Science.gov

Sample records for in-flight oxygen collection

  1. Trajectory optimization for A S.S.T.O. using in-flight LOX collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Mard, M.; Hendrick, P.

    A key point for a space mission (launch of a satellite, earth observation,…) is the optimization of the vehicle trajectory in order to burn the smallest quantity of propelant and then maximize the payload. This is true for evay space vehicle, but especially it is a crucial point for a Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) where the choice of a bad trajectory can result in an unrealizable vehicle due to the large airbreathing part of the flight In this study, we discuss the trajectory optimization for a Vertical Take-Off and Horizontal Landing (VTOHL) SSTO using supersonic in-flight atmospheric oxygen collection during a cruise phase (constant speed & constant altitude). This collected oxygen is stored in the LOX tanks and reused in the final rocket phase. This SSTO bas a Blended Body aerodynamic configuration as the one chosen by Lockheed Martin for its new space launcher (VentureStar and X-33). This SSTO uses rocket engines from take-off to Mach 1.7 and also for the exoatmospheric flight phase (that means for an altitude higher than 30km and a Mach number evolution from 6.8 to about 20). Between these two rocket phases, the SSTO is propelled by a subsonic ramjet. To perform this study, we use 2 computer programs (running on a home Computer): the first one allows to estimate the SSTO performances (TOGW, dry weight, hydrogen and oxygen consumptions) for a fixed payload mass and the second one permits the evaluation of the payload mass for a fixed TOGW.

  2. Collective spin 1 singlet phase in high-pressure oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Yanier; Fabrizio, Michele; Scandolo, Sandro; Tosatti, Erio

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen, one of the most common and important elements in nature, has an exceedingly well-explored phase diagram under pressure, up to and beyond 100 GPa. At low temperatures, the low-pressure antiferromagnetic phases below 8 GPa where O2 molecules have spin S = 1 are followed by the broad apparently nonmagnetic ε phase from about 8 to 96 GPa. In this phase, which is our focus, molecules group structurally together to form quartets while switching, as believed by most, to spin S = 0. Here we present theoretical results strongly connecting with existing vibrational and optical evidence, showing that this is true only above 20 GPa, whereas the S = 1 molecular state survives up to about 20 GPa. The ε phase thus breaks up into two: a spinless ε0 (20−96 GPa), and another ε1 (8−20 GPa) where the molecules have S = 1 but possess only short-range antiferromagnetic correlations. A local spin liquid-like singlet ground state akin to some earlier proposals, and whose optical signature we identify in existing data, is proposed for this phase. Our proposed phase diagram thus has a first-order phase transition just above 20 GPa, extending at finite temperature and most likely terminating into a crossover with a critical point near 30 GPa and 200 K. PMID:25002513

  3. Collective spin 1 singlet phase in high-pressure oxygen.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Yanier; Fabrizio, Michele; Scandolo, Sandro; Tosatti, Erio

    2014-07-22

    Oxygen, one of the most common and important elements in nature, has an exceedingly well-explored phase diagram under pressure, up to and beyond 100 GPa. At low temperatures, the low-pressure antiferromagnetic phases below 8 GPa where O2 molecules have spin S = 1 are followed by the broad apparently nonmagnetic ε phase from about 8 to 96 GPa. In this phase, which is our focus, molecules group structurally together to form quartets while switching, as believed by most, to spin S = 0. Here we present theoretical results strongly connecting with existing vibrational and optical evidence, showing that this is true only above 20 GPa, whereas the S = 1 molecular state survives up to about 20 GPa. The ε phase thus breaks up into two: a spinless ε0 (20-96 GPa), and another ε1 (8-20 GPa) where the molecules have S = 1 but possess only short-range antiferromagnetic correlations. A local spin liquid-like singlet ground state akin to some earlier proposals, and whose optical signature we identify in existing data, is proposed for this phase. Our proposed phase diagram thus has a first-order phase transition just above 20 GPa, extending at finite temperature and most likely terminating into a crossover with a critical point near 30 GPa and 200 K. PMID:25002513

  4. A unit for collection of dissolved oxygen and water column temperature at multiple depths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2004 field study conducted during actual channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus harvests, and a small-scale research study conducted in 2005, required continuous collection of dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature at two depths in the water column. The on-farm study required data collection...

  5. YF-17 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Northrop Aviation YF-17 technology demonstrator aircraft in flight during a 1976 flight research program at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. From May 27 to July 14, 1976, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, flew the Northrop Aviation YF-17 technology demonstrator to test the high-performance U.S. Air Force fighter at transonic speeds. The objectives of the seven-week flight test program included the study of maneuverability of this aircraft at transonic speeds and the collection of in-flight pressure data from around the afterbody of the aircraft to improve wind-tunnel predictions for future fighter aircraft. Also studied were stability and control and buffeting at high angles of attack as well as handling qualities at high load factors. Another objective of this program was to familiarize center pilots with the operation of advanced high-performance fighter aircraft. During the seven-week program, all seven of the center's test pilots were able to fly the aircraft with Gary Krier serving as project pilot. In general the pilots reported no trouble adapting to the aircraft and reported that it was easy to fly. There were no familiarization flights. All 25 research flights were full-data flights. They obtained data on afterbody pressures, vertical-fin dynamic loads, agility, pilot physiology, and infrared signatures. Average flight time was 45 minutes, although two flights involving in-flight refueling lasted approximately one hour longer than usual. Dryden Project Manager Roy Bryant considered the program a success. Center pilots felt that the aircraft was generations ahead of then current active military aircraft. Originally built for the Air Force's lightweight fighter program, the YF-17 Cobra left Dryden to support the Northrop/Navy F-18 Program. The F-18 Hornet evolved from the YF-17.

  6. Nuclear Shuttle in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle in flight. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development engineers, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  7. Excavation on the Moon: Regolith Collection for Oxygen Production and Outpost Site Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, John J.; Spina, Dan C.; Greer, Lawrence C.; John, Wentworth T.; Michele, Clem; Krasowski, Mike J.; Prokop, Norman F.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a robust regolith moving system for lunar and planetary processing and construction is critical to the NASA mission to the Moon and Mars. Oxygen production may require up to 200 metric tons of regolith collection per year; outpost site development may require several times this amount. This paper describes progress in the small vehicle implement development and small excavation system development. Cratos was developed as a platform for the ISRU project to evaluate the performance characteristics of a low center of gravity, small (0.75m x 0.75m x 0.3m), low-power, tracked vehicle performing excavation, load, haul, and dump operations required for lunar ISRU. It was tested on loose sand in a facility capable of producing level and inclined surfaces, and demonstrated the capability to pick up, carry, and dump sand, allowing it to accomplish the delivery of material to a site. Cratos has demonstrated the capability to pick up and deliver simulant to a bury an inflatable habitat, to supply an oxygen production plant, and to build a ramp.

  8. Pregnant Guppy in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The Pregnant Guppy is a modified Boeing B-377 Stratocruiser used to transport the S-IV (second) stage for the Saturn I launch vehicle between manufacturing facilities on the West coast, and testing and launch facilities in the Southeast. The fuselage of the B-377 was lengthened to accommodate the S-IV stage and the plane's cabin section was enlarged to approximately double its normal volume. The idea was originated by John M. Conroy of Aero Spaceliners, Incorporated, in Van Nuys, California. The former Stratocruiser became a B-377 PG: the Pregnant Guppy. This photograph depicts the Pregnant Guppy in flight.

  9. Accelerations in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H; Allen, E T

    1921-01-01

    This report deals with the accelerations obtained in flight on various airplanes at Langley Field for the purpose of obtaining the magnitude of the load factors in flight and to procure information on the behavior of an airplane in various maneuvers. The instrument used in these tests was a recording accelerometer of a new type designed by the technical staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The instrument consists of a flat steel spring supported rigidly at one end so that the free end may be deflected by its own weight from its neutral position by any acceleration acting at right angles to the plane of the spring. This deflection is measured by a very light tilting mirror caused to rotate by the deflection of the spring, which reflected the beam of light onto a moving film. The motion of the spring is damped by a thin aluminum vane which rotates with the spring between the poles of an electric magnet. Records were taken on landings and takeoffs, in loops, spins, spirals, and rolls.

  10. ISOCAM in flight.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesarsky, C. J.; Abergel, A.; Agnese, P.; Altieri, B.; Augueres, J. L.; Aussel, H.; Biviano, A.; Blommaert, J.; Bonnal, J. F.; Bortoletto, F.; Boulade, O.; Boulanger, F.; Cazes, S.; Cesarsky, D. A.; Chedin, A.; Claret, A.; Combes, M.; Cretolle, J.; Davies, J. K.; Desert, F. X.; Elbaz, D.; Engelmann, J. J.; Epstein, G.; Franceschini, A.; Gallais, P.; Gastaud, R.; Gorisse, M.; Guest, S.; Hawarden, T.; Imbault, D.; Kleczewski, M.; Lacombe, F.; Landriu, D.; Lapegue, J.; Lena, P.; Longair, M. S.; Mandolesi, R.; Metcalfe, L.; Mosquet, N.; Nordh, L.; Okumura, K.; Ott, S.; Perault, M.; Perrier, F.; Persi, P.; Puget, P.; Purkins, T.; Rio, Y.; Robert, T.; Rouan, D.; Roy, A.; Saint-Pe, O.; Sam Lone, J.; Sargent, A.; Sauvage, M.; Sibille, F.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Sirou, F.; Soufflot, A.; Starck, J. L.; Tiphene, D.; Tran, D.; Ventura, G.; Vigroux, L.; Vivares, F.; Wade, R.

    1996-11-01

    ISOCAM, the camera on-board ISO, takes images of the sky in the wavelength range 2.5 to 18μm. It features two independent channels, containing each a 32x32 pixel detector: the short wavelength channel, 2.5 to 5.5μm, and the long wavelength channel, 4 to 18μm. Each channel features 10 or 11 discrete band pass filters and CVFs with a resolution better than 35. Each channel is fitted with a set of lenses, which reimage the focal plane of the telescope on the array, yielding a pixel field of view of 1.5, 3, 6 or 12arcsec. Throughout the development cycle, ISOCAM has been carefully calibrated, first at component level and next at instrument level. The detectors have been thoroughly tested, including exposure to gamma rays and to fast protons and nuclei. The in-flight performance of ISOCAM matches all the expectations: for instance at 15μm and 6arcsec field of view, 200μJy sources are detected at the 10σ level in 200 seconds.

  11. In-Flight Armature Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Stephen W; Cates, Michael R; Goedeke, Shawn

    2006-01-01

    A feasibility demonstration is reported for a method of determining instantaneous temperature and velocity of an armature in flight. Instantaneous diagnostics such as this could be critical for achieving further improvements in railgun operation. Such activity has the potential to enable design enhancements by providing information on the state of the armature and its relationship to the rail as it proceeds down the bore. The method exploits the temperature dependence of fluorescence from a phosphor coating applied to the armature. The demonstration used both a very small-scale portable railgun and a small-scale benchtop railgun. For these tests, the output of a pulsed ultraviolet (UV) laser is delivered by optical fiber through an access port drilled into the insulator between the rails. As the armature passes, the UV light illuminates a small area of phosphor on the armature. The phosphor fluoresces and decays at a rate dependent on the temperature of the phosphor. A second optical fiber in close proximity collects the fluorescence and conveys it to a detector and associated data acquisition system. Temperature is determined from a measurement of the decay time. To provide for velocity measurement on the small-scale railgun, light from a red diode laser, delivered by fiber probe inserted into the bore, produced distinctive reflections at the leading and trailing edges of the armature as it passed. Also, two grooves cut into the armature produced fiducial pulses that enabled velocity measurement.

  12. C-47 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    NASA Flight Research Center's Douglas R4D-5/C-47H (Bu. No. 17136) in flight, with its landing gear extended, in 1963. The R4D Skytrain was one of the early workhorses for NACA and NASA at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from 1952 to 1984. Designated the R4D by the U.S. Navy, the aircraft was called the C-47 by the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force and the DC-3 by its builder, Douglas Aircraft. Nearly everyone called it the 'Gooney Bird.' In 1962, Congress consolidated the military-service designations and called all of them the C-47. After that date, the R4D at NASA's Flight Research Center (itself redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1976) was properly called a C-47. Over the 32 years it was used at Edwards, three different R4D/C-47s were used to shuttle personnel and equipment between NACA/NASA Centers and test locations throughout the country and for other purposes. One purpose was landing on 'dry' lakebeds used as alternate landing sites for the X-15, to determine whether their surfaces were hard (dry) enough for the X-15 to land on in case an emergency occurred after its launch and before it could reach Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base. The R4D/C-47 served a variety of needs, including serving as the first air-tow vehicle for the M2-F1 lifting body (which was built of mahogany plywood). The C-47 (as it was then called) was used for 77 tows before the M2-F1 was retired for more advanced lifting bodies that were dropped from the NASA B-52 'Mothership.' The R4D also served as a research aircraft. It was used to conduct early research on wing-tip-vortex flow visualization as well as checking out the NASA Uplink Control System. The first Gooney Bird was at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) from 1952 to 1956 and flew at least one cross-country flight to the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The second R4D, used from 1956 to 1979, made many flights to the Ames Research Center, Mountain

  13. X-1 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-1 (#46-062) in flight. The shock wave pattern in the exhaust plume is visible. The X-1 series aircraft were air-launched from a modified Boeing B-29 or a B-50 Superfortress bombers. The X-1-1 was painted a bright orange by Bell Aircraft. It was thought that the aircraft would be more visable to those doing the tracking during a flight. When NACA received the airplanes they were painted white, which was an easier color to find in the skies over Muroc Air Field in California. This particular craft was nicknamed 'Glamorous Glennis' by Chuck Yeager in honor of his wife, and is now on permanent display in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all

  14. X-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    killed. The aircraft suffered little damage in the crash, resulting in proposals (never implemented) from the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Hampton, Virginia, to rebuild it for use in a hypersonic (Mach 5+) test program. In 1953, X-2 Number 2 was lost in an in-flight explosion while at the Bell Aircraft Company during captive flight trials and was jettisoned into Lake Ontario. The Air Force had previously flown the aircraft on three glide flights at Edwards Air Force Base, California, in 1952. Although the NACA's High-Speed Flight Station, Edwards, California, (predecessor of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center) never actually flew the X-2 aircraft, the NACA did support the program primarily through Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory wind-tunnel tests and Wallops Island, Virginia, rocket-model tests. The NACA High-Speed Flight Station also provided stability and control recording instrumentation and simulator support for the Air Force flights. In the latter regard, the NACA worked with the Air Force in using a special computer to extrapolate and predict aircraft behavior from flight data.

  15. DAST in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  16. Do birds sleep in flight?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2006-09-01

    The following review examines the evidence for sleep in flying birds. The daily need to sleep in most animals has led to the common belief that birds, such as the common swift ( Apus apus), which spend the night on the wing, sleep in flight. The electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings required to detect sleep in flight have not been performed, however, rendering the evidence for sleep in flight circumstantial. The neurophysiology of sleep and flight suggests that some types of sleep might be compatible with flight. As in mammals, birds exhibit two types of sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep. Whereas, SWS can occur in one or both brain hemispheres at a time, REM sleep only occurs bihemispherically. During unihemispheric SWS, the eye connected to the awake hemisphere remains open, a state that may allow birds to visually navigate during sleep in flight. Bihemispheric SWS may also be possible during flight when constant visual monitoring of the environment is unnecessary. Nevertheless, the reduction in muscle tone that usually accompanies REM sleep makes it unlikely that birds enter this state in flight. Upon landing, birds may need to recover the components of sleep that are incompatible with flight. Periods of undisturbed postflight recovery sleep may be essential for maintaining adaptive brain function during wakefulness. The recent miniaturization of EEG recording devices now makes it possible to measure brain activity in flight. Determining if and how birds sleep in flight will contribute to our understanding of a largely unexplored aspect of avian behavior and may also provide insight into the function of sleep.

  17. In-Flight System Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1998-01-01

    A method is proposed and studied whereby the system identification cycle consisting of experiment design and data analysis can be repeatedly implemented aboard a test aircraft in real time. This adaptive in-flight system identification scheme has many advantages, including increased flight test efficiency, adaptability to dynamic characteristics that are imperfectly known a priori, in-flight improvement of data quality through iterative input design, and immediate feedback of the quality of flight test results. The technique uses equation error in the frequency domain with a recursive Fourier transform for the real time data analysis, and simple design methods employing square wave input forms to design the test inputs in flight. Simulation examples are used to demonstrate that the technique produces increasingly accurate model parameter estimates resulting from sequentially designed and implemented flight test maneuvers. The method has reasonable computational requirements, and could be implemented aboard an aircraft in real time.

  18. ER-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data

  19. Uncertainty of in-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Steurer, John W.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    Methods for estimating the measurement error or uncertainty of in-flight thrust determination in aircraft employing conventional turbofan/turbojet engines are reviewed. While the term 'in-flight thrust determination' is used synonymously with 'in-flight thrust measurement', in-flight thrust is not directly measured but is determined or calculated using mathematical modeling relationships between in-flight thrust and various direct measurements of physical quantities. The in-flight thrust determination process incorporates both ground testing and flight testing. The present text is divided into the following categories: measurement uncertainty methodoogy and in-flight thrust measurent processes.

  20. In-Flight Laboratory Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, David; Perusek, Gail; Nelson, Emily; Krihak, Michael; Brown, Dan

    2012-01-01

    One-year study objectives align with HRP requirements. HRP requirements include measurement panels for research and medical operations - These measurement panels are distinctly different. Instrument requirements are defined - Power, volume and mass not quite a critical limitation as for medical operations (deep space exploration missions). One-year evaluation goals will lead HHC towards in-flight laboratory analysis capability.

  1. In-Flight Body Negative Pressure - Skylab Experiment M092

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 photograph shows Skylab's In-Flight Lower Body Negative Pressure experiment facility, a medical evaluation designed to monitor changes in astronauts' cardiovascular systems during long-duration space missions. This experiment collected in-flight data for predicting the impairment of physical capacity and the degree of orthostatic intolerance to be expected upon return to Earth. Data to be collected were blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, vectorcardiogram, lower body negative pressure, leg volume changes, and body mass. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  2. A new method for collection of nitrate from fresh water and the analysis of nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silva, S.R.; Kendall, C.; Wilkison, D.H.; Ziegler, A.C.; Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Avanzino, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    A new method for concentrating nitrate from fresh waters for ??15N and ??18O analysis has been developed and field-tested for four years. The benefits of the method are: (1) elimination of the need to transport large volumes of water to the laboratory for processing; (2) elimination of the need for hazardous preservatives; and (3) the ability to concentrate nitrate from fresh waters. Nitrate is collected by, passing the water-sample through pre-filled, disposable, anion exchanging resin columns in the field. The columns are subsequently transported to the laboratory where the nitrate is extracted, converted to AgNO3 and analyzed for its isotope composition. Nitrate is eluted from the anion exchange columns with 15 ml of 3 M HCl. The nitrate-bearing acid eluant is neutralized with Ag2O, filtered to remove the AgCl precipitate, then freeze-dried to obtain solid AgNO3, which is then combusted to N2 in sealed quartz tubes for ?? 15N analysis. For ?? 18O analysis, aliquots of the neutralized eluant are processed further to remove non-nitrate oxygen-bearing anions and dissolved organic matter. Barium chloride is added to precipitate sulfate and phosphate; the solution is then filtered, passed through a cation exchange column to remove excess Ba2+, re-neutralized with Ag2O, filtered, agitated with activated carbon to remove dissolved organic matter and freeze-dried. The resulting AgNO3 is combusted with graphite in a closed tube to produce CO2, which is cryogenically purified and analyzed for its oxygen isotope composition. The 1?? analytical precisions for ??15N and ??18O are ?? 0.05%o and ??0.5???, respectively, for solutions of KNO3 standard processed through the entire column procedure. High concentrations of anions in solution can interfere with nitrate adsorption on the anion exchange resins, which may result in isotope fractionation of nitrogen and oxygen (fractionation experiments were conducted for nitrogen only; however, fractionation for oxygen is expected

  3. In-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    The major aspects of processes that may be used for the determination of in-flight thrust are reviewed. Basic definitions are presented as well as analytical and ground-test methods for gathering data and calculating the thrust of the propulsion system during the flight development program of the aircraft. Test analysis examples include a single-exhaust turbofan, an intermediate-cowl turbofan, and a mixed-flow afterburning turbofan.

  4. In-flight fast-timing measurements in Sm152

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaisir, C.; Gaudefroy, L.; Méot, V.; Blanc, A.; Daugas, J. M.; Roig, O.; Arnal, N.; Bonnet, T.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Roger, T.; Rejmund, M.; Navin, A.; Schmitt, C.; Fremont, G.; Goupil, J.; Pancin, J.; Spitaels, C.; Zielińska, M.

    2014-02-01

    We report on the first application of in-flight fast-timing measurements, a method developed in order to directly measure lifetimes in the picosecond to nanosecond range. As a proof of principle of the method, lifetimes of the states belonging to the ground-state band in Sm152 are measured up to the 81+ state. An excellent agreement with recommended values is found. A slightly improved determination of the spectroscopic quadrupole moment of the 41+ state is also reported. In-flight fast-timing measurements open interesting opportunities for future studies of collective properties in radioactive nuclei.

  5. In-flight crew training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gott, Charles; Galicki, Peter; Shores, David

    1990-01-01

    The Helmet Mounted Display system and Part Task Trainer are two projects currently underway that are closely related to the in-flight crew training concept. The first project is a training simulator and an engineering analysis tool. The simulator's unique helmet mounted display actually projects the wearer into the simulated environment of 3-D space. Miniature monitors are mounted in front of the wearers eyes. Partial Task Trainer is a kinematic simulator for the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. The simulator consists of a high end graphics workstation with a high resolution color screen and a number of input peripherals that create a functional equivalent of the RMS control panel in the back of the Orbiter. It is being used in the training cycle for Shuttle crew members. Activities are underway to expand the capability of the Helmet Display System and the Partial Task Trainer.

  6. Nonlinear problems in flight dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, G. T.; Tobak, M.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive framework is proposed for the description and analysis of nonlinear problems in flight dynamics. Emphasis is placed on the aerodynamic component as the major source of nonlinearities in the flight dynamic system. Four aerodynamic flows are examined to illustrate the richness and regularity of the flow structures and the nature of the flow structures and the nature of the resulting nonlinear aerodynamic forces and moments. A framework to facilitate the study of the aerodynamic system is proposed having parallel observational and mathematical components. The observational component, structure is described in the language of topology. Changes in flow structure are described via bifurcation theory. Chaos or turbulence is related to the analogous chaotic behavior of nonlinear dynamical systems characterized by the existence of strange attractors having fractal dimensionality. Scales of the flow are considered in the light of ideas from group theory. Several one and two degree of freedom dynamical systems with various mathematical models of the nonlinear aerodynamic forces and moments are examined to illustrate the resulting types of dynamical behavior. The mathematical ideas that proved useful in the description of fluid flows are shown to be similarly useful in the description of flight dynamic behavior.

  7. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The NASA DC-8 in a right bank over the rugged Sierra Nevada Mountains. The former airliner is a 'dash-72' model and has a range of 5,500 miles. The craft can stay airborne for 12 hours and has an operational speed range between 300 and 500 knots. The research flights are made at between 500 and 41,000 feet. The aircraft can carry up to 30,000 lbs of research/science payload equipment installed in 15 mission-definable spaces. In this photo, the aircraft is shown in flight from below, with the DC-8 silhouetted against a blue sky. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  8. B-57B in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is a photograph of the Martin B-57 Canberra light bomber in flight. The aircraft has a bare-metal finish. The 'V' insignia is from its use in the Viking Mars Lander parachute test program. In the early 1970s, a Martin B-57B Canberra light bomber was used in several NASA joint flight test programs at the NASA Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center) located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The early 1970s showed a growing interest in continuing atmospheric research. The B-57B was at the NASA Flight Research Center for a joint program with NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia and was having a special set of instrumentation installed. Delays in completing the instruments provided an opportunity to support the NASA space program. The B-57B was used in proof-of-concept testing of the Viking Mars landers. The deceleration drop testing part of the program took place at the Joint Parachute Test Facility, El Centro, California. With completion of the Viking parachute tests, the B-57B was flown for measuring and analysis of atmospheric turbulence research in 1974-75 as part of a joint NASA program between the Flight Research Center and Langley Research Center. Additional atmospheric testing provided samples of aerosols for the University of Wyoming and clear-air turbulence data for the Department of Transportation. The aircraft was tested over a span of many years at Edwards Air Force Base by various NASA centers for other types of research. Earlier, in the 1960s, the aircraft was flown at the Flight Research Center by the Lewis Research Center (now the John Glenn Research Center) in support of the newly established NASA Electronics Center in Boston, Massachusetts. Later, in 1982, the B-57B aircraft returned to the Flight Research Center (then the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility) for more Langley-sponsored turbulence testing. The atmospheric research conducted using the B-57B Canberra provided information on mountain waves, jet

  9. In-flight gust monitoring and aeroelasticity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Salazar, Oscar Salvador

    An in-flight gust monitoring and aeroelasticity study was conducted on board NASA Dryden's F15-B/FTF-II test platform (``FTF''). A total of four flights were completed. This study is the first in a series of flight experiments being conducted jointly by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and UCLA's Flight Systems Research Center. The first objective of the in-flight gust- monitoring portion of the study was to demonstrate for the first time anywhere the measurability of intensity variations of a collimated Helium-Neon laser beam due to atmospheric air turbulence while having both the source and target apertures mounted outside an airborne aircraft. Intensity beam variations are the result of forward scattering of the beam by variations in the air's index of refraction, which are carried across the laser beam's path by a cross flow or air (i.e., atmospheric turbulence shifting vertically in the atmosphere). A laser beam was propagated parallel to the direction of flight for 1/2 meter outside the flight test fixture and its intensity variations due to atmospheric turbulence were successfully measured by a photo- detector. When the aircraft did not fly through a field of atmospheric turbulence, the laser beam proved to be insensitive to the stream velocity's cross component to the path of the beam. The aeroelasticity portion of the study consisted of measurements of the dynamic response of a straight, 18.25 inch span, 4.00 inch chord, NACA 0006 airfoil thickness profile, one sided wing to in-flight aircraft maneuvers, landing gear buffeting, unsteady aerodynamics, atmospheric turbulence, and aircraft vibration in general. These measurements were accomplished through the use of accelerometers, strain gauges and in-flight video cameras. Data collected will be used to compute in-flight root loci for the wing as functions of the aircraft's stream velocity. The data may also be used to calibrate data collected by the gust-monitoring system flown, and help verify the

  10. Polarizing Antiprotons Using DNP-in-Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Krisch, A. D.

    2008-04-30

    This talk will review my 'crazy' idea presented at the 1985 Bodega Bay workshop on polarizing antiprotons; I then called the idea 'Moving Dynamic Nuclear Polarization'. However, in his historical introduction to this Daresbury Workshop, Erhard Steffens called it 'Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in flight'; this name seems better. I will first briefly review the 1985 workshop and then discuss the prospects for 'DNP-in-flight' 22 years later.

  11. JetStar in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This 18-second movie clip shows the NASA Dryden Lockheed C-140 JetStar in flight with its pylon-mounted air-turbine-drive system used to gather information on the acoustic characteristics of subscale advanced design propellers. Data was gathered through 28 flush-mounted microphones on the skin of the aircraft. From 1976 to 1987 the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio -- today known as the Glenn Research Center -- engaged in research and development of an advanced turboprop concept in partnership with Hamilton Standard, Windsor Locks, Connecticut, the largest manufacturer of propellers in the United States. The Advanced Turboprop Project took its impetus from the energy crisis of the early 1970's and sought to produce swept propeller blades that would increase efficiency and reduce noise. As the project progressed, Pratt & Whitney, Allison Gas Turbine Division of General Motors, General Electric, Gulfstream, Rohr Industries, Boeing, Lockheed, and McDonnell Douglas, among others, also took part. NASA Lewis did the much of the ground research and marshaled the resources of these and other members of the aeronautical community. The team came to include the NASA Ames Research Center, Langley Research Center, and the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (before and after that time, the Dryden Flight Research Center). Together, they brought the propeller to the flight research stage, and the team that worked on the project won the coveted Collier Trophy for its efforts in 1987. To test the acoustics of the propeller the team developed, it mounted propeller models on a C-140 JetStar aircraft fuselage at NASA Dryden. The JetStar was modified with the installation of an air-turbine-drive system. The drive motor, with a test propeller, was mounted on a pylon atop the JetStar. The JetStar was equipped with an array of 28 microphones flush-mounted in the fuselage of the aircraft beneath the propeller. Microphones mounted on the wings and on an accompanying Learjet chase

  12. F-8 SCW in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The F-8A Supercritical Wing (SCW) aircraft in flight. Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb began work on the supercritical wing in the early 1960s. Although the design was highly efficient in wind-tunnel testing, it was so unusual that few accepted the concept as practical. Larry Loftin of NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA, said, 'We're going to have a flight demonstration. This thing is so different from anything that we've ever done before that nobody's going to touch it with a ten foot pole without somebody going out and flying it.' The Navy supplied NASA with an F-8A (Navy Bureau Number 141353/NASA tail number 810), while North American Aviation built the supercritical wing. The SCW team attached it to the stock F-8 fuselage. This 1971 photo shows its original paint finish. Tom McMurtry, who was the lead project pilot, recalled that there was no time or money for a fancier finish. In fact, on the first flight, made on March 9, 1971, the 'SCW' on the tail was actually taped on. The F-8 Supercritical Wing was a flight research project designed to test a new wing concept designed by Dr. Richard Whitcomb, chief of the Transonic Aerodynamics Branch, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Compared to a conventional wing, the supercritical wing (SCW) is flatter on the top and rounder on the bottom with a downward curve at the trailing edge. The Supercritical Wing was designed to delay the formation of and reduce the shock wave over the wing just below and above the speed of sound (transonic region of flight). Delaying the shock wave at these speeds results in less drag. Results of the NASA flight research at the Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (later renamed the Dryden Flight Research Center) demonstrated that aircraft using the supercritical wing concept would have increased cruising speed, improved fuel efficiency, and greater flight range than those using conventional wings. As a result, supercritical wings are now commonplace on virtually every

  13. A.I.e. in-flight blood collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hank, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The hardware selected to obtain and partially process human blood samples during the Skylab missions is described and consists of the following three major items: a centrifuge, an evacuation regulator, and a Beta cloth bag.

  14. Understanding and Counteracting Fatigue in Flight Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallis, Melissa; Neri, David; Rosekind, Mark; Gander, Philippa; Caldwell, John; Graeber, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    The materials included in the collection of documents describe the research of the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Group (FCG), which examines the extent to which fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption affect flight-crew performance. The group was formed in 1980 in response to a Congressional request to examine a possible safety problem of uncertain magnitude due to transmeridian flying and a potential problem due to fatigue in association with various factors found in air-transport operations and was originally called the Fatigue/Jet Lag Program. The goals of the FCG are: (1) the development and evaluation of strategies for mitigating the effects of sleepiness and circadian disruption on pilot performance levels; (2) the identification and evaluation of objective approaches for the prediction of alertness changes in flight crews; and (3) the transfer and application of research results to the operational field via classes, workshops, and safety briefings. Some of the countermeasure approaches that have been identified to be scientifically valid and operationally relevant are brief naps (less than 40 min) in the cockpit seat and 7-min activity breaks, which include postural changes and ambulation. Although a video-based alertness monitor based on slow eyelid closure shows promise in other operational environments, research by the FCG has demonstrated that in its current form at the time of this reporting, it is not feasible to implement it in the cockpit. Efforts also focus on documenting the impact of untreated fatigue on various types of flight operations. For example, the FCG recently completed a major investigation into the effects of ultra-long-range flights (20 continuous hours in duration) on the alertness and performance of pilots in order to establish a baseline set of parameters against which the effectiveness of new ultra-long-range fatigue remedies can be judged.

  15. S-NPP OMPS Nadir In-Flight Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, S.; Flynn, L. E.; Niu, J.; Grotenhuis, M.; Beck, C. T.; Beach, E.; Zhang, Z.; Tolea, A.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation describes the results of in-flight characterization of the S-NPP Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) charge-coupled device (CCD) performance during the first nearly three years of the OMPS mission in orbit. Data from OMPS's three two-dimension CCD arrays have been collected to characterize in-flight detector behaviors. Our results show that offset, gain, and dark current rate trends remain within sensor requirement limits. System linearity performance trends are stable. The distribution of individual pixel dark rates is slowly growing as expected from pre-launch analyses. The current in-flight dark and linearity calibration corrections provide Sensor Data Records (SDRs) with insignificant error after correction of less than an average of ~0.1% in the Earth radiance retrieval. The instrument optics is less stable than predicted leading to intra-orbit wavelength scale variations as the temperature gradients vary across the instrument. Measurement-based estimates of these effects are as large a ±0.02 nm and are used to make corrections to within +-0.005 nm on a granule by granule basis. Examination of reflectivity, aerosol and ozone EDRs provide evidence of absolute calibration errors with a significant cross track variation. A soft calibration adjustment is under development to remove them.

  16. STS-107 crew In-Flight Maintenance training at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-107 crew members take part in In-Flight Maintenance training for their mission. Under the watchful eyes of SPACEHAB trainer David Butler (left), Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon of Israel (center) and Mission Specialist David M. Brown (right) check equipment and paperwork inside the SPACEHAB Double Module. Research mission STS-107, scheduled to launch July 19, 2001, will carry the SPACEHAB Double Module in its first flight into space and a broad collection of experiments ranging from material science to life science

  17. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) dumps water after first in-flight cold flow test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The NASA SR-71A successfully completed its first cold flow flight as part of the NASA/Rocketdyne/Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California on March 4, 1998. During a cold flow flight, gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen are cycled through the linear aerospike engine to check the engine's plumbing system for leaks and to check the engine operating characterisitics. Cold-flow tests must be accomplished successfully before firing the rocket engine experiment in flight. The SR-71 took off at 10:16 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty-seven minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.58 before landing at Edwards at 12:13 p.m. PST. 'I think all in all we had a good mission today,' Dryden LASRE Project Manager Dave Lux said. Flight crew member Bob Meyer agreed, saying the crew 'thought it was a really good flight.' Dryden Research Pilot Ed Schneider piloted the SR-71 during the mission. Lockheed Martin LASRE Project Manager Carl Meade added, 'We are extremely pleased with today's results. This will help pave the way for the first in-flight engine data-collection flight of the LASRE.' The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous

  18. PIK-20 Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photo shows NASA's PIK-20E motor-glider sailplane during a research flight from the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later, the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in 1991. The PIK-20E was a sailplane flown at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) beginning in 1981. The vehicle, bearing NASA tail number 803, was used as a research vehicle on projects calling for high lift-over-drag and low-speed performance. Later NASA used the PIK-20E to study the flow of fluids over the aircraft's surface at various speeds and angles of attack as part of a study of airflow efficiency over lifting surfaces. The single-seat aircraft was used to begin developing procedures for collecting sailplane glide performance data in a program carried out by Ames-Dryden. It was also used to study high-lift aerodynamics and laminar flow on high-lift airfoils. Built by Eiri-Avion in Finland, the PIK-20E is a sailplane with a two-cylinder 43-horsepower, retractable engine. It is made of carbon fiber with sandwich construction. In this unique configuration, it takes off and climbs to altitude on its own. After reaching the desired altitude, the engine is shut down and folded back into the fuselage and the aircraft is then operated as a conventional sailplane. Construction of the PIK-20E series was rather unusual. The factory used high-temperature epoxies cured in an autoclave, making the structure resistant to deformation with age. Unlike today's normal practice of laying glass over gelcoat in a mold, the PIK-20E was built without gelcoat. The finish is the result of smooth glass lay-up, a small amount of filler, and an acrylic enamel paint. The sailplane was 21.4 feet long and had a wingspan of 49.2 feet. It featured a wooden, fixed-pitch propeller, a roomy cockpit, wingtip wheels, and a steerable tailwheel.

  19. Measurement of In-Flight Aircraft Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokoloski, M.; Arnold, C.; Rider, D.; Beer, R.; Worden, H.; Glavich, T.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft engine emission and their chemical and physical evolution can be measured in flight using high resolution infrared spectroscopy. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES), designed for remote measure- ments of atmosphere emissions from an airborne platform, is an ideal tool for the evaluation of aircraft emissions and their evolution. Capabilities of AES will be discussed. Ground data will be given.

  20. Vestibular-visual interactions in flight simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.

    1977-01-01

    The following research work is reported: (1) vestibular-visual interactions; (2) flight management and crew system interactions; (3) peripheral cue utilization in simulation technology; (4) control of signs and symptoms of motion sickness; (5) auditory cue utilization in flight simulators, and (6) vestibular function: Animal experiments.

  1. In-Flight Lower Body Negative Pressure - Skylab Experiment M092

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This chart details Skylab's In-Flight Lower Body Negative Pressure experiment facility, a medical evaluation designed to monitor changes in astronauts' cardiovascular systems during long-duration space missions. This experiment collected in-flight data for predicting the impairment of physical capacity and the degree of orthostatic intolerance to be expected upon return to Earth. Data to be collected were blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, vectorcardiogram, lower body negative pressure, leg volume changes, and body mass. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  2. Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope content in daily-collected precipitation samples at Dome C, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreossi, Giuliano; Stenni, Barbara; Del Guasta, Massimo; Bonazza, Mattia; Grigioni, Paolo; Karlicek, Daniele; Mognato, Riccardo; Scarchilli, Claudio; Turchetti, Filippo; Zannoni, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    Antarctic ice cores allow to obtain exceptional past climate records, thanks to their water stable isotope content, which provides integrated tracers of the atmospheric water cycle and local climate. Low accumulation sites of the East Antarctic plateau provide the oldest ice core records, with the record-breaking EPICA Dome C drilling covering the last eight climate cycles. However, the isotope-temperature relationship, commonly used to derive the temperature, may be characterized by significant geographical and temporal variations. Moreover, post-depositional effects may further complicate the climate interpretation. A continuous series of precipitation data is needed in order to gain a better understanding of the factors affecting the water stable isotopes in Antarctic precipitation at a specific site. In this study, we use the first and so-far only multi-year series of daily precipitation sampling and isotope measurements from the French-Italian Concordia Station, located at Dome C in East Antarctica (75°06'S 123°21'E; elevation: 3233 m a.s.l.; mean annual temperature: -54.5°C; snow accumulation rate: 25 kg m-2 yr-1), where the oldest deep Antarctic ice core has been retrieved. Surface air temperature data have been provided by the US automatic weather station (AWS), placed 1.5 km away from the base, while tropospheric temperature profiles are obtained by means of a radiosonde, launched once per day by the IPEV/Italian Antarctic Meteo-climatological Observatory. The new dataset also enables us for the first time to study the isotope-temperature relationship distinguishing between different types of precipitation, namely diamond dust, hoar frost and snowfall, identified by the observations carried out by the winter-over personnel collecting the snow samples. Here we present the complete data series of water stable isotopes in precipitation at Dome C spanning the time period from 2008 to 2014, in the framework of the PNRA PRE-REC project.

  3. Kinematics of chiropteran shoulder girdle in flight.

    PubMed

    Panyutina, A A; Kuznetsov, A N; Korzun, L P

    2013-03-01

    New data on the mechanisms of movements of the shoulder girdle and humerus of bats are described; potential mobility is compared to the movements actually used in flight. The study was performed on the basis of morphological and functional analysis of anatomical specimens of 15 species, high speed and high definition filming of two species and X-ray survey of Rousettus aegyptiacus flight. Our observations indicate that any excursions of the shoulder girdle in bats have relatively small input in the wing amplitude. Shoulder girdle movements resemble kinematics of a crank mechanism: clavicle plays the role of crank, and scapula-the role of connecting rod. Previously described osseous "locking mechanisms" in shoulder joint of advanced bats do not affect the movements, actually used in flight. The wing beats in bats are performed predominantly by movements of humerus relative to shoulder girdle, although these movements occupy the caudal-most sector of available shoulder mobility. PMID:23381941

  4. In-Flight Rotorcraft Acoustics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Randall L.; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    A key part of NASA's aeronautics research is reducing noise to make helicopters and tiltrotors more acceptable to the public. The objective of the In-Flight Rotorcraft Acoustics Program (IRAP) is to acquire rotorcraft. noise data in flight for comparison to wind tunnel data. The type of noise of concern is "blade-vortex-interaction," or BVI, noise. Microphones on the wing tips and tail fin of the quiet NASA YO-3A Acoustics Research Aircraft measure BVI noise while the YO-3A descends in close formation with the helicopter or tiltrotor emitting the noise.The data acquired through IRAP is needed to validate wind-tunnel test results, or, where the results cannot be validated, to provide researchers with clues as to how to improve testing methods.

  5. Vestibular-visual interactions in flight simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.

    1977-01-01

    All 139 research papers published under this ten-year program are listed. Experimental work was carried out at the Ames Research Center involving man's sensitivity to rotational acceleration, and psychophysical functioning of the semicircular canals; vestibular-visual interactions and effects of other sensory systems were studied in flight simulator environments. Experiments also dealt with the neurophysiological vestibular functions of animals, and flight management investigations of man-vehicle interactions.

  6. Shock-boundary-layer interaction in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertelrud, Arild

    1989-01-01

    A brief survey is given on the study of transonic shock/boundary layer effects in flight. Then the possibility of alleviating the adverse shock effects through passive shock control is discussed. A Swedish flight experiment on a swept wing attack aircraft is used to demonstrate how it is possible to reduce the extent of separated flow and increase the drag-rise Mach number significantly using a moderate amount of perforation of the surface.

  7. STS-107 In-Flight Maintenance Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Members of the STS-107 crew take part in the In-Flight Maintenance training for their mission. One of the payload elements on the mission was the SPACEHAB Double Module in its first research flight into space. Working with equipment inside the SPACEHAB Double Module are (left to right) SPACEHAB trainer David Butler, Pilot William C. 'Willie' McCool, Commander Rick D. Husband, and Israeli Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  8. In-flight decay spectroscopy of exotic light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Charity, R. J.

    2012-11-20

    In-flight-decay spectroscopy is discussed, including its advantages and disadvantages. In particular the use of in-flight-decay spectroscopy for the study of two-proton decay along isobaric multiplets in highlighted.

  9. Freezing Rain as an In-Flight Icing Hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Ben C.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Miller, Dean R.; McDonough, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to supercooled large drops (SLD-subfreezing water droplets with diameters greater than approx. 50 microns) can pose a significant threat to the safety of some aircraft. Although SLD includes both freezing drizzle (FZDZ) and freezing rain (FZRA), much of the SLD research and development of operational SLD forecast tools has focused on FZDZ and ignored FZRA, regarding is as less of a hazard to aviation. This paper provides a counterpoint case study that demonstrates FZRA as a significant in-flight icing hazard. The case study is based on flight and meteorological data from a joint NASA/FAA/NCAR SLD icing research project collected on February 4, 1998. The NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft experienced a prolonged exposure to "classical" FZRA that formed extensive ice formations including ridges and nodules on the wing and tail, and resulted in a substantial performance penalty. Although the case study provides only a singular FZRA event with one aircraft type, it is clear that classical FZRA can pose a significant in-flight icing hazard, and should not be ignored when considering SLD issues.

  10. Tritium, deuterium, and oxygen-18 in water collected from unsaturated sediments near a low-level radioactive-waste burial site south of Beatty, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, D.E.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Striegl, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Pore water was extracted in March 1996 from cores collected from test holes UZB-1 and UZB-2 drilled November 1992 and September 1993, respectively, in the Amargosa Desert south of Beatty, Nevada. The test holes are part of a study to determine factors affecting water and gas movement through unsaturated sediments. The holes are about 100 meters south of the southwest corner of the fence enclosing a commercial burial area for low-level radioactive waste. Water vapor collected from test hole UZB-2 in April 1994 and July 1995 had tritium concentrations greater than would be expected from atmospheric deposition. An apparatus was built in which pore water was extracted by cryodistillation from the previously obtained core samples. The extracted core water was analyzed for the radioactive isotope tritium and for the stable isotopes deuterium (D) and oxygen-18 (18O). The isotopic composition of core water was compared with that of water vapor previously collected from air ports in test hole UZB-2 and to additional samples collected during May 1996. Core water becomes increasingly depleted in D and 18O from the land surface to a depth of 30 meters, indicating that net evaporation of water is occurring near the land surface. Below a depth of 30 meters the stable-isotopic composition of core water becomes nearly constant and roughly equal to that of ground water. The stable isotopes plot on an evaporation trend. The source of the partly evaporated water could be either ground water or past precipitation having the same average isotopic composition as ground water but not modern precipitation, based on 18 months of record. Profiles of D and 18O in water vapor roughly parallel those in core water. The stable isotopes of core water appear to be in isotopic equilibrium with water vapor from UZB-2 when temperature-dependent fractionation is considered. The data are consistent with the hypothesis of evaporative discharge of ground water at the land surface. The concentration of

  11. Perseus A in Flight with Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraft but no property damage, fire, or injuries in the area

  12. In-flight medical support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chassay, C.; Rose, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The In-flight Medical Support System for Skylab was designed to provide the onboard Crew Physician or Scientist Pilot (or other crewmember if the Scientist Pilot was unable to act) with information adequate to make diagnostic assessment of those injuries or illnesses most likely to occur in the Skylab environment. The necessary diagnostic, therapeutic, and laboratory equipment needed to diagnose and to render first aid, resuscitative or supportive measures was stored in the Skylab Orbital Workshop. The resupply kit containing refrigerated laboratory and drug resupply items was stored in the Command Module.

  13. Optical Air Flow Measurements in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Jentink, Henk W.

    2004-01-01

    This document has been written to assist the flight-test engineer and researcher in using optical flow measurements in flight applications. The emphasis is on describing tradeoffs in system design to provide desired measurement performance as currently understood. Optical system components are discussed with examples that illustrate the issues. The document concludes with descriptions of optical measurement systems designed for a variety of applications including aeronautics research, airspeed measurement, and turbulence hazard detection. Theoretical discussion is minimized, but numerous references are provided to supply ample opportunity for the reader to understand the theoretical underpinning of optical concepts.

  14. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1:0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2:0.53 to 0.61 micrometers band 3:0.62 to 0.70 micrometers and 4:0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors.

  15. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, NM area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1: 0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2: 0.53 to 0.61 micrometers, band 3: 0.62 to 0.70 micrometers, and 4: 0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. Previously announced in STAR as N84-15633

  16. Intraspecific variations in carbon-isotope and oxygen-isotope compositions of a brachiopod Basiliola lucida collected off Okinawa-jima, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Hideko; Asami, Ryuji; Abe, Osamu; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Keiichi; Iryu, Yasufumi

    2013-08-01

    This study presents intraspecific variations in carbon-isotope (δ13C) and oxygen-isotope (δ18O) compositions of nine specimens of a subtropical brachiopod, Basiliola lucida, collected west of Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. The δ13C values of samples collected along the maximum growth axis (ontogenetic samples) from two modern and seven older (pre-1945 cal AD) shells show no seasonal changes. The modern shells, which were collected from comparable depths, have similar δ13C values that fall within the range of calcite precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater (equilibrium calcite) (δ13CEC values), and their mean δ13C values are ˜1.1-1.6‰ less than those from the older shells. This decrease in δ13C values is similar in magnitude to the decreases in atmospheric CO2 and the oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon at the sea surface in recent years (13C Suess effect), suggesting that the effect can even be detected at water depths of 200-300 m in the subtropical northwestern Pacific Ocean. The δ18O values fluctuate within a narrow range (0.26-0.41‰) with no seasonal changes, and they exhibit small (0.14-0.51‰) offsets from those of equilibrium calcite (δ18OEC values). A statistically significant negative linear relationship is established between seawater temperature and mean δ18O values of the nine shells, but the slope (-0.31‰/°C) is steeper than those of equilibrium calcite (-0.23‰/°C) and other calcareous organisms (-0.15‰ to -0.26‰/°C). The cross-plots of the δ13C and δ18O values suggest that the degree of the vital effect varies among individuals in this species. The δ13C and δ18O values of B. lucida are potentially useful for reconstructing the δ13C and δ18O evolution of ancient oceans, because both values show small intraspecific variations, the former is identical to the δ13CEC values, and the latter shows small within-shell variations and small, nearly constant offsets from the δ18OEC values.

  17. Analyzing human errors in flight mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, Kristin J.; Welz, Linda L.; Barnes, G. Michael; Sherif, Josef

    1993-01-01

    A long-term program is in progress at JPL to reduce cost and risk of flight mission operations through a defect prevention/error management program. The main thrust of this program is to create an environment in which the performance of the total system, both the human operator and the computer system, is optimized. To this end, 1580 Incident Surprise Anomaly reports (ISA's) from 1977-1991 were analyzed from the Voyager and Magellan projects. A Pareto analysis revealed that 38 percent of the errors were classified as human errors. A preliminary cluster analysis based on the Magellan human errors (204 ISA's) is presented here. The resulting clusters described the underlying relationships among the ISA's. Initial models of human error in flight mission operations are presented. Next, the Voyager ISA's will be scored and included in the analysis. Eventually, these relationships will be used to derive a theoretically motivated and empirically validated model of human error in flight mission operations. Ultimately, this analysis will be used to make continuous process improvements continuous process improvements to end-user applications and training requirements. This Total Quality Management approach will enable the management and prevention of errors in the future.

  18. Computational imaging of light in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hullin, Matthias B.

    2014-10-01

    Many computer vision tasks are hindered by image formation itself, a process that is governed by the so-called plenoptic integral. By averaging light falling into the lens over space, angle, wavelength and time, a great deal of information is irreversibly lost. The emerging idea of transient imaging operates on a time resolution fast enough to resolve non-stationary light distributions in real-world scenes. It enables the discrimination of light contributions by the optical path length from light source to receiver, a dimension unavailable in mainstream imaging to date. Until recently, such measurements used to require high-end optical equipment and could only be acquired under extremely restricted lab conditions. To address this challenge, we introduced a family of computational imaging techniques operating on standard time-of-flight image sensors, for the first time allowing the user to "film" light in flight in an affordable, practical and portable way. Just as impulse responses have proven a valuable tool in almost every branch of science and engineering, we expect light-in-flight analysis to impact a wide variety of applications in computer vision and beyond.

  19. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  20. X-ray holography in-flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkhover, Tais; Ulmer, Anatoli; Ferguson, Ken; Bucher, Max; Ekeberg, Tomas; Hantke, Max; Daurer, Benedikt; Nettelblad, Carl; Bielecki, Johan; Faigel, Guila; Hasse, Dirk; Morgan, Andrew; Mühlig, Kerstin; Seibert, Marvin; Chapman, Henry; Hajdu, Janos; Maia, Filipe; Moeller, Thomas; Bostedt, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    The advent of X-ray free-electron lasers, delivering ultra intense femtosecond X-ray flashes, opens the door for structure determination of single nanoparticles and biosamples with single shots. The first X-ray diffraction imaging experiments at LCLS delivered promising results on samples in the gas phase. However, the reconstruction of non-periodic structures is still challenging due to the loss of phase information. Meanwhile, X-ray holographic approaches allow for recording the phase directly into the diffraction image. In my talk, I will present the first successful proof-of-principle experiment for ``in-flight''-holography with free viruses. Our experiments pave the way for unique studies on levitating nanospecimen that are of central interest in several scientific communities including atmosphere research, chemistry, material sciences, and studies on matter under extreme conditions.

  1. In-flight AHS MTF measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viallefont-Robinet, Françoise; Fontanilles, Guillaume; de Miguel, Eduardo

    2008-10-01

    The disposal of couples of images of the same landscape acquired with two spatial resolutions gives the opportunity to assess the in-flight Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of the lower resolution sensor in the common spectral bands. For each couple, the higher resolution image stands for the landscape so that the ratio of the spectra obtained by FFT of the two images, gives the lower resolution sensor MTF. This paper begins with a brief recall of the method including the aliasing correction. The next step presents the data to be processed, provided by the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA). The model of the AHS MTF is described. The presentation of the corresponding AHS results naturally follows. Last part of the paper consists in a comparison with other measurements: measurements obtained with the edge method and laboratory measurements.

  2. In-flight aeroelastic measurement technique development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Lokos, William A.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2003-11-01

    The initial concept and development of a low-cost, adaptable method for the measurement of static and dynamic aeroelastic deformation of aircraft during flight testing is presented. The method is adapted from a proven technique used in wind tunnel testing to measure model deformation, often referred to as the videogrammetric model deformation (or VMD) technique. The requirements for in-flight measurements are compared and contrasted with those for wind tunnel testing. The methodology for the proposed measurements and differences compared with that used for wind tunnel testing is given. Several error sources and their effects are identified. Measurement examples using the new technique, including change in wing twist and deflection as a function of time, from an F/A-18 research aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center are presented.

  3. MODIS In-flight Calibration Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Barnes, W.

    2004-01-01

    MODIS is a key instrument for the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) currently operating on the Terra spacecraft launched in December 1999 and Aqua spacecraft launched in May 2002. It is a cross-track scanning radiometer, making measurements over a wide field of view in 36 spectral bands with wavelengths from 0.41 to 14.5 micrometers and providing calibrated data products for science and research communities in their studies of the Earth s system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. A complete suite of on-board calibrators (OBC) have been designed for the instruments in-flight calibration and characterization, including a solar diffuser (SD) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) system for the radiometric calibration of the 20 reflective solar bands (RSB), a blackbody (BB) for the radiometric calibration of the 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB), and a spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA) for the spatial (all bands) and spectral (RSB only) characterization. This paper discusses MODIS in-flight Cali bration methodologies of using its on-board calibrators. Challenging issues and examples of tracking and correcting instrument on-orbit response changes are presented, including SD degradation (20% at 412nm, 12% at 466nm, and 7% at 530nm over four and a half years) and response versus scan angle changes (10%, 4%, and 1% differences between beginning of the scan and end of the scan at 412nm, 466nm, and 530nm) in the VIS spectral region. Current instrument performance and lessons learned are also provided.

  4. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows one of the QF-106s used in the Eclipse project in flight. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  5. In-Flight Performance of the OCO-2 Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na-Nakornpanom, Arthur; Naylor, Bret J.; Lee, Richard A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) will have completed its first year in space on July 2, 2015. The OCO-2 instrument incorporates three bore-sighted, high-resolution grating spectrometers, designed to measure the near-infrared absorption of reflected sunlight by carbon dioxide and molecular oxygen. The cryocooler system design is coupled with the instrument's thermal control design to maximize the instrument's performance. A single-stage NGAS pulse tube cryocooler provides refrigeration to three focal plane arrays to ∼120 K via a high conductance flexible thermal strap. A variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) based heat rejection system (HRS) transports waste heat from the instrument located inside the spacecraft to the space-viewing radiators. The HRS provides tight temperature control of the optics to 267 K and maintains the cryocooler at 300 K. Soon after entering the A-Train on August 3, 2014, the optics and focal planes were cooled to their operating temperatures. This paper provides a general overview of the cryogenic system design and reviews the in-flight cryogenic performance during the Observatory's first year.

  6. Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In this International Space Station (ISS) onboard photo, Expedition Six Science Officer Donald R. Pettit works to set up the Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) experiment hardware in the Destiny Laboratory. Expedition Six is the fourth and final crew to perform the PuFF experiment. The PuFF experiment was developed to better understand what effects long term exposure to microgravity may have on the lungs. The focus is on measuring changes in the everness of gas exchange in the lungs, and on detecting changes in respiratory muscle strength. It allows astronauts to measure blood flow through the lungs, the ability of the lung to take up oxygen, and lung volumes. Each PuFF session includes five lung function tests, which involve breathing only cabin air. For each planned extravehicular (EVA) activity, a crew member performs a PuFF test within one week prior to the EVA. Following the EVA, those crew members perform another test to document the effect of exposure of the lungs to the low-pressure environment of the space suits. This experiment utilizes the Gas Analyzer System for Metabolic Analysis Physiology, or GASMAP, located in the Human Research Facility (HRF), along with a variety of other Puff equipment including a manual breathing valve, flow meter, pressure-flow module, pressure and volume calibration syringes, and disposable mouth pieces.

  7. Background: Preflight Screening, In-flight Capabilities, and Postflight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Charles Robert; Duncan, James

    2009-01-01

    Recommendations for minimal in-flight capabilities: Retinal Imaging - provide in-flight capability for the visual monitoring of ocular health (specifically, imaging of the retina and optic nerve head) with the capability of downlinking video/still images. Tonometry - provide more accurate and reliable in-flight capability for measuring intraocular pressure. Ultrasound - explore capabilities of current on-board system for monitoring ocular health. We currently have limited in-flight capabilities on board the International Space Station for performing an internal ocular health assessment. Visual Acuity, Direct Ophthalmoscope, Ultrasound, Tonometry(Tonopen):

  8. Use of computer-aided testing in the investigation of pilot response to critical in-flight events. Volume 2: Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, T. H.; Giffin, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    Computer displays using PLATO are illustrated. Diagnostic scenarios are described. A sample of subject data is presented. Destination diversion displays, a combined destination, diversion scenario, and critical in-flight event (CIFE) data collection/subject testing system are presented.

  9. In-flight cabin smoke control.

    PubMed

    Eklund, T I

    1996-12-31

    Fatal accidents originating from in-flight cabin fires comprise only about 1% of all fatal accidents in the civil jet transport fleet. Nevertheless, the impossibility of escape during flight accentuates the hazards resulting from low visibility and toxic gases. Control of combustion products in an aircraft cabin is affected by several characteristics that make the aircraft cabin environment unique. The aircraft fuselage is pressurized in flight and has an air distribution system which provides ventilation jets from the ceiling level air inlets running along the cabin length. A fixed quantity of ventilation air is metered into the cabin and air discharge is handled primarily by pressure controlling outflow valves in the rear lower part of the fuselage. Earlier airplane flight tests on cabin smoke control used generators producing minimally buoyant smoke products that moved with and served as a telltales for overall cabin ventilation flows. Analytical studies were done with localized smoke production to predict the percent of cabin length that would remain smoke-free during continuous generation. Development of a buoyant smoke generator allowed simulation of a fire plume with controllable simulated temperature and heat release rates. Tests on a Boeing 757, modified to allow smoke venting out through the top of the cabin, showed that the buoyant smoke front moved at 0.46m/s (1.5ft/sec) with and 0.27m/sec (0.9ft/sec) against, the axial ventilation airflow. Flight tests in a modified Boeing 727 showed that a ceiling level counterflow of about 0.55m/sec (1.8ft/sec) was required to arrest the forward movement of buoyant smoke. A design goal of 0.61m/s (2ft/sec) axial cabin flow would require a flow rate of 99m3/min (3500ft3/min) in a furnished Boeing 757. The current maximum fresh air cabin ventilation flow is 78m3/min (2756 ft3/min). Experimental results indicate that buoyancy effects cause smoke movement behaviour that is not predicted by traditional design analyses and

  10. Toward Direct Reaction-in-Flight Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmy, Jerry; Bredeweg, Todd; Fowler, Malcolm; Gooden, Matthew; Hayes, Anna; Rusev, Gencho; Caggiano, Joseph; Hatarik, Robert; Henry, Eugene; Tonchev, Anton; Yeaman, Charles; Bhike, Megha; Krishichayan, Krishi; Tornow, Werner

    2016-03-01

    At the National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutrons having energies greater than the equilibrium 14.1 MeV value can be produced via Reaction-in-Flight (RIF) interactions between plasma atoms and upscattered D or T ions. The yield and spectrum of these RIF produced neutrons carry information on the plasma properties as well as information on the stopping power of ions under plasma conditions. At NIF the yield of these RIF neutrons is predicted to be 4-7 orders of magnitude below the peak 14 MeV neutron yield. The current generation of neutron time of flight (nTOF) instrumentation has so far been incapable of detecting these low-yield neutrons primarily due to high photon backgrounds. To date, information on RIF neutrons has been obtained in integral activation experiments using reactions with high energy thresholds such as 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm and 209Bi(n,4n) 206Bi. Initial experiments to selectively suppress photon backgrounds have been performed at TUNL using pulsed monoenergetic neutron beams of 14.9, 18.5, 24.2, and 28.5 MeV impinging on a Bibenzyl scintillator. By placing 5 cm of Pb before the scintillator we were able to selectively suppress the photons from the flash occurring at the production target and enhance the n/_signal by ~6 times.

  11. Two F-104s in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Two F-104Ns in flight over the desert in 1970. NASA accepted three specially built F-104s in late 1963 for use as pilot proficiency aircraft, low lift over drag trainers, and chase planes. These received the designation 'F-104N.' The lead aircraft in the photo, N811NA, was delivered on August 19, 1963. The trailing aircraft, N812NA, appeared at the Flight Research Center (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) on September 30, 1963. The third F-104N (number N813NA) arrived on October 22, 1963, but was lost on June 8, 1966 in the collision with the XB-70 #2. Research pilot Joe Walker died in the accident. The surviving F-104Ns served for more then two decades. N811NA flew for the last time in October 1990, after a total of 4,370 flights. N812NA was retired in January 1987, after 4,442 flights. N813NA had made 409 flight at the time it was lost.

  12. Grumman OV-1C in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Grumman OV-1C in flight. This OV-1C Mohawk, serial #67-15932, was used in a joint NASA/US Army Aviation Engineering Flight Activity (USAAEFA) program to study a stall-speed warning system in the early 1980s. NASA designed and built an automated stall-speed warning system which presented both airspeed and stall speed to the pilot. Visual indication of impending stall would be displayed to the pilot as a cursor or pointer located on a conventional airspeed indicator. In addition, an aural warning at predetermined stall margins was presented to the pilot through a voice synthesizer. The Mohawk was developed by Grumman Aircraft as a photo observation and reconnaissance aircraft for the US Marines and the US Army. The OV-1 entered production in October 1959 and served the US Army in Europe, Korea, the Viet Nam War, Central and South America, Alaska, and during Desert Shield/Desert Storm in the Middle East. The Mohawk was retired from service in September 1996. 133 OV-1Cs were built, the 'C' designating the model which used an IR (infrared) imaging system to provide reconnaissance.

  13. YF-22 in flight (US AF photo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The YF-22, prototype aircraft for the Air Force's F-22 fighter, cruises over the desert on a flight for the Air Force. It was never involved in any programs with Dryden. The United States Air Force announced the demonstration/validation phase contractors selection for the Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) program October 31, 1986. These contractor programs were the Lockheed YF-22 and the Northrop YF-23; each produced two prototypes and ground-based avionics testbeds. First flights of all four prototypes occured in 1990. The YF-22 was first flown on Sept. 29, 1990. The YF-22 was powered by two General Electric YF120-GE-100 engines. The final design, the F-22, was flown sometime in May 1997. The F-22 is capable of efficient supersonic operation without afterburner use (supercruise). Lockheed teamed with General Dynamics (Fort Worth) and Boeing Military Airplanes to produce two YF-22 prototypes, civil registrations N22YF (with GE YF120) and N22YX (P&W YF119). N22YF rolled out at Palmdale August 29, 1990; first flight/ferry to Edwards AFB September 29, 1990; first air refuelling (11th sortie) October 26, 1990; thrust vectoring in flight November 15, 1990; achieved Mach 1.8 December 26, 1990. Flight test demonstrations included `supercruise' flight in excess of Mach 1.58 without afterburner.

  14. Fatigue Countermeasures: Alertness Management in Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Co, E. L.; Rosekind, M. R.; Johnson, J. M.; Weldon, K. J.; Smith, R. M.; Gregory, K. G.; Miller, D. L.; Gander, P. H.; Lebacqz, J. V.; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Since 1980, the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Program has studied the effects and impact of fatigue on flight operations . Sleep loss and circadian disruption are two of the primary physiological factors that underlie fatigue in flight operations. The Program has developed an array of fatigue countermeasure recommendations that can be used to combat the effects of fatigue and continues to research potential new countermeasures. For example, one such strategy involved a NASA/FAA study on the effects of planned cockpit rest to improve crewmember alertness and performance. Based partly on the study results, the FAA is currently reviewing a proposed Advisory Circular for controlled rest on the flight deck. Since there is no simple answer to the issue of fatigue in aviation, an Education and Training Module has been developed to provide the industry with pertinent information on sleep, circadian rhythms, how flight operations affect these physiological factors, and recommendations for fatigue countermeasures. The Module will be updated as the Program's continued research efforts uncover new information and develop new countermeasure strategies,

  15. A strobe-based inspection system for drops-in-flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipman, Yair; Mehta, Prashant; Johnson, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Imaging and measurement of drops-in-flight often relies on the measurement system's ability to drive the print head directly in order to synchronize the strobe for repeatable image capture. In addition, many systems do not have the necessary combination of strobe control and image analysis for full drop-in-flight evaluation. This paper includes a discussion of an integrated machine-vision based system for visualization and measurement of drops-in-flight that can be used with any frequency-based jetting system. The strobe is linked to the firing frequency of the print head, so while it is synchronized, it is independent of the specific print head being inspected. The imaging system resolves droplets down to 2 picoliters in volume at the highest zoom level. And an open architecture software package allows for image collection and archiving as well as powerful and flexible image analysis. This paper will give an overview of the details of this system as well as show some of the system capabilities through several examples of drop-in-flight analysis.

  16. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    used in production-model aircraft. Fifty experiments were proposed for the program and eight were selected, including six flight and two ground (engine) tests. The flight experiments included studies of the aircraft's exterior surface, internal structure, engine temperatures, boundary-layer airflow, the wing's ground-effect characteristics, interior and exterior noise, handling qualities in various flight profiles, and in-flight structural flexibility. The ground tests studied the effect of air inlet structures on airflow entering the engine and the effect on engine performance when supersonic shock waves rapidly change position in the engine air inlet. A second phase of testing further studied the original six in-flight experiments with additional instrumentation installed to assist in data acquisition and analysis. A new experiment aimed at measuring the in-flight deflections of the wing and fuselage was also conducted. American-supplied transducers and sensors were installed to measure nose boom pressures, angle of attack, and sideslip angles with increased accuracy. Two NASA pilots, Robert Rivers of Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, and Gordon Fullerton from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, assessed the aircraft's handling at subsonic and supersonic speeds during three flight tests in September 1998. The program concluded after four more data-collection flights in the spring of 1999. The Tu-144LL model had new Kuznetsov NK-321 turbofan engines rated at more than 55,000 pounds of thrust in full afterburner. The aircraft is 215 feet, 6 inches long and 42 feet, 2 inches high with a wingspan of 94 feet, 6 inches. The aircraft is constructed mostly of light aluminum alloy with titanium and stainless steel on the leading edges, elevons, rudder, and the under-surface of the rear fuselage.

  17. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    -model aircraft. Fifty experiments were proposed for the program and eight were selected, including six flight and two ground (engine) tests. The flight experiments included studies of the aircraft's exterior surface, internal structure, engine temperatures, boundary-layer airflow, the wing's ground-effect characteristics, interior and exterior noise, handling qualities in various flight profiles, and in-flight structural flexibility. The ground tests studied the effect of air inlet structures on airflow entering the engine and the effect on engine performance when supersonic shock waves rapidly change position in the engine air inlet. A second phase of testing further studied the original six in-flight experiments with additional instrumentation installed to assist in data acquisition and analysis. A new experiment aimed at measuring the in-flight deflections of the wing and fuselage was also conducted. American-supplied transducers and sensors were installed to measure nose boom pressures, angle of attack, and sideslip angles with increased accuracy. Two NASA pilots, Robert Rivers of Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, and Gordon Fullerton from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, assessed the aircraft's handling at subsonic and supersonic speeds during three flight tests in September 1998. The program concluded after four more data-collection flights in the spring of 1999. The Tu-144LL model had new Kuznetsov NK-321 turbofan engines rated at more than 55,000 pounds of thrust in full afterburner. The aircraft is 215 feet, 6 inches long and 42 feet, 2 inches high with a wingspan of 94 feet, 6 inches. The aircraft is constructed mostly of light aluminum alloy with titanium and stainless steel on the leading edges, elevons, rudder, and the under-surface of the rear fuselage.

  18. X-36 in Flight over Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The unusual lines of the X-36 technology demonstrator contrast sharply with the desert floor as the remotely piloted aircraft scoots across the California desert at low altitude during a research flight on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with

  19. Aero Commander in flight - Upswept fuselage study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The NASA Flight Research Center's Aero Commander 680F is shown in flight with tufts attached to the side and bottom sections of the aircraft. These were placed on the aircraft for a Upswept Fuselage Study to see if the flow separated on the aft section of a small aircraft for comparison of data acquired from a large cargo-type aircraft with an upswept aft section. The photo of the tufts demonstrates that the flow is attached with no turbulence present. (Note the straight lines of tufts). The Aero Commander was used both for support and as a research aircraft. Among other uses, it was flown to outlying dry lakebeds, used as emergency landing sites, before X-15 flights. It could reach the lakebeds quickly and land on the hard-packed surfaces to ensure they were not soft from rainfall or some other cause. Between 1964 and 1966, the Flight Research Center used the aircraft in the Aviation Safety and Operating Problems Program to evaluate the aerodynamics of various light aircraft and to define possible technological improvements. The Aero Commander left what had become the Dryden Flight Research Center on March 14, 1979, and was transferred to the Customs Air Branch in San Diego. The Aero Commander 680F (N6297), built by the Aero Commander Company of Bethany, Oklahoma, is a pressurized five-place aircraft that is powered by two 380-horsepower reciprocating engines built by Lycoming Company. The fuselage length is 24.2 feet with a wing span of 35.98 feet.

  20. Phonesat In-flight Experience Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attai, Watson; Guillen, Salas Alberto; Oyadomari, Ken Yuji; Priscal, Cedric; Shimmin, Rogan Stuart; Gazulla, Oriol Tintore; Wolfe, Jasper Lewis

    2014-01-01

    's tolerance to the space environment. In this paper, an overview of the PhoneSat project as well as a summary of the in-flight experimental results is presented. NASA Ames Research Center is carrying on its effort to bring a paradigm shift in the way we conceive Space exploration, this new approach is certainly incarnated by PhoneSat. A set of eight PhoneSat-based CubeSats is manifested to launch in 2014 with the purpose of demonstrating new technical capabilities and being a pathfinder for future Spacecraft technology missions.

  1. AFTI/F-16 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Overhead photograph of the AFTI F-16 painted in a non-standard gray finish, taken during a research flight in 1989. The two sensor pods are visible on the fuselage just forward of the wings and one of the two chin canards can be seen as a light-colored triangle ahead of one of the pods. A Sidewinder air-to-air missile is mounted on each wing tip. During the 1980s and 1990s, NASA and the U.S. Air Force participated in a joint program to integrate and demonstrate new avionics technologies to improve close air support capabilities in next-generation aircraft. The testbed aircraft, seen here in flight over the desert at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was called the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16. The tests demonstrated technologies to improve navigation and the pilot's ability to find and destroy enemy ground targets day or night, including adverse weather. The aircraft--an F-16A Fighting Falcon (Serial #75-0750)--underwent numerous modifications. A relatively low-cost testbed, it evaluated the feasability of advanced, intergrated-sensor, avionics, and flight control technologies. During the first phase of the AFTI/F-16 program, which began in 1983, the aircraft demonstrated voice-actuated commands, helmet-mounted sights, flat turns, and selective fuselage pointing using forward-mounted canards and a triplex digital flight control computer system. The second phase of research, which began in the summer of 1991, demonstrated advanced technologies and capabilities to find and destroy ground targets day or night, and in adverse weather while using maneuverability and speed at low altitude. This phase was known as the close air support and battlefield air interdiction (CAS/BAI) phase. Finally, the aircraft was used to assess the Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto - GCAS), a joint project with the Swedish Government. For these tests, the pilot flew the aircraft directly toward the ground, simulating a total

  2. In-Flight Personalized Medication Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peletskaya, E.; Griko, Y. V.

    2016-01-01

    , technologies capable of predicting and managing medication side effects, interactions, and toxicity of drugs during spaceflight are needed. We propose to develop and customize for NASAs applications available on the market Personalized Prescribing System (PPS) that would provide a comprehensive, non-invasive solution for safer, targeted medication management for every crew member resulting in safer and more effective treatment and, consequently, better performance. PPS will function as both decision support and record-keeping tool for flight surgeons and astronauts in applying the recommended medications for situations arising in flight. The information on individual drug sensitivity will translate into personalized risk assessment for adverse drug reactions and treatment failures for each drug from the medication kit as well as predefined outcome of any combination of them. Dosage recommendations will also be made individually. The mobile app will facilitate ease of use by crew and medical professionals during training and flight missions.

  3. X-15 #3 in flight (USAF Photo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    This U.S. Air Force photo shows the X-15 ship #3 (56-6672) in flight over the desert in the 1960s. Ship #3 made 65 flights during the program, attaining a top speed of Mach 5.65 and a maximum altitude of 354,200 feet. Only 10 of the 12 X-15 pilots flew Ship #3, and only eight of them earned their astronaut wings during the program. Robert White, Joseph Walker, Robert Rushworth, John 'Jack' McKay, Joseph Engle, William 'Pete' Knight, William Dana, and Michael Adams all earned their astronaut wings in Ship #3. Neil Armstrong and Milton Thompson also flew Ship #3. In fact, Armstrong piloted Ship #3 on its first flight, on 20 December 1961. On 15 November 1967, Ship #3 was launched over Delamar Lake, Nevada with Maj. Michael J. Adams at the controls. The vehicle soon reached a speed of Mach 5.2, and a peak altitude of 266,000 feet. During the climb, an electrical disturbance degraded the aircraft's controllability. Ship #3 began a slow drift in heading, which soon became a spin. Adams radioed that the X-15 'seems squirrelly' and then said 'I'm in a spin.' Through some combination of pilot technique and basic aerodynamic stability, Adams recovered from the spin and entered an inverted Mach 4.7 dive. As the X-15 plummeted into the increasingly thicker atmosphere, the Honeywell adaptive flight control system caused the vehicle to begin oscillating. As the pitching motion increased, aerodynamic forces finally broke the aircraft into several major pieces. Adams was killed when the forward fuselage impacted the desert. This was the only fatal accident during the entire X-15 program. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot

  4. X-15 #3 in flight (USAF Photo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    This U.S. Air Force photo shows the X-15 ship #3 (56-6672) in flight over the desert in the 1960s. Ship #3 made 65 flights during the program, attaining a top speed of Mach 5.65 and a maximum altitude of 354,200 feet. Only 10 of the 12 X-15 pilots flew Ship #3, and only eight of them earned their astronaut wings during the program. Robert White, Joseph Walker, Robert Rushworth, John 'Jack' McKay, Joseph Engle, William 'Pete' Knight, William Dana, and Michael Adams all earned their astronaut wings in Ship #3. Neil Armstrong and Milton Thompson also flew Ship #3. In fact, Armstrong piloted Ship #3 on its first flight, on 20 December 1961. On 15 November 1967, Ship #3 was launched over Delamar Lake, Nevada with Maj. Michael J. Adams at the controls. The vehicle soon reached a speed of Mach 5.2, and a peak altitude of 266,000 feet. During the climb, an electrical disturbance degraded the aircraft's controllability. Ship #3 began a slow drift in heading, which soon became a spin. Adams radioed that the X-15 'seems squirrelly' and then said 'I'm in a spin.' Through some combination of pilot technique and basic aerodynamic stability, Adams recovered from the spin and entered an inverted Mach 4.7 dive. As the X-15 plummeted into the increasingly thicker atmosphere, the Honeywell adaptive flight control system caused the vehicle to begin oscillating. As the pitching motion increased, aerodynamic forces finally broke the aircraft into several major pieces. Adams was killed when the forward fuselage impacted the desert. This was the only fatal accident during the entire X-15 program. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot

  5. Paresev in flight with pilot Milt Thompson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    This movie clip runs 37 seconds in length and begins with a shot from the chase plane of NASA Dryden test pilot Milt Thompson at the controls of the Paresev, then the onboard view from the pilot's seat and finally bringing the Paresev in for a landing on the dry lakebed at Edwards AFB. The Paresev (Paraglider Rescue Vehicle) was an indirect outgrowth of kite-parachute studies by NACA Langley engineer Francis M. Rogallo. In early 1960's the 'Rogallo wing' seemed an excellent means of returning a spacecraft to Earth. The delta wing design was patented by Mr. Rogallo. In May 1961, Robert R. Gilruth, director of the NASA Space Task Group, requested studies of an inflatable Rogallo-type 'Parawing' for spacecraft. Several companies responded; North American Aviation, Downey, California, produced the most acceptable concept and development was contracted to that company. In November 1961 NASA Headquarters launched a paraglider development program, with Langley doing wind tunnel studies and the NASA Flight Research Center supporting the North American test program. The North American concept was a capsule-type vehicle with a stowed 'parawing' that could be deployed and controlled from within for a landing more like an airplane instead of a 'splash down' in the ocean. The logistics became enormous and the price exorbitant, plus NASA pilots and engineers felt some baseline experience like building a vehicle and flying a Parawing should be accomplished first. The Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) was used to gain in-flight experience with four different membranes (wings), and was not used to develop the more complicated inflatable deployment system. The Paresev was designed by Charles Richard, of the Flight Research Center Vehicle and System Dynamics Branch, with the rest of the team being: engineers, Richard Klein, Gary Layton, John Orahood, and Joe Wilson; from the Maintenance and Manufacturing Branch: Frank Fedor, LeRoy Barto; Victor Horton as Project Manager, with

  6. Solar-powered Gossamer Penguin in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Gossamer Penguin in flight above Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards, California, showing the solar panel perpendicular to the wing and facing the sun. Background The first flight of a solar-powered aircraft took place on November 4, 1974, when the remotely controlled Sunrise II, designed by Robert J. Boucher of AstroFlight, Inc., flew following a launch from a catapult. Following this event, AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) took on a more ambitious project to design a human-piloted, solar-powered aircraft. The firm initially took the human-powered Gossamer Albatross II and scaled it down to three-quarters of its previous size for solar-powered flight with a human pilot controlling it. This was more easily done because in early 1980 the Gossamer Albatross had participated in a flight research program at NASA Dryden in a program conducted jointly by the Langley and Dryden research centers. Some of the flights were conducted using a small electric motor for power. Gossamer Penguin The scaled-down aircraft was designated the Gossamer Penguin. It had a 71-foot wingspan compared with the 96-foot span of the Gossamer Albatross. Weighing only 68 pounds without a pilot, it had a low power requirement and thus was an excellent test bed for solar power. AstroFlight, Inc., of Venice, Calif., provided the power plant for the Gossamer Penguin, an Astro-40 electric motor. Robert Boucher, designer of the Sunrise II, served as a key consultant for both this aircraft and the Solar Challenger. The power source for the initial flights of the Gossamer Penguin consisted of 28 nickel-cadmium batteries, replaced for the solar-powered flights by a panel of 3,920 solar cells capable of producing 541 Watts of power. The battery-powered flights took place at Shafter Airport near Bakersfield, Calif. Dr. Paul MacCready's son Marshall, who was 13 years old and weighed roughly 80 pounds, served as the initial pilot for these flights to

  7. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer

  8. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    In this 1965 NASA Flight Reserch Center photograph the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) number 1 is shown in flight. When Apollo planning was underway in 1960, NASA was looking for a simulator to profile the descent to the moon's surface. Three concepts surfaced: an electronic simulator, a tethered device, and the ambitious Dryden contribution, a free-flying vehicle. All three became serious projects, but eventually the NASA Flight Research Center's (FRC) Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) became the most significant one. Hubert M. Drake is credited with originating the idea, while Donald Bellman and Gene Matranga were senior engineers on the project, with Bellman, the project manager. Simultaneously, and independently, Bell Aerosystems Company, Buffalo, N.Y., a company with experience in vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, had conceived a similar free-flying simulator and proposed their concept to NASA headquarters. NASA Headquarters put FRC and Bell together to collaborate. The challenge was; to allow a pilot to make a vertical landing on earth in a simulated moon environment, one sixth of the earth's gravity and with totally transparent aerodynamic forces in a 'free flight' vehicle with no tether forces acting on it. Built of tubular aluminum like a giant four-legged bedstead, the vehicle was to simulate a lunar landing profile from around 1500 feet to the moon's surface. To do this, the LLRV had a General Electric CF-700-2V turbofan engine mounted vertically in gimbals, with 4200 pounds of thrust. The engine, using JP-4 fuel, got the vehicle up to the test altitude and was then throttled back to support five-sixths of the vehicle's weight, simulating the reduced gravity of the moon. Two hydrogen-peroxide lift rockets with thrust that could be varied from 100 to 500 pounds handled the LLRV's rate of descent and horizontal translations. Sixteen smaller hydrogen-peroxide rockets, mounted in pairs, gave the pilot control in pitch, yaw, and roll. On the

  9. YF-12C in flight at sunset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The so-called YF-12C in flight at sunset. The YF-12C was the second production SR-71A (61-7951), modified with YF-12A inlets and engines, and given a bogus tail number (06937). It replaced a YF-12A (60-6936) that crashed during a joint USAF-NASA research program. The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 60-6936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made 62 flights. It was lost in a non-fatal crash on 24 June 1971. It was replaced by the YF-12C. The YF-12C was delivered to NASA on 16 July 1971. From then until 22 December 1978, it made 90 flights. The Lockheed A-12 family, known as the Blackbirds, were designed by Clarence 'Kelly' Johnson. They were constructed mostly

  10. X-43A Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle - Artist Concept in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An artist's conception of the X-43A Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, or 'Hyper-X' in flight. The X-43A was developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will

  11. Hyper-X Research Vehicle - Artist Concept in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An artist's conception of the X-43A Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, or 'Hyper-X' in flight. The X-43A was developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will

  12. The role of pyridoxine as a countermeasure for in-flight loss of lean body mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Joyce A.

    1992-01-01

    Ground based and in flight research has shown that humans, under conditions of microgravity, sustain a loss of lean body tissue (protein) and changes in several biological processes including, reductions in red blood cell mass, and neurotransmitters. The maintenance of muscle mass, the major component of lean body mass, is required to meet the needs of space station EVAs. Central to the biosynthesis of amino acids, the building blocks of protein, is pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). Muscle mass integrity requires the availability of vitamin B-6 for protein metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis. Furthermore, the formation of red blood cells require pyridoxine as a cofactor in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen to tissues. In its active form, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), vitamin B-6 serves as a link between amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism through intermediates of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, PLP is involved in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin and neurotransmitter which are necessary for neurological functions. Alterations in pyridoxine metabolism may affect countermeasures designed to overcome some of these biochemical changes. The focus of this research is to determine the effects of microgravity on the metabolic utilization of vitamin B-6, integrating nutrition as an integral component of the countermeasure (exercise) to maintain lean body mass and muscle strength. The objectives are: 1) to determine whether microgravity effects the metabolic utilization of pyridoxine and 2) to quantitate changes in B-6 vitamer distribution in tissue and excreta relative to loss of lean body tissue. The rationale for this study encompasses the unique challenge to control biochemical mechanisms effected during space travel and the significance of pyridoxine to maintain and counter muscle integrity for EVA activities. This experiment will begin to elucidate the importance of biochemical

  13. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, William H.

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  14. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 85-95% pure oxygen. The concentrator runs on electricity or a battery. A concentrator for home usually ... systems deliver 100% oxygen, and do not require electricity. A small canister can be filled from the ...

  15. X-1A in flight over lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On Oct. 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about 700 miles per hour (Mach 1.06) and an altitude of 43,000 feet. The number 2 X-1 was modified and redesignated the X-1E. The modifications included adding a conventional canopy, an ejection seat, a low-pressure fuel system of increased capacity, and a thinner high-speed wing. The X-1E was used to obtain in-flight data at twice the speed of sound, with particular emphasis placed on investigating the improvements achieved with the high-speed wing. These wings, made by Stanley Aircraft, were only 3 3/8-inches thick at the root and had 343 gauges installed in them to measure structural loads and aerodynamic heating. The X-1E used its rocket engine to power it up to a speed of 1,471 miles per hour (Mach 2.24) and to an altitude of 73,000 feet. Like the X-1 it was air-launched. The X-1 aircraft were almost 31 feet long and had a wingspan of 28 feet. The X-1 was built of conventional aluminum stressed-skin construction to extremely high structural standards. The X-1E was also 31 feet long but had a wingspan of only 22 feet, 10 inches. It was powered by a Reaction Motors, Inc., XLR-8-RM-5, four-chamber rocket engine. As did all X-1 rocket engines, the LR-8-RM-5 engine did not have throttle capability, but instead, depended on ignition of any one chamber or group of chambers to vary speed. The X-1A, X-1B, and the X-1D were growth versions of the X-1. They were almost five feet longer, almost 2,500 pounds heavier and had conventional canopies. The X-1A and X-1B were modified to have ejection seats

  16. Paresev in flight with pilot Milt Thompson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    This movie clip runs 37 seconds in length and begins with a shot from the chase plane of NASA Dryden test pilot Milt Thompson at the controls of the Paresev, then the onboard view from the pilot's seat and finally bringing the Paresev in for a landing on the dry lakebed at Edwards AFB. The Paresev (Paraglider Rescue Vehicle) was an indirect outgrowth of kite-parachute studies by NACA Langley engineer Francis M. Rogallo. In early 1960's the 'Rogallo wing' seemed an excellent means of returning a spacecraft to Earth. The delta wing design was patented by Mr. Rogallo. In May 1961, Robert R. Gilruth, director of the NASA Space Task Group, requested studies of an inflatable Rogallo-type 'Parawing' for spacecraft. Several companies responded; North American Aviation, Downey, California, produced the most acceptable concept and development was contracted to that company. In November 1961 NASA Headquarters launched a paraglider development program, with Langley doing wind tunnel studies and the NASA Flight Research Center supporting the North American test program. The North American concept was a capsule-type vehicle with a stowed 'parawing' that could be deployed and controlled from within for a landing more like an airplane instead of a 'splash down' in the ocean. The logistics became enormous and the price exorbitant, plus NASA pilots and engineers felt some baseline experience like building a vehicle and flying a Parawing should be accomplished first. The Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) was used to gain in-flight experience with four different membranes (wings), and was not used to develop the more complicated inflatable deployment system. The Paresev was designed by Charles Richard, of the Flight Research Center Vehicle and System Dynamics Branch, with the rest of the team being: engineers, Richard Klein, Gary Layton, John Orahood, and Joe Wilson; from the Maintenance and Manufacturing Branch: Frank Fedor, LeRoy Barto; Victor Horton as Project Manager, with

  17. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Two BQM-34 Firebee II drones were modified with supercritical airfoils, called the Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW), for the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program, which ran from 1977 to 1983. In this view of DAST-1 (Serial # 72-1557), taken on June 12, 1980, severe wingtip flutter is visible. Moments later, the right wing failed catastrophically and the vehicle crashed near Cuddeback Dry Lake. Before the drone was lost, it had made two captive and two free flights. Its first free flight, on October 2, 1979, was cut short by an uplink receiver failure. The drone was caught in midair by an HH-3 helicopter. The second free flight, on March 12, 1980, was successful, ending in a midair recovery. The third free flight, made on June 12, was to expand the flutter envelope. All of these missions launched from the NASA B-52. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than

  18. In-flight measurements of Terrestrial Gamma-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Deursen, Alexander; Kochkin, Pavlo; de Boer, Alte; Bardet, Michiel; Boissin, Jean-Francois

    2014-05-01

    Thunderstorms emit bursts of energetic radiation. Moreover, lightning stepped leader produces X-ray pulses. The phenomena, their interrelation and impact on Earth's atmosphere and near space are not fully understood yet. In-flight Lightning Strike Damage Assessment System ILDAS is developed in a EU FP6 project ( http://ildas.nlr.nl/ ) to provide information on threat that lightning poses to aircraft. It consists of 2 E-field sensors, and a varying number of H-field sensors. It has recently been modified to include two LaBr3 scintillation detectors. The scintillation detectors are sensitive to x- and gamma-rays above 30 keV. The entire system is installed on A-350 aircraft and digitizes data with 100 MSamples/sec rate when triggered by lightning. A continuously monitoring channel counts the number of occurrences that the X-ray signal exceeds a set of trigger levels. In the beginning of 2014 the aircraft flies through thunderstorm cells collecting the data from the sensors. The X-rays generated by the lightning flash are measured in synchronization with the lightning current information during a period of 1 second around the strike. The continuous channel stores x-ray information with less time and amplitude resolution during the whole flight. That would allow x-rays from TGFs and continuous gamma-ray glow of thundercloud outside that 1 s time window. We will give an overview of the ILDAS system and show that the X-ray detection works as intended. The availability of the lightning associated data depends on the flight schedule. If available, these data will be discussed at the conference.

  19. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  20. Development and application of an atmospheric turbulence model for use in flight simulators in flight simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Joshi, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of simulated turbulence on aircraft handling qualities was investigated. Pilot opinion of the handling qualities of a light general aviation aircraft were evaluated in a motion-base simulator using a simulated turbulence environment. A realistic representation of turbulence disturbances is described in terms of rms intensity and scale length and their random variations with time. The time histories generated by the proposed turbulence models showed characteristics which appear to be more similar to real turbulence than the frequently-used Gaussian turbulence model. In addition, the proposed turbulence models can flexibly accommodate changes in atmospheric conditions and be easily implemented in flight simulator studies. Six turbulence time histories, including the conventional Gaussian model, were used in an IFR-tracking task. The realism of each of the turbulence models and the handling qualities of the simulated airplane were evaluated. Analysis of pilot opinions shows that at approximately the same rms intensities of turbulence, the handling quality ratings transit from the satisfactory level, for the simple Gaussian model, to an unacceptable level for more realistic and compositely structured turbulence models.

  1. Crew Factors in Flight Operations X: Alertness Management in Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gander, Philippa H.; Connell, Linda J.; Co, Elizabeth L.

    2001-01-01

    In response to a 1980 congressional request, NASA Ames Research Center initiated a Fatigue/Jet Lag Program to examine fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption in aviation. Research has examined fatigue in a variety of flight environments using a range of measures (from self-report to performance to physiological). In 1991, the program evolved into the Fatigue Countermeasures Program, emphasizing the development and evaluation of strategies to maintain alertness and performance in operational settings. Over the years, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has become a collaborative partner in support of fatigue research and other Program activities. From the inception of the Program, a principal goal was to return the information learned from research and other Program activities to the operational community. The objectives of this Education and Training Module are to explain what has been learned about the physiological mechanisms that underlie fatigue, demonstrate the application of this information in flight operations, and offer some specific fatigue countermeasure recommendations. It is intended for all segments of the aeronautics industry, including pilots, flight attendants, managers, schedulers, safety and policy personnel, maintenance crews, and others involved in an operational environment that challenges human physiological capabilities because of fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption.

  2. Crew Factors in Flight Operations X: Alertness Management in Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gander, Philippa H.; Connell, Linda J.; Co, Elizabeth L.

    1999-01-01

    In response to a 1980 congressional request, NASA Ames Research Center initiated a Fatigue/Jet Lag Program to examine fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption in aviation. Research has examined fatigue in a variety of flight environments using a range of measures (from self-report to performance to physiological). In 1991, the program evolved into the Fatigue Countermeasures Program, emphasizing the development and evaluation of strategies to maintain alertness and performance in operational settings. Over the years, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has become a collaborative partner in support of fatigue research and other Program activities. From the inception of the Program, a principal goal was to return the information learned from research and other Program activities to the operational community. The objectives of this Education and Training Module are to explain what has been learned about the physiological mechanisms that underlie fatigue, demonstrate the application of this information in flight operations, and offer some specific fatigue counter-measure recommendations. It is intended for all segments of the aeronautics industry, including pilots, flight attendants, managers, schedulers, safety and policy personnel, maintenance crews, and others involved in an operational environment that challenges human physiological capabilities because of fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption.

  3. JetStar and Learjet in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The NASA C-140 JetStar research aircraft (top) is followed by a NASA Learjet equipped with acoustic sensors during one of several tests of advanced propellors mounted on the vertical pylon atop the JetStar's fuselage. Several advanced prop designs were tested on the JetStar in 1982 by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (DFRF), Edwards, California, to study the effects of noise created by propellors on aircraft structures and cabin interiors. To assess possible noise problems with the subscale turbofan, DFRF technicians mounted microphones on both the JetStar and the Learjet chase plane. DFRF then made measurements at close range and at longer distances. The data enabled structural changes and flightpath modifications. In the 1960s, the same JetStar was equipped with an electronic variable stability flight control system. Called then a General Purpose Airborne Simulator (GPAS), the aircraft could duplicate the flight characteristics of a wide variety of advanced aircraft and was used for supersonic transport and general aviation research and as a training and support system for Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests at Dryden in 1977. In 1985, the JetStar's wings were modified with suction and spray devices in a laminar (smooth) air flow program to study ways of improving the flow of air over the wings of airliners. The program also studied ways of reducing the collection of ice and insects on airliner wings.

  4. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's DC-8 Airborne Science platform shown against a background of a dark blue sky on February 20, 1998. The aircraft is shown from the right rear, slightly above its plane, with the right wing in the foreground and the left wing and horizontal tail in the background. The former airliner is a 'dash-72' model and has a range of 5,400 miles. The craft can stay airborne for 12 hours and has an operational speed range between 300 and 500 knots. The research flights are made at between 500 and 41,000 feet. The aircraft can carry up to 30,000 lbs of research/science payload equipment installed in 15 mission-definable spaces. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  5. SR-71 LASRE during in-flight cold flow test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This shot, from above and behind the SR-71 in flight, runs 11 seconds and shows the Aerospike engine and its fuel system being charged with gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen during one of two tests. The tests are to check for leaks and check the flow characteristics of cryogenic fuels to be used in the engine. The NASA/Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) concluded its flight operations phase at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November 1998. The goal of this experiment was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin, Bethesda, Maryland, validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future potential reusable launch vehicle. Information from the LASRE experiment will help Lockheed Martin maximize its design for a future potential reusable launch vehicle. It gave Lockheed an understanding of the performance of the lifting body and linear aerospike engine combination even before the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator flies. LASRE was a small, half-span model of a lifting body with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine. The experiment, mounted on the back of an SR-71 aircraft, operates like a kind of 'flying wind tunnel.' The experiment focused on determining how the engine plume of a reusable launch vehicle engine plume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting body shape at specific altitudes and speeds reaching approximately 750 miles per hour. The interaction of the aerodynamic flow with the engine plume could create drag; design refinements look to minimize that interaction. During the flight research program, the aircraft completed seven research flights. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus on the back of the aircraft. The first of those two flights occurred October 31, 1997. The SR-71 took off at 8:31 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty minutes, reaching a

  6. Application of in-flight thrust determination uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, G. R.; Thompson, J. W., Jr.; Abernethy, R. B.; Biesiadny, T.; Havey, C. T.; Steurer, J. W.; Ascough, J. C.; Williams, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical example is given of a previously proposed methodology for the evaluation of in-flight thrust measurement uncertainty, using data extracted from a performance report comparing two different missile prototypes under a variety of flight conditions. Attention is given to the data for the AGM-68B Air Launched Cruise Missile, which is powered by the F107 dual-spool, mixed flow turbofan engine. Assessments are made of the definition of the measurement process, instrumentation error estimation, the propagation of errors to thrust calculation, mathematical model errors, the in-flight thrust error component, and correction to standard conditions. It is concluded that in-flight thrust measurement uncertainty limits can be evaluated from measurement system error analysis results and test data for the missile evaluation process presently described.

  7. In-flight detection of small hypervelocity particles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. M.; Goad, J. H.; Chu, W. P.

    1973-01-01

    A technique is described in which small (25-micron) hypervelocity (10-km/sec) in-flight particles can be detected in the presence of high background noise. The system is based on a spatial filtering principle whereby spurious noise effects are reduced by use of a beam stop in the entrance aperture of the system and a bandpass filter in the transform plane. A theoretical analysis of the system is presented, and some experimental results are obtained by detecting in-flight hypervelocity particles generated by an exploding lithium wire electrothermal accelerator.

  8. Energy-Resolved Positron Annihilation in Flight in Solid Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. H.; Hunt, A. W.; Golovchenko, J. A.; Lynn, K. G.

    1999-11-01

    Energy-resolved two-quantum annihilation in flight of positrons with energies ranging from 10 to 71.6 keV was observed. An energy-dispersive two-detector coincidence system was used to observe the sum and difference energies of the γ rays from annihilating positron-electron pairs. For positrons penetrating carbon foils the c/v dependence of the annihilation cross section is confirmed. Spectra obtained from gold-coated carbon foils show evidence of in-flight annihilation with gold M-shell electrons.

  9. Remote Infrared Thermography for In-Flight Flow Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiu, H. J.; vanDam, C. P.

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of remote in-flight boundary layer visualization via infrared in incompressible flow was established in earlier flight experiments. The past year's efforts focused on refining and determining the extent and accuracy of this technique of remote in-flight flow visualization via infrared. Investigations were made into flow separation visualization, visualization at transonic conditions, shock visualization, post-processing to mitigate banding noise in the NITE Hawk's thermograms, and a numeric model to predict surface temperature distributions. Although further flight tests are recommended, this technique continues to be promising.

  10. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  11. SR-71 - In-flight from Tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Dryden's SR-71B, NASA 831, slices across the snow-covered southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California after being refueled by an Air Force tanker during a 1994 flight. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward

  12. SR-71 in Flight over Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The streamlined profile of the Mach 3 Blackbird is clearly evident in this photo of NASA 844, an SR-71A flown by NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later, Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, as it cruised over the Tehachapi Mountains during a 1992 flight. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a

  13. SR-71 in Flight over Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA 844, an SR-71A flown by NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later, Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, cruises over the Tehachapi Mountains during a 1992 flight. The aircraft is one of two SR-71As initially loaned to NASA by the Air Force for use as high-speed, high-altitude testbeds for research in such areas as aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, and instrumentation. Data from the SR-71 research program could aid designers of future supersonic-hypersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of

  14. The In-flight Spectroscopic Performance of the Swift XRT CCD Camera During 2006-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godet, O.; Beardmore, A.P.; Abbey, A.F.; Osborne, J.P.; Page, K.L.; Evans, P.; Starling, R.; Wells, A.A.; Angelini, L.; Burrows, D.N.; Kennea, J.; Campana, S.; Chincarini, G.; Citterio, O.; Cusumano, G.; LaParola, V.; Mangano, V.; Mineo, T.; Giommi, P.; Perri, M.; Capalbi, M.; Tamburelli, F.

    2007-01-01

    The Swift X-ray Telescope focal plane camera is a front-illuminated MOS CCD, providing a spectral response kernel of 135 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV as measured before launch. We describe the CCD calibration program based on celestial and on-board calibration sources, relevant in-flight experiences, and developments in the CCD response model. We illustrate how the revised response model describes the calibration sources well. Comparison of observed spectra with models folded through the instrument response produces negative residuals around and below the Oxygen edge. We discuss several possible causes for such residuals. Traps created by proton damage on the CCD increase the charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) over time. We describe the evolution of the CTI since the launch and its effect on the CCD spectral resolution and the gain.

  15. Numerical Study to Examine the Effect of Porosity on In-Flight Particle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamnis, S.; Gu, S.; Vardavoulias, M.

    2011-03-01

    High velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray has been widely used to deposit hard composite materials such as WC-Co powders for wear-resistant applications. Powder morphology varies according to production methods while new powder manufacturing techniques produce porous powders containing air voids which are not interconnected. The porous microstructure within the powder will influence in-flight thermal and aerodynamic behavior of particles which is expected to be different from fully solid powder. This article is devoted to study the heat and momentum transfer in a HVOF sprayed WC-Co particles with different sizes and porosity levels. The results highlight the importance of thermal gradients inside the particles as a result of microporosity and how HVOF operating parameters need to be modified considering such temperature gradient.

  16. [Review of visual display system in flight simulator].

    PubMed

    Xie, Guang-hui; Wei, Shao-ning

    2003-06-01

    Visual display system is the key part and plays a very important role in flight simulators and flight training devices. The developing history of visual display system is recalled and the principle and characters of some visual display systems including collimated display systems and back-projected collimated display systems are described. The future directions of visual display systems are analyzed. PMID:12934618

  17. Appreciating Oxygen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Hilton M.

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that…

  18. Oxygen safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Watch out for splattering grease. It can catch fire. Keep children with oxygen away from the stove top and oven. Cooking ... under the bed. Keep liquids that may catch fire away from your oxygen. This includes cleaning products that contain oil, grease, ...

  19. COPD and air travel: does hypoxia-altitude simulation testing predict in-flight respiratory symptoms?

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Anne; Ryg, Morten; Akerø, Aina; Christensen, Carl Christian; Skjønsberg, Ole H

    2013-11-01

    The reduced pressure in an aircraft cabin may cause significant hypoxaemia and respiratory symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current study evaluated whether there is a relationship between hypoxaemia obtained during hypoxia-altitude simulation testing (HAST), simulating an altitude of 2438 m, and the reporting of respiratory symptoms during air travel. 82 patients with moderate to very severe COPD answered an air travel questionnaire. Arterial oxygen tensions during HAST (PaO2HAST) in subjects with and without in-flight respiratory symptoms were compared. The same questionnaire was answered within 1 year after the HAST. Mean ± sd PaO2HAST was 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa and 62 (76%) of the patients had PaO2HAST <6.6 kPa. 38 (46%) patients had experienced respiratory symptoms during air travel. There was no difference in PaO2HAST in those with and those without in-flight respiratory symptoms (6.3 ± 0.7 kPa versus 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa, respectively; p=0.926). 54 (66%) patients travelled by air after the HAST, and patients equipped with supplemental oxygen (n = 23, 43%) reported less respiratory symptoms when flying with than those without such treatment (four (17%) versus 11 (48%) patients; p=0.039). In conclusion, no difference in PaO2HAST was found between COPD patients with and without respiratory symptoms during air travel. PMID:23258777

  20. Compounds identified in-flight by ROSETTA-COSIMA before the comet encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilchenbach, M.; Fischer, H.; Krüger, H.; Thirkell, L.; Rynö, J.

    2013-09-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a laboratory surface analyzing technique and, with the COSIMA instrument onboard ROSETTA, it will be applied for the first time to in-situ measurements of cometary grains, once ROSETTA encounters its target comet, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, in the September 2014. The COmetary Secondary Ion Mass analyzer (COSIMA) onboard ROSETTA will expose metal targets, collect cometary dust grains in the inner coma and analyze these with an optical microscope as well as secondary ion mass spectrometry [1]. The COSIMA instrument has been operated in-flight for commissioning in the first months after launch in March 2004 and on a regular basis during the passive and active spacecraft check-out time intervals up to ROSETTA hibernation from June 2011 onwards. The secondary ion mass spectra background and /or contamination level of the COSIMA metal targets has been identified prior to launch and these had been selected accordingly to avoid masking of single elements or compounds by carrying different metal targets for cometary grain collection. The main compounds identified in-flight are silicon polymers and hydrocarbons. We will discuss the surface analysis results with COSIMA, carried out far off any comet or asteroid in interplanetary space, their time evolution and their potential sources within ROSETTA.

  1. Mars oxygen production system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  2. Oxygen therapy and intraocular oxygenation.

    PubMed Central

    Jampol, L M

    1987-01-01

    When delivered to the corneal surface of rabbits or monkeys, 100% oxygen can significantly increase the pO2 in the aqueous humor. Under hyperbaric conditions (two atmospheres), an observed rise in the aqueous pO2 in rabbits breathing room air can be increased further by exposing the rabbit cornea to 100% oxygen. The high oxygen levels under hyperbaric conditions are mediated by intravascular and transcorneal delivery of oxygen. The increase in the pO2 levels in the aqueous can prevent sickling of intracameral human erythrocytes containing sickle hemoglobin. Thus, oxygen therapy transcorneally or systemically could potentially be used to treat a sickle cell hyphema. The exposure of rabbit eyes to 100% oxygen at the corneal surface is followed by autoregulation (constriction) of the iris vasculature. We could demonstrate no constriction in the eyes of two normal human volunteers or of four patients with chronic stable rubeosis iridis. Preretinal vitreous pO2 levels can be significantly raised by exposing monkeys to hyperbaric 100% oxygen. This procedure may be of value in treating acute, reversible ischemic inner retinal diseases. Transcorneal or vascular delivery of oxygen to the eye under normobaric or hyperbaric conditions may be effective in treating ischemic diseases of the anterior segment, such as anterior segment necrosis or rubeosis iridis, or ischemic inner retinal diseases. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 5 C FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 6 PMID:3447339

  3. Teachers' in-flight thinking in inclusive classrooms.

    PubMed

    Paterson, David

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the thinking of five junior high school teachers as they teach students with learning difficulties in inclusive classrooms. Insights into the ways these teachers think about students in these inclusive secondary school contexts were obtained through triangulating data from semistructured interviews, stimulated recall of in-flight thinking, and researcher field notes. Exploration of teachers' in-flight thinking (i.e., the thinking of teachers as they engaged in classroom teaching) revealed a knowledge of individual students that was not related to categorical notions of learning difficulties. This research has implications for the practice of teaching in inclusive settings as well as for teacher preparation. Specifically, it suggests that attention to student differences should be replaced by the development of teachers' knowledge about individual students as a rich source of practical knowledge and the basis for developing effective instructional techniques. PMID:17915497

  4. Characterization of in-flight performance of ion propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1993-01-01

    In-flight measurements of ion propulsion performance, ground test calibrations, and diagnostic performance measurements were reviewed. It was found that accelerometers provided the most accurate in-flight thrust measurements compared with four other methods that were surveyed. An experiment has also demonstrated that pre-flight alignment of the thrust vector was sufficiently accurate so that gimbal adjustments and use of attitude control thrusters were not required to counter disturbance torques caused by thrust vector misalignment. The effects of facility background pressure, facility enhanced charge-exchange reactions, and contamination on ground-based performance measurements are also discussed. Vacuum facility pressures for inert-gas ion thruster life tests and flight qualification tests will have to be less than 2 mPa to ensure accurate performance measurements.

  5. Envelope Protection for In-Flight Ice Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Ranaudo, Richard J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    Fatal loss-of-control (LOC) accidents have been directly related to in-flight airframe icing. The prototype system presented in this paper directly addresses the need for real-time onboard envelope protection in icing conditions. The combinations of a-priori information and realtime aerodynamic estimations are shown to provide sufficient input for determining safe limits of the flight envelope during in-flight icing encounters. The Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system has been designed and implemented to identify degradations in airplane performance and flying qualities resulting from ice contamination and provide safe flight-envelope cues to the pilot. Components of ICEPro are described and results from preliminary tests are presented.

  6. In-flight aeroacoustic environments on prospective space shuttle vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dods, J. B., Jr.; Hanly, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of in-flight aerodynamic noise has been studied by reliable estimates of full scale surface-pressure fluctuations from scale model tests in wind tunnels. Scaling relationships have been verified, and many details of the fluctuating pressure characteristics such as spatial correlation and convection velocities are understood. The effects of the wind tunnel environmental turbulence and noise have also been investigated sufficiently so that threshold levels of usable data are known.

  7. In-Flight Performance of Wide Field Camera 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), a powerful new UVNisible/IR imager, was installed into HST during Servicing Mission 4. After a successful commissioning in the Servicing Mission Orbital Verification program, WFC3 has been engaged in an exciting program of scientific observations. I review here the in-flight scientific performance of the instrument, addressing such topics as image quality, sensitivity, detector performance, and stability.

  8. InFlight Weather Forecasts at Your Fingertips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A new information system is delivering real-time weather reports to pilots where they need it the most - inside their aircraft cockpits. Codeveloped by NASA and ViGYAN, Inc., the WSI InFlight(trademark) Cockpit Weather System provides a continuous, satellite-based broadcast of weather information to a portable or panel-mounted display inside the cockpit. With complete coverage and content for the continental United States at any altitude, the system is specifically designed for inflight use.

  9. In-flight radiometric calibration of AVIRIS in 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Conel, James E.; Helmlinger, Mark; Vandenbosch, Jeannette; Hajek, Pavel

    1995-01-01

    The AVIRIS sensor must be calibrated at the time it measures spectra from the ER-2 airborne platform in order to achieve research and application objectives that are both quantitative and physically based. However, the operational environment inside the Q-bay of the ER-2 at 20 km altitude differs from that in the AVIRIS laboratory with respect to temperature, pressure, vibration, and high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Experiments at surface calibration targets are used in each flight season to confirm the accuracy of AVIRIS in-flight radiometric calibrations. For these experiments, the MODTRAN radiative transfer code is constrained by using in situ measurements to independently predict the upwelling spectral radiance arriving at AVIRIS for a specific calibration target. AVIRIS calibration is validated in flight by comparing the MODTRAN-predicted radiance to the laboratory-calibrated radiance measured by the AVIRIS sensor for the same time over the calibration target. We present radiometric calibration results for the AVIRIS in-flight calibration experiment held at the beginning of the 1994 flight season.

  10. In-flight breech delivery in Finnish lapland.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, Ilkka; Pirnes, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Although medical crews may initially approach obstetric transport requests with (at least internal) trepidation, it has been shown that the risk of an in-flight delivery occurring is extremely low, even among patients considered high risk.(1-4) Nevertheless, the greatest concern of helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) personnel remains the potential for in-flight delivery.(5) Finland is a Northern European country, with a land area almost equivalent to that of the US state of New Mexico. The Finnish HEMS system is managed by FinnHEMS, and there are 6 HEMS units in Finland. The northernmost HEMS unit, FinnHEMS 51, is based at Rovaniemi Airport in Finnish Lapland, which is located within the Arctic Circle; it operates over a remote and sparsely habited area. Finnish Lapland accounts for almost 30% of Finland by area; however, the density of population is low (only 2.0 persons per square kilometer), and the average annual year-round temperature is only -1°C (30°F).(6) So far, there has been only 1 reported in-flight delivery; in 1939, a baby girl was born in an airplane operated by the Finnish Border Guard.(7.) PMID:25441526

  11. Circuit oxygenator contributes to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-induced hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Duane C; Turi, Jennifer L; Hornik, Christoph P; Bonadonna, Desiree K; Williford, Walter L; Walczak, Richard J; Watt, Kevin M; Cheifetz, Ira M

    2015-01-01

    Hemolysis can occur as a consequence of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Shear stress generated by flow through the circuit and oxygenator is believed to cause ECMO-induced hemolysis. We hypothesize that either a smaller dimension oxygenator or an in-line hemofilter will increase ECMO-associated hemolysis. Circuits were configured with a Quadrox-D Adult oxygenator (surface area 1.8 m), Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator (surface area 0.8 m), or Quadrox-D Adult oxygenator with an in-line hemofilter (N = 4) and ran for 6 hours. Samples were collected hourly from the ECMO circuit and a time-based hemolysis control. Plasma hemoglobin levels were assayed. Circuit-induced hemolysis at each time point was defined as the change in plasma hemoglobin standardized to the time-based hemolysis control. Plasma hemoglobin increased with the use of the smaller dimension pediatric oxygenator as compared with the adult oxygenator when controlling for ECMO run time (p = 0.02). Furthermore, there was a greater pressure gradient with the smaller dimension pediatric oxygenator (p < 0.05). Plasma hemoglobin did not change with the addition of the in-line hemofilter. The use of a smaller dimension pediatric oxygenator resulted in greater hemolysis and a higher pressure gradient. This may indicate that the increased shear forces augment ECMO-induced hemolysis. PMID:25419829

  12. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload Development and Performance in Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Shirley, Mark; Colaprete, Anthony; Osetinsky, Leonid

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was to confirm the presence or absence of water ice in a permanently shadowed region (PSR) at a lunar pole. LCROSS was classified as a NASA Class D mission. Its payload, the subject of this article, was designed, built, tested and operated to support a condensed schedule, risk tolerant mission approach, a new paradigm for NASA science missions. All nine science instruments, most of them ruggedized commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), successfully collected data during all in-flight calibration campaigns, and most importantly, during the final descent to the lunar surface on October 9, 2009, after 112 days in space. LCROSS demonstrated that COTS instruments and designs with simple interfaces, can provide high-quality science at low-cost and in short development time frames. Building upfront into the payload design, flexibility, redundancy where possible even with the science measurement approach, and large margins, played important roles for this new type of payload. The environmental and calibration approach adopted by the LCROSS team, compared to existing standard programs, is discussed. The description, capabilities, calibration and in-flight performance of each instrument are summarized. Finally, this paper goes into depth about specific areas where the instruments worked differently than expected and how the flexibility of the payload team, the knowledge of instrument priority and science trades, and proactive margin maintenance, led to a successful science measurement by the LCROSS payload's instrument complement.

  13. Microorganisms in the Stratosphere (MIST): In-flight Sterilization with UVC Leds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Gregory Michael; Smith, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The stratosphere (10 km to 50 km above sea level) is a unique place on Earth for astrobiological studies of microbes in extreme environments due to the combination of harsh conditions (high ultraviolet radiation, low pressure, desiccation, and low temperatures). Microorganisms in the Stratosphere (MIST) will attempt to characterize the diversity of microbes at these altitudes using a balloon collection device on a meteorological weather balloon. A major challenge of such an aerobiology study is the potential for ground contamination that makes it difficult to distinguish between collected microbes and contaminants. One solution is to use germicidal ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) to sterilize the collection strip. To use this solution, an optimal spatial arrangement of the lights had to be determined to ensure the greatest chance of complete sterilization within the 30 to 60 minute time of balloon ascent. A novel, 3D-printed test stand was developed to experimentally determine viable Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spore reduction after exposure to ultraviolet radiation at various times, angles, and distances. Taken together, the experimental simulations suggested that the UV LEDs on the MIST flight hardware should be active for at least 15 minutes and mounted within 4 cm of the illuminated surface at any angle to achieve optimal sterilization. These findings will aid in the production of the balloon collection device to ensure pristine stratospheric microbial samples are collected. Flight hardware capable of in-flight self-sterilization will enable future life detection missions to minimize both forward contamination and false positives.

  14. Perseus A, Part of the ERAST Program, in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture

  15. Aurora Flight Sciences' Perseus B Remotely Piloted Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraft but no property damage, fire, or injuries in the area of the crash. Perseus B is flown remotely by a pilot

  16. Oxygen-Concentrating Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, K.

    1986-01-01

    High-purity oxygen produced from breathing air or from propellantgrade oxygen in oxygen-concentrating cell. Operating economics of concentrator attractive: Energy consumption about 4 Wh per liter of oxygen, slightly lower than conventional electrochemical oxygen extractors.

  17. Using oxygen at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... DO NOT use oil-based products, such as petroleum jelly (Vaseline). Ask your oxygen equipment provider about ... oxygen; Hypoxia - home oxygen; Hospice - home oxygen References American Thoracic Society. Why do I need oxygen therapy? ...

  18. Preflight and in-flight calibration plan for ASTER

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ono, A.; Sakuma, F.; Arai, K.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Fujisada, H.; Slater, P.N.; Thome, K.J.; Palluconi, Frank Don; Kieffer, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    Preflight and in-flight radiometric calibration plans are described for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) that is a multispectral optical imager of high spatial resolution. It is designed for the remote sensing from orbit of land surfaces and clouds, and is expected to be launched in 1998 on NASA's EOS AM-1 spacecraft. ASTER acquires images in three separate spectral regions, the visible and near-infrared (VNIR), the shortwave infrared (SWIR), and the thermal infrared (TIR) with three imaging radiometer subsystems. The absolute radiometric accuracy is required to be better than 4% for VNIR and SWIR radiance measurements and 1 to 3 K, depending on the temperature regions from 200 to 370 K, for TIR temperature measurements. A reference beam is introduced at the entrance pupil of each imaging radiometer to provide the in-flight calibration Thus, the ASTER instrument includes internal onboard calibration units that comprise incandescent lamps for the VNIR and SWIR and a blackbody radiator for the TIR as reference sources. The calibration reliability of the VNIR and SWIR is enhanced by a dual system of onboard calibration units as well as by high-stability halogen lamps. A ground calibration system of spectral radiances traceable to fixed-point blackbodies is used for the preflight VNIR and SWIR calibration. Because of the possibility of nonuniform contamination effects on the partial-aperture onboard calibration, it is desirable to check their results with respect to other methods. Reflectance- and radiance-based vicarious methods have been developed for this purpose. These, and methods involving in-flight cross-calibration with other sensors are also described.

  19. Measuring Dissolved Oxygen Quantitatively. Collecting and Cultivating Marine Bacteria. To Recognize, Record, and Analyze Characteristics of a Sandy Beach Environment. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phosphate in Water. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 307, 309, 310, 313. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are four activity units: (1) Measuring Dissolved Oxygen Quantitatively; (2) Collecting and Cultivating Marine Bacteria; (3) To Recognize, Record, and Analyze Characteristics of a Sandy Beach Environment; and (4) Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phosphate in Water. All the activities are designed to be used by secondary school…

  20. Optical fiber sensors for in-flight health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borinski, Jason W.; Meller, Scott A.; Pulliam, Wade J.; Murphy, Kent A.; Schetz, Joseph A.

    2000-06-01

    Optical fiber sensors, because of their small size, low weight, extremely high information carrying capability, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and large operational temperature range, provide numerous advantages over conventional electrical based sensors. Current and future aircraft designs require reduced sensor size and weight while maintaining resolution and accuracy in the extreme flight environment. Unmanned air vehicles also require more accurate sensor information to improve aircraft control systems. This paper presents preliminary results from optical fiber sensor designs for monitoring acceleration, pressure, and skin friction in-flight.

  1. Smoke Generator For Studies Of Vortices In Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richwine, David M.; Curry, Robert E.; Tracy, Gene V.

    1992-01-01

    Smoke-generating system used to identify vortex-core and vortex-core-breakdown locations in flights. Housed in forebody of airplane, includes multiple pyrotechnic smoke cartridges fired simultaneously or in sequence. Firing of cartridges controlled from cockpit, and smoke produced ducted to desired locations on or near surface of aircraft. Useful for other aerodynamic flight research in which necessary to visualize local flows. Nonaerospace applications include research in reduction of aerodynamic drag on vehicles and reduction of turbulence related to structures or other obstacles.

  2. In-flight propeller flow visualization using fluorescent minitufts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowder, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Extension of fluorescent minutuft method to in-flight flow visualization on propellers is described. Extremely thin nylon monofilament for the minitufts, is used in a process of attaching them to the test surface with small drops of lacquer-like adhesive, and the use of fluorescence photography for recording the minituft patterns. Using this method, thousands of minitufts can be applied to small, high speed wind tunnel models without affecting the airflow. The minitufts can remain in place throughout a wind tunnel test, permitting nonintrusive flow visualization data to be acquired at any time.

  3. Instrumentation for in-flight SSME rocket engine plume spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madzsar, George C.; Bickford, Randall L.; Duncan, David B.

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes instrumentation that is under development for an in-flight demonstration of a plume spectroscopy system on the space shuttle main engine. The instrumentation consists of a nozzle mounted optical probe for observation of the plume, and a spectrometer for identification and quantification of plume content. This instrumentation, which is intended for use as a diagnostic tool to detect wear and incipient failure in rocket engines, will be validated by a hardware demonstration on the Technology Test Bed engine at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. NASA Beechcraft KingAir #801 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA 801 Beechcraft Beech Super KingAir in flight. The Beechcraft Beech 200 Super KingAir aircraft N7NA, known as NASA 7, has been a support aircraft for many years, flying 'shuttle' missions to Ames Research Center. It once flew from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and back each day but now (2001) flies between the Dryden Flight Research Center and Ames. A second Beechcraft Beech 200 Super King Air, N701NA, redesignated N801NA, transferred to Dryden on 3 Oct. 1997 and is used for research missions but substitutes for NASA 7 on shuttle missions when NASA 7 is not available.

  5. Food poisoning as an in-flight safety hazard.

    PubMed

    Beers, K N; Mohler, S R

    1985-06-01

    The leading cause by far of airline pilot incapacitations is gastrointestinal illness resulting from "food poisoning". This potentially hazardous condition is inadequately dealt with by the airlines today and strikes equally in all pilot age groups. Sufficient incidents are occurring to justify more stringent aircrew meal standards and regulations. Aircrew heart attack and stroke concerns pale into insignificance relative to the far more common food poisoning incapacitations. Specific regulations on aircrew feeding should be promulgated by the Federal Aviation Administration and the regulatory authorities in other countries to preclude simultaneous-onset in-flight incapacitations due to common-source food poisoning. PMID:4015573

  6. Instrumentation for In-Flight SSME Rocket Engine Plume Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madzsar, George C.; Bickford, Randall L.; Duncan, David B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes instrumentation that is under development for an in-flight demonstration of a plume spectroscopy system on the space shuttle main engine. The instrumentation consists of a nozzle mounted optical probe for observation of the plume, and a spectrometer for identification and quantification of plume content. This instrumentation, which is intended for use as a diagnostic tool to detect wear and incipient failure in rocket engines, will be validated by a hardware demonstration on the Technology Test Bed engine at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  7. In-flight performance of the Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschell, Jeffrey J.; Osgood, Roderic; Auchter, Joseph; Hurt, W. Todd; Hitomi, Miyamoto; Sasaki, Masayuki; Tahara, Yoshihiko; Tadros, Alfred; Faller, Ken; Mclaren, Mark; Sheffield, Jonathan; Gaiser, John; Kamel, Ahmed; Gunshor, Mathew

    2006-08-01

    The Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager (JAMI) was developed by Raytheon and delivered to Space Systems/Loral as the Imager Subsystem for Japan's MTSAT-1R satellite. MTSAT-1R was launched from the Tanegashima Space Center on 2005 February 26 and became formally operational on 2005 June 28. This paper compares in-flight performance of JAMI with predictions made before launch. The performance areas discussed include radiometric sensitivity (NEDT and SNR) versus spectral channel, calibration accuracy versus spectral channel derived from comparisons of JAMI and AIRS measurements and image navigation and registration.

  8. STS-107 crew In-Flight Maintenance training at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Members of the STS-107 crew take part in In-Flight Maintenance training for their mission. One of the payload elements on the mission is the SPACEHAB Double Module in its first research flight into space. Working with equipment inside the SPACEHAB Double Module are (left to right) Commander Rick D. Husband, Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon of Israel and Pilot William C. 'Willie' McCool , while SPACEHAB trainer David Butler (standing) looks on. Research mission STS-107 is scheduled to launch July 19, 2001

  9. STS-107 crew In-Flight Maintenance training at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Members of the STS-107 crew take part in In-Flight Maintenance training for their mission. One of the payload elements on the mission is the SPACEHAB Double Module in its first research flight into space. Working with equipment inside the SPACEHAB Double Module are (left to right) SPACEHAB trainer David Butler, Pilot William C. '''Willie''' McCool, Commander Rick D. Husband, and Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon, from Israel. Research mission STS-107 is scheduled to launch July 19, 2001

  10. STS-107 crew In-Flight Maintenance training at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Members of the STS-107 crew take part in In-Flight Maintenance training for their mission. One of the payload elements on the mission is the SPACEHAB Double Module in its first research flight into space. Working with equipment inside the SPACEHAB Double Module are (front) Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon (left), astronaut from Israel, and Commander Rick D. Husband; (back) Mission Specialist David Brown, SPACEHAB trainer David Butler, and Pilot William C. '''Willie''' McCool. Research mission STS-107 is scheduled to launch July 19, 2001

  11. Fatigue-crack monitoring in-flight using acoustic emission - hardware, technique, and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, P.H.; Skorpik, J.R.; Lemon, D.K.

    1981-07-01

    The three programs described represent a logical evolutionary process toward effective flaw surveillance in aircraft using AE. The Macchi tests showed that an AE system can withstand extended in-flight service and collect meaningful information relative to fatigue crack growth at a single specific location. The MIrage aircraft work seeks to extend the methods demonstrated on the Macchi into a more complex circumstance. We are now attempting to detect and locate crack growth at any of twenty fastener locations in a relatively complex geometry. The DARPA pattern recognition program seeks to develop signal identification capability that would pave the way for general monitoring of aircraft structures using AE to detect fatigue crack growth. It appears that AE technology may be capable of enhancing aircraft safety assurance while reducing inspection requirements with the associated costs.

  12. Analysis of In-Flight Vibration Measurements from Helicopter Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Marianne; Huff, Ed; Barszcz

    2004-01-01

    In-flight vibration measurements from the transmission of an OH-58C KIOWA are analyzed. In order to understand the effect of normal flight variation on signal shape, the first gear mesh components of the planetary gear system and bevel gear are studied in detail. Systematic patterns occur in the amplitude and phase of these signal components with implications for making time synchronous averages and interpreting gear metrics in flight. The phase of the signal component increases as the torque increases; limits on the torque range included in a time synchronous average may now be selected to correspond to phase change limits on the underlying signal. For some sensors and components, an increase in phase variation and/or abrupt change in the slope of the phase dependence on torque are observed in regions of very low amplitude of the signal component. A physical mechanism for this deviation is postulated. Time synchronous averages should not be constructed in torque regions with wide phase variation.

  13. In-flight measurement of upwind dynamic soaring in albatrosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Gottfried

    2016-03-01

    In-flight measurement results on upwind flight of albatrosses using dynamic soaring are presented. It is shown how the birds manage to make progress against the wind on the basis of small-scale dynamic soaring maneuvers. For this purpose, trajectory features, motion quantities and mechanical energy relationships as well as force characteristics are analyzed. The movement on a large-scale basis consists of a tacking type flight technique which is composed of dynamic soaring cycle sequences with alternating orientation to the left and right. It is shown how this is performed by the birds so that they can achieve a net upwind flight without a transversal large-scale movement and how this compares with downwind or across wind flight. Results on upwind dynamic soaring are presented for low and high wind speed cases. It is quantified how much the tacking trajectory length is increased when compared with the beeline distance. The presented results which are based on in-flight measurements of free flying albatrosses were achieved with an in-house developed GPS-signal tracking method yielding the required high precision for the small-scale dynamic soaring flight maneuvers.

  14. The In-Flight Calibration of the GOCE Gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesare, Stefano; Catastini, Giuseppe; Floberghagen, Rune; Lamarre, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Launched on March 17th 2009 from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, GOCE (Gravity field and Ocean Circulation Explorer) is the first satellite among ESA's "Earth Explorer Core Missions". Flying in a sun-synchronous orbit with mean altitude of 259 km, GOCE exploits the gravity gradiometry technique for the determination of the Earth gravity field. The fundamental observables of this technique are the components of the gravity gradients tensor (GGT), measured by a set of six ultra-sensitive accelerometers constituting the "Gradiometer". The in-flight calibration of the Gradiometer plays a fundamental role in the final measurement accuracy of the GGT components. The Gradiometer calibration includes: i) the measurement and physical corrections of the first non-linear term in the transfer function of the accelerometers; ii) the measurement of the relative scale factors and alignments of the accelerometers for their utilization in the off-line data processing. The techniques utilized for the in-flight calibration of the Gradiometer are presented in this paper, together with the calibration results and their impact on the gradiometric performance.

  15. The Mars Climate Sounder In-Flight Positioning Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.; Kass, David

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) instrument s in-flight positioning errors and presents background material about it. A short overview of the instrument s science objectives and data acquisition techniques is provided. The brief mechanical description familiarizes the reader with the MCS instrument. Several key items of the flight qualification program, which had a rigorous joint drive test program but some limitations in overall system testing, are discussed. Implications this might have had for the flight anomaly, which began after several months of flawless space operation, are mentioned. The detection, interpretation, and instrument response to the errors is discussed. The anomaly prompted engineering reviews, renewed ground, and some in-flight testing. A summary of these events, including a timeline, is included. Several items of concern were uncovered during the anomaly investigation, the root cause, however, was never found. The instrument is now used with two operational constraints that work around the anomaly. It continues science gathering at an only slightly diminished pace that will yield approximately 90% of the originally intended science.

  16. Ares I-X In-Flight Modal Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkowicz, Theodore J.; James, George H., III

    2011-01-01

    Operational modal analysis is a procedure that allows the extraction of modal parameters of a structure in its operating environment. It is based on the idealized premise that input to the structure is white noise. In some cases, when free decay responses are corrupted by unmeasured random disturbances, the response data can be processed into cross-correlation functions that approximate free decay responses. Modal parameters can be computed from these functions by time domain identification methods such as the Eigenvalue Realization Algorithm (ERA). The extracted modal parameters have the same characteristics as impulse response functions of the original system. Operational modal analysis is performed on Ares I-X in-flight data. Since the dynamic system is not stationary due to propellant mass loss, modal identification is only possible by analyzing the system as a series of linearized models over short periods of time via a sliding time-window of short time intervals. A time-domain zooming technique was also employed to enhance the modal parameter extraction. Results of this study demonstrate that free-decay time domain modal identification methods can be successfully employed for in-flight launch vehicle modal extraction.

  17. Quantitative EEG patterns of differential in-flight workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterman, M. B.; Mann, C. A.; Kaiser, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Four test pilots were instrumented for in-flight EEG recordings using a custom portable recording system. Each flew six, two minute tracking tasks in the Calspan NT-33 experimental trainer at Edwards AFB. With the canopy blacked out, pilots used a HUD display to chase a simulated aircraft through a random flight course. Three configurations of flight controls altered the flight characteristics to achieve low, moderate, and high workload, as determined by normative Cooper-Harper ratings. The test protocol was administered by a command pilot in the back seat. Corresponding EEG and tracking data were compared off-line. Tracking performance was measured as deviation from the target aircraft and combined with control difficulty to achieve an estimate of 'cognitive workload'. Trended patterns of parietal EEG activity at 8-12 Hz were sorted according to this classification. In all cases, high workload produced a significantly greater suppression of 8-12 Hz activity than low workload. Further, a clear differentiation of EEG trend patterns was obtained in 80 percent of the cases. High workload produced a sustained suppression of 8-12 Hz activity, while moderate workload resulted in an initial suppression followed by a gradual increment. Low workload was associated with a modulated pattern lacking any periods of marked or sustained suppression. These findings suggest that quantitative analysis of appropriate EEG measures may provide an objective and reliable in-flight index of cognitive effort that could facilitate workload assessment.

  18. Tissue oxygen measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soller, Babs R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A device and method in accordance with the invention for determining the oxygen partial pressure (PO.sub.2) of a tissue by irradiating the tissue with optical radiation such that the light is emitted from the tissue, and by collecting the reflected or transmitted light from the tissue to form an optical spectrum. A spectral processor determines the PO.sub.2 level in tissue by processing this spectrum with a previously-constructed spectral calibration model. The tissue may, for example, be disposed underneath a covering tissue, such as skin, of a patient, and the tissue illuminated and light collected through the skin. Alternatively, direct tissue illumination and collection may be effected with a hand-held or endoscopic probe. A preferred system also determines pH from the same spectrum, and the processor may determine critical conditions and issue warnings based on parameter values.

  19. An Integrated Approach to Damage Accommodation in Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskovic, Jovan D.; Knoebel, Nathan; Mehra, Raman K.; Gregory, Irene

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an integrated approach to in-flight damage accommodation in flight control. The approach is based on Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning (MMST), and consists of three steps: In the first step the main objective is to acquire a realistic aircraft damage model. Modeling of in-flight damage is a highly complex problem since there is a large number of issues that need to be addressed. One of the most important one is that there is strong coupling between structural dynamics, aerodynamics, and flight control. These effects cannot be studied separately due to this coupling. Once a realistic damage model is available, in the second step a large number of models corresponding to different damage cases are generated. One possibility is to generate many linear models and interpolate between them to cover a large portion of the flight envelope. Once these models have been generated, we will implement a recently developed-Model Set Reduction (MSR) technique. The technique is based on parameterizing damage in terms of uncertain parameters, and uses concepts from robust control theory to arrive at a small number of "centered" models such that the controllers corresponding to these models assure desired stability and robustness properties over a subset in the parametric space. By devising a suitable model placement strategy, the entire parametric set is covered with a relatively small number of models and controllers. The third step consists of designing a Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning (MMST) strategy for estimating the current operating regime (damage case) of the aircraft, and switching to the corresponding controller to achieve effective damage accommodation and the desired performance. In the paper present a comprehensive approach to damage accommodation using Model Set Design,MMST, and Variable Structure compensation for coupling nonlinearities. The approach was evaluated on a model of F/A-18 aircraft dynamics under control effector damage

  20. Emergency in-flight egress opening for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    In support of a stall/spin research program, an emergency in-flight egress system is being installed in a light general aviation airplane. To avoid a major structural redesign for a mechanical door, an add-on 11.2 kg pyrotechnic-actuated system was developed to create an opening in the existing structure. The airplane skin will be explosively severed around the side window, across a central stringer, and down to the floor, creating an opening of approximately 76 by 76 cm. The severed panel will be jettisoned at an initial velocity of approximately 13.7 m/sec. System development included a total of 68 explosive severance tests on aluminum material using small samples, small and full scale flat panel aircraft structural mock-ups, and an actual aircraft fuselage. These tests proved explosive sizing/severance margins, explosive initiation, explosive product containment, and system dynamics.

  1. In-Flight Icing Training for Pilots Using Multimedia Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kevin M.; VanZante, Judith Foss; Bond, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last five years, the Aircraft Icing Project of the NASA Aviation Safety Program has developed a number of in-flight icing education and training aids to support increased awareness for pilots of the hazards associated with atmospheric icing conditions. Through the development of this work, a number of new instructional design approaches and media delivery methods have been introduced to enhance the learning experience, expand user interactivity and participation, and, hopefully, increase the learner retention rates. The goal of using these multimedia techniques is to increase the effectiveness of the training materials. This paper will describe the mutlimedia technology that has been introduced and give examples of how it was used.

  2. Magellan in-flight gyro/star scanner misalignment calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boone, Jack N.

    1991-01-01

    Techniques are described for the in-flight calibration of gyro/star scanner misalignments for the Magellan spacecraft. The poor observability of one of the six components of misalignment is discussed in the context of a simple least-squares estimation model. The assumptions that lead to singularity in the information matrix are explicitly stated and it is shown that the singularity persists for all scanner slit configurations using only two slits, regardless of slit geometry or separation. A set of misalignment error state variables, a configuration of three stars, and a maneuver/scan sequence is described which yields a well-conditioned information matrix for least-squares estimation of five of the six misalignments. Finally, it is shown by convariance simulation that ground-based optimal estimation can satisfactorily resolve all six components of the misalignment error when more than two star scanner slits are used.

  3. In-flight Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner system was placed into Earth orbit on July 16, 1982, as part of NASA's LANDSAT 4 payload. To determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system in flight, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere are made simultaneously with TM image acquisitions over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values into an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels at the entrance pupil of the TM in four of the TM spectral bands are determined. These levels are compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. By reference to an adjacent, larger uniform area, the calibration is extended to all 16 detectors in each of the three bands.

  4. A review of critical in-flight events research methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, W. C.; Rockwell, T. H.; Smith, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    Pilot's cognitive responses to critical in-flight events (CIFE's) were investigated, using pilots, who had on the average about 2540 flight hours each, in four experiments: (1) full-mission simulation in a general aviation trainer, (2) paper and pencil CIFE tests, (3) interactive computer-aided scenario testing, and (4) verbal protocols in fault diagnosis tasks. The results of both computer and paper and pencil tests showed only 50 percent efficiency in correct diagnosis of critical events. The efficiency in arriving at a diagnosis was also low: over 20 inquiries were made for 21 percent of the scenarios diagnosed. The information-seeking pattern was random, with frequent retracing over old inquiries. The measures for developing improved cognitive skills for CIFE's are discussed.

  5. Efficient transfer of weather information to the pilot in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Efficient methods for providing weather information to the pilot in flight are summarized. Use of discrete communications channels in the aeronautical, VHF band or subcarriers in the VOR navigation band are considered the best possibilities. Data rates can be provided such that inputs to the ground based transmitters from 2400 band telephone lines are easily accommodated together with additional data. The crucial weather data considered for uplinking are identified as radar reflectivity patterns relating to precipitation, spherics data, hourly sequences, nowcasts, forecasts, cloud top heights with freezing and icing conditions, the critical weather map and satellite maps. NEXRAD, the ground based, Doppler weather radar which will produce an improved weather product also encourages use of an uplink to fully utilize its capability to improve air safety.

  6. [In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of UAV multispectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yan, Lei; Gou, Zhi-Yang; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Liu, Da-Ping; Duan, Yi-Ni

    2012-12-01

    Based on the data of the scientific experiment in Urad Front Banner for UAV Remote Sensing Load Calibration Field project, with the help of 6 hyperspectral radiometric targets with good Lambertian property, the wide-view multispectral camera in UAV was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. The result reveals that for green, red and infrared channel, whose images were successfully captured, the linear correlation coefficients between the DN and radiance are all larger than 99%. In final analysis, the comprehensive error is no more than 6%. The calibration results demonstrate that the hyperspectral targets equipped by the calibration field are well suitable for air-borne multispectral load in-flight calibration. The calibration result is reliable and could be used in the retrieval of geophysical parameters. PMID:23427528

  7. Pressure Lag in Tubing Used in Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Howard L; Rathert, George A , Jr

    1945-01-01

    Tests described in this report were undertaken to obtain a quantitative measure of the pressure lag in typical pressure-tubing systems used by the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory in flight research investigations. Lag measurements were made with both single-direction and oscillating pressure changes. Single-direction pressure changes were investigated to determine if the lag in orifice-pressure lines and in the research airspeed and altitude measuring systems of pursuit-type airplane undergoing flight tests was sufficient to cause an appreciable error in the record of a sudden pressure change. Oscillating pressure changes were investigated with particular reference to the accuracy of pressure peaks in pressure-distribution measurements during the time of buffeting conditions as found in stalls. (author)

  8. A source of antihydrogen for in-flight hyperfine spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, N.; Ulmer, S.; Murtagh, D. J.; Van Gorp, S.; Nagata, Y.; Diermaier, M.; Federmann, S.; Leali, M.; Malbrunot, C.; Mascagna, V.; Massiczek, O.; Michishio, K.; Mizutani, T.; Mohri, A.; Nagahama, H.; Ohtsuka, M.; Radics, B.; Sakurai, S.; Sauerzopf, C.; Suzuki, K.; Tajima, M.; Torii, H. A.; Venturelli, L.; Wu¨nschek, B.; Zmeskal, J.; Zurlo, N.; Higaki, H.; Kanai, Y.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Nagashima, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Widmann, E.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Antihydrogen, a positron bound to an antiproton, is the simplest antiatom. Its counterpart—hydrogen—is one of the most precisely investigated and best understood systems in physics research. High-resolution comparisons of both systems provide sensitive tests of CPT symmetry, which is the most fundamental symmetry in the Standard Model of elementary particle physics. Any measured difference would point to CPT violation and thus to new physics. Here we report the development of an antihydrogen source using a cusp trap for in-flight spectroscopy. A total of 80 antihydrogen atoms are unambiguously detected 2.7 m downstream of the production region, where perturbing residual magnetic fields are small. This is a major step towards precision spectroscopy of the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen using Rabi-like beam spectroscopy. PMID:24448273

  9. Holodiagram: elliptic visualizing interferometry, relativity, and light-in-flight.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Nils H

    2014-04-10

    In holographic interferometry, there is usually a static distance separating the point of illumination and the point of observation. In Special Relativity, this separation is dynamic and is caused by the velocity of the observer. The corrections needed to compensate for these separations are similar in the two fields. We use the ellipsoids of the holodiagram for measurement and in a graphic way to explain and evaluate optical resolution, gated viewing, radar, holography, three-dimensional interferometry, Special Relativity, and light-in-flight recordings. Lorentz contraction together with time dilation is explained as the result of the eccentricity of the measuring ellipsoid, caused by its velocity. The extremely thin ellipsoid of the very first light appears as a beam aimed directly at the observer, which might explain the wave or ray duality of light and entanglement. Finally, we introduce the concept of ellipsoids of observation. PMID:24787410

  10. Eclipse program F-106 aircraft in flight, front view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Shot of the QF-106 aircraft in flight with the landing gear deployed. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  11. Monitoring oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Severinghaus, John W

    2011-06-01

    Cyanosis was used for a century after dentists began pulling teeth under 100% N(2)O in 1844 because brief (2 min) severe hypoxia is harmless. Deaths came with curare and potent anesthetic respiratory arrest. Leland Clark's invention of a polarographic blood oxygen tension electrode (1954) was introduced for transcutaneous PO2 monitoring to adjust PEEP and CPAP PO2 to prevent premature infant blindness from excess O2 (1972). Oximetry for warning military aviators was tried after WW II but not used for routine monitoring until Takuo Aoyagi (1973) discovered an equation to measure SaO2 by the ratio of ratios of red and IR light transmitted through tissue as it changed with arterial pulses. Pulse oximetry (1982) depended on simultaneous technology improvements of light emitting red and IR diodes, tiny cheap solid state sensors and micro-chip computers. Continuous monitoring of airway anesthetic concentration and oxygen also became very common after 1980. Death from anesthesia fell 10 fold between 1985 and 2000 as pulse oximetry became universally used, but no proof of a causative relationship to pulse oximetry exists. It is now assumed that all anesthesiologist became much more aware of the dangers of prolonged hypoxia, perhaps by using the pulse oximeters. PMID:21717228

  12. In-Flight Characterization of the Electromagnetic Environment Inside an Airliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Karl J.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Quach, Cuong C.; Koppen, Sandra V.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Langley Research Center conducted a series of experimental measurements that characterized the electromagnetic environment (EME) inside a Boeing 757 airliner while in flight, Measurements were made of the electromagnetic energy coupled into a commercially configured aircraft as it was flown in close proximity to ground-based radio frequency (RF) transmitters operating at approximately 26, 173. and 430 MHz. The goal of this experiment was to collect data for the verification of analytical predictions of the internal aircraft response to an external stimulus. This paper describes the experiment, presents the data collected by it, and discusses techniques used to compute both the magnitude of the electric field illuminating the aircraft and its direction of propagation relative to a coordinate system fixed to the aircraft. The latter is determined from Global Positioning System (GPS) and aircraft Inertial Reference Unit (IRU) data. The paper concludes with an examination of the shielding effectiveness of the test aircraft. as determined by comparison of' the measured internal EME and computed external EME.

  13. Data-Logging--A Plug-and-Play Oxygen Probe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warne, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Presents an experiment on collecting data while measuring the dissolved-oxygen levels in Thames River tap water straight from the water mains and dissolved-oxygen levels in rainwater containing Hornwort water weed over 24 hours. (Author/ASK)

  14. F-8 Digital Fly-by-Wire in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This photo shows the F-8 Digital-Fly-By Wire aircraft in flight. The project involving this aircraft contributed significantly to the flight control system on the space shuttles by testing and getting the bugs out of the IBM AP-101 used on the shuttles and by helping the Dryden Flight Research Center to develop a pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) suppression filter that reduced the likelihood of pilots overcontrolling the shuttles on landings and thereby creating excursions from the intended landing path. The F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) flight research project validated the principal concepts of all-electric flight control systems now used on nearly all modern high-performance aircraft and on military and civilian transports. The first flight of the 13-year project was on May 25, 1972, with research pilot Gary E. Krier at the controls of a modified F-8C Crusader that served as the testbed for the fly-by-wire technologies. The project was a joint effort between the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) and Langley Research Center. It included a total of 211 flights. The last flight was December 16, 1985, with Dryden research pilot Ed Schneider at the controls. The F-8 DFBW system was the forerunner of current fly-by-wire systems used in the space shuttles and on today's military and civil aircraft to make them safer, more maneuverable, and more efficient. Electronic fly-by-wire systems replaced older hydraulic control systems, freeing designers to design aircraft with reduced in-flight stability. Fly-by-wire systems are safer because of their redundancies. They are more maneuverable because computers can command more frequent adjustments than a human pilot can. For airliners, computerized control ensures a smoother ride than a human pilot alone can provide. Digital-fly-by-wire is more efficient because it is lighter and takes up less space than the hydraulic systems it replaced. This either reduces the fuel

  15. Quantitative model of the effects of contamination and space environment on in-flight aging of thermal coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhove, Emilie; Roussel, Jean-François; Remaury, Stéphanie; Faye, Delphine; Guigue, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    The in-orbit aging of thermo-optical properties of thermal coatings critically impacts both spacecraft thermal balance and heating power consumption. Nevertheless, in-flight thermal coating aging is generally larger than the one measured on ground and the current knowledge does not allow making reliable predictions1. As a result, a large oversizing of thermal control systems is required. To address this issue, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales has developed a low-cost experiment, called THERME, which enables to monitor the in-flight time-evolution of the solar absorptivity of a large variety of coatings, including commonly used coatings and new materials by measuring their temperature. This experiment has been carried out on sunsynchronous spacecrafts for more than 27 years, allowing thus the generation of a very large set of telemetry measurements. The aim of this work was to develop a model able to semi-quantitatively reproduce these data with a restraint number of parameters. The underlying objectives were to better understand the contribution of the different involved phenomena and, later on, to predict the thermal coating aging at end of life. The physical processes modeled include contamination deposition, UV aging of both contamination layers and intrinsic material and atomic oxygen erosion. Efforts were particularly focused on the satellite leading wall as this face is exposed to the highest variations in environmental conditions during the solar cycle. The non-monotonous time-evolution of the solar absorptivity of thermal coatings is shown to be due to a succession of contamination and contaminant erosion by atomic oxygen phased with the solar cycle.

  16. The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite In-Flight Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.

    1997-01-01

    Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite flight data from the first 737 days after launch (September 1991) was used to investigate spacecraft disturbances and responses. The investigation included two in-flight dynamics experiments (approximately three orbits each). Orbital and configuration influences on spacecraft dynamic response were also examined. Orbital influences were due to temperature variation from crossing the Earth's terminator and variation of the solar incident energy as the orbit precessed. During the terminator crossing, the rapid ambient temperature change caused the spacecraft's two flexible appendages to experience thermal elastic bending (thermal snap). The resulting response was dependent upon the orientation of the solar array and the solar incident energy. Orbital influences were also caused by on-board and environmental disturbances and spacecraft configuration changes resulting in dynamic responses which were repeated each orbit. Configuration influences were due to solar array rotation changing spacecraft modal properties. The investigation quantified the spacecraft dynamic response produced by the solar array and high gain antenna harmonic drive disturbances. The solar array's harmonic drive output resonated two solar array modes. Friction in the solar array gear drive provided sufficient energy dissipation which prevented the solar panels from resonating catastrophically; however, the solar array vibration amplitude was excessively large. The resulting vibration had a latitude-specific pattern.

  17. In-flight performances of the PAMELA magnetic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannuccini, Elena

    PAMELA cosmic-ray detector is orbiting around the Earth on board the Resurs DK1 satellite since June 2006. The experiment is designed to study charged particles in the cosmic radiation, being optimized in particular for antiprotons and positrons. The core of the detector is a spectrometer composed of six planes of silicon microstrip sensors, which are placed inside the cavity of a permanent magnet. The detector has been designed to determine precisely the rigidity (up to 1 TV) and the electric charge (up to berillium) of particles crossing the apparatus. The spectrometer plays a crucial role in the high-energy antiproton analysis, where the main source of background comes from protons which recostructed trajectories have a negative curvature due to the finite resolution of the tracking system ("spillover" background). In this work the in-flight performances of the spectrometer will be presented, with main focus on the momentum resolution of singly-charged particles. A key point of track reconstruction is the alignment of the tracking system, which is done with the help of the energy information provided by the calorimeter for electrons and positrons. The good quality of flight data and the agreement with simulation indicate that the instrument provides a reliable estimate of the particle rigidity over a wide energy range. Finally, the criteria applied to minimize the spillover background in the antiproton sample and extend the identification to high energy will be discussed.

  18. In-Flight Calibration Processes for the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromund, K. R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Anderson, B. J.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; Chutter, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Le, G.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The calibration effort for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Analog Fluxgate (AFG) and DigitalFluxgate (DFG) magnetometers is a coordinated effort between three primary institutions: University of California, LosAngeles (UCLA); Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF); and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Since thesuccessful deployment of all 8 magnetometers on 17 March 2015, the effort to confirm and update the groundcalibrations has been underway during the MMS commissioning phase. The in-flight calibration processes evaluatetwelve parameters that determine the alignment, orthogonalization, offsets, and gains for all 8 magnetometers usingalgorithms originally developed by UCLA and the Technical University of Braunschweig and tailored to MMS by IWF,UCLA, and GSFC. We focus on the processes run at GSFC to determine the eight parameters associated with spin tonesand harmonics. We will also discuss the processing flow and interchange of parameters between GSFC, IWF, and UCLA.IWF determines the low range spin axis offsets using the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI). UCLA determines the absolutegains and sensor azimuth orientation using Earth field comparisons. We evaluate the performance achieved for MMS andgive examples of the quality of the resulting calibrations.

  19. PhoneSat In-flight Experience Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, Alberto Guillen; Attai, Watson; Oyadomari, Ken Y.; Priscal, Cedric; Schimmin, Rogan S.; Gazulla, Oriol Tintore; Wolfe, Jasper L.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, consumer technology has vastly improved its performances, become more affordable and reduced its size. Modern day smartphones offer capabilities that enable us to figure out where we are, which way we are pointing, observe the world around us, and store and transmit this information to wherever we want. These capabilities are remarkably similar to those required for multi-million dollar satellites. The PhoneSat project at NASA Ames Research Center is building a series of CubeSat-size spacecrafts using an off-the-shelf smartphone as its on-board computer with the goal of showing just how simple and cheap space can be. Since the PhoneSat project started, different suborbital and orbital flight activities have proven the viability of this revolutionary approach. In early 2013, the PhoneSat project launched the first triage of PhoneSats into LEO. In the five day orbital life time, the nano-satellites flew the first functioning smartphone-based satellites (using the Nexus One and Nexus S phones), the cheapest satellite (a total parts cost below $3,500) and one of the fastest on-board processors (CPU speed of 1GHz). In this paper, an overview of the PhoneSat project as well as a summary of the in-flight experimental results is presented.

  20. In-flight calibration of the HIFI diplexers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael; Jellema, Willem; Delforge, Bertrand; Teyssier, David; Eggens, Martin; Huisman, Robert; Keizer, Geert

    2014-07-01

    HIFI is a heterodyne spectrometer aboard the Herschel Space Observatory, providing high-spectral-resolution capabilities. Of its seven frequency bands, four (bands 3, 4, 6, and 7) employ Martin-Puplett diplexers to combine sky signal and local oscillator at the two linear polarizations H and V, prior to feeding them into the mixers (receivers). The optical path difference in each of these 8 diplexers must be tuned to the observed frequency. The required actuator currents were determined in flight before the start of routine science observations. We here report on regular (roughly quarterly) engineering test observations to validate the repeatability of the HIFI diplexers during the routine phase of Herschel operations. We find the optical path difference to be stable to within 0.4 % of the relevant wavelength, typically at the sub-micron level. We conclude that the repeatability and precision of the diplexer tuning mechanism are so high that science data are in no way negatively affected. With the diplexer calibration established and validated, this line of reasoning can be reversed, and the diplexers can be used as relative spectrometers to measure the local-oscillator frequency, i.e., to check the spectral purity of the local oscillator across the diplexer bands. This was done from before launch out to the last months of cryogenic operations in space.

  1. Analysis of low altitude atmospheric turbulence data measured in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganzer, V. M.; Joppa, R. G.; Vanderwees, G.

    1977-01-01

    All three components of turbulence were measured simultaneously in flight at each wing tip of a Beech D-18 aircraft. The flights were conducted at low altitude, 30.5 - 61.0 meters (100-200 ft.), over water in the presence of wind driven turbulence. Statistical properties of flight measured turbulence were compared with Gaussian and non-Gaussian turbulence models. Spatial characteristics of the turbulence were analyzed using the data from flight perpendicular and parallel to the wind. The probability density distributions of the vertical gusts show distinctly non-Gaussian characteristics. The distributions of the longitudinal and lateral gusts are generally Gaussian. The power spectra compare in the inertial subrange at some points better with the Dryden spectrum, while at other points the von Karman spectrum is a better approximation. In the low frequency range the data show peaks or dips in the power spectral density. The cross between vertical gusts in the direction of the mean wind were compared with a matched non-Gaussian model. The real component of the cross spectrum is in general close to the non-Gaussian model. The imaginary component, however, indicated a larger phase shift between these two gust components than was found in previous research.

  2. In-Flight Calibration Processes for the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromund, K. R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Anderson, B. J.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; Chutter, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Le, G.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.

    2015-12-01

    The calibration effort for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Analog Fluxgate (AFG) and Digital Fluxgate (DFG) magnetometers is a coordinated effort between three primary institutions: University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA); Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF); and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Since the successful deployment of all 8 magnetometers on 17 March 2015, the effort to confirm and update the ground calibrations has been underway during the MMS commissioning phase. The in-flight calibration processes evaluate twelve parameters that determine the alignment, orthogonalization, offsets, and gains for all 8 magnetometers using algorithms originally developed by UCLA and the Technical University of Braunschweig and tailored to MMS by IWF, UCLA, and GSFC. We focus on the processes run at GSFC to determine the eight parameters associated with spin tones and harmonics. We will also discuss the processing flow and interchange of parameters between GSFC, IWF, and UCLA. IWF determines the low range spin axis offsets using the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI). UCLA determines the absolute gains and sensor azimuth orientation using Earth field comparisons. We evaluate the performance achieved for MMS and give examples of the quality of the resulting calibrations.

  3. Measurement of human pilot dynamic characteristics in flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, James T.

    1987-01-01

    Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Least Square Error (LSE) estimation techniques were applied to the problem of identifying pilot-vehicle dynamic characteristics in flight simulation. A brief investigation of the effects of noise, input bandwidth and system delay upon the FFT and LSE techniques was undertaken using synthetic data. Data from a piloted simulation conducted at NASA Ames Research Center was then analyzed. The simulation was performed in the NASA Ames Research Center Variable Stability CH-47B helicopter operating in fixed-basis simulator mode. The piloting task consisted of maintaining the simulated vehicle over a moving hover pad whose motion was described by a random-appearing sum of sinusoids. The two test subjects used a head-down, color cathode ray tube (CRT) display for guidance and control information. Test configurations differed in the number of axes being controlled by the pilot (longitudinal only versus longitudinal and lateral), and in the presence or absence of an important display indicator called an 'acceleration ball'. A number of different pilot-vehicle transfer functions were measured, and where appropriate, qualitatively compared with theoretical pilot- vehicle models. Some indirect evidence suggesting pursuit behavior on the part of the test subjects is discussed.

  4. Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Mikkelsen, J.C.; Pearton, S.J.; Corbett, J.W.; Pennycook, S.J

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on interstitial material in silicon. Topics include: hydrogen in crystalline silicon, low energy hydrogen ion bombarded silicon, oxygen in silicon, oxygen thermal donor formation, thermal donor generation and annihilation effects on oxygen precipitation oxygen effects on plastic flow during growth of dendrixic web silicon, nitrogen in silicon, off-center nitrogen and oxygen in silicon, and thermal donor hierarchies in silicon and germanium.

  5. 14 CFR 1204.1406 - Procedures in the event of a declared in-flight emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... aircraft or wreckage from the runway after a landing following an in-flight emergency. Care will be taken...-flight emergency. 1204.1406 Section 1204.1406 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... emergency. (a) Any aircraft involved in a declared in-flight emergency that endangers the safety of...

  6. Dissolved Oxygen Data for Coos Estuary (Oregon)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this product is the transmittal of dissolved oxygen data collected in the Coos Estuary, Oregon to Ms. Molly O'Neill (University of Oregon), for use in her studies on the factors influencing spatial and temporal patterns in dissolved oxygen in this estuary. These d...

  7. Determination of the in-flight spectral calibration of AVIRIS using atmospheric absorption features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) as data are acquired in flight is essential to quantitative analysis of the measured upwelling spectral radiance. In each spectrum measured by AVIRIS in flight, there are numerous atmospheric gas absorption bands that drive this requirement for accurate spectral calibration. If the surface and atmospheric properties are measured independently, these atmospheric absorption bands may be used to deduce the in-flight spectral calibration of an imaging spectrometer. Both the surface and atmospheric characteristics were measured for a calibration target during an in-flight calibration experiment held at Lunar Lake, Nevada on April 5, 1994. This paper uses upwelling spectral radiance predicted for the calibration target with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to validate the spectral calibration of AVIRIS in flight.

  8. Collective organization in aerotactic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Marco G.

    Some bacteria exhibit interesting behavior in the presence of an oxygen concentration. They perform an aerotactic motion along the gradient until they reach their optimal oxygen concentration. But they often organize collectively by forming dense regions, called 'bands', that travel towards the oxygen source. We have developed a model of swimmers with stochastic interaction rules moving in proximity of an air bubble. We perform molecular dynamics simulations and also solve advection-diffusion equations that reproduce the aerotactic behavior of mono-flagellated, facultative anaerobic bacteria. If the oxygen concentration in the system sinks locally below a threshold value, the formation of a migrating aerotactic band toward the bubble can be observed.

  9. Sensor fusion for the localisation of birds in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millikin, Rhonda Lorraine

    Tracking and identification of birds in flight remains a goal of aviation safety worldwide and conservation in North America. Marine surveillance radar, tracking radar and more recently weather radar have been used to monitor mass movements of birds. The emphasis has been on prediction of migration fronts where thousands of birds follow weather patterns across a large geographic area. Microphones have been stationed over wide areas to receive calls of these birds and help catalogue the diversity of species comprising these migrations. A most critical feature of landbird migration is where the birds land to rest and feed. These habitats are not known and therefore cannot effectively be protected. For effective management of landbird migrants (nocturnal migrant birds), short-range flight behaviour (100--300 m above ground) is the critical air space to monitor. To ensure conservation efforts are focused on endangered species and species truly at risk, species of individual birds must be identified. Short-range monitoring of individual birds is also important for aviation safety. Up to 75% of bird-aircraft collisions occur within 500 ft (153 m) above the runway. Identification of each bird will help predict its flight path, a critical factor in the prevention of a collision. This thesis focuses on short-range identification of individual birds to localise birds in flight. This goal is achieved through fusing data from two sensor systems, radar and acoustic. This fusion provides more accurate tracking of birds in the lower airspace and allows for the identification of species of interest. In the fall of 1999, an experiment was conducted at Prince Edward Point, a southern projection of land on the north shore of Lake Ontario, to prove that the fusion of radar and acoustic sensors enhances the detection, location and tracking of nocturnal migrant birds. As these birds migrate at night, they are difficult to track visually. However, they are detectable with X

  10. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The tailless X-36 technology demonstrator research aircraft cruises over the California desert at low altitude during a 1997 research flight. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine

  11. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The X-36 technology demonstrator shows off its distinctive shape as the remotely piloted aircraft flies a research mission over the Southern California desert on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams

  12. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The lack of a vertical tail on the X-36 technology demonstrator is evident as the remotely piloted aircraft flies a low-altitude research flight above Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base in the California desert on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three

  13. In-Flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury dual imaging system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkins, S.E.; Murchie, S.L.; Becker, K.J.; Selby, C.M.; Turner, F.S.; Noble, M.W.; Chabot, N.L.; Choo, T.H.; Darlington, E.H.; Denevi, B.W.; Domingue, D.L.; Ernst, C.M.; Holsclaw, G.M.; Laslo, N.R.; Mcclintock, W.E.; Prockter, L.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Solomon, S.C.; Sterner, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Mercury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 and planned for insertion into orbit around Mercury in 2011, has already completed two flybys of the innermost planet. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired nearly 2500 images from the first two flybys and viewed portions of Mercury's surface not viewed by Mariner 10 in 1974-1975. Mercury's proximity to the Sun and its slow rotation present challenges to the thermal design for a camera on an orbital mission around Mercury. In addition, strict limitations on spacecraft pointing and the highly elliptical orbit create challenges in attaining coverage at desired geometries and relatively uniform spatial resolution. The instrument designed to meet these challenges consists of dual imagers, a monochrome narrow-angle camera (NAC) with a 1.5?? field of view (FOV) and a multispectral wide-angle camera (WAC) with a 10.5?? FOV, co-aligned on a pivoting platform. The focal-plane electronics of each camera are identical and use a 1024??1024 charge-coupled device detector. The cameras are passively cooled but use diode heat pipes and phase-change-material thermal reservoirs to maintain the thermal configuration during the hot portions of the orbit. Here we present an overview of the instrument design and how the design meets its technical challenges. We also review results from the first two flybys, discuss the quality of MDIS data from the initial periods of data acquisition and how that compares with requirements, and summarize how in-flight tests are being used to improve the quality of the instrument calibration. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  14. In-Flight Flow Visualization Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanDam, C. P.; Shiu, H. J.; Banks D. W.

    1997-01-01

    The feasibility of remote infrared thermography of aircraft surfaces during flight to visualize the extent of laminar flow on a target aircraft has been examined. In general, it was determined that such thermograms can be taken successfully using an existing airplane/thermography system (NASA Dryden's F-18 with infrared imaging pod) and that the transition pattern and, thus, the extent of laminar flow can be extracted from these thermograms. Depending on the in-flight distance between the F-18 and the target aircraft, the thermograms can have a spatial resolution of as little as 0.1 inches. The field of view provided by the present remote system is superior to that of prior stationary infrared thermography systems mounted in the fuselage or vertical tail of a subject aircraft. An additional advantage of the present experimental technique is that the target aircraft requires no or minimal modifications. An image processing procedure was developed which improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the thermograms. Problems encountered during the analog recording of the thermograms (banding of video images) made it impossible to evaluate the adequacy of the present imaging system and image processing procedure to detect transition on untreated metal surfaces. The high reflectance, high thermal difussivity, and low emittance of metal surfaces tend to degrade the images to an extent that it is very difficult to extract transition information from them. The application of a thin (0.005 inches) self-adhesive insulating film to the surface is shown to solve this problem satisfactorily. In addition to the problem of infrared based transition detection on untreated metal surfaces, future flight tests will also concentrate on the visualization of other flow phenomena such as flow separation and reattachment.

  15. Controlling Precision Stepper Motors in Flight Using (Almost) No Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David

    2010-01-01

    This concept allows control of high-performance stepper motors with minimal parts count and minimal flight software complexity. Although it uses a small number of common flight-qualified parts and simple control algorithms, it is capable enough to meet demanding system requirements. Its programmable nature makes it trivial to implement changes to control algorithms both during integration & test and in flight. Enhancements such as microstepping, half stepping, back-emf compensation, and jitter reduction can be tailored to the requirements of a large variety of stepper motor based applications including filter wheels, focus mechanisms, antenna tracking subsystems, pointing and mobility. The hardware design (using an H-bridge motor controller IC) was adapted from JPL's MER mission, still operating on Mars. This concept has been fully developed and incorporated into the MCS instrument on MRO, currently operating in Mars orbit. It has been incorporated into the filter wheel mechanism and linear stage (focus) mechanism for the AMT instrument. On MCS/MRO, two of these circuits control the elevation and azimuth of the MCS telescope/radiometer assembly, allowing the instrument to continuously monitor the limb of the Martian atmosphere. Implementation on MCS/MRO resulted in a 4:1 reduction in the volume and mass required for the motor driver electronics (100:25 square inches of PCB space), producing a very compact instrument. In fact, all of the electronics for the MCS instrument are packaged within the movable instrument structure. It also saved approximately 3 Watts of power. Most importantly, the design enabled MCS to meet very its stringent maximum allowable torque disturbance requirements.

  16. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft in flight, view from tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    View of QF-106 airplane from a KC-135 tanker aircraft. The Eclipse aircraft was not refueling but simply flying below and behind the tanker for purposes of shooting the photograph from the air. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  17. Relationship Between Optimal Gain and Coherence Zone in Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracio, Bruno Jorge Correia; Pais, Ana Rita Valente; vanPaassen, M. M.; Mulder, Max; Kely, Lon C.; Houck, Jacob A.

    2011-01-01

    In motion simulation the inertial information generated by the motion platform is most of the times different from the visual information in the simulator displays. This occurs due to the physical limits of the motion platform. However, for small motions that are within the physical limits of the motion platform, one-to-one motion, i.e. visual information equal to inertial information, is possible. It has been shown in previous studies that one-to-one motion is often judged as too strong, causing researchers to lower the inertial amplitude. When trying to measure the optimal inertial gain for a visual amplitude, we found a zone of optimal gains instead of a single value. Such result seems related with the coherence zones that have been measured in flight simulation studies. However, the optimal gain results were never directly related with the coherence zones. In this study we investigated whether the optimal gain measurements are the same as the coherence zone measurements. We also try to infer if the results obtained from the two measurements can be used to differentiate between simulators with different configurations. An experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center which used both the Cockpit Motion Facility and the Visual Motion Simulator. The results show that the inertial gains obtained with the optimal gain are different than the ones obtained with the coherence zone measurements. The optimal gain is within the coherence zone.The point of mean optimal gain was lower and further away from the one-to-one line than the point of mean coherence. The zone width obtained for the coherence zone measurements was dependent on the visual amplitude and frequency. For the optimal gain, the zone width remained constant when the visual amplitude and frequency were varied. We found no effect of the simulator configuration in both the coherence zone and optimal gain measurements.

  18. Quantification of In-flight Physical Changes: Anthropometry and Neutral Body Posture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. S.; Reid, C. R.; Rajulu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, NASA does not have sufficient in-flight anthropometric data gathered to assess the impact of physical body shape and size changes on suit sizing. For developing future planetary and reduced gravity suits, NASA needs to quantify the impacts of microgravity on anthropometry, body posture, and neutral body postures (NBP) to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort. To obtain these impacts, anthropometric data, circumference, length, height, breadth, and depth for body segments (i.e. chest, waist, bicep, thigh, calf) from astronauts for pre, in-, and postflight conditions needs to be collected. Once this data has been collected, a comparison between pre, in-, and postflight anthropometric values will be analyzed, yielding microgravity factors. The NBP will be used to determined body posture (joint angle) changes between subjects throughout the duration of a mission. Data collection, starting with Increments 37/38, is still in progress with the completion of 3 out of 12 subjects. NASA suit engineers and NASA's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Project Office have identified that suit fit in microgravity could become an issue. It has been noted that crewmembers often need to adjust their suit sizing once they are in orbit. This adjustment could be due to microgravity effects on anthropometry and postural changes, and is necessary to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort in space. To date, the only data collected to determine the effects of microgravity on physical human changes have been during Skylab, STS-57, and a recent HRP study on seated height changes due to spinal elongation (Spinal Elongation, Master Task List [MTL] #221). The Skylab and the STS-57 studies found that there is a distinct neutral body posture (NBP) based on photographs. The still photographs showed that there is a distinguishable posture with the arms raised and the shoulder abducted; and, in addition, the knees were flexed with noticeable hip flexion and the foot

  19. Living with Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Oxygen Therapy Oxygen therapy helps many people function better and be ... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Although you may need oxygen therapy continuously or for long periods, it doesn' ...

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy uses a special pressure chamber to increase the amount of oxygen in the blood. ... outpatient centers. The air pressure inside a hyperbaric oxygen chamber is about two and a half times ...

  1. Pilot Plant Makes Oxygen Difluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, Marshall F.; Lawton, Emil A.

    1989-01-01

    Pilot plant makes oxygen difluoride highly-energetic, space-storable oxidizer not made commercially. Designed to handle reactants, product, and byproduct, most of which highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic. Oxygen difluoride evolves continuously from reactor containing potassium hydroxide in water at 10 degree C. Collection tanks alternated; one filled while other drained to storage cylinder. Excess OF2 and F2 dissipated in combustion of charcoal in burn barrel. Toxic byproduct, potassium fluoride, reacted with calcium hydroxide to form nontoxic calcium fluoride and to regenerate potassium hydroxide. Equipment processes toxic, difficult-to-make substance efficiently and safely.

  2. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight over snow-capped Sierra Nevada mountain range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The DC-8 in flight near Lone Pine, Calif. In the foreground are the Sierra Nevada Mountains, covered with winter snow. In the distance are the White Mountains. The DC-8's fuselage is painted white with a dark blue stripe down the side. The wings are silver, while the engine pods are white. In this view of the airplane's right-hand side, only a few of its antennas are visible. The experimental payload can be as great as 30,000 pounds of equipment for gathering data of various sorts. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  3. Geometric in-flight calibration of the stereoscopic line-CCD scanner MOMS-2P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornus, Wolfgang; Lehner, Manfred; Schroeder, Manfred

    This paper describes the geometric in-flight calibration of the Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner MOMS-2P, which has collected digital multispectral and threefold along-track stereoscopic imagery of the earth's surface from the PRIRODA module of the Russian space station MIR from October 1996 to August 1999. The goal is the verification and, if necessary, the update of the calibration data, which were estimated from the geometric laboratory calibration. The paper is subdivided into two parts, describing two different procedures of geometric in-flight calibration. The first method is based on DLR matching software and is restricted to nadir looking channels, which are read out simultaneously. From a high number of individual point matches between the images of the same area taken by the different CCD arrays, the most reliable ones are selected and used to calculate shifts with components in and across flight direction between the CCD arrays. These actual shifts are compared to the nominal shifts, derived from the results of the laboratory calibration, and parameters of the valid camera model are estimated from both data sets by least squares adjustment. A special case of band-to-band registration are the two optically combined CCD-arrays of the nadir high-resolution channel. They are read out simultaneously with a nominal 10 pixel overlap in stereoscopic imaging mode A. The DLR matching software is applied to calculate the displacement vector between the two CCD-arrays. The second method is based on combined photogrammetric bundle adjustment using an adapted functional model for the reconstruction of the interior orientation. It requires precise and reliable ground control information as well as navigation data of the navigation-package MOMS-NAV. Nine contiguous image scenes of MOMS-2P data-take T083C building an about 550-km-long strip over southern Germany and Austria taken in March 1997 were evaluated. From both procedures calibration data are

  4. Radio astronomy Explorer-B in-flight mission control system development effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutsky, D. A.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Uphoff, C.

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of the development for the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations (MAESTRO) program to be used for the in-flight decision making process during the translunar and lunar orbit adjustment phases of the flight of the Radio Astronomy Explorer-B. THe program serves two functions: performance and evaluation of preflight mission analysis, and in-flight support for the midcourse and lunar insertion command decisions that must be made by the flight director. The topics discussed include: analysis of program and midcourse guidance capabilities; methods for on-line control; printed displays of the MAESTRO program; and in-flight operational logistics and testing.

  5. Device and method for separating oxygen isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Rockwood, Stephen D.; Sander, Robert K.

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for separating oxygen isotopes with an ArF laser which produces coherent radiation at approximately 193 nm. The output of the ArF laser is filtered in natural air and applied to an irradiation cell where it preferentially photodissociates molecules of oxygen gas containing .sup.17 O or .sup.18 O oxygen nuclides. A scavenger such as O.sub.2, CO or ethylene is used to collect the preferentially dissociated oxygen atoms and recycled to produce isotopically enriched molecular oxygen gas. Other embodiments utilize an ArF laser which is narrowly tuned with a prism or diffraction grating to preferentially photodissociate desired isotopes. Similarly, desired mixtures of isotopic gas can be used as a filter to photodissociate enriched preselected isotopes of oxygen.

  6. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  7. Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Watching the Brain in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrivel, Angela; Hearn, Tristan A.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neurological sensing technique applicable to optimizing human performance in transportation operations, such as commercial aviation. Cognitive state can be determined via pattern classification of functional activations measured with fNIRS. Operational application calls for further development of algorithms and filters for dynamic artifact removal. The concept of using the frequency domain phase shift signal to tune a Kalman filter is introduced to improve the quality of fNIRS signals in real-time. Hemoglobin concentration and phase shift traces were simulated for four different types of motion artifact to demonstrate the filter. Unwanted signal was reduced by at least 43%, and the contrast of the filtered oxygenated hemoglobin signal was increased by more than 100% overall. This filtering method is a good candidate for qualifying fNIRS signals in real time without auxiliary sensors.

  8. Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Watching the Brain in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrivel, Angela; Hearn, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neurological sensing technique applicable to optimizing human performance in transportation operations, such as commercial aviation. Cognitive state can be determined via pattern classification of functional activations measured with fNIRS. Operational application calls for further development of algorithms and filters for dynamic artifact removal. The concept of using the frequency domain phase shift signal to tune a Kalman filter is introduced to improve the quality of fNIRS signals in realtime. Hemoglobin concentration and phase shift traces were simulated for four different types of motion artifact to demonstrate the filter. Unwanted signal was reduced by at least 43%, and the contrast of the filtered oxygenated hemoglobin signal was increased by more than 100% overall. This filtering method is a good candidate for qualifying fNIRS signals in real time without auxiliary sensors

  9. The Integrated Medical Model: A Decision Support Tool for In-flight Crew Health Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Doug

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of an Integrated Medical Model (IMM) decision support tool for in-flight crew health care safety. Clinical methods, resources, and case scenarios are also addressed.

  10. In-flight simulation studies at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Mary F.

    1994-01-01

    Since the late 1950's the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Facility has found in-flight simulation to be an invaluable tool. In-flight simulation has been used to address a wide variety of flying qualities questions, including low lift-to-drag ratio approach characteristics for vehicles like the X-15, the lifting bodies, and the space shuttle; the effects of time delays on controllability of aircraft with digital flight control systems; the causes and cures of pilot-induced oscillation in a variety of aircraft; and flight control systems for such diverse aircraft as the X-15 and the X-29. In-flight simulation has also been used to anticipate problems, avoid them, and solve problems once they appear. This paper presents an account of the in-flight simulation at the Dryden Flight Research Facility and some discussion. An extensive bibliography is included.

  11. Effects of external boundary layer flow on jet noise in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarohia, V.; Massier, P. F.

    1976-01-01

    The effects on jet flow of the external boundary layer flow emanating from the trailing edge of an engine cowl in flight has been shown to be the main reason for the disparity between predicted and experimental results obtained from flight measurements. Flight simulation experiments indicate that the external boundary layer flow tends to shield the jet flow in flight. This in turn modifies the jet noise source in flight and consequently the radiated noise from aircraft in flight. Close to 90 deg angle to the intake and in the forward quadrant, this study indicates that the far field jet noise and its spectrum scales approximately with the absolute jet velocity instead of the relative velocity as has been assumed in the existing prediction models.

  12. An investigation into pilot and system response to critical in-flight events, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, T. H.; Giffin, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    Critical in-flight event is studied using mission simulation and written tests of pilot responses. Materials and procedures used in knowledge tests, written tests, and mission simulations are included

  13. In-flight particle pyrometer for thermal spray processes. Final report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-20

    The objective of the project was to produce an industrial hardened particle temperature sensor. In general the thermal spray community believes that the particle temperature and velocity prior to impact on the substrate are two of the predominant parameters which effect coating quality. Prior to the full scale prototyping of such an instrument it was necessary to firmly establish the relationship between operating parameters, particle temperature and coating characteristics. It was shown in the first year of this project that the characteristics and consistency of the coatings formed are directly determined by particle velocity and temperature at impact. For the HVOF spray process the authors have also shown that the particle velocity is determined primarily by chamber pressure, while stoichiometry (the ratio of oxygen to fuel) has a minor influence. Hence, particle velocity can be controlled by maintaining the chamber pressure at a set point. Particle temperature, on the other hand is primarily a function of stoichiometry. Therefore particle velocity and temperature can be independently controlled. In the second year (FY-94), an industrial hardened prototype particle temperature sensor (In-flight Particle Pyrometer) was produced. The IPP is a two-color radiation pyrometer incorporating improvements which make the device applicable to the measurement of in-flight temperature of particles over a wide range of operating conditions in thermal spray processes. The device is insensitive to particulate loading (particle feed rate), particle composition, particle size distribution, and provides an ensemble average particle temperature. The sensor head is compact and coupled to the electronics via a fiber optic cable. Fiber optic coupling allows maximum flexibility of deployment while providing isolation of the electronics from electromagnetic interference and the hot, particulate laden environment of a typical spray booth. The device is applicable to all thermal spray

  14. An investigation into pilot and system response to critical in-flight events, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, T. H.; Giffin, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    The scope of a critical in-flight event (CIFE) with emphasis on pilot management of available resources is described. Detailed scenarios for both full mission simulation and written testing of pilot responses to CIFE's, and statistical relationships among pilot characteristics and observed responses are developed. A model developed to described pilot response to CIFE and an analysis of professional fight crews compliance with specified operating procedures and the relationships with in-flight errors are included.

  15. In-flight and ground testing of single event upset sensitivity in static RAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, K.; Dyreklev, P.; Granbom, B.; Calvet, C.; Fourtine, S.; Feuillatre, O.

    1998-06-01

    This paper presents the results from in-flight measurements of single event upsets (SEU) in static random access memories (SRAM) caused by the atmospheric radiation environment at aircraft altitudes. The memory devices were carried on commercial airlines at high altitude and mainly high latitudes. The SEUs were monitored by a Component Upset Test Equipment (CUTE), designed for this experiment. The in flight results are compared to ground based testing with neutrons from three different sources.

  16. Spacewedge #3 in Flight over California City Drop Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    One of the Spacewedge remotely-piloted research vehicles in flight under a steerable parafoil during 1995 research flights conducted by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. From October 1991 to December 1996, NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) conducted a research program know as the Spacecraft Autoland Project. This Project was designed to determine the feasibility of the autonomous recovery of a spacecraft using a ram-air parafoil system for the final stages of flight, including a precision landing. The Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Army participated in various phases of the program. The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory developed the software for Wedge 3 under contract to the Army. Four generic spacecraft (each called a Spacewedge or simply a Wedge) were built; the last one was built to test the feasibility of a parafoil for delivering Army cargoes. Technology developed during this program has applications for future spacecraft recovery systems, such as the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle demonstrator. The Spacewedge program demonstrated precision flare and landing into the wind at a predetermined location. The program showed that a flexible, deployable system using autonomous navigation and landing was a viable and practical way to recover spacecraft. NASA researchers conducted flight tests of the Spacewedge at three sites near Dryden, a hillside near Tehachapi, the Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, and the California City Airport Drop Zone. During the first phase of testing 36 flights were made. Phase II consisted of 45 flights using a smaller parafoil. A third Phase of 34 flights was conducted primarily by the Army and resulted in the development of an Army guidance system for precision offset cargo delivery. The wedge used during the Army phase was not called a Spacewedge but simply a Wedge. The Spacewedge was a flattened biconical airframe joined to a ram-air parafoil with a

  17. M2-F1 in flight on tow line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    The M2-F1 Lifting Body is seen here under tow at the Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. The wingless, lifting-body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Flight Research Center management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The M2-F1 project had limited goals. They were to show that a piloted lifting body could be built, that it could not only fly but be controlled in flight, and that it could make a successful landing. While the M2-F1 did prove the concept, with a wooden fuselage and fixed landing gear, it was far from an operational spacecraft. The next step in the lifting-body development was to build a heavyweight, rocket-powered vehicle that was more like an operational lifting body, albeit one without the thermal protection system that would be needed for reentry into the atmosphere from space at near-orbital speeds. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. These initial tests produced enough flight data about the M2-F1 to proceed with flights behind a NASA C-47 tow plane at greater altitudes. The C-47 took the craft to an altitude of 12,000 where free flights back to Rogers Dry Lake began. Pilot for the first series of flights of the M2-F1 was NASA research pilot Milt Thompson. Typical glide flights with the M2-F1 lasted about two minutes and reached speeds of 110 to

  18. X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability aircraft in flight over California's Mojave desert during a 1992 test flight. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat

  19. Artist Concept of X-43A/Hyper-X Hypersonic Experimental Research Vehicle in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An artist's conception of the X-43A Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, or 'Hyper-X' in flight. The X-43A was developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will

  20. The Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aerodynamics and systems: Description and analysis. [maneuver control and gust alleviators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrisani, D., II; Daughaday, H.; Dittenhauser, J.; Rynaski, E.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamics, control system, instrumentation complement and recording system of the USAF Total In/Flight Simulator (TIFS) airplane are described. A control system that would allow the ailerons to be operated collectively, as well as, differentially to entrance the ability of the vehicle to perform the dual function of maneuver load control and gust alleviation is emphasized. Mathematical prediction of the rigid body and the flexible equations of longitudinal motion using the level 2.01 FLEXSTAB program are included along with a definition of the vehicle geometry, the mass and stiffness distribution, the calculated mode frequencies and mode shapes, and the resulting aerodynamic equations of motion of the flexible vehicle. A complete description of the control and instrumentation system of the aircraft is presented, including analysis, ground test and flight data comparisons of the performance and bandwidth of the aerodynamic surface servos. Proposed modification for improved performance of the servos are also presented.

  1. The Pressure Distribution over the Wings and Tail Surfaces of a PW-9 Pursuit Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, Richard

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine (1) the magnitude and distribution of aerodynamic loads over the wings and tail surfaces of a pursuit-type airplane in the maneuvers likely to impose critical loads on the various subassemblies of the airplane structure. (2) To study the phenomenon of center of pressure movement and normal force coefficient variation in accelerated flight, and (3) to measure the normal accelerations at the center of gravity, wing-tip, and tail, in order to determine the nature of the inertia forces acting simultaneously with the critical aerodynamic loads. The results obtained throw light on a number of important questions involving structural design. Some of the more interesting results are discussed in some detail, but in general the report is for the purpose of making this collection of airplane-load data obtained in flight available to those interested in airplane structures.

  2. Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes 21 articles that discuss collection development in Canadian school libraries. Topics include digital collections in school library media centers; print and electronic library resources; library collections; collaborative projects; print-disabled students; informing administrators of the importance of collection development; censorship;…

  3. Oxygen chemisorption cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The present invention relates to a chemisorption compressor cryogenic refrigerator which employs oxygen to provide cooling at 60 to 100 K. The invention includes dual vessels containing an oxygen absorbent material, alternately heated and cooled to provide a continuous flow of high pressure oxygen, multiple heat exchangers for precooling the oxygen, a Joule-Thomson expansion valve system for expanding the oxygen to partially liquefy it and a liquid oxygen pressure vessel. The primary novelty is that, while it was believed that once oxygen combined with an element or compound the reaction could not reverse to release gaseous oxygen, in this case oxygen will indeed react in a reversible fashion with certain materials and will do so at temperatures and pressures which make it practical for incorporation into a cryogenic refrigeration system.

  4. The story of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Heffner, John E

    2013-01-01

    The history of oxygen from discovery to clinical application for patients with chronic lung disease represents a long and storied journey. Within a relatively short period, early investigators not only discovered oxygen but also recognized its importance to life and its role in respiration. The application of oxygen to chronic lung disease, however, took several centuries. In the modern era, physiologists pursued the chemical nature of oxygen and its physiologic interaction with cellular metabolism and gas transport. It took brazen clinicians, however, to pursue oxygen as a therapeutic resource for patients with chronic lung disease because of the concern in the 20th century of the risks of oxygen toxicity. Application of ambulatory oxygen devices allowed landmark investigations of the long-term effects of continuous oxygen that established its safety and efficacy. Although now well established for hypoxic patients, many questions remain regarding the benefits of oxygen for varying severity and types of chronic lung disease. PMID:23271817

  5. DAST in Flight just after Structural Failure of Right Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of the structure, driven by aerodynamic forces and resulting in structural failure. The program used refined theoretical tools to predict at what speed flutter would occur. It then designed a high-response control system to counteract the motion and permit a much lighter wing structure. The wing had, in effect, 'electronic stiffness.' Flight research with this concept was extremely hazardous because an error in either the flutter prediction or control system implementation would result in wing structural failure and the loss of the vehicle. Because of this, flight demonstration of a sub-scale vehicle made sense from the standpoint of both safety and cost. The program anticipated structural failure during the course of the flight research. The Firebee II was a supersonic drone selected as the DAST testbed because its wing could be easily replaced, it used only tail-mounted control surfaces, and it was available as surplus from the U. S. Air Force. It was capable of 5-g turns (that is, turns producing acceleration equal to 5 times that of gravity). Langley outfitted a drone with an aeroelastic, supercritical research wing suitable for a Mach 0.98 cruise transport with a predicted flutter speed of Mach 0.95 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Dryden and Langley, in conjunction with Boeing, designed and fabricated a digital flutter suppression system (FSS). Dryden developed an RPRV (remotely piloted research vehicle) flight control system; integrated the wing, FSS, and vehicle systems; and conducted the flight program. In addition to a digital flight control system and aeroelastic wings, each DAST drone had research equipment mounted in its nose and a mid-air retrieval system in its tail. The drones

  6. X-2 in flight after drop from B-50 mothership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    attempted to bail out and was killed when the capsule impacted on the Edwards bombing range. The rest of the X-2 crashed five miles away. The X-2 was a swept-wing, rocket-powered aircraft designed to fly faster than Mach 3 (three times the speed of sound). It was built for the U.S. Air Force by the Bell Aircraft Company, Buffalo, New York. The X-2 was flown to investigate the problems of aerodynamic heating as well as stability and control effectiveness at high altitudes and high speeds (in excess of Mach 3). Bell aircraft built two X-2 aircraft. These were constructed of K-monel (a copper and nickel alloy) for the fuselage and stainless steel for the swept wings and control surfaces. The aircraft had ejectable nose capsules instead of ejection seats because the development of ejection seats had not reached maturity at the time the X-2 was conceived. The X-2 ejection canopy was successfully tested using a German V-2 rocket. The X-2 used a skid-type landing gear to make room for more fuel. The airplane was air launched from a modified Boeing B-50 Superfortress Bomber. X-2 Number 1 made its first unpowered glide flight on Aug. 5, 1954, and made a total of 17 (4 glide and 13 powered) flights before it was lost Sept. 27, 1956. The pilot on Flight 17, Capt. Milburn Apt, had flown the aircraft to a record speed of Mach 3.2 (2,094 mph), thus becoming the first person to exceed Mach 3. During that last flight, inertial coupling occurred and the pilot was killed. The aircraft suffered little damage in the crash, resulting in proposals (never implemented) from the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Hampton, Virginia, to rebuild it for use in a hypersonic (Mach 5+) test program. In 1953, X-2 Number 2 was lost in an in-flight explosion while at the Bell Aircraft Company during captive flight trials and was jettisoned into Lake Ontario. The Air Force had previously flown the aircraft on three glide flights at Edwards Air Force Base, California, in 1952. Although the NACA's High

  7. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The TM multispectral scanner system was calibrated in an absolute manner before launch. To determine the temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM collections over White Sands, New Mexico. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels of the in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined. Tables show values for the reflectance of snow at White Sands measured by a modular 8 channel radiometer, and values for exoatmospheric irradiance within the TM passbands, calculated for the Earth-Sun distance using a solar radiometer.

  8. Anemia and Oxygen Delivery.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    Clinical assessment of tissue oxygenation is challenging. Anemia reflects a decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and its significance in the perioperative setting relates largely to the associated risk of insufficient oxygen delivery and cellular hypoxia. Until meaningful clinical measures of tissue oxygenation are available in veterinary practice, clinicians must rely on evaluation of a patient's hemodynamic and ventilatory performance, along with biochemical and hemogasometric measurements. Blood transfusion is used commonly for treatment of perioperative anemia, and may improve tissue oxygenation by normalizing the rheologic properties of blood and enhancing perfusion, independent of increases in oxygen carrying capacity. PMID:26033442

  9. Atomic transport of oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Routbort, J.L.; Tomlins, G.W.

    1994-06-15

    Atomic transport of oxygen in nonstoichiometric oxides is an extremely important topic which overlaps science and technology. In many cases the diffusion of oxygen controls sintering, grain growth, and creep. High oxygen diffusivity is critical for efficient operation of many fuel cells. Additionally, oxygen diffusivities are an essential ingredient in any point defect model. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is the most accurate modern technique to measure oxygen tracer diffusion. This paper briefly reviews the principles and applications of SIMS for the measurement of oxygen transport. Case studies are taken from recent work on ZnO and some high-temperature superconductors.

  10. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Chung, Brandon W.; Raistrick, Ian D.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  11. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  12. In-Flight Measurements of Energetic Radiation from Lightning and Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochkin, P.; Van Deursen, A.; de Boer, A.; Bardet, M.; Boissin, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Thunderstorms emit bursts of energetic radiation. Moreover, lightning stepped leader produces x-ray pulses. The phenomena, their interrelation and impact on Earth's atmosphere and near space are not fully understood yet. In-flight Lightning Strike Damage Assessment System ILDAS is developed in a EU FP6 project ( http://ildas.nlr.nl/ ) to provide information on threat that lightning poses to aircraft. It consists of 2 E-field sensors, and a varying number of H-field sensors. It has recently been modified to include two LaBr3 scintillation detectors. The scintillation detectors are sensitive to x- and gamma-rays above 30 keV. The entire system is installed on A-350 aircraft and digitizes data with 100Msamples/sec rate when triggered by lightning. A continuously monitoring channel counts the number of occurrences that the x-ray signal exceeds a set of trigger levels. In the beginning of 2014 the aircraft flies through thunderstorm cells collecting the data from the sensors. The x-rays generated by the lightning flash are measured in synchronization with the lightning current information during a period of 1 second around the strike. The continuous channel stores x-ray information with less time and amplitude resolution during the whole flight. That would allow x-rays from TGFs and continuous gamma-ray glow of thundercloud outside that 1 s time window. We will give an overview of the ILDAS system and show that the x-ray detection works as intended. Fast x-ray bursts are detected during stepped/dart stepped leader. Data analysis of continuous channel recordings will be presented.

  13. Lightning x-rays inside thunderclouds, in-flight measurements on-board an A350

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Deursen, Alexander; Kochkin, Pavlo; de Boer, Alte; Bardet, Michiel; Boissin, Jean-François

    2015-04-01

    Thunderstorms emit bursts of energetic radiation. Moreover, lightning stepped leader produces x-ray pulses. The phenomena, their interrelation and impact on Earth's atmosphere and near space are not fully understood yet. The In-flight Lightning Strike Damage Assessment System ILDAS was developed in an EU FP6 project ( http://ildas.nlr.nl/ ) to provide information on threat that lightning poses to aircraft. It is intended to localize the lightning attachment points in order to reduce maintenance time and to build statics on lightning current. The system consists of 2 E-field sensors and a varying number of H-field sensors. It has recently been enhanced by two LaBr3 scintillation detectors inside the aircraft. The scintillation detectors are sensitive to x- and gamma-rays above 30 keV. The entire system is installed on-board of an A-350 aircraft and digitizes data with 100Msamples/sec rate when triggered by lightning. A continuously monitoring channel counts the number of occurrences that the x-ray signal exceeds a set of trigger levels. In the beginning of 2014 the aircraft flew through thunderstorm cells collecting the data from the sensors. The x-rays generated by the lightning flash are measured in synchronization better than 40 ns with the lightning current information during a period of 1 second around the strike. The continuous channel stores x-ray information with very limited time and amplitude resolution during the whole flight. That channel would allow x-rays from cosmic ray background, TGFs and continuous gamma-ray glow of thundercloud outside the 1 s time window. In the EGU2014 we presented the ILDAS system and showed that the x-ray detection works as intended. Fast x-ray bursts have been detected during stepped/dart stepped leaders and during interception of lightning. Data analysis of continuous channel recordings will be presented as well.

  14. Home Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... important advantage of liquid oxygen is you can transfer some of the liquid oxygen into a smaller, ... from gas stoves, candles, lighted fireplaces, or other heat sources. Don't use any flammable products like ...

  15. Miniature oxygen resuscitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G.; Teegen, J. T.; Waddell, H.

    1969-01-01

    Miniature, portable resuscitation system is used during evacuation of patients to medical facilities. A carrying case contains a modified resuscitator head, cylinder of oxygen, two-stage oxygen regulator, low pressure tube, and a mask for mouth and nose.

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002375.htm Hyperbaric oxygen therapy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy uses a special pressure chamber to increase ...

  17. Models of subjective response to in-flight motion data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudrapatna, A. N.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Mathematical relationships between subjective comfort and environmental variables in an air transportation system are investigated. As a first step in model building, only the motion variables are incorporated and sensitivities are obtained using stepwise multiple regression analysis. The data for these models have been collected from commercial passenger flights. Two models are considered. In the first, subjective comfort is assumed to depend on rms values of the six-degrees-of-freedom accelerations. The second assumes a Rustenburg type human response function in obtaining frequency weighted rms accelerations, which are used in a linear model. The form of the human response function is examined and the results yield a human response weighting function for different degrees of freedom.

  18. Continuum ionization transition probabilities of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Petrosky, V. E.

    1974-01-01

    The technique of photoelectron spectroscopy was employed in the investigation. Atomic oxygen was produced in a microwave discharge operating at a power of 40 W and at a pressure of approximately 20 mtorr. The photoelectron spectrum of the oxygen with and without the discharge is shown. The atomic states can be clearly seen. In connection with the measurement of the probability for transitions into the various ionic states, the analyzer collection efficiency was determined as a function of electron energy.

  19. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  20. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures.

  1. Hybrid Kalman Filter: A New Approach for Aircraft Engine In-Flight Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a uniquely structured Kalman filter is developed for its application to in-flight diagnostics of aircraft gas turbine engines. The Kalman filter is a hybrid of a nonlinear on-board engine model (OBEM) and piecewise linear models. The utilization of the nonlinear OBEM allows the reference health baseline of the in-flight diagnostic system to be updated to the degraded health condition of the engines through a relatively simple process. Through this health baseline update, the effectiveness of the in-flight diagnostic algorithm can be maintained as the health of the engine degrades over time. Another significant aspect of the hybrid Kalman filter methodology is its capability to take advantage of conventional linear and nonlinear Kalman filter approaches. Based on the hybrid Kalman filter, an in-flight fault detection system is developed, and its diagnostic capability is evaluated in a simulation environment. Through the evaluation, the suitability of the hybrid Kalman filter technique for aircraft engine in-flight diagnostics is demonstrated.

  2. Collecting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Charles P.

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

  3. Medical Oxygen Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the air a patient uses to breathe. Fire needs oxygen to burn. If a fire should start in an oxygen-enriched area, the ... Homes where medical oxygen is used need specific fire safety rules to keep people safe from fire ...

  4. [Domiciliary oxygen therapy].

    PubMed

    Abdel Kafi, S

    2010-09-01

    In Belgium, oxygen therapy is becoming more and more accessible. When oxygen is needed for short periods or for special indications as palliative care, an agreement between mutual insurance companies and pharmacists allows the practitioner the home installation of gazeous oxygen cylinder or of oxygen concentrator. When long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated for patients with respiratory insufficiency, the pneumologist must first ask the INAMI the authorization to install one of the following modalities: oxygen concentrator with or without demand oxygen delivery cylinder and liquid oxygen. The goal of LTOT is to increase survival and quality of life. The principal and well accepted indication for LTOT is severe hypoxemia. The beneficial effects of oxygen therapy limited at night or on exertion are controversial. In order to increase patient's autonomy, oxygen can be prescribed for ambulation, respecting prescription's rules. At each step of oxygen therapy implementing (indication, choice of the device and follow-up) the patient under oxygen may benefit from a joint approach between the general practitioner and the chest specialist. PMID:21089403

  5. D-558-2 in flight with F-86 chase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    This 1950s photograph shows the Douglas D-558-2 and the North American F-86 Sabre chase aircraft in-flight. Both aircraft display early examples of sweptwing airfoils. The Douglas D-558-2 'Skyrockets' were among the early transonic research airplanes like the X-1, X-4, X-5, and X-92A. Three of the single-seat, swept-wing aircraft flew from 1948 to 1956 in a joint program involving the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), with its flight research done at the NACA's Muroc Flight Test Unit in Calif., redesignated in 1949 the High-Speed Flight Research Station (HSFRS); the Navy-Marine Corps; and the Douglas Aircraft Co. The HSFRS became the High-Speed Flight Station in 1954 and is now known as the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The Skyrocket made aviation history when it became the first airplane to fly twice the speed of sound. The 2 in the aircraft's designation referred to the fact that the Skyrocket was the phase-two version of what had originally been conceived as a three-phase program, with the phase-one aircraft having straight wings. The third phase, which never came to fruition, would have involved constructing a mock-up of a combat-type aircraft embodying the results from the testing of the phase one and two aircraft. Douglas pilot John F. Martin made the first flight at Muroc Army Airfield (later renamed Edwards Air Force Base) in Calif. on February 4, 1948. The goals of the program were to investigate the characteristics of swept-wing aircraft at transonic and supersonic speeds with particular attention to pitch-up (uncommanded rotation of the nose of the airplane upwards)--a problem prevalent in high-speed service aircraft of that era, particularly at low speeds during take-off and landing and in tight turns. The three aircraft gathered a great deal of data about pitch-up and the coupling of lateral (yaw) and longitudinal (pitch) motions; wing and tail loads, lift, drag, and buffeting characteristics of swept-wing aircraft at transonic

  6. Collections Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert

    Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

  7. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight over Palmdale, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in a left banking turn above the airport at Palmdale, California. The right wing is silhouetted against the blue sky, while the left wing contrasts with the desert terrain. The former airliner is a 'dash-72' model and has a range of 5,400 miles. The craft can stay airborne for 12 hours and has an operational speed range between 300 and 500 knots. The research flights are made at between 500 and 41,000 feet. The aircraft can carry up to 30,000 lbs of research/science payload equipment installed in 15 mission-definable spaces. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  8. Oxygen configurations in silica

    SciTech Connect

    Chelikowsky, James R.; Chadi, D. J.; Binggeli, N.

    2000-07-15

    We propose a transition state for oxygen in silica. This state is produced by the insertion of an oxygen molecule into the Si-O-Si bond, i.e., it consists of producing a Si-O-O-O-Si bond. This state allows molecular oxygen diffusion in silica without breaking the molecular O{sub 2} bond and it is energetically more stable than a peroxy configuration. This configuration may allow for exchange of molecular oxygen with the oxygen in the silica framework. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  9. Brain Oxygenation Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Smith, Martin

    2016-09-01

    A mismatch between cerebral oxygen supply and demand can lead to cerebral hypoxia/ischemia and deleterious outcomes. Cerebral oxygenation monitoring is an important aspect of multimodality neuromonitoring. It is increasingly deployed whenever intracranial pressure monitoring is indicated. Although there is a large body of evidence demonstrating an association between cerebral hypoxia/ischemia and poor outcomes, it remains to be determined whether restoring cerebral oxygenation leads to improved outcomes. Randomized prospective studies are required to address uncertainties about cerebral oxygenation monitoring and management. This article describes the different methods of monitoring cerebral oxygenation, their indications, evidence base, limitations, and future perspectives. PMID:27521197

  10. In-flight quality and accuracy of attitude measurements from the CHAMP advanced stellar compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Peter S.; Jørgensen, John L.; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    The German geo-observations satellite CHAMP carries highly accurate vector instruments. The orientation of these relative to the inertial reference frame is obtained using star trackers. These advanced stellar compasses (ASC) are fully autonomous units, which provide, in real time, the absolute attitude with accuracy in the arc second range. In order to investigate the in-flight accuracy of the ASC, the terminology to characterize noise and biases is introduced. Relative instrument accuracy (RIA) and absolute instrument accuracy (AIA) can in principle be determined in-flight. However problems with modeling external noise sources often arise. The special CHAMP configuration with two star tracker cameras mounted fixed together provides an excellent opportunity to determine the AIA in-flight using the inter boresight angle.