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Sample records for inbred bedouin families

  1. Multiple recurrence of trisomy 21 in two Bedouin families: Parental gonadal mosaicism or {open_quotes}aneuploidy{close_quotes} gene effect?

    SciTech Connect

    Farag, T.I.; Murthy, D.S.K.

    1994-09-01

    Two unrelated multiplex Down syndrome families is reported in Kuwait among the highly inbred population with Bedouin ancestors. Each family showed recurrent aneuploidies in three sibs with regular trisomy 21. Recurrent regular trisomy 21 in two or more siblings of healthy, normal parents (parental age <35 years) occurs rarely. Several possible etiological factors for recurrent aneuploidy have been suggested. The recurrence risks for regular trisomy 21 based on livebirth and prenatal diagnosis data were estimated at 1% - 2% for young women. However, there are no estimates for multiple recurrence of regular trisomy 21 in the young parents (<35 years). Clustering of trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 have been observed in Bedouin tribal population. The possibility of parental gonadal mosaicism and/or a possibility of an {open_quotes}aneuploidy gene{close_quotes} effect should be considered in practical genetic counselling of families with multiple recurrence of trisomy 21.

  2. The Relationship between Monogamous/Polygamous Family Structure and the Mental Health of Bedouin Arab Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, S.; Bart, William; Hektner, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies of polygamy and child mental health have primarily focused on younger children. The present studies are among the first to focus on adolescents. The first study involved 210 randomly selected Bedouin Arab adolescents (mean age 15.9), who were administered instruments assessing their family environment and mental health. The second…

  3. Scholastic Achievement and Family Marital Structure: Bedouin-Arab Adolescents from Monogamous and Polygamous Families in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, Salman; Bart, William M.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the scholastic achievement in Arabic, English, Hebrew, and mathematics of 240 Bedouin-Arab adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families in Negev (Israel). Reveals that adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families demonstrate equivalent levels of scholastic achievement, although boys in polygamous families and girls in…

  4. Mothers of Children with Developmental Disorders in the Bedouin Community in Israel: Family Functioning, Caregiver Burden, and Coping Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study compares the family functioning, caregiver burden, and coping abilities between mothers of 300 children with developmental disorders and mothers of 100 children with no such disorders in the Bedouin community in Israel. The mothers completed the McMaster Family Assessment Device Scale, the Caregiver Burden Index, and the…

  5. Cultural Perspectives on the Aftereffects of Combat Trauma: Review of a Community Study of Bedouin IDF Servicemen and Their Families

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Yael; Slobodin, Ortal; Klein, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    Combat trauma may affect servicemen from indigenous, traditional communities in ways that warrant special attention. The Bedouins, who enlist in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) voluntarily, represent a unique, closed, collectivist cultural minority, potentially in a predicament in light of ongoing sociopolitical events. This paper summarizes findings and lessons learned from a community study of Bedouin IDF servicemen and their families residing in Israel’s Western Galilee. This is the only research endeavor to have addressed trauma exposure and posttraumatic reactions in this community. The sampling strategies and interview schedule were designed in consideration of participation barriers typical of hard-to-reach populations. Data collection followed an extended phase of liaising with key informants and building trust. Study limitations are discussed in terms of the challenges presented by this type of research. Interviews conducted with 317 men, 129 wives, and 67 mothers revealed high levels of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the men, and related distress in wives and mothers, but not in the children. The role of aggression in mediating the impact of PTSD and concepts such as shame, the loss of personal resources, and beliefs about retribution are highlighted as key issues for a culturally relevant understanding of traumatized indigenous communities. PMID:25973273

  6. Nonsyndromic autosomal recessive deafness is linked to the DFNB1 locus in a large inbred Bedouin family from Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.A.; Sheffield, V.C.; Stone, E.M.

    1995-10-01

    Nonsyndromic deafness accounts for {approximately}70% of all genetically determined deafness. Several types of nonsyndromic deafness, with a variety of inheritance patterns, have been genetically linked, including dominant, recessive and X-linked forms. Two of these forms - DFNA3, a dominant form causing moderate to severe hearing loss, predominantly in the high frequencies, and DFNB1, a recessive form causing profound, prelingual, neurosensory deafness affecting all frequencies - have been linked to the same pericentromeric region of chromosome 13. This finding is equally compatible with (1) the existence two closely linked deafness genes, (2) different mutations within a single deafness gene, and (3) a single mutation in a single gene that behaves differently in different genetic backgrounds. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I: phenotypic variability within a large consanguineous Bedouin family associated with a novel FKRP mutation.

    PubMed

    Harel, Tamar; Goldberg, Yael; Shalev, Stavit A; Chervinski, Ilana; Ofir, Rivka; Birk, Ohad S

    2004-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) represent a group of diseases characterized mainly by muscle wasting of the upper and lower limbs, with a wide range of clinical severity. The clinical heterogeneity is paralleled by molecular heterogeneity; each of the 10 forms of autosomal-recessive LGMD recognized to date is caused by mutations in a distinct gene. In a large consanguineous Bedouin tribe living in northern Israel, 15 individuals affected by LGMD demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. A genome-wide screen followed by fine mapping in this family revealed linkage to a region on chromosome 19 harboring the fukutin-related protein gene (FKRP), with a maximal LOD score of 4.8 for D19S902. FKRP, encoding a putative glycosyltransferase, has been implicated in causing congenital muscular dystrophy 1C (MDC1C), and has recently been shown to be mutated in LGMD2I. We identified a novel missense mutation in exon 4 of the FKRP gene in all the patients studied. Although all affected individuals were homozygous for the same mutation, a marked phenotypic variability was apparent within the family. This finding may suggest a role of modifier genes and environmental factors in LGMD2I. Moreover, the demonstration that an identical, novel mutation in the FKRP gene can cause a muscle disease of either a congenital onset or of a later onset within a single family provides clinical support to the molecular evidence, suggesting that MDC1C and LGMD2I are overlapping ends of one and the same entity. PMID:14523375

  8. Parent-adolescent conflict and its resolution in monogamous and polygamous Bedouin Arab families in southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Elbedour, Salman; Hektner, Joel M; Morad, Mohammed; Abu-Bader, Soleman H

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to compare whether children from polygamous family structures significantly differ from children from monogamous family structures with regard to the frequency of parent-child conflict, and (2) whether children from these two structures employ different patterns of family conflict resolution. To address these questions, a random sample of 212 high school students (60.8% monogamous) completed a self-administered survey. The results of MANOVA show no significant differences (p > 0.05) between these two structures with regard to the frequency of parent-child conflict. The results also show similar conflict management styles between these two family structures within each of the following five domains (privacy, school and career, money spending, going out and leisure, and physical appearance). This study is unique in that it is the first empirical research to be conducted in the field of conflict resolution among youth and adolescents in polygamous marital structures and therefore, further investigation is needed to replicate these results utilizing different cross-cultural populations practicing polygamy. PMID:14665739

  9. [A lethal variant of Netherton syndrome in a large inbred family].

    PubMed

    Capri, Y; Vanlieferinghen, P; Boeuf, B; Dechelotte, P; Hovnanian, A; Lecomte, B

    2011-03-01

    Netherton syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the triad of ichthyosiform erythrodermia, typical hair dysplasia, and severe atopic features. The broad range of variable expression of this disease is well described and 20% of complications occur during the neonatal period such as hypernatremic dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, recurrent or severe infections, and failure to thrive. Mutation of the SPINK5 gene has been identified as disease-causing in Netherton syndrome, but the pathophysiology still remains unclear. Almost all SPINK5 mutations result in the absence of the serine-protease inhibitor LEKTI protein in both keratinocytes and lymphocytes. In this study, we report on a severe form of Netherton syndrome observed in three patients within a large inbred Rom family. All of them died in the first months of life despite early treatment. They were found to be homozygous for the c.1431-12G>A SPINK5 gene mutation, which has not been associated with a lethal form of the disease thus far. This family illustrates the extreme phenotype of Netherton disease of neonatal onset. Molecular diagnosis allowed further genetic counseling and prenatal testing during other pregnancies. PMID:21255986

  10. Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome in a large inbred Lebanese family: confirmation of autosomal recessive inheritance?

    PubMed

    Mégarbané, A; Desguerres, I; Rizkallah, E; Delague, V; Nabbout, R; Barois, A; Urtizberea, A

    2000-05-15

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome or pontobulbar palsy with deafness is a rare disorder characterized by bilateral nerve deafness, a variety of cranial nerve disorders usually involving the motor components of the 7th and 9th to 12th cranial nerves, and less commonly an involvement of spinal motor nerves and upper motor neurons. Familial and sporadic cases have been reported. Based on particular evidence, autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked inheritance, as well as autoimmune origin have been considered. We report on a large inbred Lebanese family with four patients of both sexes, strongly suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance. PMID:10797435

  11. Influence of major histocompatibility haplotype on autoimmune disease varies in different inbred families of chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, L D; Rose, N R

    1979-01-01

    Three partially inbred substrains of Obese strain chickens were studied for the spontaneous development of autoimmune thyroiditis. The influence of the major histocompatibility complex (B haplotype) was marked in one, less marked but still significant in a second, and barely detectable and transient in a third substrain. These differences in the effect of B haplotype may be due to the overriding action of genes other than those within the B haplotype. PMID:286327

  12. Similarity in General Mental Ability in Bedouin Full and Half Siblings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, Salman; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A battery of "g" loaded mental ability tests was administered to 274 Bedouin children and adolescents, full and half siblings from 106 families. Results demonstrate internal validity for the tests in this cultural context and support the idea that shared family environment is a strong determinant of sibling similarity for children in the given age…

  13. Navigating care for Bedouin patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dunton, Shauna; Higgins, Alison; Amkraut, Jonathan; Abu-Rabia, Yones

    2016-01-01

    The Bedouin Arab population in the southern Negev region of Israel has faced health problems as a result of transitioning rapidly from a nomadic agricultural lifestyle to a more modern urban lifestyle. Like many populations around the world, the Bedouins have changed their diets and become more sedentary and this has led to a high rate of diabetes. In this case report, we examine how diabetes has affected the life of an influential man in the Bedouin community and the significance this case has in the greater context of a global rise in chronic disease. PMID:26944372

  14. The Scope of Sexual, Physical, and Psychological Abuse in a Bedouin-Arab Community of Female Adolescents: The Interplay of Racism, Urbanization, Polygamy, Family Honor, and the Social Marginalization of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study of the abuse--especially sexual--of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these…

  15. Deciphering the fine-structure of tribal admixture in the Bedouin population using genomic data

    PubMed Central

    Markus, B; Alshafee, I; Birk, O S

    2014-01-01

    The Bedouin Israeli population is highly inbred and structured with a very high prevalence of recessive diseases. Many studies in the past two decades focused on linkage analysis in large, multiple consanguineous pedigrees of this population. The advent of high-throughput technologies motivated researchers to search for rare variants shared between smaller pedigrees, integrating data from clinically similar yet seemingly non-related sporadic cases. However, such analyses are challenging because, without pedigree data, there is no prior knowledge regarding possible relatedness between the sporadic cases. Here, we describe models and techniques for the study of relationships between pedigrees and use them for the inference of tribal co-ancestry, delineating the complex social interactions between different tribes in the Negev Bedouins of southern Israel. Through our analysis, we differentiate between tribes that share many yet small genomic segments because of co-ancestry versus tribes that share larger segments because of recent admixture. The emergent pattern is well correlated with the prevalence of rare mutations in the different tribes. Tribes that do not intermarry, mostly because of social restrictions, hold private mutations, whereas tribes that do intermarry demonstrate a genetic flow of mutations between them. Thus, social structure within an inbred community can be delineated through genomic data, with implications to genetic counseling and genetic mapping. PMID:24084643

  16. Genetic structure of nomadic Bedouin from Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, T.; Xue, Yali; Evison, M.; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Bedouin are traditionally nomadic inhabitants of the Persian Gulf who claim descent from two male lineages: Adnani and Qahtani. We have investigated whether or not this tradition is reflected in the current genetic structure of a sample of 153 Bedouin males from six Kuwaiti tribes, including three tribes from each traditional lineage. Volunteers were genotyped using a panel of autosomal and Y-STRs, and Y-SNPs. The samples clustered with their geographical neighbours in both the autosomal and Y-chromosomal analyses, and showed strong evidence of genetic isolation and drift. Whilst there was no evidence of segregation into the two male lineages, other aspects of genetic structure were in accord with tradition. PMID:19639002

  17. Fixation, Segregation and Linkage of Allozyme Loci in Inbred Families of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas (Thunberg): Implications for the Causes of Inbreeding Depression

    PubMed Central

    McGoldrick, D. J.; Hedgecock, D.

    1997-01-01

    The effect that inbreeding has on the fixation and segregation of genes has rarely been confirmed by direct observation. Here, fixation, segregation, and linkage of allozymes is investigated in the progeny of self-fertilized hermaphrodites of the normally outcrossing Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The estimate of fixation pooled over loci, individuals, and families, F = 0.462, is significantly lower than the expected value of 0.5. Log-likelihood ratios reveal significant heterogeneity in fixation among individuals, among families, and among loci. In addition, the grand pooled segregation ratio, 127:243:54, deviates significantly from 1:2:1, with a bias against homozygotes for alleles of lesser frequency in the natural population. Segregation ratios for 11 of 14 loci are significantly heterogeneous among families, and exact tests for segregation within families reveal 16 significant results out of 51 tests. Thus, fixation and segregation of allozyme markers in inbred oyster families deviates from the expectations of neutral inbreeding theory. Di-genic disequilibria are significant for four of 74 di-locus pairs revealing two linkage groups. Strong viability selection is apparently conditional on the genotype of the hermaphrodite-founders and is largely focused on these two linkage groups. These genetic effects are explained by interaction between cis-linked factors and polymorphic regulatory backgrounds. PMID:9136021

  18. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region and Major Histocompatibility Region Genes Are Linked to Induced Graves' Disease in Females From Two Very Large Families of Recombinant Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for induced Graves' disease in female mice of two large RI families and combined data with earlier findings to provide phenotypes for 178 genotypes. TSHR antibodies measured by inhibition of TSH binding to its receptor were highly significantly linked in the BXD set to the major histocompatibility region (chromosome 17), consistent with observations in 3 other RI families. In the LXS family, we detected linkage between T4 levels after TSHR-adenovirus immunization and the Ig heavy chain variable region (Igvh, chromosome 12). This observation is a key finding because components of the antigen binding region of Igs determine antibody specificity and have been previously linked to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies. Data from the LXS family provide the first evidence in mice of a direct link between induced hyperthyroidism and Igvh genes. A role for major histocompatibility genes has now been established for genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease in both humans and mice. Future studies using arrays incorporating variation in the complex human Ig gene locus will be necessary to determine whether Igvh genes are also linked to Graves' disease in humans. PMID:25051451

  19. Bedouin Special-Education Teachers as Agents of Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, Efrat; Miller, Erez C.

    2011-01-01

    This study probes the career motives of minority special-education teachers in the Bedouin Arab society of southern Israel. The results, obtained via in-depth interviews of teachers, show that the teachers aspire to become agents of social change in three spheres: In the external sphere, they aim for professional autonomy and independence within…

  20. Special Education in the Bedouin Community in Israel's Negev Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the special education sector of the Bedouin Arab community in southern Israel. The paper opens with the study rationale and the importance of the subject. The review is based on a thematic analysis of content taken from diverse sources. The analysis showed five principle themes: (a) numerous…

  1. The Impact of Intellectual Disability, Caregiver Burden, Family Functioning, Marital Quality, and Sense of Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R.; Al Gharaibeh, Fakir

    2011-01-01

    The present article is the first to consider the impact of intellectual disability on Bedouin-Arab families' caregiver burden, family functioning, marital quality, and sense of coherence. A random sample of 300 Bedouin-Arab parents with one or more intellectually disabled children, and a control group (n = 100) completed the McMaster Family…

  2. When a man encounters a woman, Satan is also present: clinical relationships in Bedouin society.

    PubMed

    Mass, M; al-Krenawi, A

    1994-07-01

    Professional encounters in Bedouin society between male therapists and their female clients are discussed in terms of the conflict between clinical precepts and Bedouin codes of social conduct. The effects of the conflict on the transference relationship are examined by means of case presentations, and rules of conduct acceptable in both the professional realm and Bedouin society are proposed as an avenue toward resolution. PMID:7977659

  3. Construction of the Inbred Strain.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Minori

    2016-01-01

    Genetically homogeneous populations such as inbred strains are valuable experimental tools in various fields of biomedical analyses. In many animals, inbred strains are established by consecutive sib-pair mating for a minimum of 20 generations. As the generation proceeds, fitness of the population reduces usually. Therefore, in order to establish inbred strains, the important point is the selection of pairs in good condition at each generation. Here, I describe the procedure and tips for generating inbred strains in zebrafish. PMID:27464804

  4. Between Tradition and Modernization: Understanding the Problem of Female Bedouin Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia-Queder, Sarab

    2006-01-01

    This study discusses the problem of Bedouin girls dropping out from the public school system in the Negev region of Israel. Data show that this phenomenon results from a conflict between the modern Israeli institutes' perception of modernity (which promote coeducation) and the Bedouin traditions that remain the cultural ethos of the girls'…

  5. The Bedouin mutation c.155-166del of the TBCE gene in a patient with Sanjad-Sakati syndrome of Moroccan origin.

    PubMed

    Ratbi, Ilham; Lyahyai, Jaber; Kabiri, Meryem; Banouar, Meryem; Zerkaoui, Maria; Barkat, Amina; Sefiania, Abdelaziz

    2015-01-01

    Sanjad-Sakati syndrome (SSS) or hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome (HDR) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. It is characterized by the association of congenital hypothyroidism, growth retardation, psychomotor retardation, epilepsy, dysmorphic features (microcephaly, facial, eye, and dental anomalies), and abnormalities of the extremities. The prevalence of SSS is unknown. Reported patients are were almost exclusively from the Arabian Peninsula. They are were all homozygous for the ancestral mutation c.155- 166del of the TBCE gene, also known as "the Bedouin mutation." We report on the first clinical and molecular description of a Moroccan patient with Sanjad-Sakati syndrome. He is was a carrier for the Bedouin mutation, not surprising, knowing that part of the Moroccan population has Arabian origin. This diagnosis allowed us to provide an appropriate management to the patient, to make a genetic counseling to his family, and to enrich genetic data on the Moroccan population. PMID:26336027

  6. Maternal, perinatal and infant health in Bedouin and Jews in southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Harlap, S; Prywes, R; Grover, N B; Davies, A M

    1977-05-01

    A study has been made of 3,745 Bedouin and 9,422 Jewish babies born in 1972-73 to residents of the Beersheba district of southern Israel (the Negev). Newborn infants weighing less than 1 kg were excluded. Thirty-seven percent of the Bedouin babies were born at home; their mothers tended to be older and of higher parity than those choosing to deliver in hospital. Less than 6% of Bedouin mothers had been to school, compared with 90% of the Jews; 30% were aged under 20 or over 34 years, compared with 18% of the Jews, and 23% were having their seventh or later baby, compared with 12% of the Jews. Mean birth weight of babies born in hospital was about 200 g lower in Bedouin than in Jews, and 11.4% of Bedouin and 6.5% of Jewish infants weighed less than 2.5 kg. There was little variation in complications of labor between the 1,959 Bedouin and 8,877 Jewish women delivered in Beersheba's Soroka Medical Center. The cesarean section rate was 1.8% in Bedouin and 4.3% in Jews, while in 0.3% of Bedouin and 1.4% of Jews labor was induced. Monozygous twinning rates were similar in the two ethnic groups (4.8 and 4.5 sets/1,000 deliveries, respectively) but dizygous twinning was twice as common among the Bedouin as among the Jews (13.0 vs 6.0 sets/ 1,000). Male births accounted for 0.526 and 0.512 of the total in Bedouin and Jews, respectively. Perinatal mortality rates for hospital births were 31.1 and 18.3/1,000 in Bedouin and Jews, respectively. Infant deaths among Bedouin (31.0/1,000) were underreported; the rate was 16.8/1,000 for Jewish infants. Although rates of all specific causes of death were higher in Bedouin than in Jews, patterns of mortality in subgroups based on birth weight, sex, twinning and maternal age were quite similar in the two ethnic groups. There were six reported deaths from tetanus among Bedouin babies. For the cohort of babies born in 1972, admissions to the Soroka Medical Center pediatric wards were recorded in 366 (195.5/1,000) Bedouin and 787 (174

  7. Metabolic adaptations for desert survival in the Bedouin goat.

    PubMed

    Choshniak, I; Ben-Kohav, N; Taylor, C R; Robertshaw, D; Barnes, R J; Dobson, A; Belkin, V; Shkolnik, A

    1995-05-01

    Energy conservation is a key adaptation for desert survival in the Bedouin goat. When food is scarce, metabolism is reduced and body weight can be maintained indefinitely on less than one-half of normal intake. We hypothesized that metabolism would be turned down during both rest and exercise, but it was not. It was low when animals rested and returned to normal during exercise. We expected catecholamines and thyroid hormones would modulate metabolism, but they did not. The reduction in metabolism preceded any change in thyroid hormone concentrations, and infusions of epinephrine did not restore reduced metabolism to normal levels. Finally, we expected the gut would be the major organ system involved in the metabolic reduction because less food is eaten, processed, and absorbed. Contrary to our expectations, we found that muscle is the primary organ system responsible for the reduction. It appears that the adaptations of the Bedouin goat for surviving on limited food supplies involve different organ systems and different modulators to reduce metabolism from those known for other mammals. PMID:7771568

  8. Interfacing anthropology and epidemiology: the Bedouin Arab Infant Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Hundt, G A; Forman, M R

    1993-04-01

    This paper encapsulates a 10 year effort of multi-disciplinary research on the relationship between infant feeding, growth, and morbidity among the Negev Bedouin Arabs of Israel as they underwent a transition from semi-nomadism to urban settlement. The research team was multi-disciplinary including a nutritional epidemiologist and an anthropologist who both came to the study with previous experience in interdisciplinary work. The specific study objectives were (1) a description of infant feeding practices among Negev Bedouin Arab women at various stages of settlement, (2) an examination of the trend in these infant feeding practices, (3) a comparison of the extent to which different infant feeding practices are related to infant morbidity and growth after adjustment for exposure to social change and other covariates. The data collection took place in 1981-83 and the analysis from 1984-88. In this paper, two areas of the study are discussed in depth: the duration of exclusive breast feeding during the practice of the traditional postpartum 40 day rest period, and the development of a culture-specific scale of socioeconomic status. Through these examples, we highlight the use of ethnographic data and the merging of epidemiology and anthropology from hypothesis generation through data collection, data analysis and interpretation. PMID:8480241

  9. Education Development among Bedouin Tribes of the Negev Desert. [Paper and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Aref

    About 60,000 Bedouins live in the Negev Desert, which comprises 60% of Israel. Of these, about half live in towns, a third live in settlements of huts for all or part of the year, while a sixth continue to follow traditional nomadic practices. The number of Bedouin children enrolled in school has grown from 150 in 1950 to about 16,000 in 1986.…

  10. Genealogies of mouse inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Beck, J A; Lloyd, S; Hafezparast, M; Lennon-Pierce, M; Eppig, J T; Festing, M F; Fisher, E M

    2000-01-01

    The mouse is a prime organism of choice for modelling human disease. Over 450 inbred strains of mice have been described, providing a wealth of different genotypes and phenotypes for genetic and other studies. As new strains are generated and others become extinct, it is useful to review periodically what strains are available and how they are related to each other, particularly in the light of available DNA polymorphism data from microsatellite and other markers. We describe the origins and relationships of inbred mouse strains, 90 years after the generation of the first inbred strain. Given the large collection of inbred strains available, and that published information on these strains is incomplete, we propose that all genealogical and genetic data on inbred strains be submitted to a common electronic database to ensure this valuable information resource is preserved and used efficiently. PMID:10615122

  11. Respiratory morbidity in hospitalized Bedouins residing near an industrial park.

    PubMed

    Kordysh, Ella; Karakis, Isabella; Belmaker, Ilana; Vardi, Hilel; Bolotin, Arkady; Sarov, Batia

    2005-01-01

    The residents' concern about exposure to a chemical industrial park (IP), which includes the national toxic industrial waste site, prompted the authors to initiate this ecological study on the association between residing near the IP and being hospitalized for respiratory ailments in the local Bedouin population. The population was stratified by sex, age, and locality type (permanent settlements and traditional tribal settlements). The distance and wind direction from the IP were used as exposure indicators. Hospitalization data were obtained from the regional medical center. Increased hospitalization rates for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and all respiratory diseases were found to be associated with residential proximity to the IP. Attributable risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was 34.2% in male members of the traditional tribal settlements and 49.3% in female members of the permanent settlements. PMID:17153087

  12. Childhood injury prevention: intervention in the Bedouin city of Rahat.

    PubMed

    Hemmo-Lotem, Michal; Merrick, Efrat; Endy-Findling, Liri; Freh, Aziza Abu; Jinich-Aronowitz, Claudia; Korn, Liat; Merrick, Joav

    2005-08-01

    For several years, the National Center for Children's Health and Safety (Beterem) has worked on many levels to promote safety and prevent injury of the children in Israel. As part of intervention programs in 20 communities around Israel, this paper describes a 1-year, multidisciplinary, multistrategic childhood safety promotion and injury prevention project. The project took place in the Bedouin city of Rahat in the Southern part of Israel, the Negev, conducted by a local safety coordinator. This specific intervention study took place from March 2003 to March 2004. The main goal was to identify hazards and dangerous obstacles in public places in Rahat, then remove or repair the obstacles found, in order to secure a safe public environment for children. "Obstacle" was defined as any barrier that could endanger the safety of a child. Ten examples are used to illustrate this applied research project, and 80% of the problems were solved within the project period (time to solve between 1 week to 3 months, depending on various factors). We recommend the involvement of a safety coordinator from the community to focus on safety hazards for children, the use of a documentation diary to log the time frame, and also the use of pictures to illustrate the hazards and the changes, or to use as arguments in the lobbying process. PMID:16088342

  13. The sodium-phosphate co-transporter SLC34A2, and pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: Presentation of an inbred family and a novel truncating mutation in exon 3

    PubMed Central

    Vismara, Marco Favio Michele; Colao, Emma; Fabiani, Fernanda; Bombardiere, Francesco; Tamburrini, Oscar; Alessio, Caterina; Manti, Francesco; Pelaia, Gerolamo; Romeo, Pasquale; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Perrotti, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a disorder in which many tiny fragments (microliths) of calcium phosphate gradually accumulate in alveoli. Loss of function mutations in the gene SLC34A2 coding for the sodium phosphate co-transporter (NaPi-IIb) are responsible for genetic forms of alveolar microlithiasis. We now report a consanguineous Italian family from Calabria with two affected members segregating alveolar microlithiasis in a recessive fashion. We describe, for the first time, a novel loss of function mutation in the gene coding for NaPi-IIb. A careful description of the clinical phenotype is provided together with technical details for direct sequencing of the gene. PMID:26744662

  14. The influence of Israel Health Insurance Law on the Negev Bedouin population--a survey study.

    PubMed

    Morad, Mohammed; Shvarts, Shifra; Merrick, Joav; Borkan, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    The extension of universal health service insurance to national populations is a relatively new phenomenon. Since 1995, the Israeli National Health Insurance Law (NHIL) has provided universal health services to every resident, but the effect of this law on health and health services among minorities has not been examined sufficiently. The goals of this study were to track some of the first changes engendered by the NHIL among the Negev Bedouin Arabs to examine the effects of universal health care services. Methods included analysis of historical and health policy documents, three field appraisals of health care services (1994, 1995, 1999), a region-wide interview survey of Negev Bedouins (1997), and key informant interviews. For the interview survey, a sample of 515 households was chosen from different Bedouin localities representing major sedentarization stages. Results showed that prior to the NHIL, a substantial proportion of the Negev Bedouins were uninsured with limited, locally available health service. Since 1995, health services, particularly primary care clinics and health manpower, have dramatically expanded. The initial expansion appears to have been a marketing ploy, but real improvements have occurred. There was a high level of health service utilization among the Bedouins in the Negev, especially private medical services, hospitals, and night ambulatory medical services. The NHIL brought change to the structure of health services in Israel, namely the institution of a national health system based on proportional allocation of resources (based on size and age) and open competition in the provision of quality health care. The expansion of the pool of potential members engendered by the new universal coverage had profound effects on the Health Funds' attitudes towards Negev Bedouins. In addition, real consumer choice was introduced for the first time. Although all the health care needs of this rapidly growing population have yet to be met fully, the

  15. Measuring relatedness between inbred individuals.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Lacy, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Genetic relatedness between individuals is an important measure in many areas of biology. However, some relatedness measures for use with molecular (allele) data assume that the individuals themselves are not inbred. Here, we present a new measure of relatedness based on the different modes of identity-by-descent for alleles that has an upper bound of 1 even when the individuals being compared are themselves inbred. This new measure is compared to several other measures of relatedness using several simple examples and pedigree data from the wolf population in Isle Royale National Park. PMID:25472983

  16. Field performance of inbred and partially inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-fertile breeding accessions were evaluated. These materials are being used to develop recombinant inbred populations for genetic analyses of agronomic and disease resistance traits, which is difficult with the normally self-sterile breeding populations used traditionally. Populations were devel...

  17. Kuwaiti population subgroup of nomadic Bedouin ancestry—Whole genome sequence and analysis

    PubMed Central

    John, Sumi Elsa; Thareja, Gaurav; Hebbar, Prashantha; Behbehani, Kazem; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse; Alsmadi, Osama

    2014-01-01

    Kuwaiti native population comprises three distinct genetic subgroups of Persian, “city-dwelling” Saudi Arabian tribe, and nomadic “tent-dwelling” Bedouin ancestry. Bedouin subgroup is characterized by presence of 17% African ancestry; it owes it origin to nomadic tribes of the deserts of Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. By sequencing whole genome of a Kuwaiti male from this subgroup at 41X coverage, we report 3,752,878 SNPs, 411,839 indels, and 8451 structural variations. Neighbor-joining tree, based on shared variant positions carrying disease-risk alleles between the Bedouin and other continental genomes, places Bedouin genome at the nexus of African, Asian, and European genomes in concordance with geographical location of Kuwait and Peninsula. In congruence with participant's medical history for morbid obesity and bronchial asthma, risk alleles are seen at deleterious SNPs associated with obesity and asthma. Many of the observed deleterious ‘novel’ variants lie in genes associated with autosomal recessive disorders characteristic of the region. PMID:26484159

  18. The newly recognised limb/pelvis-hypoplasia/aplasia syndrome: report of a Bedouin patient and review.

    PubMed Central

    Farag, T I; al-Awadi, S A; Marafie, M J; Bastaki, L; al-Othman, S A; Mohammed, F M; AlSuliman, I S; Murthy, D S

    1993-01-01

    A Bedouin infant born to consanguineous parents and grandparents is reported. She had Müllerian aplasia and the phenotypic features of the limb/pelvis-hypoplasia/aplasia syndrome (MIM 276820). Phenotypic variability of this newly recognised syndrome is briefly discussed. Images PMID:8423610

  19. Science and Education across Cultures: Another Look at the Negev Bedouins and Their Environmental Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Carlos Hiroo

    2014-01-01

    This is a rejoinder to the original article written by Wisam Sedawi, Orit Ben Zvi Assaraf, and Julie Cwikel about waste-related implication on the welfare of children living in the Negev's Bedouin Arab community. More specifically, the authors discuss the role of environmental education in the improvement of participants' life…

  20. School Violence in Bedouin Schools in Israel: A Re-Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, Salman; ElBassiouny, Amanda; Bart, William M.; Elbedour, Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Students in Bedouin schools in Israel completed a survey in which they indicated how frequent abusive teacher behaviors occurred in their classrooms; responses indicated that abusive teacher behaviors occur often. Female students tended to register higher levels of punitive teacher behaviors than male students and secondary school students tended…

  1. Coping of Siblings of Children with Developmental Disabilities in the Bedouin Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris; Abu-Ajaj, Othman

    2012-01-01

    This is the first study that examines the coping of siblings of children with developmental disabilities in comparison with siblings of children without disabilities in the Bedouin community in Israel. For this purpose, the study examines the components of self-esteem, stress, and growth. Data were collected from 200 adolescents. The findings of…

  2. Making Pedagogical Decisions to Address Challenges of Joint Jewish-Bedouin Environmental Projects in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkaher, Iris; Tal, Tali

    2016-01-01

    This interpretive study identifies challenges of working with Bedouin and Jewish Israeli youth in two multicultural projects: education for sustainability and place-conscious education. It also describes the ways the adult project leaders addressed these challenges and their views on the effectiveness of their decisions. Participants comprised 16…

  3. Phonemic Awareness and Middle-Ear Disease among Bedouin Arabs in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effect of middle-ear infections on phonemic awareness on first-grade Bedouin Arab elementary school children in northern Israel. Divides 49 children who were screened according to their infant medical records into two groups: one with repeated middle-ear infection and one without. Indicates a nonsignificant effect of middle-ear…

  4. From (b)edouin to (a)borigine: the myth of the desert noble savage.

    PubMed

    Graulund, Rune

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the myth of the supposed superiority of the desert noble savage over civilized man. With the Bedouin of Arabia and the Aborigines of Australia as its two prime examples, the article argues that two versions of this myth can be traced: one in which the desert noble savage is valorized due to his valour, physical prowess and martial skill (Bedouin); and another, later version, where the desert noble savage is valorized as a pacifist, an ecologist and a mythmaker/storyteller (Aborigines). The article concludes by examining the way in which this turn from one type of desert noble savage to another reflects the manner in which western modernity has shifted its values from Cartesian dualities and Enlightenment rationalism to that of networks, potentialities, ecology and myth. PMID:19886291

  5. Mortality in the Bedouin Population and Proximity to a Regional Industrial Complex

    PubMed Central

    Karakis, Isabella; Bolotin, Arkady; Kordysh, Ella; Belmaker, Ilana; Sarov, Batia

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background: The study was initiated by public concern about exposure to an industrial park (IP) emission. The study examined whether mortality in the Bedouin population in the southern part of Israel is associated with the residential distance to the IP. Material and Methods: Ecological study during 1995–2001 included the entire Bedouin population. Mortality data was obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics. As an indirect measurement of exposure we used residential distance to the IP (with 20 km radius as a cut-of-point) based on residents’ complaints about odor related to the IP. Differences in mortality rates by distance were assessed by the Mantel-Haenszel relative risk (M-H RR) within the 95% CI. The country Arab population served as a reference for calculation of the age-adjusted standardized mortality ratio (SMR). Results: Increased mortality rates due to symptoms/ill-defined conditions and non-external causes were observed in the Bedouin population of both sexes, residing up to 20 km from the IP, compared to those living in more remote areas. Corresponding M-H RR (plus 95% CI) were 1.66 (1.17–2.36), 1.24 (1.06–1.44) in females, and 1.55 (1.15–2.10), 1.32 (1.15–1.52) in males. Conclusions: The study results suggest an association between residential proximity to the regional IP and increased mortality rates in the Negev Bedouin population. These findings have been accepted by the authorities as an issue for community health protection. PMID:21572844

  6. Anemia among Muslim Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in Southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni; Biderman, Aya

    2015-11-01

    There are inequalities in health indicators among different ethnic groups living in the same region and receiving the same medical services. Anemia is a global problem. Although the prevalence of anemia is not high in Israel, differences among ethnic groups have not been studied. Our objective was to assess anemia among Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in southern Israel. A retrospective observational study was conducted based on data from computerized medical records. Seven thousand eight hundred seventy-one women in the study clinics underwent complete blood counts and had blood hemoglobin levels of 11 g/dl or below. The Jewish patients were older (31.7 vs. 29.7 years, P < 0.001), practiced birth control more (24.2 vs. 9.9 %, P < 0.001), and adhered to it more (81.1 vs. 61.9 %, P < 0.001). Bedouin women had more children (3.7 vs. 1.9, P < 0.001), and more Bedouin women were pregnant during the study period (49.3 vs. 35.0 %, P < 0.001). The most prevalent types of anemia were iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease. Two types of anemia were proportionally higher among Jewish women, anemia of chronic disease (18.1 vs. 9.7 %, P < 0.001) and folic acid deficiency (3.3 vs. 2.2 %, P > 0.001). The adherence rates for treatment were very low. Three factors associated with severe anemia (hemoglobin below 8 g/dl) were being Bedouin (odds ratio (OR) = 1.295, P < 0.001), use of birth control (OR = 0.419, P < 0.001), and pregnancy (OR = 0.447, P < 0.001). Being a Bedouin woman is a risk factor for severe anemia, and adherence to treatment for anemia is very low in both groups. These findings should be addressed in a national program to reduce health inequalities. PMID:26211919

  7. Maternal perceptions of social context and adherence to maternal and child health (MCH) clinic recommendations among marginalized Bedouin mothers.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana

    2015-03-01

    National maternal and child health (MCH) care systems often deliver universal health care recommendations that do not take into consideration the social context of infant care (IC) for marginalized groups. We examined associations between maternal perceptions of social context (MPSC) and adherence by minority Bedouin mothers in Israel to three commonly recommended IC practices. We conducted personal interviews with 464 mothers visiting 14 MCH clinics using a structured questionnaire based on findings from a previous focus-group study, and guided by constructs of the Health Beliefs Model. Items were tested for validity and reliability. We used multivariate analysis to identify MPSC constructs associated with adherence to MCH clinic recommendations (timely postnatal first visit, sustaining breastfeeding, and use of infant car seat). Social context, when perceived as a barrier to IC, was negatively associated with adherence to timely first postnatal MCH clinic visit (odds ratio, 95 %, confidence intervals (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.24, 1.70) and use of infant car seat (OR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.21, 1.69). However, social context was positively associated with sustained breastfeeding (OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.37, 0.79). Perceptions of the severity of infant health problems, and family financial and relationship problems had less significant associations with adherence to MCH clinic recommendations. Adherence by marginalized mothers to MCH clinic recommendations is related to their perceptions of social context. When there are higher financial and other living conditions barriers mothers tend toward lower adherence to these recommendations. MCH policy makers and service providers must consider MPSC in planning and delivery of MCH recommendations. PMID:24927786

  8. Relations between Mothers and Adolescent Daughters in the Israeli Bedouin Society Characterized by Education of Traditional Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwaed, Muhammad; Swaid, Faten

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the Bedouin population in Galilee, in Northern Israel, experienced significant multifaceted changes. Exposure to other cultures and other social components, with which this population had very limited interaction in the past, had affected its norms and behavior patterns and caused adaption of manners and values that had not been…

  9. Stereotyping in a Traditional Society and Its Implications for School Psychologist Referral Patterns: The Case of the Negev Bedouin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thein, Ram

    2007-01-01

    The present report describes the psycho-educational services referral pattern in the school system serving both a permanent Bedouin town A and its vicinity in Israel's Negev desert. The subjects of the study were students in the school system in A between the years 1997 to 2002 (with additional data from 2004). The total number of referrals to…

  10. Does Education Necessarily Mean Enlightenment? The Case of Higher Education among Palestinians--Bedouin Women in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia-Queder, Sarab

    2008-01-01

    This study challenges and evaluates modern-liberal-humanistic discourse on education as enlightenment through analysis of the life stories of the first Bedouin women to acquire higher education (hereafter: First Women). The liberal discourse is examined in terms of its ethnic and genderial contexts and the special status these women gained as…

  11. Cultural Differences and Students' Spontaneous Models of the Water Cycle: A Case Study of Jewish and Bedouin Children in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Eshach, Haim; Orion, Nir; Alamour, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    The present research aims at pinpointing differences in spontaneous and non-spontaneous mental models of water cycle conceptions of two 4th grade student groups: the Jewish residents of a small provincial town and a group of students from an indigenous Bedouin community. Students' conceptions were elicited using the Repertory Grid technique as…

  12. Role of School Administration in Solving Students' Problems among Bedouin Schools within the Green Line in Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badarna, Laila Khaled; abu Ashour, Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the role of the school administration in solving the students' problems and differences according to gender, scientific qualification, years of experience and job title. The sample consisted of (300) staff from those who are working in the Bedouin schools within the Green Line of Palestine. The author used a…

  13. Murine typhus is a common cause of febrile illness in Bedouin children in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Hanna; Raissa, Rotkane; Evgenia, Zislin; Yagupsky, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    Murine typhus is known to be endemic among populations living in poverty and exposed to rats and their fleas. A prospective 2-y study was conducted to determine the contribution of murine typhus to undifferentiated febrile illnesses among Bedouin children attending an outpatient clinic in southern Israel. Children with fever > or = 38.5 degrees C lasting for > or = 3 d were enrolled in the study. Murine typhus was serologically confirmed by the microimmunofluorescence test. A total of 549 children met the inclusion criteria of whom 76 (13.8%) had serologically-confirmed murine typhus. The disease was diagnosed in 27 of 434 (6.2%) patients aged < 5 y and in 49 of 115 (42.6%) older children (p<0.001). Murine typhus was diagnosed in 54 of 288 (18.8%) patients between June and November and in 22 of 261 (8.4%) between December and May (p<0.001). Patients with murine typhus had significantly higher prevalence of anaemia, leukopenia, hyponatraemia, and elevated liver enzymes compared to children without the disease. A single child was hospitalized and all 76 patients recovered without complications. Murine typhus is an important cause of febrile illnesses among Bedouin children > or = 5 y of age living in southern Israel and usually runs a benign clinical course. PMID:16798692

  14. Heterogeneity of the cystic fibrosis phenotype in a large kindred family in Qatar with cystic fibrosis mutation (I1234V).

    PubMed

    Abdul Wahab, A; Al Thani, G; Dawod, S T; Kambouris, M; Al Hamed, M

    2001-04-01

    Twenty-nine subjects (17 families) with cystic fibrosis belonging to the same Bedouin tribe were screened for cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene mutations (CFTR). Homozygous I1234V mutation in exon 19 was identified in all families with a relatively high rate of consanguinity (96.6 per cent). The homozygous I1234V mutation tended to present with a variable degree of pulmonary disease, pancreatic insufficiency and electrolyte imbalance. Homozygous I1234V was found to be a common mutation in the studied Bedouin tribe in Qatar. PMID:11336127

  15. Growth and nutritional status of Bedouin infants in the Negev Desert, Israel: evidence for marked stunting in the presence of only mild malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Dagan, R; Sofer, S; Klish, W J; Hundet, G; Saltz, H; Moses, S W

    1983-11-01

    Growth and feeding practices of 353 Bedouin infants from the Negev Desert, Israel, were compared to those of 302 Jewish infants from the same area and to American standards. These two populations differed in their cultures and educational backgrounds. The use of medical and health services was lower among the Bedouin population. The feeding practices of the Bedouin infants were markedly different from those of their controls. The Bedouin infants show a progressive decrease in weight, length, and head circumference (means of all three parameters were around the 5th percentile) while the Jews were comparable to Americans. The nutritional status was assessed by three different anthropometric measurements. The weight to length ratio showed that 88% of Bedouin and 96% of Jewish infants were above the 10th percentile. Tricep skinfold measurements showed that 96% of the Bedouins and 99% of the Jews were above the 5th percentile. The midarm circumference to head circumference ratio was in the range between 0.280 and 0.310 (mild malnutrition range) while that of the Jews was above 0.310 (well-nourished range). These data show marked stunting in the presence of only mild malnutrition. This observation argues against the general belief that marked stunting is the result of prolonged severe malnutrition. Differences in cultural and genetic backgrounds, as well as different feeding practices and increased morbidity, could contribute to this phenomenon. PMID:6637867

  16. Reflections on sex research among young Bedouin in Jordan: risks and limitations.

    PubMed

    Al-Shdayfat, Noha M; Green, Gill

    2012-01-01

    Research about sexuality is characterised by silences and invisibilities. This is particularly evident in some Islamic Arab societies where discussion of sexuality in general is not encouraged and practices such as homosexuality or pre-marital sex are not acknowledged. This creates a barrier to carrying out sex research and also means that much of the research-based knowledge and methodologies developed in a Western setting may have limited applicability. This paper uses research recently carried out among Bedouin young women in Jordan to examine these limitations and the extent to which research approaches and findings from relatively liberal Western cultures are appropriate and relevant. Following a description of the cultural context in which the study took place, the paper identifies potential risks of conducting sex research in this setting and the research limitations related to this risk. Finally, it addresses the question of whether doing sex research has any value given these restrictions. PMID:22085369

  17. Science and education across cultures: another look at the Negev Bedouins and their environmental management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Carlos Hiroo

    2014-12-01

    This is a rejoinder to the original article written by Wisam Sedawi, Orit Ben Zvi Assaraf, and Julie Cwikel about waste-related implication on the welfare of children living in the Negev's Bedouin Arab community. More specifically, the authors discuss the role of environmental education in the improvement of participants' life conditions. They do so by analyzing the impact of current precarious waste management practices on children's health and proposing the implementation of a science study unit in school that could assist them in dealing with the problem. My argument here is divided in three parts: first, based on the original article's information, I comment on some important characteristics of those unrecognized settlements and their waste production practices; second, I try to determine what kind of environmental education—if any—is necessary in that context to promote the desired changes put forward by the authors; and third, I adopt a cross-cultural approach to science and environmental literacy as means to provoke readers to consider the scientific value (often neglected) of traditional knowledge in attempting to solve the issues described in the original paper. In addition, both the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education (1977) and the Treaty on Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies and Global Responsibility (1992) are used to support my argument, which also encompasses the concept of empowerment. Ultimately, bridging the Bedouin's traditional knowledge and Western modern science can help to improve science education at the school level in the unrecognized township under study by linking present and past in search of a more sustainable and peaceful future.

  18. Registration of maize inbred line GT603

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GT603 (Reg. No. xxxx, PI xxxxxx) is a yellow dent maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line developed and released by the USDA-ARS Crop Protection and Management Research Unit in cooperation with the University of Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station in 2010. GT603 was developed through seven generations ...

  19. Cultural differences and students' spontaneous models of the water cycle: a case study of Jewish and Bedouin children in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Eshach, Haim; Orion, Nir; Alamour, Yousif

    2012-06-01

    The present research aims at pinpointing differences in spontaneous and non-spontaneous mental models of water cycle conceptions of two 4th grade student groups: the Jewish residents of a small provincial town and a group of students from an indigenous Bedouin community. Students' conceptions were elicited using the Repertory Grid technique as well by being asked to draw "what happens to water in nature?" In later interviews, in addition to answering specially designed open-ended interview questions, the students were also requested to elaborate on their drawings and responses to the Repertory Grid technique. The Bedouin students were found to have richer mental models of water cycle phenomena; their models included more components of the water cycle and were more authentic and connected to other natural phenomena. On the other hand, Bedouin students also employed theological explanations to make sense of water cycle phenomena. These findings, as well as methodological issues relating to spontaneous and non-spontaneous models elicitation are discussed and implications for instruction are offered.

  20. Homozygosity mapping: a way to map human recessive traits with the DNA of inbred children

    SciTech Connect

    Lander, E.S.; Botstein, D.

    1987-06-19

    An efficient strategy for mapping human genes that cause recessive traits has been devised that uses mapped restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and the DNA of affected children from consanguineous marriages. The method involves detection of the disease locus by virtue of the fact that the adjacent region will preferentially be homozygous by descent in such inbred children. A single affected child of a first-cousin marriage is shown to contain the same total information about linkage as a nuclear family with three affected children. Calculations show that it should be practical to map a recessive disease gene by studying DNA from fewer than a dozen unrelated, affected inbred children, given a complete RFLP linkage map. The method should make it possible to map many recessive diseases for which it is impractical or impossible to collect adequate numbers of families with multiple affected offspring.

  1. Nondirectiveness and its lay interpretations: the effect of counseling style, ethnicity and culture on attitudes towards genetic counseling among Jewish and Bedouin respondents in Israel.

    PubMed

    Raz, Aviad E; Atar, Marcela

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of ethnicity, culture, and counseling style on the interpretation of nondirectiveness in genetic counseling, a questionnaire containing premarital and prenatal case vignettes in two versions (pessimistic/optimistic) was administered to 281 Jewish and 133 Bedouin respondents. The first study population was comprised of Jewish students enrolled in a university and a community college in the Negev (southern part of Israel). The second study population was comprised of Muslim-Bedouin college students from the same area. The majority of Jewish respondents interpreted the nondirective message as intended by counselors, while the majority of Bedouin respondents did not. Counseling style was found to have a statistically significant effect on the interpretation of the general role of counseling. Gender and susceptibility were not found to have a significant effect on interpretation. Group differences are analyzed through a cultural lens in which different interpretive norms can generate expectations for either nondirectiveness or directiveness. PMID:14682356

  2. Treatment, Conservation and Restoration of the Bedouin Dyed Textiles in the Museum of Jordanian Heritage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Alfaisal, R.

    This study aims to establish and design effective methods to conserve two Bedouin dyed textile objects selected from the museum of Jordanian heritage and to improve the physical and environmental conditions in which items are kept to optimize their longterm chances of survival. The conservation processes that were used in conservation of the selected objects can be used a guide for conservators to conserve other similar textile objects. Investigations and analysis were used to identify the fibers and the extent of deterioration by using noninvasive methods. Transmitted Light Microscopy (TLM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy associated with EDAX (SEM-EDAX) were used for identifying the fibers and the deterioration. The results showed that the textile artifacts studied were very dirty, had white spots occupying cavities and holes, wrinkles and creases, fiber damages. Previous damage may due to the improper display methods in the museum or due to the incompatible environmental conditions surrounded the artifacts during exhibition such as: light, temperature, relative humidity, pollutants and microorganisms. For these reasons, the textile objects were cleaned using wet cleaning methods that improved the physical and mechanical properties of textile objects and returned them to their original shape as much as possible. Then the textile objects were mounted and supported by stitching on to backing fabric stretched on wooden frames. Finally, and according to the requirements of the museum, the objects were displayed temporarily inside showcases in an aesthetically pleasing manner.

  3. The Bedouin Infant Feeding Study: study design and factors influencing the duration of breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Naggan, L; Forman, M R; Sarov, B; Lewando-Hundt, G; Zangwill, L; Chang, D; Berendes, H W

    1991-10-01

    A longitudinal study of infant feeding practices, growth and morbidity among Bedouin Arab infants residing in the Negev, Israel, was conducted during a 3-year period (1981-1983). Follow-up samples were restricted to healthy newborns. The majority of newborns are breast fed at birth but, by 2 months, 50% are also introduced to a milk supplement. Based on the bivariate analysis using the logrank test to examine the factors associated with exclusive versus partial breast feeding during the first 6 months, those born during the wet cool months are exclusively breast fed longer than those born during the dry season. More traditional women, living in tents rather than houses or huts, exclusively breast feed for at least 6 months. In a multiple logistic regression model, parity, house type and birth season are independently associated with the odds of exclusively breast feeding for the first 6 months of life. Factors influencing the duration of any breast feeding for the first 18 months include: house type, place of residence, birthweight, and whether the infant was stunted at 6 months. PMID:1754502

  4. Prevalence of asthma in Jordan: comparison between Bedouins and urban schoolchildren using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood phase III protocol.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ekteish, Faisal; Otoom, Sameer; Shehabi, Iman

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of asthma and its symptoms in children aged 6-7 years and 13-14 years in an urban (Amman city) area and among Bedouins in northern Jordan. The number of students included in both studied groups was 9108. This study is part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), phase III. The response rate was 84% for urban schoolchildren compared with 68% among Bedouin schoolchildren. There was no statistical significance in prevalence of asthma diagnosed by a physician between the Amman city group and Bedouins (8.8% versus 9.5%). Wheeze induced by exercise and night cough was significantly common in schoolchildren aged 13-14 years compared with primary schoolchildren (18.5 and 25.3% versus 11.1 and 22.6%; p < 0.001). Wheezing ever and sleep disturbances were significantly more common in male subjects (27.5%, p < 0.01, and 12.2%, p < 0.001, respectively). Primary schoolchildren aged 6-7 years had significant wheezing ever (27.2%) compared with older children (25.1%; p < 0.05). Bedouin children had significant exercise-induced wheeze (16.4%) compared with children in Amman city (13.1%, p < 0.001), but the latter had significant prevalence of night cough (25%) compared with the Bedouin group (22.6%; p < 0.01). In conclusion, this study shows that asthma is moderately common in Jordan. There was no difference in prevalence of asthma diagnosed by a physician between an urbanized region and Bedouins having low socioeconomic status. Asthma was common in male children, which is similar to other reports elsewhere. There is a twofold increase in the prevalence of asthma in Jordan in the last 10 years. PMID:19463207

  5. 'Beduinella massiliensis', gen. nov., sp. nov. a new genus representing a new family in the phylum Firmicutes, and proposal of Beduinellaceae fam. nov.

    PubMed

    Traore, S I; Azhar, E I; Yasir, M; Bibi, F; Delerce, J; Fournier, P-E; Jiman-Fatani, A A; Lagier, J-C; Raoult, D

    2016-11-01

    We report here the main characteristics of a new bacterium named 'Beduinella massiliensis' strain Marseille-P2846(T) (CSURP2846P) that was isolated from a faecal specimen of a 50-year-old Saudi Bedouin female and propose the creation of a new family 'Beduinellaceae'. PMID:27621822

  6. Recombinant inbred lines derived from potato interspecific hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) offer new opportunities for mapping traits of interest to potato breeders. We are developing a set of six RILs, which will comprise a nested association mapping population. The common parent is M6, an inbred line of the diploid wild relative Solanum chacoense. Other g...

  7. Comprehensive genotyping of the USA national maize inbred seed bank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The germplasm bank at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, preserves maize inbred lines from breeding programs from all over the world, including some of the key lines from the breeding history of maize. We genotyped 2,815 maize inbred accessions, mo...

  8. The Power of Femininity: Exploring the Gender and Ethnic Experiences of Muslim Women Who Accessed Supervisory Roles in a Bedouin Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quader, Sarab Abu-Rabia; Oplatka, Izhar

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The current paper aims to tell the stories of six female supervisors who have successfully managed to access this high-level position in the Bedouin educational system, putting forward some implications for understanding and exploring the lives and career of women in patriarchal, minority groups. Design/methodology/approach: Six female…

  9. Conceptualizations of Waste-Related Implications on Health and Welfare among Elementary School Students in the Negev's Bedouin Arab Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedawi, Wisam; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Cwikel, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the manner in which 4th-5th grade children from unrecognized Bedouin settlements in Israel's Negev desert perceive waste and its effects on health and the environment, with an eye towards building a future model for their environmental education. These children participate in local practices with environmental…

  10. Detection of social approach in inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Pratte, Michel; Jamon, Marc

    2009-10-12

    An experiment was designed to automatically assess the relative level of social interaction during encounters involving trios of inbred mice consisting of two familiar cage mate males plus an unfamiliar third male. The automation of the spatial positioning was obtained by using a video-tracking program. In addition social behaviours were manually scored. To evaluate the influence of basic motor properties on the evaluation of the level of social interaction, we analysed two strains (C57BL/6J and 129S2/Sv) that are frequently employed in transgenic research, and show very different levels of motor activity. Correlations between manual and automated parameters showed that spatial parameters correctly fitted the level of social interaction between mice. In both strains C57BL/6J and 129S2/Sv, a proximity parameter (duration of bouts during which two individuals were close to each other) defined the social approach and correctly assessed the discrimination of social novelty. PMID:19379777

  11. Estimation of Variance Components of Quantitative Traits in Inbred Populations

    PubMed Central

    Abney, Mark; McPeek, Mary Sara; Ober, Carole

    2000-01-01

    Summary Use of variance-component estimation for mapping of quantitative-trait loci in humans is a subject of great current interest. When only trait values, not genotypic information, are considered, variance-component estimation can also be used to estimate heritability of a quantitative trait. Inbred pedigrees present special challenges for variance-component estimation. First, there are more variance components to be estimated in the inbred case, even for a relatively simple model including additive, dominance, and environmental effects. Second, more identity coefficients need to be calculated from an inbred pedigree in order to perform the estimation, and these are computationally more difficult to obtain in the inbred than in the outbred case. As a result, inbreeding effects have generally been ignored in practice. We describe here the calculation of identity coefficients and estimation of variance components of quantitative traits in large inbred pedigrees, using the example of HDL in the Hutterites. We use a multivariate normal model for the genetic effects, extending the central-limit theorem of Lange to allow for both inbreeding and dominance under the assumptions of our variance-component model. We use simulated examples to give an indication of under what conditions one has the power to detect the additional variance components and to examine their impact on variance-component estimation. We discuss the implications for mapping and heritability estimation by use of variance components in inbred populations. PMID:10677322

  12. Reinventing potato as a diploid inbred line-based crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The third most important food crop worldwide, potato, is a tetraploid outcrossing species propagated from tubers. Breeders have long been challenged by polyploidy, heterozygosity, and asexual reproduction. It has been assumed that tetraploidy is essential for high yield, the creation of inbred potat...

  13. Progress toward the development of diploid recombinant inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) offer new opportunities for mapping traits in potato. They also provide an opportunity to evaluate responses to inbreeding in interspecific hybrids. We are developing a set of six RILs, which will comprise a nested association mapping population. The common parent is ...

  14. Sites of ozone sensitivity in diverse maize inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an air pollutant that costs ~$14-26 billion in global crop losses and is projected to worsen in the future. Potential sites of O3 sensitivity in maize were tested by growing 200 inbred lines, including the nested association mapping population founder lines, under ambient...

  15. Progress toward the development of recombinant inbred lines in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complexities due to tetraploid genetics limit breeding progress in potato. Diploids offer more simple genetics. Homozygous populations such as recombinant inbred lines are powerful resources for genetic mapping and the subsequent development of markers for marker-assisted selection. Most potato dipl...

  16. Conceptualizations of waste-related implications on health and welfare among elementary school students in the Negev's Bedouin Arab community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedawi, Wisam; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Cwikel, Julie

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses the manner in which 4th-5th grade children from unrecognized Bedouin settlements in Israel's Negev desert perceive waste and its effects on health and the environment, with an eye towards building a future model for their environmental education. These children participate in local practices with environmental repercussions, such as incinerating waste or collecting it for reuse and sale. These lead to injury, exposure to toxic chemicals and chronic disease. Understanding such dangers would not only help these children avoid future environmental and personal harm, but potentially allow them to influence the knowledge, affect and behavior of adults in their household as well. Data was collected by a combination of interviews and observations, with results divided into three main categories: knowledge, affect and behavior. We found that though waste is an integral part of the children's domestic environment, their knowledge of it was only superficial, based in social and personal experience. In terms of affect, children's reactions were ambiguous—demonstrating environmental responsibility whilst simultaneously describing a lack of interest towards environmental preservation. The children described several waste-related everyday behaviors: going to the valley to dump waste, burning or playing with it, making toys from discarded objects, and gathering metals, batteries, and bottles for sale. Together, the three aspects of this study reveal the extent and pervasiveness of waste's impact on these children's lives. They also highlight the areas that should be targeted in future environmental education if positive change is to be achieved.

  17. The forty-day rest period and infant feeding practices among Negev Bedouin Arab women in Israel.

    PubMed

    Forman, M R; Hundt, G L; Towne, D; Graubard, B; Sullivan, B; Berendes, H W; Sarov, B; Naggan, L

    1990-03-01

    Four hundred and twelve Bedouin Arab women were interviewed within 48 hours of delivering a newborn in 1982 and two months later to examine the effect of social support during the forty-day postpartum rest period on the incidence of exclusive breast feeding at two months. Whereas the distribution of infant feeding practices at two months did not differ among women with and without support during the "forty days," the number of days of help during the "forty days" was significantly associated with type of feeding at two months. The longer the duration of help, the greater were the odds of maintaining exclusive breast feeding after adjustment for covariates by multinomial logistic regression analysis. The association between duration of help and infant feeding practices at two months was modified by the interview month and the feeding practices of the respondents' primary social supports. More respondents with infants who reached two months of age in May and June were exclusively breast feeding than respondents with infants who reached two months in the hot, dry months of July and August. Also, respondents with sisters-in-law who breast fed alone or in combination with the bottle were feeding their infants in the same way after adjustment for covariates. Given the beneficial effects of breast feeding on infant health and development, these findings identify potential avenues of intervention for programs promoting breast feeding. PMID:2233170

  18. Genetic structure and diversity among maize inbred lines as inferred from DNA microsatellites.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kejun; Goodman, Major; Muse, Spencer; Smith, J Stephen; Buckler, Ed; Doebley, John

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty maize inbred lines, representative of the genetic diversity among essentially all public lines of importance to temperate breeding and many important tropical and subtropical lines, were assayed for polymorphism at 94 microsatellite loci. The 2039 alleles identified served as raw data for estimating genetic structure and diversity. A model-based clustering analysis placed the inbred lines in five clusters that correspond to major breeding groups plus a set of lines showing evidence of mixed origins. A "phylogenetic" tree was constructed to further assess the genetic structure of maize inbreds, showing good agreement with the pedigree information and the cluster analysis. Tropical and subtropical inbreds possess a greater number of alleles and greater gene diversity than their temperate counterparts. The temperate Stiff Stalk lines are on average the most divergent from all other inbred groups. Comparison of diversity in equivalent samples of inbreds and open-pollinated landraces revealed that maize inbreds capture <80% of the alleles in the landraces, suggesting that landraces can provide additional genetic diversity for maize breeding. The contributions of four different segments of the landrace gene pool to each inbred group's gene pool were estimated using a novel likelihood-based model. The estimates are largely consistent with known histories of the inbreds and indicate that tropical highland germplasm is poorly represented in maize inbreds. Core sets of inbreds that capture maximal allelic richness were defined. These or similar core sets can be used for a variety of genetic applications in maize. PMID:14704191

  19. Maternal heterozygosity and progeny fitness association in an inbred Scots pine population.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, S; Ahlinder, J; Waldmann, P; García-Gil, M R

    2013-03-01

    Associations between heterozygosity and fitness traits have typically been investigated in populations characterized by low levels of inbreeding. We investigated the associations between standardized multilocus heterozygosity (stMLH) in mother trees (obtained from12 nuclear microsatellite markers) and five fitness traits measured in progenies from an inbred Scots pine population. The traits studied were proportion of sound seed, mean seed weight, germination rate, mean family height of one-year old seedlings under greenhouse conditions (GH) and mean family height of three-year old seedlings under field conditions (FH). The relatively high average inbreeding coefficient (F) in the population under study corresponds to a mixture of trees with different levels of co-ancestry, potentially resulting from a recent bottleneck. We used both frequentist and Bayesian methods of polynomial regression to investigate the presence of linear and non-linear relations between stMLH and each of the fitness traits. No significant associations were found for any of the traits except for GH, which displayed negative linear effect with stMLH. Negative HFC for GH could potentially be explained by the effect of heterosis caused by mating of two inbred mother trees (Lippman and Zamir 2006), or outbreeding depression at the most heterozygote trees and its negative impact on the fitness of the progeny, while their simultaneous action is also possible (Lynch. 1991). However,since this effect wasn't detected for FH, we cannot either rule out that the greenhouse conditions introduce artificial effects that disappear under more realistic field conditions. PMID:23400838

  20. Genetic analysis in a variant of limb girdle muscular dystrophy in an inbred aboriginal community

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, C.R.; Nylen, E.G.; Halliday, W.

    1994-09-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable inheritance patterns, age-of-onset, rates of progression and patterns of muscle involvement. To date, 4 different chromosomal assignments have been described; LGMD1 to chromosome 5q, LGMD2 to chromosome 15q, SCARMD to chromosome 13q and a fourth locus on chromosome 2p. Because of this genetic heterogeneity, only large unambiguous multiplex families which are clearly linked to a particular locus can be utilized in a genetic analysis. We now report preliminary findings in a large highly inbred aboriginal kindred with 8 probands (5 females, 3 males) from 6 nuclear families with a progressive LMD. All presented in their mid- to late teens with gait disturbances. At time of presentation all except one had both proximal as well as distal muscle involvement, facial muscle sparing, CK levels 25 to 100 times normal (3762-20,400 U/l), dystrophic muscle biopsies and normal dystrophin and dystrophin-associated glycoprotein expression. We have studied the segregation of highly informative microsatellite markers for FBN1, D15S132 and the gene for thrombospondin on chromosome 15q and D2S134, D2S136, D2S147, and D2S166 on chromosome 2. Linkage to chromosome 15q has been excluded and two-point lod scores are not significant as yet to either confirm or exclude linkage to chromosome 2p. However, visual inspection reveals that affected individuals are not consistently homozygous for the chromosome 2p markers as would be predicted in such an inbred population. Clinically, SCARMD is unlikely and if the locus on chromosomes 2p and 5q can also be excluded, a genome-wide search using evenly spaced microsatellites will be initiated. A second geographically distinct aboriginal kindred with a similar clinical phenotype has now also been identified.

  1. Bardet-Biedl syndrome: Mapping of a new locus to chromosome 3 and fine-mapping of the chromosome 16 linked locus

    SciTech Connect

    Kwitek-Black, A.E.; Rokhlina, T.; Nishimura, D.Y.

    1994-09-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mental retardation, post-axial polydactyly, obesity, retinitis pigmentosa, and hypogonadism. Other features of this disease include renal and cardiovascular abnormalities and an increased incidence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The molecular etiology for BBS is not known. We previously linked BBS to chromosome 16q13 in a large inbred Bedouin family, and excluded this locus in a second large inbred Bedouin family. We now report linkage of this second family to markers on chromosome 3q, proving non-allelic, genetic heterogeneity in the Bedouin population. A third large inbred Bedouin family was excluded from the 3q and 16q BBS loci. In addition to the identification of a new BBS locus on chromosome 3, we have identified and utilized additional short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) in the 16q BBS region to narrow the candidate interval to 3 cM. Additional recombinant individuals will allow further refinement of the interval. Identification of genes causing BBS has the potential to provide insight into diverse genetic traits and disease processes including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, retinal degeneration, and abnormal limb, renal and cardiac development.

  2. Condition, innate immunity and disease mortality of inbred crows

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrea K.; Clark, Anne B.; McGowan, Kevin J.; Miller, Andrew D.; Buckles, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    Cooperatively breeding American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) suffer a severe disease-mediated survival cost from inbreeding, but the proximate mechanisms linking inbreeding to disease are unknown. Here, we examine indices of nestling body condition and innate immunocompetence in relationship to inbreeding and disease mortality. Using an estimate of microsatellite heterozygosity that predicts inbreeding in this population, we show that inbred crows were in relatively poor condition as nestlings, and that body condition index measured in the first 2–33 days after hatching, in addition to inbreeding index, predicted disease probability in the first 34 months of life. Inbred nestlings also mounted a weaker response along one axis of innate immunity: the proportion of bacteria killed in a microbiocidal assay increased as heterozygosity index increased. Relatively poor body condition and low innate immunocompetence are two mechanisms that might predispose inbred crows to ultimate disease mortality. A better understanding of condition-mediated inbreeding depression can guide efforts to minimize disease costs of inbreeding in small populations. PMID:20444716

  3. Tympanometry Assessment of 61 Inbred Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qing Yin; Tong, Yi-Cai Isaac; Alagramam, Kumar N.; Yu, Heping

    2007-01-01

    Otitis Media (OM) accounts for more than 20 million clinic visits in the United States every year. Resistance to antibiotics has hampered current management of the disease. Identification of genetic factors underlying susceptibility to OM is greatly needed in order to develop alternative treatment strategies. Genetically defined inbred mouse strains offer a powerful tool for dissecting genetic and environmental factors that may lead to OM in mice. Here we report a study of middle ear function of 61 genetically diverse inbred strains of mice using tympanometry. Of the 61 inbred strains tested, the 129P1/ReJ, 129P3/J, 129S1/SvImJ, 129X1/SvJ, A/HeJ, BALB/cJ, BUB/BnJ, C57L/J, EL/SuzSeyFrkJ, FVB/NJ, I/LnJ, LP/J, NZB/BlNJ, PL/J and YBR/Ei strains exhibited tympanograms that were statistically different from other healthy strains according to parameters including middle ear pressure, volume and compliance. These differences are most likely the result of genetic factors that, when understood, will facilitate prevention and treatment of otitis media in humans. In addition, a negative correlation between age and compliance of the tympanic membrane was discovered. This is the first report to successfully use tympanometry to measure mouse middle ear function, which has been a challenge for the hearing research field because of the mouse’s tiny ear size. PMID:17611057

  4. Many maize inbreds lack an endosperm cytosolic phosphoglucomutase. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, D.; Stelow, L.I.; Nelson, O.E. )

    1990-08-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis of extracts from developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperms 22 days postpollination reveals only a single zone of phosphoglucomutase activity in the majority of the inbreds tested. The other inbreds had the expected two zones of activity. The activity that is present in all inbreds is the amyloplast isozyme while the absent form is a cytosolic enzyme. The lack of the cytosolic isozyme has no discernible phenotypic consequences.

  5. The effect of labor migration on relations of exchange and subordination among the Rashaayda Bedouin of Sudan.

    PubMed

    Young, W C

    1987-01-01

    away, and 4) they invested in jewelry, businesses, and 2nd wives. Thus, the Rashaayda developed mutual trust with some of the other pastoral peoples of the region. Exchanges between rural Rashaayda and urban Sudanese emerged (through business and marriage). The infusion of cash into the Rashaayda's economy has also enabled them to respond productively to worsening ecological conditions in Sudan. Finally, economic and political inequalities among still-pastoral Bedouin are today much less pronounced than earlier. PMID:12281017

  6. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Detection in Multicross Inbred Designs

    PubMed Central

    Crepieux, Sébastien; Lebreton, Claude; Servin, Bertrand; Charmet, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Mapping quantitative trait loci in plants is usually conducted using a population derived from a cross between two inbred lines. The power of such QTL detection and the parameter estimates depend largely on the choice of the two parental lines. Thus, the QTL detected in such populations represent only a small part of the genetic architecture of the trait. In addition, the effects of only two alleles are characterized, which is of limited interest to the breeder, while common pedigree breeding material remains unexploited for QTL mapping. In this study, we extend QTL mapping methodology to a generalized framework, based on a two-step IBD variance component approach, applicable to any type of breeding population obtained from inbred parents. We then investigate with simulated data mimicking conventional breeding programs the influence of different estimates of the IBD values on the power of QTL detection. The proposed method would provide an alternative to the development of specifically designed recombinant populations, by utilizing the genetic variation actually managed by plant breeders. The use of these detected QTL in assisting breeding would thus be facilitated. PMID:15579720

  7. Physiological and biochemical bases of fall armyworm resistance in the seedlings of maize inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four CIMMYT maize inbred lines (i.e., CML333, CML335, CML 336, and CML338), and a susceptible (i.e., AB24E) and resistant (i.e., Mp780) control were examined for the mechanisms of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance. The six inbred lines were ev...

  8. Registration of the Ki14 × B73 recombinant inbred mapping population of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center released Ki14 × B73 (KB) maize (Zea mays L.) mapping population, a set of 119 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), in March 2007. The mapping population was derived from a biparental cross between inbreds Ki14 (NCRPIS accession Ames 27259) and B73 (...

  9. Molecular Characterization of Maize Inbreds with Expired U.S. Plant Variety Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize inbred lines with expired Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) certificates are publically available and potentially represent a new germplasm resource for many public and private breeding programs. However, accurate pedigree and genetic background information for ex-PVPA maize inbreds is nece...

  10. Two different mutations in the thyroid peroxidase gene of a large inbred Amish kindred: power and limits of homozygosity mapping.

    PubMed

    Pannain, S; Weiss, R E; Jackson, C E; Dian, D; Beck, J C; Sheffield, V C; Cox, N; Refetoff, S

    1999-03-01

    Approximately 10% of newborns with congenital hypothyroidism are unable to convert iodide into organic iodine. This iodide organification defect has a prevalence of 1 in 40,000 newborns and may be caused by defects in the thyroid peroxidase enzyme (TPO), the hydrogen peroxide-generating system, the TPO substrate thyroglobulin, or inhibitors of TPO. We identified a high incidence of severe hypothyroidism due to a complete iodide organification defect in the youngest generation of five nuclear families belonging to an inbred Amish kindred. Genealogical records permitted us to trace their origin to an ancestral couple 7-8 generations back and to identify an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Initial studies of homozygosity by descent using two polymorphic markers within the TPO gene showed no linkage to the phenotype. In fact, 4 of 15 affected siblings from 2 of the nuclear families were heterozygous, resulting in homozygosity values of 73% and 53% in affected and unaffected family members, respectively. A genome-wide homozygosity screen using DNA pools from affected and unaffected family members localized the defect to a locus close to the TPO gene. Linkage analysis using 4 additional polymorphic markers within the TPO gene reduced the number of homozygous unaffected siblings to zero without altering the percent homozygosity initially found in the affected. Sequencing of the TPO gene revealed 2 missense mutations, E799K and R648Q. TPO 779K was found in both alleles of the 11 affected homozygotes, both mutations were present in each of the 3 affected compound heterozygotes, and there were no TPO mutations in 1 subject with hypothyroidism of different etiology. These results demonstrate the power of the DNA pooling strategy in the localization of a defective gene and the pitfalls of linkage analysis when 2 relatively rare mutations coexist in an inbred population. PMID:10084596

  11. Predicted Gains from Inbred-Progeny Selection Is Inferior to Half-sib Selection for Two Maize Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, inbred progeny selection has been promoted as an effective means of improving both inbred and outbred performance, and in some cases superior to other methods. The predicted effectiveness of inbred-progeny selection was based on several factors, the most common being the proportion of ...

  12. Withdrawal severity after chronic intermittent ethanol in inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Metten, Pamela; Sorensen, Michelle L.; Cameron, Andy Jade; Yu, Chia-Hua; Crabbe, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background To study withdrawal, ethanol is usually administered chronically without interruption. However, interest has recurred in models of episodic exposure. Increasing evidence suggests that chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol leads to a sensitization effect in both withdrawal severity and in ethanol consumption. The goal of the present study was to examine mouse inbred strain differences in withdrawal severity following chronic intermittent exposure using the handling induced convulsion as the behavioral endpoint. We also sought to compare the withdrawal responses of inbred strains across acute, chronic continuous, and chronic intermittent exposure regimens. Methods Male mice from 15 standard inbred strains were exposed to ethanol vapor for 16 hours each day for 3 days and removed to an air chamber during the intervening 8 hours. Mice in the control groups were handled the same, except that they were exposed only to air. Daily blood ethanol concentrations were averaged for each mouse to estimate total dose of ethanol experienced. Results Across strains, mice had an average daily blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of 1.45 ± 0.02 mg/ml and we restricted the range of this value to 1.00 to 2.00 mg/ml. To evaluate strain differences, we divided data into two dose groups based on BEC, Low Dose (1.29 ± 0.1 mg/ml) and High Dose (1.71 ± 0.02 mg/ml). After the third inhalation exposure, ethanol- and air-exposed groups were tested hourly for handling-induced convulsions for 10 hr and at hr 24 and 25. Strains differed markedly in the severity of withdrawal (after subtraction of air control values) in both dose groups. Conclusion The chronic intermittent exposure paradigm is sufficient to elicit differential withdrawal responses across nearly all strains. Data from the High Dose groups correlated well with withdrawal data derived from prior acute (single high dose) and chronic continuous (for 72 hrs) ethanol withdrawal studies, supporting the influence of common

  13. Distribution of Parental Genome Blocks in Recombinant Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Olivier C.; Hospital, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    We consider recombinant inbred lines obtained by crossing two given homozygous parents and then applying multiple generations of self-crossings or full-sib matings. The chromosomal content of any such line forms a mosaic of blocks, each alternatively inherited identically by descent from one of the parents. Quantifying the statistical properties of such mosaic genomes has remained an open challenge for many years. Here, we solve this problem by taking a continuous chromosome picture and assuming crossovers to be noninterfering. Using a continuous-time random walk framework and Markov chain theory, we determine the statistical properties of these identical-by-descent blocks. We find that successive block lengths are only very slightly correlated. Furthermore, the blocks on the ends of chromosomes are larger on average than the others, a feature understandable from the nonexponential distribution of block lengths. PMID:21840856

  14. Steady-state transposon mutagenesis in inbred maize.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Donald R; Settles, Andrew Mark; Suzuki, Masaharu; Tan, Bao Cai; Latshaw, Susan; Porch, Tim; Robin, Kevin; Baier, John; Avigne, Wayne; Lai, Jinsheng; Messing, Joachim; Koch, Karen E; Hannah, L Curtis

    2005-10-01

    We implement a novel strategy for harnessing the power of high-copy transposons for functional analysis of the maize genome, and report behavioral features of the Mutator system in a uniform inbred background. The unique UniformMu population and database facilitate high-throughput molecular analysis of Mu-tagged mutants and gene knockouts. Key features of the population include: (i) high mutation frequencies (7% independent seed mutations) and moderation of copy number (approximately 57 total Mu elements; 1-2 MuDR copies per plant) were maintained by continuous back-crossing into a phenotypically uniform inbred background; (ii) a bz1-mum9 marker enabled selection of stable lines (loss of MuDR), inhibiting further transpositions in lines selected for molecular analysis; (iii) build-up of mutation load was prevented by screening Mu-active parents to exclude plants carrying pre-existing seed mutations. To create a database of genomic sequences flanking Mu insertions, selected mutant lines were analyzed by sequencing of MuTAIL PCR clone libraries. These sequences were annotated and clustered to facilitate bioinformatic subtraction of ancestral elements and identification of insertions unique to mutant lines. New insertions targeted low-copy, gene-rich sequences, and in silico mapping revealed a random distribution of insertions over the genome. Our results indicate that Mu populations differ markedly in the occurrence of Mu insertion hotspots and the frequency of suppressible mutations. We suggest that controlled MuDR copy number in UniformMu lines is a key determinant of these differences. The public database (http://uniformmu.org; http://endosperm.info) includes pedigree and phenotypic data for over 2000 independent seed mutants selected from a population of 31 548 F2 lines and integrated with analyses of 34 255 MuTAIL sequences. PMID:16167895

  15. Characterization of cutaneous antigen presentation in partially inbred miniature swine.

    PubMed

    Grabbe, S; Fishbein, J M; Sachs, D H; Flotte, T J; Granstein, R D

    1994-12-01

    MHC class I and II-defined, partially inbred miniature swine have recently become available as a large animal model in transplantation immunology. To investigate cutaneous immunocompetence in this model, cutaneous antigen presenting cell (APC) function was assessed. For morphologic analysis, punch biopsies were examined by electron microscopy. By this technique, epidermal Langerhans cells bearing typical Birbeck granules could be detected. For functional studies, epidermal cell (EC) suspensions were prepared from split thickness skin specimens. Using FACS analysis, freshly prepared epidermal cell suspensions contained 1.8-4.7% MHC class II-positive cells. These EC potently stimulated allogeneic nylon wool-enriched peripheral blood T cells in the primary mixed EC-lymphocyte reaction. For in vivo assessment of cutaneous APC function, EC suspensions enriched for or depleted of class II-positive EC were generated by panning of class II-positive EC using mouse anti-MHC class II antibodies and anti-mouse IgG-coated petri dishes. EC were then coupled to the hapten trinitrophenol (TNP) and injected s.c. into autologous or MHC-mismatched pigs twice at a one week interval. One week later, pigs were challenged by s.c.-injection of 0.5-1 x 10(7) TNP-coupled or uncoupled EC. Autologous unseparated EC as well as EC enriched for MHC class II-positive cells were able to sensitize naive animals against TNP, whereas neither TNP-coupled EC depleted of class II-positive APC, MHC-mismatched EC coupled to TNP, nor uncoupled EC induced immunity to TNP. Our data indicate that inbred miniature swine possess competent cutaneous APC which are able to induce cutaneous APC which are able to induce cutaneous immunity in a matter similar to Langerhans cells in murine or human skin. PMID:7749572

  16. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Female Infertility in Inbred Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Long; Wang, Tong-Song; Zhao, Miao

    2016-01-01

    The genetic factors underlying female infertility in humans are only partially understood. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study of female infertility in 25 inbred mouse strains by using publicly available SNP data. As a result, a total of four SNPs were identified after chromosome-wise multiple test correction. The first SNP rs29972765 is located in a gene desert on chromosome 18, about 72 kb upstream of Skor2 (SKI family transcriptional corepressor 2). The second SNP rs30415957 resides in the intron of Plce1 (phospholipase C epsilon 1). The remaining two SNPs (rs30768258 and rs31216810) are close to each other on chromosome 19, in the vicinity of Sorbs1 (sorbin and SH3 domain containing 1). Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that Sorbs1 is highly expressed in the mouse uterus during embryo implantation. Knockdown of Sorbs1 by siRNA attenuates the induction of differentiation marker gene Prl8a2 (decidual prolactin-related protein) in an in vitro model of decidualization using mouse endometrial stromal cells, suggesting that Sorbs1 may be a potential candidate gene for female infertility in mice. Our results may represent an opportunity to further understand female infertility in humans. PMID:27449513

  17. NaCl Taste Thresholds in 13 Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ishiwatari, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of salty taste in mammals are not completely understood. We use genetic approaches to study these mechanisms. Previously, we developed a high-throughput procedure to measure NaCl taste thresholds, which involves conditioning mice to avoid LiCl and then examining avoidance of NaCl solutions presented in 48-h 2-bottle preference tests. Using this procedure, we measured NaCl taste thresholds of mice from 13 genealogically divergent inbred stains: 129P3/J, A/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6ByJ, C57BL/6J, CBA/J, CE/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, NZB/BlNJ, PWK/PhJ, and SJL/J. We found substantial strain variation in NaCl taste thresholds: mice from the A/J and 129P3/J strains had high thresholds (were less sensitive), whereas mice from the BALB/cByJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6ByJ, CE/J, DBA/2J, NZB/BINJ, and SJL/J had low thresholds (were more sensitive). NaCl taste thresholds measured in this study did not significantly correlate with NaCl preferences or amiloride sensitivity of chorda tympani nerve responses to NaCl determined in the same strains in other studies. To examine whether strain differences in NaCl taste thresholds could have been affected by variation in learning ability or sensitivity to toxic effects of LiCl, we used the same method to measure citric acid taste thresholds in 4 inbred strains with large differences in NaCl taste thresholds but similar acid sensitivity in preference tests (129P3/J, A/J, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J). Citric acid taste thresholds were similar in these 4 strains. This suggests that our technique measures taste quality–specific thresholds that are likely to represent differences in peripheral taste responsiveness. The strain differences in NaCl taste sensitivity found in this study provide a basis for genetic analysis of this phenotype. PMID:22293936

  18. Response of inbred mice to aerosol challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Musa, S A; Kim, Y; Hashim, R; Wang, G Z; Dimmer, C; Smith, D W

    1987-08-01

    An autosomal dominant gene (Bcg), which maps to mouse chromosome 1, has been shown to confer on mice resistance to attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG Montreal, Salmonella typhimurium, and Leishmania donovani. Most animal models used for the study of the Bcg gene have involved intravenous injection of a large number of microorganisms (greater than 10(4) CFU). The present study examines the effect of the Bcg gene on the resistance of inbred mice to challenge via the respiratory route with 5 to 10 CFU of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The number of tubercle bacilli recovered from the lung lobes indicates that the growth kinetics of the microorganism did not differ between BCG-resistant and BCG-susceptible strains of mice. The number of tubercle bacilli recovered from the spleen was also similar among strains. Although there were reproducible differences in the time of first recovery of bacilli from the spleen, these differences appeared to be unrelated to the expression of the Bcg gene. When mice were challenged with purified protein derivative, all strains responded similarly as observed by measurements of footpad swelling. PMID:3112014

  19. The genetic architecture of NAFLD among inbred strains of mice

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Simon T; Parks, Brian W; Org, Elin; Norheim, Frode; Che, Nam; Pan, Calvin; Castellani, Lawrence W; Charugundla, Sarada; Dirks, Darwin L; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Neuhaus, Isaac; Gerszten, Robert E; Kirchgessner, Todd; Gargalovic, Peter S; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-01-01

    To identify genetic and environmental factors contributing to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, we examined liver steatosis and related clinical and molecular traits in more than 100 unique inbred mouse strains, which were fed a diet rich in fat and carbohydrates. A >30-fold variation in hepatic TG accumulation was observed among the strains. Genome-wide association studies revealed three loci associated with hepatic TG accumulation. Utilizing transcriptomic data from the liver and adipose tissue, we identified several high-confidence candidate genes for hepatic steatosis, including Gde1, a glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase not previously implicated in triglyceride metabolism. We confirmed the role of Gde1 by in vivo hepatic over-expression and shRNA knockdown studies. We hypothesize that Gde1 expression increases TG production by contributing to the production of glycerol-3-phosphate. Our multi-level data, including transcript levels, metabolite levels, and gut microbiota composition, provide a framework for understanding genetic and environmental interactions underlying hepatic steatosis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05607.001 PMID:26067236

  20. Histocompatible chicken inbred lines: homogeneities in the major histocompatibility complex antigens of the GSP, GSN/1, PNP/DO and BM-C inbred lines assessed by hemagglutination, mixed lymphocyte reaction and skin transplantation.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Marcos B; Mizutani, Makoto; Fujiwara, Akira; Yazawa, Hajime; Yamagata, Takahiro; Shimada, Kiyoshi; Namikawa, Takao

    2007-10-01

    Chicken inbred lines of the GSP, GSN/1, PNP/DO and BM-C have been established by selection of a specific allele at the B blood group locus (MHC B-G region) and other polymorphic loci through pedigree mating. To extend the potential of these inbred lines as experimental animals in Aves, we assessed the antigenic homogeneities of the MHC antigens by three immunological methods. Antigenic variations of red blood cells (RBCs) were surveyed in the inbred lines and a random-bred line (NG) derived from the Nagoya breed by using ten kinds of intact antisera produced in the inbred line of chickens against RBCs of a red junglefowl and hybrids. In the hemagglutination test, no individual variations were found within the inbred line at all, while all the ten antisera detected highly heterogeneous reactions in individuals of the NG. The reciprocal one-way mixed lymphocyte reactions gave constantly higher stimulation responses (P<0.01) between individual pairs from the inbred lines having different B alleles compared to pairs within the inbred line, while lower stimulation was observed between pairs of the GSP and GSN/1 inbred lines both having the B(21) allele. In reciprocal skin transplantation, the transplanted skingrafts within the inbred line and between individuals from the GSP and GSN/1 inbred lines survived more than 100 days, while all the skingrafts showed signs of rejection within 7 days among the inbred lines having different B alleles. The results obtained by the three practical methods coincidentally indicated that the individuals in the respective four inbred lines were histocompatible, and further, that the GSP and GSN/1 individuals were histocompatible. PMID:18075192

  1. Analysis of the energetic metabolism in cyclic Bedouin goats (Capra hircus): Nychthemeral and seasonal variations of some haematochemical parameters in relation with body and ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Malek, Mouna; Amirat, Zaina; Khammar, Farida; Khaldoun, Mounira

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have examined changes in some haematochemical parameters as a function of the different physiological status (cyclic, pregnant and lactating) of goats, but no relevant literature has exhaustively investigated these variations from anestrous to estrous stages in cyclic goats. In this paper, we report nychthemeral and seasonal variations in ambient and body temperatures, and in some haematochemical parameters (glycemia, cholesterolemia, triglyceridemia, creatininemia and uremia) measured during summer, winter and spring, in seven (7) experimental cyclic female Bedouin goats (Capra hircus) living in the Béni-Abbès region (Algerian Sahara desert). Cosinor rhythmometry procedure was used to determine the rhythmic parameters of ambient temperature and haematochemical parameters. To determine the effect of time of day on the rhythmicity of the studied parameters, as well as their seasonality, repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied. The results showed that in spite of the nychthemeral profile presented by the ambient temperature for each season, the body temperature remained in a narrow range, thus indicating a successful thermoregulation. The rhythmometry analysis showed a circadian rhythmicity of ambient temperature and haematochemical parameters with diurnal acrophases. A statistically significant effect of the time of day was shown on all studied haematochemical parameters, except on creatininemia. It was also found that only uremia, cholesterolemia and triglyceridemia followed the seasonal sexual activity of the studied ruminant. This study demonstrated the good physiological adaptation developed by this breed in response to the harsh climatic conditions of its natural environment. PMID:27503720

  2. Identification of five novel modifier loci of ApcMin harbored in the BXH14 recombinant inbred strain

    PubMed Central

    Siracusa, Linda D.

    2012-01-01

    Every year thousands of people in the USA are diagnosed with small intestine and colorectal cancers (CRC). Although environmental factors affect disease etiology, uncovering underlying genetic factors is imperative for risk assessment and developing preventative therapies. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a heritable genetic disorder in which individuals carry germ-line mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that predisposes them to CRC. The Apc Min mouse model carries a point mutation in the Apc gene and develops polyps along the intestinal tract. Inbred strain background influences polyp phenotypes in Apc Min mice. Several Modifier of Min (Mom) loci that alter tumor phenotypes associated with the Apc Min mutation have been identified to date. We screened BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strains by crossing BXH RI females with C57BL/6J (B6) Apc Min males and quantitating tumor phenotypes in backcross progeny. We found that the BXH14 RI strain harbors five modifier loci that decrease polyp multiplicity. Furthermore, we show that resistance is determined by varying combinations of these modifier loci. Gene interaction network analysis shows that there are multiple networks with proven gene–gene interactions, which contain genes from all five modifier loci. We discuss the implications of this result for studies that define susceptibility loci, namely that multiple networks may be acting concurrently to alter tumor phenotypes. Thus, the significance of this work resides not only with the modifier loci we identified but also with the combinations of loci needed to get maximal protection against polyposis and the impact of this finding on human disease studies. Abbreviations:APCadenomatous polyposis coliGWASgenome-wide association studiesQTLquantitative trait lociSNPsingle-nucleotide polymorphism. PMID:22637734

  3. Cystic fibrosis in a large kindred family in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Abdul Wahab, A; Dawod, S T; al Thani, G

    2000-09-01

    We describe 45 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), diagnosed between June 1987 and May 1999, seen at the Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar in the Arabian Gulf. Twenty-six of 32 families in the study were related and belonged to the same Bedouin tribe. The parents of 98% of these cases were consanguineous. Metabolic alkalosis and/or hypo-electrolytaemia were found in a large proportion of infants with CF. Cystic fibrosis in Qatari children is phenotypically variable with mild to moderate respiratory symptoms, and none of them died during this study. Among the non-Arabic-Asian patients, pulmonary symptoms were more severe, Pseudomonas colonization was earlier, pancreatic insufficiency occurred in infancy and four died in early life. PMID:11064773

  4. Mapping QTL for agronomic traits on wheat chromosome 3A and a comparison of recombinant inbred chromosome line populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain yield and its component traits was documented in a ‘Cheyenne’ x Cheyenne (‘Wichita’ 3A) recombinant inbred chromosome line population. In the present study, a population of 223 Cheyenne (Wichita 3A) recombinant inbred chromosome lines was used to map ...

  5. Shotgun Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Responding to Drought Stress in Brassica rapa L. (Inbred Line "Chiifu").

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Wook; Kim, Mijeong; Kim, Hijin; Lee, Joohyun

    2016-01-01

    Through a comparative shotgun quantitative proteomics analysis in Brassica rapa (inbred line Chiifu), total of 3,009 nonredundant proteins were identified with a false discovery rate of 0.01 in 3-week-old plants subjected to dehydration treatment for 0, 24, and 48 h, plants subjected to drought stress. Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylases, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, and light harvesting complex in photosystem II were highly abundant proteins in the leaves and accounted for 9%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, of the total identified proteins. Comparative analysis of the treatments enabled detection of 440 differentially expressed proteins during dehydration. The results of clustering analysis, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, and analysis of composite expression profiles of functional categories for the differentially expressed proteins indicated that drought stress reduced the levels of proteins associated with photosynthesis and increased the levels of proteins involved in catabolic processes and stress responses. We observed enhanced expression of many proteins involved in osmotic stress responses and proteins with antioxidant activities. Based on previously reported molecular functions, we propose that the following five differentially expressed proteins could provide target genes for engineering drought resistance in plants: annexin, phospholipase D delta, sDNA-binding transcriptional regulator, auxin-responsive GH3 family protein, and TRAF-like family protein. PMID:27419125

  6. Shotgun Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Responding to Drought Stress in Brassica rapa L. (Inbred Line “Chiifu”)

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Through a comparative shotgun quantitative proteomics analysis in Brassica rapa (inbred line Chiifu), total of 3,009 nonredundant proteins were identified with a false discovery rate of 0.01 in 3-week-old plants subjected to dehydration treatment for 0, 24, and 48 h, plants subjected to drought stress. Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylases, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, and light harvesting complex in photosystem II were highly abundant proteins in the leaves and accounted for 9%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, of the total identified proteins. Comparative analysis of the treatments enabled detection of 440 differentially expressed proteins during dehydration. The results of clustering analysis, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, and analysis of composite expression profiles of functional categories for the differentially expressed proteins indicated that drought stress reduced the levels of proteins associated with photosynthesis and increased the levels of proteins involved in catabolic processes and stress responses. We observed enhanced expression of many proteins involved in osmotic stress responses and proteins with antioxidant activities. Based on previously reported molecular functions, we propose that the following five differentially expressed proteins could provide target genes for engineering drought resistance in plants: annexin, phospholipase D delta, sDNA-binding transcriptional regulator, auxin-responsive GH3 family protein, and TRAF-like family protein. PMID:27419125

  7. Doubled haploid inbred lines USVL048 and USVL131 of heading broccoli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two inbred lines of heading broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), designated USVL048 and USVL131, were released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2012. Both of the released lines are doubled haploids originally derived from another culture. As do...

  8. Identification of a bioactive Bowman-Birk inhibitor from an insect-resistant early maize inbred

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding of maize, Zea mays, has improved insect resistance, but the genetic and biochemical basis of many of these improvements is unknown. Maize oligonucleotide microarrays were utilized to identify differentially expressed genes in leaves of three maize inbreds, parents Oh40B and W8 and progeny O...

  9. MAPPING RESISTANCE TO SOUTHERN CORN RUST IN A SEMI-TROPICAL RECOMBINANT INBRED TOPCROSS POPULATION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant inbred (RI) lines derived from a cross between NC300, an all-tropical, temperate-adapted line, and B104, a stiff-stalk line were genotyped at 113 loci spaced throughout the genome, and topcrossed to the sister-line tester FR615xFR697. The 143 topcrosses were evaluated for resistance to ...

  10. Joint Analysis of Near Isogenic and Recombinant Inbred Line Populations Yields Precise Positional Estimates for QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near isogenic lines (NILs) are typically constructed to fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL). The data generated for the initial QTL mapping are usually ignored for fine-mapping purposes. However, combining already-available data from initial recombinant inbred line (RIL) studies with new data fro...

  11. Analysis of the genetic diversity of super sweet corn inbred lines using SSR and SSAP markers.

    PubMed

    Ko, W R; Sa, K J; Roy, N S; Choi, H-J; Lee, J K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared the efficiency of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence specific amplified polymorphism (SSAP) markers for analyzing genetic diversity, genetic relationships, and population structure of 87 super sweet corn inbred lines from different origins. SSR markers showed higher average gene diversity and Shannon's information index than SSAP markers. To assess genetic relationships and characterize inbred lines using SSR and SSAP markers, genetic similarity (GS) matrices were constructed. The dendrogram using SSR marker data showed a complex pattern with nine clusters and a GS of 53.0%. For SSAP markers, three clusters were observed with a GS of 50.8%. Results of combined marker data showed six clusters with 53.5% GS. To analyze the genetic population structure of SSR and SSAP marker data, the 87 inbred lines were divided into groups I, II, and admixed based on the membership probability threshold of 0.8. Using combined marker data, the population structure was K = 3 and was divided into groups I, II, III, and admixed. This study represents a comparative analysis of SSR and SSAP marker data for the study of genetic diversity and genetic relationships in super sweet corn inbred lines. Our results would be useful for maize-breeding programs in Korea. PMID:26909914

  12. USDA 846-1 fractal melon and derived recombinant inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a melon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding line with highly branched, fractal-type architectural growth habit and 81 derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL). The indeterminate, monoecious USDA 846-1 produces 2...

  13. Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to Aspergillus and Fusarium ear rot and mycotoxin accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxin contamination in corn grain is a worldwide threat to both human food safety and animal feed ingredients. A select group of inbred corn lines was evaluated in field trials for mycotoxin accumulation in grain and ear rot caused by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Our goal ...

  14. Genome diversity in Brachypodium distachyon: deep sequencing of highly diverse inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation provides a powerful opportunity to study the genetic basis of biological traits. Brachypodium distachyon is a broadly distributed diploid model grass with a small genome and a large collection of diverse inbred lines. As a step towards understanding the genetic basis of the natura...

  15. Registration of a rice gene mapping population of Lemont X Jasmine 85 recombinant inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mapping population developed from a cross of rice (Oryza sativa L.) tropical japonica cultivar ‘Lemont’ and indica cultivar ‘Jasmine 85’ was developed to facilitate genetic studies for important agronomic traits. The indica- and japonica-based rice recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population ...

  16. Strain typing of U.S. scrapie strains using a panel of inbred mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion strains may vary in their ability to transmit to humans and animals. Few experimental studies have been done to provide evidence of differences between U.S. strains of scrapie, which can be distinguished by incubation times in inbred mice, microscopic lesions, immunoreactivity to various anti...

  17. Hierarchical Modeling and Differential Expression Analysis for RNA-seq Experiments with Inbred and Hybrid Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lithio, Andrew; Nettleton, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The performance of inbred and hybrid genotypes is of interest in plant breeding and genetics. High-throughput sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq) has proven to be a useful tool in the study of the molecular genetic responses of inbreds and hybrids to environmental stresses. Commonly used experimental designs and sequencing methods lead to complex data structures that require careful attention in data analysis. We demonstrate an analysis of RNA-seq data from a split-plot design involving drought stress applied to two inbred genotypes and two hybrids formed by crosses between the inbreds. Our generalized linear modeling strategy incorporates random effects for whole-plot experimental units and uses negative binomial distributions to allow for overdispersion in count responses for split-plot experimental units. Variations in gene length and base content, as well as differences in sequencing intensity across experimental units, are also accounted for. Hierarchical modeling with thoughtful parameterization and prior specification allows for borrowing of information across genes to improve estimation of dispersion parameters, genotype effects, treatment effects, and interaction effects of primary interest. PMID:27110090

  18. Genetic Analysis of Recombinant Inbred Lines For Sorghum Bicolor x Perennial S. Propinquum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From an annual S. bicolor x perennial S. propinquum F2 population used in early-generation genetic analysis, we have produced and describe here a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes that segregates for rhizomatousness and many other traits. The genetic map of the recombinant...

  19. Susceptibility of sunflower inbreds to Melanagromyza minimoides in Argentina and potential association with plant resistance traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed-feeding by larvae of Melanagromyza minimoides can substantially reduce yields of late-planted sunflower in South America and its management with insecticides or early-planting has other undesirable costs. Evaluation of inbred lines over three seasons indicated differences in emergence of adult ...

  20. Registration of USG 3209/Jaypee Wheat Recombinant Inbred Line Mapping Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘USG 3209’/‘Jaypee’ (Reg. No. MP-3, NSL 465777 MAP), is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed by Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and submitted to the USDA–ARS National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility in Aberdeen...

  1. Genetic mapping with an inbred line-derived F2 population in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important global food crop, for which tetrasomic inheritance and self-incompatibility have limited both genetic discovery and breeding gains. We report here on the creation of the first diploid inbred line-derived F2 population in potato, and demonstrate its utili...

  2. Resistance to Beet Armyworm in a Chickpea Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cicer reticulatum Ladzinsky, a good source of insect resistance, was used to develop a chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) recombinant inbred line population (CRIL-7) using FLIP 84-92C (kabuli chickpea) and PI 599072, a resistant C. reticulatum accession, as parents. CRIL-7 lines, parents, and checks wer...

  3. Characterization of the Recombinant Inbred Line Population Derived from the Cross of Nipponbare/9311

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a part of the project entitled “Understanding the rice epigenome: From genes to genomes” funded by the National Science Foundation, a mapping population of 480 F6-8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of Nipponbare with 9311 (Nip/9311) was developed. Phenotyping important agronom...

  4. Molecular Characterization of the Recombinant Inbred Line Population of the Cross of Lemont with Jasmine 85

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of rice are an essential genetic resource for the construction of molecular genetic linkage maps and map-based identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The RIL F5 population derived from a cross of the United Stated tropical japonica rice cultivar Le...

  5. SEED QUALITY ASSURANCE IN MAIZE BREEDING PROGRAMS: TESTS TO EXPLAIN VARIATIONS IN CORN INBREDS AND POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) breeders are interested in evaluating seed quality of their inbred lines, and seed companies rigorously test the seed quality of the hybrids they produce. Seed quality has a strong relationship to field emergence. There is little information, however, on the influence of the se...

  6. Inbred decorated crickets exhibit higher measures of macroparasitic immunity than outbred individuals.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S N; Barnett, C A; Pettinger, A M; Weddle, C B; Hunt, J; Sakaluk, S K

    2010-09-01

    Inbreeding is assumed to have negative effects on fitness, including the reduced ability to withstand immune challenges. We examined the immunological consequences of inbreeding in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, by comparing lytic activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and encapsulation ability of crickets from eight inbred lines with that of crickets from the outbred founder population. Surprisingly, crickets from inbred lines had a greater encapsulation ability compared with crickets from the outbred population. We suggest that because inbred crickets have reduced reproductive effort, they may, therefore, have the option of devoting more resources to this form of immunity than outbred individuals. We also found that both inbred and outbred females had higher immunity than males in PO activity and implant darkness. This result supports the hypothesis that females should devote more effort to somatic maintenance and immunity than males. PO activity and implant darkness were heritable in both males and females, but lytic activity was only heritable in females. Males and females differed in the heritability of, and genetic correlations among, immune traits, suggesting that differences in selective pressures on males and females may have resulted in a sexual conflict over optimal immune trait values. PMID:20125187

  7. In-silico mapping of quantitative trait loci for lactation-associated traits in inbred mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant variation exists for fecundity and maternal nurturing ability in inbred mice. Classical gene mapping approaches in mice have identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) that account for some this variation. Current studies in our laboratory are aimed at identifying QTL genes that un...

  8. Initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine varies widely among inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, T; Ervin, R B; Duan, H; Bogue, M A; Zamboni, W C; Cook, S; Chung, W; Zou, F; Tarantino, L M

    2015-03-01

    Initial sensitivity to psychostimulants can predict subsequent use and abuse in humans. Acute locomotor activation in response to psychostimulants is commonly used as an animal model of initial drug sensitivity and has been shown to have a substantial genetic component. Identifying the specific genetic differences that lead to phenotypic differences in initial drug sensitivity can advance our understanding of the processes that lead to addiction. Phenotyping inbred mouse strain panels are frequently used as a first step for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits. We assessed locomotor activation following a single, acute 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine (COC) in males from 45 inbred mouse strains and observed significant phenotypic variation across strains indicating a substantial genetic component. We also measured levels of COC, the active metabolite, norcocaine and the major inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in plasma and brain in the same set of inbred strains. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and behavioral data were significantly correlated, but at a level that indicates that PK alone does not account for the behavioral differences observed across strains. Phenotypic data from this reference population of inbred strains can be utilized in studies aimed at examining the role of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activation on drug reward and reinforcement and to test theories about addiction processes. Moreover, these data serve as a starting point for identifying genes that alter sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of COC. PMID:25727211

  9. Initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine varies widely among inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Wiltshire, T.; Ervin, R. B.; Duan, H.; Bogue, M. A.; Zamboni, W. C.; Cook, S.; Chung, W.; Zou, F.; Tarantino, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Initial sensitivity to psychostimulants can predict subsequent use and abuse in humans. Acute locomotor activation in response to psychostimulants is commonly used as an animal model of initial drug sensitivity and has been shown to have a substantial genetic component. Identifying the specific genetic differences that lead to phenotypic differences in initial drug sensitivity can advance our understanding of the processes that lead to addiction. Phenotyping inbred mouse strain panels are frequently used as a first step for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits. We assessed locomotor activation following a single, acute 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine (COC) in males from 45 inbred mouse strains and observed significant phenotypic variation across strains indicating a substantial genetic component. We also measured levels of COC, the active metabolite, norcocaine and the major inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in plasma and brain in the same set of inbred strains. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and behavioral data were significantly correlated, but at a level that indicates that PK alone does not account for the behavioral differences observed across strains. Phenotypic data from this reference population of inbred strains can be utilized in studies aimed at examining the role of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activation on drug reward and reinforcement and to test theories about addiction processes. Moreover, these data serve as a starting point for identifying genes that alter sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of COC. PMID:25727211

  10. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMSn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow fruited genotype) were characterized using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography in tandem with high resolution mass spectromet...

  11. [Systematically induced effects of Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation on chemical defense in Zea mays inbred lines].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-xi; Yang, Qun-fang; Huang, Yu-bi; Li, Qing

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the systematically induced production of defense-related compounds, including DIMBOA, total phenol, trypsin inhibitors (TI) and chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI), by Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation in Zea mays. The first leaves of two corn in-bred line seedlings, the mite-tolerant line ' H1014168' and the mite-sensitive line 'H1014591', were sucked by T. cinnabarinus adult female for seven days, and then the contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI were measured in the second leaf and in the roots, respectively. Results showed that as compared to the unsucked control, all contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI induced by T. cinnabarinus sucking were significantly higher in the second leaf of both inbred lines as well as in the roots of the mite-tolerant 'H1014168'. However, in the roots of 'H1014591', these defense compounds had different trends, where there was a higher induction of TI and a lower level of total phenol than that of the healthy control, while had almost no difference in DIMBOA and CI. These findings suggested that the infestation of T. cinnabarinus could systematically induce accumulation of defense-related compounds, and this effect was stronger in the mite-tolerant inbred line than in the mite-sensitive inbred line. PMID:26785567

  12. Mapping stripe rust resistance genes in a Brundage x Coda winter wheat recombinant inbred line population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population developed from a cross between winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Coda and Brundage was evaluated for reaction to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici). Two hundred and sixty eight RIL from the population were evalua...

  13. Registration of the LouAu (Louise/IWA8608077) wheat recombinant inbred line mapping population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LouAu (Louise/IWA8608077) is a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) recombinant inbred line population developed by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agriculture Research Service, with Oregon State and Washington State Universities, from a cross between the soft white spring cultivar 'Louise' and ...

  14. Development of the recombinant inbred line population of tropical japonica Lemont crossed with indica Jasmine 85

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of rice is routinely used in studying agronomically important genes, and is particularly useful for analyzing quantitative trait loci (QTL) since phenotypes can be assessed over years. Jasmine 85, a midseason aromatic long-grain indica rice cultivar develo...

  15. Analysis of wild-species introgressions in tomato inbreds uncovers ancestral origins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decades of intensive tomato breeding using wild germplasm has resulted in genomes of domesticated accessions (Solanum lycopersicum) to be intertwined with introgressions from their wild relatives. Here we present the first whole genome sequences of two tomato inbreds Gh13 and BTI87, both carrying a ...

  16. Comparative Performance of Hybrid and Elite Inbred Rice Varieties with respect to Their Source-Sink Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md Moinul; Pramanik, Habibur Rahman; Biswas, Jiban Krishna; Iftekharuddaula, K. M.; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid rice varieties have higher yield potential over inbred varieties. This improvement is not always translated to the grain yield and its physiological causes are still unclear. In order to clarify it, two field experiments were conducted including two popular indica hybrids (BRRI hybrid dhan2 and Heera2) and one elite inbred (BRRI dhan45) rice varieties. Leaf area index, chlorophyll status, and photosynthetic rate of flag leaf, postheading crop growth rate, shoot reserve translocation, source-sink relation and yield, and its attributes of each variety were comprehensively analyzed. Both hybrid varieties outyielded the inbred. However, the hybrids and inbred varieties exhibited statistically identical yield in late planting. Both hybrids accumulated higher amount of biomass before heading and exhibited greater remobilization of assimilates to the grain in early plantings compared to the inbred variety. Filled grain (%) declined significantly at delayed planting in the hybrids compared to elite inbred due to increased temperature impaired-inefficient transport of assimilates. Flag leaf photosynthesis parameters were higher in the hybrid varieties than those of the inbred variety. Results suggest that greater remobilization of shoot reserves to the grain rendered higher yield of hybrid rice varieties. PMID:25705712

  17. An inbred line of the diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens for genomic and molecular genetic studies in the Rosaceae

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) is an attractive system for functional genomics studies. Its small stature, fast regeneration time, efficient transformability and small genome size, together with substantial EST and genomic sequence resources make it an ideal reference plant for Fragaria and other herbaceous perennials. Most importantly, this species shares gene sequence similarity and genomic microcolinearity with other members of the Rosaceae family, including large-statured tree crops (such as apple, peach and cherry), and brambles and roses as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberry, F. ×ananassa. F. vesca may be used to quickly address questions of gene function relevant to these valuable crop species. Although some F. vesca lines have been shown to be substantially homozygous, in our hands plants in purportedly homozygous populations exhibited a range of morphological and physiological variation, confounding phenotypic analyses. We also found the genotype of a named variety, thought to be well-characterized and even sold commercially, to be in question. An easy to grow, standardized, inbred diploid Fragaria line with documented genotype that is available to all members of the research community will facilitate comparison of results among laboratories and provide the research community with a necessary tool for functionally testing the large amount of sequence data that will soon be available for peach, apple, and strawberry. Results A highly inbred line, YW5AF7, of a diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens line called "Yellow Wonder" (Y2) was developed and examined. Botanical descriptors were assessed for morphological characterization of this genotype. The plant line was found to be rapidly transformable using established techniques and media formulations. Conclusion The development of the documented YW5AF7 line provides an important tool for Rosaceae functional genomic analyses. These day-neutral plants have

  18. Identification of a bioactive Bowman-Birk inhibitor from an insect-resistant early maize inbred.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric T; Skory, Christopher; Dowd, Patrick F

    2014-06-18

    Breeding of maize, Zea mays, has improved insect resistance, but the genetic and biochemical basis of many of these improvements is unknown. Maize oligonucleotide microarrays were utilized to identify differentially expressed genes in leaves of three maize inbreds, parents Oh40B and W8 and progeny Oh43, developed in the 1940s. Oh43 had enhanced leaf resistance to corn earworm larvae, Helicoverpa zea, and fall armyworm larvae, Spodoptera frugiperda, compared to one or both parents. Among ca. 100 significantly differentially expressed genes, expression of a Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor (BBI) gene was at least ca. 8-fold higher in Oh43 than in either parent. The Oh43 BBI gene was expressed as a recombinant protein. Purified BBI inhibited trypsin and the growth of fall armyworm larvae when added to insect diet. These experiments indicate that comparative gene expression analysis combined with insect resistance measurements of early inbreds can identify previously unrecognized resistance genes. PMID:24869634

  19. Characteristics of sleep and wakefulness in wild-derived inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Hiyoshi, Hideyuki; Terao, Akira; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Kimura, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations in the wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more diverse than that of classical laboratory inbred mouse strains, including C57BL/6J (B6). The sleep/wake and monoamine properties of six wild-derived inbred mouse strains (PGN2, NJL, BLG2, KJR, MSM, HMI) were characterized and compared with those of B6 mice. All examined mice were nocturnal and had a polyphasic sleep pattern with a "main sleep period" identified during the light period. However, there were three sleep/wake phenotypic differences between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain. First, the amount of sleep during the dark phase was comparable with that of B6 mice. However, the amount of sleep during the light phase was more varied among strains, in particular, NJL and HMI had significantly less sleep compared with that of B6 mice. Second, PGN2, NJL, BLG2, and KJR mice showed a "highly awake period" (in which the hourly total sleep time was <10%) immediately after the onset of the dark period, which was not seen in B6 mice. Third, relative to that of B6 mice, PGN2 and KJR mice showed longer duration of wakefulness episodes during the 12-h dark phase. Differences in whole brain noradrenaline, dopamine, and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine contents between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain were also found. These identified phenotypes might be potentially under strong genetic control. Hence, wild-derived inbred mice could be useful for identifying the genetic factors underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. PMID:24770646

  20. Characteristics of Sleep and Wakefulness inWild-Derived Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    HIYOSHI, Hideyuki; TERAO, Akira; OKAMATSU-OGURA, Yuko; KIMURA, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations in the wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more diverse than that of classical laboratory inbred mouse strains, including C57BL/6J (B6). The sleep/wake and monoamine properties of six wild-derived inbred mouse strains (PGN2, NJL, BLG2, KJR, MSM, HMI) were characterized and compared with those of B6 mice. All examined mice were nocturnal and had a polyphasic sleep pattern with a “main sleep period” identified during the light period. However, there were three sleep/wake phenotypic differences between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain. First, the amount of sleep during the dark phase was comparable with that of B6 mice. However, the amount of sleep during the light phase was more varied among strains, in particular, NJL and HMI had significantly less sleep compared with that of B6 mice. Second, PGN2, NJL, BLG2, and KJR mice showed a “highly awake period” (in which the hourly total sleep time was <10%) immediately after the onset of the dark period, which was not seen in B6 mice. Third, relative to that of B6 mice, PGN2 and KJR mice showed longer duration of wakefulness episodes during the 12-h dark phase. Differences in whole brain noradrenaline, dopamine, and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine contents between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain were also found. These identified phenotypes might be potentially under strong genetic control. Hence, wild-derived inbred mice could be useful for identifying the genetic factors underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. PMID:24770646

  1. Sensitivity of Female Inbreds of Cucumis sativus to Sex Reversion by Gibberellin.

    PubMed

    Shifriss, O; George, W L

    1964-03-27

    Two female inbred cucumbers were developed by substituting gene Acr for acr in the genetic backgrounds of the monoecious races Marketer and Tokyo, which exhibit weak and strong male tendency respectively. Marketer females are resistant and Tokyo females are sensitive to sex reversion in response to treatments with gibberellin A(3). Resistance and sensitivity of this type appear to depend upon the genetic system which controls sex tendency. PMID:17807849

  2. Unexpected positive and negative effects of continuing inbreeding in one of the world's most inbred wild animals.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Emily L; Grueber, Catherine E; Kennedy, Euan S; Jamieson, Ian G

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding depression, the reduced fitness of offspring of related individuals, is a central theme in evolutionary biology. Inbreeding effects are influenced by the genetic makeup of a population, which is driven by any history of genetic bottlenecks and genetic drift. The Chatham Island black robin represents a case of extreme inbreeding following two severe population bottlenecks. We tested whether inbreeding measured by a 20-year pedigree predicted variation in fitness among individuals, despite the high mean level of inbreeding and low genetic diversity in this species. We found that paternal and maternal inbreeding reduced fledgling survival and individual inbreeding reduced juvenile survival, indicating that inbreeding depression affects even this highly inbred population. Close inbreeding also reduced survival for fledglings with less-inbred mothers, but unexpectedly improved survival for fledglings with highly inbred mothers. This counterintuitive interaction could not be explained by various potentially confounding variables. We propose a genetic mechanism, whereby a highly inbred chick with a highly inbred parent inherits a "proven" genotype and thus experiences a fitness advantage, which could explain the interaction. The positive and negative effects we found emphasize that continuing inbreeding can have important effects on individual fitness, even in populations that are already highly inbred. PMID:26683565

  3. Genetic background of resistance to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi rats.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Hata, Iori; Hashiguchi, Takashi; Imamura, Yorishige

    2011-10-01

    We have previously reported that inbred Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular toxicity compared with inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rats. The present study was to elucidate the genetic background of resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats. The genetic analysis of susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity was conducted by using Cd-resistant WI and Cd-sensitive F344 strains as the parental rats and by using the testicular hemoglobin level as the indicator. In the frequency distribution of testicular hemoglobin levels in parental, first filial (F(1)) and second filial (F(2)) rats treated with Cd at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg, F(1) rats had testicular hemoglobin levels intermediate to WI and F344 rats, and F(2) rats segregated into three groups of low, intermediate, and high phenotypes at the expected ratio. Furthermore, the backcross progeny between WI and F(1) or between F344 and F(1) segregated into two groups with the expected ratio. Based on a simple Mendelian genetic analysis, these segregation patterns lead us to conclude that two codominant alleles at a gene locus are responsible for the susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in rats. This is the first report for the genetic analysis of susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in inbred rat strains. PMID:21318357

  4. GENETIC CONTROL OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFECTION WITH PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI CHABAUDI AS IN INBRED MOUSE STRAINS

    PubMed Central

    Laroque, Aurélie; Min-Oo, Gundula; Tam, Mifong; Radovanovic, Irena; Stevenson, Mary M.; Gros, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    To identify genetic effects modulating blood stage replication of the malarial parasite, we phenotyped a group of 25 inbred mouse strains for susceptibility to Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS infection (peak parasitemia, survival). A broad spectrum of responses was observed, with strains such as C57BL/6J being the most resistant (low parasitemia, 100% survival), and strains such as NZW/LacJ and C3HeB/FeJ being extremely susceptible (very high parasitemia and uniform lethality). A number of strains showed intermediate phenotypes and gender specific effects, suggestive of rich genetic diversity in response to malaria in inbred strains. An F2 progeny were generated from SM/J (susceptible) and C57BL/6J (resistant) parental strains, and was phenotyped for susceptibility to P. chabaudi chabaudi AS. A whole genome scan in these animals identified the Char1 locus (LOD=7.40) on chromosome 9 as a key regulator of parasite density and pointed to a conserved 0.4Mb haplotype at Char1 that segregates with susceptibility/resistance to infection. In addition, a second locus was detected in [SM/J x C57BL/6J] F2 mice on the X chromosome (LOD=4.26), which was given the temporary designation Char11. These studies identify a conserved role of Char1 in regulating response to malaria in inbred mouse strains, and provide a prioritized 0.4Mb interval for the search of positional candidates. PMID:21975430

  5. Strong genetic influences on measures of behavioral-regulation among inbred rat strains

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jerry B.; Lloyd, David R.; Kuehlewind, Brandon; Militello, Leah; Paredez, Marita; Solberg -Woods, Leah; Palmer, Abraham A.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental challenge for any complex nervous system is to regulate behavior in response to environmental challenges. Three measures of behavioral regulation were tested in a panel of 8 inbred rat strains. These measures were; 1) sensation seeking as assessed by locomotor response to novelty and the sensory reinforcing effects of light onset, 2) attention and impulsivity, as measured by a choice reaction time task, and 3) impulsivity as measured by a delay discounting task. Deficient behavioral regulation has been linked to a number of psychopathologies, including ADHD, Schizophrenia, Autism, drug abuse and eating disorders. Eight inbred rat strains (August Copenhagen Irish, Brown Norway, Buffalo, Fischer 344, Wistar Kyoto, Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat, Lewis, Dahl Salt Sensitive) were tested. With n=9 for each strain, we observed robust strain differences for all tasks; heritability was estimated between 0.43 and 0.66. Performance of the 8 inbred rat strains on the choice reaction time task was compared to the performance of out bred Sprague Dawley (n=28) and Heterogeneous strain rats (n=48). The results indicate a strong genetic influence on complex tasks related to behavioral regulation and indicate that some of measures tap common genetically-driven processes. Furthermore, our results establish the potential for future studies aimed at identifying specific alleles that influence variability for these traits. Identification of such alleles could contribute to our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of behavioral regulation, which is of fundamental importance and likely contributes to multiple psychiatric disorders. PMID:23710681

  6. Phenotypic Characterization of the KK/HlJ Inbred Mouse Strain

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, A.; Sundberg, B. A.; Silva, K. A.; Kennedy, V. E.; Richardson, M. A.; Li, Q.; Bronson, R. T.; Uitto, J.; Sundberg, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed histopathological diagnoses of inbred mouse strains are important for interpreting research results and defining novel models of human diseases. The aim of this study was to histologically detect lesions affecting the KK/HlJ inbred strain. Mice were examined at 6, 12, and 20 months of age and near natural death (ie, moribund mice). Histopathological lesions were quantified by percentage of affected mice per age group and sex. Predominant lesions were mineralization, hyperplasia, and fibro-osseous lesions. Mineralization was most frequently found in the connective tissue dermal sheath of vibrissae, the heart, and the lung. Mineralization was also found in many other organs but to a lesser degree. Hyperplasia was found most commonly in the pancreatic islets, and fibro-osseous lesions were observed in several bones. The percentage of lesions increased with age until 20 months. This study shows that KK/HlJ mice demonstrate systemic aberrant mineralization, with greatest frequency in aged mice. The detailed information about histopathological lesions in the inbred strain KK/HlJ can help investigators to choose the right model and correctly interpret the experimental results. PMID:24009271

  7. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan.

    PubMed

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A A; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2015-11-01

    Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan. The inbred lines have considerable (P ≤ 0.05) variability in yield and yield components, and seed chemical composition. The mean carbohydrate content was very high (501.1 g kg(-1)) and negatively correlated with seed yield, whereas the average protein content was relatively high (253.1 g kg(-1)) and positively correlated with seed yield. Globulin was the significant fraction (613.5 g kg(-1)protein) followed by albumin (200.2 g kg(-1)protein). Biplot analysis indicates that inbred lines Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 outscore other lines in terms of seed yield and nutritional quality. This study demonstrates that Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 are useful candidates in faba bean breeding program to terminate the protein deficiency malnutrition and provide healthy and nutritious meal for people living in subtropical areas. PMID:26788295

  8. Foxn1 gene knockout suppresses sexual attractiveness and pheromonal components of male urine in inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Sun, Lixing; Zhang, Yao-Hua

    2010-01-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) posits that females prefer signals emitted by immunocompetent males over immunocompromised males and that these signals are honest. However, mechanisms of mate choice under an ICHH model may be impacted by levels of genetic variation (inbred animals vs. outbred animals). Here, we conducted 2-choice female preference experiments and chemical analyses of male urine in inbred BALB/c and outbred CD-1 mice, both of which have immunocompromised nude (nu) strains resulting from a Foxn1 gene knockout. We found that inbred BALB/c females but not outbred CD-1 females preferred the urine of healthy males over that of immunocompromised males despite measured differences in the qualities of their urine. There was a clear increase in female-attracting pheromones (such as farnesenes) in the preputial glands and urine metabolites in healthy BALB/c males but no such difference between CD-1 and CD-1 nu males. Therefore, CD-1 male urine failed to provide an honest mate-choice cue for females. Our results suggest that deleterious traits associated with male odor in mice might be jointly affected by the level of inbreeding and immunodeficiency caused by a single-gene knockout. PMID:20019156

  9. Meconium ileus in a Lebanese family secondary to mutations in the GUCY2C gene

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amanda; Bulman, Dennis E; Goldsmith, Claire; Bareke, Eric; Majewski, Jacek; Boycott, Kym M; Nikkel, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    Meconium ileus is most often associated with mutations in the CFTR gene; however recently, mutations in GUCY2C in the Bedouin population have also been shown to result in this phenotype. This gene codes for an intestinal transmembrane receptor that generates cyclic GMP, which activates cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor. We report a third family that supports the association of variants in the GUCY2C gene with meconium ileus (MI). A Lebanese kindred was studied and individuals affected with MI had either homozygous or compound heterozygous variants in GUCY2C. The earliest manifestation of the affected individuals was the presence of second trimester fetal echogenic bowel, thus resulting in the expansion of the differential diagnosis of this ultrasound finding. PMID:25370039

  10. Two traditional maize inbred lines of contrasting technological abilities are discriminated by the seed flour proteome.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Carla; Sergeant, Kjell; Machado, Cátia M; Renaut, Jenny; Ricardo, Cândido P

    2013-07-01

    The seed proteome of two traditional maize inbred lines (pb269 and pb369) contrasting in grain hardness and in preferable use for bread-making was evaluated. The pb269 seeds, of flint type (i.e., hard endosperm), are preferably used by manufacturers, while pb369 (dent, soft endosperm) is rejected. The hypothesis that the content and relative amounts of specific proteins in the maize flour are relevant for such discrimination of the inbred lines was tested. The flour proteins were sequentially extracted following the Osborne fractionation (selective solubilization), and the four Osborne fractions were submitted to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). The total amount of protein extracted from the seeds was not significantly different, but pb369 flour exhibited significantly higher proportions of salt-extracted proteins (globulins) and ethanol-extracted proteins (alcohol-soluble prolamins). The proteome analysis allowed discrimination between the two inbred lines, with pb269 demonstrating higher heterogeneity than pb369. From the 967 spots (358 common to both lines, 208 specific to pb269, and 401 specific to pb369), 588 were submitted to mass spectrometry (MS). Through the combined use of trypsin and chymotrypsin it was possible to identify proteins in 436 spots. The functional categorization in combination with multivariate analysis highlighted the most discriminant biological processes (carbohydrate metabolic process, response to stress, chitin catabolic process, oxidation-reduction process) and molecular function (nutrient reservoir activity). The inbred lines exhibited quantitative and qualitative differences in these categories. Differences were also revealed in the amounts, proportions, and distribution of several groups of storage proteins, which can have an impact on the organization of the protein body and endosperm hardness. For some proteins (granule-bound starch synthase-1, cyclophilin, zeamatin), a change in the protein solubility rather than in the

  11. Comparative quantitative trait locus mapping of maize flowering-related traits in an F2:3 and recombinant inbred line population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y H; Yi, Q; Hou, X B; Zhang, X G; Zhang, J J; Liu, H M; Hu, Y F; Huang, Y B

    2016-01-01

    Flowering-related traits in maize are affected by complex factors and are important for the improvement of cropping systems in the maize zone. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected using different materials and methods usually vary. In the present study, 266 maize (Zea mays) F2:3 families and 301 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between 08-641 (founding parent from southeast China) and Ye478 (founding parent from China) were evaluated for four flowering-related traits, including days to tasseling (DTT), days to pollen shedding (DPS), days to silking (DTS), and anthesis-silking interval. Sixty-six QTLs controlling the target traits were detected in the F2:3 and RIL populations via single environment analysis and joint analysis across all environments (JAAE). The QTLs explained 0.8-13.47% of the phenotypic variation, with 12 QTLs explaining more than 10%. The results of meta-QTL (MQTL) analysis indicated that 41 QTLs could be integrated into 14 MQTLs. One MQTL included 2.9 QTLs, ranging from two to ten QTLs for one to three traits. QTLs, including MQTL1-1 and MQTL9-1, were detected across the F2:3 and RIL populations via SAE and JAAE. Among the MQTLs, nine QTLs were integrated into MQTL9-1 and affected DTT, DPS, and DTS, with the favored allele being derived from 08-641. MQTL3-2 showed high phenotypic variation and was suitable for fine mapping to determine the genetic mechanisms of flowering. MQTL3-2 could be applied to improve inbred lines using marker-assisted selection. PMID:27420987

  12. QTL mapping of agronomic waterlogging tolerance using recombinant inbred lines derived from tropical maize (Zea mays L) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate

  13. QTL Mapping of Agronomic Waterlogging Tolerance Using Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from Tropical Maize (Zea mays L) Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate

  14. Prediction of the performance of inbred lines derived from a population cross in autumn-sown onions (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Werner, C P; Kearsey, M J; Crowther, T C; Dowker, B D

    1990-04-01

    A design and model are presented to allow the prediction, in early generations, of the mean and distribution of recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between two parental populations or partially inbred lines. The procedure has been tested in autumn-sown onions (in the UK) using a wide cross between the openpollinated Japanese cultivar, Senshyu, and a partially inbred line derived from the European cultivar, Rawska. The early generations used for prediction included the first self-pollinated generation of the two parental populations and the F3 generation produced from the hybrid population. The predictions were tested by reference to the field performance of a random array of inbred lines, which were produced by single-seed descent (SSD) and had been selfed for three generations. The early generations, used for prediction, and a sample of SSD lines were raised alongside each other in each of two seasons. Within each season, good agreement was found between the predicted and observed performance of the recombinant inbred lines for three characters - yield, quality and maturity. This is used as evidence of the validity of the genetical model and the assumptions made. The effects of genotype x environment interactions prevented predictions made in one season being reliably applied to those made in the other and, therefore, reduce the attraction of this type of prediction study to the plant breeder. PMID:24226455

  15. Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Americo, Jeffrey L.; Sood, Cindy L.; Cotter, Catherine A.; Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.; Moss, Bernard Earl, Patricia L.

    2014-01-20

    Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies. - Highlights: • Wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice are susceptible to vaccinia virus and cowpox virus. • Morbidity and mortality from orthopoxviruses are greater in CAST/Ei than BALB/c mice. • Morbidity and mortality from herpes simplex virus type 1 are similar in both mice. • Imaging shows virus spread from nose to lungs, abdominal organs and brain. • Vaccinia virus spreads more rapidly than cowpox virus.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Nodes and Buds from High and Low Tillering Switchgrass Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yixing; Zeng, Xin; Peal, Lila; Tang, Yuhong; Wu, Yanqi; Mahalingam, Ramamurthy

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades switchgrass has received increasing attention as a promising bioenergy feedstock. Biomass is the principal trait for improvement in switchgrass breeding programs and tillering is an important component of biomass yield. Switchgrass inbred lines derived from a single parent showing vast variation in tiller number trait was used in this study. Axillary buds, which can develop into tillers, and node tissues, which give rise to axillary buds, were collected from high and low tillering inbred lines growing in field conditions. RNA from buds and nodes from the contrasting inbred lines were used for transcriptome profiling with switchgrass Affymetrix genechips. Nearly 7% of the probesets on the genechip exhibited significant differential expression in these lines. Real-time PCR analysis of 30 genes confirmed the differential expression patterns observed with genechips. Cluster analysis aided in identifying probesets unique to high or low tillering lines as well as those specific to buds or nodes of high tillering lines. Rice orthologs of the switchgrass genes were used for gene ontology (GO) analysis with AgriGO. Enrichment of genes associated with amino acid biosynthesis, lipid transport and vesicular transport were observed in low tillering lines. Enrichment of GOs for translation, RNA binding and gene expression in high tillering lines were indicative of active metabolism associated with rapid growth and development. Identification of different classes of transcription factor genes suggests that regulation of many genes determines the complex process of axillary bud initiation and development. Genes identified in this study will complement the current ongoing efforts in quantitative trait loci mapping of tillering in switchgrass. PMID:24386276

  17. Efficient collection and cryopreservation of embryos in F344 strain inbred rats.

    PubMed

    Taketsuru, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Takehito

    2013-10-01

    In rats, it is now possible to produce genetically engineered strains, not only as transgenic animals but also using gene knockout techniques. Reproductive technologies have been used as indispensable tools to produce and maintain these novel valuable strains. Although studies for collecting and cryopreserving embryos have been reported using outbred rats, efficient methods have not been established in inbred strains. The F344 inbred strain is important in rat breeding and has been used for the production of transgenic/knockout strains and for genome sequencing. Here we studied the optimal conditions for oocyte collection by induction of superovulation, and the development of embryos after cryopreservation in F344 rats. The response to pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was examined by injection of 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG or 300 IU/kg PMSG + 300 IU/kg hCG. Superovulation was achieved at high efficiency by an injection of 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG. Furthermore, superovulation in this strain showed similar high response as Wistar rats. Of 2-cell embryos cryopreserved by vitrification in a solution containing 10% propylene glycol, 30% ethylene glycol, 20% Percoll and 0.3 M sucrose, more than 90% survived after warming and 32% developed to offspring. However, the freezability of pronuclear stage embryos was extremely low. This study demonstrated that sufficient unfertilized oocytes and embryos can be collected from F344 rats by the induction of superovulation with 150 IU/kg PMSG + 75 IU/kg hCG. Furthermore, cryopreservation of 2-cell embryos using this vitrification protocol can now be applied to maintaining valuable rat strains derived from the F344 inbred strain as genetic resources. PMID:23928269

  18. Family Preservation & Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCroskey, Jacquelyn; Meezan, William

    This book reports a study of the outcomes of home-based family preservation services for abusive and neglectful families in Los Angeles County. Using the Family Assessment Form, the research project evaluated services provided by two voluntary agencies, and focused on changes in family functioning between the opening and closing of services during…

  19. Gastrointestinal microbiota of wild and inbred individuals of two house mouse subspecies assessed using high-throughput parallel pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Cížková, Dagmar; Vohánka, Jaroslav; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2014-10-01

    The effects of gastrointestinal tract microbiota (GTM) on host physiology and health have been the subject of considerable interest in recent years. While a variety of captive bred species have been used in experiments, the extent to which GTM of captive and/or inbred individuals resembles natural composition and variation in wild populations is poorly understood. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we performed 16S rDNA GTM barcoding for 30 wild house mice (Mus musculus) and wild-derived inbred strain mice belonging to two subspecies (M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus). Sequenced individuals were selected according to a 2 × 2 experimental design: wild (14) vs. inbred origin (16) and M. m. musculus (15) vs. M. m. domesticus (15). We compared alpha diversity (i.e. number of operational taxonomic units - OTUs), beta diversity (i.e. interindividual variability) and microbiota composition across the four groups. We found no difference between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus subspecies, suggesting low effect of genetic differentiation between these two subspecies on GTM structure. Both inbred and wild populations showed the same level of microbial alpha and beta diversity; however, we found strong differentiation in microbiota composition between wild and inbred populations. Relative abundance of ~ 16% of OTUs differed significantly between wild and inbred individuals. As laboratory mice represent the most abundant model for studying the effects of gut microbiota on host metabolism, immunity and neurology, we suggest that the distinctness of laboratory-kept mouse microbiota, which differs from wild mouse microbiota, needs to be considered in future biomedical research. PMID:25204516

  20. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMS(n.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Xianjin; Yang, Tianbao; Slovin, Janet; Chen, Pei

    2014-03-01

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS(n)). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries. PMID:24176345

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Silk Viability in Maize Inbred Lines and Their Corresponding Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhihui; Qin, Yongtian; Wang, Yafei; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fangfang; Tang, Jihua; Fu, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    A long period of silk viability is critical for a good seed setting rate in maize (Zea mays L.), especially for inbred lines and hybrids with a long interval between anthesis and silking. To explore the molecular mechanism of silk viability and its heterosis, three inbred lines with different silk viability characteristics (Xun928, Lx9801, and Zong3) and their two hybrids (Xun928×Zong3 and Lx9801×Zong3) were analyzed at different developmental stages by a proteomic method. The differentially accumulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and classified into metabolism, protein biosynthesis and folding, signal transduction and hormone homeostasis, stress and defense responses, and cellular processes. Proteins involved in nutrient (methionine) and energy (ATP) supply, which support the pollen tube growth in the silk, were important for silk viability and its heterosis. The additive and dominant effects at a single locus, as well as complex epistatic interactions at two or more loci in metabolic pathways, were the primary contributors for mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. Additionally, the proteins involved in the metabolism of anthocyanins, which indirectly negatively regulate local hormone accumulation, were also important for the mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. These results also might imply the developmental dependence of heterosis, because many of the differentially accumulated proteins made distinct contributions to the heterosis of silk viability at specific developmental stages. PMID:26630375

  2. Experimenter effects on behavioral test scores of eight inbred mouse strains under the influence of ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Bohlen, Martin; Hayes, Erika R.; Bohlen, Benjamin; Bailoo, Jeremy; Crabbe, John C.; Wahlsten, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Eight standard inbred mouse strains were evaluated for ethanol effects on a refined battery of behavioral tests in a study that was originally designed to assess the influence of rat odors in the colony on mouse behaviors. As part of the design of the study, two experimenters conducted the tests, and the study was carefully balanced so that equal numbers of mice in all groups and times of day were tested by each experimenter. A defect in airflow in the facility compromised the odor manipulation, and in fact the different odor exposure groups did not differ in their behaviors. The two experimenters, however, obtained markedly different results for three of the tests. Certain of the experimenter effects arose from the way they judged behaviors that were not automated and had to be rated by the experimenter, such as slips on the balance beam. Others were not evident prior to ethanol injection but had a major influence after the injection. For several measures, the experimenter effects were notably different for different inbred strains. Methods to evaluate and reduce the impact of experimenter effects in future research are discussed. PMID:24933191

  3. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMSn

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Xianjin; Yang, Tianbao; Slovin, Janet; Chen, Pei

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMSn). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries. PMID:24176345

  4. Brachypodium sylvaticum, a Model for Perennial Grasses: Transformation and Inbred Line Development

    PubMed Central

    Steinwand, Michael A.; Young, Hugh A.; Bragg, Jennifer N.; Tobias, Christian M.; Vogel, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Perennial species offer significant advantages as crops including reduced soil erosion, lower energy inputs after the first year, deeper root systems that access more soil moisture, and decreased fertilizer inputs due to the remobilization of nutrients at the end of the growing season. These advantages are particularly relevant for emerging biomass crops and it is projected that perennial grasses will be among the most important dedicated biomass crops. The advantages offered by perennial crops could also prove favorable for incorporation into annual grain crops like wheat, rice, sorghum and barley, especially under the dryer and more variable climate conditions projected for many grain-producing regions. Thus, it would be useful to have a perennial model system to test biotechnological approaches to crop improvement and for fundamental research. The perennial grass Brachypodiumsylvaticum is a candidate for such a model because it is diploid, has a small genome, is self-fertile, has a modest stature, and short generation time. Its close relationship to the annual model Brachypodiumdistachyon will facilitate comparative studies and allow researchers to leverage the resources developed for B. distachyon. Here we report on the development of two keystone resources that are essential for a model plant: high-efficiency transformation and inbred lines. Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation we achieved an average transformation efficiency of 67%. We also surveyed the genetic diversity of 19 accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers and created 15 inbred lines. PMID:24073248

  5. Genetics of body weight in the LXS recombinant inbred mouse strains

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Beth; Carosone-Line, Phyllis; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Johnson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This is the first phenotypic analysis of 75 new recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from ILS and ISS progenitors. We analyzed body weight in two independent cohorts of female mice at various ages and in males at 60 days. Body weight is a complex trait which has been mapped in numerous crosses in rodents. The LXS RI strains displayed a large range of weights, transgressing those of the inbred progenitors, supporting the utility of this large panel for mapping traits not selected in the progenitors. Numerous QTLs for body weight mapped in singleand multilocus scans. We assessed replication between these and previously reported QTLs based on overlapping confidence intervals of published QTLs for body weight at 60 days and used meta-analyses to determine combined p values for three QTL regions located on Chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on Web- QTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. We report one such analysis, correlating brain and body weights. Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs.

  6. Inducible Monooxygenase Activities and 3-Methylcholanthrene-Initiated Tumorigenesis in Mouse Recombinant Inbred Sublines

    PubMed Central

    Atlas, Steven A.; Taylor, Benjamin A.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Nebert, Daniel W.

    1976-01-01

    The induction of a certain group of hepatic monooxygenase activities by polycyclic aromatic compounds is regulated by the same locus or gene cluster controlling the formation of cytochrome P1–450 (P–448) in mice. Certain inbred strains of mice are "responsive" (Ahb) to such induction, whereas others are "nonresponsive" (Ahd). A pair of closely related sublines that differ with respect to the Ah locus (for aromatic hydrocarbon responsiveness) were used to identify or confirm the pleiotropic effects of this gene. The lines were derived by sibling-mating without selection from (C57L/J x AKR/J)F 2 mice; the two sublines were separated at the F12 generation. Ten microsomal monooxygenase activities and one cytosol enzyme activity known to be associated with the Ah locus were similarly associated with cytochrome P1–450 formation in these recombinant inbred sublines as well. Nine additional hepatic monooxygenase activities studied were found not to be associated with the Ah locus; certain of these activities were increased slightly, following treatment of nonresponsive as well as responsive mice with polycyclic aromatic compounds. The Ahb-containing subline was highly susceptible to 3-methylcholanthrene-induced subcutaneous sarcomas, whereas the Ah-d-containing subline was relatively resistant. These results emphasize the potential importance of this particular enzyme for the study of coordinated regulation in mammals. PMID:955403

  7. Two genes conferring resistance to Pythium stalk rot in maize inbred line Qi319.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng-Jing; Xiao, Ming-Gang; Duan, Can-Xing; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhu, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Bao-Tao; Sun, Su-Li; Wu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Stalk rots are destructive diseases in maize around the world, and are most often caused by the pathogen Pythium, Fusarium and other fungi. The most efficient management for controlling stalk rots is to breed resistant cultivars. Pythium stalk rot can cause serious yield loss on maize, and to find the resistance genes from the existing germplasm is the basis to develop Pythium-resistance hybrid lines. In this study, we investigated the genetic resistance to Pythium stalk rot in inbred line Qi319 using F2 and F2:3 population, and found that the resistance to Pythium inflatum in Qi319 was conferred by two independently inherited dominant genes, RpiQI319-1 and RpiQI319-2. Linkage analysis uncovered that the RpiQI319-1 co-segregated with markers bnlg1203, and bnlg2057 on chromosome 1, and that the RpiQI319-2 locus co-segregated with markers umc2069 and bnlg1716 on chromosome 10. The RpiQI319-1 locus was further mapped into a ~500-kb interval flanked by markers SSRZ33 and SSRZ47. These results will facilitate marker-assisted selection of Pythium stalk rot-resistant cultivars in maize breeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the resistance to P. inflatum in the inbred line Qi319, and is also the first description of two independently inherited dominant genes conferring the resistance of Pythium stalk rot in maize. PMID:25724693

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Silk Viability in Maize Inbred Lines and Their Corresponding Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yafei; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fangfang; Tang, Jihua; Fu, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    A long period of silk viability is critical for a good seed setting rate in maize (Zea mays L.), especially for inbred lines and hybrids with a long interval between anthesis and silking. To explore the molecular mechanism of silk viability and its heterosis, three inbred lines with different silk viability characteristics (Xun928, Lx9801, and Zong3) and their two hybrids (Xun928×Zong3 and Lx9801×Zong3) were analyzed at different developmental stages by a proteomic method. The differentially accumulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and classified into metabolism, protein biosynthesis and folding, signal transduction and hormone homeostasis, stress and defense responses, and cellular processes. Proteins involved in nutrient (methionine) and energy (ATP) supply, which support the pollen tube growth in the silk, were important for silk viability and its heterosis. The additive and dominant effects at a single locus, as well as complex epistatic interactions at two or more loci in metabolic pathways, were the primary contributors for mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. Additionally, the proteins involved in the metabolism of anthocyanins, which indirectly negatively regulate local hormone accumulation, were also important for the mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. These results also might imply the developmental dependence of heterosis, because many of the differentially accumulated proteins made distinct contributions to the heterosis of silk viability at specific developmental stages. PMID:26630375

  9. A General Bayesian Approach to Analyzing Diallel Crosses of Inbred Strains

    PubMed Central

    Lenarcic, Alan B.; Svenson, Karen L.; Churchill, Gary A.; Valdar, William

    2012-01-01

    The classic diallel takes a set of parents and produces offspring from all possible mating pairs. Phenotype values among the offspring can then be related back to their respective parentage. When the parents are diploid, sexed, and inbred, the diallel can characterize aggregate effects of genetic background on a phenotype, revealing effects of strain dosage, heterosis, parent of origin, epistasis, and sex-specific versions thereof. However, its analysis is traditionally intricate, unforgiving of unplanned missing information, and highly sensitive to imbalance, making the diallel unapproachable to many geneticists. Nonetheless, imbalanced and incomplete diallels arise frequently, albeit unintentionally, as by-products of larger-scale experiments that collect F1 data, for example, pilot studies or multiparent breeding efforts such as the Collaborative Cross or the Arabidopsis MAGIC lines. We present a general Bayesian model for analyzing diallel data on dioecious diploid inbred strains that cleanly decomposes the observed patterns of variation into biologically intuitive components, simultaneously models and accommodates outliers, and provides shrinkage estimates of effects that automatically incorporate uncertainty due to imbalance, missing data, and small sample size. We further present a model selection procedure for weighing evidence for or against the inclusion of those components in a predictive model. We evaluate our method through simulation and apply it to incomplete diallel data on the founders and F1's of the Collaborative Cross, robustly characterizing the genetic architecture of 48 phenotypes. PMID:22345610

  10. Relationship between Plasma Albumin Concentration and Plasma Volume in 5 Inbred Rat Strains

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Rajiv; Klemcke, Harold G

    2015-01-01

    Using the Evans Blue procedure, we previously found strain-related differences in plasma volumes in 5 inbred rat strains. Because albumin binds strongly with Evans blue, this protein is important in the Evans blue method of plasma volume determination. Therefore, we speculated that interstrain differences in plasma albumin concentration (PAC) could distort calculated plasma volumes. To address this concern, we used ELISA techniques to measure PAC in these inbred rat strains. In study A, the blood volume was measured by using Evans blue dye, and albumin was measured at the start of hemorrhage. In study B, blood volume was not measured, and albumin was measured twice, near the start and end of hemorrhage (approximately 14 min apart). Neither study revealed any interstrain differences in PAC, which decreased after hemorrhage in all 5 strains. No correlation was found between PAC and plasma volume, survival time, blood lactate, or blood base excess. Percentage changes in PAC during hemorrhage were greater in salt-sensitive compared with Lewis rats. Moreover, these percentage changes were associated with survival time in Fawn hooded hypertensive rats. Our data show that the plasma volumes we measured previously were not misrepresented due to variations in PAC. PMID:26424242

  11. High-Density Genotypes of Inbred Mouse Strains: Improved Power and Precision of Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Christoph D.; Parks, Brian; Wang, Yibin; Eskin, Eleazar; Simecek, Petr; Churchill, Gary A.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Human genome-wide association studies have identified thousands of loci associated with disease phenotypes. Genome-wide association studies also have become feasible using rodent models and these have some important advantages over human studies, including controlled environment, access to tissues for molecular profiling, reproducible genotypes, and a wide array of techniques for experimental validation. Association mapping with common mouse inbred strains generally requires 100 or more strains to achieve sufficient power and mapping resolution; in contrast, sample sizes for human studies typically are one or more orders of magnitude greater than this. To enable well-powered studies in mice, we have generated high-density genotypes for ∼175 inbred strains of mice using the Mouse Diversity Array. These new data increase marker density by 1.9-fold, have reduced missing data rates, and provide more accurate identification of heterozygous regions compared with previous genotype data. We report the discovery of new loci from previously reported association mapping studies using the new genotype data. The data are freely available for download, and Web-based tools provide easy access for association mapping and viewing of the underlying intensity data for individual loci. PMID:26224782

  12. Hidden in plain sight: spike-wave discharges in mouse inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Letts, V A; Beyer, B J; Frankel, W N

    2014-07-01

    Twenty-seven inbred strains of mice were tested for spike-wave discharge (SWD) activity by video-electroencephalographic recordings over a 24-h recording period. Eight strains had reproducible, frequent SWDs, including five strains (C57BLKS/J, CBA/J, DBA/1J, NOR/LtJ, SM/J) previously undiagnosed for this distinctive phenotype. Eighteen other strains exhibited no such activity. Spike-wave discharges usually occurred while the subject was motionless, and in a significant number of annotated instances coincided with an arrest of the subject's relatively unrestrained locomotor activity, which resumed immediately after the discharge ended. In all five new strains, SWDs were suppressed by ethosuximide administration. From the genealogy of inbred strains, we suggest that two ancestors, A and DBA, transmitted genotypes required for SWD in all positive strains. Together these strains with SWDs provide new opportunities to understand the genetic core susceptibility of this distinctive electroencephalographic activity and to explore its relationship to absence epilepsy, a human disorder for which few genes are known. PMID:24861780

  13. Genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in two maize recombinant inbred line populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maize (Zea Mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and provides food for billions of people. Stalk lodging can greatly undermine the standability of maize plants and therefore decrease crop yields. Rind penetrometer resistance is an effective and reliable method for evaluating maize stalk strength, which is highly correlated with stalk lodging resistance. In this study, two recombinant inbred line populations were constructed from crosses between the H127R and Chang7-2 lines, and between the B73 and By804 lines. We genotyped these two populations and their parents using 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and performed phenotypic assessment of rind penetrometer resistance in multiple environments to dissect the genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in maize. Results Based on two linkage maps of 1,397.1 and 1,600.4 cM with average interval of 1.7 and 2.1 cM between adjacent makers, respectively, seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) for rind penetrometer resistance were detected in the two recombinant inbred line populations. These QTL were distributed in seven genomic regions, and each accounted for 4.4–18.9% of the rind penetrometer resistance variation. The QTL with the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance, qRPR3-1, was located on chromosome 3 with the flanking markers PZE-103123325 and SYN23245. This locus was further narrowed down to a 3.1-Mb interval by haplotype analysis using high-density markers in the target region. Within this interval, four genes associated with the biosynthesis of cell wall components were considered as potential candidate genes for the rind penetrometer resistance effect. Conclusions The inheritance of rind penetrometer resistance is rather complex. A few large-effect quantitative trait loci, together with a several minor-effect QTL, contributed to the phenotypic variation in rind penetrometer resistance in the two recombinant inbred line populations that were examined

  14. Learning Strategy Selection in the Water Maze and Hippocampal CREB Phosphorylation Differ in Two Inbred Strains of Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jin-Young; Goo, June-Seo; Lee, Dong-Eun; Jin, Da-Qing; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Gallagher, Michela; Han, Jung-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Learning strategy selection was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 and DBA/2, which are used for developing genetically modified mouse models. Male mice received a training protocol in a water maze using alternating blocks of visible and hidden platform trials, during which mice escaped to a single location. After training,…

  15. Evaluation of Combining Ability and Grain Quality of Quality Protein Maize Derived from U.S. Public Inbred Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality Protein Maize (QPM) has improved nutritional quality due to the opaque2 mutation as well as hard endosperm conferred by uncharacterized modifier genes. We have developed a series of QPM inbred lines based on crosses between public U.S. Corn Belt-adapted lines with QPM lines developed at the...

  16. Registration of the IS3620C/BTx623 recombinant inbred mapping population of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench.])

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BTx623 x IS3620C sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] mapping population (Reg. No. _______, NSL ____, [represented as BTx623/IS3620C]), is a set of 430 F7 to F9 recombinant inbred lines [RILs](USDA-ARS Germplasm Information Network (GRIN) PI 658758 through PI 659060 and PI 659144 through PI 65...

  17. A deleterious effect associated with UNH159 is attenuated in twin embryos of an inbred line of tilapia (Oreochromis aureus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Offspring of a highly inbred gynogenetic line of Oreochromis aureus displayed 12-fold increase in twinning rate compared to the outbred population. Asymmetric conjoined twins which consist of a normal embryo attached to a malformed-atrophic twin were frequently encountered in both gynogenetic (90.7%...

  18. Joint QTL analyses for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae using six nested inbred populations with heterogeneous conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). With traditional QTL mapping approaches, power to detect these QTL, frequently of small effect, can be limited by population size. Joint linkage QTL analysis of nested recombinant inbred li...

  19. Evaluation of reproductive characteristics of 21 highly inbred lines of White Leghorns divergently selected for or segregating in tumor resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproduction performance of 21 inbred experimental lines of White Leghorns were evaluated based on samples of reproduction records over a period of eight consecutive years. Two lines (63 and 72) have been extensively used in studies, especially in research seeking for genetic and epigenetic factors ...

  20. Genome-wide copy number variant analysis in inbred chicken lines with different susceptibility to Marek’s disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding of genetically resistant chickens to Marek’s disease (MD) is a vital strategy to poultry health. To find the markers underlying the genetic resistance to MD, copy number variation (CNV) was examined in inbred MD-resistant and -susceptible chicken lines. A total of 45 CNVs were found in four...

  1. Fall armyworm and corn earworm resistance in the breeding crosses of maize inbreds with high levels of phytoalexins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop maize germplasm with resistance to multiple insect pests and aflatoxin accumulation, a set of reciprocal breeding crosses was made using maize inbred lines with high levels of kauralexins or zealexins. The evaluation of the breeding crosses for insect resistance utilized the rand...

  2. Molecular mapping of four blast resistance genes using recombinant inbred lines of 93-11 and nipponbare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular mapping of new blast resistance genes is important for developing resistant rice cultivars using marker-assisted selection. In this study, 259 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from a cross between Nipponbare and 93-11, and were used to construct a 1165.8-cM linkage map with 1...

  3. Recovery of maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds and hybrids from chilling stress of various duration: photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Holá, Dana; Kocová, Marie; Rothová, Olga; Wilhelmová, Nad'a; Benesová, Monika

    2007-07-01

    The differences between two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their F1 hybrids in their response to chilling periods of various duration (1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks) and subsequent return to optimum temperatures were analysed by the measurement of the photosystem (PS) 1 and 2 activity, the photosynthetic pigments' content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The PS2 activity and the chlorophyll content decreased in plants subjected to 3 or 4 weeks of chilling, but not in those subjected to 1 or 2 weeks of chilling. This decrease was more pronounced in inbreds compared to their hybrids. The activity of superoxide dismutase did not much change with the increasing length of chilling period in the inbreds but decreased in the hybrids, the glutathione reductase activity increased in both types of genotypes but more in the inbred lines, while for ascorbate peroxidase and catalase the changes in parents-hybrids relationship did not show any specific trend. The PS1 activity and the carotenoids' content was not much affected. PMID:16884820

  4. Quantitative trait locus analysis for kernel width using maize recombinant inbred lines.

    PubMed

    Hui, G Q; Wen, G Q; Liu, X H; Yang, H P; Luo, Q; Song, H X; Wen, L; Sun, Y; Zhang, H M

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) kernel width is one of the most important traits that is related to yield and appearance. To understand its genetic mechanisms more clearly, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) segregation population consisting of 239 RILs was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for kernel width. We found four QTLs on chromosomes 3 (one), 5 (two), and 10 (one). The QTLs were close to their adjacent markers, with a range of 0-23.8 cM, and explained 6.2-19.7% of the phenotypic variation. The three QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 5 had positive additive effects, and to a certain extent increased kernel width, whereas the one on chromosome 10 exhibited negative additive effects and decreased kernel width. These results can be used for gene cloning and marker-assisted selection in maize-breeding programs. PMID:26600508

  5. Recombinant inbred line differential identifies race-specific resistance to phytophthora root rot in Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Sy, O; Steiner, R; Bosland, P W

    2008-08-01

    A differential series is the normal method for identification of races within a plant pathogen and a host interaction. A host differential is extremely useful for phytopathological as well as breeding purposes. A set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed and characterized for race differentiation of Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. The highly resistant Capsicum annuum accession Criollo de Morelos-334 was hybridized to a susceptible cultivar, Early Jalapeno, to generate the RIL population. The host differential characterized 17 isolates of P. capsici into 13 races. The establishment of a stable host differential for the P. capsici and C. annuum interaction will assist researchers in understanding the complex inheritance of resistance to Phytophthora root rot and to develop resistant cultivars. PMID:18943204

  6. Biotin status and lipid metabolism in adult obese hypercholesterolemic inbred rats.

    PubMed

    Marshall, M W; Haubrich, M; Washington, V A; Chang, M W; Young, C W; Wheeler, M A

    1976-01-01

    A statistically significant inverse association was generally found between plasma total lipid, cholesterol, or phospholipid and biotin status of 300-day-old male inbred BHE (IN-BHE) rats. Plasma, liver, and carcass lipid of both sexes generally had a significant direct association with liver lactate dehydrogenase activity; an inverse association in males resulted with improved biotin status. Elevated plasma lactate indicative of anaerobic glycolysis was found. It is proposed that an increased reductive environment - a consequence of accumulated NADH - could account for enhanced triglyceride synthesis and that this effect could explain the obesity in the IN-BHE rats. After the injection of 300 mug of biotin, plasma levels of lactate and pyruvate fell in male rats, indicating a stimulatory effect of biotin upon the oxidative pathways in these animals. PMID:958648

  7. The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Erik; Brakefield, Paul M.; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Zwaan, Bas J.; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2013-01-01

    Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here, we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies by inbreeding. Yet, we unambiguously show that only the production of male pheromones affects mating success. Thus, this pheromone signal informs females about the inbreeding status of their mating partners. We also identify the specific chemical component (hexadecanal) probably responsible for the decrease in male mating success. Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection. PMID:23466986

  8. Selection for Heterozygosity Gives Hope to a Wild Population of Inbred Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Bensch, Staffan; Andrén, Henrik; Hansson, Bengt; Pedersen, Hans Chr.; Sand, Håkan; Sejberg, Douglas; Wabakken, Petter; Åkesson, Mikael; Liberg, Olof

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses have questioned the usefulness of heterozygosity estimates as measures of the inbreeding coefficient (f), a finding that may have dramatic consequences for the management of endangered populations. We confirm that f and heterozygosity is poorly correlated in a wild and highly inbred wolf population. Yet, our data show that for each level of f, it was the most heterozygous wolves that established themselves as breeders, a selection process that seems to have decelerated the loss of heterozygosity in the population despite a steady increase of f. The markers contributing to the positive relationship between heterozygosity and breeding success were found to be located on different chromosomes, but there was a substantial amount of linkage disequilibrium in the population, indicating that the markers are reflecting heterozygosity over relatively wide genomic regions. Following our results we recommend that management programs of endangered populations include estimates of both f and heterozygosity, as they may contribute with complementary information about population viability. PMID:17183704

  9. Genetic Divergence in Mandible Form in Relation to Molecular Divergence in Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Atchley, W. R.; Newman, S.; Cowley, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Genetic divergence in the form of the mandible is examined in ten inbred strains of mice. Several univariate and multivariate genetic distance estimates are given for the morphological data and these estimates are compared to measures of genealogical and molecular divergence. Highly significant divergence occurs among the ten strains in all 11 mandible traits considered individually and simultaneously. Genealogical relationship among strains is highly correlated with genetic divergence in single locus molecular traits. However, the concordance between genealogical relationship and multivariate genetic divergence in morphology is much more complex. Whether there is a significant correlation between morphological divergence and genealogy depends upon the method of analysis and the particular genetic distance statistic being employed. PMID:3220250

  10. Genetic basis of resistance to trauma in inbred strains of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Radojicic, C.; Andric, B.; Simovic, M.; Dujic, A.; Marinkovic, D. )

    1990-02-01

    In this study the resistance to mechanical, thermal, and radiation trauma in four inbred strains of mice (AKR, BALB/c, CBA, and C57Bl/6) was compared with the degree of genetic resemblance, by analyzing the allozyme variabilities of these strains. It was shown that the highest degree of genetic resemblance was among CBA and AKR strains, which correlated with a similar degree of resistance to trauma. On the other hand, BALB/c and C57Bl/6 strains expressed significant differences, both genetically and with respect to the responses to trauma. The hypothesis is introduced that the genetic determination of the resistance to trauma is based on: (a) a polygenic control of general physiological homeostasis, with the possibility that (b) some specific genes or single loci may contribute more than others to such adaptations of the strains tested.

  11. Epigenome-wide inheritance of cytosine methylation variants in a recombinant inbred population

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Robert J.; He, Yupeng; Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Khan, Saad M.; Joshi, Trupti; Urich, Mark A.; Nery, Joseph R.; Diers, Brian; Xu, Dong; Stacey, Gary; Ecker, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation is one avenue for passing information through cell divisions. Here, we present epigenomic analyses of soybean recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and their parents. Identification of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) revealed that DMRs mostly cosegregated with the genotype from which they were derived, but examples of the uncoupling of genotype and epigenotype were identified. Linkage mapping of methylation states assessed from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of 83 RILs uncovered widespread evidence for local methylQTL. This epigenomics approach provides a comprehensive study of the patterns and heritability of methylation variants in a complex genetic population over multiple generations, paving the way for understanding how methylation variants contribute to phenotypic variation. PMID:23739894

  12. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Using Naturally Occurring Genetic Variance Among Commercial Inbred Lines of Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Mao, Yongcai; Xie, Chongqing; Smith, Howie; Luo, Lang; Xu, Shizhong

    2005-01-01

    Many commercial inbred lines are available in crops. A large amount of genetic variation is preserved among these lines. The genealogical history of the inbred lines is usually well documented. However, quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the genetic variances among the lines are largely unexplored due to lack of statistical methods. In this study, we show that the pedigree information of the lines along with the trait values and marker information can be used to map QTL without the need of further crossing experiments. We develop a Monte Carlo method to estimate locus-specific identity-by-descent (IBD) matrices. These IBD matrices are further incorporated into a mixed-model equation for variance component analysis. QTL variance is estimated and tested at every putative position of the genome. The actual QTL are detected by scanning the entire genome. Applying this new method to a well-documented pedigree of maize (Zea mays L.) that consists of 404 inbred lines, we mapped eight QTL for the maize male flowering trait, growing degree day heat units to pollen shedding (GDUSHD). These detected QTL contributed >80% of the variance observed among the inbred lines. The QTL were then used to evaluate all the inbred lines using the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) technique. Superior lines were selected according to the estimated QTL allelic values, a technique called marker-assisted selection (MAS). The MAS procedure implemented via BLUP may be routinely used by breeders to select superior lines and line combinations for development of new cultivars. PMID:15716509

  13. Cell Wall Composition and Biomass Recalcitrance Differences Within a Genotypically Diverse Set of Brachypodium distachyon Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Cass, Cynthia L.; Lavell, Anastasiya A.; Santoro, Nicholas; Foster, Cliff E.; Karlen, Steven D.; Smith, Rebecca A.; Ralph, John; Garvin, David F.; Sedbrook, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) has emerged as a useful model system for studying traits unique to graminaceous species including bioenergy crop grasses owing to its amenability to laboratory experimentation and the availability of extensive genetic and germplasm resources. Considerable natural variation has been uncovered for a variety of traits including flowering time, vernalization responsiveness, and above-ground growth characteristics. However, cell wall composition differences remain underexplored. Therefore, we assessed cell wall-related traits relevant to biomass conversion to biofuels in seven Brachypodium inbred lines that were chosen based on their high level of genotypic diversity as well as available genome sequences and recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. Senesced stems plus leaf sheaths from these lines exhibited significant differences in acetyl bromide soluble lignin (ABSL), cell wall polysaccharide-derived sugars, hydroxycinnamates content, and syringyl:guaiacyl:p-hydroxyphenyl (S:G:H) lignin ratios. Free glucose, sucrose, and starch content also differed significantly in senesced stems, as did the amounts of sugars released from cell wall polysaccharides (digestibility) upon exposure to a panel of thermochemical pretreatments followed by hydrolytic enzymatic digestion. Correlations were identified between inbred line lignin compositions and plant growth characteristics such as biomass accumulation and heading date (HD), and between amounts of cell wall polysaccharides and biomass digestibility. Finally, stem cell wall p-coumarate and ferulate contents and free-sugars content changed significantly with increased duration of vernalization for some inbred lines. Taken together, these results show that Brachypodium displays substantial phenotypic variation with respect to cell wall composition and biomass digestibility, with some compositional differences correlating with growth characteristics. Moreover, besides influencing HD and

  14. Genetic influences on survival time after severe hemorrhage in inbred rat strains.

    PubMed

    Klemcke, Harold G; Joe, Bina; Calderon, Mariam L; Rose, Rajiv; Oh, Thomas; Aden, James; Ryan, Kathy L

    2011-06-28

    To find a genetic basis for differential ability to survive severe hemorrhage, we previously showed eightfold differences in survival times among inbred rat strains. We assumed that rat strains had similar normalized blood volumes (NBV; ml/100 g body wt). As NBV might vary among strains and constitute one genetic variable affecting survival time to hemorrhage, in experiment 1 of the current studies we first measured total blood volumes and calculated NBV in specific inbred rat strains (Brown Norway/Medical College of Wisconsin, BN; Dark Agouti, DA; Fawn Hooded Hypertensive, FHH; Lewis, LEW; and Dahl Salt-Sensitive, SS) previously found to be divergent in survival time. NBV differed by 20% (P < 0.01; BN > SS > FHH = LEW = DA) and had a heritability (h(2)) of 0.56. Hence, differential survival times in our previously published study might reflect strain-dependent differences in NBV. Then studies were conducted wherein rats were catheterized and, ∼24 h later, 47% of their blood volume was removed; these rats were observed for a maximum of 4 h. In experiment 2, blood volumes were measured the day prior to hemorrhage. Percent survival and survival time did not differ among strains. To obviate possible confounding effects of blood volume determination, in experiment 3 the average NBV for each strain was used to determine hemorrhage volumes. Percent survival (P < 0.01) and survival times (P < 0.001) were different with DA demonstrating the best (62.5%, 190 ± 29 min) and BN the worst (0%, 52 ± 5 min) survival responses. These data indicate that both blood volume and survival time after hemorrhage in rats are heritable quantitative traits, and continue to suggest that genetic assessment of these phenotypes might lead to novel therapeutics to improve survival to hemorrhage. PMID:21487033

  15. Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2011-09-01

    1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population. PMID:21338353

  16. Genetic determinants of fibro-osseous lesions in aged inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Annerose; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl; Silva, Kathleen A; Kennedy, Victoria E; Sundberg, Beth A; Cates, Justin M; Schofield, Paul N; Sundberg, John P

    2016-02-01

    Fibro-osseous lesions in mice are progressive aging changes in which the bone marrow is replaced to various degrees by fibrovascular stroma and bony trabeculae in a wide variety of bones. The frequency and severity varied greatly among 28 different inbred mouse stains, predominantly affecting females, ranging from 0% for 10 strains to 100% for KK/HlJ and NZW/LacJ female mice. Few lesions were observed in male mice and for 23 of the strains, no lesions were observed in males for any of the cohorts. There were no significant correlations between strain-specific severities of fibro-osseous lesions and ovarian (r=0.11; P=0.57) or endometrial (r=0.03; P=0.89) cyst formation frequency or abnormalities in parathyroid glands. Frequency of fibro-osseous lesions was most strongly associated (P<10(-6)) with genome variations on chromosome (Chr) 8 at 90.6 and 90.8Mb (rs33108071, rs33500669; P=5.0·10(-10), 1.3·10(-6)), Chr 15 at 23.6 and 23.8Mb (rs32087871, rs45770368; P=7.3·10(-7), 2.7·10(-6)), and Chr 19 at 33.2, 33.4, and 33.6Mb (rs311004232, rs30524929, rs30448815; P=2.8·10(-6), 2.8·10(-6), 2.8·10(-6)) in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The relatively large number of candidate genes identified in the GWAS analyses suggests that this may be an extremely complex polygenic disease. These results indicate that fibro-osseous lesions are surprisingly common in many inbred strains of laboratory mice as they age. While this presents little problem in most studies that utilize young animals, it may complicate aging studies, particularly those focused on bone. PMID:26589134

  17. Population genetic evidence for sex-specific dispersal in an inbred social spider.

    PubMed

    Smith, Deborah R; Su, Yong-Chao; Berger-Tal, Reut; Lubin, Yael

    2016-08-01

    Dispersal in most group-living species ensures gene flow among groups, but in cooperative social spiders, juvenile dispersal is suppressed and colonies are highly inbred. It has been suggested that such inbred sociality is advantageous in the short term, but likely to lead to extinction or reduced speciation rates in the long run. In this situation, very low levels of dispersal and gene flow among colonies may have unusually important impacts on fitness and persistence of social spiders. We investigated sex-specific differences in dispersal and gene flow among colonies, as reflected in the genetic structure within colonies and populations of the African social spider Stegodyphus dumicola Pocock, 1898 (Eresidae). We used DNA fingerprinting and mtDNA sequence data along with spatial mapping of colonies to compare male and female patterns of relatedness within and among colonies at three study sites. Samples were collected during and shortly after the mating season to detect sex-specific dispersal. Distribution of mtDNA haplotypes was consistent with proliferation of social nests by budding and medium- to long-distance dispersal by ballooning females. Analysis of molecular variance and spatial autocorrelation analyses of AFLPs showed high levels of genetic similarity within colonies, and STRUCTURE analyses revealed that the number of source populations contributing to colonies ranged from one to three. We also showed significant evidence of male dispersal among colonies at one site. These results support the hypothesis that in social spiders, genetic cohesion among populations is maintained by long-distance dispersal of female colony founders. Genetic diversity within colonies is maintained by colony initiation by multiple dispersing females, and adult male dispersal over short distances. Male dispersal may be particularly important in maintaining gene flow among colonies in local populations. PMID:27551398

  18. Genetic Dependence of Central Corneal Thickness among Inbred Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lively, Geoffrey D.; Jiang, Bing; Hedberg-Buenz, Adam; Chang, Bo; Petersen, Greg E.; Wang, Kai; Kuehn, Markus H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Central corneal thickness (CCT) exhibits broad variability. For unknown reasons, CCT also associates with diseases not typically considered corneal, particularly glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to test the strain dependence of CCT variability among inbred mice and identify cellular and molecular factors associated with differing CCT. Methods. Methodology for measuring murine CCT with ultrasound pachymetry was developed and used to measure CCT among 17 strains of mice. Corneas from three strains with nonoverlapping differences in CCT (C57BLKS/J, C57BL/6J, and SJL/J) were compared by histology, transmission electron microscopy, and expression profiling with gene microarrays. Results. CCT in mice was highly strain dependent. CCT exhibited continuous variation from 89.2 μm in C57BLKS/J to 123.8 μm in SJL/J. Stromal thickness was the major determinant of the varying murine CCT, with epithelial thickness also contributing. Corneal expression levels of many genes differed between strains with differing CCT, but most of these changes did not correlate with the changes observed in previously studied corneal diseases nor did they correlate with genes encoding major structural proteins of the cornea. Conclusions. Murine CCT has been measured with a variety of different techniques, but only among a limited number of different strains. Here, pachymetry was established as an additional tool and used to conduct a broad survey of different strains of inbred mice. These results demonstrated that murine CCT was highly influenced by genetic background and established a baseline for future genetic approaches to further elucidate mechanisms regulating CCT and its disease associations. PMID:19710407

  19. Variation and genetic control of gene expression in primary immunocytes across inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Sara; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Bogue, Molly A; Hattori, Kimie; Pop, Cristina; Koller, Daphne; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    To determine the breadth and underpinning of changes in immunocyte gene expression due to genetic variation in mice, we performed, as part of the Immunological Genome Project, gene expression profiling for CD4(+) T cells and neutrophils purified from 39 inbred strains of the Mouse Phenome Database. Considering both cell types, a large number of transcripts showed significant variation across the inbred strains, with 22% of the transcriptome varying by 2-fold or more. These included 119 loci with apparent complete loss of function, where the corresponding transcript was not expressed in some of the strains, representing a useful resource of "natural knockouts." We identified 1222 cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) that control some of this variation. Most (60%) cis-eQTLs were shared between T cells and neutrophils, but a significant portion uniquely impacted one of the cell types, suggesting cell type-specific regulatory mechanisms. Using a conditional regression algorithm, we predicted regulatory interactions between transcription factors and potential targets, and we demonstrated that these predictions overlap with regulatory interactions inferred from transcriptional changes during immunocyte differentiation. Finally, comparison of these and parallel data from CD4(+) T cells of healthy humans demonstrated intriguing similarities in variability of a gene's expression: the most variable genes tended to be the same in both species, and there was an overlap in genes subject to strong cis-acting genetic variants. We speculate that this "conservation of variation" reflects a differential constraint on intraspecies variation in expression levels of different genes, either through lower pressure for some genes, or by favoring variability for others. PMID:25267973

  20. Genome-wide association mapping of acute lung injury in neonatal inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Jennifer L.; Gladwell, Wesley; Verhein, Kirsten C.; Cho, Hye-Youn; Wess, Jürgen; Suzuki, Oscar; Wiltshire, Tim; Kleeberger, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a respiratory condition that affects preterm infants. However, the mechanisms of susceptibility to oxidant stress in neonatal lungs are not completely understood. We evaluated the role of genetic background in response to oxidant stress in the neonatal lung by exposing mice from 36 inbred strains to hyperoxia (95% O2) for 72 h after birth. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury was evaluated by using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis and pathology. Statistically significant interstrain variation was found for BALF inflammatory cells and protein (heritability estimates range: 33.6–55.7%). Genome-wide association mapping using injury phenotypes identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 6, and 7. Comparative mapping of the chromosome 6 QTLs identified Chrm2 (cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2, cardiac) as a candidate susceptibility gene, and mouse strains with a nonsynonymous coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Chrm2 that causes an amino acid substitution (P265L) had significantly reduced hyperoxia-induced inflammation compared to strains without the SNP. Further, hyperoxia-induced lung injury was significantly reduced in neonatal mice with targeted deletion of Chrm2, relative to wild-type controls. This study has important implications for understanding the mechanisms of oxidative lung injury in neonates.—Nichols, J. L., Gladwell, W., Verhein, K. C., Cho, H.-Y., Wess, J., Suzuki, O., Wiltshire, T., Kleeberger, S. R. Genome-wide association mapping of acute lung injury in neonatal inbred mice. PMID:24571919

  1. Differential hormonal and gene expression dynamics in two inbred sunflower lines with contrasting dormancy level.

    PubMed

    Roselló, Paula L; Vigliocco, Ana E; Andrade, Andrea M; Riera, Natalí V; Calafat, Mario; Molas, María L; Alemano, Sergio G

    2016-05-01

    Seed germination and dormancy are tightly regulated by hormone metabolism and signaling pathway. We investigated the endogenous content of abscisic acid (ABA), its catabolites, and gibberellins (GAs), as well as the expression level of certain ABA and GAs metabolic and signaling genes in embryo of dry and imbibed cypselas of inbred sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae) lines: B123 (dormant) and B91 (non-dormant). Under our experimental conditions, the expression of RGL2 gene might be related to the ABA peak in B123 line at 3 h of imbibition. Indeed, RGL2 transcripts are absent in dry and early embedded cypselas of the non-dormant line B91. ABA increase was accompanied by a significant ABA-Glucosyl ester (ABA-GE) and phaseic acid (PA) (two ABA catabolites) decrease in B123 line (3 h) which indicates that ABA metabolism seems to be more active in this line, and that it would be involved in the imposition and maintenance of sunflower seed dormancy, as it has been reported for many species. Finally, an increase of bioactive GAs (GA1 and GA3) occurs at 12 h of imbibition in both lines after a decrease in ABA content. This study shows the first report about the RGL2 tissue-specific gene expression in sunflower inbred lines with contrasting dormancy level. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that ABA and GAs content and differential expression of metabolism and signaling genes would be interacting in seed dormancy regulation through a mechanism of action related to embryo itself. PMID:26934102

  2. Association of Nrf2 Polymorphism Haplotypes with Acute Lung Injury Phenotypes in Inbred Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jedlicka, Anne E.; Gladwell, Wesley; Marzec, Jacqui; McCaw, Zackary R.; Bienstock, Rachelle J.; Kleeberger, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Nrf2 is a master transcription factor for antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated cytoprotective gene induction. A protective role for pulmonary Nrf2 was determined in model oxidative disorders, including hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (ALI). To obtain additional insights into the function and genetic regulation of Nrf2, we assessed functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Nrf2 in inbred mouse strains and tested whether sequence variation is associated with hyperoxia susceptibility. Results: Nrf2 SNPs were compiled from publicly available databases and by re-sequencing DNA from inbred strains. Hierarchical clustering of Nrf2 SNPs categorized the strains into three major haplotypes. Hyperoxia susceptibility was greater in haplotypes 2 and 3 strains than in haplotype 1 strains. A promoter SNP −103 T/C adding an Sp1 binding site in haplotype 2 diminished promoter activation basally and under hyperoxia. Haplotype 3 mice bearing nonsynonymous coding SNPs located in (1862 A/T, His543Gln) and adjacent to (1417 T/C, Thr395Ile) the Neh1 domain showed suppressed nuclear transactivation of pulmonary Nrf2 relative to other strains, and overexpression of haplotype 3 Nrf2 showed lower ARE responsiveness than overexpression of haplotype 1 Nrf2 in airway cells. Importantly, we found a significant correlation of Nrf2 haplotypes and hyperoxic lung injury phenotypes. Innovation and Conclusion: The results indicate significant influence of Nrf2 polymorphisms and haplotypes on gene function and hyperoxia susceptibility. Our findings further support Nrf2 as a genetic determinant in ALI pathogenesis and provide useful tools for investigators who use mouse strains classified by Nrf2 haplotypes to elucidate the role for Nrf2 in oxidative disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 325–338. PMID:25268541

  3. A Common Genetic Basis for Cross-Sensitivity to Mesotrione and Nicosulfuron in Sweet Corn Hybrid Cultivars and Inbreds Grown Throughout North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous research, the sweet corn inbred line Cr1 was observed to be sensitive to multiple postemergence herbicides, including four acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides, three 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicides, a growth regulator herbicide combination, ...

  4. Reward-Related Behavioral Paradigms for Addiction Research in the Mouse: Performance of Common Inbred Strains

    PubMed Central

    Feyder, Michael; Brigman, Jonathan L.; Crombag, Hans S.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Holmes, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The mouse has emerged as a uniquely valuable species for studying the molecular and genetic basis of complex behaviors and modeling neuropsychiatric disease states. While valid and reliable preclinical assays for reward-related behaviors are critical to understanding addiction-related processes, and various behavioral procedures have been developed and characterized in rats and primates, there have been relatively few studies using operant-based addiction-relevant behavioral paradigms in the mouse. Here we describe the performance of the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain on three major reward-related paradigms, and replicate the same procedures in two other commonly used inbred strains (DBA/2J, BALB/cJ). We examined Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) by measuring the ability of an auditory cue associated with food reward to promote an instrumental (lever press) response. In a separate experiment, we assessed the acquisition and extinction of a simple stimulus-reward instrumental behavior on a touchscreen-based task. Reinstatement of this behavior was then examined following either continuous exposure to cues (conditioned reinforcers, CRs) associated with reward, brief reward and CR exposure, or brief reward exposure followed by continuous CR exposure. The third paradigm examined sensitivity of an instrumental (lever press) response to devaluation of food reward (a probe for outcome insensitive, habitual behavior) by repeated pairing with malaise. Results showed that C57BL/6J mice displayed robust PIT, as well as clear extinction and reinstatement, but were insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. DBA/2J mice showed good PIT and (rewarded) reinstatement, but were slow to extinguish and did not show reinforcer devaluation or significant CR-reinstatement. BALB/cJ mice also displayed good PIT, extinction and reinstatement, and retained instrumental responding following devaluation, but, unlike the other strains, demonstrated reduced Pavlovian approach behavior (food

  5. Genetic linkage analysis in 26 families with Bardet-Biedl syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.F.; Bruford, E.A.; Mansfield, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by polydactyly, obesity, hypogonadism, retinitis pigmentosa, renal anomalies and mental retardation. Clinical heterogeneity is quite marked both within and between families. Linkage has been reported between Bardet-Biedl syndrome and the D16408 marker in chromosomal region 16q21 in an extended Bedouin kindred and, more recently, in a subset of 17 out of 31 families using the PYGM/D11S913 markers in chromosomal region 11q13. We have analyzed linkage to the 16q21 and 11q13 regions and used markers covering chromosomes 2, 3, 17 and 18 in a set of 26 Bardet-Biedl families, each containing at least two affected individuals, with a total of 57 affected members. Evidence of linkage to the D11S527 locus has been identified assuming linkage homogeneity with a lod score of 2.72 at a recombination fraction of 0.11 (95% limits 0.03-0.25).

  6. Basal and induced granulopoiesis in outbred, F1 hybrid and inbred mice: can inbreeding depression influence the experimental practice?

    PubMed

    Hofer, Michal; Pospísil, Milan; Dusek, Ladislav; Holá, Jirina; Hoferová, Zuzana; Weiterová, Lenka

    2010-08-01

    In this study we examined differences in selected indices of granulopoiesis in outbred, F(1) hybrid and inbred mouse strains. Specifically, serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels, numbers of marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells and morphologically recognizable proliferative marrow granulocytic precursor cells were evaluated. These parameters were determined in untreated controls, and in mice exposed either to a non-specific stimulus (injection of saline) or to a granulopoiesis-enhancing stimulus (administration of a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, meloxicam). Lower levels of G-CSF were detectable in the outbred ICR mice, which also demonstrated an enhanced response to both types of the stimuli. Considering the fact that outbred mice are closer to natural mammalian populations, including human ones, the possibility of using outbred mice, instead of the often used inbred strains, for experiments evaluating the effects of pharmacological interventions on hematopoiesis should be investigated. PMID:20660092

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence and mutations of the insulin resistance model inbred C57BL/6 mice strain.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiao-Mei; Tang, Yu-Xiao; Wang, Ji-Chang; Dong, Yao-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    In the present work we undertook the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of an important insulin resistance model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,308 bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The mutation events were also reported. PMID:25350740

  8. Prediction of hybrid performance in maize using molecular markers and joint analyses of hybrids and parental inbreds.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Tobias A; Möhring, Jens; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Kusterer, Barbara; Dhillon, Baldev S; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Frisch, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The identification of superior hybrids is important for the success of a hybrid breeding program. However, field evaluation of all possible crosses among inbred lines requires extremely large resources. Therefore, efforts have been made to predict hybrid performance (HP) by using field data of related genotypes and molecular markers. In the present study, the main objective was to assess the usefulness of pedigree information in combination with the covariance between general combining ability (GCA) and per se performance of parental lines for HP prediction. In addition, we compared the prediction efficiency of AFLP and SSR marker data, estimated marker effects separately for reciprocal allelic configurations (among heterotic groups) of heterozygous marker loci in hybrids, and imputed missing AFLP marker data for marker-based HP prediction. Unbalanced field data of 400 maize dent x flint hybrids from 9 factorials and of 79 inbred parents were subjected to joint analyses with mixed linear models. The inbreds were genotyped with 910 AFLP and 256 SSR markers. Efficiency of prediction (R (2)) was estimated by cross-validation for hybrids having no or one parent evaluated in testcrosses. Best linear unbiased prediction of GCA and specific combining ability resulted in the highest efficiencies for HP prediction for both traits (R (2) = 0.6-0.9), if pedigree and line per se data were used. However, without such data, HP for grain yield was more efficiently predicted using molecular markers. The additional modifications of the marker-based approaches had no clear effect. Our study showed the high potential of joint analyses of hybrids and parental inbred lines for the prediction of performance of untested hybrids. PMID:19916002

  9. Effects of cocaine on locomotor activity and schedule-controlled behaviors of inbred rat strains.

    PubMed

    Witkin, J M; Goldberg, S R

    1990-10-01

    Effects of cocaine on several behaviors considered to be reflective of psychomotor stimulation were compared in F344/CR1BR and NBR/NIH inbred rat strains. Effects of cocaine on locomotor activity were compared with effects on either bar-press or nose-poke responses maintained under a multiple fixed-interval 3-min, timeout 1-min schedule of food presentation. In locomotor activity experiments, NBR rats were twice as active as F344 rats under baseline conditions and displayed dose-dependent increases in locomotion (5-20 mg/kg). Maximal increases in locomotor activity of F344 rats were only 200% compared to 1000% in NBR rats. In contrast to locomotor activity, no strain differences in the effects of cocaine were observed under the schedules of food delivery. Bar-pressing under the fixed-interval schedule was increased to a maximum of 150% of control in both rat strains. Nose-poke responding under the fixed-interval schedule was not significantly increased, but timeout rates were increased in both strains. These results suggest that NBR and F344 rats do not differ in general sensitivity to stimulant effects of cocaine but exhibit marked differences in responsivity to cocaine that are dependent upon the behavior studied. Further delineation of the behavioral specificity of strain differences in sensitivity to cocaine should help to identify neurobiological substrates underlying unique biologically determined responses to cocaine. PMID:2080195

  10. RNA-Seq Based Analysis of Population Structure within the Maize Inbred B73

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have shown than many identically named genetic lines used in research around the world actually contain large amounts of uncharacterized genetic variation as a result of cross contamination of stocks, unintentional crossing, residual heterozygosity within original stocks, or de novo mutation. 27 public, large scale, RNA-seq datasets from 20 independent research groups around the world were used to assess variation within the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) inbred B73, a four decade old variety which served as the reference genotype for the original maize genome sequencing project and is widely used in genetic, genomic, and phenotypic research. Several clearly distinct clades were identified among putatively B73 samples. A number of these clades were defined by the presence of clearly defined genomic blocks containing a haplotype which did not match the published B73 reference genome. The overall proportion of the maize genotype where multiple distinct haplotypes were observed across different research groups was approximately 2.3%. In some cases the relationship among B73 samples generated by different research groups recapitulated mentor/mentee relationships within the maize genetics community. PMID:27348435

  11. Demarcation of informative chromosomes in tropical sweet corn inbred lines using microsatellite DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    Kashiani, Pedram; Saleh, Ghizan; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Selamat, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A study of genetic variation among 10 pairs of chromosomes extracted from 13 tropical sweet corn inbred lines, using 99 microsatellite markers, revealed a wide range of genetic diversity. Allelic richness and the number of effective alleles per chromosome ranged from 2.78 to 4.33 and 1.96 to 3.47, respectively, with respective mean values of 3.62 and 2.73. According to the Shannon’s information index (I) and Nei’s gene diversity coefficient (Nei), Chromosome 10 was the most informative chromosome (I = 1.311 and Nei = 0.703), while Chromosome 2 possessed the least (I = 0.762 and Nei = 0.456). Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) measurements for loci less than 50 cM apart on the same chromosome, all loci on Chromosomes 1, 6 and 7 were in equilibrium. Even so, there was a high proportion of genetic variation in Chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10, thereby revealing their appropriateness for use in the genetic diversity investigations among tropical sweet corn lines. Chromosome 4, with the highest number of loci in linkage disequilibrium, was considered the best for marker-phenotype association and QTL mapping, followed by Chromosomes 5, 8, 9 and 10. PMID:23055801

  12. Demarcation of informative chromosomes in tropical sweet corn inbred lines using microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Kashiani, Pedram; Saleh, Ghizan; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Selamat, Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    A study of genetic variation among 10 pairs of chromosomes extracted from 13 tropical sweet corn inbred lines, using 99 microsatellite markers, revealed a wide range of genetic diversity. Allelic richness and the number of effective alleles per chromosome ranged from 2.78 to 4.33 and 1.96 to 3.47, respectively, with respective mean values of 3.62 and 2.73. According to the Shannon's information index (I) and Nei's gene diversity coefficient (Nei), Chromosome 10 was the most informative chromosome (I = 1.311 and Nei = 0.703), while Chromosome 2 possessed the least (I = 0.762 and Nei = 0.456). Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) measurements for loci less than 50 cM apart on the same chromosome, all loci on Chromosomes 1, 6 and 7 were in equilibrium. Even so, there was a high proportion of genetic variation in Chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10, thereby revealing their appropriateness for use in the genetic diversity investigations among tropical sweet corn lines. Chromosome 4, with the highest number of loci in linkage disequilibrium, was considered the best for marker-phenotype association and QTL mapping, followed by Chromosomes 5, 8, 9 and 10. PMID:23055801

  13. Markers for Heightened Monitoring, Imminent Death, and Euthanasia in Aged Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trammell, Rita A; Cox, Lisa; Toth, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify objective criteria that would reliably predict spontaneous death in aged inbred mice. We evaluated male and female AKR/J mice, which die at a relatively young age due to the development of lymphoma, as well as male C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice. Mice were implanted subcutaneously with an identification chip that also allowed remote measurement of body temperature. Temperatures and body weights were measured weekly until spontaneous death occurred or until euthanasia was performed for humane reasons. In AKR/J mice, hypothermia and weight loss began about 4 wk prior to death and increased gradually during that antemortem interval. In C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice, these declines began earlier and were more prolonged prior to death. However, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice developed a relatively precipitous hypothermia during the 2 wk prior to death. For all 3 strains, the derived composite score of temperature × weight, expressed as a percentage of stable values for each mouse, was similarly informative. These changes in individual and composite measures can signal the need for closer observation or euthanasia of individual mice. Validated markers of clinical decline or imminent death can allow the use of endpoints that reduce terminal distress, do not significantly affect longevity or survival data, and permit timely collection of biologic samples. PMID:22776049

  14. [Peculiar features of forming radiation effects in inbred populations of Drosophila melanogaster differing in cytotype].

    PubMed

    Iushkova, E A; Zaĭnullin, V G

    2014-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the sensitivity of inbred wild-type flies differing in the cytotype to the action of low-intensity radiation of different duration was conducted taking into account the integral parameters of survival. The strong dependence of the frequency of radiation-induced DNA damage (in the neutralpH version) to the cells of individuals on the dose of low-intensity radiation and stages of spermatogenesis was established. The hyper-radiosensitivity was found in the individuals of Charolles (R-cytotype), Harwich (P-cytotype), and Oregon-R (H-cytotype) strains irradiated during the early stages of spermatogenesis (spermatogonia-spermatocytes) and containing in their genotype transposons Bari 1, P and hobo, respectively. While drosophila line Canton-S exhibited dysgenetic properties against the background of several cytotypes (E, I and M), the effect of hormesis was identified under the same experimental conditions. With the increase in the dose of low-intensity irradiation, the frequency of the DNA damage either increased (for Canton-S) or reduced (for Harwich and Charolles). At that, the profile of fertility and. survival of wild-type stocks studied was maintained at a significantly high level. The important role of the cytotype and mobile genetic elements responsible for its formation in the modification of the effects of low-intensity γ-radiation is shown. PMID:25764842

  15. Differing rates of cholesterol absorption among inbred mouse strains yield differing levels of HDL-cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Sontag, Timothy J; Chellan, Bijoy; Getz, Godfrey S; Reardon, Catherine A

    2013-09-01

    Inbred strains of mice with differing susceptibilities to atherosclerosis possess widely varying plasma HDL levels. Cholesterol absorption and lipoprotein formation were compared between atherosclerosis-susceptible, low-HDL C57BL6/J mice and atherosclerosis-resistant, high-HDL FVBN/J mice. [(3)H]cholesterol and triglyceride appeared in the plasma of FVB mice gavaged with cholesterol in olive oil at a much higher rate than in C57 mice. The plasma cholesterol was found almost entirely as HDL-cholesterol in both strains. Inhibition of lipoprotein catabolism with Tyloxapol revealed that the difference in the rate of [(3)H]cholesterol appearance in the plasma was due entirely to a greater rate of chylomicron secretion from the intestine of the FVB mice. Lipid absorption into the 2nd quarter of the small intestine is greater in the FVB mice and indicates that this region may contain the factors that give rise to the differences in absorption observed between the two mouse strains. Additionally, ad libitum feeding prior to cholesterol gavage accentuates the absorption rate differences compared with fasting. The resultant remodeling of the increased levels of chylomicron in the plasma may contribute to increased plasma HDL. Intestinal gene expression analysis reveals several genes that may play a role in these differences, including microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and ABCG8. PMID:23812556

  16. Generation and screening of recombinant inbred lines of rice for yellow stemborer resistance.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, S; Thiruvengadam, V; Samiayyan, K; Shanmugasundaram, P

    2003-04-01

    Based on the results of studies on varietal screening, antixenosis (egg laying preference) and antibiosis (larval survival and adult emergence), rice varieties W1263 and CO43 were selected as resistant and susceptible parents, respectively, for yellow stemborer (YSB) infestation. A mapping population was developed using above parents following single seed descent method. Screening for YSB reaction in F1 and F2, generations under field and glasshouse conditions for both dead hearts and white ears, established the polygenic nature of inheritance for YSB resistance. Field screening for YSB resistance at F9 generation revealed the difference in the reactions among recombinant inbred lines (RILs) between vegetative and reproductive stages. The experiments under field and glasshouse screening of RILs for dead hearts showed significant positive association. However, the reaction was more towards susceptibility in glasshouse screening due to no choice test. Scoring of 250 RILs (F8) for various morphological traits showed wide range of variation indicating the suitability for QTL mapping. PMID:15255645

  17. Phylometabonomic Patterns of Adaptation to High Fat Diet Feeding in Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fearnside, Jane F.; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel; Rothwell, Alice R.; Wilder, Steven P.; Cloarec, Olivier; Toye, Ayo; Blancher, Christine; Holmes, Elaine; Tatoud, Roger; Barton, Richard H.; Scott, James; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Gauguier, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Insulin resistance plays a central role in type 2 diabetes and obesity, which develop as a consequence of genetic and environmental factors. Dietary changes including high fat diet (HFD) feeding promotes insulin resistance in rodent models which present useful systems for studying interactions between genetic background and environmental influences contributing to disease susceptibility and progression. We applied a combination of classical physiological, biochemical and hormonal studies and plasma 1H NMR spectroscopy-based metabonomics to characterize the phenotypic and metabotypic consequences of HFD (40%) feeding in inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6, 129S6, BALB/c, DBA/2, C3H) frequently used in genetic studies. We showed the wide range of phenotypic and metabonomic adaptations to HFD across the five strains and the increased nutrigenomic predisposition of 129S6 and C57BL/6 to insulin resistance and obesity relative to the other strains. In contrast mice of the BALB/c and DBA/2 strains showed relative resistance to HFD-induced glucose intolerance and obesity. Hierarchical metabonomic clustering derived from 1H NMR spectral data of the strains provided a phylometabonomic classification of strain-specific metabolic features and differential responses to HFD which closely match SNP-based phylogenetic relationships between strains. Our results support the concept of genomic clustering of functionally related genes and provide important information for defining biological markers predicting spontaneous susceptibility to insulin resistance and pathological adaptations to fat feeding. PMID:18301746

  18. An edited linkage map for the AXB and BXA recombinant inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Sampson, S B; Higgins, D C; Elliot, R W; Taylor, B A; Lueders, K K; Koza, R A; Paigen, B

    1998-09-01

    We have updated the history of the AXB and BXA recombinant inbred (RI) strains, typed additional loci, and edited the AXB, BXA RI database. Thirteen of the original 51 AXB and BXA RI strains are either extinct or genetically contaminated, leaving 33 living strains available from The Jackson Laboratory. However, we found a high degree of similarity among three sets of strains, indicating that these strains are not independent, which leaves 27 independent RI strains in the set. Accordingly, we modified the database by combining the AXB and BXA RI sets and eliminating strains that were genetically contaminated or extinct with no available DNA. We added 92 newly typed loci, retyped some questionable genotypings, and removed loci with excessive double crossovers or an insufficient number of typed strains. The edited strain distribution pattern (SDP) is available on the World Wide Web (WWW) (http://www. informatics.jax.org/riset.html) and now includes over 700 loci. Each locus is linked to adjacent loci with a LOD score of at least 3.0 with a few described exceptions. We also carried out a second editing designed for the analysis of quantitative trait loci by deleting extinct strains and loci with identical SDPs; this edited database is also available on the WWW. PMID:9716653

  19. Naturally arising tumors of the inbred WAB/Not rat strain. II. Immunogenicity of transplanted tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Middle, J.G.; Embleton, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The immunogenicity of 28 transplanted naturally arising tumors of the inbred WAB/Not rat was investigated at early passages in strictly syngeneic, contemporary animals. Included were nephroblastomas, histologically benign and malignant mammary tumors, soft tissue and skin tumors, 1 lymphoid tumor, and 2 gastrointestinal lesions. In no case was evidence of immunogenicity observed when animals were treated with multiple grafts of irradiated (15,000 rad) tissue or by excision of a growing tumor. A few of these tumors were further investigated by other methods of immunization, including injection at various sites of irradiated cells followed by challenge at different sites and multiple injections of mitomycin C- or Formalin-treated cells. Again no evidence of immunogenicity was seen. Attempts to immunize with viable cells mixed with BCG or Corynebacterium parvum failed due to lack of tumor suppression by these agents. Limited concomitant immunity experiments yielded similarly negative results, except in one case of a fibrosarcoma for which a slight reduction in second tumor growth was observed when primary implants were very large. Some alterations in biologic properties during transplant passage and the incidence of postexcision recurrence and metastatic spread of some of the tumors are described.

  20. RNA-Seq Based Analysis of Population Structure within the Maize Inbred B73.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhikai; Schnable, James C

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have shown than many identically named genetic lines used in research around the world actually contain large amounts of uncharacterized genetic variation as a result of cross contamination of stocks, unintentional crossing, residual heterozygosity within original stocks, or de novo mutation. 27 public, large scale, RNA-seq datasets from 20 independent research groups around the world were used to assess variation within the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) inbred B73, a four decade old variety which served as the reference genotype for the original maize genome sequencing project and is widely used in genetic, genomic, and phenotypic research. Several clearly distinct clades were identified among putatively B73 samples. A number of these clades were defined by the presence of clearly defined genomic blocks containing a haplotype which did not match the published B73 reference genome. The overall proportion of the maize genotype where multiple distinct haplotypes were observed across different research groups was approximately 2.3%. In some cases the relationship among B73 samples generated by different research groups recapitulated mentor/mentee relationships within the maize genetics community. PMID:27348435

  1. Inheritance of nitrogen use efficiency in inbred progenies of tropical maize based on multivariate diallel analysis.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Fernando Lisboa; Diniz, Rafael Parreira; Balestre, Marcio; Ribeiro, Camila Bastos; Camargos, Renato Barbosa; Souza, João Cândido

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:25587575

  2. Seed yield and its components of indeterminate and determinate lines in recombinant inbred lines of soybean.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shin; Fujii, Kenichiro; Yumoto, Setsuzo; Ishimoto, Masao; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko; Sayama, Takashi; Kikuchi, Akio; Nishio, Takeshi

    2015-03-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the benefits of indeterminate growth habit in breeding to improve yield potential of Japanese soybean varieties, which exclusively have determinate growth habit. Two populations of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crosses between determinate Japanese cultivars and indeterminate US cultivars were grown in Akita and Kyoto, and seed weight per plant (SW) and its components were compared between indeterminate and determinate RILs. The difference of SW between the two growth habits in RILs varied depending on maturation time. The SW of early indeterminate lines was significantly higher than that of early determinate ones in Akita, but not in Kyoto. Among yield components, the number of seeds per pod was constantly larger in indeterminate lines than that in determinate ones irrespective of maturation time. The number of seeds per plant and the number of pods per plant of the indeterminate lines were greater than those of the determinate lines in early maturation in Akita. These results suggest that the indeterminate growth habit is an advantageous characteristic in breeding for high yield of early maturing soybean varieties in the Tohoku region. PMID:26069445

  3. Differential expression of respiratory long-term facilitation among inbred rat strains.

    PubMed

    Baker-Herman, T L; Bavis, R W; Dahlberg, J M; Mitchell, A Z; Wilkerson, J E R; Golder, F J; Macfarlane, P M; Watters, J J; Behan, M; Mitchell, G S

    2010-03-31

    We tested the hypotheses that: (1) long-term facilitation (LTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) varies among three inbred rat strains: Fischer 344 (F344), Brown Norway (BN) and Lewis rats and (2) ventral cervical spinal levels of genes important for phrenic LTF (pLTF) vary in association with pLTF magnitude. Lewis and F344, but not BN rats exhibited significant increases in phrenic and hypoglossal burst amplitude 60min post-AIH that were significantly greater than control experiments without AIH, indicating strain differences in phrenic (98%, 56% and 20%, respectively) and hypoglossal LTF (66%, 77% and 5%, respectively). Ventral spinal 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA and protein levels were higher in F344 and Lewis versus BN, suggesting that higher 5-HT(2A) receptor levels are associated with greater pLTF. More complex relationships were found for 5-HT(7), BDNF and TrkB mRNA. BN had higher 5-HT(7) and TrkB mRNA versus F344; BN and Lewis had higher BDNF mRNA levels versus F344. Genetic variations in serotonergic function may underlie strain differences in AIH-induced pLTF. PMID:20036763

  4. Solanum pennellii backcross inbred lines (BILs) link small genomic bins with tomato traits.

    PubMed

    Ofner, Itai; Lashbrooke, Justin; Pleban, Tzili; Aharoni, Asaph; Zamir, Dani

    2016-07-01

    We present a resource for fine mapping of traits derived from the wild tomato species Solanum pennellii (LA0716). The population of backcross inbred lines (BILs) is composed of 446 lines derived after a few generations of backcrosses of the wild species with cultivated tomato (cultivar M82; LA3475), followed by more than seven generations of self-pollination. The BILs were genotyped using the 10K SOL-CAP single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -Chip, and 3700 polymorphic markers were used to map recombination break points relative to the physical map of Solanum lycopersicum. The BILs carry, on average, 2.7 introgressions per line, with a mean introgression length of 11.7 Mbp. Whereas the classic 76 introgression lines (ILs) partitioned the genome into 106 mapping bins, the BILs generated 633 bins, thereby enhancing the mapping resolution of traits derived from the wild species. We demonstrate the power of the BILs for rapid fine mapping of simple and complex traits derived from the wild tomato species. PMID:27121752

  5. Expression of murine leukemia viruses in the highly lymphomatous BXH-2 recombinant inbred mouse strain.

    PubMed Central

    Bedigian, H G; Taylor, B A; Meier, H

    1981-01-01

    Among 12 recombinant inbred strains of mice derived from crossing two strains, C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ, which have a low incidence of neoplastic disease, one strain (BXH-2) has been found to have a high incidence of lymphoma, of non-T-cell origin, at an early age. The BXH-2 strain carries the Fv-1b allele and spontaneously expresses a B-tropic murine leukemia virus beginning at as early as 10 days of gestation and continuing throughout their life. No significant differences in ecotropic virus titers were observed at any age tested (16 to 17 days of gestation through 7 months), whereas xenotropic virus was first detected in lymphoid tissues of 2-month-old mice and virus titers increased with age. Dual tropic virus(es), which induced cytopathic changes on mink lung cells, was isolated from BXH-2 lymphomatous tissues. Unlike AKR mink lung focus-forming virus (N-tropic recombinant), BXH-2 dual tropic virus is B tropic and induces cytopathic changes in mouse fibroblast cultures as well. The BXH-2 mouse provides a model system for studying the role of replication-competent viruses in spontaneously occurring leukemias of non-T-cell lineage and neurological disease. Images PMID:6268848

  6. DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF RESPIRATORY LONG-TERM FACILITATION AMONG INBRED RAT STRAINS

    PubMed Central

    Baker-Herman, T.L.; Bavis, R.W.; Dahlberg, J.M.; Mitchell, A.Z.; Wilkerson, J.E.R.; Golder, F.J.; MacFarlane, P.M.; Watters, J.J.; Behan, M.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that: 1) long-term facilitation (LTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) varies among three inbred rat strains: Fischer 344 (F344), Brown Norway (BN) and Lewis rats, and 2) ventral cervical spinal levels of genes important for phrenic LTF (pLTF) vary in association with pLTF magnitude. Lewis and F344, but not BN rats exhibited significant increases in phrenic and hypoglossal burst amplitude 60 min post-AIH that were significantly greater than control experiments without AIH, indicating strain differences in phrenic (98%, 56% and 20%, respectively) and hypoglossal LTF (66%, 77% and 5%, respectively). Ventral spinal 5-HT2A receptor mRNA and protein levels were higher in F344 and Lewis versus BN, suggesting that higher 5-HT2A receptor levels are associated with greater pLTF. More complex relationships were found for 5-HT7, BDNF and TrkB mRNA. BN had higher 5-HT7 and TrkB mRNA versus F344; BN and Lewis had higher BDNF mRNA levels versus F344. Genetic variations in serotonergic function may underlie strain differences in AIH-induced pLTF. PMID:20036763

  7. Genetic analysis of low survival rate of pups in RR/Sgn inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2015-07-01

    Newborn offspring of the inbred mouse RR/Sgn strain have a low survival rate prior to weaning. We hypothesized that this is a consequence of an inferior nurturing ability of RR/Sgn mothers and that RR/Sgn mothers have a tendency to lose their pups. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for inferior nurturing ability and tendency to lose pups in RR/Sgn mothers. The number of pups was adjusted to 6 per dam on the day of delivery, and the number of surviving pups and their total weight (litter weight) were scored at 12 days after birth. Nurturing ability was evaluated by litter weight, and tendency to lose pups was evaluated by scoring whether or not the mothers lost their pups. For litter weight, we identified one significant QTL on chromosome 4 and three suggestive QTLs on chromosomes 7, 9 and 17. The RR/Sgn allele was associated with lower litter weight at all loci. For the tendency to lose pups, we identified three suggestive QTLs on chromosomes 4, 9 and 16. The RR/Sgn allele was associated with an increased tendency to lose pups at all loci. These results supported our hypothesis that the low survival rate phenotype was attributable, at least in part, to a phenotype whereby mothers display inferior nurturing ability and a tendency to lose pups. Thus, it suggests that these two traits share genetic basis. PMID:25754650

  8. The mouse antibody heavy chain repertoire is germline-focused and highly variable between inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew M; Wang, Yan; Roskin, Krishna M; Marquis, Christopher P; Jackson, Katherine J L

    2015-09-01

    The human and mouse antibody repertoires are formed by identical processes, but like all small animals, mice only have sufficient lymphocytes to express a small part of the potential antibody repertoire. In this study, we determined how the heavy chain repertoires of two mouse strains are generated. Analysis of IgM- and IgG-associated VDJ rearrangements generated by high-throughput sequencing confirmed the presence of 99 functional immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) genes in the C57BL/6 genome, and inferred the presence of 164 IGHV genes in the BALB/c genome. Remarkably, only five IGHV sequences were common to both strains. Compared with humans, little N nucleotide addition was seen in the junctions of mouse VDJ genes. Germline human IgG-associated IGHV genes are rare, but many murine IgG-associated IGHV genes were unmutated. Together these results suggest that the expressed mouse repertoire is more germline-focused than the human repertoire. The apparently divergent germline repertoires of the mouse strains are discussed with reference to reports that inbred mouse strains carry blocks of genes derived from each of the three subspecies of the house mouse. We hypothesize that the germline genes of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice may originally have evolved to generate distinct germline-focused antibody repertoires in the different mouse subspecies. PMID:26194750

  9. Stability of inbred mouse strain differences in behavior and brain size between laboratories and across decades.

    PubMed

    Wahlsten, Douglas; Bachmanov, Alexander; Finn, Deborah A; Crabbe, John C

    2006-10-31

    If we conduct the same experiment in two laboratories or repeat a classical study many years later, will we obtain the same results? Recent research with mice in neural and behavioral genetics yielded different results in different laboratories for certain phenotypes, and these findings suggested to some researchers that behavior may be too unstable for fine-scale genetic analysis. Here we expand the range of data on this question to additional laboratories and phenotypes, and, for the first time in this field, we formally compare recent data with experiments conducted 30-50 years ago. For ethanol preference and locomotor activity, strain differences have been highly stable over a period of 40-50 years, and most strain correlations are in the range of r = 0.85-0.98, as high as or higher than for brain weight. For anxiety-related behavior on the elevated plus maze, on the other hand, strain means often differ dramatically across laboratories or even when the same laboratory is moved to another site within a university. When a wide range of phenotypes is considered, no inbred strain appears to be exceptionally stable or labile across laboratories in any general sense, and there is no tendency to observe higher correlations among studies done more recently. Phenotypic drift over decades for most of the behaviors examined appears to be minimal. PMID:17053075

  10. Inheritance of Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Inbred Progenies of Tropical Maize Based on Multivariate Diallel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Fernando Lisboa; Diniz, Rafael Parreira; Balestre, Marcio; Ribeiro, Camila Bastos; Camargos, Renato Barbosa; Souza, João Cândido

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:25587575

  11. Selection and phenotypic characterization of a core collection of Brachypodium distachyon inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The model grass Brachypodium distachyon is increasingly used to study various aspects of grass biology. A large and genotypically diverse collection of B. distachyon germplasm has been assembled by the research community. The natural variation in this collection can serve as a powerful experimental tool for many areas of inquiry, including investigating biomass traits. Results We surveyed the phenotypic diversity in a large collection of inbred lines and then selected a core collection of lines for more detailed analysis with an emphasis on traits relevant to the use of grasses as biofuel and grain crops. Phenotypic characters examined included plant height, growth habit, stem density, flowering time, and seed weight. We also surveyed differences in cell wall composition using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP). In all cases, we observed extensive natural variation including a two-fold variation in stem density, four-fold variation in ferulic acid bound to hemicellulose, and 1.7-fold variation in seed mass. Conclusion These characterizations can provide the criteria for selecting diverse lines for future investigations of the genetic basis of the observed phenotypic variation. PMID:24423101

  12. Comparative pathogenicity of three genetically distinct Trypanosoma congolense-types in inbred Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Bengaly, Z; Sidibe, I; Boly, H; Sawadogo, L; Desquesnes, M

    2002-04-30

    Inbred Balb/c mice were infected with three clones of Trypanosoma congolense (Sam.28.1, Dind.3.1 and K60.1A) corresponding, respectively, to the three genetically distinct types (savannah, forest and kilifi) defined within this species, for the purpose of comparing their pathogenicity for a better understanding of the epidemiology of African trypanosomosis. Another clone of savannah type, IL 3000, was also tested simultaneously to study a probable strain variation. Both the clones of savannah type were found of extreme virulence with loss of appetite, rough hair, rapid respiration, lethargy, and all mice died within a week. Parasitaemias evolved rapidly to the first peak by day 3-5 post-inoculation without any remission and the course of disease was correlated positively with the prepatent period. The clones of the forest type and the kilifi type were of low virulence with chronic infection and symptoms progressively less patent throughout the infection; only one mouse died in each experimental group. PMID:11900925

  13. Bone Morphology in 46 BXD Recombinant Inbred Strains and Femur-Tibia Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yueying; Lu, Lu; Hasty, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the bone properties of BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice by analyzing femur and tibia and compared their phenotypes of different compartments. 46 BXD RI mouse strains were analyzed including progenitor C57BL/6J (n = 16) and DBA/2J (n = 15) and two first filial generations (D2B6F1 and B6D2F1). Strain differences were observed in bone quality and structural properties (P < 0.05) in each bone profile (whole bone, cortical bone, or trabecular bone). It is well known that skeletal phenotypes are largely affected by genetic determinants and genders, such as bone mineral density (BMD). While genetics and gender appear expectedly as the major determinants of bone mass and structure, significant correlations were also observed between femur and tibia. More importantly, positive and negative femur-tibia associations indicated that genetic makeup had an influence on skeletal integrity. We conclude that (a) femur-tibia association in bone morphological properties significantly varies from strain to strain, which may be caused by genetic differences among strains, and (b) strainwise variations were seen in bone mass, bone morphology, and bone microarchitecture along with bone structural property. PMID:25811045

  14. Inbreeding depression in an insect with maternal care: influences of family interactions, life stage and offspring sex.

    PubMed

    Meunier, J; Kölliker, M

    2013-10-01

    Although inbreeding is commonly known to depress individual fitness, the severity of inbreeding depression varies considerably across species. Among the factors contributing to this variation, family interactions, life stage and sex of offspring have been proposed, but their joint influence on inbreeding depression remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that these three factors jointly shape inbreeding depression in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia. Using a series of cross-breeding, split-clutch and brood size manipulation experiments conducted over two generations, we first showed that sib mating (leading to inbred offspring) did not influence the reproductive success of earwig parents. Second, the presence of tending mothers and the strength of sibling competition (i.e. brood size) did not influence the expression of inbreeding depression in the inbred offspring. By contrast, our results revealed that inbreeding dramatically depressed the reproductive success of inbred adult male offspring, but only had little effect on the reproductive success of inbred adult female offspring. Overall, this study demonstrates limited effects of family interactions on inbreeding depression in this species and emphasizes the importance of disentangling effects of sib mating early and late during development to better understand the evolution of mating systems and population dynamics. PMID:23981229

  15. Standing variation and new mutations both contribute to a fast response to selection for flowering time in maize inbreds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to investigate the rate and limits of the response to selection from highly inbred genetic material and evaluate the respective contribution of standing variation and new mutations, we conducted a divergent selection experiment from maize inbred lines in open-field conditions during 7 years. Two maize commercial seed lots considered as inbred lines, F252 and MBS847, constituted two biological replicates of the experiment. In each replicate, we derived an Early and a Late population by selecting and selfing the earliest and the latest individuals, respectively, to produce the next generation. Results All populations, except the Early MBS847, responded to selection despite a short number of generations and a small effective population size. Part of the response can be attributed to standing genetic variation in the initial seed lot. Indeed, we identified one polymorphism initially segregating in the F252 seed lot at a candidate locus for flowering time, which explained 35% of the trait variation within the Late F252 population. However, the model that best explained our data takes into account both residual polymorphism in the initial seed lots and a constant input of heritable genetic variation by new (epi)mutations. Under this model, values of mutational heritability range from 0.013 to 0.025, and stand as an upper bound compare to what is reported in other species. Conclusions Our study reports a long-term divergent selection experiment for a complex trait, flowering time, conducted on maize in open-field conditions. Starting from a highly inbred material, we created within a few generations populations that strikingly differ from the initial seed lot for flowering time while preserving most of the phenotypic characteristics of the initial inbred. Such material is unique for studying the dynamics of the response to selection and its determinants. In addition to the fixation of a standing beneficial mutation associated with a large phenotypic

  16. Cell wall composition and biomass recalcitrance differences within a genotypically diverse set of Brachypodium distachyon inbred lines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cass, Cynthia L.; Lavell, Anastasiya A.; Santoro, Nicholas; Foster, Cliff E.; Karlen, Steven D.; Smith, Rebecca A.; Ralph, John; Garvin, David F.; Sedbrook, John C.

    2016-05-26

    Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) has emerged as a useful model system for studying traits unique to graminaceous species including bioenergy crop grasses owing to its amenability to laboratory experimentation and the availability of extensive genetic and germplasm resources. Considerable natural variation has been uncovered for a variety of traits including flowering time, vernalization responsiveness, and above-ground growth characteristics. However, cell wall composition differences remain underexplored. Therefore, we assessed cell wall-related traits relevant to biomass conversion to biofuels in seven Brachypodium inbred lines that were chosen based on their high level of genotypic diversity as well as available genome sequences and recombinantmore » inbred line (RIL) populations. Senesced stems plus leaf sheaths from these lines exhibited significant differences in acetyl bromide soluble lignin (ABSL), cell wall polysaccharide-derived sugars, hydroxycinnamates content, and syringyl:guaiacyl:p-hydroxyphenyl (S:G:H) lignin ratios. Free glucose, sucrose, and starch content also differed significantly in senesced stems, as did the amounts of sugars released from cell wall polysaccharides (digestibility) upon exposure to a panel of thermochemical pretreatments followed by hydrolytic enzymatic digestion. Correlations were identified between inbred line lignin compositions and plant growth characteristics such as biomass accumulation and heading date (HD), and between amounts of cell wall polysaccharides and biomass digestibility. Finally, stem cell wall p-coumarate and ferulate contents and free-sugars content changed significantly with increased duration of vernalization for some inbred lines. Taken together, these results show that Brachypodium displays substantial phenotypic variation with respect to cell wall composition and biomass digestibility, with some compositional differences correlating with growth characteristics. Moreover, besides influencing HD

  17. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content.

    PubMed

    Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yi, Go-Eun; Laila, Rawnak; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Kim, Hye Ran; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA). The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062) and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total glucosinolates detected

  18. Family Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  19. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  20. Family Arguments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Arguments Page Content Article Body We seem to ...

  1. Family Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotkin, Amy J.; Baker, Holly C.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the Family Folklore Program of the Smithsonian Institution's annual Festival of American Folklife, in which the whole family can be involved in tracing family history through story telling, photographs, etc. (MS)

  2. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Family Health History Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Family Health History The Basics Family Health History & Chronic Disease Planning ...

  3. Maize peroxidase Px5 has a highly conserved sequence in inbreds resistant to mycotoxin producing fungi which enhances fungal and insect resistance.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F; Johnson, Eric T

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxin presence in maize causes health and economic issues for humans and animals. Although many studies have investigated expression differences of genes putatively governing resistance to producing fungi, few have confirmed a resistance role, or examined putative resistance gene structure in more than a couple of inbreds. The pericarp expression of maize Px5 has previously been associated with resistance to Aspergillus flavus growth and insects in a set of inbreds. Genes from 14 different inbreds that included ones with resistance and susceptibility to A. flavus, Fusarium proliferatum, F. verticillioides and F. graminearum and/or mycotoxin production were cloned using high fidelity enzymes, and sequenced. The sequence of Px5 from all resistant inbreds was identical, except for a single base change in two inbreds, only one of which affected the amino acid sequence. Conversely, the Px5 sequence from several susceptible inbreds had several base variations, some of which affected amino acid sequence that would potentially alter secondary structure, and thus enzyme function. The sequence of the maize peroxidase Px5 common to inbreds resistant to mycotoxigenic fungi was overexpressed in maize callus. Callus transformants overexpressing the gene caused significant reductions in growth for fall armyworms, corn earworms, and F. graminearum compared to transformant callus with a β-glucuronidase gene. This study demonstrates rarer transcripts of potential resistance genes overlooked by expression screens can be identified by sequence comparisons. A role in pest resistance can be verified by callus expression of the candidate genes, which can thereby justify larger scale transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants expressing the resistance gene for further evaluation. PMID:26659597

  4. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Ana; Airey, David; Thompson, Brent; Zhu, C; Rinchik, Eugene M; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Erikson, Keith; Blakely, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  5. Deletions in the genomes of fifteen inbred mouse lines and their possible implications for fat accumulation*

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Armin O.; Dempfle, Astrid; Brockmann, Gudrun A.

    2007-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) are pieces of genomic DNA of 1000 base pairs or longer which occur in a given genome at a different frequency than in a reference genome. Their importance as a source for phenotypic variability has been recognized only in the last couple of years. Chromosomal deletions can be seen as a special case of CNVs where stretches of DNA are missing in certain lines when compared to the reference genome of the mouse line C57BL/6, for example. Based upon more than 8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fifteen inbred mouse lines which were determined in a whole genome chip based resequencing project by Perlegen Sciences, we detected 20 166 such long chromosomal deletions. They cover altogether between 4.4 million and 8.8 million base pairs, depending on the mouse line. Thus, their extent is comparable to that of SNPs. The chromosomal deletions were found by searching for clusters of missing values in the genotyping data by applying bioinformatics and biostatistical methods. In contrast to isolated missing values, clusters are likely the consequence of missing DNA probe rather than of a failed hybridization or deficient oligos. We analyzed these deletion sites in various ways. Twenty-two percent of these deletion sites overlap with exons; they could therefore affect a gene’s functioning. The corresponding genes seem to exist in alternative forms, a phenomenon that reminds of the alternative forms of mRNA generated during gene splicing. We furthermore detected statistically significant association between hundreds of deletion sites and fat weight at the age of eight weeks. PMID:17973337

  6. Karyotype variability in tropical maize sister inbred lines and hybrids compared with KYS standard line

    PubMed Central

    Mondin, Mateus; Santos-Serejo, Janay A.; Bertäo, Mônica R.; Laborda, Prianda; Pizzaia, Daniel; Aguiar-Perecin, Margarida L. R.

    2014-01-01

    Maize karyotype variability has been extensively investigated. The identification of maize somatic and pachytene chromosomes has improved with the development of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using tandemly repeated DNA sequences as probes. We identified the somatic chromosomes of sister inbred lines that were derived from a tropical flint maize population (Jac Duro [JD]), and hybrids between them, using FISH probes for the 180-bp knob repeat, centromeric satellite (CentC), centromeric satellite 4 (Cent4), subtelomeric clone 4-12-1, 5S ribosomal DNA and nucleolus organizing region DNA sequences. The observations were integrated with data based on C-banded mitotic metaphases and conventional analysis of pachytene chromosomes. Heterochromatic knobs visible at pachynema were coincident with C-bands and 180-bp FISH signals on somatic chromosomes, and most of them were large. Variation in the presence of some knobs was observed among lines. Small 180-bp knob signals were invariant on the short arms of chromosomes 1, 6, and 9. The subtelomeric 4-12-1 signal was also invariant and useful for identifying some chromosomes. The centromere location of chromosomes 2 and 4 differed from previous reports on standard maize lines. Somatic chromosomes of a JD line and the commonly used KYS line were compared by FISH in a hybrid of these lines. The pairing behavior of chromosomes 2 and 4 at pachytene stage in this hybrid was investigated using FISH with chromosome-specific probes. The homologues were fully synapsed, including the 5S rDNA and CentC sites on chromosome 2, and Cent4 and subtelomeric 4-12-1 sites on chromosome 4. This suggests that homologous chromosomes could pair through differential degrees of chromatin packaging in homologous arms differing in size. The results contribute to current knowledge of maize global diversity and also raise questions concerning the meiotic pairing of homologous chromosomes possibly differing in their amounts of repetitive DNA

  7. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    PubMed Central

    Philip, V M; Duvvuru, S; Gomero, B; Ansah, T A; Blaha, C D; Cook, M N; Hamre, K M; Lariviere, W R; Matthews, D B; Mittleman, G; Goldowitz, D; Chesler, E J

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred (BXD RI) strains derived from C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and covariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict the occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic coregulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium (TMGC) have obtained phenotype data from over 250 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several batteries: response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; “ecstasy” (MDMA), morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes in approximately 70 strains of the recently expanded panel of BXD RI strains. Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent (N = 37) BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data are publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using the MouseTrack database, and are also available in GeneNetwork.org for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits. PMID:19958391

  8. Gene expression analyses in maize inbreds and hybrids with varying levels of heterosis

    PubMed Central

    Stupar, Robert M; Gardiner, Jack M; Oldre, Aaron G; Haun, William J; Chandler, Vicki L; Springer, Nathan M

    2008-01-01

    Background Heterosis is the superior performance of F1 hybrid progeny relative to the parental phenotypes. Maize exhibits heterosis for a wide range of traits, however the magnitude of heterosis is highly variable depending on the choice of parents and the trait(s) measured. We have used expression profiling to determine whether the level, or types, of non-additive gene expression vary in maize hybrids with different levels of genetic diversity or heterosis. Results We observed that the distributions of better parent heterosis among a series of 25 maize hybrids generally do not exhibit significant correlations between different traits. Expression profiling analyses for six of these hybrids, chosen to represent diversity in genotypes and heterosis responses, revealed a correlation between genetic diversity and transcriptional variation. The majority of differentially expressed genes in each of the six different hybrids exhibited additive expression patterns, and ~25% exhibited statistically significant non-additive expression profiles. Among the non-additive profiles, ~80% exhibited hybrid expression levels between the parental levels, ~20% exhibited hybrid expression levels at the parental levels and ~1% exhibited hybrid levels outside the parental range. Conclusion We have found that maize inbred genetic diversity is correlated with transcriptional variation. However, sampling of seedling tissues indicated that the frequencies of additive and non-additive expression patterns are very similar across a range of hybrid lines. These findings suggest that heterosis is probably not a consequence of higher levels of additive or non-additive expression, but may be related to transcriptional variation between parents. The lack of correlation between better parent heterosis levels for different traits suggests that transcriptional diversity at specific sets of genes may influence heterosis for different traits. PMID:18402703

  9. Transpositional reactivation of two LTR retrotransposons in rice-Zizania recombinant inbred lines (RILs).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Tian, Qin; Ma, Yi-Qiao; Wu, Ying; Miao, Gao-Jian; Ma, Yan; Cao, Dong-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Li; Lin, Chunjing; Pang, Jingsong; Liu, Bao

    2010-12-01

    Hybridization is prevalent in plants, which plays important roles in genome evolution. Apart from direct transfer and recombinatory generation of genetic variations by hybridization, de novo genetic instabilities can be induced by the process per se. One mechanism by which such de novo genetic variability can be generated by interspecific hybridization is transpositional reactivation of quiescent parental transposable elements (TEs) in the nascent hybrids. We have reported previously that introgressive hybridization between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Zizania latifolia Griseb had induced rampant mobilization of three TEs, a copia-like LTR retrotransposon Tos17, a MITE mPing and a class II TE belonging to the hAT superfamily, Dart/nDart. In this study, we further found that two additional LTR retrotransposons, a gypsy-like (named RIRE2) and a copia-like (named Copia076), were also transpositionally reactivated in three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from introgressive hybridization between rice and Z. latifolia. Novel bands of these two retroelements appeared in the RILs relative to their rice parental line (cv. Matsumae) in Southern blot, suggestive of retrotransposition, which was substantiated by transposon display (TD) and locus-specific PCR amplification for insertion sites. Both elements were found to be transcribed but at variable levels in the leaf tissue of the parental line and the RILs, suggesting that transcriptional control was probably not a mechanism for their transpositional activity in the RILs. Expression analysis of four genes adjacent to de novo insertions by Copia076 revealed marked difference in the transcript abundance for each of the genes between the RILs and their rice parental line, but the alterations in expression appeared unrelated with the retroelement insertions. PMID:21166796

  10. Display of individuality in avoidance behavior and risk assessment of inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Torben; Jansen, René F.; Pieneman, Anton W.; Manivannan, Suriya N.; Golani, Ilan; van der Sluis, Sophie; Smit, August B.; Verhage, Matthijs; Stiedl, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Factors determining individuality are still poorly understood. Rodents are excellent model organisms to study individuality, due to a rich behavioral repertoire and the availability of well-characterized isogenic populations. However, most current behavioral assays for rodents have short test duration in novel test environments and require human interference, which introduce coercion, thereby limiting the assessment of naturally occurring individuality. Thus, we developed an automated behavior system to longitudinally monitor conditioned fear for assessing PTSD-like behavior in individual mice. The system consists of a safe home compartment connected to a risk-prone test compartment (TC). Entry and exploration of the TC is solely based on deliberate choice determined by individual fear responsiveness and fear extinction. In this novel ethological assay, C57BL/6J mice show homogeneous responses after shock exposure (innate fear), but striking variation in long-lasting fear responses based on avoidance and risk assessment (learned fear), including automated stretch-attend posture quantification. TC entry (retention) latencies after foot shock differed >24 h and the re-explored TC area differed >50% among inbred mice. Next, we compared two closely related C57BL/6 substrains. Despite substantial individual differences, previously observed higher fear of C57BL/6N vs. C57BL/6J mice was reconfirmed, whereas fear extinction was fast and did not differ. The observed variation in fear expression in isogenic mice suggests individual differences in coping style with PTSD-like avoidance. Investigating the assumed epigenetic mechanisms, with reduced interpretational ambiguity and enhanced translational value in this assay, may help improve understanding of personality type-dependent susceptibility and resilience to neuropsychiatric disorders such as PTSD. PMID:25278853