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Sample records for in-class attentive behavior

  1. Independent Contributions of the Central Executive, Intelligence, and In-Class Attentive Behavior to Developmental Change in the Strategies Used to Solve Addition Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Children's (N = 275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7 = 4+3 and thus 6+7 = 6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first grade to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-class attentive behavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between…

  2. Independent Contributions of the Central Executive, Intelligence, and In-Class Attentive Behavior to Developmental Change in the Strategies Used to Solve Addition Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Children's (N = 275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7 = 4+3 and thus 6+7 = 6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first grade to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-class attentive behavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between

  3. Independent Contributions of the Central Executive, Intelligence, and In-Class Attentive Behavior to Developmental Change in the Strategies Used to Solve Addition Problems

    PubMed Central

    Geary, David C.; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Children’s (n = 275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7 = 4+3, and thus 6+7=6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-class attentive behavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between capacity of the central executive component of working memory, controlling for intelligence and in-class attentive behavior, and grade-related changes in children’s use of these strategies. The predictor on intercept effects from multilevel models revealed that children with higher central executive capacity correctly retrieved more facts and used the most sophisticated counting procedure more frequently and accurately than did their lower capacity peers at the beginning of first grade, but the predictor on slope effects indicated that this advantage disappeared (retrieval) or declined in importance (counting) from first to fourth grade. The predictor on slope effects also revealed that from first through fourth grade, children with higher capacity adopted the decomposition strategy more quickly than did other children. The results remained robust with controls for children’s sex, race, school site, speed of encoding Arabic numerals and articulating number words, and mathematics achievement in kindergarten. The results also revealed that intelligence and in-class attentive behavior independently contributed to children’s strategy development. PMID:22698947

  4. Assisting children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to reduce the hyperactive behavior of arbitrary standing in class with a Nintendo Wii remote controller through an active reminder and preferred reward stimulation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Hui; Wang, Yun-Ting

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies in the field of special education have shown that in combination with software technology, high-tech commercial products can be applied as useful assistive technology devices to help people with disabilities. This study extended this concept to turn a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, in order to evaluate whether two students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) could reduce their hyperactive behavior through an active reminder and stimulation in the form of the participants' preferred rewards. This study focused on one particular hyperactive behavior common to both students: standing up arbitrarily during class. The active reminder was in the form of vibration feedback provided via the built-in function of the Wii Remote Controller, which was controlled and triggered by a control system to remind participants when they were engaging in standing behavior. This study was performed according to a multiple baseline design across participants. The results showed that both participants significantly improved their control over their hyperactive behavior during the intervention phase, and retained this effective performance in the maintenance phase. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24881005

  5. Cognitive training for children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial of cogmed working memory training and 'paying attention in class'.

    PubMed

    van der Donk, Marthe; Hiemstra-Beernink, Anne-Claire; Tjeenk-Kalff, Ariane; van der Leij, Aryan; Lindauer, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to replicate and extend previous studies of Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) in children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While a large proportion of children with ADHD suffer from academic difficulties, only few previous efficacy studies have taken into account long term academic outcome measures. So far, results regarding academic outcome measures have been inconsistent. Hundred and two children with ADHD between the age of 8 and 12 years (both medicated and medication naïve) participated in current randomized controlled trial. Children were randomly assigned to CWMT or a new active combined working memory- and executive function compensatory training called 'Paying Attention in Class.' Primary outcome measures were neurocognitive functioning and academic performance. Secondary outcome measures contained ratings of behavior in class, behavior problems, and quality of life. Assessment took place before, directly after and 6 months after treatment. Results showed only one replicated treatment effect on visual spatial working memory in favor of CWMT. Effects of time were found for broad neurocognitive measures, supported by parent and teacher ratings. However, no treatment or time effects were found for the measures of academic performance, behavior in class or quality of life. We suggest that methodological and non-specific treatment factors should be taken into account when interpreting current findings. Future trials with well-blinded measures and a third 'no treatment' control group are needed before cognitive training can be supported as an evidence-based treatment of ADHD. Future research should put more effort into investigating why, how and for whom cognitive training is effective as this would also potentially lead to improved intervention- and study designs. PMID:26284005

  6. Behavioral and psychophysiological markers of disordered attention

    SciTech Connect

    Mirsky, A.F.

    1987-10-01

    Behavioral and psychophysiological assays provide the most sensitive indication of whether a presumed neurotoxin has a deleterious effect on the nervous system. The effects of lead on the nervous system are strongly suggestive that this agent can produce disturbances in attention; moreover, there are clinical reports of such effects. The action of lead is also manifest in behaviors described as ''hyperactive,'' or reflecting ''minimal brain damage.'' The core symptom in both disorders is probably impairment in attention. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III) of the American Psychiatric Association uses the term Attention Deficit Disorder to replace such terms as hyperactivity and minimal brain damage. Prior studies of the behavioral toxicity of lead may have used inadequate or incomplete assays of attention; this could in part account for the variability in outcomes. Recent research on attention suggests that it is a complex behavior consisting of a number of elements or components, each of which may be in part dependent upon a different region of the central nervous system. Behavioral assays should examine the components of attentive behavior using tests which are sensitive to the different elements. It is recommended that psychophysiological assays (using cognitive event-related potentials), although more difficult and costly to implement, be used as well. These assays may provide a more dynamic view of altered information processing in the brain and help to localize and characterize the behavioral impairment. 50 references.

  7. The role of attention in motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Suri, Gaurav; Gross, James J

    2015-08-01

    All too frequently, people fail to take actions that are in their best interest (e.g., not taking necessary medications). Researchers have attempted to explain such behaviors by identifying subtle motivational forces that foster an avoidance of attractive outcomes. However, in many cases, such motivational forces have been difficult to identify. We propose that failures such as these to act in valued ways are in some cases caused by insufficient levels of orienting attention. To test this hypothesis, we first created a laboratory analog of real-world failures to act in valued ways, 1 in which participants persisted in viewing lower-valenced images even though they could have, at no cost, viewed a higher-valenced image. When we experimentally increased their orienting attention toward a caption stating they had the option to switch, participants more frequently elected to view the higher valenced image (Studies 1a-c). In real-world behavioral contexts, increasing attention, without an apparent change in valuation, also led to increased levels of approach motivation in behavioral contexts involving purchasing apples (Study 2) and electing to take the stairs instead of the escalator (Studies 3a-c). In light of these findings, we consider the role of orienting attention in motivated behavior. PMID:26097978

  8. Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang

    2014-10-01

    Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed. PMID:24922613

  9. Developing Attention: Behavioral and Brain Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Posner, Michael I; Rothbart, Mary K; Sheese, Brad E; Voelker, Pascale

    2014-05-01

    Brain networks underlying attention are present even during infancy and are critical for the developing ability of children to control their emotions and thoughts. For adults, individual differences in the efficiency of attentional networks have been related to neuromodulators and to genetic variations. We have examined the development of attentional networks and child temperament in a longitudinal study from infancy (7 months) to middle childhood (7 years). Early temperamental differences among infants, including smiling and laughter and vocal reactivity, are related to self-regulation abilities at 7 years. However, genetic variations related to adult executive attention, while present in childhood, are poor predictors of later control, in part because individual genetic variationmay have many small effects and in part because their influence occurs in interaction with caregiver behavior and other environmental influences. While brain areas involved in attention are present during infancy, their connectivity changes and leads to improvement in control of behavior. It is also possible to influence control mechanisms through training later in life. The relation between maturation and learning may allow advances in our understanding of human brain development. PMID:25110757

  10. Developing Attention: Behavioral and Brain Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.; Voelker, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Brain networks underlying attention are present even during infancy and are critical for the developing ability of children to control their emotions and thoughts. For adults, individual differences in the efficiency of attentional networks have been related to neuromodulators and to genetic variations. We have examined the development of attentional networks and child temperament in a longitudinal study from infancy (7 months) to middle childhood (7 years). Early temperamental differences among infants, including smiling and laughter and vocal reactivity, are related to self-regulation abilities at 7 years. However, genetic variations related to adult executive attention, while present in childhood, are poor predictors of later control, in part because individual genetic variationmay have many small effects and in part because their influence occurs in interaction with caregiver behavior and other environmental influences. While brain areas involved in attention are present during infancy, their connectivity changes and leads to improvement in control of behavior. It is also possible to influence control mechanisms through training later in life. The relation between maturation and learning may allow advances in our understanding of human brain development. PMID:25110757

  11. Changing Teachers' In-Class Behavior Through A Group Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Gary L.

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that specific in-class behaviors of classroom teachers could be modified by training. Focused on were these four behaviors: (a) positive reinforcement (PR), (b) negative reinforcement (NR), (c) amount of time the teacher talks as a percentage of all talk in class, and (d) encouragement of…

  12. Effectiveness of Noncontingent Attention to Decrease Attention-Maintained Disruptive Behaviors in the General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Devender R.; Sokolosky, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of noncontingent attention (NCA) on disruptive talking-out behavior in a student diagnosed with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in the general education classroom. Functional analysis indicated that the talking-out behavior was maintained by teacher attention. We used an ABAB…

  13. Using Brief Assessments to Evaluate Aberrant Behavior Maintained by Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; King, Lisa; Lally, Grainne; Dhomhnaill, Orla Nic

    2000-01-01

    Functional assessments were conducted for two Irish individuals with severe disabilities and aberrant behavior. A modified attention condition was introduced, which involved both parents interacting with a third person. Aberrant behavior occurred only in the modified attention condition. Successful treatment consisted of delivery of attention on a…

  14. Toward a Behavioral Analysis of Joint Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, William V.; MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Mansfield, Renee C.; Holcomb, William L.; Ahearn, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Joint attention (JA) initiation is defined in cognitive-developmental psychology as a child's actions that verify or produce simultaneous attending by that child and an adult to some object or event in the environment so that both may experience the object or event together. This paper presents a contingency analysis of gaze shift in JA…

  15. Remapping Attention Pointers: Linking Physiology and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Rolfs, Martin; Szinte, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Our eyes rapidly scan visual scenes, displacing the projection on the retina with every move. Yet these frequent retinal image shifts do not appear to hamper vision. Two recent physiological studies shed new light on the role of attention in visual processing across saccadic eye movements. PMID:27118641

  16. Toward a Behavioral Analysis of Joint Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, William V.; MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Mansfield, Renee C.; Holcomb, William L.; Ahearn, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Joint attention (JA) initiation is defined in cognitive-developmental psychology as a child's actions that verify or produce simultaneous attending by that child and an adult to some object or event in the environment so that both may experience the object or event together. This paper presents a contingency analysis of gaze shift in JA

  17. Attention, Awareness and Foreign Language Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.

    2001-01-01

    Attempted to address two methodological problems found in current investigations of the role of awareness in second language behavior: defining what constitutes awareness and operationalizing and measuring different levels of awareness and their effects on second language behavior. (Author/VWL)

  18. Children's attentional skills and road behavior.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, G; Hill, R; Lewis, V

    2001-09-01

    Switching attention and concentration, 2 skills expected to be used by skillful pedestrians, were studied. A sample of 160 children (aged 4 years 3 months-10 years) played a computer game involving attention switching. To examine concentration, a subset of the children was distracted with a cartoon video while they attempted a difficult task that required matching familiar figures. The same subset was also observed crossing roads. Older children switched faster and were less distracted. Children who were better at switching were more likely to show awareness of traffic when about to cross a road. Children who maintained concentration when challenged by a distracting event crossed the road in a less reckless manner. Parents and educators designing safety programs should take into account the development of these skills. PMID:11676101

  19. Modeling User Behavior and Attention in Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    In Web search, query and click log data are easy to collect but they fail to capture user behaviors that do not lead to clicks. As search engines reach the limits inherent in click data and are hungry for more data in a competitive environment, mining cursor movements, hovering, and scrolling becomes important. This dissertation investigates how…

  20. Modeling User Behavior and Attention in Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    In Web search, query and click log data are easy to collect but they fail to capture user behaviors that do not lead to clicks. As search engines reach the limits inherent in click data and are hungry for more data in a competitive environment, mining cursor movements, hovering, and scrolling becomes important. This dissertation investigates how

  1. Interparental aggression, attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    TOWE-GOODMAN, NISSA R.; STIFTER, CYNTHIA A.; COCCIA, MICHAEL A.; COX, MARTHA J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored longitudinal associations between interparental aggression, the development of child attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems in a diverse sample of 636 families living in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. The results of latent-variable, cross-lagged longitudinal models revealed that maternal-reported interparental aggression in infancy predicted reduced observed attention skills in toddlerhood; no association was observed, however, between attention in infancy and interparental aggression during the toddler years. Further, reduced toddler attention and high interparental aggression were both associated with increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems at 3 years of age. Processes largely operated in similar ways regardless of child gender or low-income status, although a few differences were observed. Overall, the results suggest that interparental aggression undermines attention development, putting children’s early behavioral adjustment at risk. PMID:23786696

  2. New perspectives on adolescent motivated behavior: attention and conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Monique; Daniele, Teresa; Frantz, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical transition period, during which fundamental changes prepare the adolescent for becoming an adult. Heuristic models of the neurobiology of adolescent behavior have emerged, promoting the central role of reward and motivation, coupled with cognitive immaturities. Here, we bring focus to two basic sets of processes, attention and conditioning, which are essential for adaptive behavior. Using the dual-attention model developed by Corbetta and Shulman (2002), which identifies a stimulus-driven and a goal-driven attention network, we propose a balance that favors stimulus-driven attention over goal-driven attention in youth. Regarding conditioning, we hypothesize that stronger associations tend to be made between environmental cues and appetitive stimuli, and weaker associations with aversive stimuli, in youth relative to adults. An attention system geared to prioritize stimulus-driven attention, together with more powerful associative learning with appetitive incentives, contribute to shape patterns of adolescent motivated behavior. This proposed bias in attention and conditioning function could facilitate the impulsive, novelty-seeking and risk-taking behavior that is typical of many adolescents. PMID:21977221

  3. The Effects and Predictor Value of In-Class Texting Behavior on Final Course Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Sylvia E.

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones have become a norm within the collegiate environment but little research has examined their impact on academic attainment. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects that in-class texting behavior had on the final grade score in a freshmen level introductory social science course. Students in three different sections were…

  4. The Effects and Predictor Value of In-Class Texting Behavior on Final Course Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Sylvia E.

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones have become a norm within the collegiate environment but little research has examined their impact on academic attainment. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects that in-class texting behavior had on the final grade score in a freshmen level introductory social science course. Students in three different sections were

  5. Managerial Attention Patterns: A Micro-Behavioral Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproull, Lee S.

    This paper describes a study of managerial behavior in educational organizations that focused on managerial attention as an organizational coupling mechanism. Structured observation was used to collect minute-by-minute time allocation protocols for five first-line education program managers over 20 working days, and these protocols were analyzed…

  6. Attentional bias modification for addictive behaviors: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Cox, W Miles; Fadardi, Javad S; Intriligator, James M; Klinger, Eric

    2014-06-01

    When a person has a goal of drinking alcohol or using another addictive substance, the person appears to be automatically distracted by stimuli related to the goal. Because the attentional bias might propel the person to use the substance, an intervention might help modify it. In this article, we discuss techniques that have been developed to help people overcome their attentional bias for alcohol, smoking-related stimuli, drugs, or unhealthy food. We also discuss how these techniques are being adapted for use on mobile devices. The latter would allow people with an addictive behavior to use the attentional training in privacy and as frequently as needed. The attentional training techniques discussed here appear to have several advantages. They are inexpensive, can be fun to use, and have flexibility in when, where, and how often they are used. The evidence so far also suggests that they are effective. PMID:24642267

  7. Attitude-behavior congruity, mindfulness, and self-focused attention: A behavior-analytic reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Street, Warren R.

    1994-01-01

    Social psychologists have responded to research reporting low agreement between attitude measures and related behavior with attempts to explain the incongruities and enhance agreement. This article examines attitude-behavior incongruity from a behavior-analytic point of view. Traditional and behavior-analytic views of attitudes and behaviors are compared. In the behavior-analytic view, answering an attitude scale should be considered as behavior displayed by a person under rather unusual social conditions, not as a reflection of an enduring personal disposition. Reasons why questionnaire-answering behavior will not resemble behavior in other functionally different social conditions are reviewed. Special attention is extended to two representative lines of attitude-behavior research: mindfulness and self-focused attention. Discriminative stimuli in both areas of study have produced more predictable agreement between questionnaire-answering behavior and behavior in other settings. PMID:22478180

  8. Owners' direct gazes increase dogs' attention-getting behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ohkita, Midori; Nagasawa, Miho; Kazutaka, Mogi; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether dogs gain information about human's attention via their gazes and whether they change their attention-getting behaviors (i.e., whining and whimpering, looking at their owners' faces, pawing, and approaching their owners) in response to their owners' direct gazes. The results showed that when the owners gazed at their dogs, the durations of whining and whimpering and looking at the owners' faces were longer than when the owners averted their gazes. In contrast, there were no differences in duration of pawing and likelihood of approaching the owners between the direct and averted gaze conditions. Therefore, owners' direct gazes increased the behaviors that acted as distant signals and did not necessarily involve touching the owners. We suggest that dogs are sensitive to human gazes, and this sensitivity may act as attachment signals to humans, and may contribute to close relationships between humans and dogs. PMID:26915425

  9. An Issue of Learning: The Effect of Visual Split Attention in Classes for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Susan M.; Clark, M. Diane

    2012-01-01

    One of the ongoing challenges teachers of students who are deaf or hard of hearing face is managing the visual split attention implicit in multimedia learning. When a teacher presents various types of visual information at the same time, visual learners have no choice but to divide their attention among those materials and the teacher and…

  10. Physical exercise affects attentional orienting behavior through noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrea M; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T; Bucci, David J

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a nonreinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, is not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders. PMID:26030434

  11. Four minutes of in-class high-intensity interval activity improves selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jasmin K; Le Mare, Lucy; Gurd, Brendon J

    2015-03-01

    The amount of time allocated to physical activity in schools is declining. Time-efficient physical activity solutions that demonstrate their impact on academic achievement-related outcomes are needed to prioritize physical activity within the school curricula. "FUNtervals" are 4-min, high-intensity interval activities that use whole-body actions to complement a storyline. The purpose of this study was to (i) explore whether FUNtervals can improve selective attention, an executive function posited to be essential for learning and academic success; and (ii) examine whether this relationship is predicted by students' classroom off-task behaviour. Seven grade 3-5 classes (n = 88) were exposed to a single-group, repeated cross-over design where each student's selective attention was compared between no-activity and FUNtervals days. In week 1, students were familiarized with the d2 test of attention and FUNterval activities, and baseline off-task behaviour was observed. In both weeks 2 and 3 students completed the d2 test of attention following either a FUNterval break or a no-activity break. The order of these breaks was randomized and counterbalanced between weeks. Neither motor nor passive off-task behaviour predicted changes in selective attention following FUNtervals; however, a weak relationship was observed for verbal off-task behaviour and improvements in d2 test performance. More importantly, students made fewer errors during the d2 test following FUNtervals. In supporting the priority of physical activity inclusion within schools, FUNtervals, a time efficient and easily implemented physical activity break, can improve selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds. PMID:25675352

  12. The Developmental Trajectories of Attention Focusing, Attentional and Behavioral Persistence, and Externalizing Problems during School-Age Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Fabes, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    The developmental trajectories of attention focusing (by parents' and teachers' reports) and attentional and behavioral persistence (observed during a laboratory task)--2 indexes of effortful control--and externalizing problems from ages 5 to 10 years were examined for 356 children combined from a pair of 3-wave (2 years apart) longitudinal…

  13. Effects of weighted vests on attention, impulse control, and on-task behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yu; Lee, Posen; Chang, Wen-Dien; Hong, Fu-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of using weighted vests for improving attention, impulse control, and on-task behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD. In a randomized, two-period crossover design, 110 children with ADHD were measured using the Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II) task. RESULTS. In the weighted vest condition, the participants did show significant improvement in all three attentional variables of the CPT-II task, including inattention; speed of processing and responding; consistency of executive management; and three of four on-task behaviors, including off task, out of seat, and fidgets. No significant improvements in impulse control and automatic vocalizations were found. CONCLUSION. Although wearing a weighted vest is not a cure-all strategy, our findings support the use of the weighted vest to remedy attentional and on-task behavioral problems of children with ADHD. PMID:24581401

  14. Endogenous attention modulates attentional and motor interference from distractors: evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological results

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Arévalo, Elisa; Lupiáñez, Juan; Botta, Fabiano; Chica, Ana B.

    2015-01-01

    Selective visual attention enhances the processing of relevant stimuli and filters out irrelevant stimuli and/or distractors. However, irrelevant information is sometimes processed, as demonstrated by the Simon effect (Simon and Rudell, 1967). We examined whether fully irrelevant distractors (task and target-irrelevant) produce interference (measured as the Simon effect), and whether endogenous orienting modulated this interference. Despite being fully irrelevant, distractors were attentionally coded (as reflected by the distractor-related N2pc component), and interfered with the processing of the target response (as reflected by the target-related lateralized readiness potential component). Distractors’ attentional capture depended on endogenous attention, and their interference with target responses was modulated by both endogenous attention and distractor location repetition. These results demonstrate both endogenous attentional and motor modulations over the Simon effect produced by fully irrelevant distractors. PMID:25750629

  15. An observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to measure in-class learner engagement: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Alimoglu, Mustafa K.; Sarac, Didar B.; Alparslan, Derya; Karakas, Ayse A.; Altintas, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Background Efforts are made to enhance in-class learner engagement because it stimulates and enhances learning. However, it is not easy to quantify learner engagement. This study aimed to develop and validate an observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to determine and compare in-class learner engagement levels in four different class types delivered by the same instructor. Methods Observer pairs observed instructor and student behaviors during lectures in large class (LLC, n=2) with third-year medical students, lectures in small class (LSC, n=6) and case-based teaching sessions (CBT, n=4) with fifth-year students, and problem-based learning (PBL) sessions (~7 hours) with second-year students. The observation tool was a revised form of STROBE, an instrument for recording behaviors of an instructor and four randomly selected students as snapshots for 5-min cycles. Instructor and student behaviors were scored 1–5 on this tool named ‘in-class engagement measure (IEM)’. The IEM scores were parallel to the degree of behavior's contribution to active student engagement, so higher scores were associated with more in-class learner engagement. Additionally, the number of questions asked by the instructor and students were recorded. A total of 203 5-min observations were performed (LLC 20, LSC 85, CBT 50, and PBL 48). Results Interobserver agreement on instructor and student behaviors was 93.7% (κ=0.87) and 80.6% (κ=0.71), respectively. Higher median IEM scores were found in student-centered and problem-oriented methods such as CBT and PBL. A moderate correlation was found between instructor and student behaviors (r=0.689). Conclusions This study provides some evidence for validity of the IEM scores as a measure of student engagement in different class types. PMID:25308966

  16. Attention to Novelty in Behaviorally Inhibited Adolescents Moderates Risk for Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Vanderwert, Ross E.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Marshall, Peter J.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Individual differences in specific components of attention contribute to behavioral reactivity and regulation. Children with the temperament of behavioral inhibition (BI) provide a good context for considering the manner in which certain components of attention shape behavior. Infants and children characterized as behaviorally…

  17. AFFECT OF PARENTAL REJECTION ON NEGATIVE ATTENTION-SEEKING CLASS ROOM BEHAVIORS

    PubMed Central

    Peretti, Peter O.; Clark, Denise; Johnson, Pat

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Of concern to teachers are students displaying classroom behaviors which are disruptive in attaining pupil success in learning and teacher success in teaching. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of parental rejection on negative attention-seeking classroom behaviors. It was also conducted to find out what particular parent might be more rejecting toward the respondents, and, what specific negative attention-seeking behaviors might be overtly demonstrated in the classroom by sex of subject. Results indicated a significant influence of parental rejection on negative attention-seeking classroom behaviors, the father as a more rejecting parent, and differences in observed behaviors by sex of subject. PMID:21847284

  18. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  19. Which Behavioral and Personality Characteristics Are Associated with Difficulties in Selective Attention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avisar, Alon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the behavioral and personality profile associated with difficulties in selective attention. Method: A group of participants with ADHD were assessed for ADHD behaviors. Adults with ADHD (n = 22) and without ADHD (n = 84) were tested on the conjunctive visual-search task for selective attention and…

  20. Which Behavioral and Personality Characteristics Are Associated with Difficulties in Selective Attention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avisar, Alon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the behavioral and personality profile associated with difficulties in selective attention. Method: A group of participants with ADHD were assessed for ADHD behaviors. Adults with ADHD (n = 22) and without ADHD (n = 84) were tested on the conjunctive visual-search task for selective attention and

  1. Testing the Behavioral Interaction and Integration of Attentional Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Jin; Gu, Xiaosi; Guise, Kevin G.; Liu, Xun; Fossella, John; Wang, Hongbin; Posner, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    One current conceptualization of attention subdivides it into functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Alerting describes the function of tonically maintaining the alert state and phasically responding to a warning signal. Automatic and voluntary orienting are involved in the selection of information among multiple sensory inputs.…

  2. Testing the Behavioral Interaction and Integration of Attentional Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Jin; Gu, Xiaosi; Guise, Kevin G.; Liu, Xun; Fossella, John; Wang, Hongbin; Posner, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    One current conceptualization of attention subdivides it into functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Alerting describes the function of tonically maintaining the alert state and phasically responding to a warning signal. Automatic and voluntary orienting are involved in the selection of information among multiple sensory inputs.

  3. Intelligence and Behavior among Individuals Identified with Attention Deficit Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Ronna F.; Osborne, Susan S.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we describe the nature of attention deficit disorders (ADDs) within an individual differences model of abilities. In so doing, a model-based explanation for the sources of learning and performance difficulties among individuals identified with ADDs is provided. Earlier models of ADDs are discussed, and the proposed loci of ADDs…

  4. Aversive emotional interference impacts behavior and prefronto-striatal activity during increasing attentional control

    PubMed Central

    Papazacharias, Apostolos; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Quarto, Tiziana; Mancini, Marina; Porcelli, Annamaria; Romano, Raffaella; Caforio, Grazia; Todarello, Orlando; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that emotional stimulation modulates attentional processing during goal-directed behavior and related activity of a brain network including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the caudate nucleus. However, it is not clear how emotional interference modulates behavior and brain physiology during variation in attentional control, a relevant question for everyday life situations in which both emotional stimuli and cognitive load vary. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of negative emotions on behavior and activity in IFG and caudate nucleus during increasing levels of attentional control. Twenty two healthy subjects underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task in which neutral or fearful facial expressions were displayed before stimuli eliciting increasing levels of attentional control processing. Results indicated slower reaction time (RT) and greater right IFG activity when fearful compared with neutral facial expressions preceded the low level of attentional control. On the other hand, fearful facial expressions preceding the intermediate level of attentional control elicited faster behavioral responses and greater activity in the right and left sides of the caudate. Finally, correlation analysis indicated a relationship between behavioral correlates of attentional control after emotional interference and right IFG activity. All together, these results suggest that the impact of negative emotions on attentional processing is differentially elicited at the behavioral and physiological levels as a function of cognitive load. PMID:25954172

  5. Aversive emotional interference impacts behavior and prefronto-striatal activity during increasing attentional control.

    PubMed

    Papazacharias, Apostolos; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Quarto, Tiziana; Mancini, Marina; Porcelli, Annamaria; Romano, Raffaella; Caforio, Grazia; Todarello, Orlando; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that emotional stimulation modulates attentional processing during goal-directed behavior and related activity of a brain network including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the caudate nucleus. However, it is not clear how emotional interference modulates behavior and brain physiology during variation in attentional control, a relevant question for everyday life situations in which both emotional stimuli and cognitive load vary. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of negative emotions on behavior and activity in IFG and caudate nucleus during increasing levels of attentional control. Twenty two healthy subjects underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task in which neutral or fearful facial expressions were displayed before stimuli eliciting increasing levels of attentional control processing. Results indicated slower reaction time (RT) and greater right IFG activity when fearful compared with neutral facial expressions preceded the low level of attentional control. On the other hand, fearful facial expressions preceding the intermediate level of attentional control elicited faster behavioral responses and greater activity in the right and left sides of the caudate. Finally, correlation analysis indicated a relationship between behavioral correlates of attentional control after emotional interference and right IFG activity. All together, these results suggest that the impact of negative emotions on attentional processing is differentially elicited at the behavioral and physiological levels as a function of cognitive load. PMID:25954172

  6. Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior…

  7. BEST in CLASS: A Classroom-Based Model for Ameliorating Problem Behavior in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vo, Abigail; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    As more young children enter school settings to attend early childhood programs, early childhood teachers and school psychologists have been charged with supporting a growing number of young children with chronic problem behaviors that put them at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). There is a need for effective,…

  8. Best in Class: A Classroom-Based Model for Ameliorating Problem Behavior in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vo, Abigail K.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    As more young children enter school settings to attend early childhood programs, early childhood teachers and school psychologists have been charged with supporting a growing number of young children with chronic problem behaviors that put them at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). There is a need for effective,…

  9. Mindfulness and Health Behaviors: Is Paying Attention Good for You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kimberly C.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The investigators examined relations between mindfulness and health behaviors in college students, as well as the role of stress in mediating these effects. Participants: Participants were 553 undergraduates (385 females; mean age = 18.8 years, SD = 2.1) recruited from a university in the northeastern United States. Methods:

  10. Mindfulness and Health Behaviors: Is Paying Attention Good for You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kimberly C.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The investigators examined relations between mindfulness and health behaviors in college students, as well as the role of stress in mediating these effects. Participants: Participants were 553 undergraduates (385 females; mean age = 18.8 years, SD = 2.1) recruited from a university in the northeastern United States. Methods:…

  11. Modification of Preschool Children's Bathroom Behaviors by Contingent Teacher Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marjorie J.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1978-01-01

    Repeated measures of the frequency of paper towel litter, unflushed toilets, dirty sinks, and running water faucets were used to evaluate effectiveness of contingent teacher praise for appropriate bathroom use by preschool children. Contingent praise for appropriate bathroom behaviors resulted in markedly decreased frequencies of four target…

  12. Attention biases to threat and behavioral inhibition in early childhood shape adolescent social withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Bar-Haim, Yair; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized in young children by a heightened sensitivity to novelty, social withdrawal, and anxious behaviors. For many children, these social difficulties dissipate over time. For others, patterns of social withdrawal continue into adolescence. Over time, attention biases to threat may influence the stability of behavioral inhibition and its association with social withdrawal, ultimately modulating the risk for anxiety disorders in BI children. However, we know relatively little about the cognitive processes that accompany BI and shape later socio-emotional functioning. We examined the relations among BI in childhood, attention biases to threat in adolescence, and adolescent social withdrawal in a longitudinal study (N=126, Mean age=15 years). As has been reported in anxious adults, adolescents who were behaviorally inhibited as toddlers and young children showed heightened attention bias to threat. In addition, attention bias to threat moderated the relation between childhood BI and adolescent social withdrawal. PMID:20515224

  13. Attention Demands Influence 10- and 12-Month-Old Infants' Perseverative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Hama; Forssman, Linda; Green, Dorota; Bohlin, Gunilla; von Hofsten, Claes

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of attentional demand on infants' perseverative behavior in a noncommunicative looking version of an A-not-B task. The research aimed at clarifying age-related improvements in the attention process that presumably underlies the development of cognitive control. In a between-subjects design, forty 10-month-olds

  14. Attention Demands Influence 10- and 12-Month-Old Infants' Perseverative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Hama; Forssman, Linda; Green, Dorota; Bohlin, Gunilla; von Hofsten, Claes

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of attentional demand on infants' perseverative behavior in a noncommunicative looking version of an A-not-B task. The research aimed at clarifying age-related improvements in the attention process that presumably underlies the development of cognitive control. In a between-subjects design, forty 10-month-olds…

  15. Relations among student attention behaviors, teacher practices, and beginning word reading skill.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Leilani; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The role of student attention for predicting kindergarten word reading was investigated among 432 students. Using Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior Rating Scale behavior rating scores, the authors conducted an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded three distinct factors that reflected selective attention. In this study, the authors focused on the role of one of these factors, which they labeled attention-memory, for predicting reading performance. Teacher ratings of attention-memory predicted word reading above and beyond the contribution of phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. In addition, the relations between four teacher practices and attention ratings for predicting reading performance were examined. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the authors found significant interactions between student attention and teacher practices observed during literacy instruction. In general, as ratings of attention improved, better kindergarten word reading performance was associated with high levels of classroom behavior management. However, better word reading performance was not associated with high levels of teacher task orienting. A significant three-way interaction was also found among attention, individualized instruction, and teacher task redirections. The role of regulating kindergarten student attention to support beginning word reading skill development is discussed. PMID:22207616

  16. Relations Among Student Attention Behaviors, Teacher Practices, and Beginning Word Reading Skill

    PubMed Central

    Sez, Leilani; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The role of student attention for predicting kindergarten word reading was investigated among 432 students. Using SWAN behavior rating scores, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded three distinct factors that reflected selective attention. In this study, we focused on the role of one of these factors, which we labeled attention-memory behaviors, for predicting reading performance. Teacher ratings of attention predicted word reading above and beyond the contribution of phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. In addition, the relations between four teacher practices and attention ratings for predicting reading performance were examined. Using HLM, significant interactions between student attention and teacher practices observed during literacy instruction were found. In general, as ratings of attention improved, better kindergarten word reading performance was associated with high levels of classroom behavior management. However, by mid-year, better word reading performance was not associated with high levels of teacher task- orienting. A significant three-way interaction was also found among attention, individualized instruction, and teacher task re-directions. The role of regulating kindergarten student attention to support beginning word reading skill development is discussed. PMID:22207616

  17. Developmental and behavioral disorders grown up: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Barkley, Russell

    2009-02-01

    Pat was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type in the second grade and has been treated primarily with stimulants, albeit on an inconsistent basis. Pat is now a 22-year-old male, who is a second year student at a local community college. He attained a 2.1 GPA during his first year of postsecondary studies, doing quite well in several classes yet rather poorly in several others. Pat has a part-time job at a fast food restaurant, a position that he has held for approximately 6 months. Before his current job, Pat worked as a dishwasher at a local restaurant. He was fired from this position due to chronically being late to work. Pat stated that he gets along well with his peers, although his mother reported that Pat has a history of being able to make friends, "yet not keep them." Pat's mother also reported that Pat has traditionally gravitated toward peers who were "not especially good influences." She described various antisocial acts that Pat was involved with during high school. Pat reported that he began experimenting with alcohol and cigarettes in ninth grade and marijuana shortly thereafter. He stated that he drinks less often than he smokes marijuana ("several times a week"). Pat denied legal difficulties, although his mother reported that Pat was asked to leave the dormitory during his first semester due to an alcohol-related incident. Pat is not currently involved in psychotherapy and is prescribed extended release methylphenidate. He reported that he took his stimulant whenever he had to do a lot of work for school. PMID:19218850

  18. An evaluation of the properties of attention as reinforcement for destructive and appropriate behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, C C; Bowman, L G; Contrucci, S A; Delia, M D; Adelinis, J D; Goh, H L

    1999-01-01

    The analogue functional analysis described by Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, and Richman (1982/1994) identifies broad classes of variables (e.g., positive reinforcement) that maintain destructive behavior (Fisher, Ninness, Piazza, & Owen-DeSchryver, 1996). However, it is likely that some types of stimuli may be more effective reinforcers than others. In the current investigation, we identified 2 participants whose destructive behavior was maintained by attention. We used concurrent schedules of reinforcement to evaluate how different types of attention affected both destructive and appropriate behavior. We showed that for 1 participant praise was not an effective reinforcer when verbal reprimands were available; however, praise was an effective reinforcer when verbal reprimands were unavailable. For the 2nd participant, we identified a type of attention that effectively competed with verbal reprimands as reinforcement. We then used the information obtained from the assessments to develop effective treatments to reduce destructive behavior and increase an alternative communicative response. PMID:10641299

  19. Influence of monkey dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal activity on behavioral choice during attention tasks

    PubMed Central

    Katsuki, Fumi; Saito, Mizuki; Constantinidis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal and the posterior parietal cortex have both been implicated in the guidance of visual attention. Traditionally, posterior parietal cortex has been thought to guide visual bottom-up attention, whereas prefrontal cortex to bias attention through top-down information. More recent studies suggest a parallel time course of activation of the two areas in bottom-up attention tasks, suggesting a common involvement, though these results do not necessarily imply identical roles, either. To address the specific roles of the two areas, we examined the influence of neuronal activity recorded from the prefrontal and parietal cortex of monkeys as they performed attention tasks based on choice probability and correlation between reaction time and neuronal activity. The results revealed that posterior parietal but not dorsolateral prefrontal activity correlated with behavioral choice during the fixation period, prior to the appearance of the stimulus, resembling a bias factor. This preferential influence of posterior parietal activity on behavior was transient, so that dorsolateral prefrontal activity predicted choice after the appearance of the stimulus. Additionally, reaction time was better predicted by posterior parietal activity. These findings confirm an involvement of both dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex in the bottom-up guidance of visual attention but indicate different roles of the two areas in the guidance of attention and a dynamic time course of their effects, influencing behavior at different stages of the task. PMID:24964224

  20. Effect of corpus callosotomy on attention deficit and behavioral problems in pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Yonekawa, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Eiji; Takeshita, Eri; Inoue, Yuki; Inagaki, Masumi; Kaga, Makiko; Sugai, Kenji; Sasaki, Masayuki; Kaido, Takanobu; Takahashi, Akio; Otsuki, Taisuke

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of corpus callosotomy (CC) on attention deficit and behavioral problems in pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy, we retrospectively investigated sequential patients who had undergone CC to control seizures. Between August 2005 and April 2010, a total of 15 patients aged between 3.1 and 17.9 years underwent CC at our institute. All the patients experienced either drop attacks or head nodding, which were considered to be therapeutic targets of CC. A standardized instrument, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), was used to assess behavioral and emotional problems before and after surgery. On postoperative EEGs, 8 (53%) showed improvement and 7 (47%) showed no change in epileptiform discharges. The Attention Problems scale and total score on the CBCL significantly improved in patients whose postoperative EEGs showed improvement. In addition to amelioration of target seizures, CC can improve attention impairments in association with improvement in the postoperative EEG. PMID:21978470

  1. Attentional dynamics during free picture viewing: Evidence from oculomotor behavior and electrocortical activity

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Thomas; Graupner, Sven-Thomas; Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Pannasch, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Most empirical evidence on attentional control is based on brief presentations of rather abstract stimuli. Results revealed indications for a dynamic interplay between bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms. Here we used a more naturalistic task to examine temporal signatures of attentional mechanisms on fine and coarse time scales. Subjects had to inspect digitized copies of 60 paintings, each shown for 40 s. We simultaneously measured oculomotor behavior and electrophysiological correlates of brain activity to compare early and late intervals (1) of inspection time of each picture (picture viewing) and (2) of the full experiment (time on task). For picture viewing, we found an increase in fixation duration and a decrease of saccadic amplitude while these parameters did not change with time on task. Furthermore, early in picture viewing we observed higher spatial and temporal similarity of gaze behavior. Analyzing electrical brain activity revealed changes in three components (C1, N1 and P2) of the eye fixation-related potential (EFRP); during picture viewing; no variation was obtained for the power in the frontal beta- and in the theta activity. Time on task analyses demonstrated no effects on the EFRP amplitudes but an increase of power in the frontal theta and beta band activity. Thus, behavioral and electrophysiological measures similarly show characteristic changes during picture viewing, indicating a shifting balance of its underlying (bottom-up and top-down) attentional mechanisms. Time on task also modulated top-down attention but probably represents a different attentional mechanism. PMID:23759704

  2. Attention demands influence 10- and 12-month-old infants' perseverative behavior.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hama; Forssman, Linda; Green, Dorota; Bohlin, Gunilla; von Hofsten, Claes

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of attentional demand on infants' perseverative behavior in a noncommunicative looking version of an A-not-B task. The research aimed at clarifying age-related improvements in the attention process that presumably underlies the development of cognitive control. In a between-subjects design, forty 10-month-olds and forty 12-month-olds were assigned to either a distractor or a no-distractor condition as a means of testing the role of attentional load. The authors used an eye tracker to record infants' looking behavior while they anticipated the reappearance of the target of interest as well as continuously throughout the task. The data demonstrated that 10-month-olds show more perseverative looking than do 12-month-olds and that increased attentional demand leads to more perseverative looking. Correct anticipation, however, was not affected by age or distraction. The results also failed to show that 12-month-olds are better than 10-month-olds at handling the increased attentional demand introduced in the distractor condition, in that the effect of the distractor was not larger for the younger infants. Our results are in line with the theoretical view of cognitive control as dependent on a limited attentional resource, which can explain perseverative behaviors in different tasks and at different ages. PMID:21910526

  3. Explaining attention-related changes in behavior and electroencephalography data through computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Ku, Yixuan; van Schouwenburg, Martine R

    2015-10-01

    In a recent article, Itthipuripat and colleagues combined psychophysics, neurophysiology, and mathematical modeling to investigate the neural mechanism underlying behavioral benefits of spatial attention (Itthipuripat S, Ester EF, Deering S, Serences JT. J Neurosci 34: 13384-13398, 2014). They found that attention-related effects on behavior as well as neural signals could be better explained by a response gain model than by a noise reduction model or an efficient read-out model. In this Neuro Forum we discuss these results and raise several interesting questions and potential interpretations. PMID:25589596

  4. Age differences in the Attention Network Test: Evidence from behavior and event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ryan S; Biel, Anna Lena; Wegier, Pete; Lapp, Leann K; Dyson, Benjamin J; Spaniol, Julia

    2016-02-01

    The Attention Network Test (ANT) is widely used to capture group and individual differences in selective attention. Prior behavioral studies with younger and older adults have yielded mixed findings with respect to age differences in three putative attention networks (alerting, orienting, and executive control). To overcome the limitations of behavioral data, the current study combined behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Twenty-four healthy younger adults (aged 18-29years) and 24 healthy older adults (aged 60-76years) completed the ANT while EEG data were recorded. Behaviorally, older adults showed reduced alerting, but did not differ from younger adults in orienting or executive control. Electrophysiological components related to alerting and orienting (P1, N1, and CNV) were similar in both age groups, whereas components related to executive control (N2 and P3) showed age-related differences. Together these results suggest that comparisons of network effects between age groups using behavioral data alone may not offer a complete picture of age differences in selective attention, especially for alerting and executive control networks. PMID:26760449

  5. Chemogenetic Inactivation of Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Neurons Disrupts Attentional Behavior in Mouse.

    PubMed

    Koike, Hiroyuki; Demars, Michael P; Short, Jennifer A; Nabel, Elisa M; Akbarian, Schahram; Baxter, Mark G; Morishita, Hirofumi

    2016-03-01

    Attention is disrupted commonly in psychiatric disorders, yet mechanistic insight remains limited. Deficits in this function are associated with dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) excitotoxic lesions and pharmacological disinhibition; however, a causal relationship has not been established at the cellular level. Moreover, this association has not yet been examined in a genetically tractable species such as mice. Here, we reveal that dACC neurons causally contribute to attention processing by combining a chemogenetic approach that reversibly suppresses neural activity with a translational, touchscreen-based attention task in mice. We virally expressed inhibitory hM4Di DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug) in dACC neurons, and examined the effects of this inhibitory action with the attention-based five-choice serial reaction time task. DREADD inactivation of the dACC neurons during the task significantly increased omission and correct response latencies, indicating that the neuronal activities of dACC contribute to attention and processing speed. Selective inactivation of excitatory neurons in the dACC not only increased omission, but also decreased accuracy. The effect of inactivating dACC neurons was selective to attention as response control, motivation, and locomotion remain normal. This finding suggests that dACC excitatory neurons play a principal role in modulating attention to task-relevant stimuli. This study establishes a foundation to chemogenetically dissect specific cell-type and circuit mechanisms underlying attentional behaviors in a genetically tractable species. PMID:26224620

  6. A neuronal population measure of attention predicts behavioral performance on individual trials

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marlene R.; Maunsell, John H.R.

    2010-01-01

    Visual attention improves perception for an attended location or feature and also modulates the responses of sensory neurons. In laboratory studies, the sensory stimuli and task instructions are held constant within an attentional condition, but despite experimenters’ best efforts, attention likely varies from moment to moment. Because most previous studies have focused on single neurons, it has been impossible to use neuronal responses to identify attentional fluctuations and determine whether these are associated with changes in behavior. We show that an instantaneous measure of attention based on the responses of a modest number of neurons in area V4 of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) can reliably predict large changes in an animal’s ability to perform a difficult psychophysical task. Unexpectedly, this measure shows that the amount of attention allocated at any moment to locations in opposite hemifields is uncorrelated, suggesting that animals allocate attention to each stimulus independently rather than moving their attentional focus from one location to another. PMID:21068329

  7. Can attention control conditions have detrimental effects in behavioral medicine randomized trials?

    PubMed Central

    Pagoto, Sherry; McDermott, Mary M.; Reed, George; Greenland, Philip; Mazor, Kathy M.; Ockene, Judith K.; Whited, Matt; Schneider, Kristin; Appelhans, Brad; Leung, Kathy; Merriam, Philip; Ockene, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Objective Attention control conditions are used to balance nonspecific attention in randomized trials of behavioral interventions. Very little guidance is available in the literature about which behavioral interventions and outcomes merit an attention control. The primary aim of the present paper is to demonstrate a scenario in which use of attention control in a behavioral randomized trial was unnecessary and possibly detrimental. Methods Exploratory analyses were performed in a randomized controlled trial that tested whether a patient-centered telephone counseling (PC) intervention reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in 355 participants with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), compared to attention control (AC) and usual care (UC) conditions. The PC intervention was designed to activate participants to ask their physician for lipid-lowering medication and/or increase dose intensity, increase medication adherence, and reduce fat intake. The AC condition involved attention-matched phone-delivered health education, and the UC condition consisted of an educational pamphlet. Results At 12-month follow-up, mean LDL-C changes were −11.1, and −6.8 mg/dl in the UC and AC conditions, respectively (p=.17). The proportion of participants who increased use or dose intensity of medication was significantly lower in AC than UC, 17.5% versus 30.5% (p=0.03). No significant difference between AC and UC were observed on other outcomes. Conclusions The AC had significantly worse medication outcomes and there was no indication of a therapeutic effect on other endpoints. Implications for use of attention control in behavioral randomized trials are discussed. PMID:23197844

  8. Accuracy of the "DSM"-Oriented Attention Problem Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist in Diagnosing Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aebi, Marcel; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at testing the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) including an adapted five-item "DSM"-Oriented Attention Problem Scale for predicting attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). Methods: CBCL ratings were made both in a community sample (N = 390) and an outpatient child psychiatric sample (N = 392). Four…

  9. Enhancing the effects of extinction on attention-maintained behavior through noncontingent delivery of attention or stimuli identified via a competing stimulus assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Wayne W; DeLeon, Iser G; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Keeney, Kris M

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the noncontingent delivery of competing stimuli can effectively reduce rates of destructive behavior maintained by social-positive reinforcement, even when the contingency for destructive behavior remains intact. It may be useful, therefore, to have a systematic means for predicting which reinforcers do and do not compete successfully with the reinforcer that is maintaining destructive behavior. In the present study, we conducted a brief competing stimulus assessment in which noncontingent access to a variety of tangible stimuli (one toy per trial) was superimposed on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of attention for destructive behavior for individuals whose behavior was found to be reinforced by attention during a functional analysis. Tangible stimuli that resulted in the lowest rates of destructive behavior and highest percentages of engagement during the competing stimulus assessment were subsequently used in a noncontingent tangible items plus extinction treatment package and were compared to noncontingent attention plus extinction and extinction alone. Results indicated that both treatments resulted in greater reductions in the target behavior than did extinction alone and suggested that the competing stimulus assessment may be helpful in predicting stimuli that can enhance the effects of extinction when noncontingent attention is unavailable. DESCRIPTORS: Attention-maintained problem behavior, competing stimuli, extinction, functional analysis, noncontingent reinforcement PMID:15293636

  10. Patterns of Sustained Attention in Infancy Shape the Developmental Trajectory of Social Behavior from Toddlerhood through Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Edgar, Koraly; McDermott, Jennifer N. Martin; Korelitz, Katherine; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between individual differences in sustained attention in infancy, the temperamental trait behavioral inhibition in childhood, and social behavior in adolescence. The authors assessed 9-month-old infants using an interrupted-stimulus attention paradigm. Behavioral inhibition was subsequently assessed in the

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Modification with Hyperactive/Attention Deficit Disorder Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Edward A.; Horne, Arthur M.

    Cognitive-behavior modification (CBM) procedures were taught to special education teachers and elementary school guidance counselors who then administered treatment to 15 hyperactive/attention deficit disorder children. Comparisons were made between experimental and control Ss on a number of psychometric and experimental measures including the…

  12. Individual Differences in Infants' Joint Attention Behaviors with Mother and a New Social Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; Arnott, Bronia; Vittorini, Lucia; Turner, Michelle; Leekam, Susan R.; Parkinson, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Relations between infant-mother attachment security at 15 months and infants' (N = 206) joint attention behaviors (a) with an experimenter at 8 and 15 months, and (b) with their mothers at 15 months were investigated. No concurrent or longitudinal relations were observed between attachment security and infants' tendency to respond to an

  13. Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Treatment for Mothers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronis, Andrea M.; Gamble, Stephanie A.; Roberts, John E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    An adaptation of the Coping With Depression Course (CWDC) was evaluated in mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a population at risk for depression. Mothers were randomly assigned to receive the CWDC either immediately following an intensive summer treatment program targeting their child's behavior or after a…

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Comorbid with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and Learning Disabilities in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Samantha; Montague, Marjorie

    2006-01-01

    This study examined in depth a group of adolescents (n = 12) who were identified as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The group was identified as part of a longitudinal study of students who were screened in primary school as at risk for developing emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and peers who were identified as not

  15. Escape-to-Attention as a Potential Variable for Maintaining Problem Behavior in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarno, Jana M.; Sterling, Heather E.; Mueller, Michael M.; Dufrene, Brad; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mueller, Sterling-Turner, and Moore (2005) reported a novel escape-to-attention (ETA) functional analysis condition in a school setting with one child. The current study replicates Mueller et al.'s functional analysis procedures with three elementary school-age boys referred for problem behavior. Functional analysis verified the participant's…

  16. "Gaze Leading": Initiating Simulated Joint Attention Influences Eye Movements and Choice Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Andrew P.; Murphy, Emily; Naughtin, Claire K.; Kritikos, Ada; Schilbach, Leonhard; Becker, Stefanie I.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in adults has made great use of the gaze cuing paradigm to understand the behavior of the follower in joint attention episodes. We implemented a gaze leading task to investigate the initiator--the other person in these triadic interactions. In a series of gaze-contingent eye-tracking studies, we show that fixation dwell time upon

  17. Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention during Novices' Instructional Preparation on Subsequent Rehearsal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Mark; Silvey, Brian A.; Adams, Amy L.; Witt, Kay L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal versus external focus of attention during novice teachers' instructional preparation on their subsequent rehearsal behaviors. Thirty-two undergraduate instrumental music education students led bands in a series of three, 6-minute rehearsals on their assigned excerpt. Prior to…

  18. Escape-to-Attention as a Potential Variable for Maintaining Problem Behavior in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarno, Jana M.; Sterling, Heather E.; Mueller, Michael M.; Dufrene, Brad; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mueller, Sterling-Turner, and Moore (2005) reported a novel escape-to-attention (ETA) functional analysis condition in a school setting with one child. The current study replicates Mueller et al.'s functional analysis procedures with three elementary school-age boys referred for problem behavior. Functional analysis verified the participant's

  19. Individual Differences in Infants' Joint Attention Behaviors with Mother and a New Social Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; Arnott, Bronia; Vittorini, Lucia; Turner, Michelle; Leekam, Susan R.; Parkinson, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Relations between infant-mother attachment security at 15 months and infants' (N = 206) joint attention behaviors (a) with an experimenter at 8 and 15 months, and (b) with their mothers at 15 months were investigated. No concurrent or longitudinal relations were observed between attachment security and infants' tendency to respond to an…

  20. "Gaze Leading": Initiating Simulated Joint Attention Influences Eye Movements and Choice Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Andrew P.; Murphy, Emily; Naughtin, Claire K.; Kritikos, Ada; Schilbach, Leonhard; Becker, Stefanie I.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in adults has made great use of the gaze cuing paradigm to understand the behavior of the follower in joint attention episodes. We implemented a gaze leading task to investigate the initiator--the other person in these triadic interactions. In a series of gaze-contingent eye-tracking studies, we show that fixation dwell time upon…

  1. Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention during Novices' Instructional Preparation on Subsequent Rehearsal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Mark; Silvey, Brian A.; Adams, Amy L.; Witt, Kay L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal versus external focus of attention during novice teachers' instructional preparation on their subsequent rehearsal behaviors. Thirty-two undergraduate instrumental music education students led bands in a series of three, 6-minute rehearsals on their assigned excerpt. Prior to

  2. Effects on Science Summarization of a Reading Comprehension Intervention for Adolescents with Behavior and Attention Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogevich, Mary E.; Perin, Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-three adolescent boys with behavioral disorders (BD), 31 of whom had comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), participated in a self-regulated strategy development intervention called Think Before Reading, Think While Reading, Think After Reading, With Written Summarization (TWA-WS). TWA-WS adapted Linda Mason's TWA…

  3. Paying Attention to Ourselves: Modeling Anti-Bullying Behavior for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Amy Magnafichi

    2012-01-01

    It seems as if at no other time in the distant past has there been so much media coverage of bullies and bullying behavior within the schools. Has it always been present in some form? More than likely. Should it be brought to national attention? Absolutely. No one, student or not, deserves to feel unsafe, threatened, or invisible, whether it be at…

  4. Perisaccadic Updating of Visual Representations and Attentional States: Linking Behavior and Neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Alexandria C.; Mazer, James A.

    2016-01-01

    During natural vision, saccadic eye movements lead to frequent retinal image changes that result in different neuronal subpopulations representing the same visual feature across fixations. Despite these potentially disruptive changes to the neural representation, our visual percept is remarkably stable. Visual receptive field remapping, characterized as an anticipatory shift in the position of a neuron’s spatial receptive field immediately before saccades, has been proposed as one possible neural substrate for visual stability. Many of the specific properties of remapping, e.g., the exact direction of remapping relative to the saccade vector and the precise mechanisms by which remapping could instantiate stability, remain a matter of debate. Recent studies have also shown that visual attention, like perception itself, can be sustained across saccades, suggesting that the attentional control system can also compensate for eye movements. Classical remapping could have an attentional component, or there could be a distinct attentional analog of visual remapping. At this time we do not yet fully understand how the stability of attentional representations relates to perisaccadic receptive field shifts. In this review, we develop a vocabulary for discussing perisaccadic shifts in receptive field location and perisaccadic shifts of attentional focus, review and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological studies of perisaccadic perception and perisaccadic attention, and identify open questions that remain to be experimentally addressed. PMID:26903820

  5. Perisaccadic Updating of Visual Representations and Attentional States: Linking Behavior and Neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Marino, Alexandria C; Mazer, James A

    2016-01-01

    During natural vision, saccadic eye movements lead to frequent retinal image changes that result in different neuronal subpopulations representing the same visual feature across fixations. Despite these potentially disruptive changes to the neural representation, our visual percept is remarkably stable. Visual receptive field remapping, characterized as an anticipatory shift in the position of a neuron's spatial receptive field immediately before saccades, has been proposed as one possible neural substrate for visual stability. Many of the specific properties of remapping, e.g., the exact direction of remapping relative to the saccade vector and the precise mechanisms by which remapping could instantiate stability, remain a matter of debate. Recent studies have also shown that visual attention, like perception itself, can be sustained across saccades, suggesting that the attentional control system can also compensate for eye movements. Classical remapping could have an attentional component, or there could be a distinct attentional analog of visual remapping. At this time we do not yet fully understand how the stability of attentional representations relates to perisaccadic receptive field shifts. In this review, we develop a vocabulary for discussing perisaccadic shifts in receptive field location and perisaccadic shifts of attentional focus, review and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological studies of perisaccadic perception and perisaccadic attention, and identify open questions that remain to be experimentally addressed. PMID:26903820

  6. Differentiation of rodent behavioral phenotypes and methylphenidate action in sustained and flexible attention tasks.

    PubMed

    Chu, Richard; Shumsky, Jed; Waterhouse, Barry D

    2016-06-15

    Methyphenidate (MPH) is the primary drug treatment of choice for ADHD. It is also frequently used off-label as a cognitive enhancer by otherwise healthy individuals from all age groups and walks of life. Military personnel, students, and health professionals use MPH illicitly to increase attention and improve workplace performance over extended periods of work activity. Despite the frequency of its use, the efficacy of MPH to enhance cognitive function across individuals and in a variety of circumstances is not well characterized. We sought to better understand MPH׳s cognitive enhancing properties in two different rodent models of attention. We found that MPH could enhance performance in a sustained attention task, but that its effects in this test were subject dependent. More specifically, MPH increased attention in low baseline performing rats but had little to no effect on high performing rats. MPH exerted a similar subject specific effect in a test of flexible attention, i.e. the attention set shifting task. In this test MPH increased behavioral flexibility in animals with poor flexibility but impaired performance in more flexible animals. Overall, our results indicate that the effects of MPH are subject-specific and depend on the baseline level of performance. Furthermore, good performance in in the sustained attention task was correlated with good performance in the flexible attention task; i.e. animals with better vigilance exhibited greater behavioral flexibility. The findings are discussed in terms of potential neurobiological substrates, in particular noradrenergic mechanisms, that might underlie subject specific performance and subject specific responses to MPH. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26688113

  7. Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior), a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in seven categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication. PMID:26635642

  8. Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior), a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in seven categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children’s inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication. PMID:26635642

  9. Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): A neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity)

    PubMed Central

    DIAMOND, ADELE

    2006-01-01

    Most studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on the combined type and emphasized a core problem in response inhibition. It is proposed here that the core problem in the truly inattentive type of ADHD (not simply the subthreshold combined type) is in working memory. It is further proposed that laboratory measures, such as complex-span and dual-task dichotic listening tasks, can detect this. Children with the truly inattentive type of ADHD, rather than being distractible, may instead be easily bored, their problem being more in motivation (under-arousal) than in inhibitory control. Much converging evidence points to a primary disturbance in the striatum (a frontal–striatal loop) in the combined type of ADHD. It is proposed here that the primary disturbance in truly inattentive-type ADHD (ADD) is in the cortex (a frontal–parietal loop). Finally, it is posited that these are not two different types of ADHD, but two different disorders with different cognitive and behavioral profiles, different patterns of comorbidities, different responses to medication, and different underlying neurobiologies. PMID:16262993

  10. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training on Behavioral Problems and Attentional Functioning in Adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Formsma, Anne R; de Bruin, Esther I; Bögels, Susan M

    2012-10-01

    The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11-15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7) completed measurements before, immediately after, 8 weeks after and 16 weeks after training. Adolescents reported on their attention and behavioral problems and mindful awareness, and were administered two computerized sustained attention tasks. Parents as well as tutors reported on adolescents' attention and behavioral problems and executive functioning. Parents further reported on their own parenting, parenting stress and mindful awareness. Both the mindfulness training for the adolescents and their parents was delivered in group format. First, after mindfulness training, adolescents' attention and behavior problems reduced, while their executive functioning improved, as indicated by self-report measures as well as by father and teacher report. Second, improvements in adolescent' actual performance on attention tests were found after mindfulness training. Moreover, fathers, but not mothers, reported reduced parenting stress. Mothers reported reduced overreactive parenting, whereas fathers reported an increase. No effect on mindful awareness of adolescents or parents was found. Effects of mindfulness training became stronger at 8-week follow-up, but waned at 16-week follow-up. Our study adds to the emerging body of evidence indicating that mindfulness training for adolescents with ADHD (and their parents) is an effective approach, but maintenance strategies need to be developed in order for this approach to be effective in the longer term. PMID:22993482

  11. A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Fabiano, Gregory A; Pelham, William E; Coles, Erika K; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Connor, Briannon C

    2009-03-01

    There is currently controversy regarding the need for and the effectiveness of behavior modification for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) despite years of study and multiple investigations reporting beneficial effects of the intervention. A meta-analysis was conducted by identifying relevant behavioral treatment studies in the literature. One-hundred seventy-four studies of behavioral treatment were identified from 114 individual papers that were appropriate for the meta-analysis. Effect sizes varied by study design but not generally by other study characteristics, such as the demographic variables of the participants in the studies. Overall unweighted effect sizes in between group studies (.83), pre-post studies (.70), within group studies (2.64), and single subject studies (3.78) indicated that behavioral treatments are highly effective. Based on these results, there is strong and consistent evidence that behavioral treatments are effective for treating ADHD. PMID:19131150

  12. Disentangling the attention network test: behavioral, event related potentials, and neural source analyses

    PubMed Central

    Galvao-Carmona, Alejandro; González-Rosa, Javier J.; Hidalgo-Muñoz, Antonio R.; Páramo, Dolores; Benítez, María L.; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Vázquez-Marrufo, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Background: The study of the attentional system remains a challenge for current neuroscience. The “Attention Network Test” (ANT) was designed to study simultaneously three different attentional networks (alerting, orienting, and executive) based in subtraction of different experimental conditions. However, some studies recommend caution with these calculations due to the interactions between the attentional networks. In particular, it is highly relevant that several interpretations about attentional impairment have arisen from these calculations in diverse pathologies. Event related potentials (ERPs) and neural source analysis can be applied to disentangle the relationships between these attentional networks not specifically shown by behavioral measures. Results: This study shows that there is a basic level of alerting (tonic alerting) in the no cue (NC) condition, represented by a slow negative trend in the ERP trace prior to the onset of the target stimuli. A progressive increase in the CNV amplitude related to the amount of information provided by the cue conditions is also shown. Neural source analysis reveals specific modulations of the CNV related to a task-related expectancy presented in the NC condition; a late modulation triggered by the central cue (CC) condition and probably representing a generic motor preparation; and an early and late modulation for spatial cue (SC) condition suggesting specific motor and sensory preactivation. Finally, the first component in the information processing of the target stimuli modulated by the interaction between orienting network and the executive system can be represented by N1. Conclusions: The ANT is useful as a paradigm to study specific attentional mechanisms and their interactions. However, calculation of network effects is based in subtractions with non-comparable experimental conditions, as evidenced by the present data, which can induce misinterpretations in the study of the attentional capacity in human subjects. PMID:25352800

  13. Neuropsychological function and suicidal behavior: attention control, memory and executive dysfunction in suicide attempt

    PubMed Central

    Keilp, J. G.; Gorlyn, M.; Russell, M.; Oquendo, M. A.; Burke, A. K.; Harkavy-Friedman, J.; Mann, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Executive dysfunction, distinct from other cognitive deficits in depression, has been associated with suicidal behavior. However, this dysfunction is not found consistently across samples. Method Medication-free subjects with DSM-IV major depressive episode (major depressive disorder and bipolar type I disorder) and a past history of suicidal behavior (n=72) were compared to medication-free depressed subjects with no history of suicidal behavior (n=80) and healthy volunteers (n=56) on a battery of tests assessing neuropsychological functions typically affected by depression (motor and psychomotor speed, attention, memory) and executive functions reportedly impaired in suicide attempters (abstract/contingent learning, working memory, language fluency, impulse control). Results All of the depressed subjects performed worse than healthy volunteers on motor, psychomotor and language fluency tasks. Past suicide attempters, in turn, performed worse than depressed non-attempters on attention and memory/working memory tasks [a computerized Stroop task, the Buschke Selective Reminding Task (SRT), the Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT) and an N-back task] but not on other executive function measures, including a task associated with ventral prefrontal function (Object Alternation). Deficits were not accounted for by current suicidal ideation or the lethality of past attempts. A small subsample of those using a violent method in their most lethal attempt showed a pattern of poor executive performance. Conclusions Deficits in specific components of attention control, memory and working memory were associated with suicidal behavior in a sample where non-violent attempt predominated. Broader executive dysfunction in depression may be associated with specific forms of suicidal behavior, rather than suicidal behavior per se. PMID:22781400

  14. Attention and Perseverance Behaviors of PreSchool Children Enrolled in Suzuki Violin Lessons and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Laurie

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study of attention span and persevering behaviors of preschool children. Finds the Suzuki Method of violin instruction is associated with longer attention spans and more persevering behaviors than creative movement instruction or other preschool programs. Concludes that teachers prefer the Suzuki Method's approach to other forms of…

  15. The Effects of Noncontingent Delivery of High- and Low-Preference Stimuli on Attention-Maintained Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Wayne W.; O'Connor, Julia T.; Kurtz, Patricia F.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Gotjen, Deidre L.

    2000-01-01

    An adolescent with severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy who displayed attention-maintained destructive behavior was exposed to noncontingent reinforcer delivery (NCR) with a high-preference or a low-preference stimulus while reinforcement for destructive behavior with attention remained in effect. NCR without extinction was effective only…

  16. Behavioral parent training for Taiwanese parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huei-Lin; Chao, Chia-Chen; Tu, Chuan-Ching; Yang, Pin-Chen

    2003-06-01

    It has been observed that it is relatively difficult for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to follow social rules and behave in a socially desirable manner. The ADHD children in Chinese culture, which emphasizes Confucian values, might encounter even greater adjustment difficulties. The purpose of the present study is to implement a behavioral parent training program in a Confucian environment and examine its effectiveness. Twenty-three ADHD preschoolers (age: 3-6 years) and their parents were selected to participate in the present study. Fourteen of these 23 parents completed a 10-session parent training program. Parent ratings of ADHD/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and problem behaviors at home were collected at the first, fourth, sixth, seventh, and tenth sessions. Three instruments were used to evaluate treatment outcome: the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-Parent Form, Child Attention Profile, and Home Situations Questionnaire. The results showed that both ADHD/ODD symptoms and home behaviors of these 14 children improved significantly after the parent training. There was also a significant decline in the severity of symptoms and problem behaviors at home with the progression of training. These findings support the effectiveness of this parent training program for parents of ADHD children in an environment of Confucianism. Limitations of the present study and future direction for research are discussed. PMID:12753567

  17. The process of assisting behavior modification in a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Sheng; Shih, Ying-Ling

    2007-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological disease among children. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of assisting with behavior modification in a child with ADHD. The patient had undergone medical treatment for a year with no obvious effect. With the guidance of other professional people, the child's teachers and nursing instructors, the researchers proceeded with behavioral modification in conjunction with medication for another year. The medication treatment followed doctors' prescriptions, and, as regards the behavioral treatment, doctors and experts drafted and decided the content of the behavioral contract. The main basic techniques were skillful reinforcement and punishment. Then, via interviews with his parents and teachers, information was obtained that provided an understanding of the patient's condition and progress. It was found that the improvements were very significant. On the basis of the research results, the researchers submit that: (1) drug treatment combined with behavioral treatment apparently improves the daily behaviors of hyperactive children; (2) good communication with parents and psychological preparation are the most critical keys to the success of substantial behavioral improvement among hyperactive children; (3) establishment and integration of social resources, including provision of transitional parenting education solutions, and cooperation and sound interaction from school teachers, which fosters consolidated team work, are the critical factors to behavioral improvement among hyperactive children. PMID:17551896

  18. Attentional Bias in Older Adults: Effects of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mohlman, Jan; Price, Rebecca B.; Vietri, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Attentional biases are known to play a contributing, and perhaps even causal role in the etiology of anxiety and other negative affective states. The prevalence of anxiety disorders in the older cohort is growing, and there are both theoretical and empirical reasons to suspect that age-related factors could moderate attentional bias effects in the context of late-life anxiety. The current study included one of the most widely-used measures of attentional bias, the dot-probe task (Mathews & MacLeod, 1985). Participants were older adults who were either nonanxious or diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. The patient subsample also completed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or an equivalent wait list condition, after which the dot probe was administered a second time. Results showed that clinical anxiety had no particular importance for the deployment of attention, casting doubt on the universality of biased attention in older anxiety patients. Although there were no maladaptive biases detected toward either threat or depression words at pretreatment, there was nevertheless a marginally significant differential reduction in bias towards threat words following CBT. This reduction did not occur among those in the wait list condition. Implications are discussed. PMID:23916715

  19. Bupropion improves attention but does not affect impulsive behavior in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Ashley; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Bupropion is an effective abstinence aid for cessation of smoking and possibly other drug use as well. There is evidence that bupropion improves attention and impulse control in certain patient populations, and improvements in these processes could mediate its efficacy as an abstinence aid. In the present study, we tested the effects of acute bupropion on measures of attention and impulsivity in healthy adults with d-amphetamine included as a positive control. Twenty-two nonsmokers (11 women) and 11 smokers (4 women) completed four 4-h sessions where they received placebo, bupropion (150 or 300 mg) or d-amphetamine (20 mg) in capsules. Ninety minutes after capsule administration, participants were tested on attention with a Simple Reaction Time Task (SRT) and on impulsivity with the Stop Task, a Delay and Probability Discounting Task (DPD), and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). Participants also completed mood questionnaires during sessions. Bupropion (150 mg) decreased lapses in attention on the SRT, but did not affect performance on the Stop Task, DPD or BART. d-Amphetamine decreased lapses in attention and speeded sensory motor processing time on the SRT but did not significantly affect responding on the Stop Task or DPD. On the BART, d-amphetamine tended to decrease risk taking in men but increased risk taking in women. Bupropion (300 mg) and d-amphetamine increased ratings of arousal. These results suggest that bupropion improves attention without affecting impulsive behavior in healthy adults. Improvements in attention may contribute to the effectiveness of bupropion as a pharmacotherapy for smoking. PMID:18489015

  20. Statistical decision theory to relate neurons to behavior in the study of covert visual attention.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Miguel P; Peterson, Matthew F; Pham, Binh T; Droll, Jason A

    2009-06-01

    Scrutiny of the numerous physiology and imaging studies of visual attention reveal that integration of results from neuroscience with the classic theories of visual attention based on behavioral work is not simple. The different subfields have pursued different questions, used distinct experimental paradigms and developed diverse models. The purpose of this review is to use statistical decision theory and computational modeling to relate classic theories of attention in psychological research to neural observables such as mean firing rate or functional imaging BOLD response, tuning functions, Fano factor, neuronal index of detectability and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). We focus on cueing experiments and attempt to distinguish two major leading theories in the study of attention: limited resources model/increased sensitivity vs. selection/differential weighting. We use Bayesian ideal observer (BIO) modeling, in which predictive cues or prior knowledge change the differential weighting (prior) of sensory information to generate predictions of behavioral and neural observables based on Gaussian response variables and Poisson process neural based models. The ideal observer model can be modified to represent a number of classic psychological theories of visual attention by including hypothesized human attentional limited resources in the same way sequential ideal observer analysis has been used to include physiological processing components of human spatial vision (Geisler, W. S. (1989). Sequential ideal-observer analysis of visual discrimination. Psychological Review 96, 267-314.). In particular we compare new biologically plausible implementations of the BIO and variant models with limited resources. We find a close relationship between the behavioral effects of cues predicted by the models developed in the field of human psychophysics and their neuron-based analogs. Critically, we show that cue effects on experimental observables such as mean neural activity, variance, Fano factor and neuronal index of detectability can be consistent with the two major theoretical models of attention depending on whether the neuron is assumed to be computing likelihoods, log-likelihoods or a simple model operating directly on the Poisson variable. Change in neuronal tuning functions can also be consistent with both theories depending on whether the change in tuning is along the dimension being experimentally cued or a different dimension. We show that a neuron's sensitivity appropriately measured using the area under the Receive Operating Characteristic curve can be used to distinguish across both theories and is robust to the many transformations of the decision variable. We provide a summary table with the hope that it might provide some guidance in interpreting past results as well as planning future studies. PMID:19138699

  1. The Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Psychopathology and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study examined prevalence of psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems in children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Primary caregivers of 344 children (8–16y, M=12.28) completed the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (C-DISC-4.0) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Subjects comprised 4 groups: AE with ADHD (AE+, n=85) and without ADHD (AE−, n=52), and non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=74) and without ADHD (CON, n=133). The frequency of specific psychiatric disorders, number of psychiatric disorders (comorbidity), and CBCL behavioral scores were examined using chi-square and ANCOVA techniques. Results Clinical groups had greater frequency of all psychiatric disorders, except for anxiety, where the AE− and CON groups did not differ. There was a synergistic effect of AE and ADHD on conduct disorder. For Comorbidity, children with ADHD had increased psychiatric disorders regardless of AE, which did not have an independent effect on comorbidity. For CBCL scores, there were significant main effects of AE and ADHD on all scores and significant AE X ADHD interactions for Withdrawn/Depressed, Somatic Complaints, Attention, and all Summary scores. There was a synergistic effect of AE and ADHD on Externalizing, Total Problems, and Attention Problems. Conclusion Findings indicate that ADHD diagnosis elevates children’s risk of psychiatric diagnoses, regardless of AE, but suggest a synergistic relation between AE and ADHD on conduct disorder and externalizing behavioral problems in children. Findings affirm a poorer behavioral prognosis for alcohol-exposed children with ADHD and suggest that more than one neurobehavioral profile may exist for individuals with AE. PMID:22974279

  2. Consumer Behavior in Shopping Streets: The Importance of the Salesperson's Professional Personal Attention.

    PubMed

    Medrano, Natalia; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Pelegrín-Borondo, Jorge; Sierra-Murillo, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2010s, the emergence of a new consumer has begun. In this context, consumer behavior represents one of the greatest interests of marketing scholars and business managers due to their need to adapt their companies' strategies to the new frontier. In order to advance understanding of this new consumer, this article focuses on analyzing consumer behavior in shopping streets. Thus, the aim of this research is to know what customers value in terms of salesperson-customer interaction quality nowadays. To achieve this, the authors conducted two studies. The results of the first study show that customers cite personal attention as the primary factor motivating their preference for small retailers in shopping streets. However, this motivation is not as relevant one for those who prefer malls. This result provides a point on which to research service quality incorporating personal attention in a second study. Using the SERVQUAL-P scale, the authors elaborate three lenses through which the quality of service from the customer's point of view can be analyzed: normative expectations, predictive expectations, and the importance of each attribute. The most striking result is that the dimensions of expectations (normative and predictive) are the same; these results demonstrate that customers are coherent in making assessments of their expectations, evaluating service quality and satisfaction with similar criteria. However, these dimensions are different from the dimensions of importance. Our main contribution lies in the finding that personal attention, when assessed using the scale of attribute importance, is split into two dimensions: (1) courteous attention and (2) personal relationship. Courteous attention is always welcome, but personal relationships are less valued and are often even rejected. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for marketing practices and research. PMID:26903927

  3. Consumer Behavior in Shopping Streets: The Importance of the Salesperson's Professional Personal Attention

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, Natalia; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Pelegrín-Borondo, Jorge; Sierra-Murillo, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2010s, the emergence of a new consumer has begun. In this context, consumer behavior represents one of the greatest interests of marketing scholars and business managers due to their need to adapt their companies' strategies to the new frontier. In order to advance understanding of this new consumer, this article focuses on analyzing consumer behavior in shopping streets. Thus, the aim of this research is to know what customers value in terms of salesperson–customer interaction quality nowadays. To achieve this, the authors conducted two studies. The results of the first study show that customers cite personal attention as the primary factor motivating their preference for small retailers in shopping streets. However, this motivation is not as relevant one for those who prefer malls. This result provides a point on which to research service quality incorporating personal attention in a second study. Using the SERVQUAL-P scale, the authors elaborate three lenses through which the quality of service from the customer's point of view can be analyzed: normative expectations, predictive expectations, and the importance of each attribute. The most striking result is that the dimensions of expectations (normative and predictive) are the same; these results demonstrate that customers are coherent in making assessments of their expectations, evaluating service quality and satisfaction with similar criteria. However, these dimensions are different from the dimensions of importance. Our main contribution lies in the finding that personal attention, when assessed using the scale of attribute importance, is split into two dimensions: (1) courteous attention and (2) personal relationship. Courteous attention is always welcome, but personal relationships are less valued and are often even rejected. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for marketing practices and research. PMID:26903927

  4. Complex Living Conditions Impair Behavioral Inhibition but Improve Attention in Rats

    PubMed Central

    van der Veen, Rixt; Kentrop, Jiska; van der Tas, Liza; Loi, Manila; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Joëls, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid adaptation to changes, while maintaining a certain level of behavioral inhibition is an important feature in every day functioning. How environmental context and challenges in life can impact on the development of this quality is still unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of a complex rearing environment during adolescence on attention and behavioral inhibition in adult male rats. We also tested whether these effects were affected by an adverse early life challenge, maternal deprivation (MD). We found that animals that were raised in large, two floor MarlauTM cages, together with 10 conspecifics, showed improved attention, but impaired behavioral inhibition in the 5-choice serial reaction time task. The early life challenge of 24 h MD on postnatal day 3 led to a decline in bodyweight during adolescence, but did not by itself influence responses in the 5-choice task in adulthood, nor did it moderate the effects of complex housing. Our data suggest that a complex rearing environment leads to a faster adaptation to changes in the environment, but at the cost of lower behavioral inhibition. PMID:26733839

  5. The social behaviors and peer expectation of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comparison girls.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Jill R; Heller, Tracy L; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2002-12-01

    Investigated self-described social goals, self-generated actions, and perceived peer responses to hypothetical vignettes, as well as observed social behavior and peer sociometric status, in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 49) and comparison girls (n = 30). Although we found no differences between the social goals of girls with ADHD and comparison participants, girls with ADHD generated higher rates of aggressive responses to the hypothetical vignettes than did comparison girls, whereas comparison girls generated a larger number of negotiating behaviors than did the ADHD sample. The ADHD participants anticipated negative peer responses, whereas comparison girls predicted positive reactions from peers. Importantly, these perceived peer responses showed associations with girls' naturalistic social behaviors and peer sociometric status. Several pertinent predictions held with control of ADHD versus comparison status. Social cognitions appear to be relevant in the investigation of ADHD in girls. PMID:12402564

  6. Peer tutoring for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects on classroom behavior and academic performance.

    PubMed

    DuPaul, G J; Ervin, R A; Hook, C L; McGoey, K E

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on the classroom behavior and academic performance of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Typical instructional activities were contrasted with CWPT for 18 children with ADHD and 10 peer comparison students attending first- through fifth-grade general education classes. CWPT led to increases in active engagement in academic tasks along with reductions in off-task behavior for most participants. Of students with ADHD, 50% exhibited improvements in academic performance in math or spelling during CWPT conditions, as measured by a treatment success index. Participating teachers and students reported a high level of satisfaction with intervention procedures. Our results suggest that peer tutoring appears to be an effective strategy for addressing the academic and behavioral difficulties associated with ADHD in general education settings. PMID:9891395

  7. Circadian Modulation of Dopamine Levels and Dopaminergic Neuron Development Contributes to Attention Deficiency and Hyperactive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Zhong, Zhaomin; Wang, Mingyong; Chen, Xifeng; Tan, Yicheng; Zhang, Shuqing; He, Wei; He, Xiong; Huang, Guodong; Lu, Haiping; Wu, Ping; Che, Yi; Yan, Yi-Lin; Postlethwait, John H.; Chen, Wenbiao

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adults. While ADHD patients often display circadian abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we found that the zebrafish mutant for the circadian gene period1b (per1b) displays hyperactive, impulsive-like, and attention deficit-like behaviors and low levels of dopamine, reminiscent of human ADHD patients. We found that the circadian clock directly regulates dopamine-related genes monoamine oxidase and dopamine β hydroxylase, and acts via genes important for the development or maintenance of dopaminergic neurons to regulate their number and organization in the ventral diencephalic posterior tuberculum. We then found that Per1 knock-out mice also display ADHD-like symptoms and reduced levels of dopamine, thereby showing highly conserved roles of the circadian clock in ADHD. Our studies demonstrate that disruption of a circadian clock gene elicits ADHD-like syndrome. The circadian model for attention deficiency and hyperactive behavior sheds light on ADHD pathogenesis and opens avenues for exploring novel targets for diagnosis and therapy for this common psychiatric disorder. PMID:25673850

  8. Performance of mice in discrimination of liquor odors: behavioral evidence for olfactory attention.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Noboru; Okuhara, Keisuke; Kuroda, Akio; Kato, Junichi; Ohtake, Hisao

    2008-03-01

    We examined performance of mice in discrimination of liquor odors by Y-maze behavioral assays. Thirsty mice were initially trained to choose the odor of a red wine in the Y-maze. After successful training (>70% concordance for each trained mouse), the individual mice were able to discriminate the learned red wine from other liquors, including white wine, rosé wine, sake, and plum liqueur. However, when the mice were tested to distinguish fine differences between 2 brands of red wine, their performance significantly varied among the individual trained mice. Among 10 mice tested, 2 mice were able to discriminate between the red wines (>75% concordance) whereas 6 mice failed to distinguish between them (50-67% concordance, where chance could be assumed to be 50%). More importantly, 2 other mice exhibited lower than 30% concordance, indicating that they were more attracted to the nonrewarded red wine compared with the learned one. This result suggested that the individual mice directed attention to different subsets of volatile components emanating from the rewarded red wine, when they were trained to choose the liquor odor in the Y-maze. Selective attention of mice was also observed in Y-maze behavioral assays using the mixtures of 3 or less pure odorants. Additionally, we also observed that the olfactory attention of mice could be modified through their learning experiences. PMID:18178544

  9. Circadian modulation of dopamine levels and dopaminergic neuron development contributes to attention deficiency and hyperactive behavior.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Zhong, Zhaomin; Wang, Mingyong; Chen, Xifeng; Tan, Yicheng; Zhang, Shuqing; He, Wei; He, Xiong; Huang, Guodong; Lu, Haiping; Wu, Ping; Che, Yi; Yan, Yi-Lin; Postlethwait, John H; Chen, Wenbiao; Wang, Han

    2015-02-11

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adults. While ADHD patients often display circadian abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we found that the zebrafish mutant for the circadian gene period1b (per1b) displays hyperactive, impulsive-like, and attention deficit-like behaviors and low levels of dopamine, reminiscent of human ADHD patients. We found that the circadian clock directly regulates dopamine-related genes monoamine oxidase and dopamine β hydroxylase, and acts via genes important for the development or maintenance of dopaminergic neurons to regulate their number and organization in the ventral diencephalic posterior tuberculum. We then found that Per1 knock-out mice also display ADHD-like symptoms and reduced levels of dopamine, thereby showing highly conserved roles of the circadian clock in ADHD. Our studies demonstrate that disruption of a circadian clock gene elicits ADHD-like syndrome. The circadian model for attention deficiency and hyperactive behavior sheds light on ADHD pathogenesis and opens avenues for exploring novel targets for diagnosis and therapy for this common psychiatric disorder. PMID:25673850

  10. Language, literacy, attentional behaviors, and instructional quality predictors of written composition for first graders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Suk; Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Gruelich, Luana

    2013-01-01

    We had two primary purposes in the present study: (1) to examine unique child-level predictors of written composition which included language skills, literacy skills (e.g., reading and spelling), and attentiveness and (2) to examine whether instructional quality (quality in responsiveness and individualization, and quality in spelling and writing instruction) is uniquely related to written composition for first-grade children (N = 527). Children’s written composition was evaluated on substantive quality (ideas, organization, word choice, and sentence flow) and writing conventions (spelling, mechanics, and handwriting). Results revealed that for the substantive quality of writing, children’s grammatical knowledge, reading comprehension, letter writing automaticity, and attentiveness were uniquely related. Teachers’ responsiveness was also uniquely related to the substantive quality of written composition after accounting for child predictors and other instructional quality variables. For the writing conventions outcome, children’s spelling and attentiveness were uniquely related, but instructional quality was not. These results suggest the importance of paying attention to multiple component skills such as language, literacy, and behavioral factors as well as teachers’ responsiveness for writing development. PMID:24062600

  11. Language, literacy, attentional behaviors, and instructional quality predictors of written composition for first graders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Suk; Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Gruelich, Luana

    2013-07-01

    We had two primary purposes in the present study: (1) to examine unique child-level predictors of written composition which included language skills, literacy skills (e.g., reading and spelling), and attentiveness and (2) to examine whether instructional quality (quality in responsiveness and individualization, and quality in spelling and writing instruction) is uniquely related to written composition for first-grade children (N = 527). Children's written composition was evaluated on substantive quality (ideas, organization, word choice, and sentence flow) and writing conventions (spelling, mechanics, and handwriting). Results revealed that for the substantive quality of writing, children's grammatical knowledge, reading comprehension, letter writing automaticity, and attentiveness were uniquely related. Teachers' responsiveness was also uniquely related to the substantive quality of written composition after accounting for child predictors and other instructional quality variables. For the writing conventions outcome, children's spelling and attentiveness were uniquely related, but instructional quality was not. These results suggest the importance of paying attention to multiple component skills such as language, literacy, and behavioral factors as well as teachers' responsiveness for writing development. PMID:24062600

  12. Changes in attention to an emotional task after sleep deprivation: neurophysiological and behavioral findings.

    PubMed

    Alfarra, Ramey; Fins, Ana I; Chayo, Isaac; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-01-01

    While sleep loss is shown to have widespread effects on cognitive processes, little is known about the impact of sleep loss on emotion processes. In order to expand on previous behavioral and physiological findings on how sleep loss influences emotion processing, we administered positive, negative, and neutral affective visual stimuli to individuals after one night of sleep deprivation while simultaneously acquiring EEG event related potential (ERP) data and recording affective behavioral responses. We compared these responses to a baseline testing session. We specifically looked at the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual ERP as an established sensitive measure of attention to emotionally-charged visual stimuli. Our results show that after sleep deprivation, the LPP no longer discriminates between emotional and non-emotional pictures; after sleep deprivation the LPP amplitude was of similar amplitude for neutral, positive, and negative pictures. This effect was driven by an increase in the LPP to neutral pictures. Our behavioral measures show that, relative to baseline testing, emotional pictures are rated as less emotional following sleep deprivation with a concomitant reduction in emotional picture-induced anxiety. We did not observe any change in cortisol concentrations after sleep deprivation before or after emotional picture exposure, suggesting that the observed changes in emotion processing are independent of potential stress effects of sleep deprivation. Combined, our findings suggest that sleep loss interferes with proper allocation of attention resources during an emotional task. PMID:25451382

  13. Individual Differences in Newborn Visual Attention Associate with Temperament and Behavioral Difficulties in Later Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Kostas A.; Farroni, Teresa; Johnson, Mark H.; Smith, Tim J.; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Recently it was shown that individual differences in attention style in infants are associated with childhood effortful control, surgency, and hyperactivity-inattention. Here we investigated whether effortful control, surgency and behavioral problems in childhood can be predicted even earlier, from individual differences in newborns’ average duration of gaze to stimuli. Eighty newborns participated in visual preference and habituation studies. Parents completed questionnaires at follow up (mean age = 7.5 years, SD = 1.0 year). Newborns’ average dwell time was negatively associated with childhood surgency (β = −.25, R2 = .04, p = .02) and total behavioral difficulties (β = −.28, R2 = .05, p = .04) but not with effortful control (β = .03, R2 = .001, p = .76). Individual differences in newborn visual attention significantly associated with individual variation in childhood surgency and behavioral problems, showing that some of the factors responsible for this variation are present at birth. PMID:26110979

  14. Effects of working memory load on visual selective attention: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Nikki; Willoughby, Adrian; Swick, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Working memory and attention interact in a way that enables us to focus on relevant items and maintain current goals. The influence of working memory on attention has been noted in several studies using dual task designs. Multitasking increases the demands on working memory and reduces the amount of resources available for cognitive control functions such as resolving stimulus conflict. However, few studies have investigated the temporal activation of the cortex while multitasking. The present study addresses the extent to which working memory load influences early (P1) and late (P300) attention-sensitive event-related potential components using a dual task paradigm. Participants performed an arrow flanker task alone (single task condition) or concurrently with a Sternberg memory task (dual task condition). In the flanker task, participants responded to the direction of a central arrow surrounded by congruent or incongruent arrows. In the dual task condition, participants were presented with a Sternberg task that consisted of either four or seven consonants to remember prior to a short block of flanker trials. Participants were slower and less accurate on incongruent versus congruent trials. Furthermore, accuracy on incongruent trials was reduced in both dual task conditions. Likewise, P300 amplitude to incongruent flanker stimuli decreased when working memory load increased. These findings suggest that interference from incongruent flankers was more difficult to suppress when working memory was taxed. In addition, P1 amplitude was diminished on all flanker trials in the dual task condition. This result indicates that top-down attentional control over early visual processing is diminished by increasing demands on working memory. Both the behavioral and electrophysiological results suggest that working memory is critical in maintaining attentional focus and resolving conflict. PMID:21716633

  15. Current Status of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Safren, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a valid and impairing psychological disorder that persists into adulthood in a majority of cases and is associated with chronic functional impairment and increased rates of comorbidity. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches for this disorder have emerged relatively recently, and available evidence from open and randomized controlled trials suggests that these approaches are promising in producing significant symptom reduction. A conceptual model of how CBT may work for ADHD is reviewed along with existing efficacy studies. A preliminary comparison of effect sizes across intervention packages suggests that targeted learning and practice of specific behavioral compensatory strategies may be a critical “active ingredient” in CBT for adult ADHD. The article concludes with a discussion of future directions and critical questions that must be addressed in this area of clinical research. PMID:20599129

  16. Emergence of symbolic behavior from brain like memory with dynamic attention.

    PubMed

    Omori, T; Mochizuki, A; Mizutani, K; Nishizaki, M

    1999-10-01

    An important feature of human intelligence is the use of symbols. This is seen in our daily use of language and logical thinking. However, the use of symbols is not limited to humans. We observe planned action sequences in primate behavior and prediction-based action in higher mammals. For the representation and operation of symbols by the brain neural circuit, no specific construction principle or computational theory is known so far. In this paper, we regard the brain as a complex of associative memory and dynamic attentional system, and starting from two hypotheses on information representation and operation in the brain, we propose a model of primitive symbolic behavior emergence that is consistent with the conventional symbolic processing model. We also describe a computational theory of the symbolic processing model in associative memory. Through computer simulation studies on a language-like memory search and map learning by a moving robot, we discuss the validity of the model. PMID:12662651

  17. Extinction arouses attention to the context in a behavioral suppression method with humans.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James Byron; Lamoureux, Jeffrey A; León, Samuel P

    2013-01-01

    One experiment assessed predictions from the attentional theory of context processing (ATCP, J. M. Rosas, J. E. Callejas-Aguilera, M. M. Ramos-Álvarez, & M. J. F. Abad, 2006, Revision of retrieval theory of forgetting: What does make information context-specific? International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, Vol. 6, pp. 147-166) that extinction arouses attention to contextual stimuli. In a video-game method, participants learned a biconditional discrimination (RG+/BG-/RY-/BY+) either after extinction of another stimulus had occurred, or not. When contextual stimuli were relevant to solving the discrimination (i.e., all RG+/BG- trials occurred in one context and all RY-/BY+ in another), prior extinction of another stimulus facilitated the discrimination, as if extinction enhanced attention to the contexts. Results are discussed briefly in terms of ATCP and the model of N. A. Schmajuk, Y. W. Lam, & J. A. Gray (1996, Latent inhibition: A neural network approach, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, Vol. 22, pp. 321-349). PMID:23316978

  18. Linkages Between Child Abuse and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Girls: Behavioral and Social Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe-Smith, Allison M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine whether girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of having histories of abuse and to assess whether the presence of an abuse history may constitute a distinct subgroup of youth with ADHD. Method: We examined rates and correlates of child abuse in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 140) and a matched comparison sample of girls without ADHD (n = 88), all aged 6-12 years. A thorough chart review reliably established documented rates of physical and sexual abuse in both samples. Results: There were significantly higher rates of abuse for girls with ADHD (14.3%) than for the comparison sample (4.5%), with most of the abuse found in girls with the Combined as opposed to the Inattentive type. Higher rates of externalizing behaviors (including objective observations in a research summer camp) and peer rejection (indexed through peer sociometric nominations) characterized the subgroup of girls with ADHD with abuse histories compared to the subgroup without such histories, with moderate to large effect sizes. Subgroup differences regarding internalizing problems and cognitive deficits did not emerge. Findings regarding peer rejection were explained, in part, by higher rates of observed aggressive behavior in the abused subgroup. Conclusions: The findings raise important questions about the possible etiologic and/or exacerbating role of abusive trauma in a subgroup of children with ADHD. PMID:17097140

  19. Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Rojas, Joseane Jiménez; Carletti, Jaqueline Vieira; Deckmann, Iohanna; Martinato, Luísa Helena Machado; Pires, Augusto Viana; Bizarro, Lisiane; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi

    2015-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be caused by genetic or environmental factors. Among environmental factors, perinatal complications are related, such as neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether HI contributes to the development of characteristics related to ADHD in adult rats, and to correlate the behavioral results with brain damage volume. Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: HI and control. The HI procedure consisted of a permanent occlusion of the right common carotid artery followed by a period of hypoxia (90 min; 8% O₂ and 92% N₂) on the 7th postnatal day. Two months later, animals were evaluated in the open field test during a single 5-min session, and in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), over 25 weeks. Our results demonstrated that animals submitted to HI manifest cognitive impairments in task acquisition, deficits in sustained attention, and increases in impulsivity and compulsivity in response to task manipulation in the 5-CSRTT. Locomotor activity observed in open field did not differ between groups. Moreover, brain volume loss in the total hemisphere, cerebral cortex, white matter, hippocampus, and striatum were observed in HI animals, especially on the side ipsilateral to the lesion. From these results, we can infer that neonatal HI is an environmental factor that could contribute to the development of behavioral characteristics observed in ADHD that are associated with general brain atrophy. PMID:26030430

  20. Infants' behavioral styles in joint attention situations and parents' socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Abels, Monika; Hutman, Ted

    2015-08-01

    In this study the eco-cultural model of parenting (Keller, H. (2007). Cultures of infancy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum) was applied to the study of joint attention behavior of children from families with different socio-economic status (SES). It was hypothesized that infants' early communication styles would differ with SES reflecting more independent or interdependent interactions with their caregivers. It was also hypothesized that infants would use the same types of behaviors whether they have declarative or imperative communication goals. The Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS, Mundy et al., 2003) was administered to 103 typically developing infants of 12 months (approximately half of them siblings of children with autism). A factor analysis, yielding four behavioral factors, namely pointing, eye contact, actions and following points, confirmed the hypothesis that infants use behaviors consistently across situations independent of their communicative intent. MANOVAs (comprising parental education and income) revealed that higher SES infants showed actions more frequently in the ESCS whereas lower SES infants followed experimenter's points more frequently. The results are discussed in the context of presumably differing socialization goals for infants and the divergent contribution of parental education and income that seem to have additive contribution to some factors (actions, following points) but divergent contributions to others (pointing, eye contact). PMID:26164418

  1. Parent personality traits and psychopathology associated with antisocial behaviors in childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Nigg, J T; Hinshaw, S P

    1998-02-01

    Although a role for family and parent factors in the development of behavioral problems in childhood is often acknowledged, the roles of specific parental characteristics in relation to specific child actions need further elucidation. We studied parental "Big Five" personality traits and psychiatric diagnoses in relation to their children's antisocial diagnoses and naturalistically observed antisocial behaviors, in boys with and without the diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). First, regardless of comorbid antisocial diagnosis, boys with ADHD, more often than comparison boys, had mothers with a major depressive episode and/or marked anxiety symptoms in the past year, and fathers with a childhood history of ADHD. Second, compared to the nondiagnosed group, boys with comorbid ADHD + Oppositional Defiant or Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD) had fathers with lower Agreeableness, higher Neuroticism, and more likelihood of having Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Third, regarding linkages between parental characteristics and child externalizing behaviors, higher rates of child overt antisocial behaviors observed in a naturalistic summer program were associated primarily with maternal characteristics, including higher Neuroticism, lower Conscientiousness, presence of Major Depression, and absence of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. The association of maternal Neuroticism with child aggression was larger in the ADHD than in the comparison group. In contrast, higher rates of observed child covert antisocial behaviors were associated solely with paternal characteristics, including history of substance abuse and higher Openness. Results provide external validation in parent data for a distinction between overt and covert antisocial behaviors and support inclusion of parent personality traits in family studies. The interaction of maternal Neuroticism and child ADHD in predicting child aggression is interpreted in regard to a conceptualization of child by parent "fit." PMID:9669228

  2. Effects of Task Difficulty and Teacher Attention on the Off-Task Behavior of High-Ability Students with Behavior Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Brandi; Little, Catherine A.; Fairbanks, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This study used traditional behavioral assessment procedures (functional behavioral assessment and structural analysis) in a single-subject design to determine whether a functional relationship existed between (a) levels of task difficulty and teacher attention and (b) off-task behavior in 3 students identified as highly able in mathematics who…

  3. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    PubMed

    Gaastra, Geraldina F; Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of several types of classroom interventions (antecedent-based, consequence-based, self-regulation, combined) that can be applied by teachers in order to decrease off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD. A second aim was to identify potential moderators (classroom setting, type of measure, students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use). Finally, it was qualitatively explored whether the identified classroom interventions also directly or indirectly affected behavioral and academic outcomes of classmates. Separate meta-analyses were performed on standardized mean differences (SMDs) for 24 within-subjects design (WSD) and 76 single-subject design (SSD) studies. Results showed that classroom interventions reduce off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD (WSDs: MSMD = 0.92; SSDs: MSMD = 3.08), with largest effects for consequence-based (WSDs: MSMD = 1.82) and self-regulation interventions (SSDs: MSMD = 3.61). Larger effects were obtained in general education classrooms than in other classroom settings. No reliable conclusions could be formulated about moderating effects of type of measure and students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use, mainly because of power problems. Finally, classroom interventions appeared to also benefit classmates' behavioral and academic outcomes. PMID:26886218

  4. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gaastra, Geraldina F.; Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of several types of classroom interventions (antecedent-based, consequence-based, self-regulation, combined) that can be applied by teachers in order to decrease off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD. A second aim was to identify potential moderators (classroom setting, type of measure, students’ age, gender, intelligence, and medication use). Finally, it was qualitatively explored whether the identified classroom interventions also directly or indirectly affected behavioral and academic outcomes of classmates. Separate meta-analyses were performed on standardized mean differences (SMDs) for 24 within-subjects design (WSD) and 76 single-subject design (SSD) studies. Results showed that classroom interventions reduce off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD (WSDs: MSMD = 0.92; SSDs: MSMD = 3.08), with largest effects for consequence-based (WSDs: MSMD = 1.82) and self-regulation interventions (SSDs: MSMD = 3.61). Larger effects were obtained in general education classrooms than in other classroom settings. No reliable conclusions could be formulated about moderating effects of type of measure and students’ age, gender, intelligence, and medication use, mainly because of power problems. Finally, classroom interventions appeared to also benefit classmates’ behavioral and academic outcomes. PMID:26886218

  5. Illuminating the role of cholinergic signaling in circuits of attention and emotionally salient behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Luchicchi, Antonio; Bloem, Bernard; Viaña, John Noel M.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Role, Lorna W.

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. Alterations in ACh signaling are involved in the pathophysiology of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. In the central nervous system, ACh transmission is mainly guaranteed by dense innervation of select cortical and subcortical regions from disperse groups of cholinergic neurons within the basal forebrain (BF; e.g., diagonal band, medial septal, nucleus basalis) and the pontine-mesencephalic nuclei, respectively. Despite the fundamental role of cholinergic signaling in the CNS and the long standing knowledge of the organization of cholinergic circuitry, remarkably little is known about precisely how ACh release modulates cortical and subcortical neural activity and the behaviors these circuits subserve. Growing interest in cholinergic signaling in the CNS focuses on the mechanism(s) of action by which endogenously released ACh regulates cognitive functions, acting as a neuromodulator and/or as a direct transmitter via nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The development of optogenetic techniques has provided a valuable toolbox with which we can address these questions, as it allows the selective manipulation of the excitability of cholinergic inputs to the diverse array of cholinergic target fields within cortical and subcortical domains. Here, we review recent papers that use the light-sensitive opsins in the cholinergic system to elucidate the role of ACh in circuits related to attention and emotionally salient behaviors. In particular, we highlight recent optogenetic studies which have tried to disentangle the precise role of ACh in the modulation of cortical-, hippocampal- and striatal-dependent functions. PMID:25386136

  6. Modeling paternal attentiveness: distressed pups evoke differential neurobiological and behavioral responses in paternal and nonpaternal mice.

    PubMed

    Lambert, K G; Franssen, C L; Hampton, J E; Rzucidlo, A M; Hyer, M M; True, M; Kaufman, C; Bardi, M

    2013-03-27

    With the exception of parturition and lactation, male California deer mice (Peromyscus californicus) exhibit the same parental responses toward offspring as conspecific females. A closely related species, Peromyscus maniculatus, however, rarely exhibits paternal responses. In the current study, a comparative species approach was used to assess paternal responses in both Peromyscus species with varying levels of paternal experience (biological fathers, pup-exposed virgins, and pup-naïve virgins). Of special interest was the persistence of the males to direct their attention toward a distressed pup housed in a small enclosure (i.e., a barrier existed between males and pups). In addition to pup-directed responses, non-pup-directed responses such as grooming, resting and jumping were recorded. Subsequently, all animals' brains were assessed for fos-immunoreactivity (ir) in several areas previously associated with the paternal brain circuit. Overall, P. californicus exhibited more pup-directed responses as well as less fos-ir in brain areas involved in emotional integration and processing such as the insula and anterior cingulate. In addition to increased activation of emotional regulatory areas, P. maniculatus males, observed to direct their behavior away from the pup, exhibited higher fos-ir in the nucleus accumbens (involved in goal acquisition), perhaps due to a heightened motivation to avoid the pups. Interestingly, experience with pups altered the lateral septum and amygdala activation of P. maniculatus to levels similar to P. californicus biological fathers. Finally, fos-ir was increased in the medial preoptic area, involved in the maintenance of maternal behavior, in the biological fathers of both species. Thus, although biological predispositions toward pup-directed behaviors were observed in P. californicus males, evidence of a few shifts toward the paternal neural activation profile was apparent in P. maniculatus males. Specifically, modifications in fear responses and social processing may represent the cornerstones of the gradual shift from social tentativeness to social attentiveness in the presence of pups. PMID:23262236

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced

    PubMed Central

    Ptacek, Radek; Stefano, George B; Weissenberger, Simon; Akotia, Devang; Raboch, Jiri; Papezova, Hana; Domkarova, Lucie; Stepankova, Tereza; Goetz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs). In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1) impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2) other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3) poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4) other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from both a historical perspective and the one based on the revealing nature of its comorbidities. PMID:27042070

  8. An Integrative, Cognitive-Behavioral, Systemic Approach to Working with Students Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillingford, Margaret Ann; Lambie, Glenn W.; Walter, Sara Meghan

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent diagnostic disorder for many students, which correlates with negative academic, social, and personal consequences. This article presents an integrative, cognitive-behavioral, systemic approach that offers behaviorally based interventions for professional school counselors to support…

  9. Separate and Combined Effects of Methylphenidate and Behavior Modification on Boys with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, William E., Jr.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluated separate and combined effects of behavior modification and two doses of methylphenidate compared with baseline on classroom behavior and academic performance of 31 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) boys. Found significant effects of both interventions, with mean effect size of medication being more than twice as great as…

  10. Decreasing Self-Injurious Behavior in a Student with Autism and Tourette Syndrome through Positive Attention and Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Devender R.; McAfee, James K.; Hart, Stephanie L.

    2009-01-01

    This case study was conducted with a student diagnosed with autism and Tourette syndrome who displayed severe self-injurious behavior (SIB). We conducted a functional behavioral assessment which indicated that SIB was maintained by multiple functions using an ABAC design to determine the effect of positive social attention and extinction. Results…

  11. The Effects of Highlighting on the Math Computation Performance and Off-Task Behavior of Students with Attention Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercood, Suneeta; Grskovic, Janice A.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of color highlighting during a math computation task on performance accuracy and behavior of students with attention problems. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, three students solved math computation problems on worksheets with and without highlighting. Off-task behavior recorded from videotape…

  12. Infant Attention and Visual Preferences: Converging Evidence from Behavior, Event-Related Potentials, and Cortical Source Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Courage, Mary L.; Richards, John E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we had 3 major goals. The 1st goal was to establish a link between behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures of infant attention and recognition memory. To assess the distribution of infant visual preferences throughout ERP testing, we designed a new experimental procedure that embeds a behavioral measure (paired…

  13. Infant Attention and Visual Preferences: Converging Evidence from Behavior, Event-Related Potentials, and Cortical Source Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Courage, Mary L.; Richards, John E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we had 3 major goals. The 1st goal was to establish a link between behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures of infant attention and recognition memory. To assess the distribution of infant visual preferences throughout ERP testing, we designed a new experimental procedure that embeds a behavioral measure (paired

  14. Effects of Recess on the Classroom Behavior of Children with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgway, Andrea; Northup, John; Pellegrin, Angie; LaRue, Robert; Hightshoe, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Study evaluated effects of traditional recess on subsequent classroom behavior of children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Results showed that levels of inappropriate behavior were consistently higher on days when participants did not have recess. Optimal recess period(s) may potentially promote academic achievement by…

  15. Effects of Environmental Stimulation on Students Demonstrating Behaviors Related to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostal, Brooks R.; Lee, David L.; Miller, Faith

    2013-01-01

    Behaviors characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often interfere with students' and their classmates' learning, and interventions targeting these behaviors may be particularly important in schools. This article reviews studies in which researchers manipulated environmental stimulation during task presentation…

  16. Assessing culturally different students for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using behavior rating scales.

    PubMed

    Reid, R; DuPaul, G J; Power, T J; Anastopoulos, A D; Rogers-Adkinson, D; Noll, M B; Riccio, C

    1998-06-01

    Behavior rating scales are commonly used in the assessment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is little information available concerning the extent to which scales are valid with culturally different students. This study explored the use of the ADHD-IV Rating Scale School Version with male Caucasian (CA) and African American (AA) students from ages 5 to 18 years. Teachers rated AA students higher on all symptoms across all age groups. LISREL analysis indicated that scale does not perform identically across groups. This was supported by the results of multidimensional scaling with suggested that there is a different relation between items across groups. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:9650625

  17. Attentional bias and emotional reactivity as predictors and moderators of behavioral treatment for social phobia

    PubMed Central

    Niles, Andrea N.; Mesri, Bita; Burklund, Lisa J.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-established treatment for anxiety disorders, and evidence is accruing for the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Little is known about factors that relate to treatment outcome overall (predictors), or who will thrive in each treatment (moderators). The goal of the current project was to test attentional bias and negative emotional reactivity as moderators and predictors of treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial comparing CBT and ACT for social phobia. Forty-six patients received 12 sessions of CBT or ACT and were assessed for self-reported and clinician-rated symptoms at baseline, post treatment, 6, and 12 months. Attentional bias significantly moderated the relationship between treatment group and outcome with patients slow to disengage from threatening stimuli showing greater clinician-rated symptom reduction in CBT than in ACT. Negative emotional reactivity, but not positive emotional reactivity, was a significant overall predictor with patients high in negative emotional reactivity showing the greatest self-reported symptom reduction. PMID:23933107

  18. The Power of Kawaii: Viewing Cute Images Promotes a Careful Behavior and Narrows Attentional Focus

    PubMed Central

    Nittono, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Michiko; Yano, Akihiro; Moriya, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Kawaii (a Japanese word meaning “cute”) things are popular because they produce positive feelings. However, their effect on behavior remains unclear. In this study, three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of viewing cute images on subsequent task performance. In the first experiment, university students performed a fine motor dexterity task before and after viewing images of baby or adult animals. Performance indexed by the number of successful trials increased after viewing cute images (puppies and kittens; M ± SE = 43.9±10.3% improvement) more than after viewing images that were less cute (dogs and cats; 11.9±5.5% improvement). In the second experiment, this finding was replicated by using a non-motor visual search task. Performance improved more after viewing cute images (15.7±2.2% improvement) than after viewing less cute images (1.4±2.1% improvement). Viewing images of pleasant foods was ineffective in improving performance (1.2±2.1%). In the third experiment, participants performed a global–local letter task after viewing images of baby animals, adult animals, and neutral objects. In general, global features were processed faster than local features. However, this global precedence effect was reduced after viewing cute images. Results show that participants performed tasks requiring focused attention more carefully after viewing cute images. This is interpreted as the result of a narrowed attentional focus induced by the cuteness-triggered positive emotion that is associated with approach motivation and the tendency toward systematic processing. For future applications, cute objects may be used as an emotion elicitor to induce careful behavioral tendencies in specific situations, such as driving and office work. PMID:23050022

  19. Normative data on development of neural and behavioral mechanisms underlying attention orienting toward social-emotional stimuli: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, Kara; Guyer, Amanda E.; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Fox, Nathan A.; Ernst, Monique; Nelson, Eric E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Britton, Jennifer C.; Monk, Christopher S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2009-01-01

    The ability of positive and negative facial signals to influence attention orienting is crucial to social functioning. Given the dramatic developmental change in neural architecture supporting social function, positive and negative facial cues may influence attention orienting differently in relatively young or old individuals. However, virtually no research examines such age-related differences in the neural circuitry supporting attention orienting to emotional faces. We examined age-related correlations in attention-orienting biases to positive and negative face emotions in a healthy sample (N=37; 9-40 years old) using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a dot-probe task. The dot-probe task in an fMRI setting yields both behavioral and neural indices of attention biases towards or away from an emotional cue (happy or angry face). In the full sample, angry-face attention bias scores did not correlate with age, and age did not correlate with brain activation to angry faces. However, age did positively correlate with attention bias towards happy faces; age also negatively correlated with left cuneus and left caudate activation to a happy-bias fMRI contrast. Secondary analyses suggested age-related changes in attention bias to happy faces. The tendency in younger children to direct attention away from happy faces (relative to neutral faces) was diminished in the older age groups, in tandem with increasing neural deactivation. Implications for future work on developmental changes in attention-emotion processing are discussed. PMID:19631626

  20. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, risky behaviors, and motorcycle injuries: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Abedi, Leili; Mahini, Minoo; Amiri, Shahrokh; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the association of motorcycle traffic injuries with motorcycle riding behavior and subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while controlling for individual correlates of motorcycle traffic injuries. Methods A case-control study was carried out in 298 patients with motorcycle trauma along with 151 control patients admitted to the Shohada and Imam Reza university hospitals as the two referral specialty centers in the East Azarbyjan Province of Iran in 2013. The Persian version of the Motorcycle Riding Behavior Questionnaire and the Persian version of Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scales (the self-report short version) were used to assess riding behavior and screen for adult ADHD, respectively. The scale has four subscales, comprising subscale A (inattention), subscale B (hyperactivity, impulsivity), subscale C (A + C), and subscale D (ADHD index). The statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11. Results All subjects were male and aged 13–79 years. Approximately 54% of the participants were married and 13% had academic education. Approximately 18% of the motorcycle riders stated that their motorcycle riding was only for fun purposes. More than two thirds of the participants did not have a motorcycle riding license. Variables found to be significantly associated with motorcycle injuries in bivariate analysis included age, marital status, educational level, having a motorcycle riding license, using a helmet while riding, daily amount of riding, riding just for fun, riding behavior score, and ADHD scale scores. It was found in multivariate analysis that if the ADHD index (subscale D) score was used to assess the association of ADHD with motorcycle injuries, a protective role for ADHD was observed. However, the two other subscales showed a different predictive pattern for subscale A versus subscale B, with only subscale B increasing the likelihood of motorcycle traffic injuries. The score based on motorcycle rider behavior was found to be associated with motorcycle injuries. Other variables that were significant in multivariate models were the purpose of riding, educational level, economic status, and marital status. Conclusion ADHD and riding behavior scores affect the likelihood of motorcycle traffic injuries among motorcycle riders independent of other injury indicators, and include education, purpose of riding, and economic status. PMID:26300644

  1. Predicting behavior problems in deaf and hearing children: The influences of language, attention, and parent–child communication

    PubMed Central

    Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Fink, Nancy E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Tobey, Emily A.; Niparko, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The development of language and communication may play an important role in the emergence of behavioral problems in young children, but they are rarely included in predictive models of behavioral development. In this study, cross-sectional relationships between language, attention, and behavior problems were examined using parent report, videotaped observations, and performance measures in a sample of 116 severely and profoundly deaf and 69 normally hearing children ages 1.5 to 5 years. Secondary analyses were performed on data collected as part of the Childhood Development After Cochlear Implantation Study, funded by the National Institutes of Health. Hearing-impaired children showed more language, attention, and behavioral difficulties, and spent less time communicating with their parents than normally hearing children. Structural equation modeling indicated there were significant relationships between language, attention, and child behavior problems. Language was associated with behavior problems both directly and indirectly through effects on attention. Amount of parent–child communication was not related to behavior problems. PMID:19338689

  2. The Contributions of Image Content and Behavioral Relevancy to Overt Attention

    PubMed Central

    Onat, Selim; Açık, Alper; Schumann, Frank; König, Peter

    2014-01-01

    During free-viewing of natural scenes, eye movements are guided by bottom-up factors inherent to the stimulus, as well as top-down factors inherent to the observer. The question of how these two different sources of information interact and contribute to fixation behavior has recently received a lot of attention. Here, a battery of 15 visual stimulus features was used to quantify the contribution of stimulus properties during free-viewing of 4 different categories of images (Natural, Urban, Fractal and Pink Noise). Behaviorally relevant information was estimated in the form of topographical interestingness maps by asking an independent set of subjects to click at image regions that they subjectively found most interesting. Using a Bayesian scheme, we computed saliency functions that described the probability of a given feature to be fixated. In the case of stimulus features, the precise shape of the saliency functions was strongly dependent upon image category and overall the saliency associated with these features was generally weak. When testing multiple features jointly, a linear additive integration model of individual saliencies performed satisfactorily. We found that the saliency associated with interesting locations was much higher than any low-level image feature and any pair-wise combination thereof. Furthermore, the low-level image features were found to be maximally salient at those locations that had already high interestingness ratings. Temporal analysis showed that regions with high interestingness ratings were fixated as early as the third fixation following stimulus onset. Paralleling these findings, fixation durations were found to be dependent mainly on interestingness ratings and to a lesser extent on the low-level image features. Our results suggest that both low- and high-level sources of information play a significant role during exploration of complex scenes with behaviorally relevant information being more effective compared to stimulus features. PMID:24736751

  3. Relevance of a neurophysiological marker of attention allocation for children's learning-related behaviors and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Willner, Cynthia J; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Bierman, Karen L; Greenberg, Mark T; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2015-08-01

    Learning-related behaviors are important for school success. Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for less adaptive learning-related behaviors at school entry, yet substantial variability in school readiness exists within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Investigation of neurophysiological systems associated with learning-related behaviors in high-risk populations could illuminate resilience processes. This study examined the relevance of a neurophysiological measure of controlled attention allocation, amplitude of the P3b event-related potential, for learning-related behaviors and academic performance in a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners. The sample consisted of 239 children from an urban, low-income community, approximately half of whom exhibited behavior problems at school entry (45% aggressive/oppositional; 64% male; 69% African American, 21% Hispanic). Results revealed that higher P3b amplitudes to target stimuli in a go/no-go task were associated with more adaptive learning-related behaviors in kindergarten. Furthermore, children's learning-related behaviors in kindergarten mediated a positive indirect effect of P3b amplitude on growth in academic performance from kindergarten to 1st grade. Given that P3b amplitude reflects attention allocation processes, these findings build on the scientific justification for interventions targeting young children's attention skills in order to promote effective learning-related behaviors and academic achievement within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. PMID:26053149

  4. The relationship between self-awareness of attentional status, behavioral performance and oscillatory brain rhythms.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Anderson, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    High-level cognitive factors, including self-awareness, are believed to play an important role in human visual perception. The principal aim of this study was to determine whether oscillatory brain rhythms play a role in the neural processes involved in self-monitoring attentional status. To do so we measured cortical activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants were asked to self-monitor their internal status, only initiating the presentation of a stimulus when they perceived their attentional focus to be maximal. We employed a hierarchical Bayesian method that uses fMRI results as soft-constrained spatial information to solve the MEG inverse problem, allowing us to estimate cortical currents in the order of millimeters and milliseconds. Our results show that, during self-monitoring of internal status, there was a sustained decrease in power within the 7-13 Hz (alpha) range in the rostral cingulate motor area (rCMA) on the human medial wall, beginning approximately 430 msec after the trial start (p < 0.05, FDR corrected). We also show that gamma-band power (41-47 Hz) within this area was positively correlated with task performance from 40-640 msec after the trial start (r = 0.71, p < 0.05). We conclude: (1) the rCMA is involved in processes governing self-monitoring of internal status; and (2) the qualitative differences between alpha and gamma activity are reflective of their different roles in self-monitoring internal states. We suggest that alpha suppression may reflect a strengthening of top-down interareal connections, while a positive correlation between gamma activity and task performance indicates that gamma may play an important role in guiding visuomotor behavior. PMID:24069368

  5. The Effects of Cumulative Violence Clusters on Young Mothers' School Participation: Examining Attention and Behavior Problems as Mediators.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Angie C; Adams, Adrienne E

    2016-04-01

    Using a cluster analysis approach with a sample of 205 young mothers recruited from community sites in an urban Midwestern setting, we examined the effects of cumulative violence exposure (community violence exposure, witnessing intimate partner violence, physical abuse by a caregiver, and sexual victimization, all with onset prior to age 13) on school participation, as mediated by attention and behavior problems in school. We identified five clusters of cumulative exposure, and found that the HiAll cluster (high levels of exposure to all four types) consistently fared the worst, with significantly higher attention and behavior problems, and lower school participation, in comparison with the LoAll cluster (low levels of exposure to all types). Behavior problems were a significant mediator of the effects of cumulative violence exposure on school participation, but attention problems were not. PMID:25538121

  6. Selective Attention to Threatening Stimuli and Field Independence as Factors in the Etiology of Paranoid Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locasio, Joseph J.; Snyder, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    To test a theory that selective attention to threatening stimuli induces paranoia, an attempt was made to manipulate attention to threatening and nonthreatening statements among college students and examine the effects on three indices of paranoia. (Editor)

  7. College Students' Attention Behaviors during Independent Study and Course Level Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Linda G.

    2012-01-01

    Students in college make daily choices about how to use their independent study time, including choices about allocation of attention. Based on theoretical considerations and clinical studies, attention and the dividing of attention through multitasking is thought to have a relationship to performance levels. Research is only beginning to explore,…

  8. Behavioral and ERP Evidence for Amodal Sluggish Attentional Shifting in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lallier, Marie; Tainturier, Marie-Josephe; Dering, Benjamin; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane; Thierry, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the claim that amodal deficits in attentional shifting may be the source of reading acquisition disorders in phonological developmental dyslexia (sluggish attentional shifting, SAS, theory, Hari & Renvall, 2001). We investigated automatic attentional shifting in the auditory and visual modalities in 13

  9. The Development of Attention to Simple and Complex Visual Stimuli in Infants: Behavioral and Psychophysiological Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, John E.

    2010-01-01

    The study of visual attention in infants has used presentation of single simple stimuli, multi-dimensional stimuli, and complex dynamic video presentations. There are both continuities and discontinuities in the findings on attention and attentiveness to stimulus complexity. A continuity is a pattern of looking that is found in the early part of

  10. Visual Attention and Autistic Behavior in Infants with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jane E.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Long, Anna C. J.; Anello, Vittoria; Colombo, John

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant attention is a core feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS), however, little is known regarding the developmental trajectory and underlying physiological processes of attention deficits in FXS. Atypical visual attention is an early emerging and robust indicator of autism in idiopathic (non-FXS) autism. Using a biobehavioral approach with gaze…

  11. Behavioral and ERP Evidence for Amodal Sluggish Attentional Shifting in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lallier, Marie; Tainturier, Marie-Josephe; Dering, Benjamin; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane; Thierry, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the claim that amodal deficits in attentional shifting may be the source of reading acquisition disorders in phonological developmental dyslexia (sluggish attentional shifting, SAS, theory, Hari & Renvall, 2001). We investigated automatic attentional shifting in the auditory and visual modalities in 13…

  12. The Development of Attention to Simple and Complex Visual Stimuli in Infants: Behavioral and Psychophysiological Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, John E.

    2010-01-01

    The study of visual attention in infants has used presentation of single simple stimuli, multi-dimensional stimuli, and complex dynamic video presentations. There are both continuities and discontinuities in the findings on attention and attentiveness to stimulus complexity. A continuity is a pattern of looking that is found in the early part of…

  13. Acceptability of Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Relations to Child and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Charlotte; Hommersen, Paul; Seipp, Carla

    2008-01-01

    One-hundred nine mothers of 5- to 12-year-old boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated. Mothers read case descriptions of boys with ADHD and of boys with both ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Half of the mothers were randomly assigned to read descriptions of behavioral parent training and half to read…

  14. Comparison of Parent's and Teachers' Perceptions of Children's Behavior: A Study of Attentional Problems in a Natural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Lisa N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate concordance of reports of hyperactive and distractible behavior from three different sources: parents, teachers, and the child, using two different instruments, the ADHD Rating Scale and the Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS). The incidence rate of attentional problems that any of the sources reported in…

  15. Uncovering Collaborative Literacy Strategies, Alternative Assessments, and a Personalized Behavior Plan to Support Learners with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMantia, Dana J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to delve into the challenges of collaborative literacy instruction, literacy assessments, and the development of behavior plans in order to support Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) learners in an urban classroom setting. The DSM-IV states that the neuropsychiatry syndrome of ADHD affects approximately…

  16. The Importance of Parental Attributions in Families of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Charlotte; Ohan, Jeneva L.

    2005-01-01

    Presents a social-cognitive model outlining the role of parental attributions for child behavior in parent?child interactions. Examples of studies providing evidence for the basic model are presented, with particular reference to applications of the model in families of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or…

  17. Athletic Performance and Social Behavior as Predictors of Peer Acceptance in Children Diagnosed With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Williams, Andy; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Seymour, Karen E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Pelham, William E.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-three children between ages 6 and 12 who were enrolled in a summer treatment program for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a study designed to measure the relationship between social behaviors, athletic performance, and peer acceptance. Children were assessed on sport-specific skills of three major

  18. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

  19. Home Literacy Exposure and Early Language and Literacy Skills in Children Who Struggle with Behavior and Attention Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haak, Jill; Downer, Jason; Reeve, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated the relationships between behavior and attention problems and early language and literacy outcomes for 4-year-olds who experienced varied early home literacy environments. Participants were 1,364 children enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care…

  20. Detecting Parental Deception Using a Behavior Rating Scale during Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that parents completing behavior rating scales during the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can deliberately manipulate the outcomes of the assessment. To detect these actions, items designed to detect over-reporting or under-reporting of results are sometimes embedded in such rating scales. This…

  1. Improving Compliance with Diabetes Management in Young Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Using Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Lisa M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Hunter, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Medical adherence to complex diabetes regimens can be challenging, particularly for adolescents, and therefore represents the most common reason for referral to behavioral psychologists among this population. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), when present in children and adolescents with diabetes, presents unique barriers to…

  2. Detecting Parental Deception Using a Behavior Rating Scale during Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that parents completing behavior rating scales during the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can deliberately manipulate the outcomes of the assessment. To detect these actions, items designed to detect over-reporting or under-reporting of results are sometimes embedded in such rating scales. This

  3. Athletic Performance and Social Behavior as Predictors of Peer Acceptance in Children Diagnosed With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Williams, Andy; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Seymour, Karen E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Pelham, William E.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-three children between ages 6 and 12 who were enrolled in a summer treatment program for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a study designed to measure the relationship between social behaviors, athletic performance, and peer acceptance. Children were assessed on sport-specific skills of three major…

  4. A Comparison of Behavioral Parent Training Programs for Fathers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Chacko, Anil; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Robb, Jessica; Walker, Kathryn S.; Wymbs, Frances; Sastry, Amber L.; Flammer, Lizette; Keenan, Jenna K.; Visweswaraiah, Hema; Shulman, Simon; Herbst, Laura; Pirvics, Lauma

    2009-01-01

    Few behavioral parent training (BPT) treatment studies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have included and measured outcomes with fathers. In this study, fathers were randomly assigned to attend a standard BPT program or the Coaching Our Acting-Out Children: Heightening Essential Skills (COACHES) program. The COACHES program…

  5. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…

  6. Mother-Son Interactions in Families of Boys with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder with and without Oppositional Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seipp, Carla M.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    Parenting responsiveness and over-reactivity were assessed among 25 mothers of 7-9-year-old sons with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and oppositional behavior (Oppositional Defiant, OD), 24 mothers of sons with ADHD only, and 38 mothers of nonproblem sons. Responsiveness was observed during mother-son play and clean-up

  7. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the

  8. Non-Drug Interventions for Improving Classroom Behavior and Social Functioning of Young Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliff, David

    This paper explores research on use of medication and non-drug interventions to modify the behavior of preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It begins by discussing the symptoms of ADHD, neurological differences between children with ADHD and those without ADHD, and expected adolescent and adult outcomes for…

  9. Using a Mobile Handheld Computer to Teach a Student with an Emotional and Behavioral Disorder to Self-Monitor Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulchak, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Teaching students to self-monitor their attention or on-task behavior has a robust history of success in school and has been an effective strategy for students of all ages, including those with and without disabilities. However, this strategy has not made use of advances in technology in order to collect and record performance data. In this study,…

  10. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Behavioral Inhibition: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Stop-Signal Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Deficient behavioral inhibition (BI) processes are considered a core feature of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This meta-analytic review is the first to examine the potential influence of a wide range of subject and task variable moderator effects on BI processes--assessed by the stop-signal paradigm--in children with ADHD…

  11. Association between dietary behaviors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Hong, Yun-Chul; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Cho, In-Hee; Bhang, Soo-Young

    2012-08-15

    We aimed to comprehensively investigate the associations between a wide range of measures of dietary behaviors and learning disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in community-dwelling Korean children in order to generate hypotheses for future work. The present study included 986 children [507 boys, 479 girls; mean (S.D.) age=9.1 (0.7) years] recruited from five South Korean cities. Children's dietary behaviors were assessed by the mini-dietary assessment (MDA) for Koreans. It consists of ten items to assess the level of intake of dairy products, high-protein foods, vegetables, fried foods, fatty meats, salt, and sweetened desserts and whether the subject is eating three regular meals and has a balanced diet. Learning disability was assessed via the Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES). ADHD was assessed via the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children version-IV and the ADHD rating scale, and ADHD-related behavioral problems were assessed via the Child Behavior Checklist. After adjusting for potential confounders, a high intake of sweetened desserts, fried food, and salt is associated with more learning, attention, and behavioral problems, whereas a balanced diet, regular meals, and a high intake of dairy products and vegetables is associated with less learning, attention, and behavioral problems. Our data suggest that existing encouraged dietary habits mostly have beneficial effects on learning, attention, and behavioral problems in Korean children. These findings are in general the same results in other studies on ADHD children in other countries. However, the cross-sectional study design prevents our ability to assess causal relationships. PMID:22999993

  12. Long-Term Cardiovascular Fitness Is Associated with Auditory Attentional Control in Old Adults: Neuro-Behavioral Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Getzmann, Stephan; Falkenstein, Michael; Gajewski, Patrick D.

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that healthy aging affects the ability to focus attention on a given task and to ignore distractors. Here, we asked whether long-term physical activity is associated with lower susceptibility to distraction of auditory attention, and how physically active and inactive seniors may differ regarding subcomponents of auditory attention. An auditory duration discrimination task was employed, and involuntary attentional shifts to task-irrelevant rare frequency deviations and subsequent reorientation were studied by analysis of behavioral data and event-related potential measures. The frequency deviations impaired performance more in physically inactive than active seniors. This was accompanied by a stronger frontal positivity (P3a) and increased activation of anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting a stronger involuntary shift of attention towards task-irrelevant stimulus features in inactive compared to active seniors. These results indicate a positive relationship between physical fitness and attentional control in elderly, presumably due to more focused attentional resources and enhanced inhibition of irrelevant stimulus features. PMID:24023949

  13. The development of attention to simple and complex visual stimuli in infants: Behavioral and psychophysiological measures

    PubMed Central

    Richards, John E.

    2010-01-01

    The study of visual attention in infants has used presentation of single simple stimuli, multi-dimensional stimuli, and complex dynamic video presentations. There are both continuities and discontinuities in the findings on attention and attentiveness to stimulus complexity. A continuity is a pattern of looking that is found in the early part of infancy that remains throughout adulthood. A discontinuity is an emerging sensitivity to the content of the information in the stimulus presentations and alterations in patterns of attention based upon stimulus comprehensibility. The current paper reviews some of these findings with particular application to complex video presentations. PMID:20526452

  14. Neurogenetic interactions and aberrant behavioral co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dispelling myths

    PubMed Central

    Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Blum, Kenneth; Mengucci, Julie F; Blum, Seth H; Meshkin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years supporting this statement, there are still many misconceptions about ADHD. These include believing the disorder does not exist, that all children have symptoms of ADHD, that if it does exist it is grossly over-diagnosed and over-treated, and that the treatment is dangerous and leads to a propensity to drug addiction. Since most misconceptions contain elements of truth, where does the reality lie? Results We have reviewed the literature to evaluate some of the claims and counter-claims. The evidence suggests that ADHD is primarily a polygenic disorder involving at least 50 genes, including those encoding enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism, neurotransmitter transporters and receptors. Because of its polygenic nature, ADHD is often accompanied by other behavioral abnormalities. It is present in adults as well as children, but in itself it does not necessarily impair function in adult life; associated disorders, however, may do so. A range of treatment options is reviewed and the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of standard drug treatments are considered. Conclusion The genes so far implicated in ADHD account for only part of the total picture. Identification of the remaining genes and characterization of their interactions is likely to establish ADHD firmly as a biological disorder and to lead to better methods of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:16375770

  15. Attention deficit.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, P B

    1991-01-01

    Attention deficit, among the most commonly diagnosed functional deficits in pediatric neurology, is, like epilepsy, most often idiopathic. It can also be a symptom of many neuropathologic states. Although a lifelong problem, attention deficit is most troublesome during school years, because, like asthma, it is highly sensitive to environmental influence. The neurologist can consider attention deficit in its own right, apart from hyperkinesis and other associated behavior disorders, as a cognitive limitation and handicap to academic progress. PMID:1797006

  16. Cardiac and Behavioral Evidence for Emotional Influences on Attention in 7-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppanen, Jukka; Peltola, Mikko J.; Mantymaa, Mirjami; Koivuluoma, Mikko; Salminen, Anni; Puura, Kaija

    2010-01-01

    To examine the ontogeny of emotion-attention interactions, we investigated whether infants exhibit adult-like biases in automatic and voluntary attentional processes towards fearful facial expressions. Heart rate and saccadic eye movements were measured from 7-month-old infants (n = 42) while viewing non-face control stimuli, and neutral, happy,…

  17. Separable Roles for Attentional Control Sub-Systems in Reading Tasks: A Combined Behavioral and fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Ihnen, S.K.Z.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control is important both for learning to read and for performing difficult reading tasks. A previous study invoked 2 mechanisms to explain reaction time (RT) differences between reading tasks with variable attentional demands. The present study combined behavioral and neuroimaging measures to test the hypotheses that there are 2 mechanisms of interaction between attentional control and reading; that these mechanisms are dissociable both behaviorally and neuro-anatomically; and that the 2 mechanisms involve functionally separable control systems. First, RT evidence was found in support of the 2-mechanism model, corroborating the previous study. Next, 2 sets of brain regions were identified as showing functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level-dependent activity that maps onto the 2-mechanism distinction. One set included bilateral Cingulo-opercular regions and mostly right-lateralized Dorsal Attention regions (CO/DA+). This CO/DA+ region set showed response properties consistent with a role in reporting which processing pathway (phonological or lexical) was biased for a particular trial. A second set was composed primarily of left-lateralized Frontal-parietal (FP) regions. Its signal properties were consistent with a role in response checking. These results demonstrate how the subcomponents of attentional control interact with subcomponents of reading processes in healthy young adults. PMID:24275830

  18. Fearful, surprised, happy, and angry facial expressions modulate gaze-oriented attention: Behavioral and ERP evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lassalle, Amandine; Itier, Roxane J.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of emotions on gaze-oriented attention was investigated in non-anxious participants. A neutral face cue with straight gaze was presented, which then averted its gaze to the side while remaining neutral or expressing an emotion (fear/surprise in Exp.1 and anger/happiness in Exp.2). Localization of a subsequent target was faster at the gazed-at location (congruent condition) than at the non-gazed-at location (incongruent condition). This Gaze-Orienting Effect (GOE) was enhanced for fear, surprise, and anger, compared to neutral expressions which did not differ from happy expressions. In addition, Event Related Potentials (ERPs) to the target showed a congruency effect on P1 for fear and surprise and a left lateralized congruency effect on P1 for happy faces, suggesting that target visual processing was also influenced by attention to gaze and emotions. Finally, at cue presentation, early postero-lateral (Early Directing Attention Negativity (EDAN)) and later antero-lateral (Anterior Directing Attention Negativity (ADAN)) attention-related ERP components were observed, reflecting, respectively, the shift of attention and its holding at gazed-at locations. These two components were not modulated by emotions. Together, these findings show that the processing of social signals such as gaze and facial expression interact rather late and in a complex manner to modulate spatial attention. PMID:24047232

  19. Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation?: A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method A diverse community sample (55% African-American) of males (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of age (M = 25.80) were randomly assigned to one of two beverage conditions (i.e., alcohol, no-alcohol control) and one of two distraction conditions (i.e., distraction, no-distraction). Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks and a verbal insult from a fictitious male opponent. Participants’ attention-allocation to aggression words (i.e., aggression bias) and physical aggression were measured using a dot probe task and a shock-based aggression task, respectively. Results Intoxicated men whose attention was distracted displayed significantly lower levels of aggression bias and enacted significantly less physical aggression than intoxicated men whose attention was not distracted. However, aggression bias did not account for the lower levels of alcohol-related aggression in the distraction, relative to the no-distraction, condition. Conclusions These results replicated and extended past evidence that cognitive distraction is associated with lower levels of alcohol-related aggression in highly provoked males and provide the first known cognitive data to support the attentional processes posited by the attention-allocation model. Discussion focused on how these data inform intervention programming for alcohol-related aggression. PMID:21500889

  20. Effects of Punishment and Response-Independent Attention on Severe Problem Behavior and Appropriate Toy Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Shannon S.; Poe, Susannah G.; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2005-01-01

    Problem behavior can interfere with learning, the development of appropriate skills, and socialization in persons with developmental disabilities. In severe cases, problem behavior could result in life-threatening injury. For one 21-month-old participant diagnosed with autism engaging in severe problem behavior for whom reinforcement-based…

  1. Paternal influences on treatment outcome of behavioral parent training in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Sytema, Sjoerd; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Minderaa, Ruud B; Nauta, Maaike H

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of paternal variables on outcome of behavioral parent training (BPT) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 83 referred, school-aged children with ADHD were randomly assigned to BPT plus ongoing routine clinical care (RCC) or RCC alone. Treatment outcome was based on parent-reported ADHD symptoms and behavioral problems. Moderator variables included paternal ADHD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and parenting self-efficacy. We conducted repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) for all variables, and then analyzed the direction of interaction effects by repeated measures ANOVA in high and low scoring subgroups. Paternal ADHD symptoms and parenting self-efficacy played a moderating role in decreasing behavioral problems, but not in decreasing ADHD symptoms. Paternal depressive symptoms did not moderate either treatment outcome. BPT is most beneficial in reducing children's behavioral problems when their fathers have high levels of ADHD symptoms or high-parenting self-efficacy. PMID:24878676

  2. Involuntary attentional capture by speech and non-speech deviations: a combined behavioral-event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Reiche, M; Hartwigsen, G; Widmann, A; Saur, D; Schröger, E; Bendixen, A

    2013-01-15

    This study applied an auditory distraction paradigm to investigate involuntary attention effects of unexpected deviations in speech and non-speech sounds on behavior (increase in response time and error rate) and event-related brain potentials (ΔN1/MMN and P3a). Our aim was to systematically compare identical speech sounds with physical vs. linguistic deviations and identical deviations (pitch) with speech vs. non-speech sounds in the same set of healthy volunteers. Sine tones and bi-syllabic pseudo-words were presented in a 2-alternative forced-choice paradigm with occasional phoneme deviants in pseudo-words, pitch deviants in pseudo-words, or pitch deviants in tones. Deviance-related ERP components were elicited in all conditions. Deviance-related negativities (ΔN1/MMN) differed in scalp distribution between phoneme and pitch deviants within phonemes, indicating that auditory deviance-detection partly operates in a deviance-specific manner. P3a as an indicator of attentional orienting was similar in all conditions, and was accompanied by behavioral indicators of distraction. Yet smaller behavioral effects and prolonged relative MMN-P3a latency were observed for pitch deviants within phonemes relative to the other two conditions. This suggests that the similarity and separability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information is essential for the extent of attentional capture and distraction. PMID:23123705

  3. Effects of caffeine on classroom behavior, sustained attention, and a memory task in preschool children.

    PubMed Central

    Baer, R A

    1987-01-01

    The effects of caffeine on the behavior of young children is an important issue, as children in our society consume considerable amounts of caffeine, primarily in soft drinks. This study investigated the effects of normative amounts of caffeine on the behavior of 6 normal children in a kindergarten setting. Using a reversal design, counterbalanced for order of conditions, children's behavior was examined during a baseline condition, a caffeinated beverage condition, and a noncaffeinated beverage condition. Measures included direct observation of off-task and gross motor activity, actometer readings of movement, a Continuous Performance Test, a Paired Associates Learning Test, and teacher ratings of classroom behavior. Results suggest that caffeine exerts only small and inconsistent effects on the classroom behavior of kindergarten children. These results cast doubt on the importance of caffeine as a variable controlling the classroom behavior of normal kindergartners. PMID:3667474

  4. The differential effects of teacher and peer attention on the disruptive classroom behavior of three children with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Northup, J; Broussard, C; Jones, K; George, T; Vollmer, T R; Herring, M

    1995-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of classroom disruption during contingent teacher and peer attention conditions for 3 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention provided by peer confederates appeared to function as a distinct form of positive reinforcement for all 3 children. PMID:7601806

  5. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training on Behavioral Problems and Attentional Functioning in Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Formsma, Anne R.; de Bruin, Esther I.; Bogels, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11-15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7) completed measurements before, immediately after, 8…

  6. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for College Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, J. Russell; Rostain, Anthony L.

    2006-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental syndrome that persists into adulthood for the majority of children with ADHD. Other individuals may not experience the full negative effects of undiagnosed ADHD until they face the demands of adult life. College counseling centers in particular are seeing a rise in the number of…

  7. Mighty Metaphors: Behavioral and ERP Evidence that Power Shifts Attention on a Vertical Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanolie, Kiki; van Dantzig, Saskia; Boot, Inge; Wijnen, Jasper; Schubert, Thomas W.; Giessner, Steffen R.; Pecher, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Thinking about the abstract concept power may automatically activate the spatial up-down image schema ("powerful up"; "powerless down") and consequently direct spatial attention to the image schema-congruent location. Participants indicated whether a word represented a powerful or powerless person (e.g. "king" or "servant"). Following each…

  8. Temporal Context in Speech Processing and Attentional Stream Selection: A Behavioral and Neural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golumbic, Elana M. Zion; Poeppel, David; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    The human capacity for processing speech is remarkable, especially given that information in speech unfolds over multiple time scales concurrently. Similarly notable is our ability to filter out of extraneous sounds and focus our attention on one conversation, epitomized by the "Cocktail Party" effect. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying on-line…

  9. Experimental Analysis of Effects of Teacher Attention of Preschool Children's Block Building Behavior. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Margaret L.

    This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of teacher attention given for specific responses children show when using building blocks. These included the responses of combining triangles to make rectangles, stacking diverse pieces to make a tower, making stairs, making a variation on a model, and making a house-like, enclosed, roofed…

  10. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these

  12. The Effect of Acupressure for Moderating Behavior of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lynn; Sinnott, Jan

    This study examined the effects of an acupressure intervention with two adolescents previously diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). An inventory based on standard criteria for diagnosing ADHD was completed by each student, their parents, case workers, and teachers both before and after the intervention. The intervention…

  13. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions…

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

  15. Mighty Metaphors: Behavioral and ERP Evidence that Power Shifts Attention on a Vertical Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanolie, Kiki; van Dantzig, Saskia; Boot, Inge; Wijnen, Jasper; Schubert, Thomas W.; Giessner, Steffen R.; Pecher, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Thinking about the abstract concept power may automatically activate the spatial up-down image schema ("powerful up"; "powerless down") and consequently direct spatial attention to the image schema-congruent location. Participants indicated whether a word represented a powerful or powerless person (e.g. "king" or "servant"). Following each

  16. Effects of Caffeine on Classroom Behavior, Sustained Attention, and a Memory Task in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Ruth A.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of the effect of normative amounts of caffeine on the behavior of six normal kindergarten children found that caffeine exerted only small and inconsistent effects on such classroom behaviors as time off-task and gross motor activity. (Author/DB)

  17. Behavioral Inhibition and Anxiety: The Moderating Roles of Inhibitory Control and Attention Shifting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament identified in early childhood, is associated with social reticence in childhood and an increased risk for anxiety problems in adolescence and adulthood. However, not all behaviorally inhibited children remain reticent or develop an anxiety disorder. One possible mechanism accounting for the variability in…

  18. Behavioral impairments in rats with chronic epilepsy suggest comorbidity between epilepsy and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Eduardo; Jentsch, J David; Shin, Don; Griesbach, Grace; Sankar, Raman; Mazarati, Andrey

    2014-02-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is encountered among patients with epilepsy at a significantly higher rate than in the general population. Mechanisms of epilepsy-ADHD comorbidity remain largely unknown. We investigated whether a model of chronic epilepsy in rats produces signs of ADHD, and thus, whether it can be used for studying mechanisms of this comorbidity. Epilepsy was induced in male Wistar rats via pilocarpine status epilepticus. Half of the animals exhibited chronic ADHD-like abnormalities, particularly increased impulsivity and diminished attention in the lateralized reaction-time task. These impairments correlated with the suppressed noradrenergic transmission in locus coeruleus outputs. The other half of animals exhibited depressive behavior in the forced swimming test congruently with the diminished serotonergic transmission in raphe nucleus outputs. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depressive behavior appeared mutually exclusive. Therefore, the pilocarpine model of epilepsy affords a system for reproducing and studying mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and both ADHD and/or depression. PMID:24262783

  19. The Potential Influence of “Stimulus Overselectivity” in AAC: Information from Eye-tracking and Behavioral Studies of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Dube, William V.; Wilkinson, Krista M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of “stimulus overselectivity” or “overselective attention” as it may impact AAC training and use in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Stimulus overselectivity is defined as an atypical limitation in the number of stimuli or stimulus features within an image that are attended to and subsequently learned. Within AAC, the term “stimulus” could refer to symbols or line drawings on speech generating devices, drawings or pictures on low-technology systems, and/or the elements within visual scene displays. In this context, overselective attention may result in unusual or uneven error patterns such as confusion between two symbols that share a single feature or difficulties with transitioning between different types of hardware. We review some of the ways that overselective attention has been studied behaviorally. We then examine how eye tracking technology allows a glimpse into some of the behavioral characteristics of overselective attention. We describe an intervention approach, differential observing responses, that may reduce or eliminate overselectivity, and we consider this type of intervention as it relates to issues of relevance for AAC. PMID:24773053

  20. Depression in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Mediating Role of Cognitive-Behavioral Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zvorsky, Ivori; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for depressive disorders but little is known about the potential cognitive and behavioral mechanisms of risk that could shape treatment. This study evaluated the degree to which cognitive-behavioral constructs associated with depression and its treatmentdysfunctional attitudes and cognitive-behavioral avoidanceaccounted for variance in depressive symptoms and disorder in adults with ADHD. 77 adults clinically diagnosed with ADHD completed self-report questionnaires, diagnostic interviews, and clinician-administered symptom rating scales. Statistical mediation analysis was employed and indirect effects assessed using bootstrap analysis and bias-corrected confidence intervals. Controlling for recent negative life events, dysfunctional attitudes and cognitive-behavioral avoidance fully accounted for the variance between ADHD symptoms and depressive symptoms. Each independent variable partially mediated the other in accounting for depression symptoms suggesting overlapping and unique variance. Cognitive-behavioral avoidance, however, was more strongly related to meeting diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder than were dysfunctional attitudes. Processes that are targeted in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for depression were associated with symptoms in adults with ADHD. Current CBT approaches for ADHD incorporate active coping skills and cognitive restructuring and such approaches could be further tailored to address the ADHD-depression comorbidity. PMID:26089578

  1. Distinguishing between autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by using behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and neuropsychological test battery.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Naomi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Arai, Sumiyoshi; Kawamura, Kaori; Asano, Mizuki; Inohara, Keisuke; Narimoto, Tadamasa; Wada, Yuji; Hiratani, Michio; Kosaka, Hirotaka

    2014-12-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share many common symptoms, including attention deficit, behavioral problems, and difficulties with social skills. The aim of this study was to distinguish between ASD and ADHD by identifying the characteristic features of both the disorders, by using multidimensional assessments, including screening behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and comprehensive neurological battery. After screening for comorbid disorders, we carefully selected age-, sex-, IQ-, and socio-economic status-matched children with typical development (TD). In the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, a lower score was observed for the ASD group than for the TD group in Picture concept, which is a subscale of perceptual reasoning. A lower score was shown by the ADHD group than by the TD group in the spatial working memory test in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB(®)). Although ASD and ADHD have many similar symptoms, they can be differentiated by focusing on the behavioral and cognitive characteristics of executive function. PMID:25440561

  2. Diacylglycerol Kinase β Knockout Mice Exhibit Attention-Deficit Behavior and an Abnormal Response on Methylphenidate-Induced Hyperactivity

    PubMed Central

    Ishisaka, Mitsue; Kakefuda, Kenichi; Oyagi, Atsushi; Ono, Yoko; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Hara, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Background Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to produce phosphatidic acid. DGKβ is one of the subtypes of the DGK family and regulates many intracellular signaling pathways in the central nervous system. Previously, we demonstrated that DGKβ knockout (KO) mice showed various dysfunctions of higher brain function, such as cognitive impairment (with lower spine density), hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and careless behavior. In the present study, we conducted further tests on DGKβ KO mice in order to investigate the function of DGKβ in the central nervous system, especially in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methodology/Principal Findings DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit behavior in the object-based attention test and it was ameliorated by methylphenidate (MPH, 30 mg/kg, i.p.). In the open field test, DGKβ KO mice displayed a decreased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MPH (30 mg/kg, i.p.), but showed a similar response to an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), when compared to WT mice. Examination of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, indicated that ERK1/2 activation induced by MPH treatment was defective in the striatum of DGKβ KO mice. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit and hyperactive phenotype, similar to ADHD. Furthermore, the hyporesponsiveness of DGKβ KO mice to MPH was due to dysregulation of ERK phosphorylation, and that DGKβ has a pivotal involvement in ERK regulation in the striatum. PMID:22590645

  3. Prenatal exposure to mercury and fish consumption during pregnancy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-related behavior in children.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Sagiv SK; Thurston SW; Bellinger DC; Amarasiriwardena C; Korrick SA

    2012-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of prenatal mercury exposure and fish intake with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related behavior.METHODS: For a population-based prospective birth cohort recruited in New Bedford, Massachusetts (1993-1998), we analyzed data for children examined at age 8 years with peripartum maternal hair mercury measures (n = 421) or maternal report of fish consumption during pregnancy (n = 515). Inattentive and impulsive/hyperactive behaviors were assessed using a teacher rating scale and neuropsychological testing.RESULTS: The median maternal hair mercury level was 0.45 μg/g (range, 0.03-5.14 μg/g), and 52% of mothers consumed more than 2 fish servings weekly. In multivariable regression models, mercury exposure was associated with inattention and impulsivity/hyperactivity; some outcomes had an apparent threshold with associations at 1 μg/g or greater of mercury. For example, at 1 μg/g or greater, the adjusted risk ratios for mild/markedly atypical inattentive and impulsive/hyperactive behaviors were 1.4 (95% CI, 1.0-1.8) and 1.7 (95% CI, 1.2-2.4), respectively, for an interquartile range (0.5 μg/g) mercury increase; there was no confounding by fish consumption. For neuropsychological assessments, mercury and behavior associations were detected primarily for boys. There was a protective association for fish consumption (>2 servings per week) with ADHD-related behaviors, particularly impulsive/hyperactive behaviors (relative risk = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.6).CONCLUSIONS: Low-level prenatal mercury exposure is associated with a greater risk of ADHD-related behaviors, and fish consumption during pregnancy is protective of these behaviors. These findings underscore the difficulties of balancing the benefits of fish intake with the detriments of low-level mercury exposure in developing dietary recommendations in pregnancy.

  4. Behavioral and Neural Markers of Flexible Attention over Working Memory in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Robert M.; Myers, Nicholas E.; Wallis, George; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) declines as we age and, because of its fundamental role in higher order cognition, this can have highly deleterious effects in daily life. We investigated whether older individuals benefit from flexible orienting of attention within WM to mitigate cognitive decline. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) in older adults performing a WM precision task with cues during the maintenance period that retroactively predicted the location of the relevant items for performance (retro-cues). WM performance of older adults significantly benefitted from retro-cues. Whereas WM maintenance declined with age, retro-cues conferred strong attentional benefits. A model-based analysis revealed an increase in the probability of recalling the target, a lowered probability of retrieving incorrect items or guessing, and an improvement in memory precision. MEG recordings showed that retro-cues induced a transient lateralization of alpha (8–14 Hz) and beta (15–30 Hz) oscillatory power. Interestingly, shorter durations of alpha/beta lateralization following retro-cues predicted larger cueing benefits, reinforcing recent ideas about the dynamic nature of access to WM representations. Our results suggest that older adults retain flexible control over WM, but individual differences in control correspond to differences in neural dynamics, possibly reflecting the degree of preservation of control in healthy aging. PMID:26865653

  5. Behavioral and Neural Markers of Flexible Attention over Working Memory in Aging.

    PubMed

    Mok, Robert M; Myers, Nicholas E; Wallis, George; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2016-04-01

    Working memory (WM) declines as we age and, because of its fundamental role in higher order cognition, this can have highly deleterious effects in daily life. We investigated whether older individuals benefit from flexible orienting of attention within WM to mitigate cognitive decline. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) in older adults performing a WM precision task with cues during the maintenance period that retroactively predicted the location of the relevant items for performance (retro-cues). WM performance of older adults significantly benefitted from retro-cues. Whereas WM maintenance declined with age, retro-cues conferred strong attentional benefits. A model-based analysis revealed an increase in the probability of recalling the target, a lowered probability of retrieving incorrect items or guessing, and an improvement in memory precision. MEG recordings showed that retro-cues induced a transient lateralization of alpha (8-14 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillatory power. Interestingly, shorter durations of alpha/beta lateralization following retro-cues predicted larger cueing benefits, reinforcing recent ideas about the dynamic nature of access to WM representations. Our results suggest that older adults retain flexible control over WM, but individual differences in control correspond to differences in neural dynamics, possibly reflecting the degree of preservation of control in healthy aging. PMID:26865653

  6. Parent Agreement on Ratings of Children's Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Broadband Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Simon, John O.; Loren, Richard E. A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hechtman, Lily; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; Pelham, William E.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Mothers and fathers often disagree in their ratings of child behavior, as evidenced clinically and as supported by a substantial literature examining parental agreement on broadband rating scales. The present study examined mother-father agreement on "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual"-based symptom-specific ratings of…

  7. Factors Contributing to the Emergence of Anxiety among Behaviorally Inhibited Children: The Role of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament that can be identified early in childhood. Children with BI are socially reticent, withdraw from engaging unfamiliar peers, and often have problems in forming friendships. They are also at risk for developing anxiety disorders as they get older. There is, however, as much discontinuity as continuity in…

  8. Factors Contributing to the Emergence of Anxiety among Behaviorally Inhibited Children: The Role of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament that can be identified early in childhood. Children with BI are socially reticent, withdraw from engaging unfamiliar peers, and often have problems in forming friendships. They are also at risk for developing anxiety disorders as they get older. There is, however, as much discontinuity as continuity in

  9. Shared Attention.

    PubMed

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world. PMID:26385997

  10. Parenting Behaviors During Risky Driving by Teens with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Nicole K.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Morris, Karen L.; Shucard, Jennifer M.; Leo, Brittany A.; Bieniek, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Parenting practices for teen drivers with ADHD were observed via a video monitor installed in vehicles. All teens had recently completed a driver education course and were in the driving permit stage of a graduated driver-licensing program. Parent behaviors were coded during drives when teens were driving safely and during drives when teens engaged in risky driving. The overall frequency of positive parenting strategies was low regardless of whether teens drove safely or engaged in risky driving. Although the rate of negative feedback was also low, parents engaged in significantly more criticism and were rated by an observer to appear angrier when teens were driving in a risky manner. No other differences in parent behaviors associated with the quality of teen driving were observed. The inconsistencies between observed parenting behaviors and those parenting practices recommended as effective with teens with ADHD are discussed. The need for further research addressing effective strategies for teaching teens with ADHD to drive is highlighted. PMID:24491192

  11. Parenting behaviors during risky driving by teens with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Nicole K; Fabiano, Gregory A; Morris, Karen L; Shucard, Jennifer M; Leo, Brittany A; Bieniek, Courtney

    2014-03-01

    Parenting practices for teen drivers with ADHD were observed via a video monitor installed in vehicles. All teens had recently completed a driver education course and were in the driving permit stage of a graduated driver-licensing program. Parent behaviors were coded during drives when teens were driving safely and during drives when teens engaged in risky driving. The overall frequency of positive parenting strategies was low, regardless of whether teens drove safely or engaged in risky driving. Although the rate of negative feedback was also low, parents engaged in significantly more criticism and were rated by an observer to appear angrier when teens were driving in a risky manner. No other differences in parent behaviors associated with the quality of teen driving were observed. The inconsistencies between observed parenting behaviors and those parenting practices recommended as effective with teens with ADHD are discussed. The need for further research addressing effective strategies for teaching teens with ADHD to drive is highlighted. PMID:24491192

  12. Effect of Treating Anxiety Disorders on Cognitive Deficits and Behaviors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Denis, Isabelle; Guay, Marie-Claude; Foldes-Busque, Guillaume; BenAmor, Leila

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-five percent of children with ADHD also have an anxiety disorder (AD). As per Quay and in light of Barkley's model, anxiety may have a protective effect on cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of treating AD on cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD in children with both disorders. Twenty-four children with ADHD and AD were divided into two groups: treatment for AD, and wait list. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up with the ADIS-C, the CBCL, and neuropsychological measures. The results revealed a significant improvement in automatic response inhibition and flexibility, and a decrease in inattention/hyperactivity behaviors following the treatment for AD. No significant differences were observed in motor response inhibition, working memory, or attention deficits. The results do not seem to support Quay's hypothesis: treating AD did not exacerbate cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD in our sample. PMID:26323585

  13. Sleep problems predict comorbid externalizing behaviors and depression in young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W

    2015-08-01

    Children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience high rates of sleep problems and are also at increased risk for experiencing comorbid mental health problems. This study provides an initial examination of the 1-year prospective association between sleep problems and comorbid symptoms in youth diagnosed with ADHD. Participants were 81 young adolescents (75 % male) carefully diagnosed with ADHD and their parents. Parents completed measures of their child's sleep problems and ADHD symptoms, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and general externalizing behavior problems at baseline (M age = 12.2) and externalizing behaviors were assessed again 1 year later. Adolescents completed measures of anxiety and depression at both time-points. Medication use was not associated with sleep problems or comorbid psychopathology symptoms. Regression analyses indicated that, above and beyond demographic characteristics, ADHD symptom severity, and initial levels of comorbidity, sleep problems significantly predicted greater ODD symptoms, general externalizing behavior problems, and depressive symptoms 1 year later. Sleep problems were not concurrently or prospectively associated with anxiety. Although this study precludes making causal inferences, it does nonetheless provide initial evidence of sleep problems predicting later comorbid externalizing behaviors and depression symptoms in youth with ADHD. Additional research is needed with larger samples and multiple time-points to further examine the interrelations of sleep problems and comorbidity. PMID:25359419

  14. Empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in 6- to 7-year olds diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, P K H; Schutter, D J L G; Kenemans, J L; Matthys, W

    2015-01-01

    Empathy has been associated with decreased antisocial and increased prosocial behavior. This study examined empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Six- and 7-year-old children with DBD (with and without ADHD) (n = 67) and with ADHD only (n = 27) were compared to typically developing children (TD) (n = 37). Parents and teachers rated affective empathy in response to sadness and distress on the Griffith Empathy Measure. Children reported affective empathic ability in response to sad story vignettes. Empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress was assessed with a computer task, the Interpersonal Response Task (IRT). Compared to TD, children with DBD (with and without ADHD) and those with ADHD only were rated as less empathic by their teachers, but not by their parents. No differences between groups were observed in children who reported affect correspondence. Children with DBD (with and without ADHD) showed less prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress compared to TD. Children with ADHD only did not differ from TD. An additional analysis comparing all children with a diagnosis to the TD group revealed that the difference in prosocial behavior remained after controlling for ADHD symptoms, but not after controlling for DBD symptoms. These findings of impaired empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in young children with DBD suggest that interventions to ameliorate peer relationships may benefit from targeting on increasing prosocial behavior in these children. PMID:24643447

  15. Shifts in attention during mental fatigue: Evidence from subjective, behavioral, physiological, and eye-tracking data.

    PubMed

    Hopstaken, Jesper F; van der Linden, Dimitri; Bakker, Arnold B; Kompier, Michiel A J; Leung, Yik Kiu

    2016-06-01

    There is an increasing amount of evidence that during mental fatigue, shifts in motivation drive performance rather than reductions in finite mental energy. So far, studies that investigated such an approach have mainly focused on cognitive indicators of task engagement that were measured during controlled tasks, offering limited to no alternative stimuli. Therefore it remained unclear whether during fatigue, attention is diverted to stimuli that are unrelated to the task, or whether fatigued individuals still focused on the task but were unable to use their cognitive resources efficiently. With a combination of subjective, EEG, pupil, eye-tracking, and performance measures the present study investigated the influence of mental fatigue on a cognitive task which also contained alternative task-unrelated stimuli. With increasing time-on-task, task engagement and performance decreased, but there was no significant decrease in gaze toward the task-related stimuli. After increasing the task rewards, irrelevant rewarding stimuli where largely ignored, and task engagement and performance were restored, even though participants still reported to be highly fatigued. Overall, these findings support an explanation of less efficient processing of the task that is influenced by motivational cost/reward tradeoffs, rather than a depletion of a finite mental energy resource. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26752733

  16. Working memory, attention, inhibition, and their relation to adaptive functioning and behavioral/emotional symptoms in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnöve; Troberg, Anna-Maria; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri; Saarinen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child Behavior Checklist. The studied dimensions of EF were cognitive efficiency/speed, working memory/attention and inhibitory control. Strong age effects were found for these cognitive abilities (p values <0.01). Inhibitory control was associated with better adaptive functioning (learning, working hard and behaving well), academic performance and less psychiatric symptoms (p values <0.05), specially in 8-9-year-old children. In this youngest age group low inhibitory control was also associated with teacher-reported inattention (p = 0.042). Low inhibitory control was associated with teacher- and parent-reported internalizing symptoms (p < 0.01). These results suggest that maturational factors may underlie low adaptive functioning and psychiatric symptoms during early school years. Further studies are needed to evaluate the association between inhibition and emotional symptoms. PMID:22661151

  17. A Role of Phase-Resetting in Coordinating Large Scale Neural Networks During Attention and Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Voloh, Benjamin; Womelsdorf, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    Short periods of oscillatory activation are ubiquitous signatures of neural circuits. A broad range of studies documents not only their circuit origins, but also a fundamental role for oscillatory activity in coordinating information transfer during goal directed behavior. Recent studies suggest that resetting the phase of ongoing oscillatory activity to endogenous or exogenous cues facilitates coordinated information transfer within circuits and between distributed brain areas. Here, we review evidence that pinpoints phase resetting as a critical marker of dynamic state changes of functional networks. Phase resets: (1) set a “neural context” in terms of narrow band frequencies that uniquely characterizes the activated circuits; (2) impose coherent low frequency phases to which high frequency activations can synchronize, identifiable as cross-frequency correlations across large anatomical distances; (3) are critical for neural coding models that depend on phase, increasing the informational content of neural representations; and (4) likely originate from the dynamics of canonical E-I circuits that are anatomically ubiquitous. These multiple signatures of phase resets are directly linked to enhanced information transfer and behavioral success. We survey how phase resets re-organize oscillations in diverse task contexts, including sensory perception, attentional stimulus selection, cross-modal integration, Pavlovian conditioning, and spatial navigation. The evidence we consider suggests that phase-resets can drive changes in neural excitability, ensemble organization, functional networks, and ultimately, overt behavior. PMID:27013986

  18. Preschoolers at risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: family, parenting, and behavioral correlates.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Boyle, Michael H

    2002-12-01

    This community study assigned 129 4-year-olds to groups at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), both ADHD and ODD, or no problems. Mothers of children at risk for ODD reported more family dysfunction, felt less competent as parents, suggested fewer solutions to child behavior problems, demonstrated a less assertive approach to child management, and reported more child internalizing problems than did mothers of children not elevated on ODD symptoms. Mothers of children at risk for ADHD reported higher personal depression scores than did those of the non-ADHD subgroup. Children at risk for ADHD evidenced the most difficulties in school where teachers reported more social behavior, classroom management, and internalizing problems relative to other children not at risk for ADHD. When solving child management problems, mothers of children in all groups suggested twice as many controlling/negative management strategies as positive/preventive strategies. In addition, faced with oppositional and conduct problems, mothers of children in all groups increased controlling/negative suggestions and decreased positive/preventive suggestions. Mothers of girls at risk for ADHD, ODD, and ADHD/ODD gave more rewards per positive behavior than did mothers of boys. PMID:12481971

  19. A Role of Phase-Resetting in Coordinating Large Scale Neural Networks During Attention and Goal-Directed Behavior.

    PubMed

    Voloh, Benjamin; Womelsdorf, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    Short periods of oscillatory activation are ubiquitous signatures of neural circuits. A broad range of studies documents not only their circuit origins, but also a fundamental role for oscillatory activity in coordinating information transfer during goal directed behavior. Recent studies suggest that resetting the phase of ongoing oscillatory activity to endogenous or exogenous cues facilitates coordinated information transfer within circuits and between distributed brain areas. Here, we review evidence that pinpoints phase resetting as a critical marker of dynamic state changes of functional networks. Phase resets: (1) set a "neural context" in terms of narrow band frequencies that uniquely characterizes the activated circuits; (2) impose coherent low frequency phases to which high frequency activations can synchronize, identifiable as cross-frequency correlations across large anatomical distances; (3) are critical for neural coding models that depend on phase, increasing the informational content of neural representations; and (4) likely originate from the dynamics of canonical E-I circuits that are anatomically ubiquitous. These multiple signatures of phase resets are directly linked to enhanced information transfer and behavioral success. We survey how phase resets re-organize oscillations in diverse task contexts, including sensory perception, attentional stimulus selection, cross-modal integration, Pavlovian conditioning, and spatial navigation. The evidence we consider suggests that phase-resets can drive changes in neural excitability, ensemble organization, functional networks, and ultimately, overt behavior. PMID:27013986

  20. Lack of neuronal nitric oxide synthase results in attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder – like behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yudong; Heldt, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule for the proper development and function of the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the behavioral alterations in the neuronal nitric oxide synthase knockout mice (NOS1 KO) with a deficient NO production mechanism in the brain, characterizing it as a potential rodent model for attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). NOS1 KO exhibited higher locomotor activity than their wildtype counterparts in a novel environment, as measured by open field (OF) test. In a two-way active avoidance paradigm (TWAA), we found sex-dependent effects, where male KO displayed deficits in avoidance and escape behavior, sustained higher incidences of shuttle crossings and higher incidences of inter-trial interval crossings, suggesting learning and/or performance impairments. On the other hand, female KO demonstrated few deficits in TWAA. Molsidomine (MSD), a NO donor, rescued TWAA deficits in male KO when acutely administered before training. In a passive avoidance paradigm, KO of both sexes displayed significantly shorter step-through latencies after training. Further, abnormal spontaneous motor activity rhythms were found in the KO during the dark phase of the day, indicating dysregulation of rhythmic activities. These data indicate that NOS1 KO mimic certain ADHD-like behaviors and could potentially serve as a novel rodent model for ADHD. PMID:25621792

  1. Impact of Treatments for Depression on Comorbid Anxiety, Attentional, and Behavioral Symptoms in Adolescents with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Robert C.; Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon; He, Jiayan; Mayes, Taryn; Emslie, Graham J.; Porta, Giovanna; Clarke, Greg N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relative efficacy of antidepressant medication, alone and in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), on comorbid symptoms of anxiety, attention, and disruptive behavior disorders in participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method: Adolescents with selective serotonin…

  2. Distinguishing and Improving Mouse Behavior with Educational Computer Games in Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Executive Function-Based Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Baukje; van Geert, Paul L. C.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory multiple case study, it is examined how a computer game focused on improving ineffective learning behavior can be used as a tool to assess, improve, and study real-time mouse behavior (MB) in different types of children: 18 children (3.8-6.3 years) with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder…

  3. Antecedent Assessment and Assessment-Based Treatment of Off-Task Behavior in a Child Diagnosed with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, William A.; Wilder, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Antecedent assessment and assessment-based intervention for off-task behavior by an 11-year-old with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is reported. Assessment correlated off-task behavior with difficult academic tasks; intervention included functional communication training that focused on teaching the child to request assistance, as well…

  4. An Evaluation of the Interaction between Quality of Attention and Negative Reinforcement with Children Who Display Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Andrew W.; Wacker, David P.; Boelter, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    The choice-making behavior of 2 typically developing children who engaged in problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement was evaluated within a concurrent-operants assessment that varied the quality of attention across free-play and demand conditions. The results demonstrated that it was possible to bias responding towards academic…

  5. Attention modulates the use of spectral attributes in vowel discrimination: behavioral and event-related potential evidence.

    PubMed

    Tuomainen, J; Savela, J; Obleser, J; Aaltonen, O

    2013-01-15

    Speech contains a variety of acoustic cues to auditory and phonetic contrasts that are exploited by the listener in decoding the acoustic signal. In three experiments, we tried to elucidate whether listeners rely on formant peak frequencies or whole spectrum attributes in vowel discrimination. We created two vowel continua in which the acoustic distance in formant frequencies was constant but the continua differed in spectral moments (i.e., the whole spectrum modeled as a probability density function). In Experiment 1, we measured reaction times and response accuracy while listeners performed a go/no-go discrimination task. The results indicated that the performance of the listeners was based on the spectral moments (especially the first and second moments), and not on formant peaks. Behavioral results in Experiment 2 showed that, when the stimuli were presented in noise eliminating differences in spectral moments between the two continua, listeners employed formant peak frequencies. In Experiment 3, using the same listeners and stimuli as in Experiment 1, we measured an automatic brain potential, the mismatch negativity (MMN), when listeners did not attend to the auditory stimuli. Results showed that the MMN reflects sensitivity only to the formant structure of the vowels. We suggest that the auditory cortex automatically and pre-attentively encodes formant peak frequencies, whereas attention can be deployed for processing additional spectral information, such as spectral moments, to enhance vowel discrimination. PMID:23174416

  6. Pointing Behavior in Infants Reflects the Communication Partner’s Attentional and Knowledge States: A Possible Case of Spontaneous Informing

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xianwei; Hashiya, Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    Inferring the epistemic states of others is considered to be an essential requirement for humans to communicate; however, the developmental trajectory of this ability is unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine developmental trends in this ability by using pointing behavior as a dependent measure. Infants aged 13 to 18 months (n = 32, 16 females) participated in the study. The experiment consisted of two phases. In the Shared Experience Phase, both the participant and the experimenter experienced (played with) an object, and the participant experienced a second object while the experimenter was absent. In the Pointing Phase, the participant was seated on his/her mother’s lap, facing the experimenter, and the same two objects from the Shared Experience Phase were presented side-by-side behind the experimenter. The participants’ spontaneous pointing was analyzed from video footage. While the analysis of the Shared Experience Phase suggested that there was no significant difference in the duration of the participants’ visual attention to the two objects, the participants pointed more frequently to the object that could be considered “new” for the experimenter (in Experiment 1). This selective pointing was not observed when the experimenter could be considered unfamiliar with both of the objects (in Experiment 2). These findings suggest that infants in this age group spontaneously point, presumably to inform about an object, reflecting the partner’s attentional and knowledge states. PMID:25211279

  7. Attention Bias Modification Treatment for children with anxiety disorders who do not respond to cognitive behavioral therapy: a case series.

    PubMed

    Bechor, Michele; Pettit, Jeremy W; Silverman, Wendy K; Bar-Haim, Yair; Abend, Rany; Pine, Daniel S; Vasey, Michael W; Jaccard, James

    2014-03-01

    Evidence is emerging to support the promise of Attention Bias Modification Treatment (ABMT), a computer-based attention training program, in reducing anxiety in children. ABMT has not been tested as an adjuvant for children with anxiety disorders who do not respond to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT). This case series presents findings from an open trial of ABMT among six children (four girls; M age = 11.2 years) who completed a CBT protocol and continued to meet diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder. All children completed the ABMT protocol with no canceled or missed sessions. Child self-ratings on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms significantly decreased from pretreatment to posttreatment, as did parent ratings on child anxiety-related impairment. Parent ratings on child anxiety and internalizing symptoms displayed non-significant decreases from pretreatment to posttreatment. These findings support the potential promise of ABMT as a feasible adjuvant treatment that reduces anxiety and impairment among child anxiety CBT nonresponders. PMID:24211147

  8. Exposure to neurotoxicants and the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its related behaviors in childhood.

    PubMed

    Yolton, Kimberly; Cornelius, Marie; Ornoy, Asher; McGough, James; Makris, Susan; Schantz, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to review the literature to determine evidence of associations between exposure to prenatal and postnatal environmental agents and the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related behaviors. A review of published research literature was conducted on associations between exposures to prenatal and postnatal cigarette smoke, prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, childhood exposure to lead, and prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and outcomes of ADHD or behaviors related to ADHD. Review of the literature in these areas provides some evidence of associations between each of the exposures and ADHD-related behaviors, with the strongest evidence from prenatal cigarette and alcohol exposure and postnatal lead exposure. However, research on each exposure also produced evidence of weaknesses in these hypothesized links due to imprecise research methodologies and issues of confounding and inaccurate covariate adjustment. More rigorous studies are needed to provide definitive evidence of associations between each of these prenatal or postnatal exposures and the development of ADHD or symptoms of ADHD. Future studies need to clarify the underlying mechanisms between these exposures and the increased risk for ADHD and associated behaviors. More research is also needed utilizing study designs that include genetic information, as ADHD is highly heritable and there appear to be some protective mechanisms offered by certain genetic characteristics as evidenced in gene by environmental studies. Finally, while studies focusing on individual drugs and chemicals are an important first step, we cannot ignore the fact that children are exposed to combinations of drugs and chemicals, which can interact in complex ways with each other, as well as with the child's genetic makeup and psychosocial environment to influence ADHD risk. PMID:24846602

  9. Enhancing the Effects of Extinction on Attention-Maintained Behavior through Noncontingent Delivery of Attention or Stimuli Identified Via a Competing Stimulus Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Wayne W.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Keeney, Kris M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the noncontingent delivery of competing stimuli can effectively reduce rates of destructive behavior maintained by social-positive reinforcement, even when the contingency for destructive behavior remains intact. It may be useful, therefore, to have a systematic means for predicting which reinforcers do and do not…

  10. Relationship between blood manganese levels and children's attention, cognition, behavior, and academic performance--a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bhang, Soo-Young; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Yeni; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2013-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic at high concentrations. However, Mn is an essential element that can protect against oxidative damage; thus, extremely low levels of Mn might be harmful. Our aim was to examine whether either high or low environmental Mn exposure is related to academic and attention function development among school-aged children. This cross-sectional study included 1089 children 8-11 years of age living in five representative areas in South Korea. Blood Mn, blood lead, and urine cotinine were measured. We assessed IQ with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; attention with a computerized continuous performance test called the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Diagnostic System (ADS), the Korean version of the Stroop Color-Word Test, the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the ADHD Rating Scale; academic functions with the Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES); and emotional and behavioral problems with the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We further assessed the presence of ADHD using a highly structured diagnostic interview, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV). The median blood concentration of Mn was 14.14 µg/L. We observed a nonlinear association between the CCTT2 completion time and the CPT commission error (F=3.14, p=0.03 and F=4.05, p=0.01, respectively). We divided the data into three groups: lower (<8.154 µg/L), and upper 5th percentile (>21.453 µg/L) and middle 90th percentile to determine whether a lack or overload of Mn could cause adverse effects. After adjusting for urine cotinine, blood lead, children's IQ, and other potential confounders, the high Mn group showed lower scores in thinking (B=-0.83, p=0.006), reading (B=-0.93, p=0.004), calculations (B=-0.72, p=0.005), and LQ (B=-4.06, p=0.006) in the LDES and a higher commission error in the CPT (B=8.02, p=0.048). The low Mn group showed lower color scores in the Stroop test (B=-3.24, p=0.040). We found that excess Mn in children is associated with lower scores of thinking, reading, calculation, and LQ in the LDES and higher scores of commission error in the ADS test. In contrast, lower Mn in children is associated with lower color scores in the Stroop test. The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that excess exposure or deficiency of Mn can cause harmful effects in children. PMID:23790803

  11. Concurrent Validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zarrabi, Mojgan; Shahrivar, Zahra; Tehrani Doost, Mehdi; Khademi, Mojgan; Zargari Nejad, Ghazale

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in which impairment of executive functions plays an important role. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in children with ADHD. Patients and Methods: Thirty children, aged 7-12 years, attending the child and adolescent clinic of Roozbeh hospital and diagnosed with ADHD according to interview with a child and adolescent psychiatrist, formed our ADHD group. In contrast, thirty participants of the control group were selected from 7 to 12 year-old students according to Conners’ Teacher/Parent Rating Scale and did not have ADHD. The kiddie schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia-present and lifetime version-Persian version was also completed for all children to rule out other psychiatric disorders. After oral consent, parents of 60 children (ADHD = 30, control = 30), completed three questionnaires of ADHD-Rating Scale-IV, Conners’ Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Short Version and BRIEF. Results: Children in ADHD group got higher scores than those in the control group in all subscales and indices of BRIEF (P < 0.001). There were also good correlations between subscales and indices of BRIEF and the two other rating scales (P < 0.001). Conclusion: BRIEF could be used as a valid tool to assess behavioral aspects of executive functions, especially to discriminate children with ADHD and normal ones. PMID:26251658

  12. A simple behavioral paradigm to measure impulsive behavior in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor Dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive "control" strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more "drinking attempts" and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD. PMID:24116285

  13. Executive Function Predicts Adaptive Behavior in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of Study Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these two domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, non-exposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. Methods As part of a multisite study, three groups of children (8-18y, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, N=142), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD, N=82), and typically developing controls (CON, N=133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS). Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with three of the four EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. Conclusion These results support prior research in ADHD suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory measures of executive function. PMID:22587709

  14. Neuropsychological Profiles Correlated with Clinical and Behavioral Impairments in a Sample of Brazilian Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rizzutti, Sueli; Schuch, Viviane; Augusto, Bruno Muszkat; Coimbra, Caio Colturato; Pereira, João Pedro Cabrera; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that implies several-step process, and there is no single test to diagnose both ADHD and associated comorbidities, such as oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety disorder, depression, and certain types of learning disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to examine correlations between behavioral and clinical symptoms by administering an extensive neuropsychological battery to a sample of children and adolescents from a developing country. The sample was divided into three groups: non-ADHD, ADHD-non-comorbid, and ADHD + comorbidity. A full neuropsychological battery and clinical assessment found that 105 children met DSM-5 criteria, of whom 46.6% had the predominantly inattentive presentation, 37.3% had combined presentation, and 16% were predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation. The internal correlation between neuropsychological tests did not reach statistical significance in the comparison between ADHD and non-ADHD cases (p < 0.17). Clinical ADHD cases, including both + comorbidity and non-comorbid groups, performed substantially worse on continuous performance test (CPT), working memory. Comparing ADHD-non-comorbid and ADHD + comorbidity groups, the latter did significantly worse on inhibitory control, time processing, and the level of perseveration response on CPT indexes, as well as on working memory performance and child behavior checklist (CBCL) tests particularly the CBCL-deficient emotional self-regulation test in the ADHD + comorbidity group. Children diagnosed as ODD or with conduct disorder showed close correlations between clinical CBCL profiles and externalized symptoms. Our findings suggest that ADHD + comorbidity and ADHD non-comorbid cases may be differentiated by a number of neuropsychological measures, such as processing speed, inhibitory control, and working memory, that may reflect different levels of involvement of the hot and cool executive domains, which are more impaired in cases of severe symptomatic-externalized behavior and emotional regulation problems. Therefore, profiles based on clinical and behavioral findings can help clinicians select better strategies for detecting neuropsychological impairment in Brazilian children with ADHD. PMID:26635638

  15. Neuropsychological Profiles Correlated with Clinical and Behavioral Impairments in a Sample of Brazilian Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Rizzutti, Sueli; Schuch, Viviane; Augusto, Bruno Muszkat; Coimbra, Caio Colturato; Pereira, João Pedro Cabrera; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that implies several-step process, and there is no single test to diagnose both ADHD and associated comorbidities, such as oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety disorder, depression, and certain types of learning disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to examine correlations between behavioral and clinical symptoms by administering an extensive neuropsychological battery to a sample of children and adolescents from a developing country. The sample was divided into three groups: non-ADHD, ADHD-non-comorbid, and ADHD + comorbidity. A full neuropsychological battery and clinical assessment found that 105 children met DSM-5 criteria, of whom 46.6% had the predominantly inattentive presentation, 37.3% had combined presentation, and 16% were predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation. The internal correlation between neuropsychological tests did not reach statistical significance in the comparison between ADHD and non-ADHD cases (p < 0.17). Clinical ADHD cases, including both + comorbidity and non-comorbid groups, performed substantially worse on continuous performance test (CPT), working memory. Comparing ADHD-non-comorbid and ADHD + comorbidity groups, the latter did significantly worse on inhibitory control, time processing, and the level of perseveration response on CPT indexes, as well as on working memory performance and child behavior checklist (CBCL) tests particularly the CBCL-deficient emotional self-regulation test in the ADHD + comorbidity group. Children diagnosed as ODD or with conduct disorder showed close correlations between clinical CBCL profiles and externalized symptoms. Our findings suggest that ADHD + comorbidity and ADHD non-comorbid cases may be differentiated by a number of neuropsychological measures, such as processing speed, inhibitory control, and working memory, that may reflect different levels of involvement of the hot and cool executive domains, which are more impaired in cases of severe symptomatic-externalized behavior and emotional regulation problems. Therefore, profiles based on clinical and behavioral findings can help clinicians select better strategies for detecting neuropsychological impairment in Brazilian children with ADHD. PMID:26635638

  16. Attention and Attachment Related Behavior toward Professional Caregivers in Child Care Centers: A New Measure for Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallini, Susanna; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2012-01-01

    The authors attempted to develop and validate the Toddler Attention Questionnaire (TAQ) by examining the relationship between attention and attachment to a professional caregiver. The psychometric reliability and validity of the TAQ was tested with 72 children ranging from 20 to 36 months old. Attentive processes were also measured by the Italian…

  17. Comparison of neuropsychological performances and behavioral patterns of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and severe mood dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Uran, Pınar; Kılıç, Birim Günay

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the similarities and differences in neuropsychological test performance, demographic features and behavioral patterns of children and adolescents with the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined type (ADHD-C), and the severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Study includes 112 children: 67 with ADHD-C, 24 with SMD and 21 healthy controls. These groups were identified by using the schedule for affective disorders, and schizophrenia for the school-age children-present and lifetime version (KSADS-PL) and the K-SADS-PL-SMD Module. Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scale-revised long form (CPRS-R:L and CTRS-R:L) and neuropsychological tests were administered to the research groups. ADHD-C group's performances in Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test, Stroop Test TBAG form and Controlled Oral Word Association Test were significantly poorer than the control group's performances (p < 0.05). Performance of the SMD group was only descriptively intermediate between performances of the ADHD-C and control group. In the "Oppositional", "Hyperactivity", "Social Problems", "Impulsive", "Emotional Lability" and "Conners' Global Index" subscales of CPRS-R:L, the average scores of the SMD group were significantly higher than the ADHD-C and control group's average scores (p < 0.05). ADHD-C group (but not SMD) could be significantly differentiated from healthy controls with the neuropsychological tests used. SMD group could be differentiated from the ADHD-C and healthy control groups with CPRS-R:L; i.e., ADHD-C versus SMD could be differentiated at the behavioral level only. PMID:24619769

  18. Academic, Behavioral, and Cognitive Effects of OROS® Methylphenidate on Older Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Wigal, Tim; Schuck, Sabrina; Brams, Matthew; Williamson, David; Armstrong, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System (OROS) methylphenidate (MPH) on a variety of measures evaluating academic performance, cognition, and social behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory school study enrolled 78 children aged 9–12 years with ADHD who responded to OROS MPH. After determining individualized OROS MPH dosing (18–54 mg/day), 71 subjects received blinded treatment (OROS MPH or placebo then vice versa) on each of 2 laboratory school days, separated by 1 week. Primary efficacy was measured by Permanent Product Measure of Performance at 4 hours after study drug administration. Results Treatment with OROS MPH resulted in statistically significant improvement in Permanent Product Measure of Performance and Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham scores, measures of response time, and of working memory compared to placebo. Other measures did not meet all pre-established criteria for significance (maintenance of the overall type I error rate at 5%). Adverse events were consistent with previous reports of stimulant medications used in the management of ADHD. There were no discontinuations due to adverse events, and no serious adverse events or deaths. Conclusions OROS MPH dosed to reduce core symptoms of ADHD to within the normal range also improved performance on a variety of academic tasks in school-aged children compared to placebo. Adverse effects reported were consistent with prior studies. Clinical Trial Registry Information Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Evaluating the Academic, Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of Concerta on Older Children with ADHD, URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00799409, unique identifier: NCT00799409. PMID:21488750

  19. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. PMID:27031593

  20. Spelling difficulties in school-aged girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive, and graphomotor correlates.

    PubMed

    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Kopp, Svenny; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Writing difficulties are common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the nature of these difficulties has not been well studied. Here we relate behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive (memory/executive), and graphomotor measures to spelling skills in school-age girls with ADHD (n = 30) and an age-matched group of typically developed spellers (TYPSP, n = 35). When subdividing the ADHD group into those with poor (ADHDPSP, n = 19) and typical spelling (ADHDTYPSP, n = 11), the two subgroups did not differ with regard to inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity according to parent or teacher ratings. Both ADHD subgroups also had equally severe difficulties in graphomotor control-handwriting and (parent ratings of) written expression as compared to the TYPSP group. In contrast, ADHDPSP had problems relative to ADHDTYPSP and TYPSP on phonological and orthographic recoding (choice tasks) and verbal memory (digit span) and were more likely to make commissions on a continuous performance task (CPT). Further analyses using the collapsed ADHD group showed that both digit span and the presence of CPT commissions predicted spelling performance independently of each other. Finally, results showed that phonological recoding skills mediated the association between digit span and spelling performance in ADHD. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed. PMID:23213048

  1. The effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on intrinsic functional brain networks in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Cao, Qingjiu; Wang, Jinhui; Wu, Zhaomin; Wang, Peng; Sun, Li; Cai, Taisheng; Wang, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious psychological treatment for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the neural processes underlying the benefits of CBT are not well understood. This study aims to unravel psychosocial mechanisms for treatment ADHD by exploring the effects of CBT on functional brain networks. Ten adults with ADHD were enrolled and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired before and after a 12-session CBT. Twelve age- and gender-matched healthy controls were also scanned. We constructed whole-brain functional connectivity networks using graph-theory approaches and further computed the changes of regional functional connectivity strength (rFCS) between pre- and post-CBT in ADHD for measuring the effects of CBT. The results showed that rFCS was increased in the fronto-parietal network and cerebellum, the brain regions that were most often affected by medication, in adults with ADHD following CBT. Furthermore, the enhanced functional coupling between bilateral superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the improvement of ADHD symptoms following CBT. Together, these findings provide evidence that CBT can selectively modulate the intrinsic network connectivity in the fronto-parietal network and cerebellum and suggest that the CBT may share common brain mechanism with the pharmacology in adults with ADHD. PMID:26629933

  2. Assessing genetic influences on behavior: informant and context dependency as illustrated by the analysis of attention problems.

    PubMed

    Kan, Kees-Jan; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-07-01

    Assessment of genetic influences on behavior depends on context, informants, and study design: We show (analytically) that, conditional on study design, informant specific genetic variance is included in the genetic variance component or in the environmental variance component. To aid the explanation, we present an illustrative empirical analysis of data from the Netherlands Twin Register. Subjects included 1,571 monozygotic and 2,672 dizygotic 12-year-old twin pairs whose attention problems (AP) were rated by their parents, teachers, and themselves. Heritability estimates (h(2)) of AP were about ~0.75 for same informant ratings (mother, father, and same teacher ratings) and ~0.54 for different informants' ratings (different parents', different teachers', and two twins' self-ratings). Awareness of assessment effects is relevant to research into psychiatric disorders. Differences in assessment can account for age effects, such as a drop in heritability of ADHD symptoms. In genome-wide association studies, effects of rating specific genetic influences will be undetectable. PMID:24797406

  3. Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well-documented nor well-understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound recognition when task and critical stimuli were identical across attention conditions. We propose modulation of lexical activation as a neurophysiologically-plausible computational mechanism that can account for this type of modulation. Contrary to the claims of critics, this mechanism can account for attentional modulation without violating the principle of interactive processing. Simulations of the interactive TRACE model extended to include two different ways of modulating lexical activation showed that each can account for attentional modulation of lexical feedback effects. Experiment 2 tested conflicting predictions from the two implementations and provided evidence that is consistent with bias input as the mechanism of attentional control of lexical activation. PMID:18509503

  4. Behavioral Attention: A Longitudinal Study of Whether and How It Influences the Development of Word Reading and Reading Comprehension among At-Risk Readers

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Amanda C.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Kearns, Devin; Zhang, Wenjuan; Yen, Loulee; Patton, Samuel; Kirchner, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which teacher ratings of behavioral attention predicted responsiveness to word reading instruction in first grade and third-grade reading comprehension performance. Participants were 110 first grade students identified as at-risk for reading difficulties who received 20 weeks of intensive reading intervention in combination with classroom reading instruction. Path analysis indicated that teacher ratings of student attention significantly predicted students’ word reading growth in first grade even when they were competed against other relevant predictors (phonological awareness, nonword reading, sight word efficiency, vocabulary, listening comprehension, hyperactivity, nonverbal reasoning, and short term memory). Also, student attention demonstrated a significant indirect effect on third grade reading comprehension via word reading, but not via listening comprehension. Results suggest that student attention (indexed by teacher ratings) is an important predictor of at-risk readers’ responsiveness to reading instruction in first grade and that first-grade reading growth mediates the relationship between students’ attention and their future level of reading comprehension. The importance of considering ways to manage and improve behavioral attention when implementing reading instruction is discussed. PMID:25110548

  5. Tonic and Phasic Alertness Training: A Novel Behavioral Therapy to Improve Spatial and Non-Spatial Attention in Patients with Hemispatial Neglect

    PubMed Central

    DeGutis, Joseph M.; Van Vleet, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Hemispatial neglect is a debilitating disorder marked by a constellation of spatial and non-spatial attention deficits. Patients’ alertness deficits have shown to interact with lateralized attention processes and correspondingly, improving tonic/general alertness as well as phasic/moment-to-moment alertness has shown to ameliorate spatial bias. However, improvements are often short-lived and inconsistent across tasks and patients. In an attempt to more effectively activate alertness mechanisms by exercising both tonic and phasic alertness, we employed a novel version of a continuous performance task (tonic and phasic alertness training, TAPAT). Using a between-subjects longitudinal design and employing sensitive outcome measures of spatial and non-spatial attention, we compared the effects of 9 days of TAPAT (36 min/day) in a group of patients with chronic neglect (N = 12) with a control group of chronic neglect patients (N = 12) who simply waited during the same training period. Compared to the control group, the group trained on TAPAT significantly improved on both spatial and non-spatial measures of attention with many patients failing to exhibit a lateralized attention bias at the end of training. TAPAT was effective for patients with a range of behavioral profiles and lesions, suggesting that its effectiveness may rely on distributed or lower-level attention mechanisms that are largely intact in patients with neglect. In a follow-up experiment, to determine if TAPAT is more effective in improving spatial attention than an active treatment that directly trains spatial attention, we trained three chronic neglect patients on both TAPAT and search training. In all three patients, TAPAT training was more effective in improving spatial attention than search training suggesting that, in chronic neglect, training alertness is a more effective treatment approach than directly training spatial attention. PMID:20838474

  6. The Impact of Mindfulness Training on Hyperactive Behaviors Demonstrated by Elementary Age Children with a Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carboni, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders in the United States. Although many children with an ADHD diagnosis are prescribed medication to control symptoms, behavioral concerns are still regularly noted in the classroom, home, and other settings. Therefore, school psychologists are often…

  7. The Use of Stimulant Medication and Behavioral Interventions for the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Survey of Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroh, Jennifer; Frankenberger, William; Cornell-Swanson, La Vonne; Wood, Courtney; Pahl, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    We examined parents' knowledge, attitudes, and information sources regarding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including treatment with stimulant medication and behavioral interventions. Responses from parents with a child diagnosed with ADHD and parents without a child diagnosed with ADHD were also compared. Participants consisted…

  8. "Nothing Works!" A Case Study Using Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions to Engage Parents, Educators, and Children in the Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Eva S.; Anshel, Daphne J.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains one of the most prevalent mental health diagnoses identified in school-age children. Affected children show an increased risk for school failure, social difficulties, and the development of psychiatric comorbidities. Despite the availability of evidence-based behavioral protocols for managing…

  9. Behavioral Attention: A Longitudinal Study of Whether and How It Influences the Development of Word Reading and Reading Comprehension among At-Risk Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Amanda C.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald; Kearns, Devin; Zhang, Wenjuan; Yen, Loulee; Patton, Samuel; Kirchner, Danielle Peterson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which teacher ratings of behavioral attention predicted responsiveness to word reading instruction in first-grade and third-grade reading comprehension performance. Participants were 110 first-grade students identified as at risk for reading difficulties who received 20 weeks of intensive…

  10. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  11. The Effects of the First Step to Success Program on Academic Engagement Behaviors of Turkish Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of the First Step to Success (FSS) early intervention program with Turkish children identified with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Intervention effectiveness on target children's academic engagement behaviors was studied. Participants were four 7-year-old first-grade students in

  12. Tourette Syndrome: Overview and Classroom Interventions. A Complex Neurobehavioral Disorder Which May Involve Learning Problems, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms, and Stereotypical Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ramona A.; Collins, Edward C.

    Tourette Syndrome is conceptualized as a neurobehavioral disorder, with behavioral aspects that are sometimes difficult for teachers to understand and deal with. The disorder has five layers of complexity: (1) observable multiple motor, vocal, and cognitive tics and sensory involvement; (2) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; (3)…

  13. The Effects of the First Step to Success Program on Academic Engagement Behaviors of Turkish Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of the First Step to Success (FSS) early intervention program with Turkish children identified with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Intervention effectiveness on target children's academic engagement behaviors was studied. Participants were four 7-year-old first-grade students in…

  14. The Role of Children's Ethnicity in the Relationship between Teacher Ratings of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Observed Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jeffrey N.; Willoughby, Michael; Valencia, Elvia Y.; Tonev, Simon T.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2005-01-01

    Significant ethnic differences have been consistently documented on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) teacher rating scales. Whether these ethnic differences result from a teacher rating bias or reflect actual classroom behavior patterns is unknown. Ethnic differences between Caucasian and African American (AA) elementary…

  15. Theory of Planned Behavior Predicts Graduation Intentions of Canadian and Israeli Postsecondary Students with and without Learning Disabilities/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichten, Catherine S.; Heiman, Tali; Jorgensen, Mary; Nguyen, Mai Nhu; Havel, Alice; King, Laura; Budd, Jillian; Amsel, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    We tested the ability of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model to predict intention to graduate among Canadian and Israeli students with and without a learning disability/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (LD/ADHD). Results based on 1486 postsecondary students show that the model's predictors (i.e., attitude, subjective norms,…

  16. The Single and Combined Effects of Multiple Intensities of Behavior Modification and Methylphenidate for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran; Garefino, Allison; Keenan, Jenna K.; Onyango, Adia N.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Massetti, Greta M.; Robb, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    Currently behavior modification, stimulant medication, and combined treatments are supported as evidence-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in classroom settings. However, there has been little study of the relative effects of these two modalities and their combination in classrooms. Using a within-subject design, the…

  17. Characteristics of Students at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties Predicting Arithmetic Word Problem Solving Performance: The Role of Attention, Behavior, and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Corroy, Kelly Cozine; Dupuis, Danielle N.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to evaluate differences in arithmetic word problem solving between high and low at-risk students for mathematics difficulties (MD) and (b) to assess the influence of attention, behavior, reading, and socio-economic status (SES) in predicting the word problem solving performance of third-grade students with MD.…

  18. Sleepiness, On-Task Behavior and Attention in Children with Epilepsy Who Visited a School for Special Education: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Korzilius, Hubert

    2009-01-01

    Children with epilepsy are at risk for problems in daytime functioning. We assessed daytime sleepiness, on-task behavior and attention in 17 children (aged between 7 and 11 years) with epilepsy who visited a school for special education and compared these to 17 children from a control group who visited a regular school. Within the group of

  19. Sleepiness, On-Task Behavior and Attention in Children with Epilepsy Who Visited a School for Special Education: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Korzilius, Hubert

    2009-01-01

    Children with epilepsy are at risk for problems in daytime functioning. We assessed daytime sleepiness, on-task behavior and attention in 17 children (aged between 7 and 11 years) with epilepsy who visited a school for special education and compared these to 17 children from a control group who visited a regular school. Within the group of…

  20. Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Paula D.; Winhusen, Theresa; Davies, Robert D.; Leimberger, Jeffrey D.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Klein, Constance; Macdonald, Marilyn; Lohman, Michelle; Bailey, Genie L.; Haynes, Louise; Jaffee, William B.; Haminton, Nancy; Hodgkins, Candace; Whitmore, Elizabeth; Trello-Rishel, Kathlene; Tamm, Leanne; Acosta, Michelle C.; Royer-Malvestuto, Charlotte; Subramaniam, Geetha; Fishman, Marc; Holmes, Beverly W.; Kaye, Mary Elyse; Vargo, Mark A.; Woody, George E.; Nunes, Edward V.; Liu, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) compared with placebo for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the impact on substance treatment outcomes in adolescents concurrently receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders (SUD). Method: This was a…

  1. Tourette Syndrome: Overview and Classroom Interventions. A Complex Neurobehavioral Disorder Which May Involve Learning Problems, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms, and Stereotypical Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ramona A.; Collins, Edward C.

    Tourette Syndrome is conceptualized as a neurobehavioral disorder, with behavioral aspects that are sometimes difficult for teachers to understand and deal with. The disorder has five layers of complexity: (1) observable multiple motor, vocal, and cognitive tics and sensory involvement; (2) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; (3)

  2. Characteristics of Students at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties Predicting Arithmetic Word Problem Solving Performance: The Role of Attention, Behavior, and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Corroy, Kelly Cozine; Dupuis, Danielle N.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to evaluate differences in arithmetic word problem solving between high and low at-risk students for mathematics difficulties (MD) and (b) to assess the influence of attention, behavior, reading, and socio-economic status (SES) in predicting the word problem solving performance of third-grade students with MD.

  3. Coming out in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article shares how the author explained her trans status to her students. Everyone has been extremely supportive of her decision to come out in class and to completely mask the male secondary-sex characteristics, especially in the workplace. The department chair and the faculty in general have been willing to do whatever they can to assist…

  4. Rethinking Attention Deficit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; And Others

    This book reviews issues concerning attention deficit disorders (ADDs) in the context of a systems perspective. ADDs are viewed as resulting from dynamic interactions of behavior, cognition, and affect, out of which emerge distinct and idiosyncratic ways of coping. Chapter 1 looks at the interaction of attention and behavior. In chapter 2, the…

  5. Using Perseverative Interests to Elicit Joint Attention Behaviors in Young Children with Autism: Theoretical and Clinical Implications for Understanding Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vismara, Laurie A.; Lyons, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Various explanations have been offered in the literature on the underlying cause of joint attention deficits in autism. One possible explanation is that children with autism are capable of producing joint attention but lack the social motivation to share their interests with others. The current study used a single-subject reversal design with

  6. Association between Severity of Behavioral Phenotype and Comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Patricia A.; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association," 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity…

  7. Parenting Behavior and Cognitions in a Community Sample of Mothers with and without Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Tracy; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Mash, Eric J.; Semple, Deborah L.

    2008-01-01

    Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has recently emerged as an important area of research, little attention has been given to the family functioning of women with ADHD, particularly in their role as mothers. We examined parenting self-esteem, locus of control, and disciplinary styles in a community sample of mothers…

  8. To what extent do joint attention, imitation, and object play behaviors in infancy predict later communication and intellectual functioning in ASD?

    PubMed

    Poon, Kenneth K; Watson, Linda R; Baranek, Grace T; Poe, Michele D

    2012-06-01

    The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9-12 and/or 15-18 months. A quantitative interval recording of behavior and a qualitative rating of the developmental level were applied. Social communication behaviors increased between 9-12 and 15-18 months. Their mean level during infancy, but not the rate of change, predicted both Vineland Communication scores and intellectual functioning at 3-7 years. The two methods of measurement yielded similar results. Thus, early social communicative behaviors may play pivotal roles in the development of subsequent communication and intellectual functioning. PMID:21858585

  9. Behavioral and ERP measures of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task: poor reliability and lack of correlation with anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Kappenman, Emily S.; Farrens, Jaclyn L.; Luck, Steven J.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

    2014-01-01

    The dot-probe task is often considered a gold standard in the field for investigating attentional bias to threat. However, serious issues with the task have been raised. Specifically, a number of studies have demonstrated that the traditional reaction time (RT) measure of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task has poor internal reliability and poor test-retest reliability. In addition, although threatening stimuli capture attention in other paradigms, attentional bias to threat has not usually been found in typical research participants in the dot-probe task. However, when attention is measured in the dot-probe task with the N2pc component of the event-related potential waveform, substantial attentional orienting to threat is observed, and the internal reliability is moderate. To provide a rigorous comparison of the reliability of this N2pc measure and the conventional behavioral measure, as well as to examine the relationship of these measures to anxiety, the present study examined the N2pc in conjunction with RT in the dot-probe task in a large sample of participants (N = 96). As in previous studies, RT showed no bias to threatening images across the sample and exhibited poor internal reliability. Moreover, this measure did not relate to trait anxiety. By contrast, the N2pc revealed a significant initial shift of attention to threat, and this measure was internally reliable. However, the N2pc was not correlated with trait anxiety, indicating that it does not provide a meaningful index of individual differences in anxiety in the dot-probe task. Together, these results indicate a serious need to develop new tasks and methods to more reliably investigate attentional bias to threat and its relationship to anxiety in both clinical and non-clinical populations. PMID:25538644

  10. Peering through the smoke: the effect of parental smoking behavior and addiction on daily smokers' attentional bias to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Dickter, Cheryl L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2012-02-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated that individuals with parents who smoke are more likely to become smokers and are less successful in smoking cessation efforts compared with those without a smoking parent, the reasons for this link have not been established. In the current study, implicit attentional bias to smoking-related cues was investigated in college-age smokers, based on models of addiction that suggest that attention to drug-related cues plays an important role in drug addiction. Sixty-one participants completed a dot-probe task to measure attentional bias to smoking-related and matched non-smoking-related control pictures. Results indicated that while those who reported smoking occasionally did not demonstrate an attentional bias, daily smokers who had a smoking parent showed more of an attentional bias to the smoking cues than those without a smoking parent, but only to cues that did not contain human content. In addition to parental influence, nicotine dependence explained a significant portion of the variance in the attentional bias for daily smokers. Implications for models of nicotine addiction and the development of smoking cessation programs are discussed. PMID:22036056

  11. Psychoactive Drug Effects in a Hyperactive Child: A Case Study Analysis of Behavior Change and Teacher Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxley, Gladys B.; Ullmann, Rina K.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of methylphenidate on the behavior and teacher interactions of a nine-year-old hyperactive female were analyzed. Results suggest that the use of medication may enable the hyperactive child to profit both behaviorally and academically. (Author)

  12. Sensing, assessing, and augmenting threat detection: behavioral, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation evidence for the critical role of attention

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Raja; Galster, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly identifying the potentially threatening movements of other people and objects—biological motion perception and action understanding—is critical to maintaining security in many civilian and military settings. A key approach to improving threat detection in these environments is to sense when less than ideal conditions exist for the human observer, assess that condition relative to an expected standard, and if necessary use tools to augment human performance. Action perception is typically viewed as a relatively “primitive,” automatic function immune to top-down effects. However, recent research shows that attention is a top-down factor that has a critical influence on the identification of threat-related targets. In this paper we show that detection of motion-based threats is attention sensitive when surveillance images are obscured by other movements, when they are visually degraded, when other stimuli or tasks compete for attention, or when low-probability threats must be watched for over long periods of time—all features typical of operational security settings. Neuroimaging studies reveal that action understanding recruits a distributed network of brain regions, including the superior temporal cortex, intraparietal cortex, and inferior frontal cortex. Within this network, attention modulates activation of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and middle temporal gyrus. The dorsal frontoparietal network may provide the source of attention-modulation signals to action representation areas. Stimulation of this attention network should therefore enhance threat detection. We show that transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) at 2 mA accelerates perceptual learning of participants performing a challenging threat-detection task. Together, cognitive, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation studies provide converging evidence for the critical role of attention in the detection and understanding of threat-related intentional actions. PMID:23781194

  13. The potential influence of stimulus overselectivity in AAC: information from eye tracking and behavioral studies of attention with individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Dube, William V; Wilkinson, Krista M

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of stimulus overselectivity, or overselective attention, as it may impact AAC training and use in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Stimulus overselectivity is defined as an atypical limitation in the number of stimuli or stimulus features within an image that are attended to and subsequently learned. Within AAC, the term stimulus could refer to symbols or line drawings on speech-generating devices, drawings or pictures on low-technology systems, and/or the elements within visual scene displays. In this context, overselective attention may result in unusual or uneven error patterns such as confusion between two symbols that share a single feature, or difficulties with transitioning between different types of hardware. We review some of the ways that overselective attention has been studied behaviorally. We then examine how eye tracking technology allows a glimpse into some of the behavioral characteristics of overselective attention. We describe an intervention approach, differential observing responses, that may reduce or eliminate overselectivity, and we consider this type of intervention as it relates to issues of relevance for AAC. PMID:24773053

  14. Differentiating children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, learning disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders by means of their motor behavior characteristics.

    PubMed

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N=22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N=17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N=24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N=20). Physical education teachers used the MBC for children to rate their pupils based on their motor related behaviors. A multivariate analysis revealed significant differences among the groups on different problem scales. The results indicated that the MBC for children may be effective in discriminating children with similar disruptive behaviors (e.g., ADHD, CD) and autistic disorders, based on their motor behavior characteristics, but not children with Learning Disabilities (LD), when used by physical education teachers in school settings. PMID:22093665

  15. Reduced activity within the dorsal endogenous orienting of attention network to fearful expressions in youth with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    White, Stuart F; Williams, W Craig; Brislin, Sarah J; Sinclair, Stephen; Blair, Karina S; Fowler, Katherine A; Pine, Daniel S; Pope, Kayla; Blair, R James

    2012-08-01

    Using behavioral and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response indices through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the current study investigated whether youths with disruptive behavior disorders (conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder) plus psychopathic traits (DBD + PT) show aberrant sensitivity to eye gaze information generally and/or whether they show particular insensitivity to eye gaze information in the context of fearful expressions. The participants were 36 children and adolescents (ages 10-17 years); 17 had DBD + PT and 19 were healthy comparison subjects. Participants performed a spatial attention paradigm where spatial attention was cued by eye gaze in faces displaying fearful, angry, or neutral affect. Eye gaze sensitivity was indexed both behaviorally and as BOLD response. There were no group differences in behavioral response: both groups showed significantly faster responses if the target was in the congruent spatial direction indicated by eye gaze. Neither group showed a Congruence × Emotion interaction; neither group showed an advantage from the displayer's emotional expression behaviorally. However, the BOLD response revealed a significant Group × Congruence × Emotion interaction. The comparison youth showed increased activity within the dorsal endogenous orienting network (superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal sulcus) for fearful congruent relative to incongruent trials relative to the youth with DBD + PT. The results are discussed with reference to current models of DBD + PT and possible treatment innovations. PMID:22781874

  16. Reduced activity within the dorsal endogenous orienting of attention network to fearful expressions in youth with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits

    PubMed Central

    WHITE, STUART F.; WILLIAMS, W. CRAIG; BRISLIN, SARAH J.; SINCLAIR, STEPHEN; BLAIR, KARINA S.; FOWLER, KATHERINE A.; PINE, DANIEL S.; POPE, KAYLA; BLAIR, R. JAMES

    2014-01-01

    Using behavioral and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response indices through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the current study investigated whether youths with disruptive behavior disorders (conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder) plus psychopathic traits (DBD + PT) show aberrant sensitivity to eye gaze information generally and/or whether they show particular insensitivity to eye gaze information in the context of fearful expressions. The participants were 36 children and adolescents (ages 10–17 years); 17 had DBD + PT and 19 were healthy comparison subjects. Participants performed a spatial attention paradigm where spatial attention was cued by eye gaze in faces displaying fearful, angry, or neutral affect. Eye gaze sensitivity was indexed both behaviorally and as BOLD response. There were no group differences in behavioral response: both groups showed significantly faster responses if the target was in the congruent spatial direction indicated by eye gaze. Neither group showed a Congruence × Emotion interaction; neither group showed an advantage from the displayer’s emotional expression behaviorally. However, the BOLD response revealed a significant Group × Congruence × Emotion interaction. The comparison youth showed increased activity within the dorsal endogenous orienting network (superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal sulcus) for fearful congruent relative to incongruent trials relative to the youth with DBD + PT. The results are discussed with reference to current models of DBD + PT and possible treatment innovations. PMID:22781874

  17. Plant intelligence and attention

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argued that the concept of attention holds the potential of becoming a cornerstone of plant intelligence studies. PMID:23425923

  18. Response Inhibition in Preschoolers at Familial Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Stop-Signal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Andrea; Alyagon, Uri; Hadaya, Hadas; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G.

    2013-01-01

    Children participating in the Ben-Gurion Infant Development Study were assessed with a dynamic-tracking version of the stop-signal task at the age of 5 years. The sample consisted of 60 males. Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was correlated with concurrent ratings of the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms.…

  19. Response Inhibition in Preschoolers at Familial Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Stop-Signal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Andrea; Alyagon, Uri; Hadaya, Hadas; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G.

    2013-01-01

    Children participating in the Ben-Gurion Infant Development Study were assessed with a dynamic-tracking version of the stop-signal task at the age of 5years. The sample consisted of 60 males. Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was correlated with concurrent ratings of the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms.

  20. Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Impact of Age and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Ana; Soriano, Manuel; Fernandez, Inmaculada; Melia, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Comorbidity with other psychological problems (PP) complicates the course of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and makes treatment more difficult. The purpose of the present study was to (a) study the correspondence between the perceptions of parents and teachers about PP, (b) determine which PP predict the severity of the…

  1. Integrating Mindfulness Practices into the Elementary Curriculum to Improve Attention-to-Task Behaviors and Social Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanagy-Borofka, Lori

    2013-01-01

    This study examined effects of integrating mindfulness practices into the 5th grade curriculum to improve attention-to-task, including inattention and executive functioning, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and social relations. As academic requirements become more rigorous, students have been expected to demonstrate increased skills in…

  2. Descriptions of Personal Experiences: Effects on Students' Learning and Behavioral Intentions toward Peers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saecker, Lee B.; Skinner, Amy L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Rowland, Emily; Kirk, Emily

    2010-01-01

    High-school students were shown an educational video designed to dispel 12 common myths regarding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by describing each myth and then presenting accurate information. The experimental group viewed a video that was supplemented by the speaker acknowledging that he had ADHD and providing descriptions of…

  3. Classroom Interventions: Methods to Improve Academic Performance and Classroom Behavior for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiber, Christopher; McLaughlin, T. F.

    2004-01-01

    Behavior management techniques are essential components of any treatment method for students with ADHD. Further, they appear to be the only line of treatment to which school personnel have direct access. Research has suggested that nearly all educators employ some form of behavioral modification techniques in their classroom. This paper will…

  4. Competing Core Processes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Do Working Memory Deficiencies Underlie Behavioral Inhibition Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Hudec, Kristen L.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined competing predictions of the working memory and behavioral inhibition models of ADHD. Behavioral inhibition was measured using a conventional stop-signal task, and central executive, phonological, and visuospatial working memory components (Baddeley 2007) were assessed in 14 children with ADHD and 13 typically developing…

  5. Relevance of a Neurophysiological Marker of Attention Allocation for Children's Learning-Related Behaviors and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, Cynthia J.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Bierman, Karen L.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2015-01-01

    Learning-related behaviors are important for school success. Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for less adaptive learning-related behaviors at school entry, yet substantial variability in school readiness exists within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Investigation of neurophysiological systems associated with learning-related

  6. Working Memory, Attention, Inhibition, and Their Relation to Adaptive Functioning and Behavioral/Emotional Symptoms in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnove; Troberg, Anna-Maria; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri; Saarinen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child…

  7. Working Memory, Attention, Inhibition, and Their Relation to Adaptive Functioning and Behavioral/Emotional Symptoms in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnove; Troberg, Anna-Maria; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri; Saarinen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child

  8. Relevance of a Neurophysiological Marker of Attention Allocation for Children's Learning-Related Behaviors and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, Cynthia J.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Bierman, Karen L.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2015-01-01

    Learning-related behaviors are important for school success. Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for less adaptive learning-related behaviors at school entry, yet substantial variability in school readiness exists within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Investigation of neurophysiological systems associated with learning-related…

  9. Check In/Check out: Effects on Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders with Attention- or Escape-Maintained Behavior in a Residential Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoszowski, Nicole Cain; Jolivette, Kristine; Fredrick, Laura D.; Heflin, L. Juane

    2012-01-01

    Check In/Check Out (CICO) is a secondary tier intervention for those students who are not responsive to universal tier, school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. The present study extended the implementation of CICO to six students with emotional and behavioral disorders in a residential facility whose behaviors were maintained…

  10. Developmental trajectories of aggression, prosocial behavior, and social-cognitive problem solving in emerging adolescents with clinically elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Michael J; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E; Tolan, Patrick H

    2015-11-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given their childhood social difficulties. Relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior and social-cognitive problem solving beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (6th grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD-combined symptoms were compared longitudinally across 6th through 8th grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d = -0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d = 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group after accounting for co-occurring ODD symptoms and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in 6th grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was highly similar for the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. PMID:26595479

  11. Anxiety and depression among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The roles of behavioral temperamental traits, comorbid autism spectrum disorder, and bullying involvement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huei-Fan; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of behavioral temperamental traits, comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and bullying involvement with anxiety and depression among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged 11-18 years diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their severities of anxiety and depression were assessed. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of anxiety and depression. The results show that adolescents with ADHD who reported a higher behavioral inhibition system (BIS) score, had comorbid ASD, and were bullying victims, reported more severe anxiety and depressive symptoms. Adolescents with ADHD who bullied others reported more severe depressive symptoms than those who did not bully. The results of this study indicated that behavioral temperamental traits on the BIS, comorbid ASD, and bullying involvement were significantly associated with anxiety and depression among the adolescents with ADHD. PMID:26944330

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

  13. Physical exercise and catecholamine reuptake inhibitors affect orienting behavior and social interaction in a rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrea M; Eggleston, Rachel L; Bucci, David J

    2012-12-01

    The effects of methylphenidate (MPH), atomoxetine (ATMX), and/or physical exercise (EX) on orienting behavior and social interaction were examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). During the orienting procedure, rats received repeated presentations of a nonreinforced visual stimulus. As observed previously, orienting behavior (rearing up on the hind legs) habituated across trials in normo-active control rats (Wistars) but not in SHRs, suggesting that SHRs have difficulty ignoring irrelevant behavioral stimuli. Treatment with MPH (0.125 mg/kg), ATMX (0.125 mg/kg), or EX (3 weeks of access to a running wheel), alone or in combination, reduced rearing behavior in SHRs to the level observed in the Wistar control group. Similarly, drug treatment and/or EX reduced the number of social interactions exhibited by SHRs, while having no effects on locomotor activity. It is important to note that EX was just as effective as MPH or ATMX in reducing orienting behavior and social interaction. In contrast to the SHRs, neither MPH nor ATMX affected orienting or social behavior in Wistar rats. Together, these findings support the growing literature that EX may be useful as an adjunctive or replacement therapy in ADHD. PMID:23067385

  14. Associations between Inadequate Parenting Practices and Behavioral Problems in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Maria Cristina Triguero Veloz; Marino, Regina Luisa de Freitas; Carreiro, Luiz Renato Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescents with ADHD present behaviors such as impulsiveness, inattention, and difficulties with personal organization that represent an overload for parents. Moreover, it also increases their level of stress and leads them to resort to inadequate educational strategies. The present study verifies associations between inadequate parenting practices and behavioral profiles of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample was composed of 22 children with ADHD (age range 6-16 years) and their mothers. Spearman correlation analyses were made with the scores of Parenting Style Inventory (PSI) and Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6-18 (CBCL/6-18). Results indicate statistically significant associations between behavioral problems and the use of punishment practices and negligence. When assessing a child with ADHD, it is important to verify the predominant types of parenting practices that can influence both immediate interventions and the prognosis of the disorder. PMID:26844292

  15. Associations between Inadequate Parenting Practices and Behavioral Problems in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Triguero Veloz Teixeira, Maria Cristina; de Freitas Marino, Regina Luisa; Rodrigues Carreiro, Luiz Renato

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescents with ADHD present behaviors such as impulsiveness, inattention, and difficulties with personal organization that represent an overload for parents. Moreover, it also increases their level of stress and leads them to resort to inadequate educational strategies. The present study verifies associations between inadequate parenting practices and behavioral profiles of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample was composed of 22 children with ADHD (age range 6–16 years) and their mothers. Spearman correlation analyses were made with the scores of Parenting Style Inventory (PSI) and Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6–18 (CBCL/6–18). Results indicate statistically significant associations between behavioral problems and the use of punishment practices and negligence. When assessing a child with ADHD, it is important to verify the predominant types of parenting practices that can influence both immediate interventions and the prognosis of the disorder. PMID:26844292

  16. Behavioral support to parents through a cellular-phone website that provides the degree of urgency for medical attention of a child.

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, Mariko; Miyahara, Jyutaro; Noriaki, Terasawa; Nozue, Hiroki; Sumazaki, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    When a child suddenly falls ill, the child's family assesses if medical attention is required immediately. However, even in case of minor illnesses, it is not possible to approach a medical institution after consultation hours, and the burden on doctors from overtime-emergency medical examinations becomes a social problem. This study proposes the use of a cellular-phone website that provides information about the degree of urgency for medical attention to parents, who can choose the child's symptoms on the cellular-phone website regardless of the time or place. Therefore, through this study, parents experimentally evaluated the cellular-phone website; also, the effectiveness of this method as a behavioral support for parents was also evaluated. When an advice about the degree of urgency for a child's treatment was taken from the cellular-phone website, the parents felt relieved. Thus, the distress faced by pediatricians may change completely. PMID:23920889

  17. Towards Defining Deficient Emotional Self Regulation in Youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Using the Child Behavior Check List: A Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V.; Surman, Craig B.H.; Petty, Carter; Clarke, Allison; Batchelder, Holly; Wozniak, Janet; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Objective Deficient emotional self regulation (DESR) is characterized by deficits in self-regulating the physiological arousal caused by strong emotions. We examined whether a unique profile of the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL) would help identify DESR in children with Attention- Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods Subjects were 197 children with and 224 without ADHD. We defined DESR if a child had an aggregate cut-off score of > 180 but < 210 on the Anxiety/Depression, Aggression, and Attention scales of the CBCL (CBCL-DESR). This profile was selected because of 1) its conceptual congruence with the clinical concept of DESR and 2) because its extreme (>210) form had been previously associated with severe forms of mood and behavioral dysregulation in children with ADHD. All subjects were comprehensively assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and a wide range of functional measures. Results Forty four percent of children with ADHD had a positive CBCL- DESR profile vs. 2% of controls (p<0.001). The CBCL-DESR profile was associated with elevated rates of anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders, as well as significantly more impairments in emotional and interpersonal functioning. Conclusions The CBCL-DESR profile helped identify a subgroup of ADHD children with a psychopathological and functional profile consistent with the clinical concept of DESR. PMID:21904086

  18. The Effect of Stress Management Program Using Cognitive Behavior Approach on Mental Health of the Mothers of the Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Farkhondeh; Zarei, Shekufe; Alavi Shooshtari, Ali; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children. Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of stress management program using cognitive behavior approach on mental health of the mothers of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Patients and Methods: In this interventional study, 90 mothers of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were randomly allocated into three intervention, placebo, and control groups. The general health questionnaire was used to measure mental health. Besides, stress was assessed through the depression-anxiety-stress scale. The two instruments were completed at baseline, immediately after, and one month after the intervention by the mothers. Afterwards, within group comparisons were made using one-sample repeated measurement ANOVA. One-way ANOVA was used for inter group comparisons. Mothers in the placebo group only participated in meetings to talk and express feelings without receiving any interventions. Results: At the baseline, no significant difference was found among the three groups regarding the means of stress, anxiety, depression, and mental health. However, a significant difference was observed in the mean score of stress immediately after the intervention (P = 0.033). The results also showed a significant difference among the three groups regarding the mean score of mental health (P < 0.001). One month after the intervention, the mean difference of mental health score remained significant only in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The study findings confirmed the effectiveness of stress management program utilizing cognitive behavior approach in mental health of the mothers of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:26199709

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version in Healthy Adults and Application to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Robert M.; Lance, Charles E.; Isquith, Peter K.; Fischer, Adina S.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) is a questionnaire measure designed to assess executive functioning in everyday life. Analysis of data from the BRIEF-A standardization sample yielded a two-factor solution (labeled Behavioral Regulation and Metacognition). The present investigation employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate four alternative models of the factor structure of the BRIEF-A self-report form in a sample of 524 healthy young adults. Results indicated that a three-factor model best fits the data: a Metacognition factor, a Behavioral Regulation factor consisting of the Inhibit and Self-Monitor scales, and an Emotional Regulation factor composed of the Emotional Control and Shift scales. The three factors contributed 14%, 19%, and 24% of unique variance to the model, respectively, and a second-order general factor accounted for 41% of variance overall. This three-factor solution is consistent with recent CFAs of the Parent report form of the BRIEF. Furthermore, although the Behavioral Regulation factor score in the two-factor model did not differ between adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and a matched healthy comparison group, greater impairment on the Behavioral Regulation factor but not the Emotional Regulation factor was found using the three-factor model. Together, these findings support the multidimensional nature of executive function and the clinical relevance of a three-factor model of the BRIEF-A. PMID:23676185

  20. Parental Influence on Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: I. Relationships between Parent Behaviors and Child Peer Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Jack, Allison; Emeh, Christina C.; Stephens, Haley F.

    2010-01-01

    We examined associations between children's peer relationships and (a) their parents' social competence as well as (b) their parents' behaviors during the children's peer interactions. Participants were families of 124 children ages 6-10 (68% male), 62 with ADHD and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison youth. Children's peer relationships were

  1. Interaction of Dopamine Transporter Gene and Observed Parenting Behaviors on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that some individuals may be simultaneously more responsive to the effects from environmental adversity "and" enrichment (i.e., differential susceptibility). Given that parenting behavior and a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3'untranslated region of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene

  2. Improving Homework in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Self vs. Parent Monitoring of Homework Behavior and Study Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Kara; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2007-01-01

    The current study compared the effectiveness of self- and parent-monitoring of homework and study skills completion in middle school students with ADHD. Students were trained in the SQ4R (Survey, Question, Read, Write, Recite) study strategy and homework completion skills. In one group, students monitored their homework and study behavior and in…

  3. Behavioral and Cardiovascular Responses to Frustration during Simulated Driving Tasks in Young Adults with and without Attention Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Michele L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Cassavaugh, Nicholas D.; Backs, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the role of negative emotions on driving performance in relation to ADHD, by comparing young adults scoring high on measures of ADHD (n = 20) with a control group (n = 22). Method: The authors used cardiorespiratory physiological measures, simulated driving behavior, and self-report to examine how participants…

  4. Bridging the Gap between Physiology and Behavior: Evidence from the sSoTS Model of Human Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavritsaki, Eirini; Heinke, Dietmar; Allen, Harriet; Deco, Gustavo; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the case for a role of biologically plausible neural network modeling in bridging the gap between physiology and behavior. We argue that spiking-level networks can allow "vertical" translation between physiological properties of neural systems and emergent "whole-system" performance--enabling psychological results to be simulated from…

  5. Different Behavioral and Eye Movement Patterns of Dyslexic Readers with and without Attentional Deficits during Single Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Verena; Urton, Karolina; Heine, Angela; Hawelka, Stefan; Engl, Verena; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2009-01-01

    Comorbidity of learning disabilities is a very common phenomenon which is intensively studied in genetics, neuropsychology, prevalence studies and causal deficit research. In studies on the behavioral manifestation of learning disabilities, however, comorbidity is often neglected. In the present study, we systematically examined the reading

  6. Interaction of Dopamine Transporter Gene and Observed Parenting Behaviors on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that some individuals may be simultaneously more responsive to the effects from environmental adversity "and" enrichment (i.e., differential susceptibility). Given that parenting behavior and a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3'untranslated region of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene…

  7. Different Behavioral and Eye Movement Patterns of Dyslexic Readers with and without Attentional Deficits during Single Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Verena; Urton, Karolina; Heine, Angela; Hawelka, Stefan; Engl, Verena; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2009-01-01

    Comorbidity of learning disabilities is a very common phenomenon which is intensively studied in genetics, neuropsychology, prevalence studies and causal deficit research. In studies on the behavioral manifestation of learning disabilities, however, comorbidity is often neglected. In the present study, we systematically examined the reading…

  8. How Planful Is Routine Behavior? A Selective-Attention Model of Performance in the Tower of Hanoi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsenko, Elena G.; Altmann, Erik M.

    2010-01-01

    Routine human behavior has often been attributed to plans--mental representations of sequences goals and actions--but can also be attributed to more opportunistic interactions of mind and a structured environment. This study asks whether performance on a task traditionally analyzed in terms of plans can be better understood from a "situated" (or…

  9. Interaction of Dopamine Transporter Gene and Observed Parenting Behaviors on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Emerging evidence suggests that some individuals may be simultaneously more responsive to the effects from environmental adversity and enrichment (i.e., differential susceptibility). Given that parenting behavior and a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3′untranslated region of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene are each independently associated with ADHD, our goal was to evaluate the potential interactive effects of child DAT1 genotype with positive and negative parenting behaviors on childhood ADHD. Method We recruited an ethnically-diverse sample of 150 six to nine year-old boys and girls with and without ADHD. Children were genotyped for a common polymorphism of the DAT1 gene, and objective counts of observed parenting behavior (i.e., negativity and praise) were obtained from a valid parent-child interaction task. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the interactive effects of DAT1 and observed parenting with a latent ADHD factor. Results We detected a significant interaction between observed praise and child DAT1 (coded additively) which suggested that praise was associated with increased ADHD, but only among youth with the 9/10 genotype. In addition, a marginally significant interaction between DAT1 (coded additively and recessively) and observed negativity emerged for ADHD, such that negativity was positively associated with ADHD but only for youth with the 9/9 genotype. Conclusions Although differential susceptibility theory was not fully supported, These preliminary results suggest that interactive exchanges between parenting behavior and child genotype potentially contribute to the development of ADHD. Clinical implications for interactions between parenting behavior and child genotype are discussed. PMID:23153115

  10. Behavioral changes following PCB 153 exposure in the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat – an animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder affecting 3-5% of children. Although ADHD is highly heritable, environmental factors like exposure during early development to various toxic substances like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may contribute to the prevalence. PCBs are a group of chemical industrial compounds with adverse effects on neurobiological and cognitive functioning, and may produce behavioral impairments that share significant similarities with ADHD. The present study examined the relation between exposure to PCB 153 and changes in ADHD-like behavior in an animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/NCrl), and in Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NHsd) controls. Methods SHR/NCrl and WKY/NHsd, males and females, were orally given PCB 153 dissolved in corn oil at around postnatal day (PND) 8, 14, and 20 at a dosage of 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg bodyweight at each exposure. The control groups were orally administered corn oil only. The animals were behaviorally tested for exposure effects from PND 37 to 64 using an operant procedure. Results Exposure to PCB 153 was associated with pronounced and long-lasting behavioral changes in SHR/NCrl. Exposure effects in the SHR/NCrl depended on dose, where 1 mg/kg tended to reduce ADHD-like behaviors and produce opposite behavioral effects compared to 3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg, especially in the females. In the WKY/NHsd controls and for the three doses tested, PCB 153 exposure produced a few specific behavioral changes only in males. The data suggest that PCB 153 exposure interacts with strain and sex, and also indicate a non-linear dose–response relation for the behaviors observed. Conclusions Exposure to PCB 153 seems to interact with several variables including strain, sex, dose, and time of testing. To the extent that the present findings can be generalized to humans, exposure effects of PCB 153 on ADHD behavior depends on amount of exposure, where high doses may aggravate ADHD symptoms in genetically vulnerable individuals. In normal controls, exposure may not constitute an environmental risk factor for developing the full range of ADHD symptoms, but can produce specific behavioral changes. PMID:24405777

  11. Executive function in MCDD and PDD-NOS: a study of inhibitory control, attention regulation and behavioral adaptivity.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Sophie; de Sonneville, Leo; Lahuis, Bertine; Pieterse, Jolijn; van Engeland, Herman; Swaab, Hanna

    2013-06-01

    A proportion of children within the autism spectrum is at risk for severe deregulation of thought, emotion and behaviour resulting in (symptoms of) psychotic disorders over the course of development. In an attempt to identify this subgroup, children with PDD-NOS, subtype MCDD (n = 24) were compared to children with PDD-NOS (n = 23) on executive function (EF) skills. Significant differences emerged, always to the disadvantage of the children with PDD-NOS, subtype MCDD on various EF measures. The findings suggest compromised attention regulation and impaired inhibitory control in children with MCDD, which may help explain high levels of thought problems which are frequently observed in these children. Our findings provide evidence for recognizing a PDD subcategory of MCDD that is of specific interest with regard to long-term developmental risks involved. PMID:23104616

  12. Atypical behaviors and comorbid externalizing symptoms equally predict children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder's social functioning.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A; Geffken, Gary R; McNamara, Joseph P

    2011-08-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine within a clinical sample what differentiates children with ADHD who experience social functioning difficulties from those who appear to have healthy social functioning. Participants for this study included 62 children (mean age = 11.3 years) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD confirmed by a comprehensive clinical diagnostic assessment. Multiple indicators of children's social functioning were collected via parent report including: social skills, social adaptability, peer difficulties, and social quality of life. Parent reports of children's externalizing, internalizing, and atypical behaviors were also collected. Results indicated that both externalizing symptoms and atypical behaviors predicted children with ADHD's social functioning, even after controlling for ADHD symptoms severity. No association was found between internalizing symptoms and social functioning. The current study provides initial data suggesting that atypical behaviors found in children with ADHD are as powerful as comorbid externalizing symptoms in predicting social functioning difficulties. Due to the shared variance from relying solely on parent report, it will be critical for future research to replicate our findings using multi-informant data such as peer and teacher reports which provide unique information on children's social functioning. PMID:21479512

  13. Parental Influence on Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: I. Relationships Between Parent Behaviors and Child Peer Status

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Allison; Emeh, Christina C.; Stephens, Haley F.

    2010-01-01

    We examined associations between children's peer relationships and (a) their parents' social competence as well as (b) their parents' behaviors during the children's peer interactions. Participants were families of 124 children ages 6–10 (68% male), 62 with ADHD and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison youth. Children's peer relationships were assessed via parent and teacher report, and sociometric nominations in a lab-based playgroup. Parental characteristics were assessed via parent self-report and observations of behavior during their child's playgroup. After statistical control of relevant covariates, parents of children with ADHD reported poorer social skills of their own, arranged fewer playdates for their children, and displayed more criticism during their child's peer interaction than did parents of comparison youth. Parents' socialization with other parents and facilitation of the child's peer interactions predicted their children having good peer relationships as reported by teachers and peers, whereas parental corrective feedback to the child and praise predicted poor peer relationships. Parents' ratings of their child's social skills were positively associated with ratings of their own social skills, but negatively associated with criticism and facilitation of the child's peer interactions. Relationships between parental behaviors and peer relationships were stronger for youth with ADHD than for comparison youth. The relevance of findings to interventions is discussed. PMID:20339912

  14. Effects of Extended Release Methylphenidate Treatment on Ratings of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Associated Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Cynthia W.; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Casat, Charles D.; Mansour, Rosleen; Lane, David M.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Jerger, Susan W.; Factor, Perry; Vanwoerden, Salome; Perez, Evelyn; Cleveland, Lynne A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral effects of four doses of psychostimulant medication, combining extended-release methylphenidate (MPH) in the morning with immediate-release MPH in the afternoon. Method The sample comprised 24 children (19 boys; 5 girls) who met American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and had significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This sample consisted of elementary school-age, community-based children (mean chronological age=8.8 years, SD=1.7; mean intelligence quotient [IQ]=85; SD=16.8). Effects of four dose levels of MPH on parent and teacher behavioral ratings were investigated using a within-subject, crossover, placebo-controlled design. Results MPH treatment was associated with significant declines in hyperactive and impulsive behavior at both home and school. Parents noted significant declines in inattentive and oppositional behavior, and improvements in social skills. No exacerbation of stereotypies was noted, and side effects were similar to those seen in typically developing children with ADHD. Dose response was primarily linear in the dose range studied. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that MPH formulations are efficacious and well-tolerated for children with ASD and significant ADHD symptoms. PMID:23782128

  15. A cross-etiology comparison of the socio-emotional behavioral profiles associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-etiology comparisons provide important information that can help practitioners establish criteria for differential diagnosis and tailor interventions towards the source of children’s difficulties. This study examined the extent to which parent rating scales of socioemotional behavioral difficulties differentiate cases of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from cases of specific language impairment (SLI), and typical development (TD). Parents of 60 children (7–8 years) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) and the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised (Conners, 2004). Significant differences were observed between ratings provided for the children with ADHD and the children with SLI and TD across several scales which assessed behavioral and emotional difficulties. Most of the observed differences between ratings provided for the SLI and TD groups were not significant when nonverbal IQ was treated as a covariate or when syndrome scales were adjusted for the presence of language and academic items. In contrast, these adjustments had little impact on observed differences between the children with ADHD and the other groups. These results highlight important and clinically useful differences between the scope and the scale of socioemotional behavior difficulties associated with ADHD and SLI. PMID:24456478

  16. Treating parents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the effects of behavioral parent training and acute stimulant medication treatment on parent-child interactions.

    PubMed

    Babinski, Dara E; Waxmonsky, James G; Pelham, William E

    2014-10-01

    This multiple baseline study evaluated the efficacy of behavioral parent training (BPT) for 12 parents (M age = 39.17 years; 91% mothers) and their children (ages 6-12; 83% boys) both with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and also explored the acute effect of stimulant medication for parents before and after BPT. Parents rated their own and their children's symptoms and impairment and were stabilized on optimally dosed medication. Then, parents discontinued medication and were randomly assigned to a 3, 4, or 5 week baseline (BL), during which they provided twice-weekly ratings of their impairment, parenting, and their child's behavior. Following BL, parents and their children completed two laboratory tasks, once on their optimally dosed medication and once on a placebo to assess observable effects of medication on parent-child behavior, and they completed additional assessments of family functioning. Parents then completed eight BPT sessions, during which they were unmedicated. Twice-weekly ratings of parent and child behavior were collected during BPT and additional ratings were collected upon completing BPT. Two more parent-child tasks with and without parent medication were conducted upon BPT completion to assess the observable effects of BPT and BPT plus medication. Ten (83.33%) parents completed the trial. Improvements in parent and child behavior were observed, and parents reported improved child behavior with BPT. Few benefits of BPT emerged through parent reports of parent functioning, with the exception of inconsistent discipline, and no medication or interaction effects emerged. These results, although preliminary, suggest that some parents with ADHD benefit from BPT. While pharmacological treatment is the most common intervention for adults with ADHD, further examination of psychosocial treatments for adults is needed. PMID:24687848

  17. Impact of Treatments for Depression on Comorbid Anxiety, Attentional, and Behavioral Symptoms in Adolescents With Selective Serotonin Reuptake InhibitorResistant Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Robert C.; Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon; He, Jiayan; Mayes, Taryn; Emslie, Graham J.; Porta, Giovanna; Clarke, Greg N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the relative efficacy of antidepressant medication, alone and in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), on comorbid symptoms of anxiety, attention, and disruptive behavior disorders in participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method Adolescents with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)resistant depression (N = 334) were randomly assigned to a medication switch alone (to another SSRI or to venlafaxine) or to a medication switch plus CBT. Anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) symptoms were assessed by psychiatric interview and self-report at regular intervals between baseline and 24 weeks. The differential effects of medication and of CBT, and the impact of remission on the course of comorbid symptoms and diagnoses, were assessed using generalized linear mixed models. Results Remission was associated with a greater reduction in scalar measures of anxiety, ADHD, and DBDs, and a greater decrease in the rate of diagnosed anxiety disorders. The correlations between the changes in symptoms of depression on the CDRS-R and anxiety, ADHD, and oppositional symptoms were modest, ranging from r = 0.12 to r = 0.28. There were no significant differential treatment effects on diagnoses, or corresponding symptoms. Conclusion The achievement of remission had a beneficial effect on anxiety, ADHD, and DBD symptoms, regardless of the type of treatment received. There were no differential effects of medication or CBT on outcome, except for a nonsignificant trend that those adolescents treated with SSRIs showed a greater decrease in rates of comorbid DBDs relative to those treated with venlafaxine. PMID:23622849

  18. Old Dog, New Tricks: The Attentional Set-Shifting Test as a Novel Cognitive Behavioral Task after Controlled Cortical Impact Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bondi, Corina O.; Cheng, Jeffrey P.; Tennant, Heather M.; Monaco, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cognitive impairment associated with prefrontal cortical dysfunction is a major component of disability in traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors. Specifically, deficits of cognitive flexibility and attentional set-shifting are present across all levels of injury severity. Though alterations in spatial learning have been extensively described in experimental models of TBI, studies investigating more complex cognitive deficits are relatively scarce. Hence, the aim of this preclinical study was to expand on this important issue by evaluating the effect of three injury levels on executive function and behavioral flexibility performance as assessed using an attentional set-shifting test (AST). Isoflurane-anesthetized male rats received a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury (2.6, 2.8, and 3.0 mm cortical depth at 4 m/sec) or sham injury, whereas an additional group had no surgical manipulation (naïve). Four weeks postsurgery, rats were tested on the AST, which involved a series of discriminative tasks of increasing difficulty, such as simple and compound discriminations, stimulus reversals, and intra- and extradimensional (ED) shifts. TBI produced accompanying impact depth-dependent increases in cortical lesion volumes, with the 3.0-mm cortical depth group displaying significantly larger injury volumes than the 2.6-mm group (p=0.05). Further, injury severity-induced deficits in ED set-shifting and stimulus reversals, as well as increases in total response error rates and total set loss errors, were observed. These novel findings demonstrate executive function and behavioral flexibility deficits in our animal model of CCI injury and provide the impetus to integrate the AST in the standard neurotrauma behavioral battery to further evaluate cognitive dysfunction after TBI. Ongoing experiments in our laboratory are assessing AST performance after pharmacological and rehabilitative therapies post-TBI, as well as elucidating possible mechanisms underlying the observed neuropsychological deficits. PMID:24397572

  19. Shifting Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  20. Cocaine-seeking behavior in a genetic model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder following adolescent methylphenidate or atomoxetine treatments*

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Chloe J.; Harvey, Roxann C.; Baskin, Britahny B.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with cocaine abuse. Controversy exists regarding long-term consequences of ADHD medications on cocaine abuse liability. Whereas childhood methylphenidate treatment may be preventative, methylphenidate in teens appears to further increase later cocaine abuse risk. In rodents, adolescent methylphenidate treatment further increases adult cocaine self-administration in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD, whereas adolescent atomoxetine treatment does not. Effects of ADHD medications on cocaine cue reactivity, a critical component of addiction, are unknown. Methods To investigate this, SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (inbred control) and Wistar (outbred control) rats received therapeutically relevant doses of methylphenidate (1.5 mg/kg, oral) and atomoxetine (0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), or respective vehicles from post-natal day 28–55. Cocaine seeking, reflecting cue reactivity, was measured in adulthood during self-administration maintenance and cue-induced reinstatement tests conducted under a second-order schedule. Results Compared to control strains, SHR earned more cocaine infusions, emitted more cocaine-seeking responses during maintenance and reinstatement testing, and required more sessions to reach the extinction criterion. Compared to vehicle, adolescent methylphenidate, but not atomoxetine, further increased cocaine intake during maintenance testing in SHR. Adolescent atomoxetine, but not methylphenidate, decreased cocaine seeking during reinstatement testing in SHR. Neither medication had effects on cocaine intake or cue reactivity in control strains. Conclusions The SHR successfully model ADHD and cocaine abuse comorbidity and show differential effects of adolescent ADHD medications on cocaine intake and cue reactivity during adulthood. Thus, SHR have heuristic value for assessing neurobiology underlying the ADHD phenotype and for evaluating pharmacotherapeutics for ADHD. PMID:24811203

  1. The Effects of Presession Attention on Subsequent Attention-Extinction and Alone Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Machalicek, Wendy; Antonucci, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effects of presession levels of attention (no attention vs. continuous attention) during subsequent alone and attention-extinction conditions for an individual with severe disabilities and problem behavior. A prior functional analysis indicated that attention was a primary maintaining variable for problem behavior. Experimental…

  2. Behavioral, Cognitive, and Motor Preparation Deficits in a Visual Cued Spatial Attention Task in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sokhadze, Estate M; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Guela E; El-Baz, Ayman S; Casanova, Manuel F

    2016-03-01

    Abnormalities in motor skills have been regarded as part of the symptomatology characterizing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It has been estimated that 80 % of subjects with autism display "motor dyspraxia" or clumsiness that are not readily identified in a routine neurological examination. In this study we used behavioral measures, event-related potentials (ERP), and lateralized readiness potential (LRP) to study cognitive and motor preparation deficits contributing to the dyspraxia of autism. A modified Posner cueing task was used to analyze motor preparation abnormalities in children with autism and in typically developing children (N = 30/per group). In this task, subjects engage in preparing motor response based on a visual cue, and then execute a motor movement based on the subsequent imperative stimulus. The experimental conditions, such as the validity of the cue and the spatial location of the target stimuli were manipulated to influence motor response selection, preparation, and execution. Reaction time and accuracy benefited from validly cued targets in both groups, while main effects of target spatial position were more obvious in the autism group. The main ERP findings were prolonged and more negative early frontal potentials in the ASD in incongruent trials in both types of spatial location. The LRP amplitude was larger in incongruent trials and had stronger effect in the children with ASD. These effects were better expressed at the earlier stages of LRP, specifically those related to response selection, and showed difficulties at the cognitive phase of stimulus processing rather that at the motor execution stage. The LRP measures at different stages reflect the chronology of cognitive aspects of movement preparation and are sensitive to manipulations of cue correctness, thus representing very useful biomarker in autism dyspraxia research. Future studies may use more advance and diverse manipulations of movement preparation demands in testing more refined specifics of dyspraxia symptoms to investigate functional connectivity abnormalities underlying motor skills deficits in autism. PMID:26377686

  3. Comorbid Symptomatology Moderates Response to Risperidone, Stimulant, and Parent Training in Children with Severe Aggression, Disruptive Behavior Disorder, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nicole V.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Kolko, David G.; Findling, Robert L.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Buchan-Page, Kristin A.; Rice, Robert R.; Bangalore, Srihari S.; Bukstein, Oscar; Rundberg-Rivera, E. Victoria; McNamara, Nora; Aman, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: In this study, we evaluated parent and child characteristics as predictors and moderators of response in the four-site Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (TOSCA) study. Methods: A total of 168 children with severe aggression, disruptive behavior disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were enrolled in a 9-week trial of basic treatment (n=84, stimulant+parent training+placebo) versus augmented treatment (n=84, stimulant+parent training+risperidone). In the initial report, augmented treatment surpassed basic treatment in reducing the primary outcome of disruptive behavior (D-Total) scores. In the current study, we evaluated parent (income, education, family functioning, employment) and child variables (intelligence quotient [IQ], aggression type, comorbid symptomatology) as predictors or moderators, using linear mixed models and the MacArthur guidelines. Results: Higher scores on ADHD symptom severity and callous/unemotional traits predicted better outcome on D-Total regardless of treatment assignment. Two moderators of D-Total were found: Higher anger/irritability symptoms and lower mania scores were associated with faster response, although not better overall effect at endpoint, in the augmented but not the basic group. Several variables moderated response on secondary outcomes (ADHD severity and prosocial behavior), and were characterized by faster response, although not better outcome, in the augmented but not in the basic group. Maternal education moderated outcome on the measure of positive social behavior; children of mothers with less education benefited more from augmented treatment relative to basic than those with more education. Conclusion: Although these findings require validation, they tentatively suggest that augmented treatment works equally well across the entire sample. Nevertheless, certain child characteristics may be useful indicators for the speed of response to augmented treatment. PMID:25885011

  4. Attentive, Affective, and Adaptive Behavior in the Cat: Sensory deprivation of the forebrain by lesions in the brain stem results in striking behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Sprague, J M; Chambers, W W; Stellar, E

    1961-01-20

    Lesions of the lateral portion of the upper midbrain, involving medial, lateral, spinal, and trigeminal lemnisci primarily, result in a consistent syndrome of symptoms in the cat. (i) There is a marked sensory deficit, characterized mainly by sensory inattention and poor localization in the tactile, proprioceptive, auditory, gustatory, and nociceptive modalities, where direct pathways are interrupted. Similar defectsappear in vision and olfaction where no known direct or primary paths are interrupted. (ii) These cats are characterized by a lack of affect, showing little or no defensive and aggressive reaction to noxious and aversive situations and no response to pleasurable stimulation or solicitation of affection or petting. The animals are mute, lack facial expression, and show minimal autonomic responses. (iii) They show a hyperexploratory activity characterized by incessant, stereotyped wandering, sniffing, and visual searching, as though hallucinating. This behavior appears to be centrally directed and is very difficult to interrupt with environmental stimuli. (iv) They also demonstrate exaggerated oral activities: they snap in response to tactile stimulation of the lips, seizing and swallowing small objects even if inedible; they overeat; they hold objects too large to swallow (a mouse, a catnip ball) firmly clamped in the mouth for long periods of time; they mount and seize other animals (rat, cat, dog, monkey) by the back or the neck; they lick and chew the hair and skin of the back or tail incessantly when confined in a cage. In interpreting these results we emphasize the view that the syndrome is due chiefly to the extensive, specific, sensory deprivation produced by interruption of the lemnisci at the rostral midbrain. The relation of these findings to the effects of sensory isolation in man and animals, to the effects of midbrain lesions and neodecortication, to parietal lobe syndrome in primates, and to the behavior of autistic children is discussed. It is our belief, from these studies, that the symptoms produced by interruption of the lemnisci, characterized by a high degree of somatotopic and modality localization, are due to a loss of patterned sensory input to the forebrain, particularly to the neocortex and to the rostral midbrain. Without a patterned afferent input to the forebrain via the lemnisci, the remaining portions of the central nervous system, which include a virtually intact reticular formation, seem incapable of elaborating a large part of the animal's repertoire of adaptive behavior (45). PMID:17819594

  5. Developmental pathways to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behavior disorders: Investigating the impact of the stress response on executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ann C

    2015-03-01

    A current theory suggests multiple pathways to the onset of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, proposing that heterogeneous factors lead to various patterns of behavior, cognitive impairments, and even physiological signs which are categorized as ADHD and comorbid disorders. This review focused on one proposed pathway to the onset of ADHD and ODD/CD in order to examine how low physiological arousal, as indicated by atypical hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic adrenomedullary functioning, might be associated with cognitive impairment. First, the cognitive deficits associated with ADHD and disruptive behavior disorders were reviewed. In order to understand the atypical response, studies of the typical stress response and its relationship to cognition, particularly executive functioning, were then examined. Finally, this review summarized findings of an atypical stress response among children with ADHD and ODD/CD. Review of the literature led to the conclusion that the theorized pathway may be improved by taking into account the effects of stress on executive functioning given that an atypical stress response would likely be associated with impairment in this area. Future research directions needed to advance our understanding of the relationship between low arousal, ADHD, and ODD/CD were highlighted. PMID:25590346

  6. Slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation during non-rapid eye movement sleep improves behavioral inhibition in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Munz, Manuel T.; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Thielking, Frederieke; Mölle, Matthias; Göder, Robert; Baving, Lioba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Behavioral inhibition, which is a later-developing executive function (EF) and anatomically located in prefrontal areas, is impaired in attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While optimal EFs have been shown to depend on efficient sleep in healthy subjects, the impact of sleep problems, frequently reported in ADHD, remains elusive. Findings of macroscopic sleep changes in ADHD are inconsistent, but there is emerging evidence for distinct microscopic changes with a focus on prefrontal cortical regions and non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) slow-wave sleep. Recently, slow oscillations (SO) during non-REM sleep were found to be less functional and, as such, may be involved in sleep-dependent memory impairments in ADHD. Objective:By augmenting slow-wave power through bilateral, slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS, frequency = 0.75 Hz) during non-REM sleep, we aimed to improve daytime behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD. Methods: Fourteen boys (10–14 years) diagnosed with ADHD were included. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, patients received so-tDCS either in the first or in the second experimental sleep night. Inhibition control was assessed with a visuomotor go/no-go task. Intrinsic alertness was assessed with a simple stimulus response task. To control for visuomotor performance, motor memory was assessed with a finger sequence tapping task. Results: SO-power was enhanced during early non-REM sleep, accompanied by slowed reaction times and decreased standard deviations of reaction times, in the go/no-go task after so-tDCS. In contrast, intrinsic alertness, and motor memory performance were not improved by so-tDCS. Conclusion: Since behavioral inhibition but not intrinsic alertness or motor memory was improved by so-tDCS, our results suggest that lateral prefrontal slow oscillations during sleep might play a specific role for executive functioning in ADHD. PMID:26321911

  7. Gaze Cueing of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Frischen, Alexandra; Bayliss, Andrew P.; Tipper, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    During social interactions, people’s eyes convey a wealth of information about their direction of attention and their emotional and mental states. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of past and current research into the perception of gaze behavior and its effect on the observer. This encompasses the perception of gaze direction and its influence on perception of the other person, as well as gaze-following behavior such as joint attention, in infant, adult, and clinical populations. Particular focus is given to the gaze-cueing paradigm that has been used to investigate the mechanisms of joint attention. The contribution of this paradigm has been significant and will likely continue to advance knowledge across diverse fields within psychology and neuroscience. PMID:17592962

  8. Attention Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.

    2007-01-01

    A major problem for developmental science is understanding how the cognitive and emotional networks important in carrying out mental processes can be related to individual differences. The last five years have seen major advances in establishing links between alleles of specific genes and the neural networks underlying aspects of attention. These…

  9. Civility in Classes and Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility in classes and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…

  10. The influence of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on attentional behavior and decision making. A t-DCS study on emotionally vs. functionally designed objects.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Barbara; Balzarotti, Stefania; Mazzucchelli, Nicla

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has shown that right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be crucial in cognitive control of affective impulses during decision making. The present study examines whether modulation of r-DLPFC with transcranial direct current stimulation influences attentional behavior and decision-making in a purchase task requiring participants to choose either emotional/attractive or functional/useful objects. 30 participants were shown sixteen pairs of emotionally or functionally designed products while their eye-movements were recorded. Participants were asked to judge aesthetics and usefulness of each object, and to decide which object of each pair they would buy. Results revealed that participants decided to buy the functionally designed objects more often regardless of condition; however, participants receiving anodal stimulation were faster in decision making. Although stimulation of r-DLPFC did not affect the actual purchasing choice and had little effect on visual exploration during decision making, it influenced perceived usefulness and attractiveness, with temporary inhibition of r-DLPFC leading to evaluate functional objects as less attractive. Finally, anodal stimulation led to judge the objects as more useful. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26859525

  11. Protective Effects of the Alcohol Dehydrogenase-ADH1B*3 Allele on Attention and Behavior Problems in Adolescents Exposed to Alcohol during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Neil C.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase is a critical enzyme in the metabolism of alcohol. Expression of three alleles at the ADH1B locus results in enzymes that differ in turnover rate and affinity for alcohol. The ADH1B*3 allele, which appears to be unique to individuals of African descent, is associated with more rapid alcohol metabolism than the more prevalent ADH1B*1 allele. It has been previously demonstrated that the presence of at least one maternal ADH1B*3 allele confers a protective effect against alcohol teratogenicity in infants and children. This study was conducted to determine whether the presence of the ADH1B*3 allele in the mother or child continues to be protective in alcohol-exposed individuals during adolescence. 186 adolescents and 167 mothers participating in a 14-year follow-up of the Detroit Longitudinal Cohort were genotyped for ADH1B alleles. Behavioral reports were obtained from classroom teachers. Frequencies of the ADH1B*3 allele were 17.6% in the mothers and 21.0% in the adolescents, which are consistent with the 15-20% expected for African Americans. Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with increased attention problems and externalizing behaviors in adolescents born to mothers with two ADH1B*1 alleles but not in those whose mothers had at least one ADH1B*3 allele. A similar pattern was seen in relation to the presence or absence of an ADH1B*3 allele in the adolescent, which may have reflected the presence/absence of the maternal variant. This study is the first to demonstrate that the protective effects of the maternal ADH1B*3 allele continue to be evident during adolescence. These persistent individual differences in vulnerability of offspring to the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure are likely attributable to more rapid metabolism of alcohol that the ADH1B*3 variant confers on the mother, leading to a reduction of the peak blood alcohol concentration to which the fetus is exposed during each drinking episode. PMID:24263126

  12. Protective effects of the alcohol dehydrogenase-ADH1B*3 allele on attention and behavior problems in adolescents exposed to alcohol during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Neil C; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase is a critical enzyme in the metabolism of alcohol. Expression of three alleles at the ADH1B locus results in enzymes that differ in turnover rate and affinity for alcohol. The ADH1B*3 allele, which appears to be unique to individuals of African descent, is associated with more rapid alcohol metabolism than the more prevalent ADH1B*1 allele. It has been previously demonstrated that the presence of at least one maternal ADH1B*3 allele confers a protective effect against alcohol teratogenicity in infants and children. This study was conducted to determine whether the presence of the ADH1B*3 allele in the mother or child continues to be protective in alcohol-exposed individuals during adolescence. 186 adolescents and 167 mothers participating in a 14-year follow-up of the Detroit Longitudinal Cohort were genotyped for ADH1B alleles. Behavioral reports were obtained from classroom teachers. Frequencies of the ADH1B*3 allele were 17.6% in the mothers and 21.0% in the adolescents, which are consistent with the 15-20% expected for African Americans. Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with increased attention problems and externalizing behaviors in adolescents born to mothers with two ADH1B*1 alleles but not in those whose mothers had at least one ADH1B*3 allele. A similar pattern was seen in relation to the presence or absence of an ADH1B*3 allele in the adolescent, which may have reflected the presence/absence of the maternal variant. This study is the first to demonstrate that the protective effects of the maternal ADH1B*3 allele continue to be evident during adolescence. These persistent individual differences in vulnerability of offspring to the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure are likely attributable to more rapid metabolism of alcohol that the ADH1B*3 variant confers on the mother, leading to a reduction of the peak blood alcohol concentration to which the fetus is exposed during each drinking episode. PMID:24263126

  13. Attentional Disengagement in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lense, Miriam D.; Key, Alexandra P.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive behavioral and cognitive profile, including widespread problems with attention. However, the specific nature of their attentional difficulties, such as inappropriate attentional allocation and/or poor attentional disengagement abilities, has yet to be…

  14. Abnormal Pre-Attentive Arousal in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Contributes to Their Atypical Auditory Behavior: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Stroganova, Tatiana A.; Kozunov, Vladimir V.; Posikera, Irina N.; Galuta, Ilia A.; Gratchev, Vitaliy V.; Orekhova, Elena V.

    2013-01-01

    Auditory sensory modulation difficulties and problems with automatic re-orienting to sound are well documented in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal preattentive arousal processes may contribute to these deficits. In this study, we investigated components of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) reflecting preattentive arousal in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children aged 3-8 years. Pairs of clicks (‘S1’ and ‘S2’) separated by a 1 sec S1-S2 interstimulus interval (ISI) and much longer (8-10 sec) S1-S1 ISIs were presented monaurally to either the left or right ear. In TD children, the P50, P100 and N1c CAEP components were strongly influenced by temporal novelty of clicks and were much greater in response to the S1 than the S2 click. Irrespective of the stimulation side, the ‘tangential’ P100 component was rightward lateralized in TD children, whereas the ‘radial’ N1c component had higher amplitude contralaterally to the stimulated ear. Compared to the TD children, children with ASD demonstrated 1) reduced amplitude of the P100 component under the condition of temporal novelty (S1) and 2) an attenuated P100 repetition suppression effect. The abnormalities were lateralized and depended on the presentation side. They were evident in the case of the left but not the right ear stimulation. The P100 abnormalities in ASD correlated with the degree of developmental delay and with the severity of auditory sensory modulation difficulties observed in early life. The results suggest that some rightward-lateralized brain networks that are crucially important for arousal and attention re-orienting are compromised in children with ASD and that this deficit contributes to sensory modulation difficulties and possibly even other behavioral deficits in ASD. PMID:23935931

  15. Comparison of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Parvin; Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali; AmirAhmadi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Although pharmacotherapy with atypical antipsychotics is common in child psychiatry, there has been little research on this issue. To compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders comorbid with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Randomized clinical trial conducted in a university-affiliated child psychiatry clinic in southwest Iran. Forty 3-6-year-old children, diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with ADHD, were randomized to an 8-week trial of treatment with risperidone or aripiprazole (20 patients in each group). Assessment was performed by Conners’ rating scale-revised and clinical global impressions scale, before treatment, and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 of treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Mean scores between the two groups were compared by analysis of variance and independent and paired t-test. Mean scores of Conners rating scales were not different between two groups in any steps of evaluation. Both groups had significantly reduced scores in week 2 of treatment (P = 0.00), with no significant change in subsequent measurements. Rates of improvement, mean increase in weight (P = 0.894), and mean change in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.671) were not significantly different between two groups. Mean serum prolactin showed a significant increase in risperidone group (P = 0.00). Both risperidone and aripiprazole were equally effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and relatively safe, but high rates of side effects suggest the cautious use of these drugs in children. PMID:27144151

  16. Comparison of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Parvin; Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali; AmirAhmadi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Although pharmacotherapy with atypical antipsychotics is common in child psychiatry, there has been little research on this issue. To compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders comorbid with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Randomized clinical trial conducted in a university-affiliated child psychiatry clinic in southwest Iran. Forty 3-6-year-old children, diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with ADHD, were randomized to an 8-week trial of treatment with risperidone or aripiprazole (20 patients in each group). Assessment was performed by Conners' rating scale-revised and clinical global impressions scale, before treatment, and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 of treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Mean scores between the two groups were compared by analysis of variance and independent and paired t-test. Mean scores of Conners rating scales were not different between two groups in any steps of evaluation. Both groups had significantly reduced scores in week 2 of treatment (P = 0.00), with no significant change in subsequent measurements. Rates of improvement, mean increase in weight (P = 0.894), and mean change in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.671) were not significantly different between two groups. Mean serum prolactin showed a significant increase in risperidone group (P = 0.00). Both risperidone and aripiprazole were equally effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and relatively safe, but high rates of side effects suggest the cautious use of these drugs in children. PMID:27144151

  17. Abnormal pre-attentive arousal in young children with autism spectrum disorder contributes to their atypical auditory behavior: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Stroganova, Tatiana A; Kozunov, Vladimir V; Posikera, Irina N; Galuta, Ilia A; Gratchev, Vitaliy V; Orekhova, Elena V

    2013-01-01

    Auditory sensory modulation difficulties and problems with automatic re-orienting to sound are well documented in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal preattentive arousal processes may contribute to these deficits. In this study, we investigated components of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) reflecting preattentive arousal in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children aged 3-8 years. Pairs of clicks ('S1' and 'S2') separated by a 1 sec S1-S2 interstimulus interval (ISI) and much longer (8-10 sec) S1-S1 ISIs were presented monaurally to either the left or right ear. In TD children, the P50, P100 and N1c CAEP components were strongly influenced by temporal novelty of clicks and were much greater in response to the S1 than the S2 click. Irrespective of the stimulation side, the 'tangential' P100 component was rightward lateralized in TD children, whereas the 'radial' N1c component had higher amplitude contralaterally to the stimulated ear. Compared to the TD children, children with ASD demonstrated 1) reduced amplitude of the P100 component under the condition of temporal novelty (S1) and 2) an attenuated P100 repetition suppression effect. The abnormalities were lateralized and depended on the presentation side. They were evident in the case of the left but not the right ear stimulation. The P100 abnormalities in ASD correlated with the degree of developmental delay and with the severity of auditory sensory modulation difficulties observed in early life. The results suggest that some rightward-lateralized brain networks that are crucially important for arousal and attention re-orienting are compromised in children with ASD and that this deficit contributes to sensory modulation difficulties and possibly even other behavioral deficits in ASD. PMID:23935931

  18. The Experience of Mothers and Teachers of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Children, and Their Management Practices for the Behaviors of the Child a Descriptive Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harazni, Lubna; Alkaissi, Aidah

    2016-01-01

    ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a childhood disorder affecting children worldwide and has a major burden on the child, family and other caregivers. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate and describe the experience of the adults that interact on a daily basis with school-aged children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity…

  19. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us. PMID:25941868

  20. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Anita D.; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Wexler, Joanna L.; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain–behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8–12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain–behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN–occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON–DMN connections. For all CON–DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children. PMID:25610768

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD. PMID:25186567

  2. Brain Connectivity and Visual Attention

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Emily L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures. PMID:23597177

  3. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention. PMID:24753566

  4. Multisetting Assessment-Based Intervention for Young Children at Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Initial Effects on Academic and Behavioral Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Lee; DuPaul, George J.; Volpe, Robert J.; Sokol, Natalie G.; Lutz, J. Gary; Arbolino, Lauren A.; Pipan, Mary; VanBrakle, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research suggests that symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may begin to emerge in children at a very young age. Given that early onset is associated with more deleterious outcomes, early intervention is imperative. In the current study, we evaluated the effectiveness of two different interventions with children aged 3-5…

  5. The Incremental Utility of Behavioral Rating Scales and a Structured Diagnostic Interview in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Aaron J.; Hoza, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the incremental utility of rating scales, a structured diagnostic interview, and multiple informants in a comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample included 185 children with ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.22, SD = 0.95) and 82 children without ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.24, SD =…

  6. The Incremental Utility of Behavioral Rating Scales and a Structured Diagnostic Interview in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Aaron J.; Hoza, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the incremental utility of rating scales, a structured diagnostic interview, and multiple informants in a comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample included 185 children with ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.22, SD = 0.95) and 82 children without ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.24, SD =

  7. Exploring the co-morbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in a nationally representative community-based sample.

    PubMed

    Bleck, Jennifer; DeBate, Rita D

    2013-08-01

    Emerging evidence signifies the co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with clinical and sub-threshold disordered eating behaviors. However, many existing studies have assessed this co-occurrence among inpatient or intensive outpatient populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the co-occurrence of ADHD with clinical eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in a nationally representative sample via a secondary data analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 4,862; 2,243 males; 2,619 females). Results reveal that females have higher rates of co-occurrence of ADHD and diagnosed eating disorders than males (1.05% vs. 0.20%, p < .01). When controlling for age and race, ADHD predicted diagnosed eating disorders in females (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 2.06; 95% CI: 1.09-3.88; p < .05), but did not predict diagnosed eating disorders in males. With regard to disordered eating behaviors, when controlling for age, gender, and race, ADHD significantly predicted disordered eating behaviors (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.21-2.74). When stratifying by type of disordered eating behavior, ADHD predicted binging and/or purging behavior (OR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.78-4.61), but not restrictive behaviors. Implications of study findings pertain to both secondary/targeted prevention efforts in addition to tertiary prevention via patient-specific treatment plans. PMID:23910787

  8. Behavior Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Print Share Behavior Therapy for Children with ADHD Page Content Behavior Therapy Has 3 Basic Principles: ... using both medication and behavior therapy to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . This is known as a multimodal treatment ...

  9. The Effects of a Self-Monitoring and Video Self-Modeling Intervention to Increase On-Task Behavior for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Rachel Calkins Oxnard

    2009-01-01

    Children are diagnosed with AD/HD more often than any other disorder and interventions are needed in schools to increase on-task behavior. Most studies examining on-task behavior are conducted in special education classrooms or clinical laboratories. Previous studies have not combined video self-modeling and self-monitoring as an intervention to…

  10. Deficient Behavioral Inhibition and Anomalous Selective Attention in a Community Sample of Adolescents with Psychopathic Traits and Low-Anxiety Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitale, Jennifer E.; Newman, Joseph P.; Bates, John E.; Goodnight, Jackson; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2005-01-01

    Socialization is the important process by which individuals learn and then effectively apply the rules of appropriate societal behavior. Response modulation is a psychobiological process theorized to aid in socialization by allowing individuals to utilize contextual information to modify ongoing behavior appropriately. Using Hare's (1991)…

  11. Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Functional Impairment in Clinic- and Community-Based Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lin, Yu-Ju; Shang, Chi-Yung; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Soong, Wei-Tsuen

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 268 patients and 137 community-based children with DSM-IV ADHD, and 268 school controls, aged 6-15, this study aimed to compare the emotional/behavioral problems and functional impairment between clinic- and community-based children with ADHD. Children's ADHD-related symptoms, a wide range of emotional/behavioral problems, and…

  12. Gaze Behaviors of Preterm and Full-Term Infants in Nonsocial and Social Contexts of Increasing Dynamics: Visual Recognition, Attention Regulation, and Gaze Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harel, Hagar; Gordon, Ilanit; Geva, Ronny; Feldman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated poor visual skills in premature infants, few studies assessed infants' gaze behaviors across several domains of functioning in a single study. Thirty premature and 30 full-term 3-month-old infants were tested in three social and nonsocial tasks of increasing complexity and their gaze behavior was micro-coded. In…

  13. The Effects of a Self-Monitoring and Video Self-Modeling Intervention to Increase On-Task Behavior for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Rachel Calkins Oxnard

    2009-01-01

    Children are diagnosed with AD/HD more often than any other disorder and interventions are needed in schools to increase on-task behavior. Most studies examining on-task behavior are conducted in special education classrooms or clinical laboratories. Previous studies have not combined video self-modeling and self-monitoring as an intervention to

  14. Adaptive allocation of attentional gain

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Miranda; Serences, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are adept at distinguishing between stimuli that are very similar, an ability that is particularly crucial when the outcome is of serious consequence (e.g. for a surgeon or air traffic controller). Traditionally, selective attention was thought to facilitate perception by increasing the gain of sensory neurons tuned to the defining features of a behaviorally relevant object (e.g. color, orientation, etc.). In contrast, recent mathematical models counter-intuitively suggest that in many cases attentional gain should be applied to neurons that are tuned away from relevant features, especially when discriminating highly similar stimuli. Here we used psychophysical methods to critically evaluate these ‘ideal observer’ models. The data demonstrate that attention enhances the gain of the most informative sensory neurons, even when these neurons are tuned away from the behaviorally relevant target feature. Moreover, the degree to which an individual adopted optimal attentional gain settings by the end of testing predicted success rates on a difficult visual discrimination task, as well as the amount of task improvement that occurred across repeated testing sessions (learning). Contrary to most traditional accounts, these observations suggest that the primary function of attentional gain is not simply to enhance the representation of target features, but to optimize performance on the current perceptual task. Additionally, individual differences in gain suggest that the operating characteristics of low-level attentional phenomena are not stable trait-like attributes and that variability in how attention is deployed may play an important role in determining perceptual abilities. PMID:19776279

  15. Attention in a Bayesian Framework

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, Louise; Sahani, Maneesh

    2012-01-01

    The behavioral phenomena of sensory attention are thought to reflect the allocation of a limited processing resource, but there is little consensus on the nature of the resource or why it should be limited. Here we argue that a fundamental bottleneck emerges naturally within Bayesian models of perception, and use this observation to frame a new computational account of the need for, and action of, attention – unifying diverse attentional phenomena in a way that goes beyond previous inferential, probabilistic and Bayesian models. Attentional effects are most evident in cluttered environments, and include both selective phenomena, where attention is invoked by cues that point to particular stimuli, and integrative phenomena, where attention is invoked dynamically by endogenous processing. However, most previous Bayesian accounts of attention have focused on describing relatively simple experimental settings, where cues shape expectations about a small number of upcoming stimuli and thus convey “prior” information about clearly defined objects. While operationally consistent with the experiments it seeks to describe, this view of attention as prior seems to miss many essential elements of both its selective and integrative roles, and thus cannot be easily extended to complex environments. We suggest that the resource bottleneck stems from the computational intractability of exact perceptual inference in complex settings, and that attention reflects an evolved mechanism for approximate inference which can be shaped to refine the local accuracy of perception. We show that this approach extends the simple picture of attention as prior, so as to provide a unified and computationally driven account of both selective and integrative attentional phenomena. PMID:22712010

  16. The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shui-I

    2008-01-01

    An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

  17. The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shui-I

    2008-01-01

    An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,

  18. Delayed Attentional Engagement in the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Chun, Marvin M.; van der Lubbe, Rob H. J.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.

    2005-01-01

    Observers often miss the 2nd of 2 visual targets (first target [T1] and second target [T2]) when these targets are presented closely in time; the attentional blink (AB). The authors hypothesized that the AB occurs because the attentional response to T2 is delayed by T1 processing, causing T2 to lose a competition for attention to the item that…

  19. A Comparison of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation and Computerized Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Effects on Anxiety, Depression, Attentional Control, and Interpretive Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Jennifer O.; Mackintosh, Bundy; Dunn, Barnaby D.; Mathews, Andrew; Dalgleish, Tim; Hoppitt, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) and cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) both have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating social anxiety, but how they compare with each other has not been investigated. The present study tested the prediction that both interventions would reduce anxiety relative to a

  20. Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder versus Several Comparison Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173)…

  1. Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder versus Several Comparison Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173)

  2. A Comparison of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation and Computerized Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Effects on Anxiety, Depression, Attentional Control, and Interpretive Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Jennifer O.; Mackintosh, Bundy; Dunn, Barnaby D.; Mathews, Andrew; Dalgleish, Tim; Hoppitt, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) and cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) both have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating social anxiety, but how they compare with each other has not been investigated. The present study tested the prediction that both interventions would reduce anxiety relative to a…

  3. Extended attention span training system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  4. Two-Stage Processing of Sounds Explains Behavioral Performance Variations due to Changes in Stimulus Contrast and Selective Attention: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Kauramäki, Jaakko; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Hänninen, Jarno L.; Auranen, Toni; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Lampinen, Jouko; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Selectively attending to task-relevant sounds whilst ignoring background noise is one of the most amazing feats performed by the human brain. Here, we studied the underlying neural mechanisms by recording magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses of 14 healthy human subjects while they performed a near-threshold auditory discrimination task vs. a visual control task of similar difficulty. The auditory stimuli consisted of notch-filtered continuous noise masker sounds, and of 1020-Hz target tones occasionally () replacing 1000-Hz standard tones of 300-ms duration that were embedded at the center of the notches, the widths of which were parametrically varied. As a control for masker effects, tone-evoked responses were additionally recorded without masker sound. Selective attention to tones significantly increased the amplitude of the onset M100 response at 100 ms to the standard tones during presence of the masker sounds especially with notches narrower than the critical band. Further, attention modulated sustained response most clearly at 300–400 ms time range from sound onset, with narrower notches than in case of the M100, thus selectively reducing the masker-induced suppression of the tone-evoked response. Our results show evidence of a multiple-stage filtering mechanism of sensory input in the human auditory cortex: 1) one at early (100 ms) latencies bilaterally in posterior parts of the secondary auditory areas, and 2) adaptive filtering of attended sounds from task-irrelevant background masker at longer latency (300 ms) in more medial auditory cortical regions, predominantly in the left hemisphere, enhancing processing of near-threshold sounds. PMID:23071654

  5. Visual Field Asymmetries in Attention Vary with Self-Reported Attention Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poynter, William; Ingram, Paul; Minor, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an index of self-reported attention deficits predicts the pattern of visual field asymmetries observed in behavioral measures of attention. Studies of "normal" subjects do not present a consistent pattern of asymmetry in attention functions, with some studies showing better left visual field (LVF)…

  6. Joint Attention in Autism: Teaching Smiling Coordinated with Gaze to Respond to Joint Attention Bids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krstovska-Guerrero, Ivana; Jones, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism demonstrate early deficits in joint attention and expressions of affect. Interventions to teach joint attention have addressed gaze behavior, gestures, and vocalizations, but have not specifically taught an expression of positive affect such as smiling that tends to occur during joint attention interactions. Intervention was…

  7. The duration of disgusted and fearful faces is judged longer and shorter than that of neutral faces: the attention-related time distortions as revealed by behavioral and electrophysiological measurements

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Liu, Yunzhe; Wang, Xiaochun; Chen, Yuming; Luo, Yuejia

    2014-01-01

    Time perception has been shown to be altered by emotions. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of two threat-related emotions on the judgment of time intervals in the range of 490–910 ms. We demonstrated that disgust and fear have distinct influences on time perception. At the behavioral level, disgusted faces were estimated longer and fearful faces were estimated shorter (i.e., the generalization gradient for the disgusted faces was shifted left while the generalization gradient for the fearful faces was shifted right) when compared with neutral faces. Accordingly, the contingent negative variation, an online ERP index of timing, displayed larger area in disgust and smaller area in fear conditions when compared with neutral condition (disgust = 1.94 ± 2.35 μV•s, neutral = 1.40 ± 2.5 μV•s, and fear = 1.00 ± 2.26 μV•s). These findings indicated that specific neural mechanisms may underlie the attention effects of different subtypes of threat-related emotions on timing; compared with neutral faces, fearful faces are likely to attract more attentional resources while disgusted faces may attract less attentional resources for emotional processing. The major contribution of the current study is to provide neural correlates of fear vs. disgust divergence in the aspect of time perception and to demonstrate beyond the behavioral level that the categorization of threat-related emotions should be refined so to highlight the adaptability of the human defense system. PMID:25221488

  8. Rewards teach visual selective attention.

    PubMed

    Chelazzi, Leonardo; Perlato, Andrea; Santandrea, Elisa; Della Libera, Chiara

    2013-06-01

    Visual selective attention is the brain function that modulates ongoing processing of retinal input in order for selected representations to gain privileged access to perceptual awareness and guide behavior. Enhanced analysis of currently relevant or otherwise salient information is often accompanied by suppressed processing of the less relevant or salient input. Recent findings indicate that rewards exert a powerful influence on the deployment of visual selective attention. Such influence takes different forms depending on the specific protocol adopted in the given study. In some cases, the prospect of earning a larger reward in relation to a specific stimulus or location biases attention accordingly in order to maximize overall gain. This is mediated by an effect of reward acting as a type of incentive motivation for the strategic control of attention. In contrast, reward delivery can directly alter the processing of specific stimuli by increasing their attentional priority, and this can be measured even when rewards are no longer involved, reflecting a form of reward-mediated attentional learning. As a further development, recent work demonstrates that rewards can affect attentional learning in dissociable ways depending on whether rewards are perceived as feedback on performance or instead are registered as random-like events occurring during task performance. Specifically, it appears that visual selective attention is shaped by two distinct reward-related learning mechanisms: one requiring active monitoring of performance and outcome, and a second one detecting the sheer association between objects in the environment (whether attended or ignored) and the more-or-less rewarding events that accompany them. Overall this emerging literature demonstrates unequivocally that rewards "teach" visual selective attention so that processing resources will be allocated to objects, features and locations which are likely to optimize the organism's interaction with the surrounding environment and maximize positive outcome. PMID:23262054

  9. Contingent attentional capture or delayed allocation of attention?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, R. W.; Folk, C. L.; McLean, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, external stimuli will elicit an involuntary shift of spatial attention, referred to as attentional capture. According to the contingent involuntary orienting account (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992), capture is conditioned by top-down factors that set attention to respond involuntarily to stimulus properties relevant to one's behavioral goals. Evidence for this comes from spatial cuing studies showing that a spatial cuing effect is observed only when cues have goal-relevant properties. Here, we examine alternative, decision-level explanations of the spatial cuing effect that attribute evidence of capture to postpresentation delays in the voluntary allocation of attention, rather than to on-line involuntary shifts in direct response to the cue. In three spatial cuing experiments, delayed-allocation accounts were tested by examining whether items at the cued location were preferentially processed. The experiments provide evidence that costs and benefits in spatial cuing experiments do reflect the on-line capture of attention. The implications of these results for models of attentional control are discussed.

  10. Measuring Attention in the Hemispheres: The Lateralized Attention Network Test (LANT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Deanna J.; Barnea, Anat; Herzberg, Kristin; Rassis, Anat; Neta, Maital; Raz, Amir; Zaidel, Eran

    2008-01-01

    The attention network test (ANT) is a brief computerized battery measuring three independent behavioral components of attention: Conflict resolution (ability to overcome distracting stimuli), spatial Orienting (the benefit of valid spatial pre-cues), and Alerting (the benefit of temporal pre-cues). Imaging, clinical, and behavioral evidence

  11. Measuring Attention in the Hemispheres: The Lateralized Attention Network Test (LANT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Deanna J.; Barnea, Anat; Herzberg, Kristin; Rassis, Anat; Neta, Maital; Raz, Amir; Zaidel, Eran

    2008-01-01

    The attention network test (ANT) is a brief computerized battery measuring three independent behavioral components of attention: Conflict resolution (ability to overcome distracting stimuli), spatial Orienting (the benefit of valid spatial pre-cues), and Alerting (the benefit of temporal pre-cues). Imaging, clinical, and behavioral evidence…

  12. [ASRS v.1.1., a tool for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder screening in adults treated for addictive behaviors: psychometric properties and estimated prevalence].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Puerta García, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    ASRS v.1.1. is a self-applied brief instrument for the screening of individuals presenting symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and proposed by the WHO. The purpose of the present work was to test the instrument and examine the results of its application to a sample of 280 individuals in treatment for substance-related disorders (cross-sectional descriptive study). We administered simultaneously in the initial phases of treatment the ASRS v.1.1. (short form) and the MCMI-II to the full sample and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), ADHD-Rating Scale-IV and ASRS v.1.1. (complete form) to various sub-samples. Diagnostic interviews were also carried out and the psychometric properties and factorial structure of ASRS v.1.1. were explored. Good convergent validity, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic capability were obtained for the six-item version of ASRS v.1.1., even though 4 out of 6 items did not discriminate between Axis I and II disorders assessed through the MCMI-II and diagnostic interviews. According to DSM-IV-TR criteria the estimated prevalence of ADHD in the sample of addicts was 8.2%. ASRS v.1.1. is criticized as a specific instrument for ADHD detection, since most of its items appear to measure a non-specific dimension of compulsiveness/impulsiveness, common to Axis-I and Axis-II disorders. Other criticisms made in the discussion concern the lack of specificity of DSM criteria and the confusion they generate among the concepts of symptom, sign and trait (including the impact on study results), the general use of the A criterion but the omission of the B, C, D and E criteria of the DSM category, differences in samples (with regard to both severity and selection criteria), and the artifactual increases in prevalence found in many studies. PMID:18173102

  13. Concomitant Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Computer-Assisted Training for the Rehabilitation of Attention in Traumatic Brain Injured Patients: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Results

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Katiuscia; Galetto, Valentina; Dimitri, Danilo; Geda, Elisabetta; Perotti, Francesca; Zettin, Marina; Geminiani, Giuliano C.

    2016-01-01

    Divided attention (DA), the ability to distribute cognitive resources among two or more simultaneous tasks, may be severely compromised after traumatic brain injury (TBI), resulting in problems with numerous activities involved with daily living. So far, no research has investigated whether the use of non-invasive brain stimulation associated with neuropsychological rehabilitation might contribute to the recovery of such cognitive function. The main purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of 10 transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) sessions combined with computer-assisted training; it also intended to explore the neural modifications induced by the treatment. Thirty-two patients with severe TBI participated in the study: 16 were part of the experimental group, and 16 part of the control group. The treatment included 20’ of tDCS, administered twice a day for 5 days. The electrodes were placed on the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. Their location varied across patients and it depended on each participant’s specific area of damage. The control group received sham tDCS. After each tDCS session, the patient received computer-assisted cognitive training on DA for 40’. The results showed that the experimental group significantly improved in DA performance between pre- and post-treatment, showing faster reaction times (RTs), and fewer omissions. No improvement was detected between the baseline assessment (i.e., 1 month before treatment) and the pre-training assessment, or within the control group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, obtained on the experimental group during a DA task, showed post-treatment lower cerebral activations in the right superior temporal gyrus (BA 42), right and left middle frontal gyrus (BA 6), right postcentral gyrus (BA 3) and left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 9). We interpreted such neural changes as normalization of previously abnormal hyperactivations. PMID:27065823

  14. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-12-22

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  15. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  16. Behavioral Outcome Effects of Serious Gaming as an Adjunct to Treatment for Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The need for accessible and motivating treatment approaches within mental health has led to the development of an Internet-based serious game intervention (called “Plan-It Commander”) as an adjunct to treatment as usual for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective The aim was to determine the effects of Plan-It Commander on daily life skills of children with ADHD in a multisite randomized controlled crossover open-label trial. Methods Participants (N=170) in this 20-week trial had a diagnosis of ADHD and ranged in age from 8 to 12 years (male: 80.6%, 137/170; female: 19.4%, 33/170). They were randomized to a serious game intervention group (group 1; n=88) or a treatment-as-usual crossover group (group 2; n=82). Participants randomized to group 1 received a serious game intervention in addition to treatment as usual for the first 10 weeks and then received treatment as usual for the next 10 weeks. Participants randomized to group 2 received treatment as usual for the first 10 weeks and crossed over to the serious game intervention in addition to treatment as usual for the subsequent 10 weeks. Primary (parent report) and secondary (parent, teacher, and child self-report) outcome measures were administered at baseline, 10 weeks, and 10-week follow-up. Results After 10 weeks, participants in group 1 compared to group 2 achieved significantly greater improvements on the primary outcome of time management skills (parent-reported; P=.004) and on secondary outcomes of the social skill of responsibility (parent-reported; P=.04), and working memory (parent-reported; P=.02). Parents and teachers reported that total social skills improved over time within groups, whereas effects on total social skills and teacher-reported planning/organizing skills were nonsignificant between groups. Within group 1, positive effects were maintained or further improved in the last 10 weeks of the study. Participants in group 2, who played the serious game during the second period of the study (weeks 10 to 20), improved on comparable domains of daily life functioning over time. Conclusions Plan-It Commander offers an effective therapeutic approach as an adjunct intervention to traditional therapeutic ADHD approaches that improve functional outcomes in daily life. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 62056259; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN62056259 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6eNsiTDJV). PMID:26883052

  17. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  18. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the

  19. Do social utility judgments influence attentional processing?

    PubMed

    Shore, Danielle M; Heerey, Erin A

    2013-10-01

    Research shows that social judgments influence decision-making in social environments. For example, judgments about an interaction partners' trustworthiness affect a variety of social behaviors and decisions. One mechanism by which social judgments may influence social decisions is by biasing the automatic allocation of attention toward certain social partners, thereby shaping the information people acquire. Using an attentional blink paradigm, we investigate how trustworthiness judgments alter the allocation of attention to social stimuli in a set of two experiments. The first experiment investigates trustworthiness judgments based solely on a social partner's facial appearance. The second experiment examines the effect of trustworthiness judgments based on experienced behavior. In the first, strong appearance-based judgments (positive and negative) enhanced stimulus recognizability but did not alter the size of the attentional blink, suggesting that appearance-based social judgments enhance face memory but do not affect pre-attentive processing. However, in the second experiment, in which judgments were based on behavioral experience rather than appearance, positive judgments enhanced pre-attentive processing of trustworthy faces. This suggests that a stimulus's potential benefits, rather than its disadvantages, shape the automatic distribution of attentional resources. These results have implications for understanding how appearance- and behavior-based social cues shape attention distribution in social environments. PMID:23887150

  20. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations. PMID:26190986

  1. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    PubMed

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations. PMID:26190986

  2. Measuring Teacher Implementation of the "BEST in CLASS" Intervention Program and Corollary Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Algina, James J.; Wilson, Reynolds E.; Martinez, Jose R.; Whalon, Kelly J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is part of a larger randomized efficacy trial examining the impact of Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Training: Competent Learners Achieving School Success ("BEST in CLASS"), a Tier 2 intervention that targets the prevention of emotional/behavioral disorders in young, high risk children. In this investigation, we examined…

  3. Measuring Teacher Implementation of the "BEST in CLASS" Intervention Program and Corollary Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Algina, James J.; Wilson, Reynolds E.; Martinez, Jose R.; Whalon, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is part of a larger randomized efficacy trial examining the impact of Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Training: Competent Learners Achieving School Success ("BEST in CLASS"), a Tier 2 intervention that targets the prevention of emotional/behavioral disorders in young, high risk children. In this investigation, we examined…

  4. Implementation Integrity of Practice-Based Coaching: Preliminary Results from the BEST in CLASS Efficacy Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Vo, Abigail; Ladwig, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the practice-based coaching model used in BEST in CLASS, a Tier-2 classroom-based intervention comprised of evidence-based instructional practices designed to prevent and ameliorate the chronic problem behaviors of young children at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders. Following a…

  5. Voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-08-01

    Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carrasco, 2008). Therefore, we ask whether voluntary attention affects the subjective appearance of spatial frequency--a fundamental dimension of visual perception underlying spatial resolution. We used a demanding rapid serial visual presentation task to direct voluntary attention and measured perceived spatial frequency at the attended and unattended locations. Attention increased the perceived spatial frequency of suprathreshold stimuli and also improved performance on a concurrent orientation discrimination task. In the control experiment, we ruled out response bias as an alternative account by using a lengthened interstimulus interval, which allows observers to disengage attention from the cued location. In contrast to the main experiment, the observers showed neither increased perceived spatial frequency nor improved orientation discrimination at the attended location. Thus, this study establishes that voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency. This phenomenological consequence links behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the effects of attention. PMID:20675797

  6. Voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carrasco, 2008). Therefore, we ask whether voluntary attention affects the subjective appearance of spatial frequency—a fundamental dimension of visual perception underlying spatial resolution. We used a demanding rapid serial visual presentation task to direct voluntary attention and measured perceived spatial frequency at the attended and unattended locations. Attention increased the perceived spatial frequency of suprathreshold stimuli and also improved performance on a concurrent orientation discrimination task. In the control experiment, we ruled out response bias as an alternative account by using a lengthened interstimulus interval, which allows observers to disengage attention from the cued location. In contrast to the main experiment, the observers showed neither increased perceived spatial frequency nor improved orientation discrimination at the attended location. Thus, this study establishes that voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency. This phenomenological consequence links behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the effects of attention. PMID:20675797

  7. Training Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Thomas B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of brain waves and alpha rhythms on attentiveness to visual stimuli are discussed, and preliminary research findings and research needs are considered in connection with measuring and training for attention. (LH)

  8. Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)

    MedlinePlus

    ... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...

  9. Across the Continuum of Attention Skills: A Twin Study of the SWAN ADHD Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polderman, Tinca J. C.; Derks, Eske M.; Hudziak, Jim J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Posthuma, Danielle; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Most behavior checklists for attention problems or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) have a narrow range of scores, focusing on the extent to which problems are present. It has been proposed that measuring attention on a continuum, from positive attention skills to attention

  10. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant. PMID:25314476

  11. Attention competition with advertisement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  12. Task specific computations in attentional maps

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Jacqueline; Balan, Puiu F.; Oristaglio, Jeff; Schneider, David

    2008-01-01

    The lateral intraparietal area (LIP), a portion of monkey posterior parietal cortex, has been implicated in spatial attention. We review recent evidence from our laboratory showing that LIP encodes a priority map of the external environment that specifies the momentary locus of attention and is activated in a variety of behavioral tasks. The priority map in LIP is shaped by task-specific variables. We suggest that the multifaceted responses in LIP represent mechanisms for allocating attention, and that the attentional system may flexibly configure itself to meet the cognitive, motor and motivational demands of individual tasks. PMID:18502468

  13. In-Class Experiments as an Accompaniment to In-Class Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Active learning, including in-class debates, is used in social science classrooms as a means of improving meaning and increasing understanding of complex materials. However, in-class debates do not fully satisfy all aspects of experiential learning because students do not get to experience the results of multifaceted concepts, such as strategic…

  14. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  15. Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network

    PubMed Central

    Viviani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control. PMID:24223546

  16. Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network.

    PubMed

    Viviani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    ACCOUNTS OF THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INFORMATION ON BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE AND CURRENT MODELS OF EMOTION REGULATION ARE BASED ON TWO OPPOSED BUT INTERACTING PROCESSES: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with "bottom-up" attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control. PMID:24223546

  17. The Power of In-Class Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Ruth R.

    2009-01-01

    The students in three sections of a class rated their knowledge and identified their view before and after each of five in-class debates. The degree of self-reported knowledge was significantly different after four of the five debates. Between 31% and 58% of participants changed their views after participating in or observing each debate. Some…

  18. The Phenomenon of Waiting in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peine, Marie E.; Coleman, Laurence J.

    2010-01-01

    Gifted children often complain about waiting in class to learn. A qualitative study of 16 children in elementary and middle school in grades 1-8 revealed that sitting and waiting was a universal ingredient of being gifted in those regular classrooms. Children experienced 3 kinds of waiting: school/classroom, instructional, and assignment. Grounded…

  19. Focused Attention in Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Bridget M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined individual differences and correlates of focused attention when toddlers were approximately 18 months old (T1; n = 256) and a year later (T2; n = 230). Toddlers’ attention and negative emotionality were reported by mothers and non-parental caregivers and rated globally by observers. Toddlers’ focused attention also was observed during two mother-child interactions and an independent play task. Measures of maternal emotional support and control were obtained via self-report and observation. Some contemporaneous relations among indices of toddlers’ attention were obtained, particularly for observed measures. Moreover, all measures of attention demonstrated stability across time. Negative emotionality was negatively related to toddlers’ observed attention at both ages, whereas maternal praise had positive concurrent associations. Maternal control was negatively related to observed observed attention at T2 and also predicted longitudinally, but only for children who initially had low or moderate attention. The findings suggest that individual differences in focused attention evidence stability early in life but can be influenced by adult socialization. PMID:19112517

  20. The Role of Attention in Conscious Recollection

    PubMed Central

    De Brigard, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Most research on the relationship between attention and consciousness has been limited to perception. However, perceptions are not the only kinds of mental contents of which we can be conscious. An important set of conscious states that has not received proper treatment within this discussion is that of memories. This paper reviews compelling evidence indicating that attention may be necessary, but probably not sufficient, for conscious recollection. However, it is argued that unlike the case of conscious perception, the kind of attention required during recollection is internal, as opposed to external, attention. As such, the surveyed empirical evidence is interpreted as suggesting that internal attention is necessary, but probably not sufficient, for conscious recollection. The paper begins by justifying the need for clear distinctions among different kinds of attention, and then emphasizes the difference between internal and external attention. Next, evidence from behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies suggesting that internal attention is required for the successful retrieval of memorial contents is reviewed. In turn, it is argued that internal attention during recollection is what makes us conscious of the contents of retrieved memories; further evidence in support of this claim is also provided. Finally, it is suggested that internal attention is probably not sufficient for conscious recollection. Open questions and possible avenues for future research are also mentioned. PMID:22363305

  1. How do infants recognize joint attention?

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Erik; Brisson, Julie; Beaulieu, Christelle; Mainville, Marc; Mailloux, Dominique; Sirois, Sylvain

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of joint attention is still a matter of vigorous debate. It involves diverse hypotheses ranging from innate modules dedicated to intention reading to more neuro-constructivist approaches. The aim of this study was to assess whether 12-month-old infants are able to recognize a "joint attention" situation when observing such a social interaction. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we habituated infants to a "joint attention" video and then compared their looking time durations between "divergent attention" videos and "joint attention" ones using a 2 (familiar or novel perceptual component)×2 (familiar or novel conceptual component) factorial design. These results were enriched with measures of pupil dilation, which are considered to be reliable measures of cognitive load. Infants looked longer at test events that involved novel speaker and divergent attention but no changes in infants' pupil dilation were observed in any conditions. Although looking time data suggest that infants may appreciate discrepancies from expectations related to joint attention behavior, in the absence of clear evidence from pupillometry, the results show no demonstration of understanding of joint attention, even at a tacit level. Our results suggest that infants may be sensitive to relevant perceptual variables in joint attention situations, which would help scaffold social cognitive development. This study supports a gradual, learning interpretation of how infants come to recognize, understand, and participate in joint attention. PMID:26036712

  2. Prefrontal Parvalbumin Neurons in Control of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoseok; Ährlund-Richter, Sofie; Wang, Xinming; Deisseroth, Karl; Carlén, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Summary While signatures of attention have been extensively studied in sensory systems, the neural sources and computations responsible for top-down control of attention are largely unknown. Using chronic recordings in mice, we found that fast-spiking parvalbumin (FS-PV) interneurons in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) uniformly show increased and sustained firing during goal-driven attentional processing, correlating to the level of attention. Elevated activity of FS-PV neurons on the timescale of seconds predicted successful execution of behavior. Successful allocation of attention was characterized by strong synchronization of FS-PV neurons, increased gamma oscillations, and phase locking of pyramidal firing. Phase-locked pyramidal neurons showed gamma-phase-dependent rate modulation during successful attentional processing. Optogenetic silencing of FS-PV neurons deteriorated attentional processing, while optogenetic synchronization of FS-PV neurons at gamma frequencies had pro-cognitive effects and improved goal-directed behavior. FS-PV neurons thus act as a functional unit coordinating the activity in the local mPFC circuit during goal-driven attentional processing. PMID:26771492

  3. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Attentional Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Kerstin; Gunther, Thomas; Hanisch, Charlotte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of…

  4. Attention Deficit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Linda Kreger, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This journal theme issue focuses on attention deficit disorders (ADD) in gifted children. "Gifted Children with Attention Deficit Disorder" by Deirdre V. Lovecky outlines symptoms of ADD, types of ADD, issues of giftedness, strengths of gifted children with ADD, and methods for helping gifted children with ADD. "The Perplexed Perfectionist" by…

  5. Embodied Infant Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Steven S.; Johnson, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Does real time coupling between mental and physical activity early in development have functional significance? To address this question, we examined the habituation of visual attention and the subsequent response to change in two groups of 3-month-olds with different patterns of movement-attention coupling. In suppressors, the typical decrease in…

  6. A chaotic model of sustaining attention problem in attention deficit disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdadi, G.; Jafari, S.; Sprott, J. C.; Towhidkhah, F.; Hashemi Golpayegani, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of keeping an attention level is one of the common symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Dopamine deficiency is introduced as one of the causes of this disorder. Based on some physiological facts about the attention control mechanism and chaos intermittency, a behavioral model is presented in this paper. This model represents the problem of undesired alternation of attention level, and can also suggest different valuable predictions about a possible cause of attention deficit disorder. The proposed model reveals that there is a possible interaction between different neurotransmitters which help the individual to adaptively inhibit the attention switching over time. The result of this study can be used to examine and develop a new practical and more appropriate treatment for the problem of sustaining attention.

  7. Contingent Attentional Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

  8. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Wolraich, Mark L

    2006-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a challenging condition to diagnose and treat. For diagnosis, the clinician needs to establish the presence of ADHD on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria requiring information from parents and teachers and considering both alternative diagnoses and co-occurring conditions. In the treatment of ADHD as a chronic illness, the clinician needs to educate the family about the condition and partner with them about treatment decisions. The 2 treatments with demonstrated efficacy for ADHD are medications (stimulant medications and a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibiter) and behavior-modification programs. PMID:17178358

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Shaywitz, B A; Fletcher, J M; Shaywitz, S E

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter we have reviewed the diagnosis and management of attention deficit disorder, focusing particularly on the role of stimulant therapy in ADHD. Hisorical review suggests that ADHD has roots that extend back almost a century. The definition of ADHD is based on inclusion and exclusion criteria that are established by history and reflect behavioral concerns. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a chronic disorder affecting the child's home, school, and community life. The primary symptoms of the disorder manifest a developmental pattern: activity diminishes while attentional deficits persist. Major sources of concern are the secondary and often more resistant problems of learning difficulties, behavioral problems, lack of peer acceptance, and low self-esteem. An often frustrating and perplexing characteristic of the disorder is its marked variability-over time, across situations, and within the same child and similar situations. Educational management represents an important priority and often forms the cornerstone of all other therapies, nonpharmacologic or pharmacologic. Cognitive-behavioral therapies represent the most widely used alternative to pharmacotherapy. Although the effects of CBT alone are disappointing, recent studies suggest that such therapies may provide a useful adjunct to pharmacotherapy and may be helpful when children are tapered off medication. Psychotherapy, or a combination of psychotherapy and medication (termed multimodality therapy), may also be useful. Pharmacotherapy for ADHD originated almost 60 years ago, and at this time the ameliorative effects of medications in ADHD are well established. The general skepticism of experienced clinicians, coupled with a climate where parents are reluctant to medicare children, serves to limit their use except where indicated. Although the effects of stimulants on attention and activity seem well established, effects on cognition, conduct, and social behavior are more controversial. Within recent years, a great deal has been learned about the pharmacokinetics of stimulants in children with ADHD, providing a rational basis for administration. It is also clear that side effects are minimal, the most serious being the possibility of the emergence of tics. Whereas stimulants are clearly the most effective agents, other agents, including antidepressants, may also be effective. Recent advances may now provide an opportunity to better understand the neural and molecular basis for ADHD. Recent advances in imaging technology, particularly fMRI, offer an opportunity to examine the neural basis of ADHD, and advances in genetics may provide clues to its etiology. PMID:9265975

  10. Attention Stabilizes Representations in the Human Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Aly, Mariam; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2016-02-01

    Attention and memory are intricately linked, but how attention modulates brain areas that subserve memory, such as the hippocampus, is unknown. We hypothesized that attention may stabilize patterns of activity in human hippocampus, resulting in distinct but reliable activity patterns for different attentional states. To test this prediction, we utilized high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging and a novel "art gallery" task. On each trial, participants viewed a room containing a painting, and searched a stream of rooms for a painting from the same artist (art state) or a room with the same layout (room state). Bottom-up stimulation was the same in both tasks, enabling the isolation of neural effects related to top-down attention. Multivariate analyses revealed greater pattern similarity in all hippocampal subfields for trials from the same, compared with different, attentional state. This stability was greater for the room than art state, was unrelated to univariate activity, and, in CA2/CA3/DG, was correlated with behavior. Attention therefore induces representational stability in the human hippocampus, resulting in distinct activity patterns for different attentional states. Modulation of hippocampal representational stability highlights the far-reaching influence of attention outside of sensory systems. PMID:25766839

  11. Dyadic Orienting and Joint Attention in Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Ramsden, Christopher A. H.

    2006-01-01

    Acts of dyadic orienting (responses to attention bids by a researcher) and acts of joint attention (e.g. pointing and showing behaviors) were observed in preschool children with autism and children with developmental delay. Children with autism responded to fewer adult vocal and non-vocal attention bids that were made singly and by combining…

  12. Attention Performance in Young Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterr, Annette M.

    2004-01-01

    Attention acts as the mind's "gatekeeper" by regulating and prioritizing the stimuli processed by the central nervous system. It is essential for cognitive performance, memory, and behavior, and we know that even slight deficiencies in attention compromise learning. Basic neuroscience research further indicates that attention consists of (fairly)…

  13. Attention is necessary for subliminal instrumental conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Mastropasqua, Tommaso; Turatto, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of humans and other animals to provide appropriate responses to stimuli anticipating motivationally significant events is exemplified by instrumental conditioning. Interestingly, in humans instrumental conditioning can occur also for subliminal outcome-predicting stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether attention is necessary for subliminal instrumental conditioning to take place. In two experiments, human participants had to learn to collect rewards (monetary gains) while avoiding punishments (monetary losses), on the basis of subliminal outcome-predicting cues. We found that instrumental conditioning can proceed subconsciously only if spatial attention is aligned with the subliminal cue. Conversely, if spatial attention is briefly diverted from the subliminal cue, then instrumental conditioning is blocked. In humans, attention but not awareness is therefore mandatory for instrumental conditioning, thus revealing a dissociation between awareness and attention in the control of motivated behavior. PMID:26257144

  14. Attention is necessary for subliminal instrumental conditioning.

    PubMed

    Mastropasqua, Tommaso; Turatto, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of humans and other animals to provide appropriate responses to stimuli anticipating motivationally significant events is exemplified by instrumental conditioning. Interestingly, in humans instrumental conditioning can occur also for subliminal outcome-predicting stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether attention is necessary for subliminal instrumental conditioning to take place. In two experiments, human participants had to learn to collect rewards (monetary gains) while avoiding punishments (monetary losses), on the basis of subliminal outcome-predicting cues. We found that instrumental conditioning can proceed subconsciously only if spatial attention is aligned with the subliminal cue. Conversely, if spatial attention is briefly diverted from the subliminal cue, then instrumental conditioning is blocked. In humans, attention but not awareness is therefore mandatory for instrumental conditioning, thus revealing a dissociation between awareness and attention in the control of motivated behavior. PMID:26257144

  15. Attention as foraging for information and value

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Sanjay G.; Husain, Masud

    2013-01-01

    What is the purpose of attention? One avenue of research has led to the proposal that attention might be crucial for gathering information about the environment, while other lines of study have demonstrated how attention may play a role in guiding behavior to rewarded options. Many experiments that study attention require participants to make a decision based on information acquired discretely at one point in time. In real-world situations, however, we are usually not presented with information about which option to select in such a manner. Rather we must initially search for information, weighing up reward values of options before we commit to a decision. Here, we propose that attention plays a role in both foraging for information and foraging for value. When foraging for information, attention is guided toward the unknown. When foraging for reward, attention is guided toward high reward values, allowing decision-making to proceed by accept-or-reject decisions on the currently attended option. According to this account, attention can be regarded as a low-cost alternative to moving around and physically interacting with the environment—“teleforaging”—before a decision is made to interact physically with the world. To track the timecourse of attention, we asked participants to seek out and acquire information about two gambles by directing their gaze, before choosing one of them. Participants often made multiple refixations on items before making a decision. Their eye movements revealed that early in the trial, attention was guided toward information, i.e., toward locations that reduced uncertainty about value. In contrast, late in the trial, attention was guided by expected value of the options. At the end of the decision period, participants were generally attending to the item they eventually chose. We suggest that attentional foraging shifts from an uncertainty-driven to a reward-driven mode during the evolution of a decision, permitting decisions to be made by an engage-or-search strategy. PMID:24204335

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem of not being able to focus, being overactive, not being able control ... guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of ... disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . 2011;128:1007- ...

  17. Selective and Sustained Attention as Predictors of Social Problems in Children with Typical and Disordered Attention Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Brendan F.; Brodeur, Darlene A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Stewart, Sherry H.; McGee, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Investigated the relationship between selective and sustained attention and social behavior in children with different degrees of attentional disturbance. Method: Participants were 101 6- to 12-year-old children, including 18 who were diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), 61 who were clinically referred for…

  18. A Phenomenological Description of Primary Creep in Class M Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Freed, A. D.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of creep microstructures in the primary creep region in class M materials show a remarkable similarity with those formed in the exponential creep regime. As a result, it is proposed that the constitutive creep law for normal primary creep is similar to that for the exponential creep regime. A phenomenological description is discussed to rationalize these microstructural observations in terms of a normalized strain rate vs. stress plot. The implications of this plot in describing different testing procedures, steady-state flow, and on the observed deviations from the universal creep law are discussed. The plot is also extended to explain the observed similarities in the transient creep behavior in pre-strained materials and in stress change experiments.

  19. Contributions of Attentional Control to Socioemotional and Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueda, M. Rosario; Checa, Purificacion; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: Part of the attention system of the brain is involved in the control of thoughts, emotions, and behavior. As attentional control develops, children are more able to control cognition and responses flexibly and to adjust their behavior in social interactions better. In this article, we discuss evidence from different levels of

  20. Contributions of Attentional Control to Socioemotional and Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueda, M. Rosario; Checa, Purificacion; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: Part of the attention system of the brain is involved in the control of thoughts, emotions, and behavior. As attentional control develops, children are more able to control cognition and responses flexibly and to adjust their behavior in social interactions better. In this article, we discuss evidence from different levels of…

  1. Across the Continuum of Attention Skills: A Twin Study of the SWAN ADHD Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polderman, Tinca J. C.; Derks, Eske M.; Hudziak, Jim J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Posthuma, Danielle; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Most behavior checklists for attention problems or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) have a narrow range of scores, focusing on the extent to which problems are present. It has been proposed that measuring attention on a continuum, from positive attention skills to attention…

  2. Attention allocation before antisaccades.

    PubMed

    Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (<100 ms). Data from error trials therefore provide further evidence for the parallel programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process. PMID:26790843

  3. Attention Deficits and Divorce

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Method: Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Results: Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. Conclusions: This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce. PMID:25565693

  4. Moral attentiveness: who pays attention to the moral aspects of life?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Scott J

    2008-09-01

    This research draws from social cognitive theory to develop a construct known as moral attentiveness, the extent to which an individual chronically perceives and considers morality and moral elements in his or her experiences, and proposes that moral attentiveness affects a variety of behaviors. A series of 5 studies with undergraduates, MBA students, and managers were conducted to create and validate a reliable multidimensional scale and to provide evidence that moral attentiveness is associated with (a) the recall and reporting of self- and others' morality-related behaviors, (b) moral awareness, and (c) moral behavior. Results of the studies suggest that moral attentiveness has a significant effect on how individuals understand and act in their moral worlds. PMID:18808223

  5. Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Derek D.; Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research is provided. PMID:25729506

  6. [Orthodontic failures in Class II cases].

    PubMed

    Boileau, Marie-José

    2016-03-01

    In Class II treatment, as with all malformations, therapeutic failure can impact some or all of our treatment aims, whether occlusal, functional or esthetic. Using clinical cases, we will first define the concept of failure and the limits of what is acceptable in these different areas. We will then attempt to determine the main causes underlying our failures in order to better avoid them. An analysis of the literature and of the clinical cases demonstrates that our failures are most often caused by a misevaluation of the amount and direction of residual growth, poor control of the vertical dimension, inadequate management of functional problems, an inadequate position of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. In addition to these major treatment errors, one also encounters insufficient patient cooperation, which needs to be assessed and maintained in order to limit the number of failures and treatment drop-outs. PMID:27083232

  7. Manipulations of attention enhance self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Asma; Ferrey, Anne E; Frischen, Alexandra; Pozzobon, Kathryn; Eastwood, John D; Smilek, Daniel; Fenske, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Successful goal-directed behavior requires self-regulation to override competing impulses. Emerging evidence suggests that attention may mediate such acts, but little is known about the specific operations through which attention might influence self-regulation. Here we test this often-implicit assumption by manipulating attention mechanisms in two ways: one controlling the inhibition of inappropriate responses; the other controlling the breadth of attention. Participants significantly improved their performance on a self-regulation task after practice on a response inhibition task (Experiment 1) and after the induction of a broad focus of attention in a visual discrimination task (Experiment 2). We propose that such manipulations enhance self-regulation by engaging mechanisms that enhance the salience of goal-related representations and reduce the activation of competing goal-irrelevant neural representations. By more efficiently resolving conflict among the signals vying to drive behavior, pre-engaging attention may also help to conserve resources needed for continued self-regulation. PMID:22005394

  8. Toddlers' Duration of Attention toward Putative Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk of developing anxious behavior, toddlers' attention toward a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined…

  9. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  10. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically

  11. Focus of Attention and Putting Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutcher, Stephen H.; Crews, Debra J.

    The effect of a preshot attentional/behavioral routine on putting performance was investigated. Subjects were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) Male Routine (MR); (2) Female Routine (FR); (3) Male Control (MC); and (4) Female Control (FC). Subjects in the FR and MR groups were given individualized putting routines which focused on specific…

  12. The role of intrinsic motivations in attention allocation and shifting

    PubMed Central

    Di Nocera, Dario; Finzi, Alberto; Rossi, Silvia; Staffa, Mariacarla

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learning (RL), where both these capabilities are involved. RL is deployed to learn how to allocate attentional resources in a behavior-based robotic system, while action selection is obtained as a side effect of the resulting motivated attentional behaviors. Moreover, the influence of intrinsic motivations in attention orientation is obtained by introducing rewards associated with curiosity drives. In this way, the learning process is affected not only by goal-specific rewards, but also by intrinsic motivations. PMID:24744746

  13. The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity-limited cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. While we know infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input, few previous studies have directly examined infant auditory attention—and none have directly tested theorized mechanisms of attentional selection based on stimulus complexity. Using model-based behavioral methods that were recently developed to examine visual attention in infants (e.g., Kidd, Piantadosi, & Aslin, 2012), we demonstrate that 7- to 8-month-old infants selectively attend to non-social auditory stimuli that are intermediately predictable/complex with respect to their current implicit beliefs and expectations. Our results provide evidence of a broad principle of infant attention across modalities and suggest that sound-to-sound transitional statistics heavily influence the allocation of auditory attention in human infants. PMID:24990627

  14. Social Computing and the Attention Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huberman, Bernardo A.

    2013-04-01

    Social computing focuses on the interaction between social behavior and information, especially on how the latter propagates across social networks and is consumed and transformed in the process. At the same time the ubiquity of information has left it devoid of much monetary value. The scarce, and therefore valuable, resource is now attention, and its allocation gives rise to an attention economy that determines how content is consumed and propagated. Since two major factors involved in getting attention are novelty and popularity, we analyze the role that both play in attracting attention to web content and how to prioritize them in order to maximize it. We also demonstrate that the relative performance of strategies based on prioritizing either popularity or novelty exhibit an abrupt change around a critical value of the novelty decay time, resembling a phase transition.

  15. Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Antoine; Slagter, Heleen A.; Dunne, John D.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores initial findings and the implications of neuroscientific research on meditation. Meditation is conceptualized here as a family of complex emotional and attentional regulatory training regimes developed for various ends, including the cultivation of well-being and emotional balance. The review focuses on the mental processes and the underlying neural circuitry that are critically involved in two styles of meditation. One style, Focused Attention (FA) meditation, entails the voluntary focusing of attention on a chosen object. The other style, Open Monitoring (OM) meditation, involves non-reactive monitoring of the content of experience from moment to moment. We discuss the potential regulatory functions of these practices on attention and emotion processes and their putative long-term impact on the brain and behavior. PMID:18329323

  16. Attention Capture by Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  17. Expectancy, Attention, and Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Ralph; Jones, Mari Riess

    2000-01-01

    Examined the influence of contextual timing manipulations on prospective time judgments through 7 experiments involving a total of 199 college students. Discusses results in terms of various stimulus-based models of prospective time judgments, including those that appeal to attentional periodicities and entrainment. (SLD)

  18. Quantifying collective attention from tweet stream.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Hirata, Yoshito; Toyoda, Masashi; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive "digital fossil" of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of "collective attention" on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or "tweets." Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. "Retweet" networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era. PMID:23637913

  19. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s. PMID:26848852

  20. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception.

    PubMed

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis. PMID:26882228

  1. Attentional Disengagement from Emotional Stimuli in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Llerena, Katiah; Gold, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that abnormal attention-emotion interactions are related to symptom presentation in individuals with schizophrenia. However, the individual components of attention responsible for this dysfunction are unclear. In the current study we examined the possibility that schizophrenia patients with higher levels of negative symptoms (HI-NEG: n = 14) have greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli than patients with low negative symptoms (LOW-NEG: n = 18) or controls (CN: n = 27). Participants completed an exogenous emotional cueing task that required them to focus on an initial emotional or neutral cue and subsequently shift attention to a separate location outside of foveal vision to detect a target stimulus (letter). Results indicated that HI-NEG patients had greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli than CN or LOW-NEG patients; however, behavioral performance did not differ among the groups for pleasant stimuli. Higher self-reported trait negative affect was also associated with greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli. Abnormalities in disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli may thus play a critical role in the formation and maintenance of both negative symptoms and trait negative affect in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:21703824

  2. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception

    PubMed Central

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis. PMID:26882228

  3. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s. PMID:26848852

  4. Aggressive Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... continues with praise and genuine affection for all positive and appropriate behaviors. Over time, if your child feels encouraged and ... a time-in, while giving him plenty of positive attention when doing the right thing. Always watch your own behavior around your child. One of the best ways ...

  5. Factors Related to In-Class Spiritual Experience: Relationship between Pre-Class Scripture Reading, In-Class Note-Taking, and Perceived In-Class Spiritual Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John, III; Sweat, Anthony R.; Plummer, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between student in-class note-taking and pre-class reading with perceived in-class spiritual and religious outcomes. This study surveyed 620 students enrolled in six different sections of an introductory religion course at a private religious university. Full-time religious faculty members…

  6. Attention, Reward, and Information Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Hayhoe, Mary; Hikosaka, Okihide; Rangel, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Decision making is thought to be guided by the values of alternative options and involve the accumulation of evidence to an internal bound. However, in natural behavior, evidence accumulation is an active process whereby subjects decide when and which sensory stimulus to sample. These sampling decisions are naturally served by attention and rapid eye movements (saccades), but little is known about how saccades are controlled to guide future actions. Here we review evidence that was discussed at a recent symposium, which suggests that information selection involves basal ganglia and cortical mechanisms and that, across different contexts, it is guided by two central factors: the gains in reward and gains in information (uncertainty reduction) associated with sensory cues. PMID:25392517

  7. Does perceptual learning require consciousness or attention?

    PubMed

    Meuwese, Julia D I; Post, Ruben A G; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-10-01

    It has been proposed that visual attention and consciousness are separate [Koch, C., & Tsuchiya, N. Attention and consciousness: Two distinct brain processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 16-22, 2007] and possibly even orthogonal processes [Lamme, V. A. F. Why visual attention and awareness are different. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 12-18, 2003]. Attention and consciousness converge when conscious visual percepts are attended and hence become available for conscious report. In such a view, a lack of reportability can have two causes: the absence of attention or the absence of a conscious percept. This raises an important question in the field of perceptual learning. It is known that learning can occur in the absence of reportability [Gutnisky, D. A., Hansen, B. J., Iliescu, B. F., & Dragoi, V. Attention alters visual plasticity during exposure-based learning. Current Biology, 19, 555-560, 2009; Seitz, A. R., Kim, D., & Watanabe, T. Rewards evoke learning of unconsciously processed visual stimuli in adult humans. Neuron, 61, 700-707, 2009; Seitz, A. R., & Watanabe, T. Is subliminal learning really passive? Nature, 422, 36, 2003; Watanabe, T., Náñez, J. E., & Sasaki, Y. Perceptual learning without perception. Nature, 413, 844-848, 2001], but it is unclear which of the two ingredients-consciousness or attention-is not necessary for learning. We presented textured figure-ground stimuli and manipulated reportability either by masking (which only interferes with consciousness) or with an inattention paradigm (which only interferes with attention). During the second session (24 hr later), learning was assessed neurally and behaviorally, via differences in figure-ground ERPs and via a detection task. Behavioral and neural learning effects were found for stimuli presented in the inattention paradigm and not for masked stimuli. Interestingly, the behavioral learning effect only became apparent when performance feedback was given on the task to measure learning, suggesting that the memory trace that is formed during inattention is latent until accessed. The results suggest that learning requires consciousness, and not attention, and further strengthen the idea that consciousness is separate from attention. PMID:23691987

  8. A relational structure of voluntary visual-attention abilities.

    PubMed

    Skogsberg, KatieAnn; Grabowecky, Marcia; Wilt, Joshua; Revelle, William; Iordanescu, Lucica; Suzuki, Satoru

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have examined attention mechanisms involved in specific behavioral tasks (e.g., search, tracking, distractor inhibition). However, relatively little is known about the relationships among those attention mechanisms. Is there a fundamental attention faculty that makes a person superior or inferior at most types of attention tasks, or do relatively independent processes mediate different attention skills? We focused on individual differences in voluntary visual-attention abilities using a battery of 11 representative tasks. An application of parallel analysis, hierarchical-cluster analysis, and multidimensional scaling to the intertask correlation matrix revealed 4 functional clusters, representing spatiotemporal attention, global attention, transient attention, and sustained attention, organized along 2 dimensions, one contrasting spatiotemporal and global attention and the other contrasting transient and sustained attention. Comparison with the neuroscience literature suggests that the spatiotemporal-global dimension corresponds to the dorsal frontoparietal circuit and the transient-sustained dimension corresponds to the ventral frontoparietal circuit, with distinct subregions mediating the separate clusters within each dimension. We also obtained highly specific patterns of gender difference and of deficits for college students with elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder traits. These group differences suggest that different mechanisms of voluntary visual attention can be selectively strengthened or weakened based on genetic, experiential, and/or pathological factors. PMID:25867505

  9. Dissociating temporal attention from spatial attention and motor response preparation: A high-density EEG study.

    PubMed

    Faugeras, Frédéric; Naccache, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Engagement of various forms of attention and response preparation determines behavioral performance during stimulus-response tasks. Many studies explored the respective properties and neural signatures of each of these processes. However, very few experiments were conceived to explore their interaction. In the present work we used an auditory target detection task during which both temporal attention on the one side, and spatial attention and motor response preparation on the other side could be explicitly cued. Both cueing effects speeded response times, and showed strictly additive effects. Target ERP analysis revealed modulations of N1 and P3 responses by these two forms of cueing. Cue-target interval analysis revealed two main effects paralleling behavior. First, a typical contingent negative variation (CNV), induced by the cue and resolved immediately after target onset, was found larger for temporal attention cueing than for spatial and motor response cueing. Second, a posterior and late cue-P3 complex showed the reverse profile. Analyses of lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) revealed both patterns of motor response inhibition and activation. Taken together these results help to clarify and disentangle the respective effects of temporal attention on the one hand, and of the combination of spatial attention and motor response preparation on the other hand on brain activity and behavior. PMID:26433120

  10. Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. I: Auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kyle P.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring, or not requiring, selective auditory attention. Appended to each stimulus presentation, and included in the calculation of each nSFOAE response, was a 30-ms silent period that was used to estimate the level of the inherent physiological noise in the ear canals of our subjects during each behavioral condition. Physiological-noise magnitudes were higher (noisier) for all subjects in the inattention task, and lower (quieter) in the selective auditory-attention tasks. These noise measures initially were made at the frequency of our nSFOAE probe tone (4.0 kHz), but the same attention effects also were observed across a wide range of frequencies. We attribute the observed differences in physiological-noise magnitudes between the inattention and attention conditions to different levels of efferent activation associated with the differing attentional demands of the behavioral tasks. One hypothesis is that when the attentional demand is relatively great, efferent activation is relatively high, and a decrease in the gain of the cochlear amplifier leads to lower-amplitude cochlear activity, and thus a smaller measure of noise from the ear. PMID:24732069

  11. Attention-Seeking Displays

    PubMed Central

    Számadó, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

  12. Behavior modification.

    PubMed

    Pelham, W E; Fabiano, G A

    2000-07-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic and substantially impairing disorder. This means that treatment must also be chronic and substantial. Behavior Modification, and in many cases, the combination of behavior modification and stimulant medication, is a valid, useful treatment for reducing the pervasive impairment experienced by children with ADHD. Based on the research evidence reviewed, behavior modification should be the first line of treatment for children with ADHD. PMID:10944662

  13. Les troubles de l'attention avec hyperactivite: une Synthese des connaissances a l'intention des enseignants (Attention Deficit Difficulties with Hyperactivity: A Synthesis of Knowledge for Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrosiers, Karen; Royer, Egide

    1995-01-01

    This document presents a brief synthesis of recent literature on attention deficit difficulties with hyperactivity, particularly literature concerning classroom interventions. It describes diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, its incidence, behavioral characteristics of students who exhibit attention difficulties and…

  14. Cognitive training for children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial of cogmed working memory training and ‘paying attention in class’

    PubMed Central

    van der Donk, Marthe; Hiemstra-Beernink, Anne-Claire; Tjeenk-Kalff, Ariane; van der Leij, Aryan; Lindauer, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to replicate and extend previous studies of Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) in children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While a large proportion of children with ADHD suffer from academic difficulties, only few previous efficacy studies have taken into account long term academic outcome measures. So far, results regarding academic outcome measures have been inconsistent. Hundred and two children with ADHD between the age of 8 and 12 years (both medicated and medication naïve) participated in current randomized controlled trial. Children were randomly assigned to CWMT or a new active combined working memory- and executive function compensatory training called ‘Paying Attention in Class.’ Primary outcome measures were neurocognitive functioning and academic performance. Secondary outcome measures contained ratings of behavior in class, behavior problems, and quality of life. Assessment took place before, directly after and 6 months after treatment. Results showed only one replicated treatment effect on visual spatial working memory in favor of CWMT. Effects of time were found for broad neurocognitive measures, supported by parent and teacher ratings. However, no treatment or time effects were found for the measures of academic performance, behavior in class or quality of life. We suggest that methodological and non-specific treatment factors should be taken into account when interpreting current findings. Future trials with well-blinded measures and a third ‘no treatment’ control group are needed before cognitive training can be supported as an evidence-based treatment of ADHD. Future research should put more effort into investigating why, how and for whom cognitive training is effective as this would also potentially lead to improved intervention- and study designs. PMID:26284005

  15. A relational structure of voluntary visual-attention abilities

    PubMed Central

    Skogsberg, KatieAnn; Grabowecky, Marcia; Wilt, Joshua; Revelle, William; Iordanescu, Lucica; Suzuki, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined attention mechanisms involved in specific behavioral tasks (e.g., search, tracking, distractor inhibition). However, relatively little is known about the relationships among those attention mechanisms. Is there a fundamental attention faculty that makes a person superior or inferior at most types of attention tasks, or do relatively independent processes mediate different attention skills? We focused on individual differences in voluntary visual-attention abilities using a battery of eleven representative tasks. An application of parallel analysis, hierarchical-cluster analysis, and multidimensional scaling to the inter-task correlation matrix revealed four functional clusters, representing spatiotemporal attention, global attention, transient attention, and sustained attention, organized along two dimensions, one contrasting spatiotemporal and global attention and the other contrasting transient and sustained attention. Comparison with the neuroscience literature suggests that the spatiotemporal-global dimension corresponds to the dorsal frontoparietal circuit and the transient-sustained dimension corresponds to the ventral frontoparietal circuit, with distinct sub-regions mediating the separate clusters within each dimension. We also obtained highly specific patterns of gender difference, and of deficits for college students with elevated ADHD traits. These group differences suggest that different mechanisms of voluntary visual attention can be selectively strengthened or weakened based on genetic, experiential, and/or pathological factors. PMID:25867505

  16. The cortical dynamics underlying effective switching of auditory spatial attention

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Eric; Lee, Adrian KC

    2012-01-01

    Successful rapid deployment of attention to relevant sensory stimuli is critical for survival. In a complex environment, attention can be captured by salient events or be deployed volitionally. Furthermore, when multiple events are of interest concurrently, effective interaction with one's surroundings hinges on efficient top-down control of shifting attention. It has been hypothesized that two separate cortical networks coordinate attention shifts across multiple modalities. However, the cortical dynamics of these networks and their behavioral relevance to switching of auditory attention are unknown. Here we show that the strength of each subject's right temporal-parietal junction (RTPJ, part of the ventral network) activation was highly correlated with their behavioral performance in an auditory task. We also provide evidence that the recruitment of the RTPJ likely precedes the right frontal eye fields (FEF; participating in both the dorsal and ventral networks) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) by around 100 ms when subjects switch their auditory spatial attention. PMID:22974974

  17. The role of attention in motor control.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Keith R; Jones, Matt; Healy, Alice F; Sherwood, David E

    2014-04-01

    Research on the focus of attention (FOA) in motor control has found a consistent advantage for focusing externally (on the effects of one's actions) compared to focusing internally (on one's body mechanics). However, most of this work has concentrated on movement outcomes, leaving open the question of how external attention changes the movement itself. Somewhat paradoxically, recent research has found that external attention also increases trial-by-trial movement variability. To explain these findings, we propose a theory of attention in motor control, grounded in optimal control theory, wherein variability is minimized along attended aspects of the movement. Internal attention thus reduces variability in individual bodily dimensions (positions and velocities of effectors), whereas external attention minimizes variability in the task outcome. Because the goal of a task defines a dimension in the movement space that is generally oblique to bodily dimensions, external attention should increase correlations among bodily dimensions while allowing their individual variances to grow. The current experiment tests these predictions in a dart-throwing task. External FOA led to more accurate performance and increased variability in the motion of the throwing arm, concomitant with stronger correlations among bodily dimensions (shoulder, elbow, and wrist positions and velocities) in a manner consistent with the task kinematics. These findings indicate a shift in the control policy of the motor system, consistent with the proposed theory. These results suggest an important role of attention as a control parameter in the regulation of the motor system, and more broadly illustrate the importance of cognitive mechanisms in motor behavior. PMID:23647310

  18. The Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS): Preliminary Reliability and Validity of a System for Observing Preschoolers Competence in Classroom Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Jason T.; Booren, Leslie M.; Lima, Olivia K.; Luckner, Amy E.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS), an observation tool that targets childrens interactions in preschool classrooms with teachers, peers, and tasks. In particular, initial evidence is reported of the extent to which the inCLASS meets the following psychometric criteria: inter-rater reliability, normal distributions and adequate range, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. These initial findings suggest that the inCLASS has the potential to provide an authentic, contextualized assessment of young childrens classroom behaviors. Future directions for research with the inCLASS are discussed. PMID:23175598

  19. Attention problems and pathological gaming: resolving the 'chicken and egg' in a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Ceranoglu, T Atilla

    2014-03-01

    Pathological gaming (PG) behaviors are behaviors which interfere with other life responsibilities. Continued debate exists regarding whether symptoms of PG behaviors are a unique phenomenon or arise from other mental health problems, including attention problems. Development of attention problems and occurrence of pathological gaming in 144 adolescents were followed during a 1-year prospective analysis. Teens and their parents reported on pathological gaming behaviors, attention problems, and current grade point average, as well as several social variables. Results were analyzed using regression and path analysis. Attention problems tended to precede pathological gaming behaviors, but the inverse was not true. Attention problems but not pathological gaming predicted lower GPA 1 year later. Current results suggest that pathological gaming arises from attention problems, but not the inverse. These results suggest that pathological gaming behaviors are symptomatic of underlying attention related mental health issues, rather than a unique phenomenon. PMID:24132870

  20. The effects of presession exposure to attention on the results of assessments of attention as a reinforcer.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, W K; Peck, S; Wacker, D P; Harding, J; McComas, J; Richman, D; Brown, K

    2000-01-01

    The effects of presession exposure to attention on responding during subsequent assessments of attention as a reinforcer were evaluated across three behavioral assessments. In Experiment 1, a contingent attention assessment condition was preceded by either a noncontingent attention condition (free play) or a contingent escape condition. In Experiment 2, a diverted attention with extinction condition was preceded by either an alone or a free-play condition. In Experiment 3, a two-choice preference assessment was preceded by either 10 min of free play or 10 min of playing alone. In each experiment, the participant responded differentially within the test condition according to the presence or absence of dense schedules of attention immediately prior to that condition. The results of this study show that events occurring immediately prior to an assessment condition can influence behavior within the assessment. PMID:11214023

  1. Executive functions and selective attention are favored in middle-aged healthy women carriers of the Val/Val genotype of the catechol-o-methyltransferase gene: a behavioral genetic study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits such as poor memory, the inability to concentrate, deficits in abstract reasoning, attention and set-shifting flexibility have been reported in middle-aged women. It has been suggested that cognitive decline may be due to several factors which include hormonal changes, individual differences, normal processes of aging and age-related changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a common functional polymorphism, has been related to executive performance in young healthy volunteers, old subjects and schizophrenia patients. The effect of this polymorphism on cognitive function in middle-aged healthy women is not well known. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether measures of executive function, sustained attention, selective attention and verbal fluency would be different depending on the COMT genotype and task demand. Method We genotyped 74 middle-aged healthy women (48 to 65 years old) for the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. We analyzed the effects of this polymorphism on executive functions (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test), selective attention (Stroop test), sustained attention (Continuous Performance Test) and word generation (Verbal Fluency test), which are cognitive functions that involve the frontal lobe. Results There were 27 women with the Val/Val COMT genotype, 15 with the Met/Met genotype, and 32 with the Val/Met genotype. Women carriers of the Val/Val genotype performed better in executive functions, as indicated by a lower number of errors committed in comparison with the Met/Met or Val/Met groups. The correct responses on selective attention were higher in the Val/Val group, and the number of errors committed was higher in the Met/Met group during the incongruence trial in comparison with the Val/Val group. Performance on sustained attention and the number of words generated did not show significant differences between the three genotypes. Conclusion These findings indicate that middle-aged women carriers of the Val158 allele, associated with high-activity COMT, showed significant advantage over Met allele in executive processes and cognitive flexibility. These results may help to explain, at least in part, individual differences in cognitive decline in middle-aged women with dopamine-related genes. PMID:21029471

  2. The Effects of Microcomputers on Children's Attention to Reading Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuk, Dorie; Danner, Fred

    A study investigated the effects of microcomputers on children's attention to reading tasks and the relationship between previous reading achievement and grade level on such attentional behavior. Fifty-five third and fifth graders read two stories each, one presented on a microcomputer and one presented in print. Television cartoons and rock music…

  3. Nonmedical Treatment of ADHD/Hyperactivity: The Attention Training System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used classroom management approach, Attention Training System (ATS), to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Used ABA within-subjects design in which number of off-task behaviors were recorded for six ADHD students during baseline and training phases. Data indicated that five subjects demonstrated clear training effects, which…

  4. The Influence of Television on Children's Attentional Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.

    The purpose of this review is to determine the scientific status of the proposition that viewing television in general or viewing "Sesame Street" in particular affects children's attentional skills, abilities, or behaviors. It has been frequently claimed that television viewing negatively affects children's attentional abilities. The most common…

  5. Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

  6. Experimental Training of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piscalkiene, Viktorija

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) negatively affects the cognitive and psychomotoric spheres of the pupil's social behavior and social adaptation. The review of many studies states that pupils with AD/HD achieve worse learning results because of insufficiently functioning cognitive processes, such as attention, (work) memory,…

  7. Joint Attention and Attachment in Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Joint attention is often referred to as a triadic relation between self, other and object. Young children with autism show deficiencies in the use of joint attention behaviors. Individual differences may be expected, and they may be determined by the children's cognitive development or the characteristics of the relationship of the child with the…

  8. Maternal Scaffolding and Attention Regulation in Children Living in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Julia B.; Burns, Barbara M.; Davis, Deborah Winders

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation of maternal scaffolding and children's attention regulation abilities in preschool children from low-income families within the context of a parent-child interaction task and in a child-alone task. Maternal scaffolding behaviors differed for mothers of children with different attention regulation skills. Mothers…

  9. Is Attention Deficit Disorder Becoming a Desired Diagnosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelter, Richard W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The rush to label schoolchildren as suffering from attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reached nearly epidemic proportions. The diagnosis often meets parents' needs to assign behavior control to Ritalin; it should be an explanation leading to genuine help, not a license for unacceptable student…

  10. Attention Training with Auditory Hallucinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Bouman, Theo K.; Schuurman, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The case presented in this paper illustrates how Attention Training (ATT; [Wells, A. (1990). "Panic disorder in association with relaxation induced anxiety: An attentional training approach to treatment." "Behavior Therapy," 21, 273-280.]) can be applied in an outpatient setting in the treatment of auditory hallucinations. The 25-year-old male…

  11. Is Attention Deficit Disorder Becoming a Desired Diagnosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelter, Richard W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The rush to label schoolchildren as suffering from attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reached nearly epidemic proportions. The diagnosis often meets parents' needs to assign behavior control to Ritalin; it should be an explanation leading to genuine help, not a license for unacceptable student

  12. Dissociable attentional and affective circuits in medication-nave children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Jonathan; Rauh, Virginia; Gruber, Allison; Gat, Inbal; Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Current neurocognitive models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that neural circuits involving both attentional and affective processing make independent contributions to the phenomenology of the disorder. However, a clear dissociation of attentional and affective circuits and their behavioral correlates has yet to be shown in medication-nave children with ADHD. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in a cohort of medication nave children with (N=22) and without (N=20) ADHD, we demonstrate that children with ADHD have reduced connectivity in two neural circuits: one underlying executive attention (EA) and the other emotional regulation (ER). We also demonstrate a double dissociation between these two neural circuits and their behavioral correlates such that reduced connectivity in the EA circuit correlates with executive attention deficits but not with emotional lability, while on the other hand, reduced connectivity in the ER circuit correlates with emotional lability but not with executive attention deficits. These findings suggest potential avenues for future research such as examining treatment effects on these two neural circuits as well as the potential prognostic and developmental significance of disturbances in one circuit vs the other. PMID:23664625

  13. Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. II: visual attention.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kyle P; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    Human subjects performed in several behavioral conditions requiring, or not requiring, selective attention to visual stimuli. Specifically, the attentional task was to recognize strings of digits that had been presented visually. A nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emission (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was collected during the visual presentation of the digits. The segment of the physiological response discussed here occurred during brief silent periods immediately following the SFOAE-evoking stimuli. For all subjects tested, the physiological-noise magnitudes were substantially weaker (less noisy) during the tasks requiring the most visual attention. Effect sizes for the differences were >2.0. Our interpretation is that cortico-olivo influences adjusted the magnitude of efferent activation during the SFOAE-evoking stimulation depending upon the attention task in effect, and then that magnitude of efferent activation persisted throughout the silent period where it also modulated the physiological noise present. Because the results were highly similar to those obtained when the behavioral conditions involved auditory attention, similar mechanisms appear to operate both across modalities and within modalities. Supplementary measurements revealed that the efferent activation was spectrally global, as it was for auditory attention. PMID:24732070

  14. Does attention redirection contribute to the effectiveness of attention bias modification on social anxiety?

    PubMed

    Yao, Nisha; Yu, Hongyu; Qian, Mingyi; Li, Songwei

    2015-12-01

    Attention bias modification (ABM) is designed to modify threat-related attention bias and thus alleviate anxiety. The current research examined whether consistently directing attention towards targeted goals per se contributes to ABM efficacy. We randomly assigned 68 non-clinical college students with elevated social anxiety to non-valence-specific attend-to-geometrics (AGC), attention modification (AMC), or attention control (ACC) conditions. We assessed subjective, behavioral, and physiological reactivity to a speech task and self-reported social anxiety symptoms. After training, participants in the AMC exhibited an attention avoidance from threat, and those in the AGC responded more rapidly toward targeted geometrics. There was a significant pre- to post-reduction in subjective speech distress across groups, but behavioral and physiological reactivity to speech, as well as self-report social anxiety symptoms, remained unchanged. These results lead to questions concerning effectiveness of ABM training for reducing social anxiety. Further examination of the current ABM protocol is required. PMID:26426451

  15. Altering attentional control settings causes persistent biases of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Knight, Helen C; Smith, Daniel T; Knight, David C; Ellison, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Attentional control settings have an important role in guiding visual behaviour. Previous work within cognitive psychology has found that the deployment of general attentional control settings can be modulated by training. However, research has not yet established whether long-term modifications of one particular type of attentional control setting can be induced. To address this, we investigated persistent alterations to feature search mode, also known as an attentional bias, towards an arbitrary stimulus in healthy participants. Subjects were biased towards the colour green by an information sheet. Attentional bias was assessed using a change detection task. After an interval of either 1 or 2 weeks, participants were then retested on the same change detection task, tested on a different change detection task where colour was irrelevant, or were biased towards an alternative colour. One experiment included trials in which the distractor stimuli (but never the target stimuli) were green. The key finding was that green stimuli in the second task attracted attention, despite this impairing task performance. Furthermore, inducing a second attentional bias did not override the initial bias toward green objects. The attentional bias also persisted for at least two weeks. It is argued that this persistent attentional bias is mediated by a chronic change to participants' attentional control settings, which is aided by long-term representations involving contextual cueing. We speculate that similar changes to attentional control settings and continuous cueing may relate to attentional biases observed in psychopathologies. Targeting these biases may be a productive approach to treatment. PMID:25801329

  16. Multiple effects of joint attention intervention for children with autism.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emily A; Carr, Edward G; Feeley, Kathleen M

    2006-11-01

    Joint attention refers to an early developing set of behaviors that plays a critical role in both social and language development and is specifically impaired in children with autism. In a series of three studies, preschool teachers demonstrated the effectiveness of discrete trial instruction and pivotal response training strategies to teach joint attention to 5 children with autism (Study 1). Parents of 2 of the 5 children also taught joint attention at home and in the community (Study 2). Several additional dependent measures demonstrated collateral improvements in expressive language and social-communicative characteristics that were socially validated by parent raters (Study 3). Results are discussed with respect to the importance of addressing different forms of joint attention, the necessity to extend intervention to naturalistic contexts and joint attention partners, the pivotal nature of joint attention, and whether intervention adequately addresses both the form and social function of joint attention. PMID:17050765

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder's pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life. PMID:26386541

  20. Aging and Attentional Control

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Pamela S.

    2013-01-01

    The research examines the structural bottleneck account and the resource account of the substantial dual-task deficits among older adults. Procedures from two common dual-task methodologies--the psychological refractory period and the relative-priority manipulation--were used to encourage maximization of the joint performance. Performance and time-sharing strategies from subjects between the ages of 20 and 70 were examined. Age-related declines in time-sharing efficiency and in the precision of the executive control process were observed. The age-related effect was larger when two manual responses were required than when one manual and one vocal response were required but no evidence for obligatory sequential processing was found. Except for the most demanding conditions, comparable practice effects were observed between the younger and older subjects, suggesting considerable cognitive plasticity in the older subjects. Implications for the two attentional accounts were discussed. PMID:23281799

  1. 14 CFR 91.131 - Operations in Class B airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in Class B airspace. 91.131 Section 91.131 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 91.131 Operations in Class B airspace. (a) Operating rules. No person may operate an aircraft...

  2. 14 CFR 91.130 - Operations in Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in Class C airspace. 91.130 Section 91.130 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.130 Operations in Class C airspace....

  3. Attention, Attention Rating and Cognitive Assessment: A Review and a Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boersma, Hester; Das, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    We begin with the suggestion that the definition of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) still faces some challenges. Conceptually, inhibition of the Pavlovian kind preexisted the "behavioral inhibition" popular in the USA; the difference between them has to be understood in order to understand ADHD. The present project examines the…

  4. Gaze Cueing of Attention: Visual Attention, Social Cognition, and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frischen, Alexandra; Bayliss, Andrew P.; Tipper, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    During social interactions, people's eyes convey a wealth of information about their direction of attention and their emotional and mental states. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of past and current research into the perception of gaze behavior and its effect on the observer. This encompasses the perception of gaze direction

  5. A Candidate for the Attentional Bottleneck: Set-Size Specific Modulation of the Right TPJ during Attentive Enumeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Petra; Butterworth, Brian; Bahrami, Bahador

    2011-01-01

    Several recent behavioral studies have shown that the enumeration of a small number of items (a process termed "subitizing") depends on the availability of attentional resources and is not a preattentive process as previously thought. Here we studied the neural correlates of visual enumeration under different attentional loads in a dual-task…

  6. A Paradoxical Effect of Presession Attention on Stereotypy: Antecedent Attention as an Establishing, Not an Abolishing, Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roantree, Christina F.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that presession attention for problem behavior can serve as an abolishing operation when attention functions as a positive reinforcer. In the current study, we show that the stereotypy of a child with severe disabilities was undifferentiated during standard analogue functional analysis conditions. However, when…

  7. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

  8. The Interplay of Attention and Emotion: Top-down Attention Modulates Amygdala Activation in Psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Christine L.; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Stout, Daniel M.; Balderston, Nicholas L.; Curtin, John J.; Schultz, Douglas H.; Kiehl, Kent A.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathic behavior has long been attributed to a fundamental deficit in fear that arises from impaired amygdala function. Growing evidence demonstrates that fear potentiated startle (FPS) and other psychopathy-related deficits are moderated by focus of attention but, to date, no work on adult psychopathy has examined attentional modulation of the amygdala, or concomitant recruitment of relevant attention-related circuitry. Consistent with previous FPS findings, here we report that psychopathy-related differences in amygdala activation appear and disappear as a function of goal-directed attention. Specifically, decreased amygdala activity was observed in psychopathic offenders only when attention was engaged in an alternative goal-relevant task prior to presenting threat-relevant information. Under this condition, psychopaths also exhibited greater activation in selective attention regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) than non-psychopaths, and this increased LPFC activation mediated psychopathy’s association with decreased amygdala activation. In contrast, when explicitly attending to threat, amygdala activation in psychopaths did not differ from non-psychopaths. This pattern of amygdala activation highlights the potential role of LPFC in mediating the failure of psychopathic individuals to process fear and other important information when it is peripheral to the primary focus of goal-directed attention. PMID:23712665

  9. Effects of Awareness on the Control of Attention.

    PubMed

    Webb, Taylor W; Kean, Hope H; Graziano, Michael S A

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies show that it is possible to attend to a stimulus without awareness of it. Whether attention and awareness are independent or have a specific relationship, however, remains debated. Here, we tested three aspects of visual attention with and without awareness of the visual stimulus. Metacontrast masking rendered participants either subjectively aware or not aware of the stimulus. Attention drawn to the stimulus was measured by using the stimulus as a cue in a spatial attention task. We found that attention was drawn to the stimulus regardless of whether or not people were aware of it. However, attention changed significantly in the absence of awareness in at least three ways. First, attention to a task-relevant stimulus was less stable over time. Second, inhibition of return, the automatic suppression of attention to a task-irrelevant stimulus, was reduced. Third, attention was more driven by the luminance contrast of the stimulus. These findings add to the growing information on the behavior of attention with and without awareness. The findings are also consistent with our recently proposed account of the relationship between attention and awareness. In the attention schema theory, awareness is the internal model of attention. Just as the brain contains a body schema that models the body and helps control the body, so it contains an attention schema that helps control attention. In that theory, in the absence of awareness, the control of attention should suffer in basic ways predictable from dynamical systems theory. The present results confirm some of those predictions. PMID:26836517

  10. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function. PMID:26075234

  11. Attention to individual identities modulates face processing.

    PubMed

    Ruz, María; Aranda, Clara; Sarmiento, Beatriz R; Sanabria, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The ability of attention to apply in a flexible manner to several types of information at various stages of processing has been studied extensively. However, the susceptibility of these effects to the nature of the idiosyncratic items being attended is less understood. In the current study, we used symbolic cues to orient the attention of participants to the subsequent appearance of the face of a famous person (the former king of Spain) or an unfamiliar face. These were matched in perceptual characteristics. Behavioral effects showed that face-specific attention optimized response speed in an orthogonal task when the target matched the cue (valid trials) compared to when it did not (invalid trials). According to topographical analyses of the electrophysiological data, the famous and unfamiliar faces engaged dissociable brain circuits in two different temporal windows, from 144 to 300 ms after target processing, and at a later 456-492 ms epoch. In addition, orienting attention to specific faces modulated the perceptual stages reflected in the P1 and N170 potentials but with a different laterality pattern that depended on the familiarity of the faces. Whereas only attention to the famous face enhanced the P1 potential at left posterior electrodes, with no corresponding effect for the unfamiliar face at this stage, the N170 was modulated at left posterior sites for the famous item and at right homologous electrodes for the unfamiliar face. Intermediate processing stages, previously linked to facial identity processing indexed by the P2 and N2 potentials, reflected item familiarity but were not affected by the cueing manipulation. At the P3 level, attention influenced again item processing but did so in an equivalent manner for the famous and unfamiliar face. Our results, showing that identity-specific attention modulates perceptual stages of facial processing at different locations depending on idiosyncratic stimulus familiarity, may inform comparison of studies employing items with different degrees of novelty. PMID:25690863

  12. A Geometric Representation of Collective Attention Flows

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Peiteng; Huang, Xiaohan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jiang; Deng, Su; Wu, Yahui

    2015-01-01

    With the fast development of Internet and WWW, “information overload” has become an overwhelming problem, and collective attention of users will play a more important role nowadays. As a result, knowing how collective attention distributes and flows among different websites is the first step to understand the underlying dynamics of attention on WWW. In this paper, we propose a method to embed a large number of web sites into a high dimensional Euclidean space according to the novel concept of flow distance, which both considers connection topology between sites and collective click behaviors of users. With this geometric representation, we visualize the attention flow in the data set of Indiana university clickstream over one day. It turns out that all the websites can be embedded into a 20 dimensional ball, in which, close sites are always visited by users sequentially. The distributions of websites, attention flows, and dissipations can be divided into three spherical crowns (core, interim, and periphery). 20% popular sites (Google.com, Myspace.com, Facebook.com, etc.) attracting 75% attention flows with only 55% dissipations (log off users) locate in the central layer with the radius 4.1. While 60% sites attracting only about 22% traffics with almost 38% dissipations locate in the middle area with radius between 4.1 and 6.3. Other 20% sites are far from the central area. All the cumulative distributions of variables can be well fitted by “S”-shaped curves. And the patterns are stable across different periods. Thus, the overall distribution and the dynamics of collective attention on websites can be well exhibited by this geometric representation. PMID:26325390

  13. A Geometric Representation of Collective Attention Flows.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peiteng; Huang, Xiaohan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jiang; Deng, Su; Wu, Yahui

    2015-01-01

    With the fast development of Internet and WWW, "information overload" has become an overwhelming problem, and collective attention of users will play a more important role nowadays. As a result, knowing how collective attention distributes and flows among different websites is the first step to understand the underlying dynamics of attention on WWW. In this paper, we propose a method to embed a large number of web sites into a high dimensional Euclidean space according to the novel concept of flow distance, which both considers connection topology between sites and collective click behaviors of users. With this geometric representation, we visualize the attention flow in the data set of Indiana university clickstream over one day. It turns out that all the websites can be embedded into a 20 dimensional ball, in which, close sites are always visited by users sequentially. The distributions of websites, attention flows, and dissipations can be divided into three spherical crowns (core, interim, and periphery). 20% popular sites (Google.com, Myspace.com, Facebook.com, etc.) attracting 75% attention flows with only 55% dissipations (log off users) locate in the central layer with the radius 4.1. While 60% sites attracting only about 22% traffics with almost 38% dissipations locate in the middle area with radius between 4.1 and 6.3. Other 20% sites are far from the central area. All the cumulative distributions of variables can be well fitted by "S"-shaped curves. And the patterns are stable across different periods. Thus, the overall distribution and the dynamics of collective attention on websites can be well exhibited by this geometric representation. PMID:26325390

  14. Attention, Task Difficulty, and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2005-01-01

    Comments on analysis of attention tasks in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) provided by Wilding (2005)points out that whereas many regulatory functions, including alertness or arousal, appear to be impaired in ADHD, demonstrating basic attention deficits in selection or orienting functions in the disorder has proven difficult. Yet…

  15. Getting the attention you need.

    PubMed

    Davenport, T H; Beck, J C

    2000-01-01

    Employees have an enormous amount of business information at their fingertips--more specifically, at their desktops. The floodgates are open; profitable possibilities abound. But having to handle all that information has pushed downsized staffs to the brink of an acute attention deficit disorder. To achieve corporate goals, business leaders need their employees' full attention--and that attention is in short supply. Authors Thomas Davenport and John Beck have studied how companies manage the attention of their employees and their site visitors. In this article, they analyze the components of attention management through three lenses--economic, psychobiological, and technological--and offer guidelines for keeping employees focused on crucial corporate tasks. Their lessons are drawn from the best practices employed by today's stickiest Web sites and by traditional attention industries such as advertising, film, and television. The authors say executives must manage attention knowing that it's a zero-sum game (there's only so much to go around). Managers should also consider capitalizing on the basic survival and competitive instincts we all have that help determine how much attention we pay to certain things. For instance, the threat of corporate demise--and the consequent loss of jobs and livelihoods--undoubtedly focuses workers' attention on the need to change. Likewise, internal competition among business units may give employees added incentive to pay attention to a profit or sales goal. Leaders today need to pay more attention to attention because it's widely misunderstood and widely mismanaged, the authors conclude. PMID:11143148

  16. Is Attention Impaired in ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilding, John

    2005-01-01

    Explanations of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in terms of a weakness in Executive Function (EF) or related concepts, such as inhibition, are briefly reviewed. Some alternative views are considered, in particular a proposal by Manly and others that ADHD is a weakness primarily of sustained attention (plus control of attention),…

  17. Assessment of attention in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Mahone, E M; Schneider, H E

    2012-12-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of "disordered" attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child's history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention--including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  18. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD. PMID:24787685

  19. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  20. The Normalization Model of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, John H.; Heeger, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Attention has been found to have a wide variety of effects on the responses of neurons in visual cortex. We describe a model of attention that exhibits each of these different forms of attentional modulation, depending on the stimulus conditions and the spread (or selectivity) of the attention field in the model. The model helps reconcile proposals that have been taken to represent alternative theories of attention. We argue that the variety and complexity of the results reported in the literature emerge from the variety of empirical protocols that were used, such that the results observed in any one experiment depended on the stimulus conditions and the subject’s attentional strategy, a notion that we define precisely in terms of the attention field in the model, but that has not typically been completely under experimental control. PMID:19186161