [IQ]=85; SD=16.8). Effects of four dose levels of MPH on parent and teacher behavioral ratings were investigated using a within-subject, crossover, placebo-controlled design. Results MPH treatment was associated with significant declines in hyperactive and impulsive behavior at both home and school. Parents noted significant declines in inattentive and oppositional behavior, and improvements in social skills. No exacerbation of stereotypies was noted, and side effects were similar to those seen in typically developing children with ADHD. Dose response was primarily linear in the dose range studied. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that MPH formulations are efficacious and well-tolerated for children with ASD and significant ADHD symptoms. PMID:23782128

Santos, Cynthia W.; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Casat, Charles D.; Mansour, Rosleen; Lane, David M.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Jerger, Susan W.; Factor, Perry; Vanwoerden, Salome; Perez, Evelyn; Cleveland, Lynne A.

2013-01-01

211

A cross-etiology comparison of the socio-emotional behavioral profiles associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

Cross-etiology comparisons provide important information that can help practitioners establish criteria for differential diagnosis and tailor interventions towards the source of children’s difficulties. This study examined the extent to which parent rating scales of socioemotional behavioral difficulties differentiate cases of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from cases of specific language impairment (SLI), and typical development (TD). Parents of 60 children (7–8?years) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) and the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised (Conners, 2004). Significant differences were observed between ratings provided for the children with ADHD and the children with SLI and TD across several scales which assessed behavioral and emotional difficulties. Most of the observed differences between ratings provided for the SLI and TD groups were not significant when nonverbal IQ was treated as a covariate or when syndrome scales were adjusted for the presence of language and academic items. In contrast, these adjustments had little impact on observed differences between the children with ADHD and the other groups. These results highlight important and clinically useful differences between the scope and the scale of socioemotional behavior difficulties associated with ADHD and SLI. PMID:24456478

Ash, Andrea C.

2014-01-01

212

Parental Influence on Children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder: I. Relationships Between Parent Behaviors and Child Peer Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined associations between children’s peer relationships and (a) their parents’ social competence as well as (b) their\\u000a parents’ behaviors during the children’s peer interactions. Participants were families of 124 children ages 6–10 (68% male),\\u000a 62 with ADHD and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison youth. Children’s peer relationships were assessed via parent and teacher\\u000a report, and sociometric nominations in a

Amori Yee Mikami; Allison Jack; Christina C. Emeh; Haley F. Stephens

2010-01-01

213

Parental Influence on Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: I. Relationships Between Parent Behaviors and Child Peer Status  

PubMed Central

We examined associations between children's peer relationships and (a) their parents' social competence as well as (b) their parents' behaviors during the children's peer interactions. Participants were families of 124 children ages 6–10 (68% male), 62 with ADHD and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison youth. Children's peer relationships were assessed via parent and teacher report, and sociometric nominations in a lab-based playgroup. Parental characteristics were assessed via parent self-report and observations of behavior during their child's playgroup. After statistical control of relevant covariates, parents of children with ADHD reported poorer social skills of their own, arranged fewer playdates for their children, and displayed more criticism during their child's peer interaction than did parents of comparison youth. Parents' socialization with other parents and facilitation of the child's peer interactions predicted their children having good peer relationships as reported by teachers and peers, whereas parental corrective feedback to the child and praise predicted poor peer relationships. Parents' ratings of their child's social skills were positively associated with ratings of their own social skills, but negatively associated with criticism and facilitation of the child's peer interactions. Relationships between parental behaviors and peer relationships were stronger for youth with ADHD than for comparison youth. The relevance of findings to interventions is discussed. PMID:20339912

Jack, Allison; Emeh, Christina C.; Stephens, Haley F.

2010-01-01

214

Shifting Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

Ingram, Jenni

2014-01-01

215

Attentional processes and meditation.  

PubMed

Visual attentional processing was examined in adult meditators and non-meditators on behavioral measures of change blindness, concentration, perspective-shifting, selective attention, and sustained inattentional blindness. Results showed that meditators (1) noticed more changes in flickering scenes and noticed them more quickly, (2) counted more accurately in a challenging concentration task, (3) identified a greater number of alternative perspectives in multiple perspectives images, and (4) showed less interference from invalid cues in a visual selective attention task, but (5) did not differ on a measure of sustained inattentional blindness. Together, results show that regular meditation is associated with more accurate, efficient, and flexible visual attentional processing across diverse tasks that have high face validity outside of the laboratory. Furthermore, effects were assessed in a context separate from actual meditation practice, suggesting that meditators' better visual attention is not just immediate, but extends to contexts separate from meditation practice. PMID:20430650

Hodgins, Holley S; Adair, Kathryn C

2010-12-01

216

Effects of false feedback on affect, cognition, behavior, and postevent processing: the mediating role of self-focused attention.  

PubMed

Current social phobia models (e.g., Clark & Wells, 1995; Leary & Kowalski, 1995) postulate that socially anxious individuals negatively appraise their anxiety sensations (e.g., sweating, heart racing, blushing) as evidence of poor social performance, and thus fear these anxiety symptoms will be noticed and judged negatively by others. Consequently, they become self-focused and hypervigilant of these sensations and use them to judge how they appear to others. To test this model, high (N=41) and low (N=38) socially anxious participants were shown false physiological feedback regarding an increase or decrease in heart rate prior to and during an impromptu speech task. Relative to participants who observed a false heart rate decrease, those in the increase condition reported higher levels of negative affect, more negative performance appraisals, and more frequent negative ruminative thoughts, and these effects were mediated by an increase in self-focused attention. The unhelpful effects of the physiological feedback were not specific to high socially anxious participants. The results have implications for current cognitive models as well as the treatment of social phobia. PMID:23312431

Makkar, Steve R; Grisham, Jessica R

2013-03-01

217

Smoking behavior characteristics of non-selected smokers with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) history: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

It is unclear whether adult smokers with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder history (CH) have more severe smoking behavior than non-CH smokers, while it is clearly suggested that CH adolescents have more severe smoking behavior than CH adolescents. The aim of the present comprehensive meta-analysis is to determine whether CH smokers have more severe smoking behavior characteristics than those without and the effect of age on the association between CH and smoking behavior. We included all case-control studies and first round data collection of observational studies addressing the difference in smoking behavior characteristics of CH smokers versus non-CH smokers, with validated scales or structured interviews, without any language or date restriction. Nine studies (including 365 smokers with CH and 1,708 smokers without) were included. Compared to non-CH smokers, CH smokers smoked significantly more cigarettes [standardized mean differences (SMD) = 0.15, 95 % CI 0.01-0.28, p = 0.04] and began to regularly smoke earlier (SMD = -0.28, 95 % CI -0.49; -0.07, p = 0.01) but were not significantly more nicotine dependent (SMD = 0.23, 95 % CI -0.04 to 0.48, p = 0.08). After removing the single adolescent study, the significant association between CH and number of daily smoked cigarettes disappeared, and subgroups analyses confirmed that the significant association between CH and number of daily smoked cigarettes disappeared as age increased. Our meta-analysis illustrates a clinically important link between CH and tobacco smoking in adolescence but not later in life. Further high-quality studies are needed to confirm this finding, as only two studies included participants with a mean age below 20 years. PMID:24619241

Fond, Guillaume; Loundou, Anderson; Guillaume, Sebastien; Quantin, Xavier; Macgregor, Alexandra; Lopez, Régis; Courtet, Philippe; Bernard, Paquito; Bailly, Daniel; Abbar, Mocrane; Leboyer, Marion; Boyer, Laurent

2014-08-01

218

Transient Inactivation of the Neonatal Ventral Hippocampus Impairs Attentional Set-Shifting Behavior: Reversal with an ?7 Nicotinic Agonist  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits represent a core symptom cluster in schizophrenia that are thought to reflect developmental dysregulations within a neural system involving the ventral hippocampus (VH), nucleus accumbens (NAC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present experiments determined the cognitive effects of transiently inactivating VH in rats during a sensitive period of development. Neonatal (postnatal day 7, PD7) and adolescent (PD32) male rats received a single bilateral infusion of saline or tetrodotoxin (TTX) within the VH to transiently inactivate local circuitry and efferent outflow. Rats were tested as adults on an attentional set-shifting task. Performance in this task depends upon the integrity of the PFC and NAC. TTX infusions did not affect the initial acquisition or ability to learn an intra-dimensional shift. However, TTX rats required a greater number of trials than did controls to acquire the first reversal and extra-dimensional shift (ED) stages. These impairments were age and region-specific as rats infused with TTX into the VH at PD32, or into the dorsal hippocampus at PD7, exhibited performance in the task similar to that of controls. Finally, acute systemic administration of the partial ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist SSR 180711 (3.0?mg/kg) eliminated the TTX-induced performance deficits. Given that patients with schizophrenia exhibit hippocampal pathophysiology and deficits in the ED stages of set-shifting tasks, our results support the significance of transient hippocampal inactivation as an animal model for studying the cognitive impairments in schizophrenia as well as the pro-cognitive therapeutic potential of ?7 nAChR agonists. PMID:22781844

Brooks, Julie M; Pershing, Michelle L; Thomsen, Morten S; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Sarter, Martin; Bruno, John P

2012-01-01

219

Executive functions: performance-based measures and the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).  

PubMed

Performance-based measures and ratings of executive functions were examined in a sample of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison controls. Performance-based measures of executive function included inhibition, working memory, set shifting, and planning, and ratings of these same executive functions were completed by parents and teachers. Adolescents with ADHD demonstrated lower executive function performance than controls and displayed elevated ratings on the executive function ratings by parents and teachers. Significant associations were obtained between the performance-based measures and the parent and teacher ratings, but each measure was not uniquely associated with its respective scale on the rating scales. When performance-based measures and ratings were examined as predictors of ADHD status, the parent and teacher ratings entered as significant predictors of ADHD status. Further commonality analyses indicated that performance-based measures accounted for little unique variance in predicting ADHD status and also displayed little overlap with the behavioral ratings. These findings highlight the diagnostic utility of behavioral ratings of executive function in predicting ADHD status; however, behavioral ratings should not be assumed to be a proxy for performance on measures of executive function in clinical practice. PMID:18608232

Toplak, Maggie E; Bucciarelli, Stefania M; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

2009-01-01

220

Neuropsychological and Behavioral Profiles in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children of Parents with a History of Mood Disorders: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to investigate the neurocognitive and behavioral endophenotypes of premorbid mood disorder. We compared intelligence, neuropsychological functioning, and behavioral problems among three groups: 1) a high-risk group [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children of parents with a history of a mood disorder], 2) a low-risk group (ADHD children of parents without a history of a mood disorder), and 3) normal comparison subjects. Methods We used the Korean Educational Development Institute Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (KEDI-WISC-R), the Stroop Color Word Interference Test (Stroop), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) as neurocognitive measures, and we used the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) as a behavioral measure. Performance on these neuropsychological tests and score on the CBCL of 18 high-risk children were compared to those of 20 low-risk children and 24 healthy children. We also assessed the children's current mood state and familial functioning to control for the confounding effects of these variables. Results Compared to low-risk and healthy children, high-risk children were impaired on the Picture Completion and Stroop Word subtest and showed higher scores on the CBCL subscales representing internalizing symptoms. These significant group differences persisted even after adjustment for the children's current mood state and familial functioning. Conclusion Neuropsychological deficits in the offspring of parents with a mood disorder may be associated with the current mood state rather than with innate characteristics, while their internalizing symptoms may partially stem from innate characteristics that are endophenotypes of a premorbid mood disorder. PMID:24605126

Park, Subin; Hong, Kang-E M; Yang, Young Hui; Kang, Jewook; Park, Eun Jin; Ha, Kyooseob; Park, Mira

2014-01-01

221

Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  

PubMed Central

Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain–behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8–12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain–behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN–occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON–DMN connections. For all CON–DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children. PMID:25610768

Barber, Anita D.; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Wexler, Joanna L.; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

2014-01-01

222

Developmental pathways to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behavior disorders: Investigating the impact of the stress response on executive functioning.  

PubMed

A current theory suggests multiple pathways to the onset of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, proposing that heterogeneous factors lead to various patterns of behavior, cognitive impairments, and even physiological signs which are categorized as ADHD and comorbid disorders. This review focused on one proposed pathway to the onset of ADHD and ODD/CD in order to examine how low physiological arousal, as indicated by atypical hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic adrenomedullary functioning, might be associated with cognitive impairment. First, the cognitive deficits associated with ADHD and disruptive behavior disorders were reviewed. In order to understand the atypical response, studies of the typical stress response and its relationship to cognition, particularly executive functioning, were then examined. Finally, this review summarized findings of an atypical stress response among children with ADHD and ODD/CD. Review of the literature led to the conclusion that the theorized pathway may be improved by taking into account the effects of stress on executive functioning given that an atypical stress response would likely be associated with impairment in this area. Future research directions needed to advance our understanding of the relationship between low arousal, ADHD, and ODD/CD were highlighted. PMID:25590346

Johnson, Ann C

2015-03-01

223

Does the cortisol response to stress mediate the link between expressed emotion and oppositional behavior in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD)?  

PubMed Central

Background Expressed Emotions (EE) are associated with oppositional behavior (OPB) in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). EE has been linked to altered stress responses in some disorders, but ADHD has not been studied. We test the hypothesis that OPB in ADHD is mediated by altered stress-related cortisol reactivity to EE. Methods Two groups of children (with/without ADHD) and their respective parents were randomly assigned to two different conditions with/without negative emotion and participated in an emotion provocation task. Parents' EE, their ratings of their children's OPB and their children's salivary cortisol levels were measured. Results Low parental warmth was associated with OPB in ADHD. High levels of parental EE elicited a larger cortisol response. Stress-related cortisol reactivity mediated the EE-OPB link for all children. This highlights the general importance of parent-child interactions on externalizing behavior problems. Conclusion High EE is a salient stressor for ADHD children that leads to increased levels of cortisol and OPB. The development of OPB might be mediated by the stress-response to high EE. PMID:20633268

2010-01-01

224

Gaze Cueing of Attention  

PubMed Central

During social interactions, people’s eyes convey a wealth of information about their direction of attention and their emotional and mental states. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of past and current research into the perception of gaze behavior and its effect on the observer. This encompasses the perception of gaze direction and its influence on perception of the other person, as well as gaze-following behavior such as joint attention, in infant, adult, and clinical populations. Particular focus is given to the gaze-cueing paradigm that has been used to investigate the mechanisms of joint attention. The contribution of this paradigm has been significant and will likely continue to advance knowledge across diverse fields within psychology and neuroscience. PMID:17592962

Frischen, Alexandra; Bayliss, Andrew P.; Tipper, Steven P.

2007-01-01

225

Attention and Cognitive Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated two methods for establishing a systematic, selective, attending strategy in a memory task for children. One method was direct training of a specific strategy, employing instructions, fading, modeling, and prompts to direct the child's attention to the relevant features and to organize systematic looking behavior. The second…

Wright, John C.; Vlietstra, Alice G.

226

Engaging Students via In-Class Worksheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mathematical Association of America (MAA) is creating a series of instructional materials for mathematics teachers, and they are drawing on the expertise of high-quality instructors from across the country. One such teacher is Cindy Wyels, who teaches math at California State University, Channel Islands. She recently created this useful set of materials that will help teachers with the use of worksheets in the classroom. As she remarks in her introduction to these materials, "Worksheets used in class can also help direct students' learning out-of-class." This site contains links to discussion and illustrative examples, and also offers tips on how to focus students' attention in class, delivering content efficiently, and teaching students how to learn from their textbooks.

227

Attentional Routes to Conscious Perception  

PubMed Central

The relationships between spatial attention and conscious perception are currently the object of intense debate. Recent evidence of double dissociations between attention and consciousness cast doubt on the time-honored concept of attention as a gateway to consciousness. Here we review evidence from behavioral, neurophysiologic, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging experiments, showing that distinct sorts of spatial attention can have different effects on visual conscious perception. While endogenous, or top-down attention, has weak influence on subsequent conscious perception of near-threshold stimuli, exogenous, or bottom-up forms of spatial attention appear instead to be a necessary, although not sufficient, step in the development of reportable visual experiences. Fronto-parietal networks important for spatial attention, with peculiar inter-hemispheric differences, constitute plausible neural substrates for the interactions between exogenous spatial attention and conscious perception. PMID:22279440

Chica, Ana B.; Bartolomeo, Paolo

2012-01-01

228

Attention Genes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major problem for developmental science is understanding how the cognitive and emotional networks important in carrying out mental processes can be related to individual differences. The last five years have seen major advances in establishing links between alleles of specific genes and the neural networks underlying aspects of attention. These…

Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.

2007-01-01

229

An Operant Analysis of Joint Attention Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joint attention, a synchronizing of the attention of two or more persons, has been an increasing focus of research in cognitive developmental psychology. Research in this area has progressed mainly outside of behavior analysis, and behavior-analytic research and theory has tended to ignore the work on joint attention. It is argued here, on the one…

Holth, Per

2005-01-01

230

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

MedlinePLUS

... is most pronounced in brain regions involved in thinking, paying attention, and planning. More recent studies have ... vision problems Has any medical problems that affect thinking and behavior Has any learning disabilities Has anxiety ...

231

The Impact of a Year-Long, Same School Social Skills Instruction Program on Students' with Verified Behavioral Disorders, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders Perceptions of Program Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a year-long, same school classroom social skills instruction program on students' with verified Emotional Behavior Disorders, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders perceptions of program effectiveness. This study indicated that youth can demonstrate…

Gaden, Gregory G.

2012-01-01

232

Abnormal Pre-Attentive Arousal in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Contributes to Their Atypical Auditory Behavior: An ERP Study  

PubMed Central

Auditory sensory modulation difficulties and problems with automatic re-orienting to sound are well documented in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal preattentive arousal processes may contribute to these deficits. In this study, we investigated components of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) reflecting preattentive arousal in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children aged 3-8 years. Pairs of clicks (‘S1’ and ‘S2’) separated by a 1 sec S1-S2 interstimulus interval (ISI) and much longer (8-10 sec) S1-S1 ISIs were presented monaurally to either the left or right ear. In TD children, the P50, P100 and N1c CAEP components were strongly influenced by temporal novelty of clicks and were much greater in response to the S1 than the S2 click. Irrespective of the stimulation side, the ‘tangential’ P100 component was rightward lateralized in TD children, whereas the ‘radial’ N1c component had higher amplitude contralaterally to the stimulated ear. Compared to the TD children, children with ASD demonstrated 1) reduced amplitude of the P100 component under the condition of temporal novelty (S1) and 2) an attenuated P100 repetition suppression effect. The abnormalities were lateralized and depended on the presentation side. They were evident in the case of the left but not the right ear stimulation. The P100 abnormalities in ASD correlated with the degree of developmental delay and with the severity of auditory sensory modulation difficulties observed in early life. The results suggest that some rightward-lateralized brain networks that are crucially important for arousal and attention re-orienting are compromised in children with ASD and that this deficit contributes to sensory modulation difficulties and possibly even other behavioral deficits in ASD. PMID:23935931

Stroganova, Tatiana A.; Kozunov, Vladimir V.; Posikera, Irina N.; Galuta, Ilia A.; Gratchev, Vitaliy V.; Orekhova, Elena V.

2013-01-01

233

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children with a 7-repeat allele of the dopamine receptor D4 gene have extreme behavior but normal performance on critical neuropsychological tests of attention  

PubMed Central

An association of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene located on chromosome 11p15.5 and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been demonstrated and replicated by multiple investigators. A specific allele [the 7-repeat of a 48-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in exon 3] has been proposed as an etiological factor in attentional deficits manifested in some children diagnosed with this disorder. In the current study, we evaluated ADHD subgroups defined by the presence or absence of the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 gene, using neuropsychological tests with reaction time measures designed to probe attentional networks with neuroanatomical foci in D4-rich brain regions. Despite the same severity of symptoms on parent and teacher ratings for the ADHD subgroups, the average reaction times of the 7-present subgroup showed normal speed and variability of response whereas the average reaction times of the 7-absent subgroup showed the expected abnormalities (slow and variable responses). This was opposite the primary prediction of the study. The 7-present subgroup seemed to be free of some of the neuropsychological abnormalities thought to characterize ADHD. PMID:10781080

Swanson, James; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Murias, Michael; Schuck, Sabrina; Flodman, Pamela; Spence, M. Anne; Wasdell, Michael; Ding, Yuanchun; Chi, Han-Chang; Smith, Moyra; Mann, Miranda; Carlson, Caryn; Kennedy, James L.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Leung, Patrick; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Sadeh, Avi; Chen, Chuansheng; Whalen, Carol K.; Babb, Kimberley A.; Moyzis, Robert; Posner, Michael I.

2000-01-01

234

Infant visual attention and object recognition.  

PubMed

This paper explores the role visual attention plays in the recognition of objects in infancy. Research and theory on the development of infant attention and recognition memory are reviewed in three major sections. The first section reviews some of the major findings and theory emerging from a rich tradition of behavioral research utilizing preferential looking tasks to examine visual attention and recognition memory in infancy. The second section examines research utilizing neural measures of attention and object recognition in infancy as well as research on brain-behavior relations in the early development of attention and recognition memory. The third section addresses potential areas of the brain involved in infant object recognition and visual attention. An integrated synthesis of some of the existing models of the development of visual attention is presented which may account for the observed changes in behavioral and neural measures of visual attention and object recognition that occur across infancy. PMID:25596333

Reynolds, Greg D

2015-05-15

235

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD. PMID:25186567

Kulkarni, Madhuri

2015-03-01

236

Brain Connectivity and Visual Attention  

PubMed Central

Abstract Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures. PMID:23597177

Parks, Emily L.

2013-01-01

237

The influence of serotonin- and other genes on impulsive behavioral aggression and cognitive impulsivity in children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Findings from a family-based association test (FBAT) analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Low serotonergic (5-HT) activity correlates with increased impulsive-aggressive behavior, while the opposite association may apply to cognitive impulsiveness. Both types of impulsivity are associated with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and genes of functional significance for the 5-HT system are implicated in this disorder. Here we demonstrate the separation of aggressive and cognitive components of impulsivity from symptom ratings and test

Robert D. Oades; Jessica Lasky-Su; Hanna Christiansen; Stephen V. Faraone; Edmund J. S. Sonuga-Barke; Tobias Banaschewski; Wai Chen; Richard J. L. Anney; Jan K. Buitelaar; Richard P. Ebstein; Barbara Franke; Michael Gill; Ana Miranda; Herbert Roeyers; Aribert Rothenberger; Joseph A. Sergeant; Hans-Christoph Steinhausen; Eric A. Taylor; Margaret Thompson; Philip Asherson

2008-01-01

238

Attention in AdvertisingAttention in Advertising Louis PerrottaLouis Perrotta  

E-print Network

Williams Level Ketel One Southern Comfort 1800 Evan Williams (Fish), Jose Cuervo Black #12;Behavioral Comfort Ketel One Level Evan Williams Jameson1800 Evan Williams (Fish) #12;Behavioral Results- Post-setBehavioral- Attention and Affect in AlcoholOur Study- Attention and Affect in Alcohol Advertisements

Yu, Stella X.

239

Civility in Classes and Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility in classes and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…

Lumpkin, Angela

2010-01-01

240

Joint attention and language in autism and developmental language delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of gestural joint attention behaviors and the development of effective communication skills in autism and developmental language delay (DLD) was investigated. Autistic and DLD children matched for MA and MLU were compared on measures of gestural joint attention behavior, personal pronoun use, and spontaneous communicative behavior. DLD children responded correctly to joint attention interactions more often than autistic

Katherine A. Loveland; Susan H. Landry

1986-01-01

241

The Incremental Utility of Behavioral Rating Scales and a Structured Diagnostic Interview in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the incremental utility of rating scales, a structured diagnostic interview, and multiple informants in a comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample included 185 children with ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.22, SD = 0.95) and 82 children without ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.24, SD =…

Vaughn, Aaron J.; Hoza, Betsy

2013-01-01

242

The effects of presession exposure to attention on the results of assessments of attention as a reinforcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of presession exposure to attention on responding during subsequent assess- ments of attention as a reinforcer were evaluated across three behavioral assessments. In Experiment 1, a contingent attention assessment condition was preceded by either a noncontingent attention condition (free play) or a contingent escape condition. In Ex- periment 2, a diverted attention with extinction condition was preceded by

W K Berg; S Peck; D P Wacker; J Harding; J McComas; D Richman; K Brown

2000-01-01

243

Attention in a Bayesian Framework  

PubMed Central

The behavioral phenomena of sensory attention are thought to reflect the allocation of a limited processing resource, but there is little consensus on the nature of the resource or why it should be limited. Here we argue that a fundamental bottleneck emerges naturally within Bayesian models of perception, and use this observation to frame a new computational account of the need for, and action of, attention – unifying diverse attentional phenomena in a way that goes beyond previous inferential, probabilistic and Bayesian models. Attentional effects are most evident in cluttered environments, and include both selective phenomena, where attention is invoked by cues that point to particular stimuli, and integrative phenomena, where attention is invoked dynamically by endogenous processing. However, most previous Bayesian accounts of attention have focused on describing relatively simple experimental settings, where cues shape expectations about a small number of upcoming stimuli and thus convey “prior” information about clearly defined objects. While operationally consistent with the experiments it seeks to describe, this view of attention as prior seems to miss many essential elements of both its selective and integrative roles, and thus cannot be easily extended to complex environments. We suggest that the resource bottleneck stems from the computational intractability of exact perceptual inference in complex settings, and that attention reflects an evolved mechanism for approximate inference which can be shaped to refine the local accuracy of perception. We show that this approach extends the simple picture of attention as prior, so as to provide a unified and computationally driven account of both selective and integrative attentional phenomena. PMID:22712010

Whiteley, Louise; Sahani, Maneesh

2012-01-01

244

Teaching Reciprocal Imitation Skills to Young Children with Autism Using a Naturalistic Behavioral Approach: Effects on Language, Pretend Play, and Joint Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills which impede the acquisition of more complex behaviors and socialization, and are thus an important focus of early intervention programs for children with autism. This study used a multiple-baseline design across five young children with autism to assess the benefit of a naturalistic behavioral technique for teaching object imitation. Participants increased

Brooke Ingersoll; Laura Schreibman

2006-01-01

245

Gaze Behaviors of Preterm and Full-Term Infants in Nonsocial and Social Contexts of Increasing Dynamics: Visual Recognition, Attention Regulation, and Gaze Synchrony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research has demonstrated poor visual skills in premature infants, few studies assessed infants' gaze behaviors across several domains of functioning in a single study. Thirty premature and 30 full-term 3-month-old infants were tested in three social and nonsocial tasks of increasing complexity and their gaze behavior was micro-coded. In…

Harel, Hagar; Gordon, Ilanit; Geva, Ronny; Feldman, Ruth

2011-01-01

246

The Effects of a Self-Monitoring and Video Self-Modeling Intervention to Increase On-Task Behavior for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are diagnosed with AD/HD more often than any other disorder and interventions are needed in schools to increase on-task behavior. Most studies examining on-task behavior are conducted in special education classrooms or clinical laboratories. Previous studies have not combined video self-modeling and self-monitoring as an intervention to…

Schmitt, Rachel Calkins Oxnard

2009-01-01

247

The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

Shih, Shui-I

2008-01-01

248

Cognitive Control and Attentional Functions  

PubMed Central

Cognitive control is essential to flexible, goal-directed behavior under uncertainty, yet its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Because attentional functions are known to allocate mental resources and prioritize the information to be processed by the brain, we propose that the attentional functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control and the interactions among them contribute to cognitive control in the service of uncertainty reduction. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between cognitive control and attentional functions. We used the Majority Function Task (MFT) to manipulate uncertainty in order to evoke cognitive control along with the Revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R) to measure the efficiency and the interactions of attentional functions. A backwards, stepwise regression model revealed that performance on the MFT could be significantly predicted by attentional functions and their interactions as measured by the ANT-R. These results provide preliminary support for our theory that the attentional functions may be involved in the implementation of cognitive control as required to reduce uncertainty, though further investigation is needed. PMID:23792472

Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Fan, Jin

2013-01-01

249

Allocation of attention across saccades.  

PubMed

Whenever the eyes move, spatial attention must keep track of the locations of targets as they shift on the retina. This study investigated transsaccadic updating of visual attention to cued targets. While observers prepared a saccade, we flashed an irrelevant, but salient, color cue in their visual periphery and measured the allocation of spatial attention before and after the saccade using a tilt discrimination task. We found that just before the saccade, attention was allocated to the cue's future retinal location, its predictively "remapped" location. Attention was sustained at the cue's location in the world across the saccade, despite the change of retinal position whereas it decayed quickly at the retinal location of the cue, after the eye landed. By extinguishing the color cue across the saccade, we further demonstrate that the visual system relies only on predictive allocation of spatial attention, as the presence of the cue after the saccade did not substantially affect attentional allocation. These behavioral results support and extend physiological evidence showing predictive activation of visual neurons when an attended stimulus will fall in their receptive field after a saccade. Our results show that tracking of spatial locations across saccades is a plausible consequence of physiological remapping. PMID:23221410

Jonikaitis, Donatas; Szinte, Martin; Rolfs, Martin; Cavanagh, Patrick

2013-03-01

250

Extended attention span training system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

1991-01-01

251

Visual Field Asymmetries in Attention Vary with Self-Reported Attention Deficits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether an index of self-reported attention deficits predicts the pattern of visual field asymmetries observed in behavioral measures of attention. Studies of "normal" subjects do not present a consistent pattern of asymmetry in attention functions, with some studies showing better left visual field (LVF)…

Poynter, William; Ingram, Paul; Minor, Scott

2010-01-01

252

Joint Attention in Autism: Teaching Smiling Coordinated with Gaze to Respond to Joint Attention Bids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism demonstrate early deficits in joint attention and expressions of affect. Interventions to teach joint attention have addressed gaze behavior, gestures, and vocalizations, but have not specifically taught an expression of positive affect such as smiling that tends to occur during joint attention interactions. Intervention was…

Krstovska-Guerrero, Ivana; Jones, Emily A.

2013-01-01

253

Measuring Attention in the Hemispheres: The Lateralized Attention Network Test (LANT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attention network test (ANT) is a brief computerized battery measuring three independent behavioral components of attention: Conflict resolution (ability to overcome distracting stimuli), spatial Orienting (the benefit of valid spatial pre-cues), and Alerting (the benefit of temporal pre-cues). Imaging, clinical, and behavioral evidence…

Greene, Deanna J.; Barnea, Anat; Herzberg, Kristin; Rassis, Anat; Neta, Maital; Raz, Amir; Zaidel, Eran

2008-01-01

254

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a •Management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) encompasses two general domains: pharmacologic therapies and\\u000a nonpharmacologic therapies, including educational, cognitive-behavioral, and other psychological and psychiatric approaches.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a •Within the past year there have been two seminal developments in treatment. The first is that the Evidence-based Practice\\u000a Center at McMaster University, under contract with the Agency for Health Care

Bennett A. Shaywitz; Jack M. Fletcher; Sally E. Shaywitz

2001-01-01

255

Attention decay in science  

E-print Network

The exponential growth in the number of scientific papers makes it increasingly difficult for researchers to keep track of all the publications relevant to their work. Consequently, the attention that can be devoted to individual papers, measured by their citation counts, is bound to decay rapidly. In this work we make a thorough study of the life-cycle of papers in different disciplines. Typically, the citation rate of a paper increases up to a few years after its publication, reaches a peak and then decreases rapidly. This decay can be described by an exponential or a power law behavior, as in ultradiffusive processes, with exponential fitting better than power law for the majority of cases. The decay is also becoming faster over the years, signaling that nowadays papers are forgotten more quickly. However, when time is counted in terms of the number of published papers, the rate of decay of citations is fairly independent of the period considered. This indicates that the attention of scholars depends on th...

Parolo, Pietro Della Briotta; Ghosh, Rumi; Huberman, Bernardo A; Kaski, Kimmo; Fortunato, Santo

2015-01-01

256

Teaching Reciprocal Imitation Skills to Young Children with Autism Using a Naturalistic Behavioral Approach: Effects on Language, Pretend Play, and Joint Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills which impede the acquisition of more complex behaviors and socialization, and are thus an important focus of early intervention programs for children with autism. This study used a multiple-baseline design across five young children with autism to assess the benefit of a…

Ingersoll, Brooke; Schreibman, Laura

2006-01-01

257

Male-Female, Female-Female, and Male-Male sexual behavior in the stumptail monkey, with special attention to the female orgasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating behavior in Macaca arctoides has several features unique to the macaques. Observations of laboratory groups of stumptail monkeys revealed that their single-mount copulations are exceptionally long, that male orgasm is unusually salient (being characterized by body rigidity followed by body spasms and a characteristic facial expression and vocalization), and that the couple generally remains united, or “tied,” in a

Suzanne Chevalier-Skolnikoff

1974-01-01

258

A Comparison of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation and Computerized Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Effects on Anxiety, Depression, Attentional Control, and Interpretive Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) and cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) both have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating social anxiety, but how they compare with each other has not been investigated. The present study tested the prediction that both interventions would reduce anxiety relative to a…

Bowler, Jennifer O.; Mackintosh, Bundy; Dunn, Barnaby D.; Mathews, Andrew; Dalgleish, Tim; Hoppitt, Laura

2012-01-01

259

Typologies of attentional networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention is a central theme in cognitive science — it exemplifies the links between the brain and behaviour, and binds psychology to the techniques of neuroscience. A visionary model suggested by Michael Posner described attention as a set of independent control networks. This challenged the previously held view of attention as a uniform concept. The idea that disparate attentional networks

Jason Buhle; Amir Raz

2006-01-01

260

Attentional Spreading in Object-Based Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated 2 effects of object-based attention: the spread of attention within an attended object and the prioritization of search across possible target locations within an attended object. Participants performed a flanker task in which the location of the task-relevant target was fixed and known to participants. A spreading…

Richard, Ashleigh M.; Lee, Hyunkyu; Vecera, Shaun P.

2008-01-01

261

Divided Attention Issues in Attention Research  

E-print Network

1 Divided Attention Issues in Attention Research · What happens to unattended information? · What · Experiment I: Say the word. · Experiment II: Say what color the word is printed in. Incongruent Congruent Cheng · Quantitative Effects · Qualitative Effects ­ Restructuring 2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2=? 2+2=4 2x10=20 4

Coulson, Seana

262

Visuomotor Origins of Covert Spatial Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Covert spatial attention produces biases in perceptual performance and neural processing of behaviorally relevant stimuli in the absence of overt orienting movements. The neural mechanism that gives rise to these effects is poorly understood. This paper surveys past evidence of a relationship between oculomotor control and visual spatial attention and more recent evidence of a causal link between the control

Tirin Moore; Katherine M Armstrong; Mazyar Fallah

2003-01-01

263

A Paradoxical Effect of Presession Attention on Stereotypy: Antecedent Attention as an Establishing, Not an Abolishing, Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that presession attention for problem behavior can serve as an abolishing operation when attention functions as a positive reinforcer. In the current study, we show that the stereotypy of a child with severe disabilities was undifferentiated during standard analogue functional analysis conditions. However, when noncontingent presession attention was provided, stereotypy occurred for social attention as a

CHRISTINA F. ROANTREE; CRAIG H. KENNEDY

2006-01-01

264

Co-occurring risk behaviors among White, Black, and Hispanic US high school adolescents with suicide attempts requiring medical attention, 1999–2007: Implications for future prevention initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To identify subtypes of adolescent suicide attempters by examining risk profiles related to substance use, violent behavior,\\u000a and depressive symptoms. To examine the relationship between these subtypes and having had two or more suicide attempts during\\u000a the past year. To explore race and gender differences across subtypes of suicide attempters.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data were combined from five nationally representative cohorts of the

Juan B. PenaMonica; Monica M. Matthieu; Luis H. Zayas; Katherine E. Masyn; Eric D. Caine

265

Across the Continuum of Attention Skills: A Twin Study of the SWAN ADHD Rating Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Most behavior checklists for attention problems or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) have a narrow range of scores, focusing on the extent to which problems are present. It has been proposed that measuring attention on a continuum, from positive attention skills to attention

Polderman, Tinca J. C.; Derks, Eske M.; Hudziak, Jim J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Posthuma, Danielle; Boomsma, Dorret I.

2007-01-01

266

Supramodal executive control of attention  

PubMed Central

The human attentional system can be subdivided into three functional networks of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Although these networks have been extensively studied in the visuospatial modality, whether the same mechanisms are deployed across different sensory modalities remains unclear. In this study we used the attention network test for the visuospatial modality, in addition to two auditory variants with spatial and frequency manipulations to examine cross-modal correlations between network functions. Results showed that among the visual and auditory tasks, the effects of executive control, but not effects of alerting and orienting, were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that while alerting and orienting functions rely more upon modality-specific processes, the executive control of attention coordinates complex behavior via supramodal mechanisms.

Spagna, Alfredo; Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Fan, Jin

2015-01-01

267

Attentional Load and Attentional Boost: A Review of Data and Theory  

PubMed Central

Both perceptual and cognitive processes are limited in capacity. As a result, attention is selective, prioritizing items and tasks that are important for adaptive behavior. However, a number of recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that, at least under some circumstances, increasing attention to one task can enhance performance in a second task (e.g., the attentional boost effect). Here we review these findings and suggest a new theoretical framework, the dual-task interaction model, that integrates these findings with current views of attentional selection. To reconcile the attentional boost effect with the effects of attentional load, we suggest that temporal selection results in a temporally specific enhancement across modalities, tasks, and spatial locations. Moreover, the effects of temporal selection may be best observed when the attentional system is optimally tuned to the temporal dynamics of incoming stimuli. Several avenues of research motivated by the dual-task interaction model are then discussed. PMID:23730294

Swallow, Khena M.; Jiang, Yuhong V.

2013-01-01

268

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Additional Difficulties Hampering Development  

E-print Network

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Or Additional Difficulties Hampering Development Novella J, Virginia Dept. of Education Licensed School Psychologist and NCSP What Is ADHD? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder of childhood, estimated

Liskiewicz, Maciej

269

Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)  

MedlinePLUS

... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...

270

The Attentive Perceptron  

E-print Network

We propose a focus of attention mechanism to speed up the Perceptron algorithm. Focus of attention speeds up the Perceptron algorithm by lowering the number of features evaluated throughout training and prediction. Whereas the traditional Perceptron evaluates all the features of each example, the Attentive Perceptron evaluates less features for easy to classify examples, thereby achieving significant speedups and small losses in prediction accuracy. Focus of attention allows the Attentive Perceptron to stop the evaluation of features at any interim point and filter the example. This creates an attentive filter which concentrates computation at examples that are hard to classify, and quickly filters examples that are easy to classify.

Pelossof, Raphael

2010-01-01

271

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , or ADHD . What is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD? ADHD is a common mental disorder ... 08-3572 Revised 2013 Share Find Publications About: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Children and Adolescents Related Information Browse Mental ...

272

Behaviorism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

Moore, J.

2011-01-01

273

Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network  

PubMed Central

Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control. PMID:24223546

Viviani, Roberto

2013-01-01

274

Attention competition with advertisement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

2014-09-01

275

Integrating Conflict Detection and Attentional Control Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Human behavior involves monitoring and adjusting performance to meet established goals. Performance-monitoring systems that act by detecting conflict in stimulus and response processing have been hypothesized to influence cortical control systems to adjust and improve performance. Here we used fMRI to investigate the neural mechanisms of conflict monitoring and resolution during voluntary spatial attention. We tested the hypothesis that the ACC would be sensitive to conflict during attentional orienting and influence activity in the frontoparietal attentional control network that selectively modulates visual information processing. We found that activity in ACC increased monotonically with increasing attentional conflict. This increased conflict detection activity was correlated with both increased activity in the attentional control network and improved speed and accuracy from one trial to the next. These results establish a long hypothesized interaction between conflict detection systems and neural systems supporting voluntary control of visual attention. PMID:21126158

Walsh, Bong J.; Buonocore, Michael H.; Carter, Cameron S.; Mangun, George R.

2011-01-01

276

Attention Deficit Disorder: Diagnosis, Etiology and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides most recent information on attention deficit disorder including: (1) diagnostic considerations according to the latest behavioral criteria and breakthroughs using neurometric EEG assessment; (2) prevalence; (3) etiologies; (4) neurological basis; and (5) treatments. Evaluates alternatives to medication, behavior modification, cognitive…

Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed

1996-01-01

277

ATTENTION DEFICITS, ATTENTION-DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, AND INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES  

PubMed Central

Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion reviews in this special issue. In contrast, comparatively little is known about ADHD in Intellectual Developmental Disabilities (IDD) despite the possibility that ADHD is statistically overrepresented among individuals with IDD [Pearson et al., 1997; Pearson et al., 2000]. Here we provide a review of diagnostic controversies in ADHD with IDD, and discuss several topics that are currently attracting research efforts in the field. These include behavioral phenotyping and attempts to come to grips with problems of behavioral and etiologic heterogeneity. Additionally, we consider issues relating to methodologically sound assessment of attention disorders and evidence-based intervention procedures that may clarify and/or ameliorate attention deficits in individuals with IDD. PMID:19072752

Deutsch, Curtis K; Dube, William V; McIlvane, William J

2013-01-01

278

Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Attentional Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of…

Konrad, Kerstin; Gunther, Thomas; Hanisch, Charlotte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

2004-01-01

279

A chaotic model of sustaining attention problem in attention deficit disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of keeping an attention level is one of the common symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Dopamine deficiency is introduced as one of the causes of this disorder. Based on some physiological facts about the attention control mechanism and chaos intermittency, a behavioral model is presented in this paper. This model represents the problem of undesired alternation of attention level, and can also suggest different valuable predictions about a possible cause of attention deficit disorder. The proposed model reveals that there is a possible interaction between different neurotransmitters which help the individual to adaptively inhibit the attention switching over time. The result of this study can be used to examine and develop a new practical and more appropriate treatment for the problem of sustaining attention.

Baghdadi, G.; Jafari, S.; Sprott, J. C.; Towhidkhah, F.; Hashemi Golpayegani, M. R.

2015-01-01

280

Attentional Modulation of Adaptation in V4  

PubMed Central

Adaptation and visual attention are two processes that alter neural responses to luminance contrast. Rapid contrast adaptation changes response size and dynamics at all stages of visual processing while visual attention has been shown to modulate both contrast gain and response gain in macaque extrastriate visual cortex. Since attention aims to enhance behaviorally relevant sensory responses while adaptation acts to attenuate neural activity, the question we asked is, how does attention alter adaptation? We present here single-unit recordings from V4 of two rhesus macaques performing a cued target detection task. The study was designed to characterize the effects of attention on the size and dynamics of a sequence of responses produced by a series of flashed oriented gratings parametric in luminance contrast. We found that the effect of attention on the response dynamics of V4 neurons is inconsistent with a mechanism that only alters the effective stimulus contrast, or only rescales the gain of the response. Instead, the action of attention modifies contrast gain early in the task, and modifies both response gain and contrast gain later in the task. We also show that responses to attended stimuli are more closely locked to the stimulus cycle than unattended responses, and that attended responses show less of the phase lag produced by adaptation than unattended responses. The phase advance generated by attention of the adapted responses suggests that the attentional gain control operates in some ways like a contrast gain control utilizing a neural measure of contrast to influence dynamics. PMID:19558603

Hudson, Andrew E.; Schiff, Nicholas D.; Victor, Jonathan D.; Purpura, Keith P.

2009-01-01

281

Android Permissions: User Attention, Comprehension, and Behavior  

E-print Network

and Protection--Access controls General Terms Human Factors, Security Keywords Android, smartphones, mobile information (e.g., for aggressive marketing campaigns), and malware harvests Copyright is held by the author, DC, USA. data or sends premium SMS messages for profit. Grayware and malware have both been found

Wagner, David

282

Contingent Attentional Capture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

1994-01-01

283

Selective and Sustained Attention as Predictors of Social Problems in Children with Typical and Disordered Attention Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Investigated the relationship between selective and sustained attention and social behavior in children with different degrees of attentional disturbance. Method: Participants were 101 6- to 12-year-old children, including 18 who were diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), 61 who were clinically referred for…

Andrade, Brendan F.; Brodeur, Darlene A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Stewart, Sherry H.; McGee, Robin

2009-01-01

284

Attention as foraging for information and value  

PubMed Central

What is the purpose of attention? One avenue of research has led to the proposal that attention might be crucial for gathering information about the environment, while other lines of study have demonstrated how attention may play a role in guiding behavior to rewarded options. Many experiments that study attention require participants to make a decision based on information acquired discretely at one point in time. In real-world situations, however, we are usually not presented with information about which option to select in such a manner. Rather we must initially search for information, weighing up reward values of options before we commit to a decision. Here, we propose that attention plays a role in both foraging for information and foraging for value. When foraging for information, attention is guided toward the unknown. When foraging for reward, attention is guided toward high reward values, allowing decision-making to proceed by accept-or-reject decisions on the currently attended option. According to this account, attention can be regarded as a low-cost alternative to moving around and physically interacting with the environment—“teleforaging”—before a decision is made to interact physically with the world. To track the timecourse of attention, we asked participants to seek out and acquire information about two gambles by directing their gaze, before choosing one of them. Participants often made multiple refixations on items before making a decision. Their eye movements revealed that early in the trial, attention was guided toward information, i.e., toward locations that reduced uncertainty about value. In contrast, late in the trial, attention was guided by expected value of the options. At the end of the decision period, participants were generally attending to the item they eventually chose. We suggest that attentional foraging shifts from an uncertainty-driven to a reward-driven mode during the evolution of a decision, permitting decisions to be made by an engage-or-search strategy. PMID:24204335

Manohar, Sanjay G.; Husain, Masud

2013-01-01

285

Attention Enhancement System using Virtual Reality and EEG Biofeedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood syndrome characterized by short attention span, impulsiveness and hyperactivity, which often leads to learning disabilities and various behavioral problems. For the treatment of ADHD, medication and cognitive-behavior therapy has been applied in recent years. Although psychostimulant medication has been widely used for many years, current findings suggest that, as the sole treatment

Baek Hwan Cho; Jong-min Lee; Jeonghun Ku; Dong Pyo Jang; J. S. Kim; In-young Kim; J. H. Lee; Sun I. Kim

2002-01-01

286

Measuring Teacher Implementation of the "BEST in CLASS" Intervention Program and Corollary Child Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is part of a larger randomized efficacy trial examining the impact of Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Training: Competent Learners Achieving School Success ("BEST in CLASS"), a Tier 2 intervention that targets the prevention of emotional/behavioral disorders in young, high risk children. In this investigation, we examined…

Conroy, Maureen A.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Algina, James J.; Wilson, Reynolds E.; Martinez, Jose R.; Whalon, Kelly J.

2014-01-01

287

Implementation Integrity of Practice-Based Coaching: Preliminary Results from the BEST in CLASS Efficacy Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to describe the practice-based coaching model used in BEST in CLASS, a Tier-2 classroom-based intervention comprised of evidence-based instructional practices designed to prevent and ameliorate the chronic problem behaviors of young children at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders. Following a…

Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Vo, Abigail; Ladwig, Crystal

2015-01-01

288

PenAttention: Highlight Your Pen Cursor for In-Class Presentations Kenrick Mock  

E-print Network

@uaa.alaska.edu Computer Science University of Alaska Anchorage Scenario: Instructor using a Tablet PC connected framework 2.0 or higher. C++ Mouse Hook intercepts mouse location Tablet PC API used to detect presence: Windows XP Tablet PC edition, Vista, or Windows 7. Separate version for Windows XP (non-Tablet PC edition

Mock, Kenrick

289

Selective attention in birds.  

PubMed

The natural world constantly inundates our senses with an abundance of information. Selective attention enables us to navigate this abundance intelligently by selecting the information that is most relevant, at each moment in time, for differential processing and decision-making. The attributes of attention have been studied in humans for over a century. In his influential 19(th) century treatise, The Principles of Psychology, philosopher and psychologist William James defined attention as: "… the taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought … It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others." (James, 1890). James' definition elegantly captures two key hallmarks of attention: the enhanced processing of task-relevant information (target information) and the suppression of task-irrelevant information (distracting information). PMID:24892907

Sridharan, Devarajan; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

2014-06-01

290

Attention Deficits and Divorce  

PubMed Central

Objective: Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Method: Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Results: Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. Conclusions: This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce. PMID:25565693

Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

2014-01-01

291

Baseline Shifts do not Predict Attentional Modulation of Target Processing During Feature-Based Visual Attention  

PubMed Central

Cues that direct selective attention to a spatial location have been observed to increase baseline neural activity in visual areas that represent a to-be-attended stimulus location. Analogous attention-related baseline shifts have also been observed in response to attention-directing cues for non-spatial stimulus features. It has been proposed that baseline shifts with preparatory attention may serve as the mechanism by which attention modulates the responses to subsequent visual targets that match the attended location or feature. Using functional MRI, we localized color- and motion-sensitive visual areas in individual subjects and investigated the relationship between cue-induced baseline shifts and the subsequent attentional modulation of task-relevant target stimuli. Although attention-directing cues often led to increased background neural activity in feature specific visual areas, these increases were not correlated with either behavior in the task or subsequent attentional modulation of the visual targets. These findings cast doubt on the hypothesis that attention-related shifts in baseline neural activity result in selective sensory processing of visual targets during feature-based selective attention. PMID:18958221

Fannon, Sean P.; Saron, Clifford D.; Mangun, George R.

2007-01-01

292

Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

2010-01-01

293

The role of intrinsic motivations in attention allocation and shifting  

PubMed Central

The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learning (RL), where both these capabilities are involved. RL is deployed to learn how to allocate attentional resources in a behavior-based robotic system, while action selection is obtained as a side effect of the resulting motivated attentional behaviors. Moreover, the influence of intrinsic motivations in attention orientation is obtained by introducing rewards associated with curiosity drives. In this way, the learning process is affected not only by goal-specific rewards, but also by intrinsic motivations. PMID:24744746

Di Nocera, Dario; Finzi, Alberto; Rossi, Silvia; Staffa, Mariacarla

2014-01-01

294

Inhibition and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper updates the author's earlier hypothesis that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) reflects underactivity in Gray's Behavioral Inhibition System. Five areas of research are reviewed: (1) studies using the stop-signal task, (2) studies of errors of commission, (3) a study of inhibition indexed by eye movements, (4) a neuroimaging study of the corpus callosum, and (5) a study on

Herbert C. Quay

1997-01-01

295

Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

2011-01-01

296

Toddlers' Duration of Attention toward Putative Threat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk of developing anxious behavior, toddlers' attention toward a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined…

Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

2011-01-01

297

Laterality, Implicit Memory, and Attention Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents study showing children with behaviors characteristic of attention disorder/hyperactivity deficit and high intelligence have more mixed laterality and allergies. Finds these children gather and use more diverse nonverbal and poorly focused information. Concludes such children use uncommon information when exhibiting novelty in nonverbal…

Shaw, Geraldine A.; Brown, Geoffrey

1991-01-01

298

Social Computing and the Attention Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social computing focuses on the interaction between social behavior and information, especially on how the latter propagates across social networks and is consumed and transformed in the process. At the same time the ubiquity of information has left it devoid of much monetary value. The scarce, and therefore valuable, resource is now attention, and its allocation gives rise to an attention economy that determines how content is consumed and propagated. Since two major factors involved in getting attention are novelty and popularity, we analyze the role that both play in attracting attention to web content and how to prioritize them in order to maximize it. We also demonstrate that the relative performance of strategies based on prioritizing either popularity or novelty exhibit an abrupt change around a critical value of the novelty decay time, resembling a phase transition.

Huberman, Bernardo A.

2013-04-01

299

Quantifying collective attention from tweet stream.  

PubMed

Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive "digital fossil" of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of "collective attention" on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or "tweets." Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. "Retweet" networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era. PMID:23637913

Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Hirata, Yoshito; Toyoda, Masashi; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2013-01-01

300

Quantifying Collective Attention from Tweet Stream  

PubMed Central

Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive “digital fossil” of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of “collective attention” on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or “tweets.” Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. “Retweet” networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era. PMID:23637913

Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Hirata, Yoshito; Toyoda, Masashi; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2013-01-01

301

Orienting of attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartlett viewed thinking as a high level skill exhibiting ballistic properties that he called its “point of no return”. This paper explores one aspect of cognition through the use of a simple model task in which human subjects are asked to commit attention to a position in visual space other than fixation. This instruction is executed by orienting a covert

Michael I. Posner

1980-01-01

302

Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. I: auditory attention.  

PubMed

In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring, or not requiring, selective auditory attention. Appended to each stimulus presentation, and included in the calculation of each nSFOAE response, was a 30-ms silent period that was used to estimate the level of the inherent physiological noise in the ear canals of our subjects during each behavioral condition. Physiological-noise magnitudes were higher (noisier) for all subjects in the inattention task, and lower (quieter) in the selective auditory-attention tasks. These noise measures initially were made at the frequency of our nSFOAE probe tone (4.0 kHz), but the same attention effects also were observed across a wide range of frequencies. We attribute the observed differences in physiological-noise magnitudes between the inattention and attention conditions to different levels of efferent activation associated with the differing attentional demands of the behavioral tasks. One hypothesis is that when the attentional demand is relatively great, efferent activation is relatively high, and a decrease in the gain of the cochlear amplifier leads to lower-amplitude cochlear activity, and thus a smaller measure of noise from the ear. PMID:24732069

Walsh, Kyle P; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

2014-06-01

303

Concentration and Civilisation: Producing the Attentive Child in the Age of Enlightenment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of how best to capture, direct, and enhance children's abilities to pay attention has been a central feature of educational thought and practices over a long duration. And, while having students pay attention in class has been a concern of teachers across the ages, beginning in the Enlightenment we find a significant shift in…

Sobe, Noah W.

2010-01-01

304

Orbitofrontal Cortex Biases Attention to Emotional Events  

PubMed Central

We examined the role of orbitofrontal (OF) cortex in regulating emotion-attention interaction and the balance between involuntary and voluntary attention allocation. We studied patients with OF lesion applying reaction time (RT) and event-related potential (ERP) measures in a lateralized visual discrimination task with novel task-irrelevant affective pictures (unpleasant, pleasant or neutral) preceding a neutral target. This allowed for comparing the effects of automatic attention allocation to emotional vs neutral stimuli on subsequent voluntary attention allocation to target stimuli. N2-P3a and N2-P3b ERP components served as measures of involuntary and voluntary attention allocation correspondingly. Enhanced N2-P3a amplitudes to emotional distractors and reduced N2-P3b amplitudes to targets preceded by emotional distractors were observed in healthy subjects, suggesting automatic emotional orienting interfered with subsequent voluntary orienting. OF patients showed an opposite pattern with tendency towards reduced N2-P3a responses to emotional distractors, suggesting impaired automatic orienting to emotional stimuli due to orbitofrontal damage. Enhanced N2-P3b responses to targets preceded by any affective distractor was observed in OF patients, suggesting bias towards voluntary target-related attention allocation due to orbitofrontal lesion. Behavioral evidence indicated that LVF attention performance was modulated by emotional stimuli. Specifically, OF patients responded faster to LVF targets subsequent to pleasant emotional distractors. We suggest damage to the orbitofrontal circuitry leads to dysbalance between voluntary and involuntary attention allocation in the context of affective distracters with predisposition to posterior target related processing over frontal novelty and affect related processing. Furthermore, we suggest orbitofrontal influence on emotion- attention interaction is valence and hemisphere dependent. PMID:22413757

Hartikainen, K.M.; Ogawa, K.H.; Knight, R.T.

2012-01-01

305

Visual Attention during Spatial Language Comprehension  

PubMed Central

Spatial terms such as “above”, “in front of”, and “on the left of” are all essential for describing the location of one object relative to another object in everyday communication. Apprehending such spatial relations involves relating linguistic to object representations by means of attention. This requires at least one attentional shift, and models such as the Attentional Vector Sum (AVS) predict the direction of that attention shift, from the sausage to the box for spatial utterances such as “The box is above the sausage”. To the extent that this prediction generalizes to overt gaze shifts, a listener’s visual attention should shift from the sausage to the box. However, listeners tend to rapidly look at referents in their order of mention and even anticipate them based on linguistic cues, a behavior that predicts a converse attentional shift from the box to the sausage. Four eye-tracking experiments assessed the role of overt attention in spatial language comprehension by examining to which extent visual attention is guided by words in the utterance and to which extent it also shifts “against the grain” of the unfolding sentence. The outcome suggests that comprehenders’ visual attention is predominantly guided by their interpretation of the spatial description. Visual shifts against the grain occurred only when comprehenders had some extra time, and their absence did not affect comprehension accuracy. However, the timing of this reverse gaze shift on a trial correlated with that trial’s verification time. Thus, while the timing of these gaze shifts is subtly related to the verification time, their presence is not necessary for successful verification of spatial relations. PMID:25607540

Burigo, Michele; Knoeferle, Pia

2015-01-01

306

High-level attention Attention in complex tasks  

E-print Network

is difficult ­ Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ­ A deficit in this ability to select and sustain1 High-level attention · Attention in complex tasks · Central executive function · Attention deficits · Automaticity Playing a sport · When you first learn to play basketball you have to attend to too

Pillow, Jonathan

307

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This detailed booklet describes the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatments, with information on getting help and coping. Interventions described herein are psychotherapy, behavior therapy, social skills training, support groups, and parenting skills training. Some simple behavioral interventions are suggested because children with ADHD may…

Strock, Margaret

2006-01-01

308

The cortical dynamics underlying effective switching of auditory spatial attention  

PubMed Central

Successful rapid deployment of attention to relevant sensory stimuli is critical for survival. In a complex environment, attention can be captured by salient events or be deployed volitionally. Furthermore, when multiple events are of interest concurrently, effective interaction with one's surroundings hinges on efficient top-down control of shifting attention. It has been hypothesized that two separate cortical networks coordinate attention shifts across multiple modalities. However, the cortical dynamics of these networks and their behavioral relevance to switching of auditory attention are unknown. Here we show that the strength of each subject's right temporal-parietal junction (RTPJ, part of the ventral network) activation was highly correlated with their behavioral performance in an auditory task. We also provide evidence that the recruitment of the RTPJ likely precedes the right frontal eye fields (FEF; participating in both the dorsal and ventral networks) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) by around 100 ms when subjects switch their auditory spatial attention. PMID:22974974

Larson, Eric; Lee, Adrian KC

2012-01-01

309

Temporal dynamics of divided spatial attention  

PubMed Central

In naturalistic settings, observers often have to monitor multiple objects dispersed throughout the visual scene. However, the degree to which spatial attention can be divided across spatially noncontiguous objects has long been debated, particularly when those objects are in close proximity. Moreover, the temporal dynamics of divided attention are unclear: is the process of dividing spatial attention gradual and continuous, or does it onset in a discrete manner? To address these issues, we recorded steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as subjects covertly monitored two flickering targets while ignoring an intervening distractor that flickered at a different frequency. All three stimuli were clustered within either the lower left or the lower right quadrant, and our dependent measure was SSVEP power at the target and distractor frequencies measured over time. In two experiments, we observed a temporally discrete increase in power for target- vs. distractor-evoked SSVEPs extending from ?350 to 150 ms prior to correct (but not incorrect) responses. The divergence in SSVEP power immediately prior to a correct response suggests that spatial attention can be divided across noncontiguous locations, even when the targets are closely spaced within a single quadrant. In addition, the division of spatial attention appears to be relatively discrete, as opposed to slow and continuous. Finally, the predictive relationship between SSVEP power and behavior demonstrates that these neurophysiological measures of divided attention are meaningfully related to cognitive function. PMID:23390315

Garcia, Javier O.; Serences, John T.

2013-01-01

310

Temporal dynamics of divided spatial attention.  

PubMed

In naturalistic settings, observers often have to monitor multiple objects dispersed throughout the visual scene. However, the degree to which spatial attention can be divided across spatially noncontiguous objects has long been debated, particularly when those objects are in close proximity. Moreover, the temporal dynamics of divided attention are unclear: is the process of dividing spatial attention gradual and continuous, or does it onset in a discrete manner? To address these issues, we recorded steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as subjects covertly monitored two flickering targets while ignoring an intervening distractor that flickered at a different frequency. All three stimuli were clustered within either the lower left or the lower right quadrant, and our dependent measure was SSVEP power at the target and distractor frequencies measured over time. In two experiments, we observed a temporally discrete increase in power for target- vs. distractor-evoked SSVEPs extending from ?350 to 150 ms prior to correct (but not incorrect) responses. The divergence in SSVEP power immediately prior to a correct response suggests that spatial attention can be divided across noncontiguous locations, even when the targets are closely spaced within a single quadrant. In addition, the division of spatial attention appears to be relatively discrete, as opposed to slow and continuous. Finally, the predictive relationship between SSVEP power and behavior demonstrates that these neurophysiological measures of divided attention are meaningfully related to cognitive function. PMID:23390315

Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Garcia, Javier O; Serences, John T

2013-05-01

311

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 4–8% of the population\\u000a across the life span. Up to 90% of those with ADHD have at least one comorbid condition that may be more critical to the child’s\\u000a or adolescent’s health than is the ADHD. Those with neurodevelopmental disorders are at high risk for ADHD. Management involves

Donald E. Greydanus

312

Reference, perception, and attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examine John Campbell’s claim that the determination of the reference of a perceptual demonstrative requires conscious visual\\u000a object-based selective attention. I argue that although Campbell’s claim to the effect that, first, a complex binding parameter\\u000a is needed to establish the referent of a perceptual demonstrative, and, second, that this referent is determined independently\\u000a of, and before, the application of

Athanasios Raftopoulos

2009-01-01

313

Attention in risky choice.  

PubMed

Previous research on the processes involved in risky decisions has rarely linked process data to choice directly. We used a simple measure based on the relative amount of attentional deployment to different components (gains/losses and their probabilities) of a risky gamble during the choice process, and we related this measure to the actual choice. In an experiment we recorded the decisions, decision times, and eye movements of 80 participants who made decisions on 11 choice problems. We used the number of eye fixations and fixation transitions to trace the deployment of attention during the choice process and obtained the following main results. First, different components of a gamble attracted different amounts of attention depending on participants' actual choice. This was reflected in both the number of fixations and the fixation transitions. Second, the last-fixated gamble but not the last-fixated reason predicted participants' choices. Third, a comparison of data obtained with eye tracking and data obtained with verbal protocols from a previous study showed a large degree of convergence regarding the process of risky choice. Together these findings tend to support dimensional decision strategies such as the priority heuristic. PMID:25226548

Brandstätter, Eduard; Körner, Christof

2014-10-01

314

Joint Attention and Attachment in Toddlers with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint attention is often referred to as a triadic relation between self, other and object. Young children with autism show\\u000a deficiencies in the use of joint attention behaviors. Individual differences may be expected, and they may be determined by\\u000a the children’s cognitive development or the characteristics of the relationship of the child with the caregiver. Although\\u000a most joint attention skills

Fabiënne B. A. Naber; Sophie H. N. Swinkels; Jan K. Buitelaar; Claudine Dietz; Emma van Daalen; Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg; Marinus H. van IJzendoorn; Herman van Engeland

2007-01-01

315

A component analysis of attentional problems of educationally handicapped boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-three educationally handicapped (EH) and 78 regular class, normally achieving (NA) boys grades 3–8 were tested with a series of measures selected to test three components of attention: coming to attention, decision making, and maintaining attention over time. EH and NA samples were subdivided into three groups by grade level (grades 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8). Based on a teacher-completed behavioral

Barbara K. Keogh; Judith S. Margolis

1976-01-01

316

Selective Attention to Emotion in the Aging Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of research suggests that the ability to regulate emotion remains stable or improves across the adult life span. Socioemotional selectivity theory maintains that this pattern of findings reflects the prioritization of emotional goals. Given that goal-directed behavior requires attentional control, the present study was designed to investigate age differences in selective attention to emotional lexical stimuli under

Gregory R. Samanez-Larkin; Elaine R. Robertson; Joseph A. Mikels; Laura L. Carstensen; Ian H. Gotlib

2009-01-01

317

Attention Training with Auditory Hallucinations: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The case presented in this paper illustrates how Attention Training (ATT; [Wells, A. (1990). "Panic disorder in association with relaxation induced anxiety: An attentional training approach to treatment." "Behavior Therapy," 21, 273-280.]) can be applied in an outpatient setting in the treatment of auditory hallucinations. The 25-year-old male…

Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Bouman, Theo K.; Schuurman, Laura

2007-01-01

318

A Neural Theory of Visual Attention: Bridging Cognition and Neurophysiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A neural theory of visual attention (NTVA) is presented. NTVA is a neural interpretation of C. Bundesen's (1990) theory of visual attention (TVA). In NTVA, visual processing capacity is distributed across stimuli by dynamic remapping of receptive fields of cortical cells such that more processing resources (cells) are devoted to behaviorally

Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas; Kyllingsbaek, Soren

2005-01-01

319

Experimental Training of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) negatively affects the cognitive and psychomotoric spheres of the pupil's social behavior and social adaptation. The review of many studies states that pupils with AD/HD achieve worse learning results because of insufficiently functioning cognitive processes, such as attention, (work) memory,…

Piscalkiene, Viktorija

2009-01-01

320

Down Syndrome and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians might minimize the prevalence of behavioral disorders among mentally retarded people. Decreased attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are frequently reported in children with Down syndrome, yet the exact prevalence of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been clearly estimated in this population. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ADHD in children with Down syndrome and to

Sivan Ekstein; Benjamin Glick; Michal Weill; Barrie Kay; Itai Berger

2011-01-01

321

Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

2012-01-01

322

Joint Attention and Attachment in Toddlers with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joint attention is often referred to as a triadic relation between self, other and object. Young children with autism show deficiencies in the use of joint attention behaviors. Individual differences may be expected, and they may be determined by the children's cognitive development or the characteristics of the relationship of the child with the…

Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van Engeland, Herman

2007-01-01

323

Dissociable attentional and affective circuits in medication-naïve children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder  

PubMed Central

Current neurocognitive models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that neural circuits involving both attentional and affective processing make independent contributions to the phenomenology of the disorder. However, a clear dissociation of attentional and affective circuits and their behavioral correlates has yet to be shown in medication-naïve children with ADHD. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in a cohort of medication naïve children with (N=22) and without (N=20) ADHD, we demonstrate that children with ADHD have reduced connectivity in two neural circuits: one underlying executive attention (EA) and the other emotional regulation (ER). We also demonstrate a double dissociation between these two neural circuits and their behavioral correlates such that reduced connectivity in the EA circuit correlates with executive attention deficits but not with emotional lability, while on the other hand, reduced connectivity in the ER circuit correlates with emotional lability but not with executive attention deficits. These findings suggest potential avenues for future research such as examining treatment effects on these two neural circuits as well as the potential prognostic and developmental significance of disturbances in one circuit vs the other. PMID:23664625

Posner, Jonathan; Rauh, Virginia; Gruber, Allison; Gat, Inbal; Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S.

2013-01-01

324

Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. II: visual attention.  

PubMed

Human subjects performed in several behavioral conditions requiring, or not requiring, selective attention to visual stimuli. Specifically, the attentional task was to recognize strings of digits that had been presented visually. A nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emission (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was collected during the visual presentation of the digits. The segment of the physiological response discussed here occurred during brief silent periods immediately following the SFOAE-evoking stimuli. For all subjects tested, the physiological-noise magnitudes were substantially weaker (less noisy) during the tasks requiring the most visual attention. Effect sizes for the differences were >2.0. Our interpretation is that cortico-olivo influences adjusted the magnitude of efferent activation during the SFOAE-evoking stimulation depending upon the attention task in effect, and then that magnitude of efferent activation persisted throughout the silent period where it also modulated the physiological noise present. Because the results were highly similar to those obtained when the behavioral conditions involved auditory attention, similar mechanisms appear to operate both across modalities and within modalities. Supplementary measurements revealed that the efferent activation was spectrally global, as it was for auditory attention. PMID:24732070

Walsh, Kyle P; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

2014-06-01

325

Object-based attention: a tutorial review.  

PubMed

This tutorial provides a selective review of research on object-based deployment of attention. It focuses primarily on behavioral studies with human observers. The tutorial is divided into five sections. It starts with an introduction to object-based attention and a description of the three commonly used experimental paradigms in object-based attention research. These are followed by a review of a variety of manifestations of object effects and the factors that influence object segmentation. The final two sections are devoted to two key issues in object-based research: the mechanisms that give rise to the object effects and the role of space in object-based selection. PMID:22673856

Chen, Zhe

2012-07-01

326

Joint attention and language evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates how more advanced joint attentional mechanisms, rather than only shared attention between two agents and an object, can be implemented and how they influence the results of language games played by these agents. We present computer simulations with language games showing that adding constructs that mimic the three stages of joint attention identified in children's early development (checking attention, following attention, and directing attention) substantially increase the performance of agents in these language games. In particular, the rates of improved performance for the individual attentional mechanisms have the same ordering as that of the emergence of these mechanisms in infants' development. These results suggest that language evolution and joint attentional mechanisms have developed in a co-evolutionary way, and that the evolutionary emergence of the individual attentional mechanisms is ordered just like their developmental emergence.

Kwisthout, Johan; Vogt, Paul; Haselager, Pim; Dijkstra, Ton

2008-06-01

327

A Phenomenological Description of Primary Creep in Class M Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of creep microstructures in the primary creep region in class M materials show a remarkable similarity with those formed in the exponential creep regime. As a result, it is proposed that the constitutive creep law for normal primary creep is similar to that for the exponential creep regime. A phenomenological description is discussed to rationalize these microstructural observations in terms of a normalized strain rate vs. stress plot. The implications of this plot in describing different testing procedures, steady-state flow, and on the observed deviations from the universal creep law are discussed. The plot is also extended to explain the observed similarities in the transient creep behavior in pre-strained materials and in stress change experiments.

Raj, S. V.; Freed, A. D.

1999-01-01

328

Attention to detail  

SciTech Connect

Insurance is an increasingly important part of international projects. Understanding various coverages can make the difference between success and failure. With more than $50 billion of investment capital per year slated for development of power projects in Asia alone, international development has gained the attention of many developers eager to participate. Coordinating an international insurance program for power projects is much different than a developer may be accustomed to in the United States. With insurance taking on an extremely important role in the success of project development it is imperative the unique international exposures inherent be identified and addressed.

Niccolai, G.C. [William Gallagher Associates, Parsippany, NJ (United States)

1994-11-01

329

Attention, Attention Rating and Cognitive Assessment: A Review and a Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We begin with the suggestion that the definition of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) still faces some challenges. Conceptually, inhibition of the Pavlovian kind preexisted the "behavioral inhibition" popular in the USA; the difference between them has to be understood in order to understand ADHD. The present project examines the…

Boersma, Hester; Das, J.P.

2008-01-01

330

The Interplay of Attention and Emotion: Top-down Attention Modulates Amygdala Activation in Psychopathy  

PubMed Central

Psychopathic behavior has long been attributed to a fundamental deficit in fear that arises from impaired amygdala function. Growing evidence demonstrates that fear potentiated startle (FPS) and other psychopathy-related deficits are moderated by focus of attention but, to date, no work on adult psychopathy has examined attentional modulation of the amygdala, or concomitant recruitment of relevant attention-related circuitry. Consistent with previous FPS findings, here we report that psychopathy-related differences in amygdala activation appear and disappear as a function of goal-directed attention. Specifically, decreased amygdala activity was observed in psychopathic offenders only when attention was engaged in an alternative goal-relevant task prior to presenting threat-relevant information. Under this condition, psychopaths also exhibited greater activation in selective attention regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) than non-psychopaths, and this increased LPFC activation mediated psychopathy’s association with decreased amygdala activation. In contrast, when explicitly attending to threat, amygdala activation in psychopaths did not differ from non-psychopaths. This pattern of amygdala activation highlights the potential role of LPFC in mediating the failure of psychopathic individuals to process fear and other important information when it is peripheral to the primary focus of goal-directed attention. PMID:23712665

Larson, Christine L.; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Stout, Daniel M.; Balderston, Nicholas L.; Curtin, John J.; Schultz, Douglas H.; Kiehl, Kent A.; Newman, Joseph P.

2013-01-01

331

Delay of selective attention during the attentional blink  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attentional blink is the inability to report the second of two targets in an RSVP stream when they are separated by 200-500 ms. Recent evidence shows that this failure results from three dissociable changes to the properties of temporal selective attention. During the attentional blink, selection is suppressed (items are selected less effectively, resulting in greater levels of random

Edward Vul; Deborah Hanus; Nancy Kanwisher

2008-01-01

332

The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric\\u000a Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since\\u000a the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions\\u000a of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of

Klaus W. Lange; Susanne Reichl; Katharina M. Lange; Lara Tucha; Oliver Tucha

2010-01-01

333

Once-Daily Atomoxetine Treatment for Children With Attention-Deficit\\/ Hyperactivity Disorder, Including an Assessment of Evening and Morning Behavior: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Atomoxetine seems to be as effective for treating attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity dis- order (ADHD) when the daily dose is administered once in the morning as when the dose is divided and admin- istered in the morning and evening. In the present study, the efficacy of atomoxetine administered once daily among children with ADHD was assessed throughout the day, including the evening

Douglas K. Kelsey; Calvin R. Sumner; Charles D. Casat; Daniel L. Coury; Humberto Quintana; Keith E. Saylor; Virginia K. Sutton; Jill Gonzales; Sandra K. Malcolm; Kory J. Schuh; Albert J. Allen

334

Attention to individual identities modulates face processing.  

PubMed

The ability of attention to apply in a flexible manner to several types of information at various stages of processing has been studied extensively. However, the susceptibility of these effects to the nature of the idiosyncratic items being attended is less understood. In the current study, we used symbolic cues to orient the attention of participants to the subsequent appearance of the face of a famous person (the former king of Spain) or an unfamiliar face. These were matched in perceptual characteristics. Behavioral effects showed that face-specific attention optimized response speed in an orthogonal task when the target matched the cue (valid trials) compared to when it did not (invalid trials). According to topographical analyses of the electrophysiological data, the famous and unfamiliar faces engaged dissociable brain circuits in two different temporal windows, from 144 to 300 ms after target processing, and at a later 456-492 ms epoch. In addition, orienting attention to specific faces modulated the perceptual stages reflected in the P1 and N170 potentials but with a different laterality pattern that depended on the familiarity of the faces. Whereas only attention to the famous face enhanced the P1 potential at left posterior electrodes, with no corresponding effect for the unfamiliar face at this stage, the N170 was modulated at left posterior sites for the famous item and at right homologous electrodes for the unfamiliar face. Intermediate processing stages, previously linked to facial identity processing indexed by the P2 and N2 potentials, reflected item familiarity but were not affected by the cueing manipulation. At the P3 level, attention influenced again item processing but did so in an equivalent manner for the famous and unfamiliar face. Our results, showing that identity-specific attention modulates perceptual stages of facial processing at different locations depending on idiosyncratic stimulus familiarity, may inform comparison of studies employing items with different degrees of novelty. PMID:25690863

Ruz, María; Aranda, Clara; Sarmiento, Beatriz R; Sanabria, Daniel

2015-05-01

335

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

2014-01-01

336

Is Attention Impaired in ADHD?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explanations of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in terms of a weakness in Executive Function (EF) or related concepts, such as inhibition, are briefly reviewed. Some alternative views are considered, in particular a proposal by Manly and others that ADHD is a weakness primarily of sustained attention (plus control of attention),…

Wilding, John

2005-01-01

337

Attentive Presentation Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an infotainment application where life- like characters present two MP3 players in a virtual showroom. The key feature of the system is that the presenter agents analyze the user's gaze-behavior in real-time and may thus adapt the presentation flow ac- cordingly. In particular, a user's (non-)interest in interface objects and also preference in decision situations is estimated

Tobias Eichner; Helmut Prendinger; Elisabeth André; Mitsuru Ishizuka

2007-01-01

338

Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis. PMID:22478393

Salzinger, Kurt

2003-01-01

339

Attention-Modulating Effects of Cognitive Enhancers  

EPA Science Inventory

Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review fo...

340

Executive functions and selective attention are favored in middle-aged healthy women carriers of the Val\\/Val genotype of the catechol-o-methyltransferase gene: a behavioral genetic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits such as poor memory, the inability to concentrate, deficits in abstract reasoning, attention and set-shifting flexibility have been reported in middle-aged women. It has been suggested that cognitive decline may be due to several factors which include hormonal changes, individual differences, normal processes of aging and age-related changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a common functional polymorphism,

Silvia Solís-Ortiz; Elva Pérez-Luque; Lisette Morado-Crespo; Mayra Gutiérrez-Muñoz

2010-01-01

341

Relation Between Childhood Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Substance Use and Dependence Symptoms in Young Adulthood: Individuals With Symptoms of Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder Are Uniquely at Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most prior literature examining the relations among attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and substance use and abuse suggests that CD fully accounts for the ADHD-substance abuse relation. This study sought to test an alternate theory that individuals with symptoms of both ADHD and CD are at a special risk for substance abuse. Relations between childhood ADHD and CD symptoms,

Kate Flory; Richard Milich; Donald R. Lynam; Carl Leukefeld; Richard Clayton

2003-01-01

342

Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care  

MedlinePLUS

Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care Selecting quality behavioral health care services for yourself, a relative or friend requires special thought and attention. The Joint Commission on ...

343

Parenting Similarity and Children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relation between parenting similarity and comorbid internalizing and disruptive behavior problems among 70 children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). General child rearing similarity and discipline similarity were found to be associated with fewer disruptive behavior problems but not related to internalizing problems. Parenting similarity was also found to be associated with greater marital adjustment and less marital

Elizabeth A. Harvey

2000-01-01

344

EEG Markers for Attention Deficit Disorder: Pharmacological and Neurofeedback Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined contribution of EEG findings in the classification and treatment of attention deficit and related behavioral problems in children. Found that quantitative EEG methods disclosed patterns of abnormality in children with ADD, suggested improved guidelines for pharmacological treatment, and introduced neurofeedback, a behavioral treatment for…

Sterman, M. Barry

2000-01-01

345

Early Social Attention Impairments in Autism: Social Orienting, Joint Attention, and Attention to Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated social attention impairments in autism (social orienting, joint attention, and attention to another's distress) and their relations to language ability. Three- to four-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 72), 3- to 4-year-old developmentally delayed children (n = 34), and 12- to 46-month-old typically…

Dawson, Geraldine; Toth, Karen; Abbott, Robert; Osterling, Julie; Munson, Jeff; Estes, Annette; Liaw, Jane

2004-01-01

346

Infant Joint Attention, Neural Networks and Social Cognition  

PubMed Central

Neural network models of attention can provide a unifying approach to the study of human cognitive and emotional development (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This paper we argue that a neural networks approach to the infant development of joint attention can inform our understanding of the nature of human social learning, symbolic thought process and social cognition. At its most basic, joint attention involves the capacity to coordinate one’s own visual attention with that of another person. We propose that joint attention development involves increments in the capacity to engage in simultaneous or parallel processing of information about one’s own attention and the attention of other people. Infant practice with joint attention is both a consequence and organizer of the development of a distributed and integrated brain network involving frontal and parietal cortical systems. This executive distributed network first serves to regulate the capacity of infants to respond to and direct the overt behavior of other people in order to share experience with others through the social coordination of visual attention. In this paper we describe this parallel and distributed neural network model of joint attention development and discuss two hypotheses that stem from this model. One is that activation of this distributed network during coordinated attention enhances to depth of information processing and encoding beginning in the first year of life. We also propose that with development joint attention becomes internalized as the capacity to socially coordinate mental attention to internal representations. As this occurs the executive joint attention network makes vital contributions to the development of human symbolic thinking and social cognition. PMID:20884172

Mundy, Peter; Jarrold, William

2010-01-01

347

[Distributed attention and focused attention: different modalities of use].  

PubMed

In the present experiments two different attention modalities were investigated: focused and distributed attention. In Experiment 1 manual choice reaction times to lateralized visual stimuli were measured. Visual stimuli (rectangles or squares) were presented in one of six positions along the horizontal axis. In between each position a digit 1 to 5 was permanently displayed. The subjects were instructed to switch their attention to one of the five digits and to respond as fast as possible to the stimulus target flashed either on the right or on the left of the focus of attention. The only difference in Experiment 2 was that the digit stayed on 100 msec only. The results show the importance of a visual cue (Exp. 1) for focused attention. In the absence of a permanent visual cue (Exp. 2) only distributed attention can be employed. PMID:2627333

Nicoletti, R

1989-12-01

348

Paying attention to attention in recognition memory: Insights from models and electrophysiology  

PubMed Central

Reliance on remembered facts or events requires memory for their sources, that is, the contexts in which those facts or events were embedded. Understanding of source retrieval has been stymied by the fact that uncontrolled fluctuations of attention during encoding can cloud important distinctions between competing theoretical accounts. To clarify the issue, we combined electrophysiology (high-density EEG recordings) with computational modeling of behavioral results. We manipulated subjects’ attention to an auditory attribute, whether the source of individual study words was a male or female speaker. Posterior alpha band (8–14 Hz) power in subjects’ EEG increased after a cue to ignore the gender of the person who was about to speak. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis validated our interpretation of oscillatory dynamics. With attention under experimental control, computational modeling showed unequivocally that memory for source (male or female speaker) reflected a continuous, signal detection process rather than a threshold recollection process. PMID:24084040

Dube, Chad; Payne, Lisa; Sekuler, Robert; Rotello, Caren M.

2014-01-01

349

Attentional Capture with Rapidly Changing Attentional Control Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classic theory of spatial attention hypothesized 2 modes, voluntary and involuntary. Folk, Remington, and Johnston (1992) reported that even involuntary attention capture by stimuli requires a match between stimulus properties and what the observer is looking for. This surprising conclusion has been confirmed by many subsequent studies. In…

Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Johnston, James C.

2010-01-01

350

The Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS): Preliminary Reliability and Validity of a System for Observing Preschoolers’ Competence in Classroom Interactions  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS), an observation tool that targets children’s interactions in preschool classrooms with teachers, peers, and tasks. In particular, initial evidence is reported of the extent to which the inCLASS meets the following psychometric criteria: inter-rater reliability, normal distributions and adequate range, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. These initial findings suggest that the inCLASS has the potential to provide an authentic, contextualized assessment of young children’s classroom behaviors. Future directions for research with the inCLASS are discussed. PMID:23175598

Downer, Jason T.; Booren, Leslie M.; Lima, Olivia K.; Luckner, Amy E.; Pianta, Robert C.

2012-01-01

351

Overcoming Attention Deficit Disorders in Children, Adolescents, and Adults. Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previously published as "Attention Deficit Disorder: ADHD and ADD Syndromes," this popular book is now in its fourth edition. It provides up-to-date research and more complete explanations of how Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) interfere with classroom learning, behavior at home, job…

Jordan, Dale R.

2006-01-01

352

The dynamics of shifting visuospatial attention revealed by event-related potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a behavioral task for spatial orienting of attention in which the same physical stimulus cued covert peripheral shifts of attention to either the left or the right visual fields in different conditions. The design enabled us to record the brain activity engaged during spatial shifts of covert attention that was independent from the physical characteristics of the cueing

Anna C. Nobre; Gillian N. Sebestyen; Carlo Miniussi

2000-01-01

353

Effectiveness of Training Parents to Teach Joint Attention in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children with autism have deficits in initiating and responding to joint attention bids. This study was designed to examine a parent-implemented intervention targeting joint attention responding in children with autism. Parents were trained to increase their joint attention bids using behavior analytic techniques to facilitate appropriate…

Rocha, M. L.; Schreibman, L.; Stahmer, A. C.

2007-01-01

354

Early Social Attention Impairments in Autism: Social Orienting, Joint Attention, and Attention to Distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated social attention impairments in autism (social orienting, joint attention, and attention to another's distress) and their relations to language ability. Three- to four-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 72), 3- to 4-year-old developmentally delayed children (n = 34), and 12- to 46-month-old typically developing children (n = 39), matched on mental age, were compared

Geraldine Dawson; Karen Toth; Robert Abbott; Julie Osterling; Jeff Munson; Annette Estes; Jane Liaw

2004-01-01

355

Clinical test for Attention Enhancement System.  

PubMed

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a childhood syndrome characterized by short attention span, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity, which often leads to learning disabilities and various behavioral problems. The prevalence rates for ADHD varied from a low of 2.0% to a high of 6.3% in 1992 statistics, and it may be higher now. Using Virtual Environments and Neurofeedback, we have developed an Attention Enhancement System for treating ADHD. And we made a clinical test. Classroom-based virtual environments are constructed for intimacy and intensive attention enhancement. In this basic virtual environment, subjects performed some training sessions. There are two kinds of training sessions. One is Virtual Reality Cognitive Training (VRCT) and the other is Virtual Reality Neurofeedback Training (VRNT). In VRNT, we made a change in the virtual environment by Neurofeedback. Namely, if the Beta ratio is greater than the specified threshold level, the change as positive reinforce is created in the virtual environment. 50 subjects, aged 14 to 18, who had committed crimes and had been isolated in a reformatory took part in this study. They were randomly assigned to one of five 10-subject groups: a control Group, two placebo groups, and two experimental groups. The experimental groups and the placebo groups underwent 10 sessions over two weeks. The control group underwent no training session during the same period of time. While the experimental groups used HMD and Head Tracker in each session, the placebo groups used only a computer monitor. Consequently, only the experimental Groups could look around the virtual classroom. Besides that, Placebo Group 1 and Experimental Group 1 performed the same task(Neurofeedback Training), and Placebo Group 2 and Experimental Group 2 also performed the same task(Cognitive Training). All subjects Continuous Performance Task(CPT) before and after all training sessions. In the number of correct answers, omission errors and signal detection index (d'), the subjects' scores from CPT showed significant improvement (p<0.01) after all of the training sessions, while control group indicated no significant change. And experimental groups showed significant difference (p<0.01) with placebo groups. Lastly, the Virtual Reality Neurofeedback training group and the Virtual Reality Cognitive training group indicated not significant difference. Our System is supposed to enhance subjects' attention and lead their behavioral improvement. And also, we can conclude that virtual reality training (both Neurofeedback training and Cognitive training) has an advantage for attention enhancement compared with desk-top training. PMID:15458066

Cho, Baek-Hwan; Ku, Jeonghun; Jang, Dongpyo; Lee, Jaemin; Oh, Myungjin; Kim, Hun; Lee, Janghan; Kim, Jaeseok; Kim, Inyoung; Kim, Sunill

2002-01-01

356

Feature-based attention modulates surround suppression.  

PubMed

Stimuli appearing in the surround of the classical receptive field (CRF) can reduce neuronal firing and perceived contrast of a preferred stimulus in the CRF, a phenomenon referred to as surround suppression. Suppression is greatest when the surrounding stimulus has the same orientation and spatial frequency (SF) as the central target. Although spatial attention has been shown to influence surround suppression, the effects of feature-based attention have yet to be characterized. Using behavioral contrast adaptation in humans, we examined center-surround interactions between SF and orientation, and asked whether attending to one feature dimension versus the other influenced suppression. A center-surround triplet comprised of a central target Gabor and two flanking Gabors were used for adaptation. The flankers could have the same SF and orientation as the target, or differ in one or both of the feature dimensions. Contrast thresholds were measured for the target before and after adapting to center-surround triplets, and postadaptation thresholds were taken as an indirect measure of surround suppression. Both feature dimensions contributed to surround suppression and did not summate. Moreover, when center and surround had the same feature value in one dimension (e.g., same orientation) but had different values in the other dimension (e.g., different SF), there was more suppression when attention was directed to the feature dimension that matched between center and surround than when attention was directed to the feature dimension that differed. These results demonstrate that feature-based attention can influence center-surround interactions by enhancing the effects of the attended dimension. PMID:25630380

Flevaris, Anastasia V; Murray, Scott O

2015-01-01

357

Attention links sensing to recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents arguments that explicit strategies for visual attentional selection are important for cognitive vision systems, and shows that a number of proposals currently exist for exactly how parts of this goal may be accomplished. A comprehensive survey of approaches to computational attention is given. A key characteristic of virtually all the models surveyed here is that they receive

Albert L. Rothenstein; John K. Tsotsos

2008-01-01

358

Chun & Wolfe 1 Visual Attention  

E-print Network

Chun & Wolfe 1 Visual Attention Marvin M. Chun Jeremy M. Wolfe Yale University Harvard Medical School Chun, M. M., & Wolfe, J. M. (2001). Visual Attention. In B. Goldstein (Ed.), Blackwell Handbook SELECTED READINGS ADDITIONAL TOPICS REFERENCES #12;Chun & Wolfe 2 What you see is determined by what you

Chun, Marvin M.

359

The Challenges of Joint Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the concept of joint at- tention and the dierent skills underlying its development. We argue that joint attention is much more than gaze following or simul- taneous looking because it implies a shared intentional relation to the world. The current state-of-the-art in robotic and computational models of the dierent prerequisites of joint attention is discussed in relation

Frederic Kaplan; Verena V. Hafner

2004-01-01

360

Dysfunctional attention in autistic savants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dysfunctional attention hypothesis of the basis of savant skills was tested with a series of computerized tasks that assessed the ability to divide, shift, direct, and sustain attention. Ten healthy men with pervasive developmental disorders and unusual calendar-calculating skill, and 10 age- and sex-matched controls were tested. There were four general findings. First, the savants and controls did not

B. J. Casey; C. T. Gordon; Glenn B. Mannheim; Judith M. Rumsey

1993-01-01

361

Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

2010-01-01

362

Epileptiform abnormalities in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proportion of children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and epileptiform abnormalities is compared with an historic control group of normal school-aged children. The medical records of 655 children 5-16 years of age referred to a single pediatric neurologist (M.S.) from January 1991 to December 1999 with school problems, behavior problems, or hyperactivity were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical criteria for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder were

Lawrence P Richer; Michael I Shevell; Bernard R Rosenblatt

2002-01-01

363

Sleep disorders and attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sleep is complex and poses many challenges in\\u000a clinical practice. Recent studies have helped to elucidate the nature of the neuromodulator systems underlying the associations\\u000a among sleepiness, arousal, and attention. Studies of sleep disturbances in children with academic and behavioral problems\\u000a have also underscored the role that primary sleep disorders play in the

Judith A. Owens

2008-01-01

364

Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict) control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT), with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity.

Chang, Yu-Kai; Pesce, Caterina; Chiang, Yi-Te; Kuo, Cheng-Yuh; Fong, Dong-Yang

2015-01-01

365

Auditory selective attention and processing in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective This study sought to better characterize the contributions of deficits in attention allocation and distracter inhibition to the poor performance on attention tasks often seen in children with ADHD. Methods Electrophysiological (Nd, P3b) and behavioral measures (speed and accuracy) were examined during an auditory selective attention task in children with ADHD, children with typical development (TD), and adults. Thirty children (15 ADHD; 13 females) between the ages of 7 and 13 and 16 adults (8 females) participated. Results Nd waveforms were elicited from adults and children with TD, but not from children with ADHD. Further, those with ADHD exhibited significantly smaller auditory responses at 100ms (Ta). P3bs were elicited in all three groups by targets but not by unattended deviants. Performance was significantly poorer in children with ADHD than TD and RTs were more variable. Conclusions Children with ADHD evidenced poorer attention allocation, as measured by Nd and hits, but were not more distracted by unattended deviants, as measured by P3b and false alarms, than children with TD. Significance Findings for Nd, P3b, and Ta considered together suggest that deficits in auditory selective attention in children with ADHD may be attributable to reduced information early in the processing stream. PMID:21839675

Gomes, Hilary; Duff, Martin; Ramos, Miguel; Molholm, Sophie; Foxe, John J.; Halperin, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

366

Dorsal and Ventral Attention Systems  

PubMed Central

The idea of two separate attention networks in the human brain for the voluntary deployment of attention and the reorientation to unexpected events, respectively, has inspired an enormous amount of research over the past years. In this review, we will reconcile these theoretical ideas on the dorsal and ventral attentional system with recent empirical findings from human neuroimaging experiments and studies in stroke patients. We will highlight how novel methods—such as the analysis of effective connectivity or the combination of neurostimulation with functional magnetic resonance imaging—have contributed to our understanding of the functionality and interaction of the two systems. We conclude that neither of the two networks controls attentional processes in isolation and that the flexible interaction between both systems enables the dynamic control of attention in relation to top-down goals and bottom-up sensory stimulation. We discuss which brain regions potentially govern this interaction according to current task demands. PMID:23835449

Geng, Joy J.; Fink, Gereon R.

2014-01-01

367

Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model  

PubMed Central

Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, artificial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. On human vision, it is also well established that these units of attention are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects). This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. While the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG), which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention) surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multi-resolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP). Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such as color and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed. PMID:25177289

Marfil, Rebeca; Palomino, Antonio J.; Bandera, Antonio

2014-01-01

368

Learning-Induced Changes in Attentional Allocation during Categorization: A Sizable Catalog of Attention Change as Measured by Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

Learning how to allocate attention properly is essential for success at many categorization tasks. Advances in our understanding of learned attention are stymied by a chicken-and-egg problem: there are no theoretical accounts of learned attention that predict patterns of eye movements, making data collection difficult to justify, and there are not enough datasets to support the development of a rich theory of learned attention. The present work addresses this by reporting five measures relating to the overt allocation of attention across 10 category learning experiments: accuracy, probability of fixating irrelevant information, number of fixations to category features, the amount of change in the allocation of attention (using a new measure called Time Proportion Shift - TIPS), and a measure of the relationship between attention change and erroneous responses. Using these measures, the data suggest that eye-movements are not substantially connected to error in most cases and that aggregate trial-by-trial attention change is generally stable across a number of changing task variables. The data presented here provide a target for computational models that aim to account for changes in overt attentional behaviors across learning. PMID:24497915

McColeman, Caitlyn M.; Barnes, Jordan I.; Chen, Lihan; Meier, Kimberly M.; Walshe, R. Calen; Blair, Mark R.

2014-01-01

369

Learning-induced changes in attentional allocation during categorization: a sizable catalog of attention change as measured by eye movements.  

PubMed

Learning how to allocate attention properly is essential for success at many categorization tasks. Advances in our understanding of learned attention are stymied by a chicken-and-egg problem: there are no theoretical accounts of learned attention that predict patterns of eye movements, making data collection difficult to justify, and there are not enough datasets to support the development of a rich theory of learned attention. The present work addresses this by reporting five measures relating to the overt allocation of attention across 10 category learning experiments: accuracy, probability of fixating irrelevant information, number of fixations to category features, the amount of change in the allocation of attention (using a new measure called Time Proportion Shift - TIPS), and a measure of the relationship between attention change and erroneous responses. Using these measures, the data suggest that eye-movements are not substantially connected to error in most cases and that aggregate trial-by-trial attention change is generally stable across a number of changing task variables. The data presented here provide a target for computational models that aim to account for changes in overt attentional behaviors across learning. PMID:24497915

McColeman, Caitlyn M; Barnes, Jordan I; Chen, Lihan; Meier, Kimberly M; Walshe, R Calen; Blair, Mark R

2014-01-01

370

Use of Peer-Mediated Intervention in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present experiment extended and replicated the use of functional analysis and a peer-mediated intervention to decrease disruptive behavior displayed by children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in an afterschool program. After determining that the participants displayed off-task behavior maintained by peer attention via…

Grauvogel-MacAleese, Alicia N.; Wallace, Michele D.

2010-01-01

371

School-Based Interventions for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a relatively common childhood behavior disorder that typically is treated with psychotropic medication (e.g., methylphenidate), behavioral strategies, or their combination. This article provides an overview of the school-related difficulties associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.…

DuPaul, George J.

2007-01-01

372

Attentional control in the attentional blink is modulated by odor.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests that `aromas have distinctive effects on the allocation of attention in space: Arousing olfactory fragrances (e.g., peppermint) are supposed to induce a more focused state, and calming olfactory fragrances (e.g., lavender) a broader attentional state. Here, we investigate whether odors have similar effects on the allocation of attention in time. Participants performed the attentional blink (AB) task, known to produce a deficit in reporting the second of two target stimuli presented in close succession in a rapid sequence of distractors, while being exposed to either a peppermint or a lavender aroma. In two experiments using a between-subjects and a within-subjects design, respectively, we show that the two odors have specific effects on attentional control: As compared with the calming lavender aroma, the arousing peppermint condition yielded a larger AB. Our results demonstrate that attentional control is systematically modulated by factors that induce a more or a less distributed state of mind. PMID:25070746

Colzato, Lorenza S; Sellaro, Roberta; Rossi Paccani, Claudia; Hommel, Bernhard

2014-08-01

373

Attention to natural auditory signals Emily Caporello Bluvas a,b,*, Timothy Q. Gentner a,c,d  

E-print Network

requires animal models that permit direct control over attention driven behaviors and invasive experimental of single neurons and populations in animal models amenable to invasive neuroscience techniques relevant animal studies of natural communication and auditory attention with the broader goal

Gentner, Timothy

374

Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n?=?36) and in healthy controls (n?=?35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

2014-01-01

375

Common Attentional Constraints in Visual Foraging  

PubMed Central

Predators are known to select food of the same type in non-random sequences or “runs” that are longer than would be expected by chance. If prey are conspicuous, predators will switch between available sources, interleaving runs of different prey types. However, when prey are cryptic, predators tend to focus on one food type at a time, effectively ignoring equally available sources. This latter finding is regarded as a key indicator that animal foraging is strongly constrained by attention. It is unknown whether human foraging is equally constrained. Here, using a novel iPad task, we demonstrate for the first time that it is. Participants were required to locate and touch 40 targets from 2 different categories embedded within a dense field of distractors. When individual target items “popped-out” search was organized into multiple runs, with frequent switching between target categories. In contrast, as soon as focused attention was required to identify individual targets, participants typically exhausted one entire category before beginning to search for the other. This commonality in animal and human foraging is compelling given the additional cognitive tools available to humans, and suggests that attention constrains search behavior in a similar way across a broad range of species. PMID:24964082

Kristjánsson, Árni; Jóhannesson, Ómar I.; Thornton, Ian M.

2014-01-01

376

Selective Teacher Attention in Lower-Income Countries: A Phenomenon Linked to Dropout and Illiteracy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In lower-income countries students face an important challenge that has not been well documented: selective teacher attention. In classes with many low-income students, teachers may concentrate on those few who can perform and neglect those who require more help. The latter may fail to learn, attend school less often, and eventually drop out.…

Abadzi, Helen; Llambiri, Stavri

2011-01-01

377

Cognitive Ethology and exploring attention in real-world scenes.  

PubMed

We sought to understand what types of information people use when they infer the attentional states of others. In our study, two groups of participants viewed pictures of social interactions. One group was asked to report where the people in the pictures were directing their attention and how they (the group) knew it. The other group was simply asked to describe the pictures. We recorded participants' eye movements as they completed the different tasks and documented their subjective inferences and descriptions. The findings suggest that important cues for inferring attention of others include direction of eye gaze, head position, body orientation, and situational context. The study illustrates how attention research can benefit from (a) using more complex real-world tasks and stimuli, (b) measuring participants' subjective reports about their experiences and beliefs, and (c) observing and describing situational behavior rather than seeking to uncover some putative basic mechanism(s) of attention. Finally, we discuss how our research points to a new approach for studying human attention. This new approach, which we call Cognitive Ethology, focuses on understanding how attention operates in everyday situations and what people know and believe about attention. PMID:16480691

Smilek, Daniel; Birmingham, Elina; Cameron, David; Bischof, Walter; Kingstone, Alan

2006-03-29

378

The misnomer of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

We propose that attention-deficit disorder represents an inefficiency of an integrated system designed to allocate working memory to designated tasks rather than the absence or dysfunction of a particular form of attention. A significant portion of this inefficiency in the allocation of working memory represents poor engagement of the reward circuit with distinct circuits of learning and performance that control instrumental conditioning (learning). Efficient attention requires the interaction of these circuits. For a significant percentage of individuals who present with attention-deficit disorder, their problems represent the engagement, or lack thereof, of the motivational and reward circuit as opposed to problems, or disorders of attention traditionally defined as problems with orienting, focusing, and sustaining. We demonstrate that there is an integrated system of working-memory allocation that responds by recruiting relevant aspects of both cortex and subcortex to the demands of the task being encountered. In this model, attention is viewed as a gating function determined by novelty, flight-or-fight response, and reward history/valence affecting motivation. We view the traditional models of attention, rather than describe specific types of attention per se, as representing the description of the behavioral output of this integrated orienting and engagement system designed to allocate working memory to task-specific stimuli. PMID:25751517

Wasserman, Theodore; Wasserman, Lori Drucker

2015-01-01

379

Spatial Attention Effects of Disgusted and Fearful Faces  

PubMed Central

Effective processing of threat-related stimuli is of significant evolutionary advantage. Given the intricate relationship between attention and the neural processing of threat-related emotions, this study manipulated attention allocation and emotional categories of threat-related stimuli as independent factors and investigated the time course of spatial-attention-modulated processing of disgusting and fearful stimuli. The participants were instructed to direct their attention either to the two vertical or to the two horizontal locations, where two faces and two houses would be presented. The task was to respond regarding the physical identity of the two stimuli at cued locations. Event-related potentials (ERP) evidences were found to support a two-stage model of attention-modulated processing of threat-related emotions. In the early processing stage, disgusted faces evoked larger P1 component at right occipital region despite the attention allocation while larger N170 component was elicited by fearful faces at right occipito-temporal region only when participants attended to houses. In the late processing stage, the amplitudes of the parietal P3 component enhanced for both disgusted and fearful facial expressions only when the attention was focused on faces. According to the results, we propose that the temporal dynamics of the emotion-by-attention interaction consist of two stages. The early stage is characterized by quick and specialized neural encoding of disgusting and fearful stimuli irrespective of voluntary attention allocation, indicating an automatic detection and perception of threat-related emotions. The late stage is represented by attention-gated separation between threat-related stimuli and neutral stimuli; the similar ERP pattern evoked by disgusted and fearful faces suggests a more generalized processing of threat-related emotions via top-down attentional modulation, based on which the defensive behavior in response to threat events is largely facilitated. PMID:24983360

Zhou, Chenglin; Chen, Yuming; Luo, Yuejia

2014-01-01

380

Attentional episodes in visual perception  

PubMed Central

Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This paper presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic Simultaneous Type/ Serial Token model or eSTST; Wyble et al 2009a). Breaks between these episodes are punctuated by periods of suppressed attention, better known as the attentional blink (Raymond, Shapiro & Arnell 1992). We test predictions from this model and demonstrate that subjects are able to report more letters from a sequence of four targets presented in a dense temporal cluster, than from a sequence of four targets that are interleaved with non-targets. However, this superior report accuracy comes at a cost in impaired temporal order perception. Further experiments explore the dynamics of multiple episodes, and the boundary conditions that trigger episodic breaks. Finally, we contrast the importance of attentional control, limited resources and memory capacity constructs in the model. PMID:21604913

Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

2011-01-01

381

FKBP5 and Attention Bias for Threat  

PubMed Central

Importance The FKBP5 gene product regulates glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning and has been associated with many stress-related psychiatric disorders. The study of intermediate phenotypes, such as emotion-processing biases and their neural substrates, provides a way to clarify the mechanisms by which FKBP5 dysregulation mediates risk for psychiatric disorders. Objective To examine whether allelic variations for a putatively functional single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with FKBP5 gene regulation (rs1360780) would relate differentially to attention bias for threat. this was measured through behavioral response on a dot probe task and hippocampal activation during task performance. Morphologic substrates of differential hippocampal response were also measured. Design Cross-sectional study conducted from 2010 to 2012 examining associations between genotype, behavioral response, and neural response (using functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) on the dot probe; voxel-based morphometry and global and local shape analyses were used to measure structural differences in hippocampi between genotype groups. Setting Participants were recruited from primary care clinics of a publicly funded hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. Participants An African American cohort of adults (N=103) was separated into 2 groups by genotype: one genotype group included carriers of the rs1360780 T allele, which has been associated with increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder and affective disorders; the other group did not carry this allele. Behavioral data included both sexes (N=103); the MRI cohort (n=36) included only women. Main Outcome Measures Behavioral and fMRI (blood oxygen level–dependent) response, voxel-based morphometry, and shape analyses. Results Carriers of the rs1360780 T allele showed an attention bias toward threat compared with individuals with-out this allele (F1,90=5.19, P=.02). Carriers of this allele demonstrated corresponding increases in hippocampal activation and differences in morphology; global and local shape analyses revealed alterations in hippocampal shape for TT/TC compared with CC genotype groups. Conclusion Genetic variants of FKBP5 may be associated with risk for stress-related psychiatric disorders via differential effects on hippocampal structure and function, resulting in altered attention response to perceived threat. PMID:23407841

Fani, Negar; Gutman, David; Tone, Erin B.; Almli, Lynn; Mercer, Kristina B.; Davis, Jennifer; Glover, Ebony; Jovanovic, Tanja; Bradley, Bekh; Dinov, Ivo D.; Zamanyan, Alen; Toga, Arthur W.; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Ressler, Kerry J.

2013-01-01

382

Treatment of Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the current treatment literature for attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschoolers.\\u000a Parent training studies show consistent behavioral improvements reported by teachers and observers as well as parents, with\\u000a evidence of clinically significant improvement in ADHD symptoms for up to 2 years. Few other behavioral interventions have\\u000a been evaluated, although data from a large psychosocial, multimodal intervention are forthcoming. There

Desiree W. Murray

2010-01-01

383

Framing attention in Japanese and american comics: cross-cultural differences in attentional structure.  

PubMed

Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books - the narrative frames in sequential images - highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese "manga" to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer's integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention. PMID:23015794

Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

2012-01-01

384

Framing Attention in Japanese and American Comics: Cross-Cultural Differences in Attentional Structure  

PubMed Central

Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books – the narrative frames in sequential images – highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese “manga” to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention. PMID:23015794

Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

2012-01-01

385

Irrelevant stimulus processing in ADHD: catecholamine dynamics and attentional networks  

PubMed Central

A cardinal symptom of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a general distractibility where children and adults shift their attentional focus to stimuli that are irrelevant to the ongoing behavior. This has been attributed to a deficit in dopaminergic signaling in cortico-striatal networks that regulate goal-directed behavior. Furthermore, recent imaging evidence points to an impairment of large scale, antagonistic brain networks that normally contribute to attentional engagement and disengagement, such as the task-positive networks and the default mode network (DMN). Related networks are the ventral attentional network (VAN) involved in attentional shifting, and the salience network (SN) related to task expectancy. Here we discuss the tonic–phasic dynamics of catecholaminergic signaling in the brain, and attempt to provide a link between this and the activities of the large-scale cortical networks that regulate behavior. More specifically, we propose that a disbalance of tonic catecholamine levels during task performance produces an emphasis of phasic signaling and increased excitability of the VAN, yielding distractibility symptoms. Likewise, immaturity of the SN may relate to abnormal tonic signaling and an incapacity to build up a proper executive system during task performance. We discuss different lines of evidence including pharmacology, brain imaging and electrophysiology, that are consistent with our proposal. Finally, restoring the pharmacodynamics of catecholaminergic signaling seems crucial to alleviate ADHD symptoms; however, the possibility is open to explore cognitive rehabilitation strategies to top-down modulate network dynamics compensating the pharmacological deficits. PMID:24723897

Aboitiz, Francisco; Ossandón, Tomás; Zamorano, Francisco; Palma, Bárbara; Carrasco, Ximena

2014-01-01

386

Functional deficits of the attentional networks in autism  

PubMed Central

Attentional dysfunction is among the most consistent observations of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the neural nature of this deficit in ASD is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify the neurobehavioral correlates of attentional dysfunction in ASD. We used the Attention Network Test-Revised and functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine alerting, orienting, and executive control functions, as well as the neural substrates underlying these attentional functions in unmedicated, high-functioning adults with ASD (n = 12) and matched healthy controls (HC, n = 12). Compared with HC, individuals with ASD showed increased error rates in alerting and executive control, accompanied by lower activity in the mid-frontal gyrus and the caudate nucleus for alerting, and by the absence of significant functional activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for executive control. In addition, greater behavioral deficiency in executive control in ASD was correlated with less functional activation of the ACC. These findings of behavioral and neural abnormalities in alerting and executive control of attention in ASD may suggest core attentional deficits, which require further investigation. PMID:23139910

Fan, Jin; Bernardi, Silvia; Dam, Nicholas T; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Gu, Xiaosi; Martin, Laura; Park, Yunsoo; Liu, Xun; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha; Grodberg, David; Hollander, Eric; Hof, Patrick R

2012-01-01

387

Children's relative age in class and use of medication for ADHD: a Danish Nationwide Study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies from North America and Iceland have shown that the youngest children within a grade are up to twice as likely to be diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with their older classmates. We aimed to investigate whether younger age in class is associated with an increased probability of being prescribed medication for ADHD among school-aged children in Denmark. Methods We followed all Danish children between 2000 and 2012 from 1st through 6th grade (7–12 years). Among children who started school on their age-assigned grade level, we estimated the prevalence proportion ratio (PPR) of receiving ADHD medication between the youngest children in class (born in October–December) and the oldest in class (born in January–March), specified by grade level, calendar year and gender. As a sensitivity analysis, we added children not on their age-assigned grade level to the main calculations. Results We identified 932,032 eligible children for the main analysis, of whom 17.3% were among the youngest and 26.5% among the oldest in class. In total, 1.2% eligible children filled at least one prescription for ADHD medication in 2000–2012. The average PPR over the study period was 1.08 (95% CI, 1.04–1.12) and remained stable across subgroups and sensitivity analyses. Overall, 40% of children born October–December had entered school a year after their age-assigned grade level. Conclusions Contrary to previous study results, we observed almost no relative age effect on medication use for ADHD among children in Denmark. We postulate that this may be due to the high proportion of relatively young children held back by 1 year in the Danish school system and/or a generally low prevalence of ADHD medication use in the country. PMID:24813478

Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Díaz, Hernández; Zoëga, Helga

2014-01-01

388

Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.  

PubMed

A number of medication and psychologic treatment options for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have become available during the past 5 years, while others are under investigation. This review describes the safety and effectiveness of the stimulants (i.e., methylphenidate and dexedrine), and particularly the newer long-acting stimulants (i.e., Concerta) and Adderall XR) in the treatment of this population. Some nonstimulant/nonantidepressants, particularly atomoxetine, have also been shown to improve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Combination treatment of stimulants and antidepressants require more study with regard to safety and efficacy. Psychosocial interventions (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness training and cognitive remediation) can also benefit adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapy combined with medication is more effective than either intervention alone, especially for addressing the emotional and functional aspects of peoples lives and thus improving occupational, interpersonal and emotional outcomes. PMID:15853481

Greenfield, Brian; Hechman, Lily

2005-01-01

389

Emotion Regulation and Heterogeneity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: How best to capture heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using biomarkers has been elusive. This study evaluated whether emotion reactivity and regulation provide a means to achieve this. Method: Participants were classified into three groups: children with ADHD plus low prosocial behavior (hypothesized to be…

Musser, Erica D.; Galloway-Long, Hilary S.; Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

2013-01-01

390

Reorganization: Learning and Attention in a Hierarchy of Control Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimentally examines reorganization, a fundamental component of William T. Powers' theory of mind based on the control theory of behavior. Attempts to model reorganization, focusing on improvements in performance with practice and how practice influences attention. Speculates how outputs from higher levels of the control hierarchy are involved…

Pavlovski, Raymond P.; And Others

1990-01-01

391

Developmental Changes in Infant Attention to Dynamic and Static Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined 4- and 6-month-olds' responses to static or dynamic stimuli using behavioral and heart-rate-defined measures of attention. Infants looked longest to dynamic stimuli with an audio track and least to a static stimulus that was mute. Overall, look duration declined with age to the different stimuli. The amount of time spent in…

Shaddy, D. Jill; Colombo, John

2004-01-01

392

Brain Dynamics and Hypnosis: Attentional and Disattentional Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent research findings, expanding an evolving neuropsychophysiological model of hypnosis (Crawford, 1989; Crawford & Gruzelier, 1992), that support the view that highly hypnotizable persons (highs) possess stronger attentional filtering abilities than do low hypnotizable persons, and that these differences are reflected in underlying brain dynamics. Behavioral, cognitive, and neurophysiological evidence is reviewed that suggests that highs can

Helen J. Crawford

1994-01-01

393

Peer Victimization in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored peer victimization in 9- to 14-year-old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 104 children, 52 of whom had a previous ADHD diagnosis. Children with ADHD had higher overall rates of self-reported victimization by peers and parent- and teacher-reported bullying behavior

Wiener, Judith; Mak, Meghan

2009-01-01

394

The Predictive Brain State: Asynchrony in Disorders of Attention?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is postulated that a key function of attention in goal-oriented behavior is to reduce performance variability by generating antici- patory neural activity that can be synchronized with expected sen- sory information. A network encompassing the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, and cerebellum may be critical in the maintenance and timing of such predictive neural activity. Dysfunction of this temporal process

Jamshid Ghajar; Richard B. Ivry

2009-01-01

395

Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

396

What Is Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and\\/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with

Lydia Furman

2005-01-01

397

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effective Methods for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on two facets of treatment for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: educational accommodations and interventions for promoting appropriate behavior. It provides information on environmental adaptations, guidelines for effective class rules, implementing response cost, levels of time out, implementing a token…

Reid, Robert

1999-01-01

398

Brief Report: High and Low Level Initiations of Joint Attention, and Response to Joint Attention--Differential Relationships with Language and Imitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequency of high-level (showing/pointing) and low-level (coordinated gaze shifts) behaviors on the Early Social Communication Scales are often used as a measure of joint attention initiations (IJA). This study examined the degree to which these skills and response to joint attention (RJA; e.g. gaze following) were differentially related to…

Pickard, Katherine E.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

2015-01-01

399

Attentional inhibition mediates inattentional blindness.  

PubMed

Salient stimuli presented at unattended locations are not always perceived, a phenomenon termed inattentional blindness. We hypothesized that inattentional blindness may be mediated by attentional inhibition. It has been shown that attentional inhibition effects are maximal near an attended location. If our hypothesis is correct, inattentional blindness effects should similarly be maximal near an attended location. During central fixation, participants viewed rapidly presented colored digits at a peripheral location. An unexpected black circle (the critical stimulus) was concurrently presented. Participants were instructed to maintain central fixation and name each color/digit, requiring focused attention to that location. For each participant, the critical stimulus was presented either near to or far from the attended location (at the same eccentricity). In support of our hypothesis, inattentional blindness effects were maximal near the attended location, but only at intermediate task accuracy. PMID:20227894

Thakral, Preston P; Slotnick, Scott D

2010-06-01

400

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Networks  

PubMed Central

Research attempting to elucidate the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not only shed light on the disorder itself, it has simultaneously provided new insights into the mechanisms of normal cognition and attention. This review will highlight and integrate this bidirectional flow of information. Following a brief overview of ADHD clinical phenomenology, ADHD studies will be placed into a wider historical perspective by providing illustrative examples of how major models of attention have influenced the development of neurocircuitry models of ADHD. The review will then identify major components of neural systems potentially relevant to ADHD, including attention networks, reward/feedback-based processing systems, as well as a ‘default mode' resting state network. Further, it will suggest ways in which these systems may interact and be influenced by neuromodulatory factors. Recent ADHD imaging data will be selectively provided to both illustrate the field's current level of knowledge and to show how such data can inform our understanding of normal brain functions. The review will conclude by suggesting possible avenues for future research. PMID:19759528

Bush, George

2010-01-01

401

Phonological Attentional Blink 1 Running Head: Phonological Attentional Blink  

E-print Network

of Phonological Length on the Attentional Blink for Words Ingrid R. Olson Yale University Marvin M. Chun; Chun & Potter, 1995; Duncan, 1980; Raymond, Shapiro, & Arnell, 1992; Sperling, 1960; Weichselgartner store (Chun, 1997; Chun & Potter, 1995; Jolicoeur, 1998; Shapiro, Raymond, & Arnell, 1994; Shapiro

Chun, Marvin M.

402

Functional Fractionation of the Stimulus-Driven Attention Network  

PubMed Central

A novel, salient event in the environment powerfully captures attention. This stimulus-driven attentional capture not only includes orienting of attention toward the event, but also an evaluative process to determine the behavioral significance and appropriate response to the event. Whereas a network of human brain regions composed of prefrontal and temporoparietal regions have been associated with stimulus-driven attention, the neural substrates of orienting have never been teased apart from those of evaluative processes. Here we used fMRI to measure the human brain's response to the temporally extended presentations of salient, task-irrelevant stimuli, and found a clear functional dissociation in the stimulus-driven attention network; the anterior insula and cingulate cortex showed transient orienting responses to the onsets and offsets of the stimuli, whereas the temporoparietal cortex exhibited sustained activity throughout event evaluation. The lateral prefrontal cortex was implicated in both attentional and evaluative processes, pointing to its central, integrative role in stimulus-driven attention. PMID:24828649

2014-01-01

403

Attention: the mechanisms of consciousness.  

PubMed Central

A number of recent papers and books discuss theoretical efforts toward a scientific understanding of consciousness. Progress in imaging networks of brain areas active when people perform simple tasks may provide a useful empirical background for distinguishing conscious and unconscious information processing. Attentional networks include those involved in orienting to sensory stimuli, activating ideas from memory, and maintaining the alert state. This paper reviews recent findings in relation to classical issues in the study of attention and anatomical and physical theories of the nature of consciousness. Images PMID:8052596

Posner, M I

1994-01-01

404

Puppets, robots, critics, and actors within a taxonomy of attention for developmental disorders.  

PubMed

This review proposes a new taxonomy of automatic and controlled attention. The taxonomy distinguishes among the role of the attendee (puppet and robot, critic and actor), the attention process (stimulus orienting vs. response control), and the attention operation (activation vs. inhibition vs. adjustment), and identifies cognitive phenotypes by which attention is overtly expressed. We apply the taxonomy to four childhood attention disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, spina bifida meningomyelocele, traumatic brain injury, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Variations in attention are related to specific brain regions that support normal attention processes when intact, and produce disordered attention when impaired. The taxonomy explains group differences in behavioral inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness, as well as medication response. We also discuss issues relevant to theories of the cognitive and neural architecture of attention: functional dissociations within and between automatic and controlled attention; the relative importance of type of brain damage and developmental timing to attention profile; cognitive-energetic models of attention and white matter damage; temporal processing deficits, attention deficits and cerebellar damage; and the issue of cognitive phenotypes as candidate endophenotypes. PMID:18764966

Dennis, Maureen; Sinopoli, Katia J; Fletcher, Jack M; Schachar, Russell

2008-09-01

405

Effect of emotion on attentional processing   

E-print Network

Previous research on the relationship between emotion and attention has focused primarily on attention to emotionally valenced stimuli; trait anxiety and attentional biases for threat; or the relationship between emotion ...

Finucane, Anne Margaret

2009-11-26

406

A WWW-based in-class response system  

E-print Network

Using the current network infrastructure and the Internet capabilities, a WWW-based in-class-response system is developed from which the instructor can obtain instant feedback about the student's comprehension level during lecture. Using a Web...

Gonzalez Barron, Raul

1997-01-01

407

Does attention bias modification improve attentional control? A double-blind randomized experiment with individuals with social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

People with anxiety disorders often exhibit an attentional bias for threat. Attention bias modification (ABM) procedure may reduce this bias, thereby diminishing anxiety symptoms. In ABM, participants respond to probes that reliably follow non-threatening stimuli (e.g., neutral faces) such that their attention is directed away from concurrently presented threatening stimuli (e.g., disgust faces). Early studies showed that ABM reduced anxiety more than control procedures lacking any contingency between valenced stimuli and probes. However, recent work suggests that no-contingency training and training toward threat cues can be as effective as ABM in reducing anxiety, implying that any training may increase executive control over attention, thereby helping people inhibit their anxious thoughts. Extending this work, we randomly assigned participants with DSM-IV diagnosed social anxiety disorder to either training toward non-threat (ABM), training toward threat, or no-contingency condition, and we used the attention network task (ANT) to assess all three components of attention. After two training sessions, subjects in all three conditions exhibited indistinguishably significant declines from baseline to post-training in self-report and behavioral measures of anxiety on an impromptu speech task. Moreover, all groups exhibited similarly significant improvements on the alerting and executive (but not orienting) components of attention. Implications for ABM research are discussed. PMID:25465885

Heeren, Alexandre; Mogoa?e, Cristina; McNally, Richard J; Schmitz, Anne; Philippot, Pierre

2015-01-01

408

Pathologies of brain attentional networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, it has been possible to trace the areas of the human brain involved in a variety of cognitive and emotional processes by use of imaging technology. Brain networks that subserve attention have been described. It is now possible to use these networks as model systems for the exploration of symptoms arising from various forms of pathology.

A Berger; M. I Posner

2000-01-01

409

Toddlers' Spontaneous Attention to Number  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hannula and Lehtinen (2001, 2005) defined spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) as the tendency to notice the relatively abstract attribute of number despite the presence of other attributes. According to nativists, an innate concept of one to three directs young children's attention to these "intuitive numbers" in everyday situations--even…

Baroody, Arthur J.; Li, Xia; Lai, Meng-lung

2008-01-01

410

ATTENTIONAL TUNNELING AND TASK MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper discusses attentional tunneling as one cause of breakdowns,in task management. The phenomenon is defined, and empirical evidence is then reviewed to show the conditions in which the phenomenon is created by head up display location, compelling 3D displays, fault management, and automation induced complacency. Statistical and methodological issues are reviewed regarding the generalization of the phenomenon inthe

Christopher D. Wickens

2005-01-01

411

Attentional Episodes in Visual Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks between these episodes are punctuated by periods…

Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

2011-01-01

412

Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder primarily associated with childhood, yet it has become increasingly clear that ADHD continues to impair many domains of functioning in adulthood. This article reviews many aspects of adult ADHD, including its definition, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and etiology, as well as the treatment options available. Some of these aspects are illustrated in a Case

W. Scott Craig

2011-01-01

413

Attentional selection: Mexican hats everywhere.  

PubMed

A recent study elegantly shows that allocating attention to a particular color not only enhances perception of the attended color but also suppresses that of similar colors, presumably giving any potentially relevant object in the visual environment a perceptual advantage by increasing its perceptual strength at the expense of similar but different stimuli. PMID:25247355

Treue, Stefan

2014-09-22

414

Thinking of God Moves Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts of God and Devil are well known across many cultures and religions, and often involve spatial metaphors, but it is not well known if our mental representations of these concepts affect visual cognition. To examine if exposure to divine concepts produces shifts of attention, participants completed a target detection task in which they…

Chasteen, Alison L.; Burdzy, Donna C.; Pratt, Jay

2010-01-01

415

Auditory selective attention and processing in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder  

E-print Network

Auditory selective attention and processing in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Attention-deficit/hyperactivity to better characterize the contributions of deficits in attention allocation and distracter inhibition

Foxe, John J.

416

Modeling the influence of task on attention.  

PubMed

We propose a computational model for the task-specific guidance of visual attention in real-world scenes. Our model emphasizes four aspects that are important in biological vision: determining task-relevance of an entity, biasing attention for the low-level visual features of desired targets, recognizing these targets using the same low-level features, and incrementally building a visual map of task-relevance at every scene location. Given a task definition in the form of keywords, the model first determines and stores the task-relevant entities in working memory, using prior knowledge stored in long-term memory. It attempts to detect the most relevant entity by biasing its visual attention system with the entity's learned low-level features. It attends to the most salient location in the scene, and attempts to recognize the attended object through hierarchical matching against object representations stored in long-term memory. It updates its working memory with the task-relevance of the recognized entity and updates a topographic task-relevance map with the location and relevance of the recognized entity. The model is tested on three types of tasks: single-target detection in 343 natural and synthetic images, where biasing for the target accelerates target detection over twofold on average; sequential multiple-target detection in 28 natural images, where biasing, recognition, working memory and long term memory contribute to rapidly finding all targets; and learning a map of likely locations of cars from a video clip filmed while driving on a highway. The model's performance on search for single features and feature conjunctions is consistent with existing psychophysical data. These results of our biologically-motivated architecture suggest that the model may provide a reasonable approximation to many brain processes involved in complex task-driven visual behaviors. PMID:15581921

Navalpakkam, Vidhya; Itti, Laurent

2005-01-01

417

Selective Attention to Emotion in the Aging Brain  

PubMed Central

A growing body of research suggests that the ability to regulate emotion remains stable or improves across the adult life span. Socioemotional selectivity theory maintains that this pattern of findings reflects the prioritization of emotional goals. Given that goal-directed behavior requires attentional control, the present study was designed to investigate age differences in selective attention to emotional lexical stimuli under conditions of emotional interference. Both neural and behavioral measures were obtained during an experiment in which participants completed a flanker task that required them to make categorical judgments about emotional and non-emotional stimuli. Older adults showed interference in both the behavioral and neural measures on control trials, but not on emotion trials. Although older adults typically show relatively high levels of interference and reduced cognitive control during non-emotional tasks, they appear to be able successfully to reduce interference during emotional tasks. PMID:19739908

Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Robertson, Elaine R.; Mikels, Joseph A.; Carstensen, Laura L.; Gotlib, Ian H.

2009-01-01

418

Electrocortical evidence for rapid allocation of attention to threat in the dot-probe task.  

PubMed

Threatening stimuli have been shown to preferentially capture attention using a range of tasks and measures. However, attentional bias to threat has not typically been found in unselected individuals using behavioral measures in the dot-probe task, one of the most common ways of examining attention to threat. The present study leveraged event-related potentials (ERPs) in conjunction with behavioral measures in the dot-probe task to examine whether more direct measures of attention might reveal an attentional bias to threat in unselected individuals. As in previous dot-probe studies, we found no evidence of an attentional bias to threat using reaction time; additionally, this measure exhibited poor internal reliability. In contrast, ERPs revealed an initial shift of attention to threat-related stimuli, reflected by the N2pc, which showed moderate internal reliability. However, there was no evidence of sustained engagement with the threat-related stimuli, as measured by the late positive potential (LPP). Together, these results demonstrate that unselected individuals do initially allocate attention to threat in the dot-probe task, and further, that this bias is better characterized by neural measures of attention than traditional behavioral measures. These results have implications for the study of attention to threat in both unselected and anxious populations. PMID:25062842

Kappenman, Emily S; MacNamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

2015-04-01

419

Visual attention in mixed-gender groups  

PubMed Central

A basic principle of objectification theory is that a mere glance from a stranger represents the potential to be sexualized, triggering women to take on the perspective of others and become vigilant to their appearance. However, research has yet to document gendered gaze patterns in social groups. The present study examined visual attention in groups of varying gender composition to understand how gender and minority status influence gaze behavior. One hundred undergraduates enrolled in psychology courses were photographed, and an additional 76 participants viewed groupings of these photographs while their point of gaze was recorded using a remote eye-tracking device. Participants were not told that their gaze was being recorded. Women were viewed more frequently and for longer periods of time than men in mixed-gender groups. Women were also more likely to be looked at first and last by observers. Men spent more time attending to pictures of women when fewer women were in the group. The opposite effect was found for pictures of men, such that male pictures were viewed less when fewer pictures of men were in the group. Female observers spent more time looking at men compared to male observers, and male observers spent more time looking at women than female observers, though both female and male observers looked at women more than men overall. Consistent with objectification theory, women's appearance garners more attention and interest in mixed-gender social groups. PMID:25628589

Amon, Mary Jean

2015-01-01

420

Visual attention: The past 25 years  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discriminability and appearance in tasks mediated by contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution; the effects of feature-based attention on basic visual processes, and a comparison of the effects of spatial and feature-based attention. The emphasis of this review is on psychophysical studies, but relevant electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies and models regarding how and where neuronal responses are modulated are also discussed. PMID:21549742

Carrasco, Marisa

2012-01-01

421

Infant and adult visual attention during an imitation demonstration  

PubMed Central

Deferred imitation tasks have shown that manipulations at encoding can enhance infant learning and memory performance within an age, suggesting that brain maturation alone cannot fully account for all developmental changes in early memory abilities. The present study investigated whether changes in the focus of attention during learning might contribute to improving memory abilities during infancy. Infants aged 6, 9, and 12 months, and an adult comparison group, watched a video of a puppet imitation demonstration while visual behavior was recorded on an eye tracker. Overall, infants spent less time attending to the video than adults, and distributed their gaze more equally across the demonstrator and puppet stimulus. In contrast, adults directed their gaze primarily to the puppet. When infants were tested for their behavioral recall of the target actions, “imitators” were shown to have increased attention to the person and decreased attention to the background compared to “non-imitators.” These results suggest that attention during learning is related to memory outcome and that changes in attention may be one mechanism by which manipulations to the learning event may enhance infant recall memory. © 2013 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24037972

Taylor, Gemma; Herbert, Jane S

2014-01-01

422

Emotion disrupts neural activity during selective attention in psychopathy.  

PubMed

Dimensions of psychopathy are theorized to be associated with distinct cognitive and emotional abnormalities that may represent unique neurobiological risk factors for the disorder. This hypothesis was investigated by examining whether the psychopathic personality dimensions of fearless-dominance and impulsive-antisociality moderated neural activity and behavioral responses associated with selective attention and emotional processing during an emotion-word Stroop task in 49 adults. As predicted, the dimensions evidenced divergent selective-attention deficits and sensitivity to emotional distraction. Fearless-dominance was associated with disrupted attentional control to positive words, and activation in right superior frontal gyrus mediated the relationship between fearless-dominance and errors to positive words. In contrast, impulsive-antisociality evidenced increased behavioral interference to both positive and negative words and correlated positively with recruitment of regions associated with motivational salience (amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion regulation (temporal cortex, superior frontal gyrus) and attentional control (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex). Individuals high on both dimensions had increased recruitment of regions related to attentional control (temporal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex), response preparation (pre-/post-central gyri) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) in response to negative words. These findings provide evidence that the psychopathy dimensions represent dual sets of risk factors characterized by divergent dysfunction in cognitive and affective processes. PMID:22210673

Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Heller, Wendy; Herrington, John D; Engels, Anna S; Warren, Stacie L; Crocker, Laura D; Sutton, Bradley P; Miller, Gregory A

2013-03-01

423

The Implications of Early Attentional Regulation for School Success among Low-Income Children  

PubMed Central

This study examined the longitudinal associations between attentional regulation in preschool and children’s school success in later elementary school within an at-risk sample (N = 2,595). Specifically, two facets of attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) at age 5 were explored as independent predictors of children’s achievement and behavioral competence at age 9. Overall, the pattern of results indicates specificity between the facets of attention and school success, such that focused attention was predictive of achievement outcomes while impulsivity was predictive of behavioral outcomes. Both facets of attention predicted teacher ratings of children’s approaches to learning, which suggests that they jointly influence skills that span both domains of school success. Poverty status, maternal warmth, and infant temperament did not moderate these associations. Implications of these findings for interventions targeting school readiness and success among at-risk children are discussed. PMID:23243330

Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2012-01-01

424

FULL TITLE: Speed of inhibition predicts teacher-rated medication response in boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

E-print Network

-mail: ascheres@u.arizona.edu Key words: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; ADHD; response inhibition;Introduction Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder characterizedFULL TITLE: Speed of inhibition predicts teacher-rated medication response in boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity

Scheres, Anouk

425

Active Listening Impairs Visual Perception and Selectivity: An ERP Study of Auditory Dual-task Costs on Visual Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to drive safely is disrupted by cell phone conversations, and this has been attributed to a diversion of attention from the visual environment. We employed behavioral and ERP measures to study whether the attentive processing of spoken messages is, in itself, sufficient to produce visual–attentional deficits. Participants searched for visual targets defined by a unique feature (Experiment 1)

Elena Gherri; Martin Eimer

2011-01-01

426

Active Listening Impairs Visual Perception and Selectivity: An ERP Study of Auditory Dual-task Costs on Visual Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to drive safely is disrupted by cell phone conversations, and this has been attributed to a diversion of attention from the visual environment. We employed behavioral and ERP measures to study whether the attentive processing of spoken messages is, in itself, sufficient to produce visual– attentional deficits. Participants searched for visual targets defined by a unique feature (Experiment

Elena Gherri; Martin Eimer

2010-01-01

427

Quantifying Pilot Visual Attention in Low Visibility Terminal Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantifying pilot visual behavior allows researchers to determine not only where a pilot is looking and when, but holds implications for specific behavioral tracking when these data are coupled with flight technical performance. Remote eye tracking systems have been integrated into simulators at NASA Langley with effectively no impact on the pilot environment. This paper discusses the installation and use of a remote eye tracking system. The data collection techniques from a complex human-in-the-loop (HITL) research experiment are discussed; especially, the data reduction algorithms and logic to transform raw eye tracking data into quantified visual behavior metrics, and analysis methods to interpret visual behavior. The findings suggest superior performance for Head-Up Display (HUD) and improved attentional behavior for Head-Down Display (HDD) implementations of Synthetic Vision System (SVS) technologies for low visibility terminal area operations. Keywords: eye tracking, flight deck, NextGen, human machine interface, aviation

Ellis, Kyle K.; Arthur, J. J.; Latorella, Kara A.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Norman, Robert M.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.

2012-01-01

428

Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits  

PubMed Central

We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that visuospatial attention deficits do not underlie these dyslexias. PMID:25628578

Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

2014-01-01

429

Attention modulates emotional expression processing.  

PubMed

To investigate the time course of emotional expression processing, we recorded ERPs to facial stimuli. The first task was to discriminate emotional expressions. Enhanced negativity of the face-specific N170 was elicited by emotional as opposed to neutral faces, followed by the occipital negativity (240-340 ms poststimulus). The second task was to classify face gender. Here, N170 was unaffected by the emotional expression. However, emotional expression effect was expressed in the anterior positivity (160-250 ms poststimulus) and subsequent occipital negativity (240-340 ms poststimulus). Results support the thesis that structural encoding relevant to gender recognition and simultaneous expression analysis are independent processes. Attention modulates facial emotion processing 140-185 ms poststimulus. Involuntary differentiation of facial expression was observed later (160-340 ms poststimulus), suggesting unintentional attention capture. PMID:21332489

Wronka, Eligiusz; Walentowska, Wioleta

2011-08-01

430

Multiple object tracking: anticipatory attention doesn't "bounce".  

PubMed

We investigated motion extrapolation in object tracking in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we used a multiple-object-tracking task (MOT; three targets, three distractors) combined with a probe detection task to investigate the distribution of attention around a target object. We found anisotropic probe detection rates with increased probe detection at locations where a target is heading. In Experiment 2, we introduced a black line (wall) in the center of the screen and block-wise manipulated the object's motion: either objects bounced realistically against the wall or objects went through the wall. Just before a target coincided with the wall, a probe could appear either along the bounce path or along the straight path. In addition to MOT, we included a single-object-tracking task (SOT; one target, five distractors) to control for attentional load. We found that linear extrapolation is dominant (better probe detection along the straight path than bounce path) regardless of attentional load and the motion condition. Anticipation of bouncing behavior did occur but only when attentional load was low. We conclude that attention is not tightly bound to moving target objects but encompasses the object's current position and the area in front of it. Furthermore, under the present experimental conditions, the visuo-attentional system does not seem to anticipate object bounces in the MOT task. PMID:23211268

Atsma, Jeroen; Koning, Arno; van Lier, Rob

2012-01-01

431

Attentional Modulation of Auditory Steady-State Responses  

PubMed Central

Auditory selective attention enables task-relevant auditory events to be enhanced and irrelevant ones suppressed. In the present study we used a frequency tagging paradigm to investigate the effects of attention on auditory steady state responses (ASSR). The ASSR was elicited by simultaneously presenting two different streams of white noise, amplitude modulated at either 16 and 23.5 Hz or 32.5 and 40 Hz. The two different frequencies were presented to each ear and participants were instructed to selectively attend to one ear or the other (confirmed by behavioral evidence). The results revealed that modulation of ASSR by selective attention depended on the modulation frequencies used and whether the activation was contralateral or ipsilateral. Attention enhanced the ASSR for contralateral activation from either ear for 16 Hz and suppressed the ASSR for ipsilateral activation for 16 Hz and 23.5 Hz. For modulation frequencies of 32.5 or 40 Hz attention did not affect the ASSR. We propose that the pattern of enhancement and inhibition may be due to binaural suppressive effects on ipsilateral stimulation and the dominance of contralateral hemisphere during dichotic listening. In addition to the influence of cortical processing asymmetries, these results may also reflect a bias towards inhibitory ipsilateral and excitatory contralateral activation present at the level of inferior colliculus. That the effect of attention was clearest for the lower modulation frequencies suggests that such effects are likely mediated by cortical brain structures or by those in close proximity to cortex. PMID:25334021

Mahajan, Yatin; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

2014-01-01

432

Electrocortical correlates of control of selective attention to spatial frequency.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated control of selective attention to spatial frequency patterns, using a cueing paradigm. Subjects either used the instruction embedded in a word cue to prepare for the upcoming test stimulus (transient attention condition) or used the instruction they received before a block of trials (sustained reference condition), under completely similar stimulus conditions. The pattern of differential cue responses between these two conditions, reflecting top-down attentional control processes, was different between two groups of subjects, effectively canceling each other out. Despite comparable behavioral performance on both cues and targets, one group (n = 4) elicited a fronto-central-parietal positivity, starting 500 ms postcue over frontal and prefrontal areas, later including more central and posterior scalp sites, whereas another group (n = 8) started 400 ms postcue over central sites with a negativity, growing in strength over time and stabilizing over fronto-central sites. Only the group of eight subjects showed some evidence of occipital pretarget biasing activity. Independent of group, source modeling of the attentional control activity showed that attentional control was initiated in anterior, not posterior, parts of the brain. Furthermore, different underlying sources were found for both groups, in addition to signs of differential processing of target stimuli. Possible individual differences in attentional control ability and its relation to usage of different brain areas to deal with the task demands are discussed in more detail. PMID:16690039

Grent-'t-Jong, Tineke; Böcker, Koen B E; Kenemans, J Leon

2006-08-11

433

Getting Help for Attention Problems Quick Review  

E-print Network

DISORDER ­ ADD OR ADHD? Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD is characterized by a numberGetting Help for Attention Problems Quick Review Page 1 of 4 DO I HAVE ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY & MEDICATION AT CAPS FOR ATTENTION DEFICIT PROBLEMS 1. Schedule a telephone screening appointment, call 831

California at Santa Cruz, University of

434

Attentional biases among pathological gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pictorial stimuli were presented in a Stroop task paradigm that enabled the recording of attentional bias. The sample comprised 33 pathological slot machine gamblers (PG) and 22 control participants. The design of the study had one between-subjects factor – Group (PGs vs control), and two within-subject factors: (1) Stimulus meaning (win-related gambling stimuli vs neutral stimuli) and (2) Exposure (subliminal

Helge Molde; Ståle Pallesen; Bjørn Sætrevik; Dag K. Hammerborg; Jon C. Laberg; Bjørn-Helge Johnsen

2010-01-01

435

A Real Attention-Getter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While most parents would agree that playing videos games is the antithesis of time well spent for their children, recent advances involving NASA biofeedback technology are proving otherwise. The same techniques used to measure brain activity in NASA pilots during flight simulation exercises are now a part of a revolutionary video game system that is helping to improve overall mental awareness for Americans of all ages, including those who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

2003-01-01

436

Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

2013-01-01

437

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Dimensions: A Twin Study of Inattention and Impulsivity-Hyperactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study used a model-fitting strategy to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to the core behavioral dimensions associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 576 twin boys, aged 11 and 12 years.

DIANNE K. SHERMAN; WILLIAM G. IACONO; MATTHEW K. McGUE

1997-01-01

438

Psychopathology and Substance Abuse in Parents of Young Children With Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo compare the prevalence of psychological disorders in parents of young children with and without attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders (DBD).

ANDREA M. CHRONIS; BENJAMIN B. LAHEY; WILLIAM E. PELHAM; HEIDI L. KIPP; BARBARA L. BAUMANN; STEVE S. LEE

2003-01-01

439

28 CFR 552.26 - Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints... (a) In immediate use of force situations, staff shall seek...personnel upon gaining physical control of the inmate. When possible...behavior. In calculated use of force situations, the...

2014-07-01

440

28 CFR 552.26 - Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints... (a) In immediate use of force situations, staff shall seek...personnel upon gaining physical control of the inmate. When possible...behavior. In calculated use of force situations, the...

2013-07-01

441

28 CFR 552.26 - Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints... (a) In immediate use of force situations, staff shall seek...personnel upon gaining physical control of the inmate. When possible...behavior. In calculated use of force situations, the...

2012-07-01

442

28 CFR 552.26 - Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints... (a) In immediate use of force situations, staff shall seek...personnel upon gaining physical control of the inmate. When possible...behavior. In calculated use of force situations, the...

2011-07-01

443

A Forced-Attention Dichotic Listening fMRI Study on 113 Subjects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report fMRI and behavioral data from 113 subjects on attention and cognitive control using a variant of the classic dichotic listening paradigm with pairwise presentations of consonant-vowel syllables. The syllable stimuli were presented in a block-design while subjects were in the MR scanner. The subjects were instructed to pay attention to…

Kompus, Kristiina; Specht, Karsten; Ersland, Lars; Juvodden, Hilde T.; van Wageningen, Heidi; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Westerhausen, Rene

2012-01-01

444

Subtypes versus Severity Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study aims to analyze whether behaviors of attention-deficit, hyperactivity among adolescents in Northern Finland reflect distinct subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results conclude that the majority of the Cohort falls into low-scoring groups of unaffecteds while a high-scoring minority group reflects an ADHD…

Lubke, Gitta H.; Muthen, Bengt; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Swanson, James M.; Yang, May H.; Taanila, Anja; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

2007-01-01

445

Affective sharing in the context of joint attention interactions of normal, autistic, and mentally retarded children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbances in the development of joint attention behaviors and the ability to share affect with others are two important components of the social deficits of young autistic children. We examined the association of shared positive affect during two different communicative contexts, joint attention and requesting. The pattern for the normal children was one of frequent positive affect displayed toward the

Connie Kasari; Marian Sigman; Peter Mundy; Nurit Yirmiya

1990-01-01

446

Image perception: Relative influence of bottom-up and top-down attention  

E-print Network

process. The fourth section proposes a way of building top-down models which contain the mean behaviorImage perception: Relative influence of bottom-up and top-down attention Matei Mancas1 1 is the presentation of a novel visual attention model for still images which includes both a bottom-up and a top-down

Dupont, Stéphane

447

A Biologically Inspired Bayesian Model of Visual Attention for Humanoid Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual attention of human being refers to the process of selectively choosing a set of relevant visual information for further processing. Human eyes are always exposed to enormous amount of visual information, not all of which are relevant to the current mental\\/behavioral state. The attention system helps to focus on a relevant region of a scene or an object of

Momotaz Begum; George K. I. Mann; Raymond G. Gosine

2006-01-01

448

Research on Attention Networks as a Model for the Integration of Psychological Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Titchener pointed out more than one hundred years ago, at- tention is at the center of the psychological enterprise. Attention research investigates how voluntary control and subjective experi- ence arise from and regulate our behavior. In recent years, attention has been one of the fastest growing of all fields within cognitive psy- chology and cognitive neuroscience. This review examines

Michael I. Posner; Mary K. Rothbart

2007-01-01

449

The effects of Animal Assisted Therapy in improving attention among Autistic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. This study examines the effect of Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) towards improving attention among Autistic children. Method. A single case study using ABA design was used to measure duration of attention and errors omitted using Mesulam Continuous Performance Test (CPT) across three phases among 4 participants. Task Behavior\\/ Completion section in School Function Assessment (SFA) was given to teachers

Mohamad Ghazali Masuri; Nurul Sheriena Musa

2011-01-01

450

The Emergence of Shared Attention: Using Robots to Test Developmental Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity for shared attention is a cornerstone of human social intelligence. Recent accounts attribute the emergence of shared attention to multiple cognitive mechanisms. Current behavioral data support an alternative dynamic systems model, but many questions remain. To answer these questions and test alternative theories, robotic models will play a critical role. Robotic models reduce the scope of the modeling

Gedeon O. Deák; Ian Fasel; Javier Movellan

2001-01-01

451

Early Adversity Alters Attention and Locomotion in Adult SpragueDawley Rats  

E-print Network

in rats. These behavioral outcomes are known to be affected in human populations suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Robbins, 2000) as well as in those raised under adverse environmental conditionsEarly Adversity Alters Attention and Locomotion in Adult Sprague­Dawley Rats Christie Burton

Sokolowski, Marla

452

Do Quantitative EEG Measures Differentiate Hyperactivity in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used quantitative electroencephalogram analysis to examine difference in brain wave activity of attention deficit disorders (ADD) with and without hyperactivity while completing a computerized task measuring a variety of constructs associated with attention and impulsivity. Found that although behavioral ratings confirmed differential…

Stewart, Garth A.; Steffler, Dorothy J.; Lemoine, Daniel E.; Leps, Jolene D.

2001-01-01

453

Establishing Response and Stimulus Classes for Initiating Joint Attention in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The absence of the fundamental skill of "initiating joint attention" reflects the social-communicative impairment characterizing autism. Initiating joint attention is related to social and communication development as well as intervention outcomes for children with autism. A behaviorally based intervention was used to teach an expanded class of…

Jones, Emily A.

2009-01-01

454

Epidemiology of Attention Problems among Turkish Children and Adolescents: A National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of attention problems using parent, teacher, and youth informants among a nationally representative Turkish sample. Method: The children and adolescents, 4 to 18 years old, were selected from a random household survey. Attention problems derived from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (N = 4,488), Teacher…

Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Oner, Ozgur; Munir, Kerim

2008-01-01

455

The Politics of Emotion: News Media Attention, Emotional Responses, and Participation During the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the mediating role of emotions toward presidential candidates in the relationship between news media attention and political campaign participation. Numerous studies have investigated the effect of news media attention on political participatory behavior. Research in this area, however, focused mostly on cognitive variables as influences on people's behavior. We hypothesize that emotional reactions to candidates can mediate

Kang Namkoong; Timothy K. F. Fung; Dietram A. Scheufele

2012-01-01

456

The CBCL Bipolar Profile and Attention, Mood, and Behavior Dysregulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biederman and colleagues reported that a CBCL profile identified youngsters who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Some studies found that this CBCL profile does not reliably identify children who present with bipolar disorder, but nonetheless this CBCL does identify youngsters with severe dysfunction. However, the nature of the impairment of…

Doerfler, Leonard A.; Connor, Daniel F.; Toscano, Peter F.

2011-01-01

457

Sequential behavior in the rat: role of skill and attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serial reaction time task (SRTT) is a well-established experimental tool to study cognitive and neural mechanisms of sequential\\u000a performance in humans. We have recently developed a rodent version of the human serial reaction time task, in which rats have\\u000a to respond to visual stimuli by nose-poking into one of four spatial locations in order to obtain food reward. In

Dorothée Domenger; Rainer K. W. Schwarting

2007-01-01

458

Attention Enhances Synaptic Efficacy and Signal-to-Noise in Neural Circuits  

PubMed Central

Summary Attention is a critical component of perception. However, the mechanisms by which attention modulates neuronal communication to guide behavior are poorly understood. To elucidate the synaptic mechanisms of attention, we developed a sensitive assay of attentional modulation of neuronal communication. In alert monkeys performing a visual spatial attention task, we probed thalamocortical communication by electrically stimulating neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus while simultaneously recording shock-evoked responses from monosynaptically connected neurons in primary visual cortex. We found that attention enhances neuronal communication by (1) increasing the efficacy of presynaptic input in driving postsynaptic responses, (2) increasing synchronous responses among ensembles of postsynaptic neurons receiving independent input, and (3) decreasing redundant signals between postsynaptic neurons receiving common input. These results demonstrate that attention finely tunes neuronal communication at the synaptic level by selectively altering synaptic weights, enabling enhanced detection of salient events in the noisy sensory milieu. PMID:23803766

Briggs, Farran; Mangun, George R.; Usrey, W. Martin

2013-01-01

459

Attention in selective mutism--an exploratory case-control study.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to explore the association between selective mutism (SM) and attention. In SM social anxiety seems central but language impairment and motor problems are also reported. Attention problems have been described in parental behavioral ratings, while neuropsychological studies are lacking. A neuropsychological test (the Trail Making Test) and parental ratings of attention- and anxiety problems were administered to a clinical sample of 23 children with SM (aged 7-16 years, 12 boys and 11 girls) and 46 non-referred matched controls. The SM group differed from controls on the Trail Making Test, but the group difference disappeared, when controlling for motor function and IQ. Parental ratings of attention problems were not significantly associated with the neuropsychological attention measure. Neuropsychological studies of attention controlled for IQ and motor function are needed as well as tests that measure different aspects of attention. PMID:17531438

Oerbeck, Beate; Kristensen, Hanne

2008-01-01

460

Raising attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two psychiatric disorders with a negative impact on quality of life of individuals affected. Although they are classified into distinct disorders categories, attentional dysfunction is considered as a core feature in both conditions, either at the clinical then pathophysiological level. Beyond the obvious clinical overlap between these disorders, the Research Domain Criteria approach might offer an interesting perspective for disentangling common circuits underpinning both disorders. Hence, we review evidences regarding the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, at the clinical level, and at the level of underlying brain mechanisms. The evidence regarding the influence of environmental risk factors in the emergence of both disorders, and their developmental trajectories is also reviewed. Among these, we will try to elucidate the complex relationship between stimulants use and psychotic symptoms, discussing the potential role of ADHD medication in inducing psychosis or in exacerbating it. We aim that, taken together, these findings may promote further investigation with important implications both for clinicians and research. In fact, considering the amounting evidence on the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, the delineation of their boundaries might help in the decision for diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, it may help to promote interventions focused on the prevention of both schizophrenia and ADHD, by the reduction of recognized environmental risk factors. PMID:25815254

Pallanti, Stefano; Salerno, Luana

2015-03-22

461

Raising attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two psychiatric disorders with a negative impact on quality of life of individuals affected. Although they are classified into distinct disorders categories, attentional dysfunction is considered as a core feature in both conditions, either at the clinical then pathophysiological level. Beyond the obvious clinical overlap between these disorders, the Research Domain Criteria approach might offer an interesting perspective for disentangling common circuits underpinning both disorders. Hence, we review evidences regarding the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, at the clinical level, and at the level of underlying brain mechanisms. The evidence regarding the influence of environmental risk factors in the emergence of both disorders, and their developmental trajectories is also reviewed. Among these, we will try to elucidate the complex relationship between stimulants use and psychotic symptoms, discussing the potential role of ADHD medication in inducing psychosis or in exacerbating it. We aim that, taken together, these findings may promote further investigation with important implications both for clinicians and research. In fact, considering the amounting evidence on the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, the delineation of their boundaries might help in the decision for diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, it may help to promote interventions focused on the prevention of both schizophrenia and ADHD, by the reduction of recognized environmental risk factors.

Pallanti, Stefano; Salerno, Luana

2015-01-01

462

Joint Attention and Word Learning in Ngas-Speaking Toddlers in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines infants' joint attention behavior and language development in a rural village in Nigeria. Participants included eight younger (1;0 to 1;5, M age=1;2) and eight older toddlers (1;7 to 2;7, M age=2;1). Joint attention behaviors in social interaction contexts were recorded and coded at two time points six months apart. Analyses…

Childers, Jane B.; Vaughan, Julie; Burquest, Donald A.

2007-01-01

463

Enhancement of perceptual representations by endogenous attention biases competition in response selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception and response selection are core processes in the generation of overt behavior. Selective attention is known to\\u000a facilitate behavioral performance by altering perceptual processes. It remains unclear, however, whether selective attention\\u000a can aid the resolution of response conflict, and if so, at what stage of processing this takes place. In two experiments,\\u000a an endogenous cuing task was combined with

Jane Klemen; Frederick Verbruggen; Corrina Skelton; Christopher D. Chambers

464

Modeling selective attention using a neuromorphic analog VLSI device.  

PubMed

Attentional mechanisms are required to overcome the problem of flooding a limited processing capacity system with information. They are present in biological sensory systems and can be a useful engineering tool for artificial visual systems. In this article we present a hardware model of a selective attention mechanism implemented on a very large-scale integration (VLSI) chip, using analog neuromorphic circuits. The chip exploits a spike-based representation to receive, process, and transmit signals. It can be used as a transceiver module for building multichip neuromorphic vision systems. We describe the circuits that carry out the main processing stages of the selective attention mechanism and provide experimental data for each circuit. We demonstrate the expected behavior of the model at the system level by stimulating the chip with both artificially generated control signals and signals obtained from a saliency map, computed from an image containing several salient features. PMID:11112258

Indiveri, G

2000-12-01

465

Visual Attention to Radar Displays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is described which predicts the allocation of attention to the features of a radar display. It uses the growth of uncertainty and the probability of near collision to call the eye to a feature of the display. The main source of uncertainty is forgetting following a fixation, which is modelled as a two dimensional diffusion process. The model was used to predict information overload in intercept controllers, and preliminary validation obtained by recording eye movements of intercept controllers in simulated and live (practice) interception.

Moray, N.; Richards, M.; Brophy, C.

1984-01-01

466

Repetitive behavior disorders in autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is associated with a wide range of repetitive behaviors. These behaviors, although diagnostic for the disorder, have been the subject of far less attention than social and communication deficits. An understanding of the phenomenology, including comorbidity, of various forms of abnormal repetition requires improved methodol- ogy, including use of item-independent instruments capable of discriminating categories of repetitive behaviors or

Mark H. Lewis; James W. Bodfish

1998-01-01

467

Attention modulates visual-tactile interaction in spatial pattern matching.  

PubMed

Factors influencing crossmodal interactions are manifold and operate in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up fashion, as well as via top-down control. Here, we evaluate the interplay of stimulus congruence and attention in a visual-tactile task. To this end, we used a matching paradigm requiring the identification of spatial patterns that were concurrently presented visually on a computer screen and haptically to the fingertips by means of a Braille stimulator. Stimulation in our paradigm was always bimodal with only the allocation of attention being manipulated between conditions. In separate blocks of the experiment, participants were instructed to (a) focus on a single modality to detect a specific target pattern, (b) pay attention to both modalities to detect a specific target pattern, or (c) to explicitly evaluate if the patterns in both modalities were congruent or not. For visual as well as tactile targets, congruent stimulus pairs led to quicker and more accurate detection compared to incongruent stimulation. This congruence facilitation effect was more prominent under divided attention. Incongruent stimulation led to behavioral decrements under divided attention as compared to selectively attending a single sensory channel. Additionally, when participants were a