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1

Independent Contributions of the Central Executive, Intelligence, and In-Class Attentive Behavior to Developmental Change in the Strategies Used to Solve Addition Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children's (N = 275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7 = 4+3 and thus 6+7 = 6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first grade to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-class attentive behavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between…

Geary, David C.; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara

2012-01-01

2

Independent Contributions of the Central Executive, Intelligence, and In-Class Attentive Behavior to Developmental Change in the Strategies Used to Solve Addition Problems  

PubMed Central

Children’s (n = 275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7 = 4+3, and thus 6+7=6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-class attentive behavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between capacity of the central executive component of working memory, controlling for intelligence and in-class attentive behavior, and grade-related changes in children’s use of these strategies. The predictor on intercept effects from multilevel models revealed that children with higher central executive capacity correctly retrieved more facts and used the most sophisticated counting procedure more frequently and accurately than did their lower capacity peers at the beginning of first grade, but the predictor on slope effects indicated that this advantage disappeared (retrieval) or declined in importance (counting) from first to fourth grade. The predictor on slope effects also revealed that from first through fourth grade, children with higher capacity adopted the decomposition strategy more quickly than did other children. The results remained robust with controls for children’s sex, race, school site, speed of encoding Arabic numerals and articulating number words, and mathematics achievement in kindergarten. The results also revealed that intelligence and in-class attentive behavior independently contributed to children’s strategy development.

Geary, David C.; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara

2012-01-01

3

How Long Can Students Pay Attention in Class? A Study of Student Attention Decline Using Clickers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students enrolled in three levels of general chemistry self-reported their attention decline during both lecture and other teaching approaches via personal response devices (clickers). Students report attention declines of 1 min or less more often than longer attention lapses. The data suggest that student engagement alternates between attention

Bunce, Diane M.; Flens, Elizabeth A.; Neiles, Kelly Y.

2010-01-01

4

Behavioral and psychophysiological markers of disordered attention  

SciTech Connect

Behavioral and psychophysiological assays provide the most sensitive indication of whether a presumed neurotoxin has a deleterious effect on the nervous system. The effects of lead on the nervous system are strongly suggestive that this agent can produce disturbances in attention; moreover, there are clinical reports of such effects. The action of lead is also manifest in behaviors described as ''hyperactive,'' or reflecting ''minimal brain damage.'' The core symptom in both disorders is probably impairment in attention. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III) of the American Psychiatric Association uses the term Attention Deficit Disorder to replace such terms as hyperactivity and minimal brain damage. Prior studies of the behavioral toxicity of lead may have used inadequate or incomplete assays of attention; this could in part account for the variability in outcomes. Recent research on attention suggests that it is a complex behavior consisting of a number of elements or components, each of which may be in part dependent upon a different region of the central nervous system. Behavioral assays should examine the components of attentive behavior using tests which are sensitive to the different elements. It is recommended that psychophysiological assays (using cognitive event-related potentials), although more difficult and costly to implement, be used as well. These assays may provide a more dynamic view of altered information processing in the brain and help to localize and characterize the behavioral impairment. 50 references.

Mirsky, A.F.

1987-10-01

5

Toward a behavioral analysis of joint attention  

PubMed Central

Joint attention (JA) initiation is defined in cognitive-developmental psychology as a child's actions that verify or produce simultaneous attending by that child and an adult to some object or event in the environment so that both may experience the object or event together. This paper presents a contingency analysis of gaze shift in JA initiation. The analysis describes reinforcer-establishing and evocative effects of antecedent objects or events, discriminative and conditioned reinforcing functions of stimuli generated by adult behavior, and socially mediated reinforcers that may maintain JA behavior. A functional analysis of JA may describe multiple operant classes. The paper concludes with a discussion of JA deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders and suggestions for research and treatment. ImagesFigure 2

Dube, William V.; MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Mansfield, Renee C.; Holcomb, William L.; Ahearn, William H.

2004-01-01

6

Effectiveness of Noncontingent Attention to Decrease Attention-Maintained Disruptive Behaviors in the General Education Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of noncontingent attention (NCA) on disruptive talking-out behavior in a student diagnosed with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in the general education classroom. Functional analysis indicated that the talking-out behavior was maintained by teacher attention. We used an ABAB…

Banda, Devender R.; Sokolosky, Stephanie

2012-01-01

7

Attention and Discrimination: A Behavioral Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In discrimination experiments, signals may be presented only occasionally during prolonged vigils. Some signals are sufficiently strong to be detected every time by an attentive subject, yet too weak to attract the attention of the inattentive subject. De...

H. J. Jerison

1966-01-01

8

In-Class Intervention for Students Identified as Behaviorally Disordered.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper offers a collaborative service delivery model and suggestions for language intervention strategies, goals, and assessment for students with behavioral disorders, to be implemented by teachers and speech-language pathologists. The intervention strategies can be integrated with academic and behavioral objectives. (DB)|

Keefe, Charlotte Hendrick; Hoge, Debra Reichert

1996-01-01

9

Interparental aggression, attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems.  

PubMed

The current study explored longitudinal associations between interparental aggression, the development of child attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems in a diverse sample of 636 families living in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. The results of latent-variable, cross-lagged longitudinal models revealed that maternal-reported interparental aggression in infancy predicted reduced observed attention skills in toddlerhood; no association was observed, however, between attention in infancy and interparental aggression during the toddler years. Further, reduced toddler attention and high interparental aggression were both associated with increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems at 3 years of age. Processes largely operated in similar ways regardless of child gender or low-income status, although a few differences were observed. Overall, the results suggest that interparental aggression undermines attention development, putting children's early behavioral adjustment at risk. PMID:23786696

Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Stifter, Cynthia A; Coccia, Michael A; Cox, Martha J

2011-05-01

10

New perspectives on adolescent motivated behavior: attention and conditioning  

PubMed Central

Adolescence is a critical transition period, during which fundamental changes prepare the adolescent for becoming an adult. Heuristic models of the neurobiology of adolescent behavior have emerged, promoting the central role of reward and motivation, coupled with cognitive immaturities. Here, we bring focus to two basic sets of processes, attention and conditioning, which are essential for adaptive behavior. Using the dual-attention model developed by Corbetta and Shulman (2002), which identifies a stimulus-driven and a goal-driven attention network, we propose a balance that favors stimulus-driven attention over goal-driven attention in youth. Regarding conditioning, we hypothesize that stronger associations tend to be made between environmental cues and appetitive stimuli, and weaker associations with aversive stimuli, in youth relative to adults. An attention system geared to prioritize stimulus-driven attention, together with more powerful associative learning with appetitive incentives, contribute to shape patterns of adolescent motivated behavior. This proposed bias in attention and conditioning function could facilitate the impulsive, novelty-seeking and risk-taking behavior that is typical of many adolescents.

Ernst, Monique; Daniele, Teresa; Frantz, Kyle

2011-01-01

11

Cognitive and behavioral attention in children with math difficulties.  

PubMed

Cognitive assessments and behavioral ratings of attention were used to examine the relation of inattention to math performance in children. Third grade students with math difficulties (MD; n?=?17) and math and reading difficulties (MDRD; n?=?35) were administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT), as well as achievement and intelligence measures. Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behavior-IV (SWAN-IV) Inattention ratings were collected from teachers. Two comparison groups were also recruited: a typically achieving group (n?=?23) and a group that responded to a math-tutoring intervention (responders; n?=?54). On the ANT, children with MD and MDRD did not perform significantly different than typically achieving children or responders on measures of alerting and orienting attention and executive control. All subgroups did demonstrate performance patterns that were expected on the ANT. However, performance across blocks of the task was inconsistent, suggesting poor reliability. There were no relations between ANT performance and SWAN-IV behavioral inattention scores, though behavioral ratings of inattention correlated significantly with math performance. Children with MD and MDRD may have more difficulty with distraction and attention to detail in contextual situations, as opposed to impulsive responding in these settings. The lack of relation between cognitive attention and math performance may suggest that either the ANT does not assess the relevant attention constructs associated with math difficulties or may parallel studies of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in which cognitive and behavioral assessments are weakly related. PMID:22686370

Gold, Alanna B; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Cirino, Paul; Fuchs, Lynn S; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M

2012-06-11

12

Attention, play, and social behavior in ADHD preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated attention, play and nonplay behavior in preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a matched control group of non-ADHD children. Forty 4- to 5-year-old children (20 ADHD and 20 matched control) participated. Across a 6-week-period, children's social and play interactions as well as nonplay behaviors were videotaped in the classroom. Videotape recordings were analyzed for the

Steven M. Alessandri

1992-01-01

13

Mental training enhances attentional stability: neural and behavioral evidence.  

PubMed

The capacity to stabilize the content of attention over time varies among individuals, and its impairment is a hallmark of several mental illnesses. Impairments in sustained attention in patients with attention disorders have been associated with increased trial-to-trial variability in reaction time and event-related potential deficits during attention tasks. At present, it is unclear whether the ability to sustain attention and its underlying brain circuitry are transformable through training. Here, we show, with dichotic listening task performance and electroencephalography, that training attention, as cultivated by meditation, can improve the ability to sustain attention. Three months of intensive meditation training reduced variability in attentional processing of target tones, as indicated by both enhanced theta-band phase consistency of oscillatory neural responses over anterior brain areas and reduced reaction time variability. Furthermore, those individuals who showed the greatest increase in neural response consistency showed the largest decrease in behavioral response variability. Notably, we also observed reduced variability in neural processing, in particular in low-frequency bands, regardless of whether the deviant tone was attended or unattended. Focused attention meditation may thus affect both distracter and target processing, perhaps by enhancing entrainment of neuronal oscillations to sensory input rhythms, a mechanism important for controlling the content of attention. These novel findings highlight the mechanisms underlying focused attention meditation and support the notion that mental training can significantly affect attention and brain function. PMID:19846729

Lutz, Antoine; Slagter, Heleen A; Rawlings, Nancy B; Francis, Andrew D; Greischar, Lawrence L; Davidson, Richard J

2009-10-21

14

Mental training enhances attentional stability: Neural and behavioral evidence  

PubMed Central

The capacity to stabilize the content of attention over time varies among individuals and its impairment is a hallmark of several mental illnesses. Impairments in sustained attention in patients with attention disorders have been associated with increased trial-to-trial variability in reaction time and event-related potential (ERP) deficits during attention tasks. At present, it is unclear whether the ability to sustain attention and its underlying brain circuitry are transformable through training. Here, we show, with dichotic listening task performance and electroencephalography (EEG), that training attention, as cultivated by meditation, can improve the ability to sustain attention. Three months of intensive meditation training reduced variability in attentional processing of target tones, as indicated by both enhanced theta-band phase consistency of oscillatory neural responses over anterior brain areas and reduced reaction time variability. Furthermore, those individuals who showed the greatest increase in neural response consistency showed the largest decrease in behavioral response variability. Notably, we also observed reduced variability in neural processing, in particular in low-frequency bands, regardless of whether the deviant tone was attended or unattended. Focused attention meditation may thus affect both distracter and target processing, perhaps by enhancing entrainment of neuronal oscillations to sensory input rhythms; a mechanism important for controlling the content of attention. These novel findings highlight the mechanisms underlying focused attention meditation, and support the notion that mental training can significantly affect attention and brain function.

Lutz, Antoine; Slagter, Heleen A.; Rawlings, Nancy B.; Francis, Andrew D.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Davidson, Richard J.

2009-01-01

15

Attentional Bias Toward Suicide-Related Stimuli Predicts Suicidal Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-standing challenge for scientific and clinical work on suicidal behavior is that people often are motivated to deny or conceal suicidal thoughts. The authors proposed that people considering suicide would possess an objectively measurable attentional bias toward suicide-related stimuli and that this bias would predict future suicidal behavior. Participants were 124 adults presenting to a psychiatric emergency department who

Christine B. Cha; Sadia Najmi; Jennifer M. Park; Christine T. Finn; Matthew K. Nock

2010-01-01

16

Effects of therapist gender and type of attention on assessment and treatment of attention?maintained destructive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult attention frequently serves as a maintaining variable for problem behavior (Iwata et al., 1994). In addition, different aspects of attention such as the content of a statement or the person delivering the attention may moderate the rate of problem behavior and potentially affect treatment outcome (Fisher, Ninness, Piazza, & Owen-DeSchryver, 1996). In the current study, we examined the effects

Linda A. LeBlanc; Louis P. Hagopian; Jean M. Marhefka; Arthur E. Wilke

2001-01-01

17

Behavior modification strategy for motivating children with attention deficiency disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder and its manifestation during childhood is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and\\/or hyperactivity. Children with such mental retardation more often exhibit behavior problems than children without disabilities. Teaching these children is more challenging than teaching normal children in the same age group and is always considered as one of

S. Ravichandran; Huang Qunfang Jacklyn

2009-01-01

18

Attention deficit disorder and age of onset of problem behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of a prospective longitudinal study, we examined age of onset of behavior problems in a group of boys and girls identified with attention deficit disorder (ADD) at age 11. Onset occurred during the preschool years, by the first year of schooling, or by the end of the second year of school Onset was strongly related to informant

Rob McGee; Sheila Williams; Michael Feehan

1992-01-01

19

A randomized trial of attention training for generalized social phobia: does attention training change social behavior?  

PubMed

The use of attention training protocols for the treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) is undergoing increased examination. Initial investigations were positive but more recent investigations have been less supportive of the treatment paradigm. One significant limitation of current investigations is overreliance on self-report. In this investigation, we expanded on initial investigations by using a multimodal assessment of patient functioning (i.e., including behavioral assessment). Patients with a primary diagnosis of SAD (n=31) were randomly assigned to eight sessions of attention training (n=15) or placebo/control (n=16). Participants were assessed at pre- and posttreatment via self- and clinician-report of social anxiety as well as anxious and behavioral response to two in vivo social interactions. Results revealed no differences between groups at posttreatment for all study outcome variables, suggesting a lack of effect for the attention training condition. The results are concordant with recent investigations finding a lack of support for the use of attention training as an efficacious treatment for patients with SAD. PMID:24094791

Bunnell, Brian E; Beidel, Deborah C; Mesa, Franklin

2013-04-30

20

An Evaluation of The Types of Attention That Maintain Problem Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous research indicates that certain types of attention (i.e., statements related to behavior, tickles) may be differentially reinforcing, only one or two forms of attention are typically provided contingent on problem behavior during the attention condition in experimental functional analyses. In the present investigation, various forms of attention were provided contingent on problem behavior to identify the influence of

Tiffany Kodak; John Northup; MICHAEL E. KELLEY

2007-01-01

21

The effects of presession attention on problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers.  

PubMed

The effect of presession attention on the later occurrence of problem behavior was examined with elementary-school children with a range of disabilities. Results of analogue functional analyses suggested an escape function, an attention function, or both. Following the analogue functional analyses, the effects of two antecedent conditions (10-min ignore vs. 10-min attention) were compared on problem behavior in subsequent test conditions. For participants who displayed attention-maintained problem behavior, the test condition involved contingent attention for problem behavior. For participants who displayed escape-maintained problem behavior, the test condition involved contingent escape for problem behavior. Results indicated that participants who displayed attention-maintained problem behavior displayed less problem behavior following presession exposure to attention than when ignored. No such effect was found for presession attention on escape-maintained problem behavior. We discuss matching antecedent-based interventions to the results of functional analysis. PMID:14596571

McComas, Jennifer J; Thompson, Andrea; Johnson, LeAnne

2003-01-01

22

Voluntary Physical Exercise Alters Attentional Orienting and Social Behavior in a Rat Model of Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of voluntary physical exercise on attentional function and social behavior were examined in male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Rats in the exercise groups had free access to a running wheel for 2 weeks and then all rats received nonreinforced presentations of a visual stimulus (light) during the

Michael E. Hopkins; Mita Sharma; Gretchen C. Evans; David J. Bucci

2009-01-01

23

Effects of presession attention on the frequency of attention-maintained behavior.  

PubMed Central

The effect of prior attention was systematically manipulated to study its influence on rates of yelling and head hitting, both maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention. Higher levels of head hitting occurred in analogue attention conditions when the person was deprived of attention (no social interactions for 1 hr) prior to the analysis in comparison to when the person received high levels of attention (attention delivered on a fixed-time 30-s schedule for 1 hr) prior to the analysis.

O'Reilly, M F

1999-01-01

24

Neuropsychological and behavioral measures of attention assess different constructs in children with traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological and behavioral measures are used to assess attention, but little convergence has been found between these two assessment methods. However, many prior studies have not considered attention as a multicomponent system, which may contribute to this lack of agreement between neuropsychological and behavioral measures. To address this the current study examined the relationship between the neuropsychological measures that comprise a four-component model of attention and parent-report behavioral ratings of attention problems and hyperactivity. A total of 65 children and adolescents who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) were included in the study. Principal components analysis identified the four attention components in this sample, which accounted for 80.9% of the variance. However, correlations between the neuropsychological measures of attention and behavioral ratings of attention and hyperactivity were low and non-significant. This minimal correspondence suggests that neuropsychological and behavioral measures assess different aspects of attentional disturbances in children with TBI. PMID:21902568

Barney, Sally J; Allen, Daniel N; Thaler, Nicholas S; Park, Brandon S; Strauss, Gregory P; Mayfield, Joan

2011-09-09

25

Mental training enhances attentional stability: neural and behavioral evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity to stabilize the content of attention over time varies among individuals, and its impairment is a hallmark of several mental illnesses. Impairments in sustained attention in patients with attention disorders have been associated with increased trial-to-trial variability in reaction time and event-related potential deficits during attention tasks. At present, it is unclear whether the ability to sustain attention

A. Lutz; H. A. Slagter; N. B. Rawlings; A. D. Francis; L. L. Greischar; R. J. Davidson

2009-01-01

26

An Evaluation of the Types of Attention that Maintain Problem Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous research indicates that certain types of attention (i.e., statements related to behavior, tickles) may be differentially reinforcing, only one or two forms of attention are typically provided contingent on problem behavior during the attention condition in experimental functional analyses. In the present investigation, various…

Kodak, Tiffany; Northup, John; Kelley, Michael E.

2007-01-01

27

The Developmental Trajectories of Attention Focusing, Attentional and Behavioral Persistence, and Externalizing Problems during School Age Years  

PubMed Central

The developmental trajectories of attention focusing (parents' and teachers' reports) and attentional and behavioral persistence (observed during a laboratory task) -- two indexes of effortful control -- and externalizing problems from age 5 to 10 years were examined for 356 children combined from two three-wave (two years apart) longitudinal studies. We identified clusters of children with distinct trajectories for these variables and examined the links between the effortful control trajectories and the externalizing problem trajectories. Although attention focusing remained relatively stable, attentional and behavioral persistence continued to show mean-level changes (especially among the children with less optimal persistence). Children with high and stable trajectories of effortful control tended to exhibit low and stable trajectories of externalizing problems, whereas those with lower and/or less stable trajectories of effortful control showed more elevated and/or fluctuating trajectories of externalizing problems.

Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Fabes, Richard A.

2006-01-01

28

Abolishing and Establishing Operation Analyses of Social Attention as Positive Reinforcement for Problem Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three participants whose problem behavior was maintained by contingent attention were exposed to 45-min presessions in which attention was withheld, provided on a fixed-time (FT) 15-s schedule, or provided on an FT 120-s schedule. Following each presession, participants were then tested in a 15-min session similar to the social attention

McGinnis, Molly A.; Houchins-Juarez, Nealetta; McDaniel, Jill L.; Kennedy, Craig H.

2010-01-01

29

Neuropsychological and Behavioral Measures of Attention Assess Different Constructs in Children With Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological and behavioral measures are used to assess attention, but little convergence has been found between these two assessment methods. However, many prior studies have not considered attention as a multicomponent system, which may contribute to this lack of agreement between neuropsychological and behavioral measures. To address this the current study examined the relationship between the neuropsychological measures that comprise

Sally J. Barney; Daniel N. Allen; Nicholas S. Thaler; Brandon S. Park; Gregory P. Strauss; Joan Mayfield

2011-01-01

30

Affect of Parental Rejection on Negative Attention-Seeking Classroom Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Student questionnaires and teacher interviews provided data on 123 Chicago third graders to determine the affect of parental rejection on negative attention-seeking classroom behaviors, what particular parent might be more rejecting, and what specific negative attention-seeking behaviors might be overtly demonstrated in the classroom by sex of…

Peretti, Peter O.; And Others

1984-01-01

31

Relations among Student Attention Behaviors, Teacher Practices, and Beginning Word Reading Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role of student attention for predicting kindergarten word reading was investigated among 432 students. Using "Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior Rating Scale" behavior rating scores, the authors conducted an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded three distinct factors that reflected selective attention. In…

Saez, Leilani; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher

2012-01-01

32

Which Behavioral and Personality Characteristics Are Associated with Difficulties in Selective Attention?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The present study investigated the behavioral and personality profile associated with difficulties in selective attention. Method: A group of participants with ADHD were assessed for ADHD behaviors. Adults with ADHD (n = 22) and without ADHD (n = 84) were tested on the conjunctive visual-search task for selective attention and…

Avisar, Alon

2011-01-01

33

A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

2012-01-01

34

Working memory and parent-rated components of attention in middle childhood: a behavioral genetic study.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current study was to investigate potential genetic and environmental correlations between working memory and three behavioral aspects of the attention network (i.e., executive, alerting, and orienting) using a twin design. Data were from 90 monozygotic (39% male) and 112 same-sex dizygotic (41% male) twins. Individual differences in working memory performance (digit span) and parent-rated measures of executive, alerting, and orienting attention included modest to moderate genetic variance, modest shared environmental variance, and modest to moderate nonshared environmental variance. As hypothesized, working memory performance was correlated with executive and alerting attention, but not orienting attention. The correlation between working memory, executive attention, and alerting attention was completely accounted for by overlapping genetic covariance, suggesting a common genetic mechanism or mechanisms underlying the links between working memory and certain parent-rated indicators of attentive behavior. PMID:21948215

Wang, Zhe; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Cutting, Laurie; Thompson, Lee A; Petrill, Stephen A

2011-09-27

35

Testing the Behavioral Interaction and Integration of Attentional Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One current conceptualization of attention subdivides it into functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Alerting describes the function of tonically maintaining the alert state and phasically responding to a warning signal. Automatic and voluntary orienting are involved in the selection of information among multiple sensory inputs.…

Fan, Jin; Gu, Xiaosi; Guise, Kevin G.; Liu, Xun; Fossella, John; Wang, Hongbin; Posner, Michael I.

2009-01-01

36

Behavioral Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the ClassroomThe Use of the Attention Training System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contingency management procedures have been successfully applied in a variety of school settings to treat children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The present study investigated the efficacy of response-cost contingencies alone and in combination with directed-rehearsal procedures for managing the classroom behavior and academic productivity of two boys with ADHD. A within-subject reversal design with multiple-baseline components across academic work

George J. Dupaul; David C. Guevremont; Russell A. Barkley

1992-01-01

37

Mindfulness and Health Behaviors: Is Paying Attention Good for You?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The investigators examined relations between mindfulness and health behaviors in college students, as well as the role of stress in mediating these effects. Participants: Participants were 553 undergraduates (385 females; mean age = 18.8 years, SD = 2.1) recruited from a university in the northeastern United States. Methods: Participants completed questionnaires assessing mindfulness, perceived health, health behaviors, health-related activity

Kimberly C. Roberts; Sharon Danoff-Burg

2010-01-01

38

Self-Management of On-Task Homework Behavior: A Promising Strategy for Adolescents with Attention and Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with attention and behavior problems oftentimes experience difficulty finishing academic work. On-task behavior is frequently cited as a primary reason for students' failure to complete homework assignments. Researchers have identified self-monitoring and self-management of on-task behavior as effective tools for improving homework…

Axelrod, Michael I.; Zhe, Elizabeth J.; Haugen, Kimberly A.; Klein, Jean A.

2009-01-01

39

Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior…

Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

2011-01-01

40

Increasing On-Task Behavior Using Teacher Attention Delivered on a Fixed-Time Schedule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effectiveness of fixed-time delivery of attention to increase the on-task behavior of 2 students in general education was examined. The teacher in this study provided attention to students on a 5-min fixed-time schedule and responded to students in her typical manner between cued intervals. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to test the…

Riley, Jessica L.; McKevitt, Brian C.; Shriver, Mark D.; Allen, Keith D.

2011-01-01

41

Attention Demands Influence 10- and 12-Month-Old Infants' Perseverative Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined the role of attentional demand on infants' perseverative behavior in a noncommunicative looking version of an A-not-B task. The research aimed at clarifying age-related improvements in the attention process that presumably underlies the development of cognitive control. In a between-subjects design, forty 10-month-olds…

Watanabe, Hama; Forssman, Linda; Green, Dorota; Bohlin, Gunilla; von Hofsten, Claes

2012-01-01

42

Best in Class: A Classroom-Based Model for Ameliorating Problem Behavior in Early Childhood Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As more young children enter school settings to attend early childhood programs, early childhood teachers and school psychologists have been charged with supporting a growing number of young children with chronic problem behaviors that put them at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). There is a need for effective,…

Vo, Abigail K.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.

2012-01-01

43

Children with behavior problems: improving elementary school teachers’ skills to keep these children in class  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an evaluation study of two workshops for elementary school teachers aimed at improving their skills for coping with the behavior problems in children. The ability to hold these children helps to prevent them from dropping out of school and avoids their referral to special education programs. The workshops integrated two intervention strategies: (1) Behavior modification skills and

Miriam Schiff; Berta BarGil

2004-01-01

44

Executive functioning and theory of mind in children clinically referred for attention and behavior problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the interrelations of the theory of mind (ToM), executive functioning, and social problems in children referred to an outpatient clinic for attention and behavior problems. ToM tasks consisted of mistaken identity and contents tasks, two versions of unintended transfer tasks, and an emotional false-belief task. Attention problems were assessed using parent and teacher reports of behavior

Carleen M Fahie; Douglas K Symons

2003-01-01

45

Modification of Preschool Children's Bathroom Behaviors by Contingent Teacher Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Repeated measures of the frequency of paper towel litter, unflushed toilets, dirty sinks, and running water faucets were used to evaluate effectiveness of contingent teacher praise for appropriate bathroom use by preschool children. Contingent praise for appropriate bathroom behaviors resulted in markedly decreased frequencies of four target…

Taylor, Marjorie J.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

1978-01-01

46

Mindfulness and Health Behaviors: Is Paying Attention Good for You?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The investigators examined relations between mindfulness and health behaviors in college students, as well as the role of stress in mediating these effects. Participants: Participants were 553 undergraduates (385 females; mean age = 18.8 years, SD = 2.1) recruited from a university in the northeastern United States. Methods:…

Roberts, Kimberly C.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

2010-01-01

47

Mindfulness and Health Behaviors: Is Paying Attention Good for You?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The investigators examined relations between mindfulness and health behaviors in college students, as well as the role of stress in mediating these effects. Participants: Participants were 553 undergraduates (385 females; mean age = 18.8 years, SD = 2.1) recruited from a university in the northeastern United States. Methods:…

Roberts, Kimberly C.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

2010-01-01

48

Modification of Preschool Children's Bathroom Behaviors by Contingent Teacher Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repeated measures of the frequency of paper towel litter, unflushed toilets, dirty sinks, and running water faucets were used to evaluate effectiveness of contingent teacher praise for appropriate bathroom use by preschool children. Contingent praise for appropriate bathroom behaviors resulted in markedly decreased frequencies of four target…

Taylor, Marjorie J.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

1978-01-01

49

Vlogcast yourself: nonverbal behavior and attention in social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce vlogs as a type of rich human interaction which is multimodal in nature and suitable for new large-scale behavioral data analysis. The automatic analysis of vlogs is useful not only to study social media, but also remote communication scenarios, and requires the integration of methods for multimodal processing and for social media understanding. Based on works from social

Joan-Isaac Biel; Daniel Gatica-Perez

2010-01-01

50

Perceptual Attention in Virtual Humans: Towards Realistic and Believable Gaze Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a growing number of applications it is important that the perceptual behavior of a virtual human be at once realistic and believable. To be realistic, a model needs to be psychologically plausible, and to be believable the behavior must look right. To this end, I describe a model of attention that was implemented in a virtual helicopter pilot using

Randall W. Hill

2000-01-01

51

Eating Behaviors and Perceived Eating Problems of children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactiytty Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders (ED) are a comorbid criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). The Children's Eating Behavior Inventory (CEBI) was distributed to parents\\/guardians of children (N = 115) aged eight to fourteen, attending a private school and clinically diagnosed with ADHD or LD. The CEBI provides an eating behavior (EB) score and a parent-perceived eating problems

S. R. McCray; J. Silagyi-Rebovich

1999-01-01

52

Behavioral Restraint and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder in Alcoholics and Pathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult alcoholics as well as pathological gamblers reported that, as children, they had higher than control levels of attention deficit disorder-related behaviors. On the other hand, alcoholics and only a subset of gamblers showed deficits in a test of behavioral restraint.Copyright © 1992 S. Karger AG, Basel

Peter L. Carlton; Paul Manowitz

1992-01-01

53

Developmental and behavioral disorders grown up: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Pat was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type in the second grade and has been treated primarily with stimulants, albeit on an inconsistent basis. Pat is now a 22-year-old male, who is a second year student at a local community college. He attained a 2.1 GPA during his first year of postsecondary studies, doing quite well in several classes yet rather poorly in several others. Pat has a part-time job at a fast food restaurant, a position that he has held for approximately 6 months. Before his current job, Pat worked as a dishwasher at a local restaurant. He was fired from this position due to chronically being late to work. Pat stated that he gets along well with his peers, although his mother reported that Pat has a history of being able to make friends, "yet not keep them." Pat's mother also reported that Pat has traditionally gravitated toward peers who were "not especially good influences." She described various antisocial acts that Pat was involved with during high school. Pat reported that he began experimenting with alcohol and cigarettes in ninth grade and marijuana shortly thereafter. He stated that he drinks less often than he smokes marijuana ("several times a week"). Pat denied legal difficulties, although his mother reported that Pat was asked to leave the dormitory during his first semester due to an alcohol-related incident. Pat is not currently involved in psychotherapy and is prescribed extended release methylphenidate. He reported that he took his stimulant whenever he had to do a lot of work for school. PMID:19218850

Antshel, Kevin M; Barkley, Russell

2009-02-01

54

A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently controversy regarding the need for and the effectiveness of behavior modification for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) despite years of study and multiple investigations reporting beneficial effects of the intervention. A meta-analysis was conducted by identifying relevant behavioral treatment studies in the literature. One-hundred seventy-four studies of behavioral treatment were identified from 114 individual papers that

Gregory A. Fabiano; William E. Pelham Jr.; Erika K. Coles; Elizabeth M. Gnagy; Andrea Chronis-Tuscano; Briannon C. O'Connor

2009-01-01

55

Type A behavior, attentional style, and symptom reporting among adult men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined Type A (coronary-prone) behavior, measured by the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS), in relation to attentional style and symptom reporting in 140 men (mean age 36.4 yrs) and 154 women (mean age 35.9 yrs). Results show that for men and women, JAS Type A, Job Involvement, and Hard Driving factors were all associated with self-reported attentional effectiveness on a test

Timothy P. Carmody; Jack F. Hollis; Joseph D. Matarazzo; Steven G. Fey

1984-01-01

56

The Influence of a Token Economy and Methylphenidate on Attentive and Disruptive Behavior during Sports with Adhd-Diagnosed Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a summer program designed to evaluate the influence of stimulant medication and a token economy on attentive and disruptive behavior during kickball games. Attentive and disruptive behavior were assessed using an interval coding system, and daily ratings on the ADHD Index of the Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised were also

David Reitman; Stephen D. A. Hupp; Patrick M. O’Callaghan; Veronica Gulley; John Northup

2001-01-01

57

Attention demands influence 10- and 12-month-old infants' perseverative behavior.  

PubMed

The present study examined the role of attentional demand on infants' perseverative behavior in a noncommunicative looking version of an A-not-B task. The research aimed at clarifying age-related improvements in the attention process that presumably underlies the development of cognitive control. In a between-subjects design, forty 10-month-olds and forty 12-month-olds were assigned to either a distractor or a no-distractor condition as a means of testing the role of attentional load. The authors used an eye tracker to record infants' looking behavior while they anticipated the reappearance of the target of interest as well as continuously throughout the task. The data demonstrated that 10-month-olds show more perseverative looking than do 12-month-olds and that increased attentional demand leads to more perseverative looking. Correct anticipation, however, was not affected by age or distraction. The results also failed to show that 12-month-olds are better than 10-month-olds at handling the increased attentional demand introduced in the distractor condition, in that the effect of the distractor was not larger for the younger infants. Our results are in line with the theoretical view of cognitive control as dependent on a limited attentional resource, which can explain perseverative behaviors in different tasks and at different ages. PMID:21910526

Watanabe, Hama; Forssman, Linda; Green, Dorota; Bohlin, Gunilla; von Hofsten, Claes

2011-09-12

58

Attentional dynamics during free picture viewing: Evidence from oculomotor behavior and electrocortical activity  

PubMed Central

Most empirical evidence on attentional control is based on brief presentations of rather abstract stimuli. Results revealed indications for a dynamic interplay between bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms. Here we used a more naturalistic task to examine temporal signatures of attentional mechanisms on fine and coarse time scales. Subjects had to inspect digitized copies of 60 paintings, each shown for 40 s. We simultaneously measured oculomotor behavior and electrophysiological correlates of brain activity to compare early and late intervals (1) of inspection time of each picture (picture viewing) and (2) of the full experiment (time on task). For picture viewing, we found an increase in fixation duration and a decrease of saccadic amplitude while these parameters did not change with time on task. Furthermore, early in picture viewing we observed higher spatial and temporal similarity of gaze behavior. Analyzing electrical brain activity revealed changes in three components (C1, N1 and P2) of the eye fixation-related potential (EFRP); during picture viewing; no variation was obtained for the power in the frontal beta- and in the theta activity. Time on task analyses demonstrated no effects on the EFRP amplitudes but an increase of power in the frontal theta and beta band activity. Thus, behavioral and electrophysiological measures similarly show characteristic changes during picture viewing, indicating a shifting balance of its underlying (bottom-up and top-down) attentional mechanisms. Time on task also modulated top-down attention but probably represents a different attentional mechanism.

Fischer, Thomas; Graupner, Sven-Thomas; Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Pannasch, Sebastian

2013-01-01

59

Pharmacologic Behavior Management of Pediatric Dental Patients Diagnosed with Attention Defi cit Disorder\\/Attention Defi cit Hyperactivity Disorder Pharmacologic Behavior Management of Pediatric Dental Patients Diagnosed with Attention Defi cit Disorder\\/Attention Defi cit Hyperactivity Disorder Pharmacologic Behavior Management of Pediatric Dental Patients Diagnosed with  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey of Texas pediatric dentists to determine: (1) the percentage of patients they treat with attention defi cit disorder (ADD)\\/attention defi cit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); (2) the behavior management techniques that are utilized to treat their patients who suffer from ADD\\/ADHD; and (3) the relative success rates of these techniques

Carolyn A. Kerins; Alton G. McWhorter; N. Sue Seale

60

Accuracy of the "DSM"-Oriented Attention Problem Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist in Diagnosing Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The present study aimed at testing the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) including an adapted five-item "DSM"-Oriented Attention Problem Scale for predicting attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). Methods: CBCL ratings were made both in a community sample (N = 390) and an outpatient child psychiatric sample (N = 392). Four…

Aebi, Marcel; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

2010-01-01

61

Behavioral Inhibition and Attentional Control in Adolescents: Robust Relationships with Anxiety and Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral inhibition (BI) has been associated with the development of internalizing disorders in children and adolescents.\\u000a It has further been shown that attentional control (AC) is negatively associated with internalizing problems. The combination\\u000a of high BI and low AC may particularly lead to elevated symptomatology of internalizing behavior. This study broadens existing\\u000a knowledge by investigating the additive and interacting effects

B. Esther Sportel; Maaike H. Nauta; Eva de Hullu; Peter J. de Jong; Catharina A. Hartman

2011-01-01

62

How optimists face skin cancer information: Risk assessment, attention, memory, and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate how optimists process health-related information. Sixty-five young adults (ages 18–35) reported skin cancer-related knowledge and behaviors, and read slides of information on skin and skin cancer. Visual attention to the slides was recorded using eye tracking, and their memory for the information was measured. Additionally, participants’ self-reported skin cancer-relevant behavior was

Jiang Luo; Derek M. Isaacowitz

2007-01-01

63

Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms in adults: Relationship to Gray’s Behavioral Approach System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disinhibition has received considerable recognition as a primary deficit in Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD\\/HD). The goal of the present study was to investigate claims that Gray’s Behavioral Approach System (BAS) is linked to a disinhibitory deficit and can account for hyperactive-impulsive AD\\/HD behaviors. A sample of 184 undergraduates responded to measures of Gray’s and other personality dimensions. BAS scores were positively

John T. Mitchell; Rosemery O. Nelson-Gray

2006-01-01

64

Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Delay-of-Reinforcement Gradients and Other Behavioral  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sagvolden, Johansen, Aase, and Russell (SJA&R) examine attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at levels of analysis ranging from neurotransmitters to behavior. At the behavioral level they attribute aspects of ADHD to anomalies of delay-of-reinforcement gradients. With a normal gradient, responses followed after a long delay by a reinforcer may share in the effects of that reinforcer; with a diminished or steepened

A. Charles Catania

65

Behavioral Inhibition, Sustained Attention, and Executive Functions: Constructing a Unifying Theory of ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comprises a deficit in behavioral inhibition. A theoretical model is constructed that links inhibition to 4 executive neuropsychological functions that appear to depend on it for their effective execution: (a) working memory, (b) self-regulation of affect–motivation–arousal, (c) internalization of speech, and (d) reconstitution (behavioral analysis and synthesis). Extended to ADHD, the model predicts that ADHD

Russell A. Barkley

1997-01-01

66

In the zone or zoning out? Tracking behavioral and neural fluctuations during sustained attention.  

PubMed

Despite growing recognition that attention fluctuates from moment-to-moment during sustained performance, prevailing analysis strategies involve averaging data across multiple trials or time points, treating these fluctuations as noise. Here, using alternative approaches, we clarify the relationship between ongoing brain activity and performance fluctuations during sustained attention. We introduce a novel task (the gradual onset continuous performance task), along with innovative analysis procedures that probe the relationships between reaction time (RT) variability, attention lapses, and intrinsic brain activity. Our results highlight 2 attentional states-a stable, less error-prone state ("in the zone"), characterized by higher default mode network (DMN) activity but during which subjects are at risk of erring if DMN activity rises beyond intermediate levels, and a more effortful mode of processing ("out of the zone"), that is less optimal for sustained performance and relies on activity in dorsal attention network (DAN) regions. These findings motivate a new view of DMN and DAN functioning capable of integrating seemingly disparate reports of their role in goal-directed behavior. Further, they hold potential to reconcile conflicting theories of sustained attention, and represent an important step forward in linking intrinsic brain activity to behavioral phenomena. PMID:22941724

Esterman, Michael; Noonan, Sarah K; Rosenberg, Monica; Degutis, Joseph

2012-08-31

67

Effects of Sugar Ingestion on the Classroom and Playgroup Behavior of Attention Deficit Disordered Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the effects of sugar ingestion on the behavior and academic performance of attention deficit disordered (ADD) boys, an investigation was undertaken employing a challenge design. The boys fasted overnight and then received in the morning a challenge drink containing either 1.75 gm\\/kg sucrose or a placebo (aspartame) of comparable sweetness. The study was run over the

Richard Milich; William E. Pelham

1986-01-01

68

Effects of Sugar Ingestion on the Classroom and Playgroup Behavior of Attention Deficit Disordered Boys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attention deficit disordered (ADD) boys fasted overnight and then received a drink containing sucrose or a placebo of comparable sweetness for four days. Examination of classroom behavior, academic productivity and accuracy, noncompliance with adult requests and peer interactions offered no support for the contention that sugar ingestion…

Milich, Richards; Pelham, William E.

1986-01-01

69

Attention Allocation, Distraction, and the Type A/Type B Behavior Pattern.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis sought to determine whether individuals identified as having a Type A or Type B behavior pattern allocate attention differently in the presence of a distractor. Thirty-seven university students, grouped by type through use of the Jenkins Activ...

A. J. Guardino

1985-01-01

70

Attachment quality, joint attention, and behavior outcome in infants prenatally exposed to cocaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the associations among disorganized attachment quality, joint attention, and behavioral development in a sample of infants at-risk. Participants were 57 infants prenatally exposed to cocaine and their caregivers. Infants came from a low socioeconomic status background and were part of an intervention setting.When the infants were 12, 15, 18, and 36 months, they took part in laboratory

Sangeeta Ajoy Mallik

2000-01-01

71

Attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder symptoms moderate cognition and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent estimates suggest that 31% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) meet diagnostic criteria for attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and another 24% of children with ASD exhibit subthreshold clinical ADHD symptoms. Presence of ADHD symptoms in the context of ASD could have a variety of effects on cognition, autistic traits, and adaptive\\/maladaptive behaviors including: exacerbating core ASD impairments; adding

Benjamin E. Yerys; Gregory L. Wallace; Jennifer L. Sokoloff; Devon A. Shook; Joette D. James; Lauren Kenworthy

2009-01-01

72

Teaching Elementary Students with Behavior Disorders to Recruit Positive Teacher Attention: Effects on Math Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four elementary students with behavior disorders attending a day treatment facility were trained to recruit positive teacher attention. Data on student recruiting and academic productivity were collected across 59 twenty-minute sessions. A multiple baseline across students design demonstrated a functional relationship of recruitment training on…

Alber, Sheila R.; Anderson, Lara L.; Martin, Christa M.; Moore, Karen J.

2005-01-01

73

Escape-to-Attention as a Potential Variable for Maintaining Problem Behavior in the School Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mueller, Sterling-Turner, and Moore (2005) reported a novel escape-to-attention (ETA) functional analysis condition in a school setting with one child. The current study replicates Mueller et al.'s functional analysis procedures with three elementary school-age boys referred for problem behavior. Functional analysis verified the participant's…

Sarno, Jana M.; Sterling, Heather E.; Mueller, Michael M.; Dufrene, Brad; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe

2011-01-01

74

Attention, memory, and behavioral adjustment in children with frontal lobe epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore whether attention, memory, and behavior would be more affected in children with frontal lobe epilepsy than in children with other types of epilepsy, we compared 16 children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), 8 with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and 8 with generalized absence (GEA) seizures on the Performance Speed (PS) and Freedom of Distraction (FD) indices of the

Maria-Teresa Hernandez; Hannelore C. Sauerwein; Isabelle Jambaque; Elaine de Guise; Francine Lussier; Anne Lortie; Olivier Dulac; Maryse Lassondea

2003-01-01

75

Attention Biases and Disinhibited Behavior as Predictors of Alcohol Use and Enhancement Reasons for Drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disinhibition is a risk factor for alcohol use that may be specifically linked to drinking to enhance positive affect (enhancement motives). In this study individual differences germane to disinhibition were assessed, and their relation to alcohol use and reasons for drinking was examined. Laboratory tasks assessed attentional biases for reward and punishment cues and disinhibited behavior. Self-reported personality, alcohol use,

Craig R. Colder; Roisin OConnor

2002-01-01

76

Paying Attention to Ourselves: Modeling Anti-Bullying Behavior for Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It seems as if at no other time in the distant past has there been so much media coverage of bullies and bullying behavior within the schools. Has it always been present in some form? More than likely. Should it be brought to national attention? Absolutely. No one, student or not, deserves to feel unsafe, threatened, or invisible, whether it be…

Lucas, Amy Magnafichi

2012-01-01

77

Positive Illusory Bias and Response to Behavioral Treatment among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study investigates the accuracy of self-perceptions of competence among 43 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ages 6.9-11.9; 37 boys) attending an 8-week empirically supported behavioral summer treatment program. Having inflated self-perceptions about one's competence at the beginning of the summer predicted…

Mikami, Amori Yee; Calhoun, Casey D.; Abikoff, Howard B.

2010-01-01

78

"Gaze Leading": Initiating Simulated Joint Attention Influences Eye Movements and Choice Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research in adults has made great use of the gaze cuing paradigm to understand the behavior of the follower in joint attention episodes. We implemented a gaze leading task to investigate the initiator--the other person in these triadic interactions. In a series of gaze-contingent eye-tracking studies, we show that fixation dwell time upon…

Bayliss, Andrew P.; Murphy, Emily; Naughtin, Claire K.; Kritikos, Ada; Schilbach, Leonhard; Becker, Stefanie I.

2013-01-01

79

Neural and behavioral correlates of expectancy violations in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neuropsychiatric disorder in childhood with established problems in cognitive control and associated fronto-striatal circuitry. More recently, fronto-cerebellar circuits have been implicated in this disorder. Both of these circuits are important in predicting the occurrence and timing of behaviorally relevant events and in detecting violations of these predictions. Therefore, we hypothesized that

Sarah Durston; Matthew C. Davidson; Martijn J. Mulder; Julie A. Spicer; Adriana Galvan; Nim Tottenham; Anouk Scheres; F. Xavier Castellanos; Herman van Engeland; B. J. Casey

2007-01-01

80

Attention Deficit Disorder Children with or without HyperactivityWhich Behaviors Are Helped by Stimulants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each patient with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), with or without hyperactivity, is unique in the variety and severity of the handicapping conditions associated with ADD. The use of a well- designed teacher rating scale can provide the clinician with a behavioral prafile of each patient. The importance of knowing the child's specific problems is emphasized by the results of this

Rina K. Ullmann; Esther K. Sleator

1985-01-01

81

A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

There is currently controversy regarding the need for and the effectiveness of behavior modification for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) despite years of study and multiple investigations reporting beneficial effects of the intervention. A meta-analysis was conducted by identifying relevant behavioral treatment studies in the literature. One-hundred seventy-four studies of behavioral treatment were identified from 114 individual papers that were appropriate for the meta-analysis. Effect sizes varied by study design but not generally by other study characteristics, such as the demographic variables of the participants in the studies. Overall unweighted effect sizes in between group studies (.83), pre-post studies (.70), within group studies (2.64), and single subject studies (3.78) indicated that behavioral treatments are highly effective. Based on these results, there is strong and consistent evidence that behavioral treatments are effective for treating ADHD. PMID:19131150

Fabiano, Gregory A; Pelham, William E; Coles, Erika K; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Connor, Briannon C

2008-11-11

82

Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): A neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity)  

PubMed Central

Most studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on the combined type and emphasized a core problem in response inhibition. It is proposed here that the core problem in the truly inattentive type of ADHD (not simply the subthreshold combined type) is in working memory. It is further proposed that laboratory measures, such as complex-span and dual-task dichotic listening tasks, can detect this. Children with the truly inattentive type of ADHD, rather than being distractible, may instead be easily bored, their problem being more in motivation (under-arousal) than in inhibitory control. Much converging evidence points to a primary disturbance in the striatum (a frontal–striatal loop) in the combined type of ADHD. It is proposed here that the primary disturbance in truly inattentive-type ADHD (ADD) is in the cortex (a frontal–parietal loop). Finally, it is posited that these are not two different types of ADHD, but two different disorders with different cognitive and behavioral profiles, different patterns of comorbidities, different responses to medication, and different underlying neurobiologies.

DIAMOND, ADELE

2006-01-01

83

Involuntary orienting of attention to nociceptive events: neural and behavioral signatures.  

PubMed

Pain can involuntarily capture attention and disrupt pain-unrelated cognitive activities. The brain mechanisms of these effects were explored by laser- and visual-evoked potentials. Consecutive nociceptive laser stimuli and visual stimuli were delivered in pairs. Subjects were instructed to ignore nociceptive stimuli while performing a task on visual targets. Because involuntary attention is particularly sensitive to novelty, in some trials (17%), unexpected laser stimuli were delivered on a different hand area (location-deviant) relative to the more frequent standard laser stimuli. Compared with frequent standard laser stimuli, deviant stimuli enhanced all nociceptive-evoked brain potentials (laser N1, N2, P2a, P2b). Deviant laser stimuli also decreased the amplitude of late latency-evoked responses (visual N2-P3) to the subsequent visual targets and delayed reaction times to them. The data confirm that nociceptive processing competes with pain-unrelated cognitive activities for attentional resources and that concomitant nociceptive events affect behavior by depressing attention allocation to ongoing cognitive processing. The laser-evoked potential magnitude reflected the engagement of attention to the novel nociceptive stimuli. We conclude that the laser-evoked potentials index the activity of a neural system involved in the detection of novel salient stimuli in order to focus attention and prioritize action to potentially damaging dangers. PMID:19692512

Legrain, Valéry; Perchet, Caroline; García-Larrea, Luis

2009-08-19

84

Behavioral and Pharmacological Studies on the Validation of a New Animal Model for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood hyperactivity (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) is a common behavior disorder among grade-school children. The characteristic symptoms are attentional problems and hyperkinesia. A number of animal models for ADHD syndrome have been developed, but very few of these models are truly representative in that they rarely describe both hyperactivity and attentional problems. Frequently the disorder has been induced in

Tarja Puumala; Sirja Ruotsalainen; Pekka Jäkälä; Esa Koivisto; Paavo Riekkinen Jr.; Jouni Sirviö

1996-01-01

85

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Symptoms and Risky Sexual Behavior in Young Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background This study was undertaken to assess the association between adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and high-risk sexual behavior. Methods This cross-sectional study interviewed 462 low-income women aged 18–30 years. We used the 18-item Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) Symptom Checklist to assess ADHD symptoms. Risky sexual behaviors included sex before 15 years of age, risky sex partners in lifetime, number of sex partners in the last 12 months, condom use in the last 12 months, alcohol use before sex in the last 12 months, traded sex in lifetime, and diagnosed with sexually transmitted infection (STI) in lifetime. Results Mean ADHD symptom score was 19.8 (SD±12.9), and summary index of all risky sexual behavior was 1.77 (SD±1.37). Using unadjusted odds ratios (OR), women who endorsed more ADHD symptoms reported engaging in more risky sexual behaviors of all types. However, when multivariable logistic regression was applied adjusting for various sociodemographic covariates, the adjusted ORs remained significant for having risky sex partners and having ?3 sex partners in the prior 12 months. We observed some differences in risky sexual behavior between two domains of ADHD. Conclusions The ADHD symptom score appears to be associated with some risky sexual behaviors and deserves further attention. A brief ADHD screening can identify this high-risk group for timely evaluation and safe sex counseling.

Hosain, G.M. Monawar; Berenson, Abbey B.; Tennen, Howard; Bauer, Lance O.

2012-01-01

86

Deterring Cheating Behavior in the Marketing Classroom: An Analysis of the Effects of Demographics, Attitudes, and In-Class Deterrent Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the level of cheating in marketing classes at two universities. The authors determine that certain predictors of cheating behavior activate more under high deterrent conditions. The study concludes that in-class deterrents are effective in reducing the levels of cheating on exams.

Sarath A. Nonis; Cathy Owens Swift

1998-01-01

87

Self-Awareness Without Awareness? Implicit Self-Focused Attention and Behavioral Self-Regulation.  

PubMed

Objective self-awareness theory contends that focusing attention on the self initiates an automatic comparison of self to standards. To gain evidence for automatic self-standard comparison processes, two experiments manipulated attention to self with subliminal first-name priming. People completed a computer-based parity task after being instructed that the standard was to be fast or to be accurate. Subliminal first name priming increased behavioral adherence to the explicit standard. When told to be fast, self-focused people made more mistakes and had faster response times; when told to be accurate, self-focused people made fewer mistakes. A manipulation of conscious self-awareness (via a mirror) had the same self-regulatory effects. The findings suggest that comparing self to standards can occur automatically and that it is attention to self, not awareness of the self per se, that evokes self-evaluation. PMID:23226716

Silvia, Paul J; Phillips, Ann G

2012-02-15

88

Temporal Context in Speech Processing and Attentional Stream Selection: A Behavioral and Neural perspective  

PubMed Central

The human capacity for processing speech is remarkable, especially given that information in speech unfolds over multiple time scales concurrently. Similarly notable is our ability to filter out of extraneous sounds and focus our attention on one conversation, epitomized by the ‘Cocktail Party’ effect. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying on-line speech decoding and attentional stream selection are not well understood. We review findings from behavioral and neurophysiological investigations that underscore the importance of the temporal structure of speech for achieving these perceptual feats. We discuss the hypothesis that entrainment of ambient neuronal oscillations to speech’s temporal structure, across multiple time-scales, serves to facilitate its decoding and underlies the selection of an attended speech stream over other competing input. In this regard, speech decoding and attentional stream selection are examples of ‘active sensing’, emphasizing an interaction between proactive and predictive top-down modulation of neuronal dynamics and bottom-up sensory input.

Zion Golumbic, Elana M.; Poeppel, David; Schroeder, Charles E.

2012-01-01

89

Neuropsychological function and suicidal behavior: attention control, memory and executive dysfunction in suicide attempt  

PubMed Central

Background Executive dysfunction, distinct from other cognitive deficits in depression, has been associated with suicidal behavior. However, this dysfunction is not found consistently across samples. Method Medication-free subjects with DSM-IV major depressive episode (major depressive disorder and bipolar type I disorder) and a past history of suicidal behavior (n=72) were compared to medication-free depressed subjects with no history of suicidal behavior (n=80) and healthy volunteers (n=56) on a battery of tests assessing neuropsychological functions typically affected by depression (motor and psychomotor speed, attention, memory) and executive functions reportedly impaired in suicide attempters (abstract/contingent learning, working memory, language fluency, impulse control). Results All of the depressed subjects performed worse than healthy volunteers on motor, psychomotor and language fluency tasks. Past suicide attempters, in turn, performed worse than depressed non-attempters on attention and memory/working memory tasks [a computerized Stroop task, the Buschke Selective Reminding Task (SRT), the Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT) and an N-back task] but not on other executive function measures, including a task associated with ventral prefrontal function (Object Alternation). Deficits were not accounted for by current suicidal ideation or the lethality of past attempts. A small subsample of those using a violent method in their most lethal attempt showed a pattern of poor executive performance. Conclusions Deficits in specific components of attention control, memory and working memory were associated with suicidal behavior in a sample where non-violent attempt predominated. Broader executive dysfunction in depression may be associated with specific forms of suicidal behavior, rather than suicidal behavior per se.

Keilp, J. G.; Gorlyn, M.; Russell, M.; Oquendo, M. A.; Burke, A. K.; Harkavy-Friedman, J.; Mann, J. J.

2013-01-01

90

Social acceptability of methylphenidate and behavior modification for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

The social acceptability of methylphenidate, behavior modification, and methylphenidate plus behavior modification was evaluated. Fifty mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 50 control mothers, along with 21 children with ADHD and 20 control children, read a case vignette of an 8-year-old boy with ADHD and descriptions of the three treatment conditions. Subjects then rated the acceptability of each treatment. The mothers of children with ADHD were reassessed 3.5 months later, after experience with interventions for their children. Both ADHD and control families rated behavior modification as the most acceptable, methylphenidate as least acceptable, and the combined condition intermediate between the other two. At follow-up, there was a significant improvement in the acceptability of methylphenidate and the combined condition. The increased acceptability of methylphenidate at follow-up was related to increases in parents' knowledge about ADHD but not to the significant improvements that occurred in the children's hyperactive behavior. PMID:1881737

Liu, C; Robin, A L; Brenner, S; Eastman, J

1991-09-01

91

Impulsivity and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Subtype Classification Using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the classification accuracy of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS) in discriminating several attention\\u000a deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes, including predominantly inattentive type (ADHD\\/I), combined type (ADHD\\/C),\\u000a and combined type with behavioral problems (ADHD\\/ODD), between each other and a non-ADHD control group using logistic regression\\u000a analyses. The sample consisted of 88 children ranging in age from 9.0 years to

Drew J. Miller; Karen J. Derefinko; Donald R. Lynam; Richard Milich; Mark T. Fillmore

2010-01-01

92

Parenting Intervention to Reduce Attention and Behavior Difficulties in Preschoolers: A CUIDAR Evaluation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated CUIDAR, a program that provides community-based 10-week parent training to reduce attention and\\u000a behavior problems in preschool children. We recruited 154 predominantly low-income and Latino preschoolers and their parents\\u000a to participate in this evaluation study. We collected data prior to and immediately following intervention and one year later.\\u000a At the time of follow-up, we also

Kimberley D. Lakes; Danyel Vargas; Matt Riggs; Janeth Schmidt; Mike Baird

93

Prenatal Organochlorine Exposure and Behaviors Associated With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in School-Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorines are environmentally persistent contaminants that readily cross the placenta, posing a potential risk to the developing fetus. Evidence for neurodevelopmental effects at low levels of these compounds is growing, though few studies have focused on behavioral outcomes. The authors investigated the association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and p,p#-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p#-DDE) levels and behav- iors associated with attention deficit

Sharon K. Sagiv; Sally W. Thurston; David C. Bellinger; Paige E. Tolbert; Larisa M. Altshul; Susan A. Korrick

2010-01-01

94

Motivating Children with Attention Deficiency Disorder Using Certain Behavior Modification Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder and its manifestation during childhood\\u000a are characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and\\/or hyperactivity. ADHD is currently considered a persistent and\\u000a chronic condition for which no medical cure is available, although medication and therapy can treat symptoms. Children with\\u000a such mental retardation more often exhibit behavior problems than children without

Huang Qunfang Jacklyn; S. Ravichandran

95

Behavioral parent training for Taiwanese parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

It has been observed that it is relatively difficult for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to follow social rules and behave in a socially desirable manner. The ADHD children in Chinese culture, which emphasizes Confucian values, might encounter even greater adjustment difficulties. The purpose of the present study is to implement a behavioral parent training program in a Confucian environment and examine its effectiveness. Twenty-three ADHD preschoolers (age: 3-6 years) and their parents were selected to participate in the present study. Fourteen of these 23 parents completed a 10-session parent training program. Parent ratings of ADHD/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and problem behaviors at home were collected at the first, fourth, sixth, seventh, and tenth sessions. Three instruments were used to evaluate treatment outcome: the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-Parent Form, Child Attention Profile, and Home Situations Questionnaire. The results showed that both ADHD/ODD symptoms and home behaviors of these 14 children improved significantly after the parent training. There was also a significant decline in the severity of symptoms and problem behaviors at home with the progression of training. These findings support the effectiveness of this parent training program for parents of ADHD children in an environment of Confucianism. Limitations of the present study and future direction for research are discussed. PMID:12753567

Huang, Huei-Lin; Chao, Chia-Chen; Tu, Chuan-Ching; Yang, Pin-Chen

2003-06-01

96

The process of assisting behavior modification in a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological disease among children. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of assisting with behavior modification in a child with ADHD. The patient had undergone medical treatment for a year with no obvious effect. With the guidance of other professional people, the child's teachers and nursing instructors, the researchers proceeded with behavioral modification in conjunction with medication for another year. The medication treatment followed doctors' prescriptions, and, as regards the behavioral treatment, doctors and experts drafted and decided the content of the behavioral contract. The main basic techniques were skillful reinforcement and punishment. Then, via interviews with his parents and teachers, information was obtained that provided an understanding of the patient's condition and progress. It was found that the improvements were very significant. On the basis of the research results, the researchers submit that: (1) drug treatment combined with behavioral treatment apparently improves the daily behaviors of hyperactive children; (2) good communication with parents and psychological preparation are the most critical keys to the success of substantial behavioral improvement among hyperactive children; (3) establishment and integration of social resources, including provision of transitional parenting education solutions, and cooperation and sound interaction from school teachers, which fosters consolidated team work, are the critical factors to behavioral improvement among hyperactive children. PMID:17551896

Chang, Hsin-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Sheng; Shih, Ying-Ling

2007-06-01

97

Attentional bias in older adults: Effects of generalized anxiety disorder and cognitive behavior therapy.  

PubMed

Attentional biases are known to play a contributing, and perhaps even causal role in the etiology of anxiety and other negative affective states. The prevalence of anxiety disorders in the older cohort is growing, and there are both theoretical and empirical reasons to suspect that age-related factors could moderate attentional bias effects in the context of late-life anxiety. The current study included one of the most widely-used measures of attentional bias, the dot-probe task (Mathews & MacLeod, 1985). Participants were older adults who were either nonanxious or diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. The patient subsample also completed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or an equivalent wait list condition, after which the dot probe was administered a second time. Results showed that clinical anxiety had no particular importance for the deployment of attention, casting doubt on the universality of biased attention in older anxiety patients. Although there were no maladaptive biases detected toward either threat or depression words at pretreatment, there was nevertheless a marginally significant differential reduction in bias toward threat words following CBT. This reduction did not occur among those in the wait list condition. Implications are discussed. PMID:23916715

Mohlman, Jan; Price, Rebecca B; Vietri, Jeff

2013-07-03

98

Improving the Effectiveness of Behavioral Classroom Interventions for Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity DisorderA Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral classroom interventions are an empirically supported treatment for attention-deficit\\/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This case study reports how modifications to an existing behavior management plan improved the behavioral intervention of a third-grade boy diagnosed with ADHD. A multiple baseline design across settings was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the modified intervention. Behavioral observations indicated improvement in on-task behavior and

Gregory A. Fabiano; William E. Pelham

2003-01-01

99

Media Attention, Institutional Response, and Health Behavior ChangeThe Case of Drunk Driving, 1978-1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers media effects on behavior that are mediated through other social institutions. Examined is the extent to which changes over time in the amount of media attention to the issue of drunk driving (DD) may have contributed to the reduction in DD behavior between 1978 and 1996. It was hypothesized that media effects on DD behavior were mediated

ITZHAK YANOVITZKY; COURTNEY BENNETT

1999-01-01

100

Prenatal Organochlorine Exposure and Behaviors Associated With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in School-Aged Children  

PubMed Central

Organochlorines are environmentally persistent contaminants that readily cross the placenta, posing a potential risk to the developing fetus. Evidence for neurodevelopmental effects at low levels of these compounds is growing, though few studies have focused on behavioral outcomes. The authors investigated the association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE) levels and behaviors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), measured with the Conners’ Rating Scale for Teachers (CRS-T), in a cohort of 607 children aged 7–11 years (median age, 8.2 years) born in 1993–1998 to mothers residing near a PCB-contaminated harbor in New Bedford, Massachusetts. The median umbilical cord serum level of the sum of 4 prevalent PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180) was 0.19 ng/g serum (range, 0.01–4.41 ng/g serum). The authors found higher risk for ADHD-like behaviors assessed with the CRS-T at higher levels of PCBs and p,p?-DDE. For example, the authors found higher risk of atypical behavior on the Conners’ ADHD Index for the highest quartile of the sum of 4 PCB congeners versus the lowest quartile (risk ratio = 1.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.92) and a similar relation for p,p?-DDE. These results support an association between low-level prenatal organochlorine exposure and ADHD-like behaviors in childhood.

Sagiv, Sharon K.; Thurston, Sally W.; Bellinger, David C.; Tolbert, Paige E.; Altshul, Larisa M.; Korrick, Susan A.

2010-01-01

101

The time-course of threat processing in children: a temporal dissociation between selective attention and behavioral interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although selective attention to threatening information is an adaptive mechanism, exaggerated attention to threat may be related to anxiety disorders. However, studies examining threat processing in children have obtained mixed findings. In the present study, the time-course of attentional bias for threat and behavioral interference was analyzed in a community sample of 8–18-year-old children (N=33) using a pictorial dot probe

Lidewij H. Wolters; Else de Haan; Leentje Vervoort; Sanne M. Hogendoorn; Frits Boer; Pier J. M. Prins

2012-01-01

102

The time-course of threat processing in children: a temporal dissociation between selective attention and behavioral interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although selective attention to threatening information is an adaptive mechanism, exaggerated attention to threat may be related to anxiety disorders. However, studies examining threat processing in children have obtained mixed findings. In the present study, the time-course of attentional bias for threat and behavioral interference was analyzed in a community sample of 8–18-year-old children (N=33) using a pictorial dot probe

Lidewij H. Wolters; Else de Haan; Leentje Vervoort; Sanne M. Hogendoorn; Frits Boer; Pier J. M. Prins

2011-01-01

103

Development and validation of an attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) executive function and behavior rating screening battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention problems are ubiquitous in clinical practice, commonly found in many childhood learning and behavior disorders. Practitioners need cost- and time-effective methods for determining whether children have attention problems due to attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or numerous other conditions. This study examined the utility of a 15-minute ADHD screening battery designed to differentiate ADHD (including inattentive, IT, and combined, CT, subtypes),

James B. Hale; Linda A. Reddy; Scott L. Decker; Rebecca Thompson; Julie Henzel; Annemarie Teodori; Elizabeth Forrest; Eleazar Eusebio; Martha Bridge Denckla

2009-01-01

104

Level and Change in Reading Scores and Attention Problems During Elementary School as Predictors of Problem Behavior in Middle School  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined heterogeneity in change in reading test scores and attention problems during middle childhood and whether heterogeneity in change in these variables predicted later problem behavior. Our sample consisted of 783 students recruited from 10 Pacific Northwest schools. For both reading scores and teacher report of attention problems, latent growth curve models of annual data from Grades 3

Charles B. Fleming; Tracy W. Harachi; Rebecca C. Cortes; Robert D. Abbott; Richard F. Catalano

2004-01-01

105

Current Status of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a valid and impairing psychological disorder that persists into adulthood in a majority of cases and is associated with chronic functional impairment and increased rates of comorbidity. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches for this disorder have emerged relatively recently, and available evidence from open and randomized controlled trials suggests that these approaches are promising in producing significant symptom reduction. A conceptual model of how CBT may work for ADHD is reviewed along with existing efficacy studies. A preliminary comparison of effect sizes across intervention packages suggests that targeted learning and practice of specific behavioral compensatory strategies may be a critical “active ingredient” in CBT for adult ADHD. The article concludes with a discussion of future directions and critical questions that must be addressed in this area of clinical research.

Knouse, Laura E.; Safren, Steven A.

2010-01-01

106

Visual attention and autistic behavior in infants with fragile X syndrome  

PubMed Central

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading known inherited cause of intellectual disability and the most common known biological cause of autism. Approximately 25% to 50% of males with FXS meet full diagnostic criteria for autism. Despite the high comorbidity between FXS and autism and the ability to diagnose FXS prenatally or at birth, no studies have examined indicators of autism in infants with FXS. The current study focused on indices of visual attention, one of the earliest and most robust behavioral indicators of autism in idiopathic (non-FXS) autism. Analyses revealed lower HR variability, shallower HR decelerations, and prolonged look durations in 12-month old infants with FXS that were correlated with severity of autistic behavior but not mental age.

Roberts, Jane E.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Bailey, Donald; Long, Anna C. J.; Anello, Vittoria; Colombo, John

2013-01-01

107

Effects of Task Difficulty and Teacher Attention on the Off-Task Behavior of High-Ability Students with Behavior Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study used traditional behavioral assessment procedures (functional behavioral assessment and structural analysis) in a single-subject design to determine whether a functional relationship existed between (a) levels of task difficulty and teacher attention and (b) off-task behavior in 3 students identified as highly able in mathematics who…

Simonsen, Brandi; Little, Catherine A.; Fairbanks, Sarah

2010-01-01

108

The effects of yoga on the attention and behavior of boys with Attention-Deficit\\/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boys diagnosed with ADHD by specialist pediatricians and stabilized on medication were randomly assigned to a 20-session yoga group (n = 11) or a control group (cooperative activities; n = 8). Boys were assessed pre- and post-intervention on the Conners’ Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Long (CPRS-R:L & CTRS-R:L; Conners, 1997), the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA; Greenberg, Cormna,

Pauline. S. Jensen; Dianna T. Kenny

2004-01-01

109

An electrophysiological and behavioral investigation of involuntary attention towards auditory frequency, duration and intensity changes.  

PubMed

We measured behavior and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in 12 subjects performing on an audio-visual distraction paradigm to investigate the cerebral mechanisms of involuntary attention towards stimulus changes in the acoustic environment. Subjects classified odd/even numbers presented on a computer screen 300 ms after the occurrence of a task-irrelevant auditory stimulus, by pressing the corresponding response button. Auditory stimuli were standard tones (600 Hz, 200 ms, 85 dB; P=0.8) or deviant tones (P=0.2), these differing from the standard either in frequency (700 Hz), duration (50 ms) or intensity (79 dB), in separate blocks. In comparison to performance to visual stimuli following the standard tones, reaction time increased by 24 ms (F(1,11)=10.91, P<0.01) and hit rate decreased by 4.6% (F(1,11)=35.47, P<0.001) to visual stimuli following the deviant tones, indicating behavioral distraction. ERPs revealed the mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited to deviant tones, which was larger for the duration deviant than for the frequency and intensity deviants (F(2,22)=19.43, P<0.001, epsilon =0.83), and which had different scalp distribution for all three deviant conditions (F(16,176)=2.40, P<0.05, epsilon =0.12). As the shorter duration and softer intensity deviant tones were unlikely to engage fresh neurons responding to their specific physical features, the present results indicate that a genuine change detection mechanism is involved in triggering attention switching towards sound changes, and suggest a largely distributed neural network of the auditory cortex underlying such involuntary attention switching. PMID:12421656

Escera, Carles; Corral, Maria Jose; Yago, Elena

2002-11-01

110

The efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention for the treatment of hospitalized children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature is replete with ambiguity and controversy regarding the treatment of Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Cognitive behavioral interventions have been enlisted as a viable treatment strategy for this behavioral syndrome. The efficacy of the Kendall and Braswell training program for the acquisition of self control in four hospitalized ADHD children was assessed by a series or repeated measures. The acquisition

Sheila A Doherty

1991-01-01

111

Effects of Stimulant Medication Treatment on Mothers' and Children's Attributions for the Behavior of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants were 55 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were receiving ongoing treatment with stimulant medications and their mothers, and 31 children with ADHD who were beginning stimulant medication and their mothers. Mothers and children offered attributions for child behaviors that occurred when the child was medicated and not medicated. Mothers rated child compliance and prosocial behavior as

Charlotte Johnston; Stuart Fine; Margaret Weiss; Jacqueline Weiss; Gabrielle Weiss; Wendy S. Freeman

2000-01-01

112

Maternal Attributions and Child Oppositional Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Boys with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors examined changes over a 1-year period in mothers' attributions for child behavior and child oppositional behavior among 53 mothers and nonproblem sons and 44 mothers and sons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Boys averaged 8 years of age (SD = 11 months) at Time 1. Families were primarily of European Canadian…

Johnston, Charlotte; Hommersen, Paul; Seipp, Carla M.

2009-01-01

113

Infant Attention and Visual Preferences: Converging Evidence from Behavior, Event-Related Potentials, and Cortical Source Localization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we had 3 major goals. The 1st goal was to establish a link between behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures of infant attention and recognition memory. To assess the distribution of infant visual preferences throughout ERP testing, we designed a new experimental procedure that embeds a behavioral measure (paired…

Reynolds, Greg D.; Courage, Mary L.; Richards, John E.

2010-01-01

114

Infant Attention and Visual Preferences: Converging Evidence from Behavior, Event-Related Potentials, and Cortical Source Localization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we had 3 major goals. The 1st goal was to establish a link between behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures of infant attention and recognition memory. To assess the distribution of infant visual preferences throughout ERP testing, we designed a new experimental procedure that embeds a behavioral measure (paired…

Reynolds, Greg D.; Courage, Mary L.; Richards, John E.

2010-01-01

115

The Effects of Highlighting on the Math Computation Performance and Off-Task Behavior of Students with Attention Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effects of color highlighting during a math computation task on performance accuracy and behavior of students with attention problems. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, three students solved math computation problems on worksheets with and without highlighting. Off-task behavior recorded from videotape…

Kercood, Suneeta; Grskovic, Janice A.

2009-01-01

116

The interactive effect of attention control and the perceptions of others' entitlement behavior on job and health outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to examine how attention control moderates the relationship between perceptions of others' entitlement behavior and employee attitudinal, behavioral, and health outcomes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In study 1, data were collected from 309 employees of a municipality. In the second study, the independent and dependent variables were collected two months apart (and matched) from

Wayne A. Hochwarter; James A. Meurs; Pamela L. Perrewé; M. Todd Royle; Timothy A. Matherly

2007-01-01

117

An Integrative, Cognitive-Behavioral, Systemic Approach to Working with Students Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent diagnostic disorder for many students, which correlates with negative academic, social, and personal consequences. This article presents an integrative, cognitive-behavioral, systemic approach that offers behaviorally based interventions for professional school counselors to support…

Shillingford, Margaret Ann; Lambie, Glenn W.; Walter, Sara Meghan

2007-01-01

118

The time-course of threat processing in children: a temporal dissociation between selective attention and behavioral interference.  

PubMed

Although selective attention to threatening information is an adaptive mechanism, exaggerated attention to threat may be related to anxiety disorders. However, studies examining threat processing in children have obtained mixed findings. In the present study, the time-course of attentional bias for threat and behavioral interference was analyzed in a community sample of 8-18-year-old children (N=33) using a pictorial dot probe task. Threatening and neutral stimuli were shown during 17 ms (masked), 500 ms, and 1250 ms. Results provide preliminary evidence of an automatic attentional bias for threat at 17 ms that persists during later, more controlled stages of information processing (500 and 1250 ms). Furthermore, participants showed a delayed response to threat-containing trials relative to neutral trials in the 500 and 1250 ms condition, which may indicate interference by threat. Together, these results suggest that an attentional bias for threat precedes behavioral interference in children. Furthermore, results indicate that performance in daily life can be temporarily interrupted by the processing of threatening information. In addition, results of earlier studies into selective attention in children using tasks based on behavioral responses may have been confounded by interference effects of threat. For future studies, we recommend to take behavioral interference into account. PMID:21623478

Wolters, Lidewij H; de Haan, Else; Vervoort, Leentje; Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Boer, Frits; Prins, Pier J M

2011-06-01

119

Separate and Combined Effects of Methylphenidate and Behavior Modification on Boys With Attention Deficit–Hyperactivity Disorder in the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the separate and combined effects of behavior modification and 2 doses of methylphenidate (MPH; 0.3 and 0.6 mg\\/kg) compared with baseline (no behavior modification and a placebo) on the classroom behavior and academic performance of 31 ADHD (attention Deficit–Hyperactivity disorder) boys attending a summer treatment program. Results revealed significant effects of both interventions, with the mean effect

William E. Pelham; Caryn L. Carlson; Susan E. Sams; Gary Vallano; M. Joanne Dixon; Betsy Hoza

1993-01-01

120

Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. A sample of 240 maltreated early adolescents (ages 9–11) and their caregivers were interviewed within 14 months of being removed from the home. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems were partial mediators of the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. These associations were significant even after controlling for children's intellectual functioning, sex, age, and severity of other maltreatment types. Possible explanations for the detrimental impact of physical abuse on behavior are discussed, along with the implications of the current study's results for interventions aimed at reducing early adolescent aggressive behavior.

Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

2010-01-01

121

The Relationship between Self-Awareness of Attentional Status, Behavioral Performance and Oscillatory Brain Rhythms.  

PubMed

High-level cognitive factors, including self-awareness, are believed to play an important role in human visual perception. The principal aim of this study was to determine whether oscillatory brain rhythms play a role in the neural processes involved in self-monitoring attentional status. To do so we measured cortical activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants were asked to self-monitor their internal status, only initiating the presentation of a stimulus when they perceived their attentional focus to be maximal. We employed a hierarchical Bayesian method that uses fMRI results as soft-constrained spatial information to solve the MEG inverse problem, allowing us to estimate cortical currents in the order of millimeters and milliseconds. Our results show that, during self-monitoring of internal status, there was a sustained decrease in power within the 7-13 Hz (alpha) range in the rostral cingulate motor area (rCMA) on the human medial wall, beginning approximately 430 msec after the trial start (p < 0.05, FDR corrected). We also show that gamma-band power (41-47 Hz) within this area was positively correlated with task performance from 40-640 msec after the trial start (r = 0.71, p < 0.05). We conclude: (1) the rCMA is involved in processes governing self-monitoring of internal status; and (2) the qualitative differences between alpha and gamma activity are reflective of their different roles in self-monitoring internal states. We suggest that alpha suppression may reflect a strengthening of top-down interareal connections, while a positive correlation between gamma activity and task performance indicates that gamma may play an important role in guiding visuomotor behavior. PMID:24069368

Yamagishi, Noriko; Anderson, Stephen J

2013-09-17

122

The Relationship between Self-Awareness of Attentional Status, Behavioral Performance and Oscillatory Brain Rhythms  

PubMed Central

High-level cognitive factors, including self-awareness, are believed to play an important role in human visual perception. The principal aim of this study was to determine whether oscillatory brain rhythms play a role in the neural processes involved in self-monitoring attentional status. To do so we measured cortical activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants were asked to self-monitor their internal status, only initiating the presentation of a stimulus when they perceived their attentional focus to be maximal. We employed a hierarchical Bayesian method that uses fMRI results as soft-constrained spatial information to solve the MEG inverse problem, allowing us to estimate cortical currents in the order of millimeters and milliseconds. Our results show that, during self-monitoring of internal status, there was a sustained decrease in power within the 7-13 Hz (alpha) range in the rostral cingulate motor area (rCMA) on the human medial wall, beginning approximately 430 msec after the trial start (p < 0.05, FDR corrected). We also show that gamma-band power (41-47 Hz) within this area was positively correlated with task performance from 40–640 msec after the trial start (r = 0.71, p < 0.05). We conclude: (1) the rCMA is involved in processes governing self-monitoring of internal status; and (2) the qualitative differences between alpha and gamma activity are reflective of their different roles in self-monitoring internal states. We suggest that alpha suppression may reflect a strengthening of top-down interareal connections, while a positive correlation between gamma activity and task performance indicates that gamma may play an important role in guiding visuomotor behavior.

Yamagishi, Noriko; Anderson, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

123

Using MRI to Examine Brain-Behavior Relationships in Males With Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe relationship between neuropsychological measures of inhibition and sustained attention and structural brain differences in the regions of the caudate and the frontal region was examined in males with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD\\/H).

MARGARET SEMRUD-CLIKEMAN; RONALD J. STEINGARD; PAULINE FILIPEK; JOSEPH BIEDERMAN; KAAREN BEKKEN; PERRY F. RENSHAW

2000-01-01

124

Visual Attention and Autistic Behavior in Infants with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aberrant attention is a core feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS), however, little is known regarding the developmental trajectory and underlying physiological processes of attention deficits in FXS. Atypical visual attention is an early emerging and robust indicator of autism in idiopathic (non-FXS) autism. Using a biobehavioral approach with…

Roberts, Jane E.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Long, Anna C. J.; Anello, Vittoria; Colombo, John

2012-01-01

125

Behavioral and ERP Evidence for Amodal Sluggish Attentional Shifting in Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to examine the claim that amodal deficits in attentional shifting may be the source of reading acquisition disorders in phonological developmental dyslexia (sluggish attentional shifting, SAS, theory, Hari & Renvall, 2001). We investigated automatic attentional shifting in the auditory and visual modalities in 13…

Lallier, Marie; Tainturier, Marie-Josephe; Dering, Benjamin; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane; Thierry, Guillaume

2010-01-01

126

The Development of Attention to Simple and Complex Visual Stimuli in Infants: Behavioral and Psychophysiological Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of visual attention in infants has used presentation of single simple stimuli, multi-dimensional stimuli, and complex dynamic video presentations. There are both continuities and discontinuities in the findings on attention and attentiveness to stimulus complexity. A continuity is a pattern of looking that is found in the early part of…

Richards, John E.

2010-01-01

127

The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in\\u000a pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two\\u000a different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis\\u000a of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes

Jinah Kim; Tony Wigram; Christian Gold

2008-01-01

128

Infralimbic D2 receptor influences on anxiety-like behavior and active memory\\/attention in CD1 mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ventromedial prefrontal cortical (vmPFC) dopamine (DA) influences attentional aspects of cognition and anxiety-like behavioral responding in rodents. The present study investigated the role of D2 receptors on spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze and anxiety-like behavior in a two-trial elevated plus-maze (EPM) procedure in CD-1 mice following vmPFC infusions of the D2 antagonist, sulpiride, and the D2 agonist, quinpirole. Pretrial 1

Philip M Wall; Robert J Blanchard; Mu Yang; D. Caroline Blanchard

2003-01-01

129

The Importance of Parental Attributions in Families of Children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity and Disruptive Behavior Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a social-cognitive model outlining the role of parental attributions for child behavior in parent–child interactions. Examples of studies providing evidence for the basic model are presented, with particular reference to applications of the model in families of children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and\\/or oppositional defiant\\/conduct disordered behavior. Parent or child factors that may moderate the operation of links within

Charlotte Johnston; Jeneva L. Ohan

2005-01-01

130

The effect of outdoor environmental education on in-class behaviors of sixth, seventh and eighth grade students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Does the natural environment enhance positive human behaviors, behaviors which meet societal expectations? If that is the case, at what level of our social development does exposure and involvement with nature become a prerequisite? This study sought to discover an answer to the first question through examination of a small public school sample. The second will have to await future study. Public schools, while making some token response to the rising environmental consciousness, have failed or completely ignored environmental education. This study focuses on using the natural environment as a classroom with an environmental education curriculum. The control was academic grades before the environmental education class. The independent variable was academic grades after environmental education. Comparisons of academic conduct grades between classes taken before and after environmental education were made. Three environmental education classes comprising ninety students were evaluated. The mean of all classes was calculated. Results indicate that there is a positive behavioral correlation between environment education and academic classes. However, there were many uncontrolled variables which necessitate further study. One example is the arbitrary standard among teachers for evaluating conduct grades. Conduct grades can also be subjective. In further studies, a standardized tool for evaluating conduct grades would be essential.

Cumberbatch, Albert R.

131

Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation? A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method: A diverse community sample (55% African American) of men (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of…

Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

2011-01-01

132

Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation? A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method: A diverse community sample (55% African American) of men (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of…

Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

2011-01-01

133

Discriminant Validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Parent Form for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, with concomitant executive function deficits often being the focus of empirical and clinical investigation. This study explored the validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Parent Form (BRIEF; Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000) for…

Reddy, Linda A.; Hale, James B.; Brodzinsky, Lara K.

2011-01-01

134

Improving Compliance with Diabetes Management in Young Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Using Behavior Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Medical adherence to complex diabetes regimens can be challenging, particularly for adolescents, and therefore represents the most common reason for referral to behavioral psychologists among this population. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), when present in children and adolescents with diabetes, presents unique barriers to…

Sanchez, Lisa M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Hunter, Scott J.

2006-01-01

135

Intrauterine cannabis exposure leads to more aggressive behavior and attention problems in 18-month-old girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe development of the fetal endocannabinoid receptor system may be vulnerable to maternal cannabis use during pregnancy and may produce long-term consequences in children. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between gestational cannabis use and childhood attention problems and aggressive behavior.

Hanan El Marroun; James J. Hudziak; Henning Tiemeier; Hanneke Creemers; Eric A. P. Steegers; Vincent W. V. Jaddoe; Albert Hofman; Frank C. Verhulst; Wim van den Brink; Anja C. Huizink

2011-01-01

136

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia improves attentional function in fibromyalgia syndrome: A pilot, randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot, randomized controlled trial analyzed the effects of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, n = 20) for insomnia vs a sleep hygiene (SH, n = 20) program on the three attentional networks (alertness, orienting, and executive function) and other additional outcome measures (sleep, pain, depression, anxiety, and daily functioning) of fibromyalgia patients. The CBT group showed significant improvement in

E. Miró; J. Lupiáñez; M. P. Martínez; A. I. Sánchez; C. Díaz-Piedra; M. A. Guzmán; G. Buela-Casal

2011-01-01

137

The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…

Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

2008-01-01

138

Preschoolers at Risk for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Family, Parenting, and Behavioral Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This community study assigned 129 4-year-olds to groups at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), both ADHD and ODD, or no problems. Mothers of children at risk for ODD reported more family dysfunction, felt less competent as parents, suggested fewer solutions to child behavior problems, demonstrated a less assertive approach to child management, and reported

Charles E. Cunningham; Michael H. Boyle

2002-01-01

139

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Behavioral Inhibition: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Stop-Signal Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deficient behavioral inhibition (BI) processes are considered a core feature of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This meta-analytic review is the first to examine the potential influence of a wide range of subject and task variable moderator effects on BI processes--assessed by the stop-signal paradigm--in children with ADHD…

Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.

2007-01-01

140

A Comparison of Behavioral Parent Training Programs for Fathers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few behavioral parent training (BPT) treatment studies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have included and measured outcomes with fathers. In this study, fathers were randomly assigned to attend a standard BPT program or the Coaching Our Acting-Out Children: Heightening Essential Skills (COACHES) program. The COACHES program…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Chacko, Anil; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Robb, Jessica; Walker, Kathryn S.; Wymbs, Frances; Sastry, Amber L.; Flammer, Lizette; Keenan, Jenna K.; Visweswaraiah, Hema; Shulman, Simon; Herbst, Laura; Pirvics, Lauma

2009-01-01

141

Acceptability of Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Relations to Child and Parent Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One-hundred nine mothers of 5- to 12-year-old boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated. Mothers read case descriptions of boys with ADHD and of boys with both ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Half of the mothers were randomly assigned to read descriptions of behavioral parent training and half to read…

Johnston, Charlotte; Hommersen, Paul; Seipp, Carla

2008-01-01

142

Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

2011-01-01

143

The Relation of Low-level Prenatal Lead Exposure to Behavioral Indicators of Attention in Inuit Infants in Arctic Quebec  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and several aspects of behavioral function during infancy through examiner ratings and behavioral coding of video recordings. The sample consisted of 169 11-month old Inuit infants from Arctic Quebec. Umbilical cord and maternal blood samples were used to document prenatal exposure to Pb. Average blood Pb levels were 4.6 ?g/dL and 5.9 ?g/dL in cord and maternal samples respectively. The Behavior Rating Scales (BRS) from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II) were used to assess behavior. Attention was assessed through the BRS and behavioral coding of video recordings taken during the administration of the BSID-II. Whereas the examiner ratings of behaviors detected very few associations with prenatal Pb exposure, cord blood Pb concentrations were significantly related to the direct observational measures of infant attention, after adjustment for confounding variables. These data provide evidence that increasing the specificity and the precision of the behavioral assessment has considerable potential for improving our ability to detect low-to-moderate associations between neurotoxicants, such Pb and infant behavior.

Plusquellec, P.; Muckle, G.; Dewailly, E.; Ayotte, P.; Jacobson, S.W.; Jacobson, J.L.

2007-01-01

144

Separate and combined effects of methylphenidate and behavior modification on boys with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in the classroom.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the separate and combined effects of behavior modification and 2 doses of methylphenidate (MPH; 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg) compared with baseline (no behavior modification and a placebo) on the classroom behavior and academic performance of 31 ADHD (attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder) boys attending a summer treatment program. Results revealed significant effects of both interventions, with the mean effect size of medication being more than twice as great as that of behavior modification. Relatively small incremental value was gained by the higher dose of medication or the addition of behavior modification, compared with the effects of the low dose of MPH. In contrast, the addition of either dose of MPH resulted in improvement beyond the effects of behavior modification alone. These group effects reflected those obtained in analyses of individual differences. Furthermore, comparisons of individual responsiveness showed that boys who responded to one treatment also responded to the other. PMID:8326053

Pelham, W E; Carlson, C; Sams, S E; Vallano, G; Dixon, M J; Hoza, B

1993-06-01

145

Association between dietary behaviors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities in school-aged children.  

PubMed

We aimed to comprehensively investigate the associations between a wide range of measures of dietary behaviors and learning disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in community-dwelling Korean children in order to generate hypotheses for future work. The present study included 986 children [507 boys, 479 girls; mean (S.D.) age=9.1 (0.7) years] recruited from five South Korean cities. Children's dietary behaviors were assessed by the mini-dietary assessment (MDA) for Koreans. It consists of ten items to assess the level of intake of dairy products, high-protein foods, vegetables, fried foods, fatty meats, salt, and sweetened desserts and whether the subject is eating three regular meals and has a balanced diet. Learning disability was assessed via the Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES). ADHD was assessed via the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children version-IV and the ADHD rating scale, and ADHD-related behavioral problems were assessed via the Child Behavior Checklist. After adjusting for potential confounders, a high intake of sweetened desserts, fried food, and salt is associated with more learning, attention, and behavioral problems, whereas a balanced diet, regular meals, and a high intake of dairy products and vegetables is associated with less learning, attention, and behavioral problems. Our data suggest that existing encouraged dietary habits mostly have beneficial effects on learning, attention, and behavioral problems in Korean children. These findings are in general the same results in other studies on ADHD children in other countries. However, the cross-sectional study design prevents our ability to assess causal relationships. PMID:22999993

Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Hong, Yun-Chul; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Cho, In-Hee; Bhang, Soo-Young

2012-09-20

146

The Outcome of Parent Training Using the Behavior Management Flow Chart with a Mother and Her Twin Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outcome of parent training, using the Behavior Management Flow Chart, on mother behavior and on the disruptive behavior of her monozygotic twin boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was evaluated. Direct observation, telephone interviews, and standardized rating scales showed that parent training reduced oppositional and aggressive child behavior, improved parenting behavior, and reduced maternal stress. A

Jeffrey S. Danforth

2000-01-01

147

The effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in autistic children: a randomized controlled study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes in children with autism. The overall results indicated that improvisational music therapy was more effective at facilitating joint attention behaviors and non-verbal social communication skills in children than play. Session analysis showed significantly more and lengthier events of eye contact and turn-taking in improvisational music therapy than play sessions. The implications of these findings are discussed further. PMID:18592368

Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

2008-07-01

148

Neurogenetic interactions and aberrant behavioral co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dispelling myths  

PubMed Central

Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years supporting this statement, there are still many misconceptions about ADHD. These include believing the disorder does not exist, that all children have symptoms of ADHD, that if it does exist it is grossly over-diagnosed and over-treated, and that the treatment is dangerous and leads to a propensity to drug addiction. Since most misconceptions contain elements of truth, where does the reality lie? Results We have reviewed the literature to evaluate some of the claims and counter-claims. The evidence suggests that ADHD is primarily a polygenic disorder involving at least 50 genes, including those encoding enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism, neurotransmitter transporters and receptors. Because of its polygenic nature, ADHD is often accompanied by other behavioral abnormalities. It is present in adults as well as children, but in itself it does not necessarily impair function in adult life; associated disorders, however, may do so. A range of treatment options is reviewed and the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of standard drug treatments are considered. Conclusion The genes so far implicated in ADHD account for only part of the total picture. Identification of the remaining genes and characterization of their interactions is likely to establish ADHD firmly as a biological disorder and to lead to better methods of diagnosis and treatment.

Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Blum, Kenneth; Mengucci, Julie F; Blum, Seth H; Meshkin, Brian

2005-01-01

149

Joint attention training for children with autism using behavior modification procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Deficits in joint attention are considered by many researchers to be an early pre- dictor of childhood autism (e.g., Osterling & Dawson, 1994) and are considered to be pivotal to deficits in language, play, and social development in this population (Mundy, 1995). Although many researchers have noted the importance of joint attention deficits in the development of children with

Christina Whalen; Laura Schreibman

2003-01-01

150

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors controlling attention: Behavior, circuits and sensitivity to disruption by nicotine.  

PubMed

Attention is a central cognitive function that enables long-term engagement in a task and suppression of irrelevant information to obtain future goals. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the main link in integrating emotional and motivational state of an animal to regulate top-down attentional processes. Acetylcholine modulates PFC neuronal networks by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to support attention. However, how neuronal activity changes in the PFC during attention and which nAChR subtypes mediate this is only rudimentarily understood, but progress is being made. Recently, exciting new insights were obtained in the dynamics of cholinergic signaling in the PFC and modes of acetylcholine transmission via nAChRs in the cortex. In addition, mechanisms are uncovered on how the PFC circuitry is regulated by nAChRs. Novel studies show that endogenous activation of nAChRs in the PFC plays a central role in controlling attention. Here, we review current insights into how different subtypes of nAChRs expressed by distinct types of neurons in the PFC circuitry shape attention. In addition we discuss the impact of nicotine on the cholinergic system and prefrontal cortical circuits. Low concentrations of nicotine, as experienced by smokers, interfere with cholinergic signaling. In the long-term exposure to nicotine during adolescence leads to maladaptive adaptations of the PFC circuitry, which ultimately leads to a decrement in attention performance, again emphasizing the importance of nAChRs in attention. PMID:23856288

Poorthuis, Rogier B; Mansvelder, Huibert D

2013-07-12

151

Attention Shift towards Smoking Cues Relates to Severity of Dependence, Smoking Behavior and Breath Carbon Monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the severity of dependence as a factor affecting the attentional bias of smokers towards smoking-related stimuli and to clarify contradictory results of previous studies. A visual dot probe task was administered to 51 smokers and 41 nonsmokers to assess the attentional bias. Smokers were classified into a group of less severely dependent

Sabine Vollstädt-Klein; Sabine Loeber; Sebastian Winter; Tagrid Leménager; Christoph von der Goltz; Christina Dinter; Anne Koopmann; Carsten Wied; Georg Winterer; Falk Kiefer

2011-01-01

152

Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation?: A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model  

PubMed Central

Objective This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method A diverse community sample (55% African-American) of males (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of age (M = 25.80) were randomly assigned to one of two beverage conditions (i.e., alcohol, no-alcohol control) and one of two distraction conditions (i.e., distraction, no-distraction). Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks and a verbal insult from a fictitious male opponent. Participants’ attention-allocation to aggression words (i.e., aggression bias) and physical aggression were measured using a dot probe task and a shock-based aggression task, respectively. Results Intoxicated men whose attention was distracted displayed significantly lower levels of aggression bias and enacted significantly less physical aggression than intoxicated men whose attention was not distracted. However, aggression bias did not account for the lower levels of alcohol-related aggression in the distraction, relative to the no-distraction, condition. Conclusions These results replicated and extended past evidence that cognitive distraction is associated with lower levels of alcohol-related aggression in highly provoked males and provide the first known cognitive data to support the attentional processes posited by the attention-allocation model. Discussion focused on how these data inform intervention programming for alcohol-related aggression.

Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

2011-01-01

153

Fearful, surprised, happy, and angry facial expressions modulate gaze-oriented attention: Behavioral and ERP evidence.  

PubMed

The impact of emotions on gaze-oriented attention was investigated in non-anxious participants. A neutral face cue with straight gaze was presented, which then averted its gaze to the side while remaining neutral or expressing an emotion (fear/surprise in Exp.1 and anger/happiness in Exp.2). Localization of a subsequent target was faster at the gazed-at location (congruent condition) than at the non-gazed-at location (incongruent condition). This Gaze-Orienting Effect (GOE) was enhanced for fear, surprise, and anger, compared to neutral expressions which did not differ from happy expressions. In addition, Event Related Potentials (ERPs) to the target showed a congruency effect on P1 for fear and surprise and a left lateralized congruency effect on P1 for happy faces, suggesting that target visual processing was also influenced by attention to gaze and emotions. Finally, at cue presentation, early postero-lateral (Early Directing Attention Negativity (EDAN)) and later antero-lateral (Anterior Directing Attention Negativity (ADAN)) attention-related ERP components were observed, reflecting, respectively, the shift of attention and its holding at gazed-at locations. These two components were not modulated by emotions. Together, these findings show that the processing of social signals such as gaze and facial expression interact rather late and in a complex manner to modulate spatial attention. PMID:24047232

Lassalle, Amandine; Itier, Roxane J

2013-09-18

154

[Superficial and marginal behavior of composite filling materials in class III and II cavities as compared with conventional filling materials (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The superficial and marginal behavior of composite filling materials is better than that of conventional types of front tooth filling cements as regards plaque retention, danger of marginal caries, and microleakage with potential damage to the pulp caused by bacterial toxins.--According to the results obtained in vitro, Evicrol is a positive alternative to Frontasil and Achatit-biochromatic. Plastic foils are not suitable as matrices, whereas aluminum matrices have been found to meet the requirements of surface smoothness and anatomical adaptability in cavity classes III, IV, and V. Celluloid matrices show inadequate adaptational properties, although they offer smoothest surfaces. The marginal behavior of Evicrol in class II cavities in molars is virtually the same in the case of both conventional retentive preparation and modified preparation of initial occlusal-approximal defects by the enamel etching technique. Discontinuous microretentive securing of matrix tags in the enamel etch pattern corresponds neither occlusally nor approximally to the physical definition of adhesion in different areas of the enamel. Clinical comparison in a 12-month study with the results obtained in vitro restricts safe indication to classes III and V, it being necessary to give careful consideration to the directions for use.--Long-term clinical longitudinal studies are required to determine permanent successes of treatment and possible extensions of the range of indications. PMID:154259

Gängler, P; Hoyer, I; Bimberg, R

1978-01-01

155

Altered brain response without behavioral attention deficits in healthy siblings of schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention deficits are common in schizophrenics and sometimes reported in their healthy relatives. The aim of this study was to analyse the behavioural performance and the brain activation of healthy siblings of schizophrenic patients during a sustained-attention task.Eleven healthy siblings of schizophrenic patients and eleven matched controls performed a Continuous Performance Test (CPT), during 1.5 T fMRI. The stimuli were presented

Gianna Sepede; Antonio Ferretti; Mauro Gianni Perrucci; Francesco Gambi; Fiore Di Donato; Francesco Nuccetelli; Cosimo Del Gratta; Armando Tartaro; Rosa Maria Salerno; Filippo Maria Ferro; Gian Luca Romani

2010-01-01

156

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and behavioral inhibition: a meta-analytic review of the stop-signal paradigm.  

PubMed

Deficient behavioral inhibition (BI) processes are considered a core feature of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This meta-analytic review is the first to examine the potential influence of a wide range of subject and task variable moderator effects on BI processes--assessed by the stop-signal paradigm--in children with ADHD relative to typically developing children. Results revealed significantly slower mean reaction time (MRT), greater reaction time variability (SDRT), and slower stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) in children with ADHD relative to controls. The non-significant between-group stop-signal delay (SSD) metric, however, suggests that stop-signal reaction time differences reflect a more generalized deficit in attention/cognitive processing rather than behavioral inhibition. Several subject and task variables served as significant moderators for children's mean reaction time. PMID:17668315

Alderson, R Matt; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J

2007-08-01

157

Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder and Behavioral Inhibition: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Stop-signal Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficient behavioral inhibition (BI) processes are considered a core feature of attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).\\u000a This meta-analytic review is the first to examine the potential influence of a wide range of subject and task variable moderator\\u000a effects on BI processes—assessed by the stop-signal paradigm—in children with ADHD relative to typically developing children.\\u000a Results revealed significantly slower mean reaction time (MRT),

R. Matt Alderson; Mark D. Rapport; Michael J. Kofler

2007-01-01

158

Diagnostic Accuracy of the Child Behavior Checklist Scales for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Receiver-Operating Characteristic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnostic accuracy of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scales for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Three logistic regression models were estimated in an initial sample of 121 children with and without ADHD. These models were then tested in a cross-validation sample (N = 122) and among the 111 brothers and 108 sisters of

Wei J. Chen; Stephen V. Faraone; Joseph Biederman; Ming T. Tsuang

1994-01-01

159

Acceptability of Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatments for Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder: Relations to Child and Parent Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred nine mothers of 5- to 12-year-old boys with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated. Mothers read case descriptions of boys with ADHD and of boys with both ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Half of the mothers were randomly assigned to read descriptions of behavioral parent training and half to read descriptions of stimulant medication as treatments for the children in

Charlotte Johnston; Paul Hommersen; Carla Seipp

2008-01-01

160

A Comparison of Behavioral Parent Training Programs for Fathers of Children With Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few behavioral parent training (BPT) treatment studies for attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have included and measured outcomes with fathers. In this study, fathers were randomly assigned to attend a standard BPT program or the Coaching Our Acting-Out Children: Heightening Essential Skills (COACHES) program. The COACHES program included BPT plus sports skills training for the children and parent-child interactions in the context

Gregory A. Fabiano; Anil Chacko; William E. Pelham Jr.; Jessica Robb; Kathryn S. Walker; Frances Wymbs; Amber L. Sastry; Lizette Flammer; Jenna K. Keenan; Hema Visweswaraiah; Simon Shulman; Laura Herbst; Lauma Pirvics

2009-01-01

161

A behavioral assessment scale for attention deficit disorder in brazilian children based on DSM-IIIR criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A teacher scale based on DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was developed for the behavioral assessment of children in Brazil. A total of 2, 082 children (782 males and 1,300 females) with a mean age of 11.2 years who were attending a public school in the greater Rio de Janeiro area were the subjects of this

Gilberto N. O. Brito; Rita C. A. Pinto; Mauro F. C. Lins

1995-01-01

162

Effects of Punishment and Response-Independent Attention on Severe Problem Behavior and Appropriate Toy Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problem behavior can interfere with learning, the development of appropriate skills, and socialization in persons with developmental disabilities. In severe cases, problem behavior could result in life-threatening injury. For one 21-month-old participant diagnosed with autism engaging in severe problem behavior for whom reinforcement-based…

Doughty, Shannon S.; Poe, Susannah G.; Anderson, Cynthia M.

2005-01-01

163

Maternal Stress and Behavior Modulate Relationships between Neonatal Stress, Attention, and Basal Cortisol at 8 Months in Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that the developmental trajectory of cortisol secretion in preterm infants is altered, with elevated basal cortisol levels observed postnatally through at least 18 months corrected age (CA). This alteration is possibly due to neonatal pain-related stress. High cortisol levels might contribute to greater risk of impaired neurodevelopment. Since maternal factors are important for the regulation of infant stress responses, we investigated relationships between infant (neonatal pain-related stress, attention, cortisol) and maternal (stress, interactive behaviors) factors at age 8 months CA. We found that interactive maternal behaviors buffered the relationship between high neonatal pain-related stress exposure and poorer focused attention in mothers who self-reported low concurrent stress. Furthermore, in preterm infants exposed to high concurrent maternal stress and overwhelming interactive maternal behaviors, higher basal cortisol levels were associated with poor focused attention. Overall, these findings suggest that maternal factors can influence the cognitive resilience at 8 months of preterm infants exposed to early life stress.

Tu, Mai Thanh; Grunau, Ruth E.; Petrie-Thomas, Julie; Haley, David W.; Weinberg, Joanne; Whitfield, Michael F.; Tu, Mai Thanh; Whitfield, Michael F.; Weinberg, Joanne

2007-01-01

164

Neurogenetic interactions and aberrant behavioral co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dispelling myths  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years

David E Comings; Thomas JH Chen; Kenneth Blum; Julie F Mengucci; Seth H Blum; Brian Meshkin

2005-01-01

165

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

2012-01-01

166

Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the…

Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

167

The Effect of Acupressure for Moderating Behavior of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of an acupressure intervention with two adolescents previously diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). An inventory based on standard criteria for diagnosing ADHD was completed by each student, their parents, case workers, and teachers both before and after the intervention. The intervention…

Johnson, Lynn; Sinnott, Jan

168

Attentional Modulation of Lexical Effects on Speech Perception: Computational and Behavioral Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies suggest that attention can modulate the extent to which lexical processing influences phonological processing. We propose dampening of activation as a neurophysiologically-plausible computational mechanism that can account for this type of modulation in the context of an interactive model of speech perception. Simulation results from two concrete implementations of this mechanism indicate that each of the

Daniel Mirman

169

The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training on Behavioral Problems and Attentional Functioning in Adolescents with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11-15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7) completed measurements before, immediately after, 8…

van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Formsma, Anne R.; de Bruin, Esther I.; Bogels, Susan M.

2012-01-01

170

Mighty Metaphors: Behavioral and ERP Evidence that Power Shifts Attention on a Vertical Dimension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thinking about the abstract concept power may automatically activate the spatial up-down image schema ("powerful up"; "powerless down") and consequently direct spatial attention to the image schema-congruent location. Participants indicated whether a word represented a powerful or powerless person (e.g. "king" or "servant"). Following each…

Zanolie, Kiki; van Dantzig, Saskia; Boot, Inge; Wijnen, Jasper; Schubert, Thomas W.; Giessner, Steffen R.; Pecher, Diane

2012-01-01

171

Cognitive Behavior Therapy for College Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental syndrome that persists into adulthood for the majority of children with ADHD. Other individuals may not experience the full negative effects of undiagnosed ADHD until they face the demands of adult life. College counseling centers in particular are seeing a rise in the number of…

Ramsay, J. Russell; Rostain, Anthony L.

2006-01-01

172

Effects of Caffeine on Classroom Behavior, Sustained Attention, and a Memory Task in Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The investigation of the effect of normative amounts of caffeine on the behavior of six normal kindergarten children found that caffeine exerted only small and inconsistent effects on such classroom behaviors as time off-task and gross motor activity. (Author/DB)|

Baer, Ruth A.

1987-01-01

173

The attributions of children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder for their problem behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the attributions children with ADHD make about their most problematic symptoms. Children were interviewed to determine the degree to which they felt their behavior was controllable, stable, global, and stigmatizing; and about the locus of the cause of their behavior. Participants were 16 children with ADHD (10 boyd, 6 girls), and 16 children without ADHD (9 boyd,

I. Kaidar; J. Wiener; R. Tannock

2003-01-01

174

Combining Computerized Home-Based Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An Attention Modification Program and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common and disabling condition associated with significant personal and societal costs. Although efficacious treatments exist for GAD, the majority of these individuals fail to access our most effective treatments. In the current paper, we report the results of an open trial that examined the efficacy of a computer-delivered home-based treatment program for GAD. Twenty-one individuals seeking treatment for GAD received a self-administered program over 6 weeks that comprised two components: (1) an Attention Modification Program (AMP) designed to facilitate attentional disengagement from threat-relevant stimuli and (2) brief computer-delivered cognitive and behavioral treatment modules (CCBT). Fourteen of the 21 enrolled participants (67%) completed the treatment program. Intent-to-treat and completer analyses revealed that AMP+ CCBT resulted in significant reductions in clinician- and self-rated symptoms of anxiety, worry, depression, and functional impairment. Moreover, treatment completers displayed significant reductions in attentional bias for threat from pre- to postassessment. Change in attentional bias for threat from pre-to postassessment was associated with change in worry symptoms. Finally, 79% of participants no longer met DSM-IV criteria for GAD at postassessment and 36% were classified as remitted (Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety ?7; Rickels et al., 2006). These results suggest that computer-delivered AMP+CCBT may serve as an effective and easily accessible treatment option for individuals with GAD.

Amir, Nader; Taylor, Charles T.

2013-01-01

175

The Outcome of Parent lraining Using the Behavior Management Flow Chart with Mothers and Their Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of parent training, using parameters established in the Behavior Management Flow Chart, on mother behavior and on the disruptive behavior of eight children who emitted behavior consistent with the diagnoses of both Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder were evaluated. There are important differences between the Behavior Management Flow Chart and well-known parent-training programs that are based

Jeffrey S. Danforth

1998-01-01

176

Mighty metaphors: behavioral and ERP evidence that power shifts attention on a vertical dimension.  

PubMed

Thinking about the abstract concept power may automatically activate the spatial up-down image schema (powerful up; powerless down) and consequently direct spatial attention to the image schema-congruent location. Participants indicated whether a word represented a powerful or powerless person (e.g. 'king' or 'servant'). Following each decision, they identified a target at the top or bottom of the visual field. In Experiment 1 participants identified the target faster when their spatial position was congruent with the perceived power of the preceding word than when it was incongruent. In Experiment 2 ERPs showed a higher N1 amplitude for congruent spatial positions. These results support the view that attention is driven to the image schema congruent location of a power word. Thus, power is partially understood in terms of vertical space, which demonstrates that abstract concepts are grounded in sensory-motor processing. PMID:22088775

Zanolie, Kiki; Dantzig, Saskia van; Boot, Inge; Wijnen, Jasper; Schubert, Thomas W; Giessner, Steffen R; Pecher, Diane

2011-11-15

177

Confirmatory Factor Analyses Examining Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Other Childhood Disruptive Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 15 years, three distinct models have been used to characterize the factor structure of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These models correspond to descriptions of the disorder as outlined in DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and now, DSM-IV. Specifically, in DSM-III, inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity were treated as three separate constructs. In DSM-III-R, ADHD was treated as a unitary construct.

David R. Pillow; William E. Pelham; Betsy Hoza; Brooke S. G. Molina; Cilla H. Stultz

1998-01-01

178

A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Study of Children's Selective Attention Under Neutral and Affective Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven-year-olds completed a Posner cued attention task, under both neutral and affectively charged conditions. Compared to the traditional (affect-neutral) Posner task, performance in the affective Posner task was marked by dramatic decreases in reaction times (RTs), an increase in errors, an increased validity effect (difference in RTs to the cued vs. uncued trials), and increased electrocortical activity. Tempera- mentally shy

Koraly Perez-Edgar; Nathan A. Fox

2005-01-01

179

Attentional control, high intensity pleasure, and risky pedestrian behavior in college students.  

PubMed

Individual differences in temperament and personality are closely linked to motor vehicle safety. However, 13% of Americans who die in transportation-related injuries are not killed in motor vehicle crashes, but rather in pedestrian injuries. This study was designed to study links between two individual difference measures, attentional control and high intensity pleasure, and pedestrian injury risk among college students, a group at particular risk of pedestrian injury. A sample of 245 students completed a temperament questionnaire and engaged in a street-crossing task within an interactive, immersive virtual pedestrian environment. Individuals scoring high on attentional control (the capacity to focus and shift attention, one facet of conscientiousness) waited longer to choose gaps to cross within and showed some tendency to choose larger gaps after waiting. Individuals scoring high in high intensity pleasure (the tendency to desire novel, complex, and varied stimuli, one facet of sensation-seeking) were more likely to experience collisions with traffic in the virtual environment. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed. PMID:19393819

Schwebel, David C; Stavrinos, Despina; Kongable, Elizabeth M

2009-03-27

180

Diacylglycerol Kinase ? Knockout Mice Exhibit Attention-Deficit Behavior and an Abnormal Response on Methylphenidate-Induced Hyperactivity  

PubMed Central

Background Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to produce phosphatidic acid. DGK? is one of the subtypes of the DGK family and regulates many intracellular signaling pathways in the central nervous system. Previously, we demonstrated that DGK? knockout (KO) mice showed various dysfunctions of higher brain function, such as cognitive impairment (with lower spine density), hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and careless behavior. In the present study, we conducted further tests on DGK? KO mice in order to investigate the function of DGK? in the central nervous system, especially in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methodology/Principal Findings DGK? KO mice showed attention-deficit behavior in the object-based attention test and it was ameliorated by methylphenidate (MPH, 30 mg/kg, i.p.). In the open field test, DGK? KO mice displayed a decreased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MPH (30 mg/kg, i.p.), but showed a similar response to an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), when compared to WT mice. Examination of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, indicated that ERK1/2 activation induced by MPH treatment was defective in the striatum of DGK? KO mice. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that DGK? KO mice showed attention-deficit and hyperactive phenotype, similar to ADHD. Furthermore, the hyporesponsiveness of DGK? KO mice to MPH was due to dysregulation of ERK phosphorylation, and that DGK? has a pivotal involvement in ERK regulation in the striatum.

Ishisaka, Mitsue; Kakefuda, Kenichi; Oyagi, Atsushi; Ono, Yoko; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Hara, Hideaki

2012-01-01

181

The spectrum of behavioral outcomes after extreme prematurity: regulatory, attention, social, and adaptive dimensions.  

PubMed

Advances in obstetrics and neonatology have increased the survival rates of premature infants with very preterm (<32 weeks) and extremely preterm (<28 weeks) gestations. However, survivors have a high frequency of challenges in academic and social skills. There has been an increased emphasis on examination of outcomes beyond survival rates and rates of neurosensory disabilities at ages 18 to 24 months (eg, cerebral palsy, blindness, deafness, global development delay). One of the key strategies for understanding pathways of risk and resilience is to examine behavioral, social-emotional, and adaptive competencies. The purpose of this paper is to apply the International Classification of Functioning framework to a spectrum of behavioral outcomes after extreme prematurity, describe useful tools for measuring behavioral, social, and adaptive competencies, as well as review model outcome studies before middle childhood. Thus, we can use current information to begin to understand pathways underlying behavioral health, well-being, and social competence. PMID:18249239

Msall, Michael E; Park, Jennifer J

2008-02-01

182

Behavioral Inhibition and Anxiety: The Moderating Roles of Inhibitory Control and Attention Shifting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament identified in early childhood, is associated with social reticence in childhood\\u000a and an increased risk for anxiety problems in adolescence and adulthood. However, not all behaviorally inhibited children\\u000a remain reticent or develop an anxiety disorder. One possible mechanism accounting for the variability in the developmental\\u000a trajectories of BI is a child’s ability to successfully recruit

Lauren K. White; Jennifer Martin McDermott; Kathryn A. Degnan; Heather A. Henderson; Nathan A. Fox

2011-01-01

183

Children with Autism and Attention Difficulties: A Pilot Study of the Association between Sensory, Motor, and Adaptive Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This pilot study aimed to compare sensory processing, motor skills and adaptive behaviors in children with a double diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (ASD+ADHD) with children with ADHD alone and to examine the association of sensory processing and motor skills with adaptive behaviors (self-care). Method: Thirty children aged 5–14 years diagnosed with ASD+ADHD (n = 13) or ADHD (n = 17) were evaluated on their sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Analysis of covariance compared the groups on these dimensions. Correlation analyses examined the association between sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Results: Compared to children with ADHD alone, children with ASD+ADHD had poorer skills in sensory processing (p < 0.001), motor (p = 0.001) and adaptive behaviors (p < 0.001). For all children, increased autonomy in self-care was correlated with better sensory processing (p < 0.001) and motor skills (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Children with ASD+ADHD have poorer sensory processing, motor and adaptive skills than those with ADHD alone. Sensory processing and motor deficits were negatively associated with autonomy in self-care. Interventions aiming to improve sensory processing and motor skills and autonomy in self-care should become important targets for these children.

Mattard-Labrecque, Carolanne; Ben Amor, Leila; Couture, Melanie M.

2013-01-01

184

The Effects of a Response-Cost Program on the Classroom Behavior of Two Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of using response cost in combination with positive reinforcement procedures in helping two second grade students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder maintain their attention in the classroom. This involved the loss of reinforcers/points contingent upon inappropriate behavior in the classroom, in addition…

Rickman, David; Motzenbecker, Trudi

185

Cognitive behavior therapy for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a review of recent randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

To review the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Recent, controlled studies of the efficacy of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) treatment in adults with ADHD are reviewed. CBT is a feasible and acceptable treatment strategy in medicated adults with ADHD that leads to improvement in ADHD symptoms and co-morbid problems. CBT includes delivery of cognitive and/or emotional strategies to individuals or groups of 4 to 10 participants. The number of CBT sessions may vary from 6 to 14. Blinding may help reduce response bias. Coaching and homework may enhance motivation as well as help in generalizing strategies to patient's daily lives. Outcomes studied include participants' self-reports of symptoms and evaluator reports based on standardized measures of ADHD and its comorbidities. CBT is an effective treatment for adults with ADHD particularly when combined with medication. PMID:22878974

Mongia, Monica; Hechtman, Lily

2012-10-01

186

Measures of attentional bias and relational responding are associated with behavioral treatment outcome for cocaine dependence  

PubMed Central

Background Psychosocial interventions for substance dependence have demonstrated efficacy. However, the mechanisms by which specific intervention strategies exert their effect have not been clearly identified. Objective This study investigated the prospective relationships between two psychological processes, an attentional bias towards cocaine stimuli and beliefs about the consequences of cocaine use, and treatment outcome. Method Twenty-five cocaine dependent participants enrolled in a 6-month outpatient treatment program that included voucher incentives for abstinence. All participants were asked to complete two implicit assessment procedures, a Drug Stroop protocol and an Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), as well as explicit measures of cocaine craving and the consequences of cocaine use, prior to beginning treatment. Pearson-correlation coefficients tested the prospective relationships between treatment outcome and the implicit and explicit assessments. Results Stronger implicit beliefs about the positive effects of cocaine use prior to treatment were associated with poorer treatment outcome when an escalating voucher incentive program was in place. Further, an attentional bias for cocaine-related stimuli was associated with better treatment outcome when an escalating voucher incentive program was removed. No association between cocaine use beliefs and treatment outcome was found when beliefs were measured with self-report instruments. Conclusions and Scientific Significance These findings highlight the potential utility of performance based measures for delineating the psychological mechanisms associated with variation in response to treatment for drug dependence.

Carpenter, Kenneth M.; Martinez, Diana; Vadhan, Nehal P.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Nunes, Edward V.

2012-01-01

187

Factors Contributing to the Emergence of Anxiety among Behaviorally Inhibited Children: The Role of Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament that can be identified early in childhood. Children with BI are socially reticent, withdraw from engaging unfamiliar peers, and often have problems in forming friendships. They are also at risk for developing anxiety disorders as they get older. There is, however, as much discontinuity as continuity in…

Fox, Nathan A.

2010-01-01

188

Fixed-Time Teacher Attention to Decrease Off-Task Behaviors of Typically Developing Third Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence to validate the use of fixed-time (FT) reinforcer delivery (i.e., noncontingent reinforcement) with typically developing populations has been relatively rare in the behavioral literature. In those studies that have provided validation, reinforcer delivery schedules appeared to be prohibitively dense for sustained implementation of…

Austin, Jennifer L.; Soeda, Jennifer M.

2008-01-01

189

Physiological and behavioral evaluation of mental load in shared attention tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand-held phone use is prohibited by French law to prevent any motor interference with driving. If freehand's kit remains tolerated, its true impact (cognitive interference) is not already clearly determined. This experiment was aimed to study the effect of three communication tasks on driver's behavior: listening to the radio, discussing with a passenger and holding a hands-free phone conversation. Performance

M. Morel; C. Petit; M. P. Bruyas; A. Chapon; A. Dittmar; G. Delhomme; C. Collet

2005-01-01

190

Parent Agreement on Ratings of Children's Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Broadband Externalizing Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mothers and fathers often disagree in their ratings of child behavior, as evidenced clinically and as supported by a substantial literature examining parental agreement on broadband rating scales. The present study examined mother-father agreement on "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual"-based symptom-specific ratings of…

Langberg, Joshua M.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Simon, John O.; Loren, Richard E. A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hechtman, Lily; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; Pelham, William E.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy

2010-01-01

191

Attentional Learning and Flexible Induction: How Mundane Mechanisms Give Rise to Smart Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children often exhibit flexible behaviors relying on different kinds of information in different situations. This flexibility has been traditionally attributed to conceptual knowledge. Reported research demonstrates that flexibility can be acquired implicitly and it does not require conceptual knowledge. In Experiment 1, 4- to 5-year-olds…

Sloutsky, Vladimir M.; Fisher, Anna V.

2008-01-01

192

Parent Agreement on Ratings of Children's Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Broadband Externalizing Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mothers and fathers often disagree in their ratings of child behavior, as evidenced clinically and as supported by a substantial literature examining parental agreement on broadband rating scales. The present study examined mother-father agreement on "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual"-based symptom-specific ratings of…

Langberg, Joshua M.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Simon, John O.; Loren, Richard E. A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hechtman, Lily; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; Pelham, William E.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy

2010-01-01

193

Behavioral and Neural Effects of Nicotine on Visuospatial Attentional Reorienting in Non-Smoking Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cholinergic neurotransmitter system has been proposed to be involved in the processing of probabilistic top-down information provided by endogenous cues in location-cueing paradigms. It has been shown that the behavioral and neural effects of a nicotinic cholinergic stimulation resemble the effects obtained by manipulating the validity of the spatial cues: enhancing cortical nicotine levels and decreasing cue validity both

Simone Vossel; Christiane M Thiel; Gereon R Fink

2008-01-01

194

Effects of the dialectical behavioral therapy-mindfulness module on attention in patients with borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

It is known that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show attention deficits and impulsivity. The main aim of this study was to explore the effects of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Mindfulness training (DBT-M), used as an adjunct to general psychiatric management (GPM), on attention variables in patients diagnosed with BPD. A second objective was to assess the relation of mindfulness formal practice on clinical variables. A sample of 60 patients with BPD was recruited. Forty of them were allocated to GPM + DBT-M treatment and the other 20 received GPM alone. At the termination of the mindfulness training, DBT-M + GPM group showed a significant improvement on commissions, hit reaction time, detectability scores from the CPT-II neuropsychological test, and also on the composite scores of inattention and impulsivity. Further, the more minutes of mindfulness practice were correlated to greater improvement in general psychiatric symptoms and affective symptomatology, but not in CPT-II measures. This is probably the first study so far assessing the effects of this single DBT module in patients with BPD. The results suggest a positive effect of such intervention on attention and impulsivity variables. PMID:22225697

Soler, Joaquim; Valdepérez, Ana; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Pascual, Juan C; Portella, Maria J; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Alvarez, Enrique; Pérez, Víctor

2011-12-14

195

Acceptability of behavioral and pharmacological treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: relations to child and parent characteristics.  

PubMed

One-hundred nine mothers of 5- to 12-year-old boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated. Mothers read case descriptions of boys with ADHD and of boys with both ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Half of the mothers were randomly assigned to read descriptions of behavioral parent training and half to read descriptions of stimulant medication as treatments for the children in the case descriptions. Mothers rated the acceptability and effectiveness of the treatments and provided information on their experiences with both types of treatment. Mothers rated behavioral parent training as more acceptable than medication. There was no difference in ratings of the effectiveness of the two treatments in the scenarios, and mothers rated medication as more effective than behavioral strategies with their own children. Comorbidity of ADHD and ODD did not influence ratings of acceptability or effectiveness. Mothers' ratings of the acceptability of behavioral parent training were related to how much they believed in these strategies and how effective the strategies were with their own children. Although mothers' ratings of the acceptability of medication were related to their beliefs in this form of treatment, they were not related to perceptions of effectiveness of medication for their own child. Implications for understanding the difficulties faced by parents of children with ADHD in treatment decision-making are presented. PMID:18328867

Johnston, Charlotte; Hommersen, Paul; Seipp, Carla

2007-10-18

196

Testing the ability of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to accurately report the effects of medication on their behavior.  

PubMed Central

Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often treated with central nervous system stimulants, making the evaluation of medication effects an important topic for applied behavior analysts. Because assessment protocols emphasize informant reports and direct observations of child behavior, little is known about the extent to which children themselves can accurately report medication effects. Double-blind placebo-controlled procedures were used to examine whether 6 children with ADHD could recognize the effects of their medication. The children were given math worksheets to complete for 15 min during each of 14 sessions while on medication and placebo. Children completed a self-evaluation form at the end of each session, and ratings were compared to observed behavior and academic performance. Results indicated that 3 children were able to accurately report their medication status at levels greater than chance, whereas the accuracy of reports by all children was related to dosage level, differences in behavior, and the presence of adverse effects. The implications of these results for placebo-controlled research, self-monitoring of dosage levels, and accuracy training are discussed.

Ardoin, S P; Martens, B K

2000-01-01

197

Maternal employment experiences, attention problems and behavioral performance: A mediational model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The present study posits and empirically tests a process model examining the effects of interrole conflict, satisfaction with, and commitment to the role of employed mother on a self-report measure of cognitive difl^culties and a behavioral measure relevant to work performance (proof reading). Fifty-three full-time employed mothers with at least one child living at home participated. The proposed model,

Julian Barling; Karyl E. Macewen

1991-01-01

198

Methylphenidate and Attentional TrainingComparative Effects on Behavior and Neurocognitive Performance in Twin Girls with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of four doses (5-mg, 10-mg, 15-mg, 20-mg) of methylphenidate (MPH) and attentional training (AT) were evaluated using neurocognitive instruments (Continuous Performance Test; Matching Unfamiliar Figures Test), narrow-and broad-band rating scales in the context of a double-blind, placebo-control, within-subject reversal design for dizygotic twin girls with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Both interventions proved effective for improving neurocognitive test performance and

Mark D. Rapport; Sandra Loo; Patti Isaacs; Susan Goya; Colin Denney; Sean Scanlan

1996-01-01

199

Interaction of dopamine transporter gene and observed parenting behaviors on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a structural equation modeling approach.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence suggests that some individuals may be simultaneously more responsive to the effects from environmental adversity and enrichment (i.e., differential susceptibility). Given that parenting behavior and a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3'untranslated region of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene are each independently associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), our goal was to evaluate the potential interactive effects of child DAT1 genotype with positive and negative parenting behaviors on childhood ADHD. We recruited an ethnically diverse sample of 150 six- to nine-year-old boys and girls with and without ADHD. Children were genotyped for a common polymorphism of the DAT1 gene, and objective counts of observed parenting behavior (i.e., negativity and praise) were obtained from a valid parent-child interaction task. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the interactive effects of DAT1 and observed parenting with a latent ADHD factor. We detected a significant interaction between observed praise and child DAT1 (coded additively), which suggested that praise was associated with increased ADHD, but only among youth with the 9/10 genotype. In addition, a marginally significant interaction between DAT1 (coded additively and recessively) and observed negativity emerged for ADHD, such that negativity was positively associated with ADHD but only for youth with the 9/9 genotype. Although differential susceptibility theory was not fully supported, these preliminary results suggest that interactive exchanges between parenting behavior and child genotype potentially contribute to the development of ADHD. Clinical implications for interactions between parenting behavior and child genotype are discussed. PMID:23153115

Li, James J; Lee, Steve S

2012-11-15

200

Comparison of Adaptive Behavior in Children With Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Adaptive behavior, the ability to respond successfully to everyday demands, may be especially sensitive to the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Similar adaptive dysfunction is common in other developmental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is frequently present in alcohol-exposed children and this overlap in clinical presentation makes identification of alcohol-exposed children difficult. Direct comparison of children with prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD may yield distinct patterns of cognitive and behavioral performance and add to growing knowledge of the neuropsychological and behavioral profile of prenatal alcohol exposure. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to compare adaptive behavior in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC), nonexposed children with ADHD (ADHD), and typically developing controls (CON). Methods Sixty-five children (ALC = 22, ADHD = 23, CON = 20) were selected from a larger ongoing study of the behavioral teratogenicity of alcohol. Alcohol-exposed and control participants were selected to match the ADHD subjects on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. Caregivers were administered the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, a semi-structured interview, and were asked to rate their child’s behavior on 3 domains of adaptive function. Data were analyzed using regression techniques. Results Relative to controls, children in both the ALC and ADHD groups showed adaptive behavior deficits on all 3 domains and children in the ALC group were significantly more impaired than the ADHD group on the daily living skills domain. Within the ALC group, socialization standard scores were lower at older ages. This negative relationship between age and standard scores in the ALC group was also observed on the communication domain, a finding not previously reported. Conclusions This study suggests that both children with prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD show impairments in adaptive function relative to controls, but that the pattern of impairment differs between these clinical groups. Adaptive ability in children with prenatal alcohol exposure is characterized by an arrest in development, as evidenced by a lack of improvement with age in socialization and communication scores. In contrast, children with ADHD exhibit a developmental delay in adaptive ability as their scores continued to improve with age, albeit not to the level of control children. Continued research focused on elucidating the patterns of deficits that exist in alcohol-exposed children ultimately will lead to improved differential diagnosis and effective interventions.

Crocker, Nicole; Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

2012-01-01

201

Towards Developing a Classroom-Based Functional Analysis Condition to Assess Escape-to-Attention as a Variable Maintaining Problem Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Functional behavior assessment (FBA) incorporating a functional analysis is emerging as an effective model used to assess classroom behavior problems. However, conducting an FBA in a classroom presents challenges for school psychologists such as determining which environmental variables to evaluate in the assessment. Because teacher attention is…

Mueller, Michael M.; Sterling-Turner, Heather E.; Moore, James W.

2005-01-01

202

Learning Disabilities and Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents: A Comparison of Those with and without Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risk-taking behavior includes alcohol and drug use, delinquency, acts of aggression, sexual activity, and so on. Many studies have explored the relationship between adolescents and risk-taking behavior; however, only a few studies have examined this link in adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder…

McNamara, John; Vervaeke, Sherri-Leigh; Willoughby, Teena

2008-01-01

203

The Single and Combined Effects of Multiple Intensities of Behavior Modification and Methylphenidate for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Classroom Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently behavior modification, stimulant medication, and combined treatments are supported as evidence-based interventions for attention deficit hyper- activity disorder in classroom settings. However, there has been little study of the relative effects of these two modalities and their combination in classrooms. Using a within-subject design, the present study investigated the single effects of behavior modification (no, low, and high intensity),

Gregory A. Fabiano; William E. Pelham; Elizabeth M. Gnagy; Lisa Burrows-MacLean; Erika K. Coles; Anil Chacko; Brian T. Wymbs; Kathryn S. Walker; Fran Arnold; Allison Garefino; Jenna K. Keenan; Adia N. Onyango; Martin T. Hoffman; Greta M. Massetti; Jessica A. Robb

204

The Effects of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program on Preschool Children with Co-Occurring Disruptive Behavior and Attentional\\/Hyperactive Difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two variants of a behavioral family intervention (BFI) program known as Triple P were compared using 87 preschoolers with co-occurring disruptive behavior and attentional\\/hyperactive difficulties. Families were randomly allocated to enhanced BFI (EBFI), standard BFI (SBFI), or a waitlist (WL) control group. At postintervention both BFI programs were associated with significantly lower levels of parent-reported child behavior problems, lower levels

William Bor; Matthew R. Sanders; Carol Markie-Dadds

2002-01-01

205

A structural modeling investigation of the influence of demographic and attitudinal factors and in-class deterrents on cheating behavior among accounting majors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines cheating behaviors among 606 accounting majors at three public AACSB-accredited business schools. The influences of demographic and attitudinal characteristics on reported prior cheating behavior, the tendency to neutralize cheating behaviors, and likelihood of future cheating are examined. In addition, the impact of inclass deterrents on neutralization of cheating behaviors and the likelihood of future cheating are examined.

Kenneth J Smith; Jeanette A Davy; Donald L Rosenberg; G Timothy Haight

2002-01-01

206

Relationship between blood manganese levels and children's attention, cognition, behavior, and academic performance-A nationwide cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic at high concentrations. However, Mn is an essential element that can protect against oxidative damage; thus, extremely low levels of Mn might be harmful. Our aim was to examine whether either high or low environmental Mn exposure is related to academic and attention function development among school-aged children. This cross-sectional study included 1089 children 8-11 years of age living in five representative areas in South Korea. Blood Mn, blood lead, and urine cotinine were measured. We assessed IQ with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; attention with a computerized continuous performance test called the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Diagnostic System (ADS), the Korean version of the Stroop Color-Word Test, the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the ADHD Rating Scale; academic functions with the Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES); and emotional and behavioral problems with the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We further assessed the presence of ADHD using a highly structured diagnostic interview, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV). The median blood concentration of Mn was 14.14µg/L. We observed a nonlinear association between the CCTT2 completion time and the CPT commission error (F=3.14, p=0.03 and F=4.05, p=0.01, respectively). We divided the data into three groups: lower (<8.154µg/L), and upper 5th percentile (>21.453µg/L) and middle 90th percentile to determine whether a lack or overload of Mn could cause adverse effects. After adjusting for urine cotinine, blood lead, children's IQ, and other potential confounders, the high Mn group showed lower scores in thinking (B=-0.83, p=0.006), reading (B=-0.93, p=0.004), calculations (B=-0.72, p=0.005), and LQ (B=-4.06, p=0.006) in the LDES and a higher commission error in the CPT (B=8.02, p=0.048). The low Mn group showed lower color scores in the Stroop test (B=-3.24, p=0.040). We found that excess Mn in children is associated with lower scores of thinking, reading, calculation, and LQ in the LDES and higher scores of commission error in the ADS test. In contrast, lower Mn in children is associated with lower color scores in the Stroop test. The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that excess exposure or deficiency of Mn can cause harmful effects in children. PMID:23790803

Bhang, Soo-Young; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Yeni; Kim, Bung-Nyun

2013-06-20

207

A Simple Behavioral Paradigm to Measure Impulsive Behavior in an Animal Model of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) of the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

PubMed Central

Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive “control” strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more “drinking attempts” and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD.

Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

2012-01-01

208

Psychoeducation for Adults With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder vs. Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of psychoeducation as compared with cognitive behavioral group therapy in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who still had significant symptoms and were in pharmacological treatment. This is the first study on psychoeducation in adults with ADHD. Thirty-two individuals were randomized to two treatment conditions: 15 were in the psychoeducation group and 11 were in the cognitive behavioral group therapy. A total of 30 completed treatment, and 26 completed the follow-up assessments. The results indicated that both treatments were associated with statistically significant improvements on inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and self-esteem. The patients in both groups showed a decrease in anxiety symptoms and obtained significantly lower scores in depression. Measures on functional impairment showed statistically significant differences on improved quality of life and on lower global severity as perceived in self-report and assessed by clinician report. Psychoeducation demonstrated to be an effective treatment in reducing ADHD core symptoms. PMID:24080677

Estrada, Raquel Vidal; Bosch, Rosa; Nogueira, Mariana; Gómez-Barros, Nuria; Valero, Sergi; Palomar, Gloria; Corrales, Montse; Richarte, Vanesa; Mena, Beatriz; Casas, Miquel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

2013-10-01

209

A comparison of behavioral parent training programs for fathers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Few behavioral parent training (BPT) treatment studies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have included and measured outcomes with fathers. In this study, fathers were randomly assigned to attend a standard BPT program or the Coaching Our Acting-Out Children: Heightening Essential Skills (COACHES) program. The COACHES program included BPT plus sports skills training for the children and parent-child interactions in the context of a soccer game. Groups did not differ at baseline, and father ratings of treatment outcome indicated improvement at posttreatment for both groups on measures of child behavior. There was no significant difference between groups on ADHD-related measures of child outcome. However, at posttreatment, fathers who participated in the COACHES program rated children as more improved, and they were significantly more engaged in the treatment process (e.g., greater attendance and arrival on time at sessions, more homework completion, greater consumer satisfaction). The implications for these findings and father-related treatment efforts are discussed. PMID:19433150

Fabiano, Gregory A; Chacko, Anil; Pelham, William E; Robb, Jessica; Walker, Kathryn S; Wymbs, Frances; Sastry, Amber L; Flammer, Lizette; Keenan, Jenna K; Visweswaraiah, Hema; Shulman, Simon; Herbst, Laura; Pirvics, Lauma

2008-10-31

210

Academic, Behavioral, and Cognitive Effects of OROS® Methylphenidate on Older Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess the effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System (OROS) methylphenidate (MPH) on a variety of measures evaluating academic performance, cognition, and social behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory school study enrolled 78 children aged 9–12 years with ADHD who responded to OROS MPH. After determining individualized OROS MPH dosing (18–54?mg/day), 71 subjects received blinded treatment (OROS MPH or placebo then vice versa) on each of 2 laboratory school days, separated by 1 week. Primary efficacy was measured by Permanent Product Measure of Performance at 4 hours after study drug administration. Results Treatment with OROS MPH resulted in statistically significant improvement in Permanent Product Measure of Performance and Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham scores, measures of response time, and of working memory compared to placebo. Other measures did not meet all pre-established criteria for significance (maintenance of the overall type I error rate at 5%). Adverse events were consistent with previous reports of stimulant medications used in the management of ADHD. There were no discontinuations due to adverse events, and no serious adverse events or deaths. Conclusions OROS MPH dosed to reduce core symptoms of ADHD to within the normal range also improved performance on a variety of academic tasks in school-aged children compared to placebo. Adverse effects reported were consistent with prior studies. Clinical Trial Registry Information Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Evaluating the Academic, Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of Concerta on Older Children with ADHD, URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00799409, unique identifier: NCT00799409.

Wigal, Sharon B.; Wigal, Tim; Schuck, Sabrina; Brams, Matthew; Williamson, David; Armstrong, Robert B.

2011-01-01

211

Spelling Difficulties in School-Aged Girls With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Behavioral, Psycholinguistic, Cognitive, and Graphomotor Correlates.  

PubMed

Writing difficulties are common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the nature of these difficulties has not been well studied. Here we relate behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive (memory/executive), and graphomotor measures to spelling skills in school-age girls with ADHD (n = 30) and an age-matched group of typically developed spellers (TYPSP, n = 35). When subdividing the ADHD group into those with poor (ADHDPSP, n = 19) and typical spelling (ADHDTYPSP, n = 11), the two subgroups did not differ with regard to inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity according to parent or teacher ratings. Both ADHD subgroups also had equally severe difficulties in graphomotor control-handwriting and (parent ratings of) written expression as compared to the TYPSP group. In contrast, ADHDPSP had problems relative to ADHDTYPSP and TYPSP on phonological and orthographic recoding (choice tasks) and verbal memory (digit span) and were more likely to make commissions on a continuous performance task (CPT). Further analyses using the collapsed ADHD group showed that both digit span and the presence of CPT commissions predicted spelling performance independently of each other. Finally, results showed that phonological recoding skills mediated the association between digit span and spelling performance in ADHD. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed. PMID:23213048

Asberg Johnels, Jakob; Kopp, Svenny; Gillberg, Christopher

2012-12-01

212

Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well-documented nor well-understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound recognition when task and critical stimuli were identical across attention conditions. We propose modulation of lexical activation as a neurophysiologically-plausible computational mechanism that can account for this type of modulation. Contrary to the claims of critics, this mechanism can account for attentional modulation without violating the principle of interactive processing. Simulations of the interactive TRACE model extended to include two different ways of modulating lexical activation showed that each can account for attentional modulation of lexical feedback effects. Experiment 2 tested conflicting predictions from the two implementations and provided evidence that is consistent with bias input as the mechanism of attentional control of lexical activation.

Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

2008-01-01

213

The Single and Combined Effects of Multiple Intensities of Behavior Modification and Methylphenidate for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Classroom Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Currently behavior modification, stimulant medication, and combined treatments are supported as evidence-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in classroom settings. However, there has been little study of the relative effects of these two modalities and their combination in classrooms. Using a within-subject design,…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran; Garefino, Allison; Keenan, Jenna K.; Onyango, Adia N.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Massetti, Greta M.; Robb, Jessica A.

2007-01-01

214

Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) compared with placebo for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the impact on substance treatment outcomes in adolescents concurrently receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders (SUD). Method: This was a…

Riggs, Paula D.; Winhusen, Theresa; Davies, Robert D.; Leimberger, Jeffrey D.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Klein, Constance; Macdonald, Marilyn; Lohman, Michelle; Bailey, Genie L.; Haynes, Louise; Jaffee, William B.; Haminton, Nancy; Hodgkins, Candace; Whitmore, Elizabeth; Trello-Rishel, Kathlene; Tamm, Leanne; Acosta, Michelle C.; Royer-Malvestuto, Charlotte; Subramaniam, Geetha; Fishman, Marc; Holmes, Beverly W.; Kaye, Mary Elyse; Vargo, Mark A.; Woody, George E.; Nunes, Edward V.; Liu, David

2011-01-01

215

"Nothing Works!" A Case Study Using Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions to Engage Parents, Educators, and Children in the Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains one of the most prevalent mental health diagnoses identified in school-age children. Affected children show an increased risk for school failure, social difficulties, and the development of psychiatric comorbidities. Despite the availability of evidence-based behavioral protocols for…

Levine, Eva S.; Anshel, Daphne J.

2011-01-01

216

Breathing Control and Attention Training: A Preliminary Study of a Psychophysiological Approach to Self-Control of Hyperactive Behavior in Children. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study was undertaken as a preliminary evaluation of a psychophysiological method for training children in the control of hyperactive behavior. The method involves breathing control and attention training which employs biofeedback and operant conditioning principles designed to help the child develop control over excessive and…

Simpson, D. Dwayne; Nelson, Arnold E.

217

Peer Status in Boys with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Predictions from Overt and Covert Antisocial Behavior, Social Isolation, and Authoritative Parenting Beliefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated predictors of peer sociometric nominations among boys with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Found that aggression, covert antisocial behavior, and authoritative parenting beliefs predicted negative peer status and peer social preference. Aggression predicted peer rejection more strongly for comparison than…

Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Zupan, Brian A.; Simmel, Cassandra; Nigg, Joel T.; Melnick, Sharon

1997-01-01

218

Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

2012-01-01

219

The Use of Stimulant Medication and Behavioral Interventions for the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Survey of Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined parents' knowledge, attitudes, and information sources regarding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including treatment with stimulant medication and behavioral interventions. Responses from parents with a child diagnosed with ADHD and parents without a child diagnosed with ADHD were also compared. Participants consisted…

Stroh, Jennifer; Frankenberger, William; Cornell-Swanson, La Vonne; Wood, Courtney; Pahl, Stephanie

2008-01-01

220

"Nothing Works!" A Case Study Using Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions to Engage Parents, Educators, and Children in the Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains one of the most prevalent mental health diagnoses identified in school-age children. Affected children show an increased risk for school failure, social difficulties, and the development of psychiatric comorbidities. Despite the availability of evidence-based behavioral protocols for managing…

Levine, Eva S.; Anshel, Daphne J.

2011-01-01

221

The Effects of the First Step to Success Program on Academic Engagement Behaviors of Turkish Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluated the effectiveness of the First Step to Success (FSS) early intervention program with Turkish children identified with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Intervention effectiveness on target children's academic engagement behaviors was studied. Participants were four 7-year-old first-grade students in…

Ozdemir, Selda

2011-01-01

222

Rethinking Attention Deficit Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reviews issues concerning attention deficit disorders (ADDs) in the context of a systems perspective. ADDs are viewed as resulting from dynamic interactions of behavior, cognition, and affect, out of which emerge distinct and idiosyncratic ways of coping. Chapter 1 looks at the interaction of attention and behavior. In chapter 2, the…

Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; And Others

223

Attentional training of the appetitive motivation system: Effects on sensation seeking preferences and reward-based behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation is seen to guide selective attention in favor of motivation-consistent stimuli. However, such links may be bi-directional\\u000a in nature, such that selective attention processes may also bias and determine one’s motivational state. In the present study,\\u000a we examined the latter direction of influence by randomly assigning participants to one of two conditions designed to train\\u000a selective attention either toward

Paul W. Goetz; Michael D. Robinson; Brian P. Meier

2008-01-01

224

Coming out in Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article shares how the author explained her trans status to her students. Everyone has been extremely supportive of her decision to come out in class and to completely mask the male secondary-sex characteristics, especially in the workplace. The department chair and the faculty in general have been willing to do whatever they can to assist…

McKinnon, Rachel

2012-01-01

225

Using Perseverative Interests to Elicit Joint Attention Behaviors in Young Children with Autism: Theoretical and Clinical Implications for Understanding Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various explanations have been offered in the literature on the underlying cause of joint attention deficits in autism. One possible explanation is that children with autism are capable of producing joint attention but lack the social motivation to share their interests with others. The current study used a single-subject reversal design with…

Vismara, Laurie A.; Lyons, Gregory L.

2007-01-01

226

To what extent do joint attention, imitation, and object play behaviors in infancy predict later communication and intellectual functioning in ASD?  

PubMed Central

The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9–12 and/or 15–18 months. A quantitative interval recording of behavior and a qualitative rating of the developmental level were applied. Social communication behaviors increased between 9–12 and 15–18 months. Their mean level during infancy, but not the rate of change, predicted both Vineland Communication scores and intellectual functioning at 3–7 years. The two methods of measurement yielded similar results. Thus, early social communicative behaviors may play pivotal roles in the development of subsequent communication and intellectual functioning.

Poon, Kenneth K.; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele D.

2012-01-01

227

To what extent do joint attention, imitation, and object play behaviors in infancy predict later communication and intellectual functioning in ASD?  

PubMed

The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9-12 and/or 15-18 months. A quantitative interval recording of behavior and a qualitative rating of the developmental level were applied. Social communication behaviors increased between 9-12 and 15-18 months. Their mean level during infancy, but not the rate of change, predicted both Vineland Communication scores and intellectual functioning at 3-7 years. The two methods of measurement yielded similar results. Thus, early social communicative behaviors may play pivotal roles in the development of subsequent communication and intellectual functioning. PMID:21858585

Poon, Kenneth K; Watson, Linda R; Baranek, Grace T; Poe, Michele D

2012-06-01

228

Greater arousal and less attentiveness to face/voice stimuli by neonates of depressed mothers on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.  

PubMed

Neonates born to depressed (n=44) versus non-depressed (n=43) mothers were compared on individual items of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). The neonates of depressed mothers received lower scores on orienting to the live face/voice stimulus and on the alertness items, suggesting they were less attentive. They also scored less optimally on the cuddliness and hand-to-mouth activity items, suggesting they were more aroused. These data lend support to the model that infants of depressed mothers are more aroused and less attentive. PMID:17138313

Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Ruddock, Maxine

2006-06-23

229

Behavioral Predictors of Substance-Use Initiation in Adolescents With and Without Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.Our goal was to examine substance-use initiation in healthy adolescents and in adolescents who have been diagnosed with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder. METHODS.Seventy-eight adolescents (28 healthy and 50 with attention-deficit\\/hy- peractivity disorder) participated in an ongoing longitudinal study of predictors of substance use. The substances most commonly reported were tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. Aggression, conduct problems, hyperactivity, impulsivity, inatten- tion, anxiety\\/depression, social

Monique Ernst; David A. Luckenbaugh; Eric T. Moolchan; Michelle K. Leff; Rachel Allen; Edythe D. London; Alane Kimes

2010-01-01

230

Autonomous Behavior-Based Switched Top-Down and Bottom-Up Visual Attention for Mobile Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, autonomous switching between two basic attention selection mechanisms, i.e., top-down and bottom-up, is proposed. This approach fills a gap in object search using conventional top-down biased bottom-up attention selection, which fails, if a group of objects is searched whose appearances cannot be uniquely described by low-level features used in bottom-up computational models. Three internal robot states, such

Tingting Xu; Kolja Kühnlenz; Martin Buss

2010-01-01

231

Evaluation of access to care and medical and behavioral outcomes in a school-based intervention program for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

The Project for Attention-Related Disorders (PARD), instituted by the San Diego (Calif.) School District. represents a unique approach to identification, referral, and management of children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. As a school-based program, PARD coordinates medical, psychosocial, behavioral, and educational interventions for each child, and provides resources for school personnel caring for children with ADHD. Three years after instituting PARD, about 60% to 70% of the children showed improvement after enrollment, evaluation, and treatment. Parental involvement in and acceptance of intervention for their children represented a significant follow-up problem. Both medical and nonmedical interventions such as counseling, special programs, and behavior modification helped improve the educational life of these children. PMID:8246460

Williams, R A; Horn, S; Daley, S P; Nader, P R

1993-09-01

232

Association between severity of behavioral phenotype and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is sometimes comorbid with autism spectrum disorder. In the current study, we examined rates of parent-reported clinically significant symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children (4-8 years) with autism spectrum disorder, most of whom were first enrolled in our research protocols as toddlers. Results revealed that children with autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had lower cognitive functioning, more severe social impairment, and greater delays in adaptive functioning than children with autism spectrum disorder only. Implications for clinical practice include the need to assess for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms at an early age in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Research is needed to determine efficacious interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to optimize outcomes. PMID:23739542

Rao, Patricia A; Landa, Rebecca J

2013-06-01

233

Peering through the smoke: the effect of parental smoking behavior and addiction on daily smokers' attentional bias to smoking cues.  

PubMed

Although previous research has demonstrated that individuals with parents who smoke are more likely to become smokers and are less successful in smoking cessation efforts compared with those without a smoking parent, the reasons for this link have not been established. In the current study, implicit attentional bias to smoking-related cues was investigated in college-age smokers, based on models of addiction that suggest that attention to drug-related cues plays an important role in drug addiction. Sixty-one participants completed a dot-probe task to measure attentional bias to smoking-related and matched non-smoking-related control pictures. Results indicated that while those who reported smoking occasionally did not demonstrate an attentional bias, daily smokers who had a smoking parent showed more of an attentional bias to the smoking cues than those without a smoking parent, but only to cues that did not contain human content. In addition to parental influence, nicotine dependence explained a significant portion of the variance in the attentional bias for daily smokers. Implications for models of nicotine addiction and the development of smoking cessation programs are discussed. PMID:22036056

Dickter, Cheryl L; Forestell, Catherine A

2011-10-08

234

Dopamine modulates attentional control of auditory perception: DARPP-32 (PPP1R1B) genotype effects on behavior and cortical evoked potentials.  

PubMed

Using a specific variant of the dichotic listening paradigm, we studied the influence of dopamine on attentional modulation of auditory perception by assessing effects of allelic variation of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs907094 in the DARPP-32 gene (dopamine and adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein 32 kilodations; also known as PPP1R1B) on behavior and cortical evoked potentials. A frequent DARPP-32 haplotype that includes the A allele of this SNP is associated with higher mRNA expression of DARPP-32 protein isoforms, striatal dopamine receptor function, and frontal-striatal connectivity. As we hypothesized, behaviorally the A homozygotes were more flexible in selectively attending to auditory inputs than any G carriers. Moreover, this genotype also affected auditory evoked cortical potentials that reflect early sensory and late attentional processes. Specifically, analyses of event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that amplitudes of an early component of sensory selection (N1) and a late component (N450) reflecting attentional deployment for conflict resolution were larger in A homozygotes than in any G carriers. Taken together, our data lend support for dopamine's role in modulating auditory attention both during the early sensory selection and late conflict resolution stages. PMID:23639477

Li, Shu-Chen; Passow, Susanne; Nietfeld, Wilfried; Schröder, Julia; Bertram, Lars; Heekeren, Hauke R; Lindenberger, Ulman

2013-04-29

235

Treatment-Related Changes in Objectively Measured Parenting Behaviors in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined treatment outcomes for objectively measured parenting behavior in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Five hundred seventy-nine ethnically and socioeconomically diverse children with ADHD-combined type (ages 7.0–9.9 years) and their parent(s) were recruited at 6 sites in the United States and Canada and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups for

Karen C. Wells; Terry C. Chi; Stephen P. Hinshaw; Jeffery N. Epstein; Linda Pfiffner; Marie Nebel-Schwalm; Elizabeth B. Owens; L. Eugene Arnold; Howard B. Abikoff; C. Keith Conners; Glen R. Elliott; Laurence L. Greenhill; Lily Hechtman; Betsy Hoza; Peter S. Jensen; John March; Jeffrey H. Newcorn; William E. Pelham; Joanne B. Severe; James Swanson; Benedetto Vitiello; Timothy Wigal

2006-01-01

236

An exploratory study of the effectiveness of group narrative therapy on the school behavior of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms.  

PubMed

This study explored the effectiveness of group narrative therapy for improving the school behavior of a small sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fourteen clinics referred 9- to 11-year-old girls with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD were randomly assigned to treatment and wait-list control groups. Posttreatment ratings by teachers showed that narrative therapy had a significant effect on reducing ADHD symptoms 1 week after completion of treatment and sustained after 30 days. PMID:22999036

Looyeh, Majid Yoosefi; Kamali, Khosrow; Shafieian, Roya

2012-03-28

237

Single and combined effects of methylphenidate and behavior therapy on the classroom performance of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four boys with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participating in an intensive summer treatment program each received b.i.d. placebo and two doses of methylphenidate (MPH, 0.3 mg\\/kg and 0.6 mg\\/kg) crossed with two classroom settings: a behavior modification classroom including a token economy system, time out and daily home report card, and a “regular” classroom setting not using these procedures. Dependent

Caryn L. Carlson; William E. Pelham; Richard Milich; Joanne Dixon

1992-01-01

238

Effects of an open-label pilot study with high-dose EPA\\/DHA concentrates on plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurological condition in children. This pilot study evaluated the effects of high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on the isolated plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with ADHD (primarily inattentive subtype and combined subtype). METHODS: Nine children were initially supplemented with 16.2 g EPA\\/DHA concentrates per day.

Paul J Sorgi; Edward M Hallowell; Heather L Hutchins; Barry Sears

2007-01-01

239

The Efficacy and Tolerability of Methylphenidate and Behavior Modification in Children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder and Severe Mood Dysregulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study examines the tolerability and efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH) and behavior modifi- cation therapy (BMOD) in children with attention-deficity\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Methods: Children (ages 5-12) from a summer program for ADHD were screened for SMD and additional manic-like symptoms using structured assessments and direct clinical interview with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS).

James Waxmonsky; William E. Pelham; Elizabeth Gnagy; Michael R. Cummings; Briannon O'Connor; Antara Majumdar; Jessica Verley; Martin T. Hoffman; Greta A. Massetti; Lisa Burrows-MacLean; Gregory A. Fabiano; Daniel A. Waschbusch; Anil Chacko; Frances W. Arnold; Kathryn S. Walker; Allison C. Garefino; Jessica A. Robb

2008-01-01

240

The Use of Stimulant Medication and Behavioral Interventions for the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Survey of Parents’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and information sources regarding Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),\\u000a including treatment with stimulant medication and behavioral interventions. Responses from parents with a child diagnosed\\u000a with ADHD and parents without a child diagnosed with ADHD were also compared. Participants consisted of 146 parents of elementary\\u000a age children from Wisconsin. The surveyed parents were aware of issues surrounding ADHD

Jennifer Stroh; William Frankenberger; La Vonne Cornell-Swanson; Courtney Wood; Stephanie Pahl

2008-01-01

241

Single and combined effects of methylphenidate and behavior therapy on the classroom performance of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Twenty-four boys with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participating in an intensive summer treatment program each received b.i.d. placebo and two doses of methylphenidate (MPH, 0.3 mg/kg and 0.6 mg/kg) crossed with two classroom settings: a behavior modification classroom including a token economy system, time out and daily home report card, and a "regular" classroom setting not using these procedures. Dependent variables included classroom observations of on-task and disruptive behavior, academic work completion and accuracy, and daily self-ratings of performance. Both MPH and behavior modification alone significantly improved children's classroom behavior, but only MPH improved children's academic productivity and accuracy. Singly, behavior therapy and 0.3 mg/kg PMH produced roughly equivalent improvements in classroom behavior. Further, the combination of behavior therapy and 0.3 mg/kg MPH resulted in maximal behavioral improvements, which were nearly identical to those obtained with 0.6 mg/kg MPH alone. PMID:1593027

Carlson, C L; Pelham, W E; Milich, R; Dixon, J

1992-04-01

242

Molecular genetics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable and behavioral condition of childhood, affecting 5–10% of school-age children worldwide. Affected patients exhibit various behavioral problems such as carelessness, restlessness, disobedience and failure to stay quiet in class. The etiology of ADHD is not known. However, family, twin and adoption studies have provided strong evidence for a genetic etiology of the disorder.

Barkur S Shastry

2004-01-01

243

Exploring the co-morbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in a nationally representative community-based sample.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence signifies the co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with clinical and sub-threshold disordered eating behaviors. However, many existing studies have assessed this co-occurrence among inpatient or intensive outpatient populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the co-occurrence of ADHD with clinical eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in a nationally representative sample via a secondary data analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 4,862; 2,243 males; 2,619 females). Results reveal that females have higher rates of co-occurrence of ADHD and diagnosed eating disorders than males (1.05% vs. 0.20%, p < .01). When controlling for age and race, ADHD predicted diagnosed eating disorders in females (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 2.06; 95% CI: 1.09-3.88; p < .05), but did not predict diagnosed eating disorders in males. With regard to disordered eating behaviors, when controlling for age, gender, and race, ADHD significantly predicted disordered eating behaviors (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.21-2.74). When stratifying by type of disordered eating behavior, ADHD predicted binging and/or purging behavior (OR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.78-4.61), but not restrictive behaviors. Implications of study findings pertain to both secondary/targeted prevention efforts in addition to tertiary prevention via patient-specific treatment plans. PMID:23910787

Bleck, Jennifer; DeBate, Rita D

2013-05-22

244

A controlled study of the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of children with attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities.  

PubMed

Eighteen children with ADD/ADHD, some of whom were also LD, ranging in ages from 5 through 15 were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. The experimental condition consisted of 40 45-minute sessions of training in enhancing beta activity and suppressing theta activity, spaced over 6 months. The control condition, waiting list group, received no EEG biofeedback. No other psychological treatment or medication was administered to any subjects. All subjects were measured at pretreatment and at posttreatment on an IQ test and parent behavior rating scales for inattention, hyperactivity, and aggressive/defiant (oppositional) behaviors. At posttreatment the experimental group demonstrated a significant increase (mean of 9 points) on the K-Bit IQ Composite as compared to the control group (p <.05). The experimental group also significantly reduced inattentive behaviors as rated by parents (p < .05). The significant improvements in intellectual functioning and attentive behaviors might be explained as a result of the attentional enhancement affected by EEG biofeedback training. Further research utilizing improved data collection and analysis, more stringent control groups, and larger sample sizes are needed to support and replicate these findings. PMID:8833315

Linden, M; Habib, T; Radojevic, V

1996-03-01

245

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

246

Comparative Study of the Behavioral and Neuropsychologic Characteristics of Tic Disorder With or Without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the nature of the comorbidity of tic disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), patients with tic disorder with or without ADHD were compared on the basis of clinical ratings and neuropsychologic tests. Seventy-eight children were involved in this study: 16 with tic disorder, 19 with comorbid tic disorder and ADHD, 21 with ADHD, and 22 normal controls. Rating

Min-Sup Shin; Sun-Ju Chung; Kang-E Michael Hong

2001-01-01

247

An Animal Model of Attention Deficit Disorder: The Female Shows More Behavioral Problems and Is More Impulsive than the Male  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the present study was to characterize sex differences in the temporal discrimination and activity level of an animal model of attention deficit disorder (ADD) using a conjunctive 120-s variable interval 16-s differential reinforcement of low rate (VIDRL) schedule of reinforcement. The results showed that the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) male was generally hyperactive and that the SHR

Terje Sagvolden; David F. Berger

1996-01-01

248

Increasing On-Task Behaviors of High School Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Is It Enough?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study used audiotaped chimes and a student checklist to improve the on-task behavior of three 10th-grade students with ADHD. The study took place in a high school study hall specifically for students with disabilities. The observers used a 10-second whole interval recording system to record on-task/off-task behavior within an alternating…

Graham-Day, Kristall J.; Gardner, Ralph, III.; Hsin, Yi-Wei

2010-01-01

249

Competing Core Processes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Do Working Memory Deficiencies Underlie Behavioral Inhibition Deficits?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined competing predictions of the working memory and behavioral inhibition models of ADHD. Behavioral inhibition was measured using a conventional stop-signal task, and central executive, phonological, and visuospatial working memory components (Baddeley 2007) were assessed in 14 children with ADHD and 13 typically developing…

Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Hudec, Kristen L.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

2010-01-01

250

Classroom Interventions: Methods to Improve Academic Performance and Classroom Behavior for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavior management techniques are essential components of any treatment method for students with ADHD. Further, they appear to be the only line of treatment to which school personnel have direct access. Research has suggested that nearly all educators employ some form of behavioral modification techniques in their classroom. This paper will…

Reiber, Christopher; McLaughlin, T. F.

2004-01-01

251

Extended Attention Span Training System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback...

A. T. Pope E. H. Bogart

1991-01-01

252

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

MedlinePLUS

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental disorders in children and adolescents. ... year. Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and very high levels of ...

253

Development of a Brief, Behavioral Homework Intervention for Middle School Students with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the vast literature on treatments for children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there\\u000a is a relative paucity of research examining the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for adolescents with ADHD. Furthermore,\\u000a only a handful of ADHD treatment studies employ educational interventions to improve academic functioning, and no study to\\u000a date has examined a parent training intervention for targeting homework

Veronica L. Raggi; Andrea Chronis-Tuscano; Howard Fishbein; Amber Groomes

2009-01-01

254

Competing Core Processes in Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Do Working Memory Deficiencies Underlie Behavioral Inhibition Deficits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined competing predictions of the working memory and behavioral inhibition models of ADHD. Behavioral\\u000a inhibition was measured using a conventional stop-signal task, and central executive, phonological, and visuospatial working\\u000a memory components (Baddeley 2007) were assessed in 14 children with ADHD and 13 typically developing (TD) children. Bootstrapped mediation analyses revealed\\u000a that the visuospatial working memory system and

R. Matt Alderson; Mark D. Rapport; Kristen L. Hudec; Dustin E. Sarver; Michael J. Kofler

2010-01-01

255

The impact of socially projected group composition on behavior in a commons dilemma: A self-attention perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socially projected group compositions, based on subjects’ expectancies about the behavior of others and the number of subjects\\u000a taking part on the resource use task, were indexed using Mullen’s Additive Other-Total Ratio (Mullen, 1987) and used to predict\\u000a harvesting behavior in a commons dilemma. One-hundred forty-three males took part in a resource use task in groups ranging\\u000a in size from

Judith G. Chapman

1991-01-01

256

Personal names do not always survive the attentional blink: Behavioral evidence for a flexible locus of selection  

PubMed Central

Models of the attentional blink phenomenon (AB) typically assume that unattended information is processed to the post-perceptual level prior to selection for access to consciousness. The present experiments test this assumption by manipulating the perceptual load of the first target task (T1) and whether the second target (T2) was the participant’s own name or someone else’s name. In three experiments, increasing T1-load increased the severity of the AB for personal names. The results suggest that selection during the AB is not fixed at the post-perceptual stage, but rather the stage at which selection occurs during the AB is flexible.

Giesbrecht, Barry; Sy, Jocelyn L.; Lewis, Megan K.

2009-01-01

257

Behavioral and Cardiovascular Responses to Frustration during Simulated Driving Tasks in Young Adults with and without Attention Disorder Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The present study examined the role of negative emotions on driving performance in relation to ADHD, by comparing young adults scoring high on measures of ADHD (n = 20) with a control group (n = 22). Method: The authors used cardiorespiratory physiological measures, simulated driving behavior, and self-report to examine how…

Oliver, Michele L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Cassavaugh, Nicholas D.; Backs, Richard W.

2012-01-01

258

Different Behavioral and Eye Movement Patterns of Dyslexic Readers with and without Attentional Deficits during Single Word Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comorbidity of learning disabilities is a very common phenomenon which is intensively studied in genetics, neuropsychology, prevalence studies and causal deficit research. In studies on the behavioral manifestation of learning disabilities, however, comorbidity is often neglected. In the present study, we systematically examined the reading…

Thaler, Verena; Urton, Karolina; Heine, Angela; Hawelka, Stefan; Engl, Verena; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2009-01-01

259

Bridging the Gap between Physiology and Behavior: Evidence from the sSoTS Model of Human Visual Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We present the case for a role of biologically plausible neural network modeling in bridging the gap between physiology and behavior. We argue that spiking-level networks can allow "vertical" translation between physiological properties of neural systems and emergent "whole-system" performance--enabling psychological results to be simulated from…

Mavritsaki, Eirini; Heinke, Dietmar; Allen, Harriet; Deco, Gustavo; Humphreys, Glyn W.

2011-01-01

260

Improving Homework in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Self vs. Parent Monitoring of Homework Behavior and Study Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study compared the effectiveness of self- and parent-monitoring of homework and study skills completion in middle school students with ADHD. Students were trained in the SQ4R (Survey, Question, Read, Write, Recite) study strategy and homework completion skills. In one group, students monitored their homework and study behavior and in…

Meyer, Kara; Kelley, Mary Lou

2007-01-01

261

Improving Homework in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Self vs. Parent Monitoring of Homework Behavior and Study Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study compared the effectiveness of self- and parent-monitoring of homework and study skills completion in middle school students with ADHD. Students were trained in the SQ4R (Survey, Question, Read, Write, Recite) study strategy and homework completion skills. In one group, students monitored their homework and study behavior and in…

Meyer, Kara; Kelley, Mary Lou

2007-01-01

262

Response inhibition in preschoolers at familial risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a behavioral and electrophysiological stop-signal study.  

PubMed

Children participating in the Ben-Gurion Infant Development Study were assessed with a dynamic-tracking version of the stop-signal task at the age of 5 years. The sample consisted of 60 males. Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was correlated with concurrent ratings of the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Paternal symptoms measured in the child's early infancy predicted the child's performance in the stop-signal task: Paternal inattentiveness predicted SSRT, whereas hyperactivity predicted error proportion. Maternal symptoms were not correlated with the performance of the child in the task. A subsample of children, who were tested while electrophysiological brain activity was measured, showed that having higher ADHD symptomatology, especially hyperactivity, correlated with less activity in the brain areas that are usually recruited by children for successful inhibition. PMID:23448499

Berger, Andrea; Alyagon, Uri; Hadaya, Hadas; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G

2013-02-28

263

Executive function in MCDD and PDD-NOS: a study of inhibitory control, attention regulation and behavioral adaptivity.  

PubMed

A proportion of children within the autism spectrum is at risk for severe deregulation of thought, emotion and behaviour resulting in (symptoms of) psychotic disorders over the course of development. In an attempt to identify this subgroup, children with PDD-NOS, subtype MCDD (n = 24) were compared to children with PDD-NOS (n = 23) on executive function (EF) skills. Significant differences emerged, always to the disadvantage of the children with PDD-NOS, subtype MCDD on various EF measures. The findings suggest compromised attention regulation and impaired inhibitory control in children with MCDD, which may help explain high levels of thought problems which are frequently observed in these children. Our findings provide evidence for recognizing a PDD subcategory of MCDD that is of specific interest with regard to long-term developmental risks involved. PMID:23104616

van Rijn, Sophie; de Sonneville, Leo; Lahuis, Bertine; Pieterse, Jolijn; van Engeland, Herman; Swaab, Hanna

2013-06-01

264

Parental Influence on Children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder: I. Relationships Between Parent Behaviors and Child Peer Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined associations between children’s peer relationships and (a) their parents’ social competence as well as (b) their\\u000a parents’ behaviors during the children’s peer interactions. Participants were families of 124 children ages 6–10 (68% male),\\u000a 62 with ADHD and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison youth. Children’s peer relationships were assessed via parent and teacher\\u000a report, and sociometric nominations in a

Amori Yee Mikami; Allison Jack; Christina C. Emeh; Haley F. Stephens

2010-01-01

265

The Effects of Presession Attention on Subsequent Attention-Extinction and Alone Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined the effects of presession levels of attention (no attention vs. continuous attention) during subsequent alone and attention-extinction conditions for an individual with severe disabilities and problem behavior. A prior functional analysis indicated that attention was a primary maintaining variable for problem behavior. Experimental…

O'Reilly, Mark; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Machalicek, Wendy; Antonucci, Massimo

2007-01-01

266

Parental Influence on Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: I. Relationships Between Parent Behaviors and Child Peer Status  

PubMed Central

We examined associations between children's peer relationships and (a) their parents' social competence as well as (b) their parents' behaviors during the children's peer interactions. Participants were families of 124 children ages 6–10 (68% male), 62 with ADHD and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison youth. Children's peer relationships were assessed via parent and teacher report, and sociometric nominations in a lab-based playgroup. Parental characteristics were assessed via parent self-report and observations of behavior during their child's playgroup. After statistical control of relevant covariates, parents of children with ADHD reported poorer social skills of their own, arranged fewer playdates for their children, and displayed more criticism during their child's peer interaction than did parents of comparison youth. Parents' socialization with other parents and facilitation of the child's peer interactions predicted their children having good peer relationships as reported by teachers and peers, whereas parental corrective feedback to the child and praise predicted poor peer relationships. Parents' ratings of their child's social skills were positively associated with ratings of their own social skills, but negatively associated with criticism and facilitation of the child's peer interactions. Relationships between parental behaviors and peer relationships were stronger for youth with ADHD than for comparison youth. The relevance of findings to interventions is discussed.

Jack, Allison; Emeh, Christina C.; Stephens, Haley F.

2010-01-01

267

Parental influence on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: I. Relationships between parent behaviors and child peer status.  

PubMed

We examined associations between children's peer relationships and (a) their parents' social competence as well as (b) their parents' behaviors during the children's peer interactions. Participants were families of 124 children ages 6-10 (68% male), 62 with ADHD and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison youth. Children's peer relationships were assessed via parent and teacher report, and sociometric nominations in a lab-based playgroup. Parental characteristics were assessed via parent self-report and observations of behavior during their child's playgroup. After statistical control of relevant covariates, parents of children with ADHD reported poorer social skills of their own, arranged fewer playdates for their children, and displayed more criticism during their child's peer interaction than did parents of comparison youth. Parents' socialization with other parents and facilitation of the child's peer interactions predicted their children having good peer relationships as reported by teachers and peers, whereas parental corrective feedback to the child and praise predicted poor peer relationships. Parents' ratings of their child's social skills were positively associated with ratings of their own social skills, but negatively associated with criticism and facilitation of the child's peer interactions. Relationships between parental behaviors and peer relationships were stronger for youth with ADHD than for comparison youth. The relevance of findings to interventions is discussed. PMID:20339912

Mikami, Amori Yee; Jack, Allison; Emeh, Christina C; Stephens, Haley F

2010-08-01

268

Impact of Treatments for Depression on Comorbid Anxiety, Attentional, and Behavioral Symptoms in Adolescents With Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the relative efficacy of antidepressant medication, alone and in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), on comorbid symptoms of anxiety, attention, and disruptive behavior disorders in participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method Adolescents with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)–resistant depression (N = 334) were randomly assigned to a medication switch alone (to another SSRI or to venlafaxine) or to a medication switch plus CBT. Anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) symptoms were assessed by psychiatric interview and self-report at regular intervals between baseline and 24 weeks. The differential effects of medication and of CBT, and the impact of remission on the course of comorbid symptoms and diagnoses, were assessed using generalized linear mixed models. Results Remission was associated with a greater reduction in scalar measures of anxiety, ADHD, and DBDs, and a greater decrease in the rate of diagnosed anxiety disorders. The correlations between the changes in symptoms of depression on the CDRS-R and anxiety, ADHD, and oppositional symptoms were modest, ranging from r = 0.12 to r = 0.28. There were no significant differential treatment effects on diagnoses, or corresponding symptoms. Conclusion The achievement of remission had a beneficial effect on anxiety, ADHD, and DBD symptoms, regardless of the type of treatment received. There were no differential effects of medication or CBT on outcome, except for a nonsignificant trend that those adolescents treated with SSRIs showed a greater decrease in rates of comorbid DBDs relative to those treated with venlafaxine.

Hilton, Robert C.; Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon; He, Jiayan; Mayes, Taryn; Emslie, Graham J.; Porta, Giovanna; Clarke, Greg N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

2013-01-01

269

Correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sugar consumption, quality of diet, and dietary behavior in school children  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the correlation between consumption of sugar intake by fifth grade students in primary schools and development of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A total of 107 students participated, and eight boys and one girl (8.4% of the total) categorized as high risk for ADHD according to diagnostic criteria. There were significant differences in the occupations and drinking habits of the respondents' fathers between the normal group and risk group. In a comparison of students' nutrition intake status with daily nutrition intake standards for Koreans, students consumed twice as much protein as the recommended level, whereas their calcium intake was only 60% of the recommended DRI (dietary reference intake). Regarding intake volume of vitamin C, the normal group posted 143.9% of the recommended DRI, whereas the risk group showed only 65.5% of the recommended DRI. In terms of simple sugar intake from snacks, students in the normal group consumed 58.4 g while the risk group consumed 50.2 g. These levels constituted 12.5% of their total daily volume of sugar intake from snacks, which is higher than the 10% standard recommended by the WHO. In conclusion, children who consumed less sugar from fruit snacks or whose vitamin C intake was less than RI was at increased risks for ADHD (P < 0.05). However, no significant association was observed between total volume of simple sugar intake from snacks and ADHD development.

Kim, Yujeong

2011-01-01

270

Transient Inactivation of the Neonatal Ventral Hippocampus Impairs Attentional Set-Shifting Behavior: Reversal with an ?7 Nicotinic Agonist  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits represent a core symptom cluster in schizophrenia that are thought to reflect developmental dysregulations within a neural system involving the ventral hippocampus (VH), nucleus accumbens (NAC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present experiments determined the cognitive effects of transiently inactivating VH in rats during a sensitive period of development. Neonatal (postnatal day 7, PD7) and adolescent (PD32) male rats received a single bilateral infusion of saline or tetrodotoxin (TTX) within the VH to transiently inactivate local circuitry and efferent outflow. Rats were tested as adults on an attentional set-shifting task. Performance in this task depends upon the integrity of the PFC and NAC. TTX infusions did not affect the initial acquisition or ability to learn an intra-dimensional shift. However, TTX rats required a greater number of trials than did controls to acquire the first reversal and extra-dimensional shift (ED) stages. These impairments were age and region-specific as rats infused with TTX into the VH at PD32, or into the dorsal hippocampus at PD7, exhibited performance in the task similar to that of controls. Finally, acute systemic administration of the partial ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist SSR 180711 (3.0?mg/kg) eliminated the TTX-induced performance deficits. Given that patients with schizophrenia exhibit hippocampal pathophysiology and deficits in the ED stages of set-shifting tasks, our results support the significance of transient hippocampal inactivation as an animal model for studying the cognitive impairments in schizophrenia as well as the pro-cognitive therapeutic potential of ?7 nAChR agonists.

Brooks, Julie M; Pershing, Michelle L; Thomsen, Morten S; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Sarter, Martin; Bruno, John P

2012-01-01

271

Parental efficacy and child behavior in a community sample of children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).  

PubMed

Most studies of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) youth have obtained data from the perspective of either children or parents, but not both simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent perspectives on parenting in a large community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. We identified children in grades 4-6 and their parents through surveys administered to a random sample of public schools. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent associations between child and parent characteristics and the presence of ADHD while controlling for covariates and clustering by school. Sufficient data were achieved for 2,509 child/parent dyads. Ten percent of youths (n = 240) had been diagnosed with ADHD. Compared with those without ADHD, those with ADHD were more commonly male (67.9 vs. 48.0 %, p < .001) and age 12 or over (16.3 vs. 10.3 %). After adjusting for covariates and clustering, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD were significantly more likely to report lower self-regulation (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI = 0.53, 0.88) and higher levels of rebelliousness (OR = 2.00, 95 % CI = 1.52, 2.69). Compared with parents whose children did not have ADHD, parents of children with ADHD rated their overall parental efficacy substantially lower (OR = 0.23, 95 % CI = 0.15, 0.33). However, child assessment of parenting style was similar by ADHD. Despite the internal challenges community-based youth with ADHD face, many parents of ADHD youth exhibit valuable parental skills from the perspective of their children. Feedback of this information to parents may improve parental self-efficacy, which is known to be positively associated with improved ADHD outcomes. PMID:22886756

Primack, Brian A; Hendricks, Kristy M; Longacre, Meghan R; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Weiss, Julia E; Titus, Linda J; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A

2012-08-12

272

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent, heterogeneous syndrome of cognitive and behavioral\\u000a features including inattention, impulsivity, deficient behavioral inhibition, and hyperactivity. Prevalence is about 4%, with\\u000a a moderate excess of a mainly inattentive subtype, and fewer mixed or mainly hyperactive\\/impulsive cases. Comorbid conditions\\u000a include conduct, learning, and mood disorders. ADHD can be found at any age, but

Kehong Zhang; Eugen Davids; Ross J. Baldessarini

273

Does the cortisol response to stress mediate the link between expressed emotion and oppositional behavior in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD)?  

PubMed Central

Background Expressed Emotions (EE) are associated with oppositional behavior (OPB) in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). EE has been linked to altered stress responses in some disorders, but ADHD has not been studied. We test the hypothesis that OPB in ADHD is mediated by altered stress-related cortisol reactivity to EE. Methods Two groups of children (with/without ADHD) and their respective parents were randomly assigned to two different conditions with/without negative emotion and participated in an emotion provocation task. Parents' EE, their ratings of their children's OPB and their children's salivary cortisol levels were measured. Results Low parental warmth was associated with OPB in ADHD. High levels of parental EE elicited a larger cortisol response. Stress-related cortisol reactivity mediated the EE-OPB link for all children. This highlights the general importance of parent-child interactions on externalizing behavior problems. Conclusion High EE is a salient stressor for ADHD children that leads to increased levels of cortisol and OPB. The development of OPB might be mediated by the stress-response to high EE.

2010-01-01

274

Dissociations of Personally Significant and Task-Relevant Distractors Inside and Outside the Focus of Attention: A Combined Behavioral and Psychophysiological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of attentional capture by personally significant stimuli have reached inconsistent results, possibly because of improper control of the participants' attention. In the present study, the authors controlled visual attention by using a Stroop-like task. Participants responded to a central color and ignored a word presented either centrally (i.e., at the focus of attention) or peripherally (i.e., outside the focus

Nurit Gronau; Asher Cohen; Gershon Ben-Shakhar

2003-01-01

275

Voluntary attention enhances contrast appearance  

PubMed Central

Voluntary (endogenous, sustained) covert spatial attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Here we ask whether voluntary attention affects the subjective appearance of contrast—a fundamental dimension of visual perception. We used a demanding rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task to direct endogenous attention to a given location and measured perceived contrast at the attended and unattended locations. Attention increased perceived contrast of supra-threshold stimuli and also improved performance on a concurrent orientation discrimination task at the cued location. We ruled out response bias as an alternative account. Thus, this study establishes that voluntary attention enhances perceived contrast. This phenomenological consequence links behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the effects of attention.

Liu, Taosheng; Abrams, Jared; Carrasco, Marisa

2009-01-01

276

A Reevaluation of the Attentional Inertia Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anderson's (1983) theory about children's attention behavior during television viewing hypothesizes that attention behavior is affected by positive feedback (the inertia hypothesis) and the degree to which a child understands the television program. During an experiment, neither component of Anderson's theory was upheld. To test the attentional inertia and the understanding-and-looking hypothesis, video presentations were shown to children, and their

Willem Verbeke

1992-01-01

277

Combining attention training with cognitive-behavior therapy in Internet-based self-help for social anxiety: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Guided Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD) by several independent research groups. However, since the extent of clinically significant change demonstrated leaves room for improvement, new treatments should be developed and investigated. A novel treatment, which has generally been found to be effective, is cognitive bias modification (CBM). This study aims to evaluate the combination of CBM and ICBT. It is intended that two groups will be compared; one group randomized to receiving ICBT and CBM towards threat cues and one group receiving ICBT and control training. We hypothesize that the group receiving ICBT plus CBM will show superior treatment outcomes. Methods/design Participants with SAD (N = 128), will be recruited from the general population. A composite score combining the scores obtained from three social anxiety questionnaires will serve as the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures include self-reported depression and quality of life. All treatments and assessments will be conducted via the Internet and measurement points will be baseline, Week 2, post-treatment, and 4 months post-treatment. Discussion There is no direct evidence of the effects of combining CBM and ICBT in SAD. Adding attention-training sessions to ICBT protocols could increase the proportion of participants who improve and recover through Internet-based self-help. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01570400

2013-01-01

278

Attention to attention in domestic dog ( Canis familiaris ) dyadic play  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social cognitive capacities of dogs, including their communication skills and use of visual attention cues, have recently\\u000a been investigated in numerous experimental studies. This paper reports on research of domestic dog behavior in a natural setting,\\u000a which shows sensitivity to the visual attention of their partners when engaged in dyadic rough-and-tumble play. The sequential\\u000a behaviors and head-direction of both

Alexandra Horowitz

2009-01-01

279

Civility in Classes and Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility in classes and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…

Lumpkin, Angela

2010-01-01

280

Do executive function deficits differentiate between children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD comorbid with Oppositional Defiant Disorder? A cross-cultural study using performance-based tests and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the differential executive dysfunction of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and those with ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in Han Chinese. A total of 258 children (89 ADHD, 53 ADHD + ODD, 116 controls) completed performance-based executive function tests and had their everyday life executive skills rated by their parents using the Behavior Rating

Ying Qian; Lan Shuai; Qingjiu Cao; Raymond C. K. Chan; Yufeng Wang

2010-01-01

281

Imaging attention networks.  

PubMed

The study of attention has largely been about how to select among the various sensory events but also involves the selection among conflicting actions. Prior to the late 1980s, locating bottlenecks between sensory input and response dominated these studies, a different view was that attentional limits involved the importance of maintaining behavioral coherence rather than resulting from a bottleneck. In both cases ideas of resource limits taken over from economics were important. Early evidence relating to the anatomy of attention came from neurological investigations of lesioned patients, but the major impetus for the anatomical approach came from neuroimaging studies that provided evidence of brain networks related to orienting to sensory events and control of response tendencies. The presence of a functional anatomy has supported studies of the development of attention networks and the role of neuromodulators and genetic polymorphisms in their construction. Together these developments have enhanced our understanding of attention and paved the way for significant applications to education, pathology and prevention of mental illness. PMID:22227132

Posner, Michael I

2011-12-28

282

IMAGING ATTENTION NETWORKS1  

PubMed Central

The study of attention has largely been about how to select among the various sensory events but also involves the selection among conflicting actions. Prior to the late 1980s, locating bottlenecks between sensory input and response dominated these studies, a different view was that attentional limits involved the importance of maintaining behavioral coherence rather than resulting from a bottleneck. In both cases ideas of resource limits taken over from economics were important. Early evidence relating to the anatomy of attention came from neurological investigations of lesioned patients, but the major impetus for the anatomical approach came from neuroimaging studies that provided evidence of brain networks related to orienting to sensory events and control of response tendencies. The presence of a functional anatomy has supported studies of the development of attention networks and the role of neuromodulators and genetic poymorphisms in their construction. Together these developments have enhanced our understanding of attention and paved the way for significant applications to education, pathology and prevention of mental illness.

Posner, Michael I.

2012-01-01

283

Shifting Attentional Priorities: Control of Spatial Attention through Hemispheric Competition  

PubMed Central

Regions of frontal and posterior parietal cortex are known to control the allocation of spatial attention across the visual field. However, the neural mechanisms underlying attentional control in the intact human brain remain unclear, with some studies supporting a hemispatial theory emphasizing a dominant function of the right hemisphere and others supporting an interhemispheric competition theory. We previously found neural evidence to support the latter account, in which topographically organized frontoparietal areas each generate a spatial bias, or “attentional weight,” toward the contralateral hemifield, with the sum of the weights constituting the overall bias that can be exerted across visual space. Here, we used a multimodal approach consisting of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of spatial attention signals, behavioral measures of spatial bias, and fMRI-guided single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to causally test this interhemispheric competition account. Across the group of fMRI subjects, we found substantial individual differences in the strengths of the frontoparietal attentional weights in each hemisphere, which predicted subjects’ respective behavioral preferences when allocating spatial attention, as measured by a landmark task. Using TMS to interfere with attentional processing within specific topographic frontoparietal areas, we then demonstrated that the attentional weights of individual subjects, and thus their spatial attention behavior, could be predictably shifted toward one visual field or the other, depending on the site of interference. The results of our multimodal approach, combined with an emphasis on neural and behavioral individual differences, provide compelling evidence that spatial attention is controlled through competitive interactions between hemispheres rather than a dominant right hemisphere in the intact human brain.

Szczepanski, Sara M.; Kastner, Sabine

2013-01-01

284

Evaluation of Access to Care and Medical and Behavioral Outcomes in a School-Based Intervention Program for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The San Diego (California) school-based Project for Attention-Related Disorders helped improve access to care and increase treatment for children with attentional problems. Of 110 intervention children followed for 3 years, 60-70% showed improvement after enrollment, evaluation, and treatment. Medical and nonmedical interventions were helpful in…

Williams, Richard A.; And Others

1993-01-01

285

Measuring attention in the hemispheres: The lateralized attention network test (LANT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attention network test (ANT) is a brief computerized battery measuring three independent behavioral components of attention: Conflict resolution (ability to overcome distracting stimuli), spatial Orienting (the benefit of valid spatial pre-cues), and Alerting (the benefit of temporal pre-cues). Imaging, clinical, and behavioral evidence demonstrate hemispheric asymmetries in these attentional networks. We constructed a lateralized version of the ANT (LANT),

Deanna J. Greene; Anat Barnea; Kristin Herzberg; Anat Rassis; Maital Neta; Amir Raz; Eran Zaidel

2008-01-01

286

Attention and Interaction in the International System: A Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was undertaken to explore the relationship of national attentiveness to national behavior at the event/interaction level. The international attention measured by The Times of London attention focus to 86 other nations was related to United Kingdo...

J. A. Moore

1970-01-01

287

The influence of serotonin- and other genes on impulsive behavioral aggression and cognitive impulsivity in children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Findings from a family-based association test (FBAT) analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Low serotonergic (5-HT) activity correlates with increased impulsive-aggressive behavior, while the opposite association may apply to cognitive impulsiveness. Both types of impulsivity are associated with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and genes of functional significance for the 5-HT system are implicated in this disorder. Here we demonstrate the separation of aggressive and cognitive components of impulsivity from symptom ratings and test

Robert D. Oades; Jessica Lasky-Su; Hanna Christiansen; Stephen V. Faraone; Edmund J. S. Sonuga-Barke; Tobias Banaschewski; Wai Chen; Richard J. L. Anney; Jan K. Buitelaar; Richard P. Ebstein; Barbara Franke; Michael Gill; Ana Miranda; Herbert Roeyers; Aribert Rothenberger; Joseph A. Sergeant; Hans-Christoph Steinhausen; Eric A. Taylor; Margaret Thompson; Philip Asherson

2008-01-01

288

Treatment Approaches for Attention Deficits in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among many cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia, attention impairments dominate the clinical description of the illness. Attention plays a critical role in daily and psychosocial functioning. For instance, attention is required to converse with others or to perform vocational activities successfully. This paper attempts to describe computerassisted and behavior therapy-based interventions, discuss assumptions underlying both approaches, synthesize findings on efficacy

Mariko Nakano

2002-01-01

289

Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Prolonged Focus Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experimental models, prenatal cocaine exposure has been found to perturb monoaminergic development of systems implicated in modulating attention. To determine whether prenatal cocaine exposure affects infant attention, we assessed visual recognition memory and focused attention during free play. We enrolled at birth 380 infants, 113 cocaine exposed, using multiple biomarkers to assess drug exposure. Behavior was videotaped and coded

Claudia A. Chiriboga; Denise Starr; Louise Kuhn; Gail A. Wasserman

2009-01-01

290

Constructing Your In-Class Persona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features an article with suggestions for considering, as an instructor, an in-class persona. Factors that combine to create an in-class persona are considered, as well as possible results, such as improving relationships with students and ensuring that the in-class persona remains in charge.

Carroll, Jill; Education, The C.

291

Voluntary Attention Enhances Contrast Appearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voluntary (endogenous, sustained) covert spatial attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural conse- quences of such selection have been extensively docu- mented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. We asked whether voluntary at- tention affects the subjective appearance of contrast—a fundamental dimension of visual perception. We used a demandingrapidserialvisualpresentation(RSVP)taskto direct endogenous attention to

Taosheng Liu; Jared Abrams; Marisa Carrasco

2009-01-01

292

Attention for action during error correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the role of attention in selecting visual attributes is well acknowledged, relatively less is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the selection of actions during goal-directed behaviors. The notion of an executive attention has provided a particularly fruitful framework to understand how the brain coordinates the selection of appropriate modules in a sequence that optimizes behavior. However, to do

K. M. Sharika; Supriya Ray; Aditya Murthy

2009-01-01

293

Multisetting Assessment-Based Intervention for Young Children at Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Initial Effects on Academic and Behavioral Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research suggests that symptoms of attention deficit hyperactiv- ity disorder may begin to emerge in children at a very young age. Given that early onset is associated with more deleterious outcomes, early intervention is imper- ative. In the current study, we evaluated the effectiveness of two different interventions with children aged 3-5 years. A multicomponent intervention com- bined parent

Lee Kern; George J. DuPaul; Robert J. Volpe; Natalie G. Sokol; J. Gary Lutz; Lauren A. Arbolino; John D. VanBrakle

2007-01-01

294

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms: Do the Software and the Instruction Method Affect Their Behavior?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study investigated the effects of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) use on pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Nine Greek primary school pupils with ADHD symptoms and four others with no such deficit worked on a computer, either individually or collaboratively, once a week for a six-week…

Solomonidou, Christina; Garagouni-Areou, Fotina; Zafiropoulou, Maria

2004-01-01

295

The Effects of a Self-Monitoring and Video Self-Modeling Intervention to Increase On-Task Behavior for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children are diagnosed with AD/HD more often than any other disorder and interventions are needed in schools to increase on-task behavior. Most studies examining on-task behavior are conducted in special education classrooms or clinical laboratories. Previous studies have not combined video self-modeling and self-monitoring as an intervention to…

Schmitt, Rachel Calkins Oxnard

2009-01-01

296

Deficient Behavioral Inhibition and Anomalous Selective Attention in a Community Sample of Adolescents with Psychopathic Traits and Low-Anxiety Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Socialization is the important process by which individuals learn and then effectively apply the rules of appropriate societal behavior. Response modulation is a psychobiological process theorized to aid in socialization by allowing individuals to utilize contextual information to modify ongoing behavior appropriately. Using Hare's (1991)…

Vitale, Jennifer E.; Newman, Joseph P.; Bates, John E.; Goodnight, Jackson; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

2005-01-01

297

Deficient Behavioral Inhibition and Anomalous Selective Attention in a Community Sample of Adolescents with Psychopathic Traits and Low-Anxiety Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socialization is the important process by which individuals learn and then effectively apply the rules of appropriate societal behavior. Response modulation is a psychobiological process theorized to aid in socialization by allowing individuals to utilize contextual information to modify ongoing behavior appropriately. Using Hare's (1991)…

Vitale, Jennifer E.; Newman, Joseph P.; Bates, John E.; Goodnight, Jackson; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

2005-01-01

298

Teaching Reciprocal Imitation Skills to Young Children with Autism Using a Naturalistic Behavioral Approach: Effects on Language, Pretend Play, and Joint Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills which impede the acquisition of more complex behaviors and socialization, and are thus an important focus of early intervention programs for children with autism. This study used a multiple-baseline design across five young children with autism to assess the benefit of a naturalistic behavioral technique for teaching object imitation. Participants increased

Brooke Ingersoll; Laura Schreibman

2006-01-01

299

Deficient Behavioral Inhibition and Anomalous Selective Attention in a Community Sample of Adolescents with Psychopathic Traits and Low-Anxiety Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socialization is the important process by which individuals learn and then effectively apply the rules of appropriate societal behavior. Response modulation is a psychobiological process theorized to aid in socialization by allowing individuals to utilize contextual information to modify ongoing behavior appropriately. Using Hare’s (1991) Psychopathy Checklist and the Welsh (1956) anxiety scale, researchers have identified a relatively specific form

Jennifer E. Vitale; Joseph P. Newman; John E. Bates; Jackson Goodnight; Kenneth A. Dodge; Gregory S. Pettit

2005-01-01

300

The Effects of a Self-Monitoring and Video Self-Modeling Intervention to Increase On-Task Behavior for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are diagnosed with AD/HD more often than any other disorder and interventions are needed in schools to increase on-task behavior. Most studies examining on-task behavior are conducted in special education classrooms or clinical laboratories. Previous studies have not combined video self-modeling and self-monitoring as an intervention to…

Schmitt, Rachel Calkins Oxnard

2009-01-01

301

Value-driven attentional capture  

PubMed Central

Attention selects which aspects of sensory input are brought to awareness. To promote survival and well-being, attention prioritizes stimuli both voluntarily, according to context-specific goals (e.g., searching for car keys), and involuntarily, through attentional capture driven by physical salience (e.g., looking toward a sudden noise). Valuable stimuli strongly modulate voluntary attention allocation, but there is little evidence that high-value but contextually irrelevant stimuli capture attention as a consequence of reward learning. Here we show that visual search for a salient target is slowed by the presence of an inconspicuous, task-irrelevant item that was previously associated with monetary reward during a brief training session. Thus, arbitrary and otherwise neutral stimuli imbued with value via associative learning capture attention powerfully and persistently during extinction, independently of goals and salience. Vulnerability to such value-driven attentional capture covaries across individuals with working memory capacity and trait impulsivity. This unique form of attentional capture may provide a useful model for investigating failures of cognitive control in clinical syndromes in which value assigned to stimuli conflicts with behavioral goals (e.g., addiction, obesity).

Anderson, Brian A.; Laurent, Patryk A.; Yantis, Steven

2011-01-01

302

Attention in a Bayesian Framework  

PubMed Central

The behavioral phenomena of sensory attention are thought to reflect the allocation of a limited processing resource, but there is little consensus on the nature of the resource or why it should be limited. Here we argue that a fundamental bottleneck emerges naturally within Bayesian models of perception, and use this observation to frame a new computational account of the need for, and action of, attention – unifying diverse attentional phenomena in a way that goes beyond previous inferential, probabilistic and Bayesian models. Attentional effects are most evident in cluttered environments, and include both selective phenomena, where attention is invoked by cues that point to particular stimuli, and integrative phenomena, where attention is invoked dynamically by endogenous processing. However, most previous Bayesian accounts of attention have focused on describing relatively simple experimental settings, where cues shape expectations about a small number of upcoming stimuli and thus convey “prior” information about clearly defined objects. While operationally consistent with the experiments it seeks to describe, this view of attention as prior seems to miss many essential elements of both its selective and integrative roles, and thus cannot be easily extended to complex environments. We suggest that the resource bottleneck stems from the computational intractability of exact perceptual inference in complex settings, and that attention reflects an evolved mechanism for approximate inference which can be shaped to refine the local accuracy of perception. We show that this approach extends the simple picture of attention as prior, so as to provide a unified and computationally driven account of both selective and integrative attentional phenomena.

Whiteley, Louise; Sahani, Maneesh

2012-01-01

303

The dopamine D4 receptor is essential for hyperactivity and impaired behavioral inhibition in a mouse model of attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) is a candidate gene for attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on genetic studies reporting that particular polymorphisms are present at a higher frequency in affected children. However, the direct participation of the D4R in the onset or progression of ADHD has not been tested. Here, we generated a mouse model with high face value to

M E Avale; T L Falzone; D M Gelman; M J Low; D K Grandy; M Rubinstein

2004-01-01

304

Executive Functions: Performance-Based Measures and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in Adolescents with Attention Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance-based measures and ratings of executive functions were examined in a sample of adolescents with attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison controls. Performance-based measures of executive function included inhibition, working memory, set shifting, and planning, and ratings of these same executive functions were completed by parents and teachers. Adolescents with ADHD demonstrated lower executive function performance than controls and displayed

Maggie E. Toplak; Stefania M. Bucciarelli; Umesh Jain; Rosemary Tannock

2008-01-01

305

Training Attentional Control in Infancy  

PubMed Central

Summary Several recent studies have reported that cognitive training in adults does not lead to generalized performance improvements [1, 2], whereas many studies with younger participants (children 4 years and older) have reported distal transfer [3, 4]. This is consistent with convergent evidence [5–8] for greater neural and behavioral plasticity earlier in development. We used gaze-contingent paradigms to train 11-month-old infants on a battery of attentional control tasks. Relative to an active control group, and following only a relatively short training period, posttraining assessments revealed improvements in cognitive control and sustained attention, reduced saccadic reaction times, and reduced latencies to disengage visual attention. Trend changes were also observed in spontaneous looking behavior during free play, but no change was found in working memory. The amount of training correlated with the degree of improvement on some measures. These findings are to our knowledge the first demonstration of distal transfer following attentional control training in infancy. Given the longitudinal relationships identified between early attentional control and learning in academic settings [9, 10], and the causal role that impaired control of attention may play in disrupting learning in several disorders [11–14], the current results open a number of avenues for future work.

Wass, Sam; Porayska-Pomsta, Kaska; Johnson, Mark H.

2011-01-01

306

The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

Shih, Shui-I

2008-01-01

307

Cognitive control and attentional functions.  

PubMed

Cognitive control is essential to flexible, goal-directed behavior under uncertainty, yet its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Because attentional functions are known to allocate mental resources and prioritize the information to be processed, we propose that the attentional functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control and the interactions among them contribute to cognitive control in the service of uncertainty reduction. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between cognitive control and attentional functions. We used the Majority Function Task (MFT) to manipulate uncertainty in order to evoke cognitive control along with the Revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R) to measure the efficiency and the interactions of attentional functions. A backwards, stepwise regression model revealed that performance on the MFT could be significantly predicted by attentional functions and their interactions as measured by the ANT-R. These results provide preliminary support for our theory that the attentional functions are involved in the implementation of cognitive control as required to reduce uncertainty, though further investigation is needed. PMID:23792472

Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Van Dam, Nicholas T; Fan, Jin

2013-06-19

308

Joint Attention in Autism: Teaching Smiling Coordinated with Gaze to Respond to Joint Attention Bids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism demonstrate early deficits in joint attention and expressions of affect. Interventions to teach joint attention have addressed gaze behavior, gestures, and vocalizations, but have not specifically taught an expression of positive affect such as smiling that tends to occur during joint attention interactions. Intervention was…

Krstovska-Guerrero, Ivana; Jones, Emily A.

2013-01-01

309

Joint Attention in Autism: Teaching Smiling Coordinated with Gaze to Respond to Joint Attention Bids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with autism demonstrate early deficits in joint attention and expressions of affect. Interventions to teach joint attention have addressed gaze behavior, gestures, and vocalizations, but have not specifically taught an expression of positive affect such as smiling that tends to occur during joint attention interactions. Intervention was…

Krstovska-Guerrero, Ivana; Jones, Emily A.

2013-01-01

310

Visual Field Asymmetries in Attention Vary with Self-Reported Attention Deficits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to determine whether an index of self-reported attention deficits predicts the pattern of visual field asymmetries observed in behavioral measures of attention. Studies of "normal" subjects do not present a consistent pattern of asymmetry in attention functions, with some studies showing better left visual field…

Poynter, William; Ingram, Paul; Minor, Scott

2010-01-01

311

Neural Mechanisms of Attention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Assessment of attention in animals provides information about the neural mechanisms involved in attention, which can help develop computational and cognitive models that describe in detail the systematic steps mediating different types of attention. In or...

D. Olton H. Egeth

1990-01-01

312

Emotional\\/Behavioral Problems and Functional Impairment in Clinic and Community-Based Children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of 268 patients and 137 community-based children with DSM-IV ADHD, and 268 school controls, aged 6–15, this\\u000a study aimed to compare the emotional\\/behavioral problems and functional impairment between clinic- and community-based children\\u000a with ADHD. Children’s ADHD-related symptoms, a wide range of emotional\\/behavioral problems, and functional impairments were\\u000a assessed by the psychiatric interviews and self-, parent- and teacher-reported

Susan Shur-Fen Gau; Yu-Ju Lin; Chi-Yung Shang; Shih-Kai Liu; Yen-Nan Chiu; Wei-Tsuen Soong

2010-01-01

313

Measuring Attention in the Hemispheres: The Lateralized Attention Network Test (LANT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The attention network test (ANT) is a brief computerized battery measuring three independent behavioral components of attention: Conflict resolution (ability to overcome distracting stimuli), spatial Orienting (the benefit of valid spatial pre-cues), and Alerting (the benefit of temporal pre-cues). Imaging, clinical, and behavioral evidence…

Greene, Deanna J.; Barnea, Anat; Herzberg, Kristin; Rassis, Anat; Neta, Maital; Raz, Amir; Zaidel, Eran

2008-01-01

314

A Comparison of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation and Computerized Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Effects on Anxiety, Depression, Attentional Control, and Interpretive Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) and cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) both have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating social anxiety, but how they compare with each other has not been investigated. The present study tested the prediction that both interventions would reduce anxiety relative to a…

Bowler, Jennifer O.; Mackintosh, Bundy; Dunn, Barnaby D.; Mathews, Andrew; Dalgleish, Tim; Hoppitt, Laura

2012-01-01

315

A Comparison of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation and Computerized Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Effects on Anxiety, Depression, Attentional Control, and Interpretive Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) and cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) both have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating social anxiety, but how they compare with each other has not been investigated. The present study tested the prediction that both interventions would reduce anxiety relative to a…

Bowler, Jennifer O.; Mackintosh, Bundy; Dunn, Barnaby D.; Mathews, Andrew; Dalgleish, Tim; Hoppitt, Laura

2012-01-01

316

Male-Female, Female-Female, and Male-Male sexual behavior in the stumptail monkey, with special attention to the female orgasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating behavior in Macaca arctoides has several features unique to the macaques. Observations of laboratory groups of stumptail monkeys revealed that their single-mount copulations are exceptionally long, that male orgasm is unusually salient (being characterized by body rigidity followed by body spasms and a characteristic facial expression and vocalization), and that the couple generally remains united, or “tied,” in a

Suzanne Chevalier-Skolnikoff

1974-01-01

317

Assisting children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder actively reduces limb hyperactive behavior with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller through controlling environmental stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latest studies have adopted software technology which turns the Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, we assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulus through limb action. This study extends the functionality of the Wii Remote Controller to the correction of limb hyperactive behavior to assess whether two children

Ching-Hsiang Shih; Jui-Chi Yeh; Ching-Tien Shih; Man-Ling Chang

2011-01-01

318

Attention and Olfactory Consciousness  

PubMed Central

Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to the discussion: attention to the olfactory modality. I will first clarify the position of attention to smells in a general taxonomy of attention. I will then review the mechanisms and neuroanatomy of attention and consciousness in the olfactory system before using the newly introduced system to provide evidence that attention is necessary for consciousness.

Keller, Andreas

2011-01-01

319

Spatial attention, feature-based attention, and saccades: three sides of one coin?  

PubMed

The last three decades has seen a steady growth of neuroscience research aimed at understanding the functions and sources of top-down attentional modulation in the brain. This correlates with recognition that attention may be a necessary component of sensory systems to support natural behaviors in natural environments. Complexity and clutter are two of the most recognizable hallmarks of natural environments, which can simultaneously contain vitally important and completely irrelevant stimuli. Attention serves as an adaptive filter providing each sensory modality preferential processing routes for important stimuli while suppressing responses to distracters, thus optimizing use of limited neural resources. In other words, attention is the family of mechanisms by which organisms are able to effectively and selectively allocate limited neural resources to achieve specific behavioral goals. This review provides some historical context for considering attentional frameworks and modern neurophysiological attention research, focusing on visual attention. A taxonomy of common attentional effects and neural mechanisms is provided, along with consideration of the specific relationship between attention and saccade planning. We examine the validity of premotor theories of attention, which posit that attention and saccade planning are one and the same. While there is strong evidence that attention and oculomotor planning are similar, with shared neural substrates, there is also evidence that these two functions are not synonymous. Finally, we examine neurophysiological explanations for dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the hypothesis that social impairment in autism spectrum disorders is partially attributable to perturbations of attentional control circuitry. PMID:21529782

Mazer, James A

2011-05-06

320

Delayed Attentional Engagement in the Attentional Blink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observers often miss the 2nd of 2 visual targets (first target [TI] and second target [T2]) when these targets are presented closely in time; the attentional blink (AB). The authors hypothesized that the AB occurs because the attentional response to T2 is delayed by T1 processing, causing T2 to lose a competition for attention to the item that follows it.

Mark R. Nieuwenstein; Marvin M. Chun; Rob H. J. van der Lubbe; Ignace T. C. Hooge

2005-01-01

321

Two-Stage Processing of Sounds Explains Behavioral Performance Variations due to Changes in Stimulus Contrast and Selective Attention: An MEG Study  

PubMed Central

Selectively attending to task-relevant sounds whilst ignoring background noise is one of the most amazing feats performed by the human brain. Here, we studied the underlying neural mechanisms by recording magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses of 14 healthy human subjects while they performed a near-threshold auditory discrimination task vs. a visual control task of similar difficulty. The auditory stimuli consisted of notch-filtered continuous noise masker sounds, and of 1020-Hz target tones occasionally () replacing 1000-Hz standard tones of 300-ms duration that were embedded at the center of the notches, the widths of which were parametrically varied. As a control for masker effects, tone-evoked responses were additionally recorded without masker sound. Selective attention to tones significantly increased the amplitude of the onset M100 response at 100 ms to the standard tones during presence of the masker sounds especially with notches narrower than the critical band. Further, attention modulated sustained response most clearly at 300–400 ms time range from sound onset, with narrower notches than in case of the M100, thus selectively reducing the masker-induced suppression of the tone-evoked response. Our results show evidence of a multiple-stage filtering mechanism of sensory input in the human auditory cortex: 1) one at early (100 ms) latencies bilaterally in posterior parts of the secondary auditory areas, and 2) adaptive filtering of attended sounds from task-irrelevant background masker at longer latency (300 ms) in more medial auditory cortical regions, predominantly in the left hemisphere, enhancing processing of near-threshold sounds.

Kauramaki, Jaakko; Jaaskelainen, Iiro P.; Hanninen, Jarno L.; Auranen, Toni; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Lampinen, Jouko; Sams, Mikko

2012-01-01

322

Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder With and Without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Versus Several Comparison Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173) community controls. Parents rated children in the three ADHD groups comparably for

Sarit Guttmann-Steinmetz; Kenneth D. Gadow; Carla J. DeVincent

2009-01-01

323

Focused and distributed attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on attention have emphasized distinctions between focused and distributed attention. Distributed attention has been shown to play a key role in obtaining statistical information or processing global aspects of a scene. In addition to differences in information processing, focused and distributed attention differ in terms of the way they interact with emotions. We review findings that indicate close

Narayanan Srinivasan; Priyanka Srivastava; Monika Lohani; Shruti Baijal

2009-01-01

324

Typologies of attentional networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention is a central theme in cognitive science — it exemplifies the links between the brain and behaviour, and binds psychology to the techniques of neuroscience. A visionary model suggested by Michael Posner described attention as a set of independent control networks. This challenged the previously held view of attention as a uniform concept. The idea that disparate attentional networks

Jason Buhle; Amir Raz

2006-01-01

325

Individual variation in a cholinergic receptor gene modulates attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholinergic influences on attention are well documented and recent evidence indicates that genetic variation in the ?4?2 nicotinic receptor affects attentional networks of the brain. Several behavioral and electrophysiological studies have shown that a common polymorphism in the CHRNA4 gene (rs1044396) affects aspects of visual and auditory attentional processing. We examined genetic effects on neuropsychological measures of memory and attention

Ivar Reinvang; Astri J. Lundervold; Helge Rootwelt; Eike Wehling; Thomas Espeseth

2009-01-01

326

Attentional Spreading in Object-Based Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors investigated 2 effects of object-based attention: the spread of attention within an attended object and the prioritization of search across possible target locations within an attended object. Participants performed a flanker task in which the location of the task-relevant target was fixed and known to participants. A spreading…

Richard, Ashleigh M.; Lee, Hyunkyu; Vecera, Shaun P.

2008-01-01

327

Interactions between attention and working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of attention and working memory address the fundamental limits in our ability to encode and maintain behaviorally relevant information, processes that are critical for goal-driven processing. Here we review our current understanding of the interactions between these processes, with a focus on how each construct encompasses a variety of dissociable phenomena. Attention facilitates target processing during both perceptual and

E. Awh; E. K. Vogel; S.-H. Oh

2006-01-01

328

Deficient behavioral inhibition and anomalous selective attention in a community sample of adolescents with psychopathic traits and low-anxiety traits.  

PubMed

Socialization is the important process by which individuals learn and then effectively apply the rules of appropriate societal behavior. Response modulation is a psychobiological process theorized to aid in socialization by allowing individuals to utilize contextual information to modify ongoing behavior appropriately. Using Hare's (1991) Psychopathy Checklist and the Welsh (1956) anxiety scale, researchers have identified a relatively specific form of a response modulation deficit in low-anxious, Caucasian psychopaths. Preliminary evidence suggests that the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001) may be used to identify children with a similar vulnerability. Using a representative community sample of 308 16-year-olds from the Child Development Project (Dodge, Bates, & Pettit, 1990), we tested and corroborated the hypotheses that participants with relatively low anxiety and high APSD scores would display poorer passive avoidance learning and less interference on a spatially separated, picture-word Stroop task than controls. Consistent with hypotheses, the expected group differences in picture-word Stroop interference were found with male and female participants, whereas predicted differences in passive avoidance were specific to male participants. To the extent that response modulation deficits contributing to poor socialization among psychopathic adult offenders also characterize a subgroup of adolescents with mild conduct problems, clarification of the developmental processes that moderate the expression of this vulnerability could inform early interventions. PMID:16118992

Vitale, Jennifer E; Newman, Joseph P; Bates, John E; Goodnight, Jackson; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S

2005-08-01

329

Across the continuum of attention skills: A twin study of the SWAN ADHD rating scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Most behavior checklists for attention problems or attention deficit\\/hyperactivity dis- order (ADHD) such as the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) have a narrow range of scores, focusing on the extent to which problems are present. It has been proposed that measuring attention on a con- tinuum, from positive attention skills to attention problems, will add value to our understanding of

Tinca J. C. Polderman; Eske M. Derks; Jim J. Hudziak; Frank C. Verhulst; Daniëlle Posthuma; Dorret I. Boomsma

2007-01-01

330

Attentional Disengagement in Adults with Williams syndrome  

PubMed Central

Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive behavioral and cognitive profile, including widespread problems with attention. However, the specific nature of their attentional difficulties, such as inappropriate attentional allocation and/or poor attentional disengagement abilities, has yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, it is unknown if there is an underlying difficulty with the temporal dynamics of attention in WS or if their attentional difficulties are task-dependent, because previous studies have examined attention in established areas of deficit and atypicality (specifically, visuospatial and face processing). In this study, we examined attentional processing in 14 adults with WS (20-59 years) and 17 typically developing controls (19-39 years) using an attentional blink (AB) paradigm. The AB is the decreased ability to detect a second target when it is presented in close proximity to an initial target. Overall, adults with WS had an AB that was prolonged in duration, but no different in magnitude, compared with typically developing control participants. AB performance was not explained by IQ, working memory, or processing speed in either group. Thus, results suggest that the attention problems in WS are primarily due to general attentional disengagement difficulties rather than inappropriate attentional allocation.

Lense, Miriam D.; Key, Alexandra P.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

2011-01-01

331

Voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency  

PubMed Central

Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carrasco, 2008). Therefore, we ask whether voluntary attention affects the subjective appearance of spatial frequency—a fundamental dimension of visual perception underlying spatial resolution. We used a demanding rapid serial visual presentation task to direct voluntary attention and measured perceived spatial frequency at the attended and unattended locations. Attention increased the perceived spatial frequency of suprathreshold stimuli and also improved performance on a concurrent orientation discrimination task. In the control experiment, we ruled out response bias as an alternative account by using a lengthened interstimulus interval, which allows observers to disengage attention from the cued location. In contrast to the main experiment, the observers showed neither increased perceived spatial frequency nor improved orientation discrimination at the attended location. Thus, this study establishes that voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency. This phenomenological consequence links behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the effects of attention.

Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

2010-01-01

332

Attentional Load and Attentional Boost: A Review of Data and Theory  

PubMed Central

Both perceptual and cognitive processes are limited in capacity. As a result, attention is selective, prioritizing items and tasks that are important for adaptive behavior. However, a number of recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that, at least under some circumstances, increasing attention to one task can enhance performance in a second task (e.g., the attentional boost effect). Here we review these findings and suggest a new theoretical framework, the dual-task interaction model, that integrates these findings with current views of attentional selection. To reconcile the attentional boost effect with the effects of attentional load, we suggest that temporal selection results in a temporally specific enhancement across modalities, tasks, and spatial locations. Moreover, the effects of temporal selection may be best observed when the attentional system is optimally tuned to the temporal dynamics of incoming stimuli. Several avenues of research motivated by the dual-task interaction model are then discussed.

Swallow, Khena M.; Jiang, Yuhong V.

2013-01-01

333

Context-Dependent Attention System for a Social Robot.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents part of an ongoing project to integrate perception, attention, drives, emotions, behavior arbitration, and expressive acts for a robot designed to interact socially with humans. The authors present the design of a visual attention syst...

1998-01-01

334

Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder behaviors in boys with autism spectrum disorder with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder versus several comparison samples.  

PubMed

We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173) community controls. Parents rated children in the three ADHD groups comparably for each symptom of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder. Teacher ratings indicated that the ASD + ADHD group evidenced a unique pattern of ODD symptom severity, differentiating them from the other ADHD groups, and from the ASD Only group. The clinical features of ASD appear to influence co-morbid, DSM-IV-defined ODD, with implications for nosology. PMID:19288296

Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D; Devincent, Carla J

2009-03-16

335

Objectively-measured impulsivity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): testing competing predictions from the working memory and behavioral inhibition models of ADHD.  

PubMed

Impulsivity is a hallmark of two of the three DSM-IV ADHD subtypes and is associated with myriad adverse outcomes. Limited research, however, is available concerning the mechanisms and processes that contribute to impulsive responding by children with ADHD. The current study tested predictions from two competing models of ADHD-working memory (WM) and behavioral inhibition (BI)-to examine the extent to which ADHD-related impulsive responding was attributable to model-specific mechanisms and processes. Children with ADHD (n?=?21) and typically developing children (n?=?20) completed laboratory tasks that provided WM (domain-general central executive [CE], phonological/visuospatial storage/rehearsal) and BI indices (stop-signal reaction time [SSRT], stop-signal delay, mean reaction time). These indices were examined as potential mediators of ADHD-related impulsive responding on two objective and diverse laboratory tasks used commonly to assess impulsive responding (CPT: continuous performance test; VMTS: visual match-to-sample). Bias-corrected, bootstrapped mediation analyses revealed that CE processes significantly attenuated between-group impulsivity differences, such that the initial large-magnitude impulsivity differences were no longer significant on either task after accounting for ADHD-related CE deficits. In contrast, SSRT partially mediated ADHD-related impulsive responding on the CPT but not VMTS. This partial attenuation was no longer significant after accounting for shared variance between CE and SSRT; CE continued to attenuate the ADHD-impulsivity relationship after accounting for SSRT. These findings add to the growing literature implicating CE deficits in core ADHD behavioral and functional impairments, and suggest that cognitive interventions targeting CE rather than storage/rehearsal or BI processes may hold greater promise for alleviating ADHD-related impairments. PMID:22271141

Raiker, Joseph S; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J; Sarver, Dustin E

2012-07-01

336

Manipulating attention in computer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In computer games, a user’s attention is focused on the current task, and task-irrelevant details remain unnoticed. This behavior, known as inattentional blindness, is a main problem for the optimal placement of information or advertisements. We propose a guiding principle based on Wolfe’s theory of Guided Search, which predicts the saliency of objects during a visual search task. Assuming that

M. Bernhard; L. Zhang; M. Wimmer

2011-01-01

337

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurologic condition in children and comprises a range of behavioral problems, including inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. In most children with ADHD, the cause is unknown, but is thought to be multifactorial. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 7.4% of children ages 3-17 in the United States have been

Chris D. Meletis; Nieske Zabriskie

2008-01-01

338

Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation.  

PubMed

Meditation can be conceptualized as a family of complex emotional and attentional regulatory training regimes developed for various ends, including the cultivation of well-being and emotional balance. Among these various practices, there are two styles that are commonly studied. One style, focused attention meditation, entails the voluntary focusing of attention on a chosen object. The other style, open monitoring meditation, involves nonreactive monitoring of the content of experience from moment to moment. The potential regulatory functions of these practices on attention and emotion processes could have a long-term impact on the brain and behavior. PMID:18329323

Lutz, Antoine; Slagter, Heleen A; Dunne, John D; Davidson, Richard J

2008-03-10

339

Training Visual Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of brain waves and alpha rhythms on attentiveness to visual stimuli are discussed, and preliminary research findings and research needs are considered in connection with measuring and training for attention. (LH)|

Mulholland, Thomas B.

1974-01-01

340

Some Types of Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiments described in the following pages were designed to discover whether the differences which appear among individuals, in certain simple acts of the attention, are indicative of typical traits of the attention, or whether they are fortuitous and unrelated.

H. C. McComas

1911-01-01

341

Attention Breaks in Lectures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes research into student attention patterns during lectures that suggests that student attention declines steadily during a lecture, and that the rate of decrease is dependent upon several variables including subject difficulty. (MLH)|

Johnstone, A. H.; Percival, F.

1976-01-01

342

Auditory Attention Shifting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research effort measured the spectral and temporal dynamics of human auditory attentional control, concentrating on the requirements for efficient shifting of auditory attention within the frequency spectrum of normal human hearing.

A. Reeves B. Scharf

2008-01-01

343

Open focus attention training.  

PubMed

This article describes the role of attention training and brainwave synchrony training in the resolution of stress- and pain-related symptoms. It describes the origin of Open Focus attention training as it was distilled from observations of space-generated brain wave activity. It provides a map of the various attentional styles and associated EEG activity. PMID:23538084

Fehmi, Lester G; Shor, Susan B

2013-03-01

344

Centering attention in discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centering is a set of processes by which people can coordinate their attention during conversation. Speakers signal where their attention is via particular lexical, syntactic and prosodic choices. These choices make discourse entities salient to addressees and may also signal whether speakers expect addressees' attention to be already centered on the same entities. Two questions arise: What linguistic devices do

Susan E. Brennan

1995-01-01

345

Detecting collective attention spam  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the problem of collective attention spam, in which spammers target social media where user attention quickly coalesces and then collectively focuses around a phenomenon. Compared to many existing spam types, collective attention spam relies on the users themselves to seek out the content -- like breaking news, viral videos, and popular memes -- where the spam will be

Kyumin Lee; James Caverlee; Krishna Y. Kamath; Zhiyuan Cheng

2012-01-01

346

Children's Attention to Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper summarizes a series of studies investigating the nature of children's attention to television. In a study of distraction, children's visual attention was found to be affected by distractions in the environment, by the nature of the program and by the viewer's own patterns of attending. A study of the general patterns of attention to…

Anderson, Daniel R.

347

Attention Deficit in Depressed Suicide Attempters  

PubMed Central

Attention is typically impaired in depression and may play a role in risk for suicidal behavior. In this study, 66 non-patients, 83 depressed subjects with no past history of suicide attempt, 53 depressed subjects with one or more low lethality suicide attempts, and 42 depressed subjects with at least one high lethality attempt were compared on two computerized measures of attention, a Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and a Stroop task. All subjects were medication free at the time of assessment. Attention was impaired in all depressed subjects but worse in those with a past history of suicidal behavior. CPT performance did not differ among the groups, but Stroop interference was significantly poorer in all depressed subjects relative to non-patients, and poorer still in high lethality suicide attempters relative to all other groups. Interference score correlated modestly with subjective depression, functional level, suicide ideation, number of past suicide attempts, and lethality of past attempts. Depression-related impairments of attention, especially susceptibility to interference, are accentuated in those with a past history of suicidal behavior. Fundamental deficits in attention control may play a role in risk for suicidal behavior, and may contribute to a variety of cognitive deficits in suicidal patients. Brain mechanisms subserving attention control, which overlap considerably with regions implicated in affective disorders, may be a useful target for studies seeking to characterize neuropsychological factors associated with suicidal behavior.

Keilp, John G.; Gorlyn, Marianne; Oquendo, Maria A.; Burke, Ainsley K.; Mann, J. John

2008-01-01

348

Attention Deficit Disorder: Diagnosis, Etiology and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides most recent information on attention deficit disorder including: (1) diagnostic considerations according to the latest behavioral criteria and breakthroughs using neurometric EEG assessment; (2) prevalence; (3) etiologies; (4) neurological basis; and (5) treatments. Evaluates alternatives to medication, behavior modification, cognitive…

Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed

1996-01-01

349

The Role of Attention in Conscious Recollection  

PubMed Central

Most research on the relationship between attention and consciousness has been limited to perception. However, perceptions are not the only kinds of mental contents of which we can be conscious. An important set of conscious states that has not received proper treatment within this discussion is that of memories. This paper reviews compelling evidence indicating that attention may be necessary, but probably not sufficient, for conscious recollection. However, it is argued that unlike the case of conscious perception, the kind of attention required during recollection is internal, as opposed to external, attention. As such, the surveyed empirical evidence is interpreted as suggesting that internal attention is necessary, but probably not sufficient, for conscious recollection. The paper begins by justifying the need for clear distinctions among different kinds of attention, and then emphasizes the difference between internal and external attention. Next, evidence from behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies suggesting that internal attention is required for the successful retrieval of memorial contents is reviewed. In turn, it is argued that internal attention during recollection is what makes us conscious of the contents of retrieved memories; further evidence in support of this claim is also provided. Finally, it is suggested that internal attention is probably not sufficient for conscious recollection. Open questions and possible avenues for future research are also mentioned.

De Brigard, Felipe

2012-01-01

350

The influence of serotonin- and other genes on impulsive behavioral aggression and cognitive impulsivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Findings from a family-based association test (FBAT) analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Low serotonergic (5-HT) activity correlates with increased impulsive-aggressive behavior, while the opposite association may apply to cognitive impulsiveness. Both types of impulsivity are associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and genes of functional significance for the 5-HT system are implicated in this disorder. Here we demonstrate the separation of aggressive and cognitive components of impulsivity from symptom ratings and test their association with 5-HT and functionally related genes using a family-based association test (FBAT-PC). Methods Our sample consisted of 1180 offspring from 607 families from the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. Impulsive symptoms were assessed using the long forms of the Conners and the Strengths and Difficulties parent and teacher questionnaires. Factor analysis showed that the symptoms aggregated into parent- and teacher-rated behavioral and cognitive impulsivity. We then selected 582 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 14 genes directly or indirectly related to 5-HT function. Associations between these SNPs and the behavioral/cognitive groupings of impulsive symptoms were evaluated using the FBAT-PC approach. Results In the FBAT-PC analysis for cognitive impulsivity 2 SNPs from the gene encoding phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT, the rate-limiting enzyme for adrenalin synthesis) attained corrected gene-wide significance. Nominal significance was shown for 12 SNPs from BDNF, DRD1, HTR1E, HTR2A, HTR3B, DAT1/SLC6A3, and TPH2 genes replicating reported associations with ADHD. For overt aggressive impulsivity nominal significance was shown for 6 SNPs from BDNF, DRD4, HTR1E, PNMT, and TPH2 genes that have also been reported to be associated with ADHD. Associations for cognitive impulsivity with a SERT/SLC6A4 variant (STin2: 12 repeats) and aggressive behavioral impulsivity with a DRD4 variant (exon 3: 3 repeats) are also described. Discussion A genetic influence on monoaminergic involvement in impulsivity shown by children with ADHD was found. There were trends for separate and overlapping influences on impulsive-aggressive behavior and cognitive impulsivity, where an association with PNMT (and arousal mechanisms affected by its activity) was more clearly involved in the latter. Serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms were implicated in both forms of impulsivity with a wider range of serotonergic mechanisms (each with a small effect) potentially influencing cognitive impulsivity. These preliminary results should be followed up with an examination of environmental influences and associations with performance on tests of impulsivity in the laboratory.

Oades, Robert D; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Christiansen, Hanna; Faraone, Stephen V; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund JS; Banaschewski, Tobias; Chen, Wai; Anney, Richard JL; Buitelaar, Jan K; Ebstein, Richard P; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph A; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Taylor, Eric A; Thompson, Margaret; Asherson, Philip

2008-01-01

351

Difficulty of Feature-Based Attentional Modulations in Visual Object Recognition: A Modeling Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous psychophysical experiments have shown an important role for attentional modulations in vision. Behaviorally, allocation of attention can improve performance in object detection and recognition tasks. At the neural level, attention increases firin...

M. Riesenhuber R. Schneider

2004-01-01

352

Focused Attention in Toddlers  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study examined individual differences and correlates of focused attention when toddlers were approximately 18 months old (T1; n = 256) and a year later (T2; n = 230). Toddlers’ attention and negative emotionality were reported by mothers and non-parental caregivers and rated globally by observers. Toddlers’ focused attention also was observed during two mother-child interactions and an independent play task. Measures of maternal emotional support and control were obtained via self-report and observation. Some contemporaneous relations among indices of toddlers’ attention were obtained, particularly for observed measures. Moreover, all measures of attention demonstrated stability across time. Negative emotionality was negatively related to toddlers’ observed attention at both ages, whereas maternal praise had positive concurrent associations. Maternal control was negatively related to observed observed attention at T2 and also predicted longitudinally, but only for children who initially had low or moderate attention. The findings suggest that individual differences in focused attention evidence stability early in life but can be influenced by adult socialization.

Gaertner, Bridget M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy

2008-01-01

353

Attention Performance in Young Adults with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attention acts as the mind's "gatekeeper" by regulating and prioritizing the stimuli processed by the central nervous system. It is essential for cognitive performance, memory, and behavior, and we know that even slight deficiencies in attention compromise learning. Basic neuroscience research further indicates that attention consists of (fairly)…

Sterr, Annette M.

2004-01-01

354

Genetics and Neuroimaging of Attention and Hypnotizability May Elucidate Placebo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention binds psychology to the techniques of neuroscience and exemplifies the links between brain and behavior. Associated with attentional networks, at least 3 brain modules govern control processes by drawing on disparate functional neuroanatomy, neuromodulators, and psychological substrates. Guided by data-driven brain theories, researchers have related specific genetic polymorphisms to well-defined phenotypes, including those associated with different attentional efficiencies and

Amir Raz

2007-01-01

355

Spatial Attention Effects in Macaque Area V4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focal visual attention typically produces enhanced perceptual processing at the psychological level and relatively stronger neural responses at the physiological level. A longstanding mechanistic question is whether these attentional effects per- tain specifically to the attended (target) object or to the region of space it occupies. We show here that attentional response enhancement in macaque area V4 extends to behaviorally

Charles E. Connor; Dean C. Preddie; Jack L. Gallant; David C. Van Essen

1997-01-01

356

Orienting Attention to Locations in Perceptual Versus Mental Representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive clinical and imaging research has characterized the neural networks mediating the adaptive distribution of spatial attention. In everyday behavior, the distribution of attention is guided not only by extrapersonal targets but also by mental representations of their spatial layout. We used eventrelated functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural system involved in directing attention to locations in arrays

A. C. Nobre; J. T. Coull; P. Maquet; C. D. Frith; R. Vandenberghe; M. M. Mesulam

2004-01-01

357

Type A and Type B attentional responses to aesthetic stimuli: Effects on mood and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent investigations of the Type A (coronary prone) behavior pattern have found that Type A's focus their attention on a central task and actively inhibit attention to peripheral distracting stimuli. This attentional difference has resulted in greater performance for Type A's than for Type B's (noncoronary prone behavior). However, research on aesthetic stimuli suggests that the focused attention of Type

Michael J. Strube; Charles W. Turner; Steven Patrick; Richard Perrillo

1983-01-01

358

Attention styles of hyperactive and normal girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral characteristics and cognitive skills of teacher-identified hyperactive (n=24) and normally active (n=24) first- and second-grade girls were investigated. Teachers rated subjects on the Conners Teacher Rating Scale (TRS). Subjects were given several tasks measuring attentional styles and motor skills. Results suggested that hyperactive girls, like hyperactive boys, have short attention spans and poor concentration when compared with normals. Unlike

Patricia A. deHaas; Richard David Young

1984-01-01

359

Trajectories of CBCL Attention Problems in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first aim of this study was to identify developmental trajectories of Attention Problems in twins followed from age 6\\u000a to 12 years. Second, we investigated whether singletons follow similar trajectories. Maternal longitudinal ratings on the\\u000a Attention Problems (AP) subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist were obtained for a sample of 12,486 twins from the Netherlands\\u000a Twin Register and for a

Sylvana C. C. Robbers; Floor V. A. van Oort; Tinca J. C. Polderman; Meike Bartels; Dorret I. Boomsma; Frank C. Verhulst; Gitta H. Lubke; Anja C. Huizink

2011-01-01

360

A Vasopressin Metabolite Increases Attentional Selectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two behavioral paradigms were used to assess the effect of a vasopressin metabolite, AVP4?9, on selectivity of attention. The effects observed in a multiple-cue task indicated that AVP4?9 treatment increased the extent to which attention was controlled by the dominant cues in the environment. When these stimuli predicted reward, the peptide treatment facilitated learning, but when these cues were nonpredictive,

Michael Bunsey; David Kramer; Marilyn Kesler; Barbara J. Strupp

1990-01-01

361

Paying attention to consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite being much studied by cognitive neuroscience, consciousness has resisted attempts to understand it. Recent neuroscientific papers on the problem have surprisingly neglected attention as a guide to consciousness. A new neural mechanism is proposed here, guided by a control approach to attention, which identifies the source of consciousness, especially that of the ownership of experience.

John G. Taylor

2002-01-01

362

Paying attention to consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engineering control approach is developed for the movement of attention, based on several features: experimental data indicating separate sites for attention modulation and for the creation of that modulation; the resulting analogy with motor control, to which an engineering approach has been applied; simulation and qualitative results supporting the presence of several of the necessary modules. These features are

John G. Taylor

2003-01-01

363

The neuroanatomy of attention.  

PubMed

Attention is a complex neurobehavioral domain that is essential for all higher functions. Large areas of the brain are devoted to attention, reflecting its importance in the entire range of mental operations. Currently, two major distributed neural networks are recognized as mediating complementary aspects of attentional function. One is a diffuse system that distributes attention globally. This attentional system is subserved by a widespread network of thalamic and bihemispheric structures in which the frontal lobes are particularly important. The second network, a focal system that distributes attention to salient aspects of spatial experience, is lateralized to frontal and parietal regions of the right hemisphere. Both attentional networks are comprised of cortical and subcortical gray matter structures, as well as connecting white matter tracts that integrate these regions into functional ensembles. Neurological disorders frequently produce dramatic syndromes reflecting dysfunction of these networks. Among these syndromes are the acute confusional state, which results from disturbance of the diffuse system, and left neglect, which follows disruption of the right hemisphere system. The neuroanatomy of attention is crucial for understanding important neurobehavioral syndromes and their treatment. PMID:11951169

Filley, Christopher M

2002-05-01

364

Attention and perceptual adaptation.  

PubMed

Clark advertises the predictive coding (PC) framework as applying to a wide range of phenomena, including attention. We argue that for many attentional phenomena, the predictive coding picture either makes false predictions, or else it offers no distinctive explanation of those phenomena, thereby reducing its explanatory power. PMID:23663745

Block, Ned; Siegel, Susanna

2013-05-10

365

Pay attention! A review of visual attentional expertise in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to review current literature on visual attentional processes in the area of sport expertise. Based on recent findings in neuroscience, attention can be divided into four distinct sub-processes, all of which differ across individuals to varying extents: orienting attention, selective attention, divided attention, and sustained attention. These four sub-processes serve as a heuristic tool

Daniel Memmert

2009-01-01

366

Attentional modulation of human auditory cortex.  

PubMed

Attention powerfully influences auditory perception, but little is understood about the mechanisms whereby attention sharpens responses to unattended sounds. We used high-resolution surface mapping techniques (using functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) to examine activity in human auditory cortex during an intermodal selective attention task. Stimulus-dependent activations (SDAs), evoked by unattended sounds during demanding visual tasks, were maximal over mesial auditory cortex. They were tuned to sound frequency and location, and showed rapid adaptation to repeated sounds. Attention-related modulations (ARMs) were isolated as response enhancements that occurred when subjects performed pitch-discrimination tasks. In contrast to SDAs, ARMs were localized to lateral auditory cortex, showed broad frequency and location tuning, and increased in amplitude with sound repetition. The results suggest a functional dichotomy of auditory cortical fields: stimulus-determined mesial fields that faithfully transmit acoustic information, and attentionally labile lateral fields that analyze acoustic features of behaviorally relevant sounds. PMID:15156150

Petkov, Christopher I; Kang, Xiaojian; Alho, Kimmo; Bertrand, Olivier; Yund, E William; Woods, David L

2004-05-23

367

The Effects of Presession Exposure to Attention on the Results of Assessments of Attention as a Reinforcer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of a presession exposure to attention on responding during subsequent assessment of attention as a reinforcer were evaluated across three behavioral assessments. In each experiment, the children responded differentially within the test condition according to the presence or absence of dense schedule of attention immediately prior to…

Berg, Wendy K.; Peck, Stephanie; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay; McComas, Jennifer; Richman, David; Brown, Kimberly

2000-01-01

368

Selective and Sustained Attention as Predictors of Social Problems in Children with Typical and Disordered Attention Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Investigated the relationship between selective and sustained attention and social behavior in children with different degrees of attentional disturbance. Method: Participants were 101 6- to 12-year-old children, including 18 who were diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), 61 who were clinically referred for…

Andrade, Brendan F.; Brodeur, Darlene A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Stewart, Sherry H.; McGee, Robin

2009-01-01

369

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a challenging condition to diagnose and treat. For diagnosis, the clinician needs to establish the presence of ADHD on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria requiring information from parents and teachers and considering both alternative diagnoses and co-occurring conditions. In the treatment of ADHD as a chronic illness, the clinician needs to educate the family about the condition and partner with them about treatment decisions. The 2 treatments with demonstrated efficacy for ADHD are medications (stimulant medications and a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibiter) and behavior-modification programs. PMID:17178358

Wolraich, Mark L

2006-12-01

370

In-class Polling for All Learners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource website for the IPAL project provides a free and open-source Moodle module to support in-class student polling. A stand-alone program for non-Moodle users is also available. This module provides a web-based interface for teachers and students engaged in peer instruction or other classroom quizzing and a database of ready-to-use, peer reviewed questions. Students can use cell phones, laptops, other web-enabled devices, and clickers to respond to in-class polling questions. A goal of the IPAL project is to determine if an analysis of student response patterns during polling sessions may allow an early identification of students who are at risk of dropping a course or dropping out of school.

Junkin, William

2012-06-13

371

Contributions of Attentional Control to Socioemotional and Academic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: Part of the attention system of the brain is involved in the control of thoughts, emotions, and behavior. As attentional control develops, children are more able to control cognition and responses flexibly and to adjust their behavior in social interactions better. In this article, we discuss evidence from different levels of analysis (e.g., temperamental, cognitive, and neural) indicating

M. Rosario Rueda; Purificación Checa; Mary K. Rothbart

2010-01-01

372

Contributions of Attentional Control to Socioemotional and Academic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Part of the attention system of the brain is involved in the control of thoughts, emotions, and behavior. As attentional control develops, children are more able to control cognition and responses flexibly and to adjust their behavior in social interactions better. In this article, we discuss evidence from different levels of…

Rueda, M. Rosario; Checa, Purificacion; Rothbart, Mary K.

2010-01-01

373

Role of Attention in the Regulation of Fear and Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion regulation makes use of specific aspects of attention and executive functions that are critical for the development of adaptive social functioning, and perturbations in these processes can result in maladaptive behavior and psychopathology. Both involuntary and voluntary attention processes have been examined at both the behavioral and the neural levels and are implicated in the maintenance of fearful or

Lauren K. White; Sarah M. Helfinstein; Bethany C. Reeb-Sutherland; Kathryn A. Degnan; Nathan A. Fox

2009-01-01

374

Contributions of Attentional Control to Socioemotional and Academic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research Findings: Part of the attention system of the brain is involved in the control of thoughts, emotions, and behavior. As attentional control develops, children are more able to control cognition and responses flexibly and to adjust their behavior in social interactions better. In this article, we discuss evidence from different levels of…

Rueda, M. Rosario; Checa, Purificacion; Rothbart, Mary K.

2010-01-01

375

Unconscious masked priming depends on temporal attention.  

PubMed

The cognitive processes at work in masked priming experiments are usually considered automatic and independent of attention. We provide evidence against this view. Three behavioral experiments demonstrate that the occurrence of unconscious priming in a number comparison task is determined by the allocation of temporal attention to the time window during which the prime-target pair is presented. Both response-congruity priming and physical repetition priming vanish when temporal attention is focused away from this time window. These findings are inconsistent with the concept of a purely automatic spreading of activation during masked priming. PMID:12219807

Naccache, Lionel; Blandin, Elise; Dehaene, Stanislas

2002-09-01

376

Language Deficit With Attention-Deficit Disorder: A Prevalent Comorbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to delineate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of children with attention-deficit and language problems as compared to children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only Out of a cohort of 3208 children 6 to 11 years old, 5.2% were identified as having a primary ADHD. A teacher's behavioral questionnaire, pediatric interview and assessment, IQ, attention

Emanuel Tirosh; Ayala Cohen

1998-01-01

377

Effectiveness of Training Parents to Teach Joint Attention in Children With Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young children with autism have deficits in initiating and responding to joint attention bids. This study was designed to examine a parent-implemented intervention targeting joint attention responding in children with autism. Parents were trained to increase their joint attention bids using behavior analytic techniques to facilitate appropriate responding. Parents effectively employed joint attention intervention techniques. As parent joint attention bids

Marie L. Rocha; Laura Schreibman; Aubyn C. Stahmer

2007-01-01

378

Attentional load inhibits vection.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the effects of cognitive task performance on the induction of vection. We hypothesized that, if vection requires attentional resources, performing cognitive tasks requiring attention should inhibit or weaken it. Experiment 1 tested the effects on vection of simultaneously performing a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. The results revealed that the RSVP task affected the subjective strength of vection. Experiment 2 tested the effects of a multiple-object-tracking (MOT) task on vection. Simultaneous performance of the MOT task decreased the duration and subjective strength of vection. Taken together, these findings suggest that vection induction requires attentional resources. PMID:21491162

Seno, Takeharu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji

2011-07-01

379

Paying Attention to Meaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT—Several paradigms,show,that responses to one event compromise,responses,to a second,event for around,500 ms. Such effects are generally,attributed to attentional,capacity limitations associated,with processing,information,in the first event. In a task in which,targets could be distinguished,only by their meaning, we varied the semantic relationship between distractors and,targets following,at different lags. Semantic relatedness alone produced,a classic attentional blink. We con- clude by discussing how,attention,theory,might,best accom-

P. J. Barnard; S. Scott

1976-01-01

380

Attention and performance.  

PubMed

Recent progress in the study of attention and performance is discussed, focusing on the nature of attentional control and the effects of practice. Generally speaking, the effects of mental set are proving more pervasive than was previously suspected, whereas automaticity is proving less robust. Stimulus attributes (e.g. onsets, transients) thought to have a "wired-in" ability to capture attention automatically have been shown to capture attention only as a consequence of voluntarily adopted task sets. Recent research suggests that practice does not have as dramatic effects as is commonly believed. While it may turn out that some mental operations are automatized in the strongest sense, this may be uncommon. Recent work on task switching is also described; optimal engagement in a task set is proving to be intimately tied to learning operations triggered by the actual performance of a new task, not merely the anticipation of such performance. PMID:11148320

Pashler, H; Johnston, J C; Ruthruff, E

2001-01-01

381

Iconic memory requires attention  

PubMed Central

Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load). However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load), observers' performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.

Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D.

2012-01-01

382

Deployment of Visual Attention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report summarizing research on the deployment of attention in visual search. In visual search, observers look for targets among distractor items. Models of search had assumed that items were sampled without replacement. items, rejected a...

J. M. Wolfe

2003-01-01

383

Unmasking the Attentional Blink  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When asked to identify 2 visual targets (T1 and T2 for the 1st and 2nd targets, respectively) embedded in a sequence of distractors, observers will often fail to identify T2 when it appears within 200-500 ms of T1--an effect called the "attentional blink". Recent work shows that attention does not blink when the task is to encode a sequence of…

Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Potter, Mary C.; Theeuwes, Jan

2009-01-01

384

Headache impairs attentional performance.  

PubMed

Attentional disruption has been demonstrated using laboratory-induced pain, but has not been reliably established in everyday pain conditions. This study is the first to examine the effect of everyday acute headache on attention. Seventy-five frequent headache sufferers completed a flanker task, n-back task, attentional switching task, and dual task. Participants completed this battery of tasks twice: once when experiencing an episode of tension-type headache, and once when pain free. Headache impaired performance on the n-back task, retarded general responding on the flanker task, and produced more errors on the attentional switching task. Headache did not, however, alter performance on the dual task, or the size of the attentional switching effect or result in a flanker effect. It must therefore be emphasised that headache pain appears to impair general task performance, irrespective of task complexity, rather than specific attentional mechanisms. Headache pain has an effect on the core cognitive components necessary for the successful completion of tasks, and in particular those involving the updating of the cognitive system. PMID:23748118

Moore, David J; Keogh, Edmund; Eccleston, Christopher

2013-06-06

385

Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

2010-01-01

386

Sensory and attention abnormalities in autistic spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) often experience, describe and exhibit unusual patterns of sensation and attention. These anomalies have been hypothesized to result from overarousal and consequent overfocused attention. Parents of individuals with ASD rated items in three domains, 'sensory overreactivity', 'sensory underreactivity' and 'sensory seeking behaviors', of an expanded version of the Sensory Profile, a 103-item rating scale developed for the present study. Parents also rated symptom severity, overselective attention and exceptional memory, and completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Of 222 rated subjects, 144 had complete data. Cluster analysis showed the predicted overfocused pattern of sensation and attention, comprising overreactivity, perseverative behavior and interests, overfocused attention and exceptional memory in 43 percent of this sample. This pattern was striking in 10 percent. The neurological basis of overreactivity and overfocusing is discussed in relation to the overarousal hypothesis. Attention is drawn to its considerable prevalence in the ASD population. PMID:16613865

Liss, Miriam; Saulnier, Celine; Fein, Deborah; Kinsbourne, Marcel

2006-03-01

387

Amygdala circuitry in attentional and representational processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amygdala has long been implicated in the display of emotional behavior and emotional information processing, especially in the context of aversive events. In this review, we discuss recent evidence that links the amygdala to several aspects of food-motivated associative learning, including functions often characterized as attention, reinforcement and representation. Each of these functions depends on the operation of separate

Peter C. Holland; Michela Gallagher

1999-01-01

388

Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically based disorder, and medication is now considered the first line treatment. This article

Joseph B. Ryan; Antonis Katsiyannis; Elizabeth M. Hughes

2011-01-01

389

The neural bases of attentive reading.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested that attention facilitates the formation of synchronous neural assemblies in the gamma range (>40 Hz) to amplify behaviorally relevant signals. Whether this mechanism is general or confined to sensory cortices is still a matter of debate, since there is little evidence of a direct link between attention and increased gamma synchronization in high-level brain regions. We recorded the intracerebral EEG of 10 epileptic patients while manipulating their attention during reading, and compared the neural responses to attended and unattended words. Visual presentation of attended words induced gamma band responses in the major brain regions associated with reading and those responses were attenuated for unattended words. The attenuation was not uniform within the reading network but followed a gradient from the posterior visual to the frontal areas. Altogether, these results support the view that the gamma band response can be used as a quantitative marker of attention. PMID:17894399

Jung, Julien; Mainy, Nelly; Kahane, Philippe; Minotti, Lorella; Hoffmann, Dominique; Bertrand, Olivier; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

2008-10-01

390

Quantifying Collective Attention from Tweet Stream  

PubMed Central

Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive “digital fossil” of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of “collective attention” on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or “tweets.” Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. “Retweet” networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era.

Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Hirata, Yoshito; Toyoda, Masashi; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2013-01-01

391

Quantifying collective attention from tweet stream.  

PubMed

Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive "digital fossil" of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of "collective attention" on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or "tweets." Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. "Retweet" networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era. PMID:23637913

Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Hirata, Yoshito; Toyoda, Masashi; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2013-04-30

392

There is no Such Thing as Attention.  

PubMed

Given that the core issues of attention research have been recognized for millenia, we do not know as much about attention as we should. I argue that the reasons for this failure are (1) we create spurious dichotomies, (2) we reify attention, treating it as a cause, when it is an effect, and (3) we equate a collection of facts with a theory. In order to correct these errors, we need a new technical vocabulary that allows for attentional effects to be continuously distributed, rather than merely present or absent, and that provides a basis for quantitative behavioral predictions that map onto neural substrates. The terminology of the Bayesian decision process has already proved useful for structuring conceptual discussions in other psychological domains, such as perception and decision making under uncertainty, and it had demonstrated early success in the domain of attention. By rejecting a reified, causal conception of attention, in favor of theories that produce attentional effects as consequences, psychologists will be able to conduct more definitive experiments. Such conceptual advances will then enhance the productivity of neuroscientists by allowing them to concentrate their data collection efforts on the richest soil. PMID:21977019

Anderson, Britt

2011-09-23

393

There is no Such Thing as Attention  

PubMed Central

Given that the core issues of attention research have been recognized for millenia, we do not know as much about attention as we should. I argue that the reasons for this failure are (1) we create spurious dichotomies, (2) we reify attention, treating it as a cause, when it is an effect, and (3) we equate a collection of facts with a theory. In order to correct these errors, we need a new technical vocabulary that allows for attentional effects to be continuously distributed, rather than merely present or absent, and that provides a basis for quantitative behavioral predictions that map onto neural substrates. The terminology of the Bayesian decision process has already proved useful for structuring conceptual discussions in other psychological domains, such as perception and decision making under uncertainty, and it had demonstrated early success in the domain of attention. By rejecting a reified, causal conception of attention, in favor of theories that produce attentional effects as consequences, psychologists will be able to conduct more definitive experiments. Such conceptual advances will then enhance the productivity of neuroscientists by allowing them to concentrate their data collection efforts on the richest soil.

Anderson, Britt

2011-01-01

394

Attention: Bits Versus Wows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of surprise is central to sensory processing, adaptation and learning, attention, and decision making. Yet, no widely-accepted mathematical-theory currently exists to quantitatively characterize surprise elicited by a stimulus or event, for observers that range from single neurons to complex natural or engineered systems. We describe a formal Bayesian definition of surprise that is the only consistent formulation under

Pierre Baldi; Laurent Itti

2005-01-01

395

Characterizing Attentional Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Other studies have found that it is easier to divide attention when messages can be discriminated on the basis of stimulus and response features. The present study extended these results and explored whether dual-task performance is a function of similarity of central processing and, more specifically, the semantic similarity of the competing messages. In a dichotic listening task, subjects detected

William Hirst; David Kalmar

1987-01-01

396

Components of attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Divides the study of human attention into 3 components: alertness, selectivity, and processing capacity. Experimental techniques designed to separate these components and examine their interrelations within comparable tasks are outlined. It is shown that a stimulus may be used to increase alertness for processing all external information, to improve selection of particular stimuli, or to do both simultaneously. Development of

Michael I. Posner; Stephen J. Boies

1971-01-01

397

Attentional deficits in concussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine deficits in the alerting, orienting and executive components of attention in individuals who have recently suffered a concussion. Research design: A group design was used in which the performance by individuals with concussion was compared to control subjects matched for age, height, weight and activity level. Methods and procedures:

P. van Donkelaar; J. Langan; E. Rodriguez; A. DREW; C. Halterman; L. R. Osternig; L.-S. Chou

2005-01-01

398

Cortical state and attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain continuously adapts its processing machinery to behavioural demands. To achieve this, it rapidly modulates the operating mode of cortical circuits, controlling the way that information is transformed and routed. This article will focus on two experimental approaches by which the control of cortical information processing has been investigated: the study of state-dependent cortical processing in rodents and attention

Alexander Thiele; Kenneth D. Harris

2011-01-01

399

Learned Helplessness in Chickens ( Gallus gallus): Evidence for Attentional Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioral effects of exposure to uncontrollable events include motivational, associative, physiological, and attentional components. The learned helplessness hypothesis states that exposure to uncontrollable events results in an organism learning that its behavior and the outcomes of its behavior are independent. Research has indicated that the manner in which subjects exposed to uncontrollable events process information, and subsequently how they

Zachary A. Rodd; Robert A. Rosellini; Howard S. Stock

1997-01-01

400

Attention, configuration, and hippocampal function.  

PubMed

We present a neural network that characterizes a remarkably large number of classical conditioning paradigms and describes the effects of many neurophysiological manipulations. First, the network 1) describes behavior in real time 2) comprises simple and configural stimulus representations, and 3) includes attentional control of storage and retrieval. Second, mapping of the network onto the brain can be summarized by several information processing loops: 1) a hippocampal-cortical configural loop, 2) a hippocampal-cerebellar conditioned-response loop, 3) a hippocampal-accumbens-thalamic attentional loop, and 4) a hippocampal-medial raphe-medial septum error loop. Third, within this global view of brain function, it is assumed that the hippocampal formation computes 1) the aggregate prediction of environmental events and 2) the error signals for cortical learning. These assumptions are supported by rigorous computer simulations consistent with a large body of data on hippocampal and septal neural activity, induction and blockade of hippocampal long-term potentiation, administration of cholinergic agonists and antagonists, administration of haloperidol, and selective and nonselective hippocampal and cortical lesions. PMID:9034850

Buhusi, C V; Schmajuk, N A

1996-01-01

401

Challenging Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is widely accepted that challenging behaviors are the result of social skills deficits. Acquisition, performance, or fluency\\u000a deficits related to cognitive and emotional difficulties, as well as environmental issues, may be the root of the challenging\\u000a behaviors. Additionally, challenging behaviors related to social skills deficits have been found in many groups, including\\u000a children diagnosed with Intellectual Disabilities (ID), Attention

Rebecca Mandal-Blasio; Karen Sheridan; George Schreiner; Tra Ladner

402

Behavior modification.  

PubMed

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic and substantially impairing disorder. This means that treatment must also be chronic and substantial. Behavior Modification, and in many cases, the combination of behavior modification and stimulant medication, is a valid, useful treatment for reducing the pervasive impairment experienced by children with ADHD. Based on the research evidence reviewed, behavior modification should be the first line of treatment for children with ADHD. PMID:10944662

Pelham, W E; Fabiano, G A

2000-07-01

403

More attention must be paid: The neurobiology of attentional effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in attentional effort are defined as the motivated activation of attentional systems in response to detrimental challenges on attentional performance, such as the presentation of distractors, prolonged time-on-task, changing target stimulus characteristics and stimulus presentation parameters, circadian phase shifts, stress or sickness. Increases in attentional effort are motivated by the expected performance outcome; in the absence of such motivation,

Martin Sarter; William J. Gehring; Rouba Kozak

2006-01-01

404

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This detailed booklet describes the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatments, with information on getting help and coping. Interventions described herein are psychotherapy, behavior therapy, social skills training, support groups, and parenting skills training. Some simple behavioral interventions are suggested because children with ADHD may…

Strock, Margaret

2006-01-01

405

Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder and Scholastic Achievement: A Model of Dual Developmental Pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual model has recently been hypothesized in which parallel but correlated developmental pathways exist for attention deficit behaviors and conduct problems. An important component of this model suggests that attention deficit behaviors are related to later scholastic underachievement, whereas conduct problems are unrelated to scholastic underachievement except by their common correlation with attention deficit and intelligence. The present study

Mark D. Rapport; Sean W. Scanlan; Colin B. Denney

1999-01-01

406

Different patterns of contingent stimulation differentially affect attention span in prelinguistic infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to sustain attention influences different domains including cognitive, motor, and communicative behavior. Previous research has demonstrated how an infant's parent can influence sustained attention. The purpose of our study was to expose infants systematically to both sensitive and redirective patterns of behavior to examine how unfamiliar individuals could influence attention. Results revealed infants changed their patterns of looking

Jennifer L. Miller; Erin M. Ables; Andrew P. King; Meredith J. West

2009-01-01

407

Toddlers' Duration of Attention towards Putative Threat  

PubMed Central

Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk for developing anxious behavior, toddlers’ attention towards a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined how attention towards an angry-looking gorilla mask in a room with alternative opportunities for play in 24-month-old toddlers predicted social inhibition when children entered kindergarten. Analyses examined attention to threat above and beyond and in interaction with both proximity to the mask and fear of novelty observed in other situations. Attention to threat interacted with proximity to the mask to predict social inhibition, such that attention to threat most strongly predicted social inhibition when toddlers stayed furthest from the mask. This relation occurred above and beyond the predictive relation between fear of novelty and social inhibition. Results are discussed within the broader literature of anxiety development and attentional processes in young children.

Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

2010-01-01

408

Dividing attention between two transparent motion surfaces results in a failure of selective attention  

PubMed Central

In object-based attention, it is easier to divide attention between features within a single object than between features across objects. In this study we test the prediction of several capacity models in order to best characterize the cost to dividing attention between objects. Here we studied behavioral performance on a divided attention task in which subjects attended to the motion and luminance of overlapping random dot kinemategrams, specifically red upward moving dots superimposed with green downward moving dots. Subjects were required to detect brief changes (transients) in the motion or luminance within the same surface or across different surfaces. There were two primary results. First, the dual-task deficit was large when attention was divided across two surfaces and near zero when attention was divided within a surface. This is consistent with limited-capacity processing across surfaces and unlimited-capacity processing within a surface—a pattern predicted by established theories of object-based attention. Second and unexpectedly, there was evidence of crosstalk between features: when cued to monitor transients on one surface, response rates were inflated by the presence of a transient on the other surface. Such crosstalk is a failure of selective attention between surfaces.

Ernst, Zachary Raymond; Palmer, John; Boynton, Geoffrey M.

2012-01-01

409

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 4–8% of the population\\u000a across the life span. Up to 90% of those with ADHD have at least one comorbid condition that may be more critical to the child’s\\u000a or adolescent’s health than is the ADHD. Those with neurodevelopmental disorders are at high risk for ADHD. Management involves

Donald E. Greydanus

410

Are we paying attention?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to look at the attention span given to bills, statements, official correspondence and direct marketing by consumers in major European economies and the USA. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Over 1,000 consumers were interviewed via web survey in the UK, Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the USA, during May\\/June 2007. Respondents were asked to estimate

Andrew Greenyer

2008-01-01

411

Spatial attention facilitates selection of illusory objects: Evidence from event-related brain potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between spatial attention and object-based attention has long been debated. On the basis of behavioral evidence it has been hypothesized that these two forms of attention share a common mechanism, such that directing spatial attention to one part of an object facilitates the selection of the entire object. In a previous study (Martinez, A., Teder-Salejarvi, W., Vazquez, M.,

Antígona Martínez; Wolfgang Teder-Salejarvi; Steven A. Hillyard

2007-01-01

412

Dyadic Orienting and Joint Attention in Preschool Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acts of dyadic orienting (responses to attention bids by a researcher) and acts of joint attention (e.g. pointing and showing behaviors) were observed in preschool children with autism and children with developmental delay. Children with autism responded to fewer adult vocal and non-vocal attention bids that were made singly and by combining modalities (e.g. name call plus touch). Sensitivity in

Susan R. Leekam; Christopher A. H. Ramsden

2006-01-01

413

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Diverse Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder of childhood. Given the\\u000a high prevalence of ADHD and its significant impact on children and families, it is important for social workers to understand\\u000a and know how to respond. This paper looks at Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, explores its causes, and gives special\\u000a attention to its effect on

Renee Mattox MSW; Jeanette Harder

2007-01-01

414

Joint Attention and Attachment in Toddlers with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint attention is often referred to as a triadic relation between self, other and object. Young children with autism show\\u000a deficiencies in the use of joint attention behaviors. Individual differences may be expected, and they may be determined by\\u000a the children’s cognitive development or the characteristics of the relationship of the child with the caregiver. Although\\u000a most joint attention skills

Fabiënne B. A. Naber; Sophie H. N. Swinkels; Jan K. Buitelaar; Claudine Dietz; Emma van Daalen; Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg; Marinus H. van IJzendoorn; Herman van Engeland

2007-01-01

415

Personality and Selective Attention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interest in the relationship between cognitions and behavior has drawn personality researchers and clinical psychologists to incorporate models of information processing into their own paradigms. In this study, the effect of presenting emotionally salient...

S. L. Nielsen I. G. Sarason

1980-01-01

416

Transdermal nicotine effects on attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine has been shown to improve attentiveness in smokers and attenuate attentional deficits in Alzheimer’s disease patients,\\u000a schizophrenics and adults with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study was conducted to determine\\u000a whether nicotine administered via transdermal patches would improve attentiveness in non-smoking adults without attentional\\u000a deficits. The subjects underwent the nicotine and placebo exposure in a counterbalanced double-blind manner. Measures

E. D. Levin; C. Keith Conners; Donna Silva; Sean C. Hinton; Warren H. Meck; John March; Jed E. Rose

1998-01-01

417

Taking control of reflexive social attention.  

PubMed

Attention is shifted reflexively to where other people are looking. It has been argued by a number of investigators that this social attention effect reflects the obligatory bottom-up activation of domain-specific modules within the inferior temporal (IT) cortex that are specialized for processing face and gaze information. However, it is also the case that top-down factors may modulate the activation of IT cells. Here we examined behaviorally whether reflexive social orienting is purely automatic or sensitive to top-down modulation. Participants were shown an ambiguous stimulus that could be perceived either as representing EYES or a CAR. In we demonstrated between groups that an automatic shift of attention, equivalent to that triggered by a schematic FACE, occurred only when the stimulus was referred to as possessing EYES. In all participants received the EYES and CAR conditions. When the stimulus was first referred to as a CAR and then as EYES, an attentional shift was only present for the EYES condition. However, when the stimulus was first referred to as possessing EYES, and then later as a CAR, attentional shifts were observed for both conditions. These data indicate that the emergence of a reflexive social attention effect is influenced by top-down mechanisms but in an asymmetrical manner. Top-down processes appear to be effective for triggering IT involvement, that is, for perceiving a stimulus as a face, which produces the social attention effect. But top-down mechanisms are ineffective once IT involvement has been triggered. That is, once a stimulus has been seen as having eyes, it continues to be seen that way, and accordingly, the social attention effect persists. PMID:15617667

Ristic, Jelena; Kingstone, Alan

2005-01-01

418

Attention Training with Auditory Hallucinations: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The case presented in this paper illustrates how Attention Training (ATT; [Wells, A. (1990). "Panic disorder in association with relaxation induced anxiety: An attentional training approach to treatment." "Behavior Therapy," 21, 273-280.]) can be applied in an outpatient setting in the treatment of auditory hallucinations. The 25-year-old male…

Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Bouman, Theo K.; Schuurman, Laura

2007-01-01

419

Selective Attention to Emotion in the Aging Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of research suggests that the ability to regulate emotion remains stable or improves across the adult life span. Socioemotional selectivity theory maintains that this pattern of findings reflects the prioritization of emotional goals. Given that goal-directed behavior requires attentional control, the present study was designed to investigate age differences in selective attention to emotional lexical stimuli under

Gregory R. Samanez-Larkin; Elaine R. Robertson; Joseph A. Mikels; Laura L. Carstensen; Ian H. Gotlib

2009-01-01

420

A Neural Theory of Visual Attention: Bridging Cognition and Neurophysiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A neural theory of visual attention (NTVA) is presented. NTVA is a neural interpretation of C. Bundesen's (1990) theory of visual attention (TVA). In NTVA, visual processing capacity is distributed across stimuli by dynamic remapping of receptive fields of cortical cells such that more processing resources (cells) are devoted to behaviorally

Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas; Kyllingsbaek, Soren

2005-01-01

421

Joint Attention and Attachment in Toddlers with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Joint attention is often referred to as a triadic relation between self, other and object. Young children with autism show deficiencies in the use of joint attention behaviors. Individual differences may be expected, and they may be determined by the children's cognitive development or the characteristics of the relationship of the child with the…

Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van Engeland, Herman

2007-01-01

422

Joint Attention and Attachment in Toddlers with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joint attention is often referred to as a triadic relation between self, other and object. Young children with autism show deficiencies in the use of joint attention behaviors. Individual differences may be expected, and they may be determined by the children's cognitive development or the characteristics of the relationship of the child with the…

Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van Engeland, Herman

2007-01-01

423

The Effects of Microcomputers on Children's Attention to Reading Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study investigated the effects of microcomputers on children's attention to reading tasks and the relationship between previous reading achievement and grade level on such attentional behavior. Fifty-five third and fifth graders read two stories each, one presented on a microcomputer and one presented in print. Television cartoons and rock…

Zuk, Dorie; Danner, Fred

424

Down Syndrome and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians might minimize the prevalence of behavioral disorders among mentally retarded people. Decreased attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are frequently reported in children with Down syndrome, yet the exact prevalence of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been clearly estimated in this population. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ADHD in children with Down syndrome and to

Sivan Ekstein; Benjamin Glick; Michal Weill; Barrie Kay; Itai Berger

2011-01-01

425

Enhanced Processing of Threat Stimuli under Limited Attentional Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to process stimuli that convey potential threat, under conditions of limited attentional resources, confers adaptive advantages. This study examined the neurobiology underpinnings of this capacity. Employing an attentional blink paradigm, in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging, we manipulated the salience of the second of 2 face target stimuli (T2), by varying emotionality. Behaviorally, fearful T2 faces were

Benedetto De Martino; Raffael Kalisch; Geraint Rees; Raymond J. Dolan

2009-01-01

426

The Influence of Television on Children's Attentional Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this review is to determine the scientific status of the proposition that viewing television in general or viewing "Sesame Street" in particular affects children's attentional skills, abilities, or behaviors. It has been frequently claimed that television viewing negatively affects children's attentional abilities. The most common…

Anderson, Daniel R.

427

Independent effects of adaptation and attention on perceived speed  

PubMed Central

Adaptation and attention are two mechanisms by which sensory systems manage limited bioenergetic resources: Whereas adaptation decreases sensitivity for stimuli just previously encountered, attention increases sensitivity for behaviorally relevant stimuli. In the visual system, these changes in sensitivity are accompanied by a change in stimulus appearance of different dimensions, such as speed. Adaptation causes an underestimation, whereas attention leads to an overestimation of speed. Here we investigate whether the effects of these mechanisms interact and how they affect appearance. We tested the effects of adaptation and subsequent allocation of attention on perceived speed. A quickly moving adaptor decreased the perceived speed of subsequent stimuli, whereas a slow adaptor did not alter perceived speed. Attention increased perceived speed regardless of the adaptation effect, indicating that adaptation and attention affect perceived speed independently. Moreover, the finding that attention can alter perceived speed after adaptation indicates that adaptation is not merely neuronal fatigue.

Herrmann, Katrin; Carrasco, Marisa

2012-01-01

428

Experimental training of children with attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (AD\\/HD) negativelly affects the cognitive and psychomotoric spheres of the pupil's social behavior and social adaptation. The review of many studies states that pupils with AD\\/HD achieve worse learning results because of insufficiently functioning cognitive processess, such as attention, (work) memory, thinking, problem solving, language, small- and large- scale motorics. Behavioral features, exhibited with AD\\/HD, include low-frustration tolerance,

Viktorija Piscalkiene

2009-01-01

429

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Birth Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birth order is considered one of the most influential environmental factors in child development, affecting cognitive abilities and behavioral traits. This study investigates the effect of birth order in relation to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the most common neuro-behavioral disorder of childhood. The study describes birth order of 598 children aged 6 to 18 years diagnosed due to attention-deficit hyperactivity

Itai Berger; Noorit Felsenthal-Berger

2009-01-01

430

The Structure of the Relationship between Attention and Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between attention and general intelligence was investigated considering the different types of attention: alertness, sustained attention, focused attention, attentional switching, divided attention, attention according to the supervisory attentional system, attention as inhibition, spatial attention, attention as planning,…

Schweizer, Karl; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Goldhammer, Frank

2005-01-01

431

The Structure of the Relationship between Attention and Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship between attention and general intelligence was investigated considering the different types of attention: alertness, sustained attention, focused attention, attentional switching, divided attention, attention according to the supervisory attentional system, attention as inhibition, spatial attention, attention as planning,…

Schweizer, Karl; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Goldhammer, Frank

2005-01-01

432

Dissociable attentional and affective circuits in medication-naïve children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Current neurocognitive models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that neural circuits involving both attentional and affective processing make independent contributions to the phenomenology of the disorder. However, a clear dissociation of attentional and affective circuits and their behavioral correlates has yet to be shown in medication-naïve children with ADHD. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in a cohort of medication naïve children with (N=22) and without (N=20) ADHD, we demonstrate that children with ADHD have reduced connectivity in two neural circuits: one underlying executive attention (EA) and the other emotional regulation (ER). We also demonstrate a double dissociation between these two neural circuits and their behavioral correlates such that reduced connectivity in the EA circuit correlates with executive attention deficits but not with emotional lability, while on the other hand, reduced connectivity in the ER circuit correlates with emotional lability but not with executive attention deficits. These findings suggest potential avenues for future research such as examining treatment effects on these two neural circuits as well as the potential prognostic and developmental significance of disturbances in one circuit vs the other. PMID:23664625

Posner, Jonathan; Rauh, Virginia; Gruber, Allison; Gat, Inbal; Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S

2013-05-08

433

Attentional dynamics of infant visual foraging.  

PubMed

Young infants actively gather information about their world through visual foraging, but the dynamics of this important behavior is poorly understood, partly because developmental scientists have often equated its essential components, looking and attending. Here we describe a method for simultaneously tracking spatial attention to fixated and nonfixated locations during free looking in 12-week-old infants using steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs). Using this method, we found that the sequence of locations an infant inspects during free looking reflects a momentary bias away from locations that were recently the target of covert attention, quickly followed by the redirection of attention--in advance of gaze--to the next target of fixation. The result is a pattern of visual foraging that is likely to support efficient exploration of complex environments by facilitating the inspection of new locations in real time. PMID:22733754

Robertson, Steven S; Watamura, Sarah Enos; Wilbourn, Makeba Parramore

2012-06-25

434

Effect of display size on visual attention.  

PubMed

Attention plays an important role in the design of human-machine interfaces. However, current knowledge about attention is largely based on data obtained when using devices of moderate display size. With advancement in display technology comes the need for understanding attention behavior over a wider range of viewing sizes. The effect of display size on test participants' visual search performance was studied. The participants (N = 12) performed two types of visual search tasks, that is, parallel and serial search, under three display-size conditions (16 degrees, 32 degrees, and 60 degrees). Serial, but not parallel, search was affected by display size. In the serial task, mean reaction time for detecting a target increased with the display size. PMID:21853782

Chen, I-Ping; Liao, Chia-Ning; Yeh, Shih-Hao

2011-06-01

435

A Candidate for the Attentional Bottleneck: Set-Size Specific Modulation of the Right TPJ during Attentive Enumeration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several recent behavioral studies have shown that the enumeration of a small number of items (a process termed "subitizing") depends on the availability of attentional resources and is not a preattentive process as previously thought. Here we studied the neural correlates of visual enumeration under different attentional loads in a dual-task…

Vetter, Petra; Butterworth, Brian; Bahrami, Bahador

2011-01-01

436

Attention to detail  

SciTech Connect

Insurance is an increasingly important part of international projects. Understanding various coverages can make the difference between success and failure. With more than $50 billion of investment capital per year slated for development of power projects in Asia alone, international development has gained the attention of many developers eager to participate. Coordinating an international insurance program for power projects is much different than a developer may be accustomed to in the United States. With insurance taking on an extremely important role in the success of project development it is imperative the unique international exposures inherent be identified and addressed.

Niccolai, G.C. [William Gallagher Associates, Parsippany, NJ (United States)

1994-11-01

437

Cognitive control of attention in the human brain: Insights from orienting attention to mental representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we summarize a new line of experimentation showing that attentional orienting can bias information processing in the working memory domain as well as in the perceptual domain to optimize goal-directed behavior. A new experimental paradigm was developed, which revealed that spatial orienting cues that appear after perceptual events (retro-cues), when these have been internalized into working memory

Jöran Lepsien; Anna C. Nobre

2006-01-01

438

Attentional Networks and Consciousness  

PubMed Central

The term consciousness is an important one in the vernacular of the western literature in many fields. It is no wonder that scientists have assumed that consciousness will be found as a component of the human brain and that we will come to understand its neural basis. However, there is rather little in common between consciousness as the neurologist would use it to diagnose the vegetative state, how the feminist would use it to support raising male consciousness of the economic plight of women and as the philosopher would use it when defining the really hard question of the subjective state of awareness induced by sensory qualities. When faced with this kind of problem it is usual to subdivide the term into more manageable perhaps partly operational definitions. Three meanings that capture aspects of consciousness are: (1) the neurology of the state of mind allowing coherent orientation to time and place (2) the selection of sensory or memorial information for awareness and (3) the voluntary control over overt responses. In each of these cases the mechanisms of consciousness overlap with one or more of the attentional networks that have been studied with the methods of cognitive neuroscience. In this paper we explore the overlap and discuss how to exploit the growing knowledge of attentional networks to constrain ideas of consciousness.

Posner, Michael I.

2012-01-01

439

Genetic influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we review behavioral and molecular genetics studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Family,\\u000a twin, and adoption studies, along with segregation analyses and molecular genetic studies, all support the hypothesis that\\u000a both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the etiology of ADHD. Despite this strong evidence for the familial transmission\\u000a of ADHD, the mode of transmission requires

Stephen V. Faraone; Alysa E. Doyle

2000-01-01

440

Joint attention development in toddlers with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficits in Joint Attention (JA) may be one of the earliest signs of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). In this longitudinal\\u000a study we investigated several types of JA behaviors at the age of 24 and 42 months, and their development over time. Eleven\\u000a children with ASD, 10 children with other developmental disorders, and eight children without a developmental disorder participated.\\u000a It was

Fabiënne B. A. Naber; Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg; Marinus H. van IJzendoorn; Claudine Dietz; Emma van Daalen; Sophie H. N. Swinkels; Jan K. Buitelaar; Herman van Engeland

2008-01-01

441

The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric\\u000a Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since\\u000a the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions\\u000a of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of

Klaus W. Lange; Susanne Reichl; Katharina M. Lange; Lara Tucha; Oliver Tucha

2010-01-01

442

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD) are the most commonly used diagnoses for children\\u000a who experience academic and behavioral difficulties. Not only do questions concerning ADHD and LD comprise the majority of\\u000a referrals made to psychologists, psychiatrists, and other professionals, but many children diagnosed with one of these disorders\\u000a also meet diagnostic criteria for the other disorder

Stephen R. Hooper; Emily A. Williams

443

Attentional and Linguistic Interactions in Speech Perception  

PubMed Central

The role of attention in speech comprehension is not well understood. We used fMRI to study the neural correlates of auditory word, pseudoword, and nonspeech (spectrally-rotated speech) perception during a bimodal (auditory, visual) selective attention task. In three conditions, Attend Auditory (ignore visual), Ignore Auditory (attend visual), and Visual (no auditory stimulation), 28 subjects performed a one-back matching task in the assigned attended modality. The visual task, attending to rapidly presented Japanese characters, was designed to be highly demanding in order to prevent attention to the simultaneously presented auditory stimuli. Regardless of stimulus type, attention to the auditory channel enhanced activation by the auditory stimuli (Attend Auditory > Ignore Auditory) in bilateral posterior superior temporal regions and left inferior frontal cortex. Across attentional conditions, there were main effects of speech processing (word + pseudoword > rotated speech) in left orbitofrontal cortex and several posterior right hemisphere regions, though these areas also showed strong interactions with attention (larger speech effects in the Attend Auditory than in the Ignore Auditory condition) and no significant speech effects in the Ignore Auditory condition. Several other regions, including the postcentral gyri, left supramarginal gyrus, and temporal lobes bilaterally, showed similar interactions due to the presence of speech effects only in the Attend Auditory condition. Main effects of lexicality (word > pseudoword) were isolated to a small region of the left lateral prefrontal cortex. Examination of this region showed significant word > pseudoword activation only in the Attend Auditory condition. Several other brain regions, including left ventromedial frontal lobe, left dorsal prefrontal cortex, and left middle temporal gyrus, showed attention × lexicality interactions due to the presence of lexical activation only in the Attend Auditory condition. These results support a model in which neutral speech presented in an unattended sensory channel undergoes relatively little processing beyond the early perceptual level. Specifically, processing of phonetic and lexical-semantic information appears to be very limited in such circumstances, consistent with prior behavioral studies.

Sabri, Merav; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Desai, Rutvik; Medler, David A.; Leitl, Michael D.; Liebenthal, Einat

2008-01-01

444

Assessment Software for Attention Profiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We begin with a brief historical summary of the concepts associated with attention, followed by a review of existing factor analytic studies of attention and executive function, as well as summary of the commonalties, discrepancies, and idiosyncrasies fou...

D. A. Washburn R. T. Putney

1999-01-01

445

Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis.

Salzinger, Kurt

2003-01-01

446

Infants use attention but not emotions to predict others' actions  

PubMed Central

Phillips, Wellman, and Spelke (2002) suggest that by 12 to 14 months, infants can use a person’s emotional and attentional cues to predict that person’s actions. However, this work was conducted using only positive emotions, which is problematic because attention and positive emotions lead to the same prediction about a person’s actions, thus leaving unclear whether infants made predictions based upon attention and emotion or attention alone. To get around this problem, we used both positive and negative emotions in a looking-time paradigm to investigate whether 14-month-old infants can use emotional cues to predict a person’s actions. The findings suggest that infants used attentional but not emotional cues as predictors. We argue that while 14-month-olds can use another person’s emotion cues to modify their own behavior (as in social referencing situations), they do not yet use them robustly to predict the other’s behavior.

Vaish, Amrisha; Woodward, Amanda

2009-01-01

447

Culture, attention, and emotion.  

PubMed

This research provides experimental evidence for cultural influence on one of the most basic elements of emotional processing: attention to positive versus negative stimuli. To this end, we focused on Russian culture, which is characterized by brooding and melancholy. In Study 1, Russians spent significantly more time looking at negative than positive pictures, whereas Americans did not show this tendency. In Study 2, Russian Latvians were randomly primed with symbols of each culture, after which we measured the speed of recognition for positive versus negative trait words. Biculturals were significantly faster in recognizing negative words (as compared with baseline) when primed with Russian versus Latvian cultural symbols. Greater identification with Russian culture facilitated this effect. We provide a theoretical discussion of mental processes underlying cultural differences in emotion research. PMID:21639670

Grossmann, Igor; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Hong, Ying-yi

2011-05-30

448

Modelling human attention and emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a previously developed engineering control approach to attention, presenting detailed attention control function assignments to the wealth of brain modules experimentally observed. A proposed mechanism for attention amplification through acetylcholine is analysed by use of neural field theory. The control system is extended to include biasing by emotional valence, with qualitative analysis given of a range of emotion

J. G. Taylor; N. Fragopanagos

2004-01-01

449

Attention, Task Difficulty, and ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on analysis of attention tasks in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) provided by Wilding (2005)points out that whereas many regulatory functions, including alertness or arousal, appear to be impaired in ADHD, demonstrating basic attention deficits in selection or orienting functions in the disorder has proven difficult. Yet…

Nigg, Joel T.

2005-01-01

450

Selective Attention: A Selective Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The literature on attention and related topics has increased voluminously in recent years. This review on selective attention deals only with limited aspects of the area. It is in two parts. The first part deals with one aspect of selective attention, as ...

A. A. Monjan Z. Annau

1971-01-01

451

Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Information Page Synonym(s): ADHD Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder? Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ...

452

Joint attention and language evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how more advanced joint attentional mechanisms, rather than only shared attention between two agents and an object, can be implemented and how they influence the results of language games played by these agents. We present computer simulations with language games showing that adding constructs that mimic the three stages of joint attention identified in children's early development

Johan Kwisthout; Paul Vogt; Pim Haselager; Ton Dijkstra

2008-01-01

453

Is Attention Impaired in ADHD?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explanations of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in terms of a weakness in Executive Function (EF) or related concepts, such as inhibition, are briefly reviewed. Some alternative views are considered, in particular a proposal by Manly and others that ADHD is a weakness primarily of sustained attention (plus control of attention),…

Wilding, John

2005-01-01

454

Attention Training and the Threat Bias: An ERP Study  

PubMed Central

Anxiety is characterized by exaggerated attention to threat. Several studies suggest that this threat bias plays a causal role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Furthermore, although the threat bias can be reduced in anxious individuals and induced in non-anxious individual, the attentional mechanisms underlying these changes remain unclear. To address this issue, 49 non-anxious adults were randomly assigned to either attentional training toward or training away from threat using a modified version of the dot probe task. Behavioral measures of attentional biases were also generated pre- and post-training using the dot probe task. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were generated to threat and non-threat face pairs and probes during pre- and post-training assessments. Effects of training on behavioral measures of the threat bias were significant, but only for those participants showing pre-training biases. Attention training also influenced early spatial attention, as measured by post-training P1 amplitudes to cues. Results illustrate the importance of taking pre-training attention biases in non-anxious individuals into account when evaluating the effects of attention training and tracking physiological changes in attention following training.

O'Toole, Laura; Dennis, Tracy A.

2011-01-01

455

Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care  

MedlinePLUS

Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care Selecting quality behavioral health care services for yourself, a relative or friend requires special thought and attention. The Joint Commission on ...

456

Selective Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Cholinergic Lesions Produced by Intrabasalis Infusions of 192 IgG-Saporin on Attentional Performance in a Five-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin (SAP) (0.0, 0.15, or 0.45 g\\/l; 0.5 l\\/hemisphere) infused into the area of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) of rats were tested in a five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) designed to assess visual attention. The effects of this manip- ulation on acetylcholine efflux in the medial frontal cortex were determined using

J. McGaughy; J. W. Dalley; C. H. Morrison; B. J. Everitt; T. W. Robbins

2002-01-01

457

Relation Between Childhood Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Substance Use and Dependence Symptoms in Young Adulthood: Individuals With Symptoms of Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder Are Uniquely at Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most prior literature examining the relations among attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and substance use and abuse suggests that CD fully accounts for the ADHD-substance abuse relation. This study sought to test an alternate theory that individuals with symptoms of both ADHD and CD are at a special risk for substance abuse. Relations between childhood ADHD and CD symptoms,

Kate Flory; Richard Milich; Donald R. Lynam; Carl Leukefeld; Richard Clayton

2003-01-01

458

Attention-Modulating Effects of Cognitive Enhancers  

EPA Science Inventory

Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review fo...

459

EEG Markers for Attention Deficit Disorder: Pharmacological and Neurofeedback Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined contribution of EEG findings in the classification and treatment of attention deficit and related behavioral problems in children. Found that quantitative EEG methods disclosed patterns of abnormality in children with ADD, suggested improved guidelines for pharmacological treatment, and introduced neurofeedback, a behavioral treatment…

Sterman, M. Barry

2000-01-01

460

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Comorbidity and Medication Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children evaluated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have other disorders resembling ADHD leading to inappropriate stimulant medication use. This study was completed to identify relationships between referral complaints of ADHD, behavior problems or learning problems and age, gender, final diagnosis, and medication use. One hundred eighty-nine children ages 2 to 15 years referred for evaluation of ADHD, behavior

David A. Kube; Mario C. Petersen; Frederick B. Palmer

2002-01-01

461

The Neurological Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examines the role of neurochemical stimulation and signs of neurological deficits. Describes the chemical action of drugs used to treat ADHD, along with cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects, and side effects. Elaborates on drug treatment and basic behavior modification…

Ballard, Shirley; Bolan, Morna; Burton, Michael; Snyder, Sherry; Pasterczyk-Seabolt, Claire; Martin, Don

1997-01-01

462

The Influence of Essential Oils on Human Attention. I: Alertness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific research on the effects of essential oils on human behavior lags behind the promises made by popular aromatherapy. Nearly all aspects of human behavior are closely linked to processes of attention, the basic level being that of alertness, which ranges from sleep to wakefulness. In our study we measured the influence of essential oils and components of essential oils

Josef Ilmberger; Eva Heuberger; Claudia Mahrhofer; Heidrun Dessovic; Dietlinde Kowarik; Gerhard Buchbauer

2001-01-01

463

The Normalization Model of Attention  

PubMed Central

Attention has been found to have a wide variety of effects on the responses of neurons in visual cortex. We describe a model of attention that exhibits each of these different forms of attentional modulation, depending on the stimulus conditions and the spread (or selectivity) of the attention field in the model. The model helps reconcile proposals that have been taken to represent alternative theories of attention. We argue that the variety and complexity of the results reported in the literature emerge from the variety of empirical protocols that were used, such that the results observed in any one experiment depended on the stimulus conditions and the subject’s attentional strategy, a notion that we define precisely in terms of the attention field in the model, but that has not typically been completely under experimental control.

Reynolds, John H.; Heeger, David J.

2009-01-01

464

Evidence for Distinct Attentional Bottlenecks in Attention Switching and Attentional Blink Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

E. Weichselgartner and G. A. Sperling (1987), using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), estimated that attention could be moved to a new spatial location within 300-400 ms. H. J. Müller and P. M. Rabbit (1989) used a spatial cuing task and found a similar time course for voluntarily redeploying attention. A separate phenomenon known as the attentional blink (AB) also

Matthew S. Peterson; James F. Juola

2000-01-01

465

A comparison of contexts for assessing joint attention in toddlers on the autism spectrum  

PubMed Central

Children on the autism spectrum often demonstrate atypical joint attention, leading some researchers to consider joint attention defecits a core feature of the autism spectrum. Structured measures, such as the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), are commonly used to provide a metric of joint attention. To explore the assessment of joint attention in multiple contexts, we implemented an alternative system for coding joint attention behaviors. We compared initiation of joint attention (IJA) and response to joint attention (RJA) behaviors coded from naturalistic examiner–child play samples with similar IJA and RJA behaviors elicited within the structured ESCS protocol. Participants were 20 toddlers on the autism spectrum. Levels of IJA and RJA within the two assessment contexts were significantly and positively correlated, providing support for the use of naturalistic sampling of joint attention skills as a viable alternative, or supplement, to structured measures.

Roos, Elizabeth M.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Ann Gernsbacher, Morton

2009-01-01

466

Group rhythmic synchrony and attention in children.  

PubMed

Synchrony, or the coordinated processing of time, is an often-overlooked yet critical context for human interaction. This study tests the relationship between the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting with the ability to attend in 102 elementary schoolchildren. Impairments in temporal processing have frequently been shown to exist in clinical populations with learning disorders, particularly those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting-an instance of the type of temporal processing necessary for successful interaction and learning-would be correlated with the ability to attend across the continuum of the population. A music class is an ideal setting for the study of interpersonal timing. In order to measure synchrony in this context, we constructed instruments that allowed the recording and measurement of individual rhythmic performance. The SWAN teacher questionnaire was used as a measurement of attentional behavior. We find that the ability to synchronize with others in a group music class can predict a child's attentional behavior. PMID:24032021

Khalil, Alexander K; Minces, Victor; McLoughlin, Grainne; Chiba, Andrea

2013-09-02

467

Prejudice and Stereotype Maintenance Processes: Attention, Attribution, and Individuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments examined the relationship between prejudice and processing of stereotypic information. Higher levels of prejudice were associated with greater attention to and more thorough encoding of stereotype-inconsistent than stereotype-consistent behaviors but only when processing capacity was plentiful (Experiments 1 and 3). High-prejudice participants attributed consistent behaviors to internal factors and inconsistent behaviors to external forces (Experiment 2). Together, these

Jeffrey W. Sherman; Steven J. Stroessner; Frederica R. Conrey; Omar A. Azam

2005-01-01

468

Attention, psychomotor functions and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Nutrition might play an important role to ameliorate or to buffer age-related declines in attention and psychomotor functions.\\u000a The assessment of nutritional effects in aged subjects has to take into account that attention and psychomotor functions can\\u000a be subdivided in different functions that are differentially affected by age. This paper gives an overview of changes in different\\u000a facets of attention

Konrad Wolfgang Kallus; Jeroen A. J. Schmitt; David Benton

2005-01-01

469

Attentional Biases for Emotional Faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated emotion-related biases in selective attention for pictorial stimuli in nonclinical subjects; the stimuli included threatening, happy and neutral facial expressions. The combined results showed evi- dence of an emotion-related attentional bias for facial expressions (i.e. an interaction effect of dysphoria and the emotional valence of the facial expression on attentional bias). In particular, nondysphoric subjects (i.e. those

Claire Bonham-Carter; Emma Fergusson; Jane Jenkins; Michelle Parr

1997-01-01

470

Noise Exclusion in Spatial Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precue validity affects the performance of perceptual tasks. These spatial attention effects have been variously attributed to facilitation of processing, capacity allocation, or noise reduction. We used a new attention-plus-external (stimulus)-noise paradigm and model to identify the mechanisms of attention in cue-validity para- digms. A new phenomenon is reported: a large effect of location cue validity in an orientation identification

Barbara Anne Dosher; Zhong-Lin Lu

2000-01-01

471

The structure of the relationship between attention and intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between attention and general intelligence was investigated considering the different types of attention: alertness, sustained attention, focused attention, attentional switching, divided attention, attention according to the supervisory attentional system, attention as inhibition, spatial attention, attention as planning, interference, attention as arousal, and attention according to the assessment tradition. In a sample of 197 participants the relationship of attention

Karl Schweizer; Helfried Moosbrugger; Frank Goldhammer

2005-01-01

472

Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research attempting to elucidate the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not only shed light on the disorder itself, it has simultaneously provided new insights into the mechanisms of normal cognition and attention. This review will highlight and integrate this bidirectional flow of information. Following a brief overview of ADHD clinical phenomenology, ADHD studies will be placed into a wider

George Bush

2010-01-01

473

Attentional Capture with Rapidly Changing Attentional Control Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classic theory of spatial attention hypothesized 2 modes, voluntary and involuntary. Folk, Remington, and Johnston (1992) reported that even involuntary attention capture by stimuli requires a match between stimulus properties and what the observer is looking for. This surprising conclusion has been confirmed by many subsequent studies. In…

Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Johnston, James C.

2010-01-01

474

Paying Attention to Attention: New Economies for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Challenging formal education's traditional monopoly over the mass-scale acculturation of youth, the technological infrastructure of the new economy brings in its wake a new attentional economy in which any connected adult or child owns and controls a full economic share of her or his own attention. For youth who have never known the text-bound…

de Castell, Suzanne; Jenson, Jennifer

2004-01-01

475

Attention deficit disorder during adolescence: a review.  

PubMed

Attention deficit disorder (ADD) in adolescents has received scant attention when compared with that given to children. With or without hyperactivity, ADD does not disappear at puberty and is an important factor in scholastic and social failure in adolescents. As a condition associated with decreased metabolism in the premotor and prefrontal superior cerebral cortex, ADD in adolescents responds well to treatment with stimulants, tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Nonpharmacologic modalities such as behavior modification, individual and family therapy, and cognitive therapy are useful adjuncts to psychopharmacologic management. Without effective treatment, ADD often results in increased risk of trauma, substance abuse and conduct and affective disorders during adolescence, and marital disharmony, family dysfunction, divorce, and incarceration in adulthood. Properly treated with medication and counseling, adolescents with ADD succeed as well as their peers. PMID:7779826

Faigel, H C; Sznajderman, S; Tishby, O; Turel, M; Pinus, U

1995-03-01

476

Selective Attention and Inhibitory Deficits in ADHD: Does Subtype or Comorbidity Modulate Negative Priming Effects?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Selective attention has durable consequences for behavior and neural activation. Negative priming (NP) effects are assumed to reflect a critical inhibitory component of selective attention. The performance of adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was assessed across two conceptually based NP tasks within a selective…

Pritchard, Verena E.; Neumann, Ewald; Rucklidge, Julia J.

2008-01-01

477

Establishing response and stimulus classes for initiating joint attention in children with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of the fundamental skill of initiating joint attention reflects the social-communicative impairment characterizing autism. Initiating joint attention is related to social and communication development as well as intervention outcomes for children with autism. A behaviorally based intervention was used to teach an expanded class of responses for initiating joint attention consisting of combinations of nonverbal and verbal forms.

Emily A. Jones

2009-01-01

478

Enhanced visual spatial attention ipsilateral to rTMS-induced 'virtual lesions' of human parietal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breakdown of attentional mechanisms after brain damage can have drastic behavioral consequences, as in patients suffering from spatial neglect. While much research has concentrated on impaired attention to targets contralateral to sites of brain damage, here we report the ipsilateral enhancement of visual attention after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of parietal cortex at parameters known to reduce cortical

Hugo Théoret; Alvaro Pascual-Leone; Claus C. Hilgetag

2001-01-01

479

Further Evaluation of Leisure Items in the Attention Condition of Functional Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research suggests that including leisure items in the attention condition of a functional analysis may produce engagement that masks sensitivity to attention. In this study, 4 individuals. initial functional analyses indicated that behavior was maintained by nonsocial variables (n = 3) or by attention (n = 1). A preference assessment was used to…

Roscoe, Eileen M.; Carreau, Abbey; MacDonald, Jackie; Pence, Sacha T.

2008-01-01