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Sample records for incident brain lacunes

  1. Relative impact of amyloid-β, lacunes, and downstream imaging markers on cognitive trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Yang, Jin Ju; Kwon, Hunki; Kim, Changsoo; Lee, Jong Min; Chun, Phillip; Kim, Yeo Jin; Jung, Na-Yeon; Chin, Juhee; Kim, Seonwoo; Woo, Sook-Young; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Jae Seung; Lee, Jae Hong; Weiner, Michael W; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-09-01

    SEE COHEN DOI101093/AWW183 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Amyloid-β and cerebral small vessel disease are the two major causes of cognitive impairment in the elderly. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for precisely how amyloid-β and cerebral small vessel disease affect cognitive impairment remain unclear. We investigated the effects of amyloid-β and lacunes on downstream imaging markers including structural network and cortical thickness, further analysing their relative impact on cognitive trajectories. We prospectively recruited a pool of 117 mild cognitive impairment patients (45 amnestic type and 72 subcortical vascular type), from which 83 patients received annual follow-up with neuropsychological tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging for 3 years, and 87 patients received a second Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography analysis. Structural networks based on diffusion tensor imaging and cortical thickness were analysed. We used linear mixed effect regression models to evaluate the effects of imaging markers on cognitive decline. Time-varying Pittsburgh compound B uptake was associated with temporoparietal thinning, which correlated with memory decline (verbal memory test, unstandardized β = -0.79, P < 0.001; visual memory test, unstandardized β = -2.84, P = 0.009). Time-varying lacune number was associated with the degree of frontoparietal network disruption or thinning, which further affected frontal-executive function decline (Digit span backward test, unstandardized β = -0.05, P = 0.002; Stroop colour test, unstandardized β = -0.94, P = 0.008). Of the multiple imaging markers analysed, Pittsburgh compound B uptake and the number of lacunes had the greatest association with memory decline and frontal-executive function decline, respectively: Time-varying Pittsburgh compound B uptake (standardized β = -0.25, P = 0.010) showed the strongest effect on visual memory test, followed by time-varying temporoparietal

  2. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus E.; Pedersen, Camilla; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Loft, Steffen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective To investigate the long-term effect of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 31 December 2009 and calculated radon concentrations at each address using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3. The adjusted IRR for primary brain tumour associated with each 100 Bq/m3 increment in average residential radon levels was 1.96 (95% CI: 1.07; 3.58) and this was exposure-dependently higher over the four radon exposure quartiles. This association was not modified by air pollution. Conclusions We found significant associations and exposure-response patterns between long-term residential radon exposure radon in a general population and risk of primary brain tumours, adding new knowledge to this field. This finding could be chance and needs to be challenged in future studies. PMID:24066143

  3. Incidence of Leukoencephalopathy After Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Ebi, Junko; Sato, Hisashi; Nakajima, Masaru; Shishido, Fumio

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of leukoencephalopathy after whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 111 patients who underwent WBRT for brain metastases from April 2001 through March 2008 and had evaluable computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at least 1 month after completion of WBRT. We evaluated the leukoencephalopathy according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. The patients who had brain tumor recurrence after WBRT were censored at the last follow-up CT or MRI without recurrence. To evaluate the risk factors for leukoencephalopathy, bivariate analysis was performed using a logistic regression analysis adjusted for follow-up time. Factors included in the analysis were age, gender, dose fractionation, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, cisplatin, and other chemotherapeutic agents. Results: The median age of the 111 patients was 60.0 years (range, 23-89 years). The median follow-up was 3.8 months (range, 1.0-38.1 months). Leukoencephalopathy developed in 23 of the 111 patients. Grades 1, 2, and 3 were observed in 8, 7, and 8 patients, respectively. The incidence was 34.4% (11 of 32), 42.9% (6 of 14), 66.7% (2 of 3), and 100% (2 of 2) of the patients who were followed up for ≥6, ≥12, ≥24, and ≥36 months, respectively. In the bivariate analysis, older age (≥65 years) was significantly correlated with higher risk of leukoencephalopathy (odds ratio 3.31; 95% confidence interval 1.15-9.50; P=.03). Conclusions: The incidence of leukoencephalopathy after WBRT was 34.4% with ≥6 months follow-up, and increased with longer follow-up. Older age was a significant risk factor. The schedule of WBRT for patients with brain metastases should be carefully determined, especially for favorable patients.

  4. Stroke Incidence Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Jennifer S.; Liu, Xinggang; Smith, Gordon S.; Baumgarten, Mona; Rattinger, Gail B.; Gambert, Steven R.; Langenberg, Patricia; Zuckerman, Ilene H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), older adults are at increased risk of hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events, but it is unclear whether the increased risk continues after hospital discharge. We estimated incidence rates of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke following hospital discharge for TBI among adults ≥65 and compared them with pre-TBI rates. Participants 16,936 Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 with a diagnosis of TBI in any position on an inpatient claim between 6/1/2006 and 12/31/2009 who survived to hospital discharge. Design Retrospective analysis of a random 5% sample of Medicare claims data Main Measures Hemorrhagic stroke was defined as ICD-9 codes 430.xx-432.xx. Ischemic stroke was defined as ICD-9 codes 433.xx-435.xx, 437.0x, and 437.1x. Results There was a six-fold increase in the rate of hemorrhagic stroke following TBI compared to the pre-TBI period (adjusted Rate Ratio (RR) 6.5; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 5.3, 7.8), controlling for age and sex. A smaller increase in the rate of ischemic stroke was observed (adjusted RR 1.3; 95% CI 1.2, 1.4). Conclusion Future studies should investigate causes of increased stroke risk post-TBI as well as effective treatments to reduce stroke risk and improve outcomes post-TBI among older adults. PMID:24816156

  5. A multicenter study of primary brain tumor incidence in Australia (2000–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Dobes, Martin; Shadbolt, Bruce; Khurana, Vini G.; Jain, Sanjiv; Smith, Sarah F.; Smee, Robert; Dexter, Mark; Cook, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    There are conflicting reports from Europe and North America regarding trends in the incidence of primary brain tumor, whereas the incidence of primary brain tumors in Australia is currently unknown. We aimed to determine the incidence in Australia with age-, sex-, and benign-versus-malignant histology-specific analyses. A multicenter study was performed in the state of New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), which has a combined population of >7 million with >97% rate of population retention for medical care. We retrospectively mined pathology databases servicing neurosurgical centers in NSW and ACT for histologically confirmed primary brain tumors diagnosed from January 2000 through December 2008. Data were weighted for patient outflow and data completeness. Incidence rates were age standardized and trends analyzed using joinpoint analysis. A weighted total of 7651 primary brain tumors were analyzed. The overall US-standardized incidence of primary brain tumors was 11.3 cases 100 000 person-years (±0.13; 95% confidence interval, 9.8–12.3) during the study period with no significant linear increase. A significant increase in primary malignant brain tumors from 2000 to 2008 was observed; this appears to be largely due to an increase in malignant tumor incidence in the ≥65-year age group. This collection represents the most contemporary data on primary brain tumor incidence in Australia. Whether the observed increase in malignant primary brain tumors, particularly in persons aged ≥65 years, is due to improved detection, diagnosis, and care delivery or a true change in incidence remains undetermined. We recommend a direct, uniform, and centralized approach to monitoring primary brain tumor incidence that can be independent of multiple interstate cancer registries. PMID:21727214

  6. High incidence of TERT mutation in brain tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Johanns, Tanner M; Fu, Yujie; Kobayashi, Dale K; Mei, Yu; Dunn, Ian F; Mao, Diane D; Kim, Albert H; Dunn, Gavin P

    2016-07-01

    TERT promoter gene mutations are highly recurrent in malignant glioma. However, little information exists regarding their presence in experimental brain tumor models. To better characterize systems in which TERT mutation studies could be appropriately modeled experimentally, the TERT promoter was examined by conventional sequencing in primary brain tumor initiating cells (BTIC), two matched recurrent BTIC lines, a panel of established malignant glioma cell lines, and two meningioma cell lines. Telomerase gene expression was examined by quantitative PCR. We found that all glioblastoma BTIC lines harbored a TERT mutation, which was retained in two patient-matched recurrent BTIC. The TERT C228T or C250T mutation was found in 33/35 (94 %) of established malignant glioma cell lines and both meningioma cell lines examined. Brain tumor cell lines expressed variably high telomerase levels. Thus, a high percentage of glioma cell lines, as well as two meningioma cell lines, harbors TERT mutations. These data characterize tractable, accessible models with which to further explore telomerase biology in these tumor types. PMID:26960334

  7. Incidence and costs of bicycle-related traumatic brain injuries in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Annemieke C; Polinder, Suzanne; Panneman, Martien J M; van Beeck, Ed F; Haagsma, Juanita A

    2015-08-01

    The main cause of death and serious disability in bicycle accidents is traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this population-based study was to assess the incidence and costs of bicycle-related TBI across various age groups, and in comparison to all bicycle-related injuries, to identify main risk groups for the development of preventive strategies. Data from the National Injury Surveillance System and National Medical Registration were used for all patients with bicycle-related injuries and TBI who visited a Dutch emergency department (ED) between 1998 and 2012. Demographics and national, weighted estimates of injury mechanism, injury severity and costs were analysed per age group. Direct healthcare costs and indirect costs were determined using the incidence-based Dutch Burden of Injury Model. Between 1998 and 2012, the incidence of ED treatments due to bicycle-related TBI strongly increased with 54%, to 43 per 100,000 persons in 2012. However, the incidence of all bicycle-related injuries remained stable, from 444 in 1998 to 456/100,000 in 2012. Incidence of hospital admission increased in both TBI (92%) and all injuries from cycling (71%). Highest increase in incidence of both ED treatments and hospital admissions was seen in adults aged 55+. The injury rate of TBI per kilometre travelled increased (44%) except in children, but decreased (-4%) for all injuries, showing a strong decrease in children (-36%) but an increase in men aged 25+, and women aged 15+. Total costs of bicycle-related TBI were €74.5 million annually. Although bicycle-related TBI accounted for 9% of the incidence of all ED treatments due to cycling, it accounted for 18% of the total costs due to all bicycle-related injuries (€410.7 million). Children and adolescents (aged 0-24) had highest incidence of ED treatments due to bicycle-related injuries. Men in the working population (aged 15-64) had highest indirect costs following injuries from cycling, including TBI. Older cyclists (aged

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury in the Netherlands: Incidence, Costs and Disability-Adjusted Life Years

    PubMed Central

    Scholten, Annemieke C.; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Panneman, Martien J. M.; van Beeck, Ed F.; Polinder, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability, leading to great personal suffering and huge costs to society. Integrated knowledge on epidemiology, economic consequences and disease burden of TBI is scarce but essential for optimizing healthcare policy and preventing TBI. This study aimed to estimate incidence, cost-of-illness and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of TBI in the Netherlands. Methods This study included data on all TBI patients who were treated at an Emergency Department (ED - National Injury Surveillance System), hospitalized (National Medical Registration), or died due to their injuries in the Netherlands between 2010–2012. Direct healthcare costs and indirect costs were determined using the incidence-based Dutch Burden of Injury Model. Disease burden was assessed by calculating years of life lost (YLL) owing to premature death, years lived with disability (YLD) and DALYs. Incidence, costs and disease burden were stratified by age and gender. Results TBI incidence was 213.6 per 100,000 person years. Total costs were €314.6 (USD $433.8) million per year and disease burden resulted in 171,200 DALYs (on average 7.1 DALYs per case). Men had highest mean costs per case (€19,540 versus €14,940), driven by indirect costs. 0–24-year-olds had high incidence and disease burden but low economic costs, whereas 25–64-year-olds had relatively low incidence but high economic costs. Patients aged 65+ had highest incidence, leading to considerable direct healthcare costs. 0–24-year-olds, men aged 25–64 years, traffic injury victims (especially bicyclists) and home and leisure injury victims (especially 0–5-year-old and elderly fallers) are identified as risk groups in TBI. Conclusions The economic and health consequences of TBI are substantial. The integrated approach of assessing incidence, costs and disease burden enables detection of important risk groups in TBI, development of prevention programs that

  9. Brain and Central Nervous System Cancer Incidence in Navarre (Spain), 1973-2008 and Projections for 2014

    PubMed Central

    Etxeberria, J.; San Román, E.; Burgui, R.; Guevara, M.; Moreno-Iribas, C.; Urbina, M.J.; Ardanaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    Different studies have pointed out Navarre as one of the regions of Spain with the highest incidence rates of brain and other central nervous system (CNS) cancer. Trend analysis for cancer incidence rates for long periods of time, might help determining risk factors as well as, assessing prevention actions involved in this disease. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of brain and CNS cancer using data from the population-based cancer registry of Navarre, (Spain) during the period 1973-2008 and provide forecast figures up to-2014. Crude and age-standardized (world population) incidence rates of brain cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated by the direct method separately by gender, area (Pamplona and others), and age-groups. Penalized splines for smoothing rates in the temporal dimensions were applied in order to estimate and forecast cancer incidence rates. Age-adjusted incidence rates showed an increase over the study and forecast periods in both sexes more marked in women than in men. Higher incidence rates were observed in men compared with women but the differences became smaller with time. The increase was due to the rise of rates in the oldest age groups since the rates for younger age groups remained stable or decreased over time. As the entire aetiology of brain and other CNS cancer is not still clear, keep promoting healthful lifestyles for cancer primary prevention among the whole population is necessary. PMID:25561983

  10. Brain Metastasis in Bone and Soft Tissue Cancers: A Review of Incidence, Interventions, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shweikeh, Faris; Bukavina, Laura; Saeed, Kashif; Sarkis, Reem; Suneja, Aarushi; Sweiss, Fadi; Drazin, Doniel

    2014-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue malignancies account for a small portion of brain metastases. In this review, we characterize their incidence, treatments, and prognosis. Most of the data in the literature is based on case reports and small case series. Less than 5% of brain metastases are from bone and soft tissue sarcomas, occurring most commonly in Ewing's sarcoma, malignant fibrous tumors, and osteosarcoma. Mean interval from initial cancer diagnosis to brain metastasis is in the range of 20–30 months, with most being detected before 24 months (osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, chordoma, angiosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma), some at 24–36 months (malignant fibrous tumors, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and alveolar soft part sarcoma), and a few after 36 months (chondrosarcoma and liposarcoma). Overall mean survival ranges between 7 and 16 months, with the majority surviving < 12 months (Ewing's sarcoma, liposarcoma, malignant fibrous tumors, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, angiosarcoma and chordomas). Management is heterogeneous involving surgery, radiosurgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. While a survival advantage may exist for those given aggressive treatment involving surgical resection, such patients tended to have a favorable preoperative performance status and minimal systemic disease. PMID:24757391

  11. Incidence of Brain Atrophy and Decline in Mini-Mental State Examination Score After Whole-Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With Brain Metastases: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shibamoto, Yuta Baba, Fumiya; Oda, Kyota; Hayashi, Shinya; Kokubo, Masaki; Ishihara, Shun-Ichi; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Masahiko

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of brain atrophy and dementia after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases not undergoing surgery. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients underwent WBRT to 40 Gy in 20 fractions with or without a 10-Gy boost. Brain magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were performed before and soon after radiotherapy, every 3 months for 18 months, and every 6 months thereafter. Brain atrophy was evaluated by change in cerebrospinal fluid-cranial ratio (CCR), and the atrophy index was defined as postradiation CCR divided by preradiation CCR. Results: Of 101 patients (median age, 62 years) entering the study, 92 completed WBRT, and 45, 25, and 10 patients were assessable at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Mean atrophy index was 1.24 {+-} 0.39 (SD) at 6 months and 1.32 {+-} 0.40 at 12 months, and 18% and 28% of the patients had an increase in the atrophy index by 30% or greater, respectively. No apparent decrease in mean MMSE score was observed after WBRT. Individually, MMSE scores decreased by four or more points in 11% at 6 months, 12% at 12 months, and 0% at 18 months. However, about half the decrease in MMSE scores was associated with a decrease in performance status caused by systemic disease progression. Conclusions: Brain atrophy developed in up to 30% of patients, but it was not necessarily accompanied by MMSE score decrease. Dementia after WBRT unaccompanied by tumor recurrence was infrequent.

  12. Incidence and treatment of brain metastasis in patients with esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wei; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Xiao; Chen, Ming; Mao, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastasis from esophageal carcinoma (BMEC) is very rare, but its incidence has increased in the United States, Japan, China and other counties. Reports on BMEC have largely been focused on examining whether adjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer influences the survival duration of BMEC patients and on the imaging characteristics of BMEC determined using new medical equipment. The difference between different pathological types of esophageal cancer, especially adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, is one important factor used to assess the influence of BMEC. Adjuvant therapy, including radiotherapy and chemotherapy, for esophageal cancer with different characteristics in different countries may affect BMEC treatment outcomes. The degree of popularization of advanced medical equipment is a major concern related to the prevalence of BMEC. Furthermore, targeted BMEC treatment is under development in developed countries. In this article, we reviewed the debate surrounding BMEC and analyzed BMEC studies from different perspectives. PMID:26019444

  13. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Andrew J.; McDonald, Mark W.; Chang, Andrew L.; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  14. Hypertonic saline infusion in traumatic brain injury increases the incidence of pulmonary infection.

    PubMed

    Coritsidis, George; Diamond, Nechama; Rahman, Aleef; Solodnik, Paul; Lawrence, Kayode; Rhazouani, Salwa; Phalakornkul, Suganda

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the incidence of electrolyte abnormalities, acute kidney injury (AKI), deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and infections in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) treated with hypertonic saline (HTS) as osmolar therapy. We retrospectively studied 205 TBI patients, 96 with HTS and 109 without, admitted to the surgical/trauma intensive care unit between 2006 and 2012. Hemodynamics, electrolytes, length of stay (LOS), acute physiological assessment and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), injury severity scores (ISS) and mortality were tabulated. Infection, mechanical ventilation, DVT and AKI incidence were reviewed. HTS was associated with increased LOS and all infections (p=0.0001). After correction for the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and ventilator need, pulmonary infections (p=0.001) and LOS remained higher with HTS (p=0.0048). HTS did not result in increased blood pressure, DVT, AKI or neurological benefits. HTS significantly increased the odds for all infections, most specifically pulmonary infections, in patients with GCS<8. Due to these findings, HTS in TBI should be administered with caution regardless of acuity. PMID:26055957

  15. Incidence of adult brain cancers is higher in countries where the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Frédéric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Brodeur, Jacques; Elguero, Eric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée

    2012-01-01

    We explored associations between the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and brain cancers in human populations. We predicted that T. gondii could increase the risk of brain cancer because it is a long-lived parasite that encysts in the brain, where it provokes inflammation and inhibits apoptosis. We used a medical geography approach based on the national incidence of brain cancers and seroprevalence of T. gondii. We corrected reports of incidence for national gross domestic product because wealth probably increases the ability to detect cancer. We also included gender, cell phone use and latitude as variables in our initial models. Prevalence of T. gondii explained 19 per cent of the residual variance in brain cancer incidence after controlling for the positive effects of gross domestic product and latitude among nations. Infection with T. gondii was associated with a 1.8-fold increase in the risk of brain cancers across the range of T. gondii prevalence in our dataset (4–67%). These results, though correlational, suggest that T. gondii should be investigated further as a possible oncogenic pathogen of humans.

  16. Is There Relationship between Brain Atrophy and Higher Incidence of Hip Fracture in Old Age? -A Preliminary Study-

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Suh, Seung Woo; Yoon, Tae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The studies on the correlation between incidence of fall and brain atrophy have been going on to find out the cause of fall and its prevention. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between incidence of hip fracture and brain volume, measured by magnetic resonance image. Materials and Methods A total of 14 subjects with similar conditions (age, height, weight, and past history) were selected for this study. Fracture group (FG) was consisted of 5 subjects with intertrochanteric fracture. Control group (CG) had 9 subjects without intertrochanteric fracture. MRI-based brain volumetry was done in FG and CG with imaging software (V-works, CyberMed Co., Korea). Total brain (tBV), absolute cerebellar volumes (aCV) and relative cerebellar volumes (rCV) were compared between two groups. Student t-test was used to statistically analyze the results. Results In FG, average tBV, aCV and rCV were 1034.676±38.80, 108.648±76.80 and 10.50±0.72 cm3, respectively. In CG, average tBV, aCV and rCV were found to be 1106.459±89.15, 114.899±98.06 and 10.39±0.53 cm3, respectively, having no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). Conclusion There was no significant difference between the fracture and control groups. Patients with neurologic disease such as cerebellar ataxia definitely have high incidence of fall that causes fractures and have brain changes as well. However, FG without neurologic disease did not have brain volume change. We consider that high risk of fall with hip fracture might decrease brain function which is not obvious to pickup on MRI. PMID:24142659

  17. Older Candidates for Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease Have a Higher Incidence of Psychiatric Serious Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Cozac, Vitalii V.; Ehrensperger, Michael M.; Gschwandtner, Ute; Hatz, Florian; Meyer, Antonia; Monsch, Andreas U.; Schuepbach, Michael; Taub, Ethan; Fuhr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the incidence of serious adverse events (SAE) of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: We investigated a group of 26 patients with PD who underwent STN-DBS at mean age 63.2 ± 3.3 years. The operated patients from the EARLYSTIM study (mean age 52.9 ± 6.6) were used as a comparison group. Incidences of SAE were compared between these groups. Results: A higher incidence of psychosis and hallucinations was found in these elderly patients compared to the younger patients in the EARLYSTIM study (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The higher incidence of STN-DBS-related psychiatric complications underscores the need for comprehensive psychiatric pre- and postoperative assessment in older DBS candidates. However, these psychiatric SAE were transient, and the benefits of DBS clearly outweighed its adverse effects. PMID:27375478

  18. Incidence of seizures on continuous EEG monitoring following traumatic brain injury in children.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brent R; Handler, Michael H; Tong, Suhong; Chapman, Kevin E

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Seizures may cause diagnostic confusion and be a source of metabolic stress after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. The incidence of electroencephalography (EEG)-confirmed seizures and of subclinical seizures in the pediatric population with TBI is not well known. METHODS A routine protocol for continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring was initiated for all patients with moderate or severe TBI at a Level 1 pediatric trauma center. Over a 3.5-year period, all patients with TBI who underwent cEEG monitoring, both according to protocol and those with mild head injuries who underwent cEEG monitoring at the discretion of the treating team, were identified prospectively. Clinical data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS Over the study period, 594 children were admitted with TBI, and 144 of these children underwent cEEG monitoring. One hundred two (71%) of these 144 children had moderate or severe TBI. Abusive head trauma (AHT) was the most common mechanism of injury (65 patients, 45%) in children with cEEG monitoring. Seizures were identified on cEEG in 43 patients (30%). Forty (93%) of these 43 patients had subclinical seizures, including 17 (40%) with only subclinical seizures and 23 (53%) with both clinical and subclinical seizures. Fifty-three percent of patients with seizures experienced status epilepticus. Age less than 2.4 years and AHT mechanism were strongly correlated with presence of seizures (odds ratios 8.7 and 6.0, respectively). Those patients with only subclinical seizures had the same risk factors as the other groups. The presence of seizures did not correlate with discharge disposition but was correlated with longer hospital stay and intensive care unit stay. CONCLUSIONS Continuous EEG monitoring identifies a significant number of subclinical seizures acutely after TBI. Children younger than 2.4 years of age and victims of AHT are particularly vulnerable to subclinical seizures, and seizures in general. Continuous EEG monitoring allows for

  19. Association between resting-state brain functional connectivity and muscle sympathetic burst incidence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Keri S; Kucyi, Aaron; Millar, Philip J; Murai, Hisayoshi; Kimmerly, Derek S; Morris, Beverley L; Bradley, T Douglas; Floras, John S

    2016-02-01

    The insula (IC) and cingulate are key components of the central autonomic network and central nodes of the salience network (SN), a set of spatially distinct but temporally correlated brain regions identified with resting-state (task free) functional MRI (rsMRI). To examine the SN's involvement in sympathetic outflow, we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in intrinsic connectivity of the SN correlate positively with resting postganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) burst incidence (BI) in subjects without and with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Overnight polysomnography, 5-min rsMRI, and fibular MSNA recording were performed in 36 subjects (mean age 57 yr; 10 women, 26 men). Independent component analysis (ICA) of the entire cohort identified the SN as including bilateral IC, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), midcingulate cortex (MCC), and the temporoparietal junction (TPJ). There was a positive correlation between BI and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (P < 0.001), but dual-regression analysis identified no differences in SN functional connectivity between subjects with no or mild OSA (n = 17) and moderate or severe (n = 19) OSA. Correlation analysis relating BI to the strength of connectivity within the SN revealed large (i.e., spatial extent) and strong correlations for the left IC (P < 0.001), right pgACC/MCC (P < 0.006), left TPJ (P < 0.004), thalamus (P < 0.035), and cerebellum (P < 0.013). Indexes of sleep apnea were unrelated to BI and the strength of SN connectivity. There were no relationships between BI and default or sensorimotor network connectivity. This study links connectivity within the SN to MSNA, demonstrating several of its nodes to be key sympathoexcitatory regions. PMID:26538607

  20. Geophysical variables and behavior: LXXV. Possible increased incidence of brain tumors following an episode of luminous phenomena.

    PubMed

    Bisson, C; Persinger, M A

    1993-12-01

    If the tectonic strain theory for luminous phenomena be correct, then significant electromagnetic emissions and radon gas release should occur in focal regions in which people report an alleged "UFO flap." Considering the epidemiological evidence that these stimuli might promote the incidence of brain tumors, their occurrence during the 5 years before and the 5 years after the November, 1975 episode of multiple luminous displays within the Sudbury Basin (Canada) was examined. Compared to the adjacent control area, there was a significant increase in brain tumors after the episode for men (conservative odds ratio = 2.5) but not for women; however, the magnitude was well within the expected range of incidence within the general population. Such changes have theoretical implication but may have little clinical or health significance. PMID:8170751

  1. Time trends (1998-2007) in brain cancer incidence rates in relation to mobile phone use in England.

    PubMed

    de Vocht, Frank; Burstyn, Igor; Cherrie, John W

    2011-07-01

    Mobile phone use in the United Kingdom and other countries has risen steeply since the early 1990's when the first digital mobile phones were introduced. There is an ongoing controversy about whether radio frequency (RF) exposure from mobile phones increases the risk of brain cancer. However, given the widespread use and nearly two decades elapsing since mobile phones were introduced, an association should have produced a noticeable increase in the incidence of brain cancer by now. Trends in rates of newly diagnosed brain cancer cases in England between 1998 and 2007 were examined. There were no time trends in overall incidence of brain cancers for either gender, or any specific age group. Systematic increases in rates for cancers of the temporal lobe in men (0.04 new cases/year) and women (0.02/year) were observed, along with decreases in the rates of cancers of the parietal lobe (-0.03/year), cerebrum (-0.02/year) and cerebellum (-0.01/year) in men only. The increased use of mobile phones between 1985 and 2003 has not led to a noticeable change in the incidence of brain cancer in England between 1998 and 2007. The observed increase in the rate of cancers in the temporal lobe, if caused by mobile phone use, would constitute <1 additional case per 100,000 people in that period. These data do not indicate a pressing need to implement a precautionary principle by means of population-wide interventions to reduce RF exposure from mobile phones. PMID:21280060

  2. Defining an ideal system to establish the incidence of inflicted traumatic brain injury: summary of the consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Runyan, Desmond K; Berger, Rachel P; Barr, Ronald G

    2008-04-01

    A conference addressing how to establish the incidence of inflicted traumatic brain injury in young children provided the opportunity to examine issues of definitions, passive versus active surveillance, study designs, proxy measures, and statistical issues. Data were presented that had been collected in alternative ways. The participants concluded that an ideal system for measurement of the incidence does not yet exist. A new surveillance system will take a significant amount of time and money to establish. Such a system will require a combination of ascertainment approaches, attention to case finding, a large population, careful attention to coding and data quality. The ethical issues involved in measuring stigmatized and illegal behavior are not inconsequential. In an ideal system data from different sources-medical, legal, and social service, among others-will need to be linked. Perhaps most importantly, any surveillance approach will need to be maintained so that trend data can be used to assess the effectiveness of prevention efforts. PMID:18374269

  3. Incidence of sport-related traumatic brain injury and risk factors of severity: a population-based epidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Selassie, Anbesaw W.; Wilson, Dulaney A.; Pickelsimer, E. Elisabeth; Voronca, Delia C.; Williams, Nolan R.; Edwards, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Few studies of sport-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) are population-based or rely on directly observed data on cause, demographic characteristics, and severity. This study addresses the epidemiology of sport-related TBI in a large population. Methods Data on all South Carolina hospital and emergency department encounters for TBI, 1998–2011, were analyzed. Annual incidence rate of sport-related TBI was calculated, and rates were compared across demographic groups. Sport-related TBI severity was modeled as a function of demographic and TBI characteristics using logistic regression. Results A total of 16,642 individuals with sport-related TBI yielded an average annual incidence rate of 31.5/100,000 population with a steady increase from 19.7 in 1998 to 45.6 in 2011. The most common mechanisms of sport-related TBI were kicked in football (38.1%), followed by fall injuries in sports (20.3%). Incidence rate was greatest in adolescents ages 12–18 (120.6/100,000/persons). Severe sport-related TBI was strongly associated with off-road vehicular sport (odds ratio [OR], 4.73; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.92–7.67); repeated head trauma (OR, 4.36; 95% CI, 3.69–5.15); equestrian sport (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.64–4.51); and falls during sport activities (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.67–4.46). Conclusions The high incidence of sport-related TBI in youth, potential for repetitive mild TBI, and its long-term consequences on learning warrants coordinated surveillance activities and population-based outcome studies. PMID:24060276

  4. Lysophosphatidic Acid Level and the Incidence of Silent Brain Infarction in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen-Guang; Yu, Zhan-Cai; Yu, Yong-Peng; Ju, Wei-Ping; Wang, Dao-Zhen; Zhan, Xia; Wu, Xi-Juan; Zhou, Li

    2010-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is proposed to play an important role in normal physiological situations such as wound healing, vascular tone, vascular integrity and reproduction, may be involved in the etiology of some diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity or myocardial infarction. Abnormal findings, including silent brain infarction (SBI), are frequently observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). However, whether there is a relationship between LPA level and the prevalence of SBI has not been extensively studied. In the present study, the association between them was investigated. 235 patients with NVAF, 116 cases of SBI without NVAF and 120 cases of healthy volunteers (control group), who did not receive any antithrombotic therapy, were enrolled in this study. Plasma LPA levels in the NVAF with SBI group were significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0.01), NVAF without SBI group (p < 0.01) and SBI without NVAF group (p < 0.01). The LPA levels are lower in the control group than in the NVAF without SBI and SBI without NVAF groups (p < 0.01), however, the latter two groups did not significantly differ from each other for LPA levels (p > 0.05) There were significant differences in the positive rate of platelet activation between each of the groups (p < 0.01). The positive rate of platelet activation was significantly higher in the NVAF with SBI group. We suggest that LPA might be a novel marker for estimation of the status of platelet activation and the risk factor for SBI onset in NVAF patients. We expected that plasma LPA levels could predict the occurrence of SBI in NVAF patients. PMID:21152315

  5. Incidence and long-term outcome of postradiotherapy moyamoya syndrome in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors: a single institute experience in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-Hung; Chang, Feng-Chi; Liang, Muh-Lii; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Wong, Tai-Tong; Yen, Sang-Hue; Chen, Yi-Wei

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the incidence and long-term outcome of moyamoya syndrome in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors after receiving cranial radiotherapy (RT) in a single institute in Taiwan. The complete medical records, medical images, and RT notes of 391 pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with cranial RT between January 1975 and December 2005 in Taipei Veterans General Hospital (TVGH), Taiwan, were entered into an electronic registry and reviewed. Eight (2%) cases of post-RT moyamoya syndrome were identified in the sample of 391 patients. The median latency was 3 years post-RT. Among the eight patients, three had craniopharyngioma, two had optic glioma, two had medulloblastoma, and one had a suprasellar astrocytoma. The prescribed physical doses of RT were in the range of 40-54 Gy. The incidence was highest in those with optic glioma (0.039/person-year), followed by craniopharyngioma (0.013/person-year), astrocytoma (0.003/person-year), and medulloblastoma (0.002/person-year). No patients died of vasculopathy. No difference in crude incidence was found between our results and those of other series. The incidence of moyamoya syndrome was diagnosis dependent, with the highest incidence among patients with optic glioma. No regional difference in incidence was found. Long-term, stable neurological function may be achieved following timely surgical intervention. PMID:27265024

  6. Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  7. Association of Serum Vitamin D with the Risk of Incident Dementia and Subclinical Indices of Brain Aging: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Karakis, Ioannis; Pase, Matthew P.; Beiser, Alexa; Booth, Sarah L.; Jacques, Paul F.; Rogers, Gail; DeCarli, Charles; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.; Himali, Jayandra J.; Annweiler, Cedric; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying nutrition- and lifestyle-based risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia may aid future primary prevention efforts. Objective We aimed to examine the association of serum vitamin D levels with incident all-cause dementia, clinically characterized Alzheimer’s disease (AD), MRI markers of brain aging, and neuropsychological function. Methods Framingham Heart Study participants had baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations measured between 1986 and 2001. Vitamin D status was considered both as a continuous variable and dichotomized as deficient (<10 ng/mL), or at the cohort-specific 20th and 80th percentiles. Vitamin D was related to the 9-year risk of incident dementia (n= 1663), multiple neuropsychological tests (n= 1291) and MRI markers of brain volume, white matter hyperintensities and silent cerebral infarcts (n = 1139). Results In adjusted models, participants with vitamin D deficiency (n = 104, 8% of the cognitive sample) displayed poorer performance on Trail Making B-A (β = −0.03 to −0.05 ±0.02) and the Hooper Visual Organization Test (β = −0.09 to −0.12 ±0.05), indicating poorer executive function, processing speed, and visuo-perceptual skills. These associations remained when vitamin D was examined as a continuous variable or dichotomized at the cohort specific 20th percentile. Vitamin D deficiency was also associated with lower hippocampal volumes (β = −0.01 ±0.01) but not total brain volume, white matter hyperintensities, or silent brain infarcts. No association was found between vitamin D deficiency and incident all-cause dementia or clinically characterized AD. Conclusions In this large community-based sample, low 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with smaller hippocampal volume and poorer neuropsychological function. PMID:26890771

  8. High Incidence of Progressive Postnatal Cerebellar Enlargement in Costello Syndrome: Brain Overgrowth Associated with HRAS Mutations as the Likely Cause of Structural Brain and Spinal Cord Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Gripp, Karen W.; Hopkins, Elisabeth; Doyle, Daniel; Dobyns, William B.

    2010-01-01

    Costello syndrome is a rasopathy caused by germline mutations in the proto-oncogene HRAS. Its presentation includes failure-to-thrive with macrocephaly, characteristic facial features, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, papillomata, malignant tumors, and cognitive impairment. In a systematic review we found absolute or relative macrocephaly (100%), ventriculomegaly (50%), and other abnormalities on brain and spinal cord imaging studies in 27/28 individuals. Posterior fossa crowding with cerebellar tonsillar herniation (CBTH) was noted in 27/28 (96%), and in 10/17 (59%) with serial studies posterior fossa crowding progressed. Sequelae of posterior fossa crowding and CBTH included hydrocephalus requiring shunt or ventriculostomy (25%), Chiari 1 malformation (32%) and syrinx formation (25%). Our data reveal macrocephaly with progressive frontal bossing and CBTH, documenting an ongoing process rather than a static congenital anomaly. Comparison of images obtained in young infants to subsequent studies demonstrated postnatal development of posterior fossa crowding. This process of evolving megalencephaly and cerebellar enlargement is in keeping with mouse model data, delineating abnormal genesis of neurons and glia, resulting in an increased number of astrocytes and enlarged brain volume. In Costello syndrome and macrocephaly-capillary malformation syndrome disproportionate brain growth is the main factor resulting in postnatal CBTH and Chiari 1 malformation. PMID:20425820

  9. Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation and Brain Freeze: A Case of Recurrent Co-Incident Precipitation From a Frozen Beverage

    PubMed Central

    Lugovskaya, Nelya; Vinson, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 29 Final Diagnosis: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation • cold-stimulus headache Symptoms: Palpitations • headache Medication: Diltiazem • Ibutilide Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Emergency Medicine • Internal Medicine Objective: Unknown ethiology • Rare disease Background: Episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation may be precipitated by the rapid ingestion of ice-cold foods and beverages. This condition has received little research attention, and its true prevalence is poorly described. Treating physicians may not identify cold ingestion as a causal factor of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, thus compromising both history taking and patient education. Case Report: We report a case of a healthy young-adult man who drank a slushed ice beverage that immediately induced atrial fibrillation and a brain freeze headache simultaneously. This occurred on two separate occasions, years apart. During both episodes, the acute brain freeze self-resolved quickly, but the new-onset palpitations occasioned a visit to the emergency department for diagnosis and treatment. The emergency physicians failed to make the causal link between the cold drink and the atrial dysrhythmia. Though the brain freeze headache and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were both precipitated by rapid ingestion of an ice-cold beverage, the mediating mechanisms are distinct. We review these two cold-induced conditions, their prevalence, and their probable mechanisms. Conclusions: The recurrent simultaneous occurrence of brain-freeze headache with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation identifies the ingestion of a frozen beverage as the precipitant of the atrial dysrhythmia. Increasing physician awareness of cold ingestion as a cause of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation will improve history taking and patient education. PMID:26757615

  10. High incidence of adverse cerebral blood flow responses to spreading depolarization in the aged ischemic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Menyhárt, Ákos; Makra, Péter; Szepes, Borbála É; Tóth, Orsolya M; Hertelendy, Péter; Bari, Ferenc; Farkas, Eszter

    2015-12-01

    Spreading depolarizations (SDs) occur spontaneously in the brain after stroke, exacerbate ischemic injury, and thus emerge as a potential target of intervention. Aging predicts worse outcome from stroke; yet, the impact of age on SD evolution is not clear. Cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in young (8-9 weeks old, n = 8) and old (2 year olds, n = 6) anesthetized rats. Sham-operated animals of both age groups served as control (n = 12). Electrocorticogram, direct current potential, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) variations were acquired via a small craniotomy above the parietal cortex. SDs were elicited by KCl through a second craniotomy distal to the recording site. Ischemia and age delayed the recovery from SD. CBF decreased progressively during ischemia in the old animals selectively, and inverse neurovascular coupling with SD evolved in the old but not in the young ischemic group. We propose that (mal)adaptation of cerebrovascular function with aging impairs the SD-related CBF response, which is implicated in the intensified expansion of ischemic damage in the old brain. PMID:26346140

  11. The incidence of deep brain stimulator hardware infection: the effect of change in antibiotic prophylaxis regimen and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Robin; Dalton, Arthur; Richards, Mike; Hopkins, Chris; Aziz, Tipu; Nandi, Dipankar

    2011-10-01

    The complication of hardware infection related to deep brain stimulator implantation (or revision) varies between 0 and 15.2% in the literature. However, no national guidelines exist at present to define an average or acceptable rate of infection associated with, nor the preferred antibiotic prophylaxis required for, this procedure. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of changing the antibiotic prophylaxis regimen used in a single neurosurgical centre on the incidence and outcome of hardware infection. A prospective cohort of 38 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation or internal pulse generator (IPG) replacement and receiving perioperative vancomycin (including intravenous gentamicin on induction) and pouch-installed gentamicin, was compared to a historical cohort of 35 patients receiving perioperative cefuroxime in the same unit. The infection rate over 2 years in the prospective group for DBS surgery was 0 compared to 1 (5.6%) in the historical cohort (p = 0.11, χ(2)); the infection rate for IPG replacements was 1(3.6%) in the prospective cohort, versus 3 (17.6%) in the historical (p = 0.44, χ(2)). In this article, we have also systematically reviewed the literature to date and derived an average infection rate of 4.7% (PI 0.9-22%, Random Effects Meta-analysis, Stata) for 35 studies comprising 3550 patients. There is no significant difference in infection rates between DBS procedures that are primarily internalised (n = 9) compared to those in which there is a period of electrode externalisation (n = 23) (p = 0.9, Meta-regression analysis, Stata). PMID:21501065

  12. Incidence, Risk Factors and Consequences of Emergence Agitation in Adult Patients after Elective Craniotomy for Brain Tumor: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Xu, Ming; Li, Gui-Yun; Cai, Wei-Xin; Zhou, Jian-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Emergence agitation is a frequent complication that can have serious consequences during recovery from general anesthesia. However, agitation has been poorly investigated in patients after craniotomy. In this prospective cohort study, adult patients were enrolled after elective craniotomy for brain tumor. The sedation-agitation scale was evaluated during the first 12 hours after surgery. Agitation developed in 35 of 123 patients (29%). Of the agitated patients, 28 (80%) were graded as very and dangerously agitated. By multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, independent predictors for agitation included male sex, history of long-term use of anti-depressant drugs or benzodiazepines, frontal approach of the operation, method and duration of anesthesia and presence of endotracheal intubation. Total intravenous anesthesia and balanced anesthesia with short duration were protective factors. Emergence agitation was associated with self-extubation (8.6% vs 0%, P = 0.005). Sedatives were administered more in agitated patients than non-agitated patients (85.7% vs 6.8%, P<0.001). In conclusion, emergence agitation was a frequent complication in patients after elective craniotomy for brain tumors. The clarification of risk factors could help to identify the high-risk patients, and then to facilitate the prevention and treatment of agitation. For patients undergoing craniotomy, greater attention should be paid to those receiving a frontal approach for craniotomy and those anesthetized under balanced anesthesia with long duration. More researches are warranted to elucidate whether total intravenous anesthesia could reduce the incidence of agitation after craniotomy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00590499. PMID:25493435

  13. Preoperative steroid use and the incidence of perioperative complications in patients undergoing craniotomy for definitive resection of a malignant brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Alan, Nima; Seicean, Andreea; Seicean, Sinziana; Neuhauser, Duncan; Benzel, Edward C; Weil, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    We studied the impact of preoperative steroids on 30 day morbidity and mortality of craniotomy for definitive resection of malignant brain tumors. Glucocorticoids are used to treat peritumoral edema in patients with malignant brain tumors, however, prolonged (⩾ 10 days) use of preoperative steroids as a risk factor for perioperative complications following resection of brain tumors has not been studied comprehensively. Therefore, we identified 4407 patients who underwent craniotomy to resect a malignant brain tumor between 2007 and 2012, who were reported in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, a prospectively collected clinical database. Metastatic brain tumors constituted 37.5% (n=1611) and primary malignant gliomas 62.5% (n=2796) of the study population. We used logistic regression to assess the association between preoperative steroid use and perioperative complications before and after 1:1 propensity score matching. Patients who received steroids constituted 22.8% of the population (n=1009). In the unmatched cohort, steroid use was associated with decreased length of hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6-0.8), however, the risk for readmission (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.8) was increased. In the propensity score matched cohort (n=465), steroid use was not statistically associated with any adverse outcomes. Patients who received steroids were less likely to stay hospitalized for a protracted period of time, but were more likely to be readmitted after discharge following craniotomy. As an independent risk factor, preoperative steroid use was not associated with any observed perioperative complications. The findings of this study suggest that preoperative steroids do not independently compromise the short term outcome of craniotomy for resection of malignant brain tumors. PMID:26073371

  14. Assessing the cognitive impact of Alzheimer disease pathology and vascular burden in the aging brain: the Geneva experience.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Gold, Gabriel; Kövari, Enikö; von Gunten, Armin; Imhof, Anouk; Bouras, Constantin; Hof, Patrick R

    2007-01-01

    The progressive development of Alzheimer disease (AD)-related lesions, such as neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), amyloid deposits and synaptic loss, and the occurrence of microvascular and small macrovascular pathology within the cerebral cortex are conspicuous neuropathologic features of brain aging. Recent neuropathologic studies strongly suggested that the clinical diagnosis of dementia depends more on the severity and topography of pathological changes than on the presence of a qualitative marker. However, several methodological problems, such as selection biases, case-control design, density-based measures and masking effects, of concomitant pathologies persisted. In recent years, we performed several clinicopathologic studies using stereological counting of AD lesions. In order to define the cognitive impact of lacunes and microvascular lesions, we also analyzed pure vascular cases without substantial AD pathology. Our data revealed that total NFT numbers in the CA1 field, cortical microinfarcts and subcortical gray matter lacunes were the stronger determinants of dementia. In contrast, the contribution of periventricular and subcortical white matter demyelinations had a modest cognitive effect even in rare cases with isolated microvascular pathology. Importantly, in cases with pure AD pathology, more than 50% of Clinical Dementia Rating scale variability was not explained by NFT, amyloid deposits and neuronal loss in the hippocampal formation. In cases with microvascular pathology or lacunes, this percentage was even lower. The present review summarizes our data in this field and discusses their relevance within the theoretical framework of the functional neuropathology of brain aging and with particular reference to the current efforts to develop standardized neuropathological criteria for mixed dementia. PMID:17036244

  15. The Incidence, Prevalence, Costs and Impact on Disability of Common Conditions Requiring Rehabilitation in the US: Stroke, Spinal Cord Injury, Traumatic Brain Injury, Multiple Sclerosis, Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Limb Loss, and Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Vincent Y; Chan, Leighton; Carruthers, Kadir J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the relative incidence, prevalence, costs and impact on disability of 8 common conditions treated by rehabilitation professionals. Design Structured review of the literature Setting United States Participants N/A Interventions N/A Main Outcome Measures disease associated incidence, prevalence, direct and indirect costs and impact on activity and work limitations. Results Back pain and arthritis (osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis) are the most common and costly conditions that we examined, affecting over 100 million individuals and costing over $200 billion per year. Traumatic brain injury, while less common than arthritis and back pain, carries enormous per capita direct and indirect costs, mostly due to the young age of those involved and the severe disability that it may cause. Finally, stroke, which is often listed as the most common cause of disability, is likely second to both arthritis and back pain in its impact on functional limitations. Conclusions Of the common rehabilitation diagnoses we studied, musculoskeletal conditions such and back pain and arthritis likely have the most impact on the health care system due to their high prevalence and impact on disability. PMID:24462839

  16. A Survey of Very-Long-Term Outcomes after Traumatic Brain Injury among Members of a Population-Based Incident Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Moessner, Anne M.; Mandrekar, Jay; Diehl, Nancy N.; Leibson, Cynthia L.; Malec, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract To assess quality of life and barriers to participation in vocational and community life for persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) over the very-long term, a population-based cohort was identified in Olmsted County, Minnesota; 1623 individuals were identified as having experienced a confirmed TBI while a resident of Olmsted County, Minnesota, during the period from 1935–2000. A survey was sent to eligible individuals that included elements of standardized instruments addressing health status and disability, and questions that assessed issues important to successful social reintegration after TBI. Of 1623 eligible participants sent surveys, 605 responded (37% response rate). Thirty-nine percent of respondents were female and 79% had mild injuries. Mean age at injury was 30.8 years, and mean years since injury was 28.8. Overall, respondents reported living in the community; the majority were married and had achieved education beyond high school. Problems with memory, thinking, and physical and emotional health were most often reported. Respondents reported low levels of depression and anxiety, and high levels of satisfaction with life. Seventy-three percent of respondents reported no problems that they attributed to their TBI. Increasing injury severity was associated with a significant risk of reporting injury-related problems at survey completion. Respondents with a longer time since injury were less likely to report any TBI-related problems. These results indicate that self-reported outcomes and adaptation to impairment-related limitations improve as the time since injury increases. These findings highlight the importance of providing coordinated medical rehabilitation and community-based support services to promote positive outcomes over the life span after TBI. PMID:21121813

  17. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  18. Brain Injury: A Manual For Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Karen; Dettmer, Judy; Dise-lewis, Jeanne E.; Murphy, Mary; Santistevan, Barbette; Seckinger, Barbara

    This manual provides Colorado educators with guidelines for serving students with brain injuries. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 provides basic information on the brain including definitions of brain injury and its severity, incidence of brain injury, and characteristics of students with brain injury. Chapter 3 considers…

  19. Brain and spinal tumour.

    PubMed

    Goh, C H; Lu, Y Y; Lau, B L; Oy, J; Lee, H K; Liew, D; Wong, A

    2014-12-01

    This study reviewed the epidemiology of brain and spinal tumours in Sarawak from January 2009 till December 2012. The crude incidence of brain tumour in Sarawak was 4.6 per 100,000 population/year with cumulative rate 0.5%. Meningioma was the most common brain tumour (32.3%) and followed by astrocytoma (19.4%). Only brain metastases showed a rising trend and cases were doubled in 4 years. This accounted for 15.4% and lung carcinoma was the commonest primary. Others tumour load were consistent. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and astrocytoma were common in paediatrics (60%). We encountered more primary spinal tumour rather than spinal metastases. Intradural schwannoma was the commonest and frequently located at thoracic level. The current healthcare system in Sarawak enables a more consolidate data collection to reflect accurate brain tumours incidence. This advantage allows subsequent future survival outcome research and benchmarking for healthcare resource planning. PMID:25934956

  20. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  1. Longitudinal patterns of leukoaraiosis and brain atrophy in symptomatic small vessel disease.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Christian; Benjamin, Philip; Zeestraten, Eva; Lawrence, Andrew J; Barrick, Thomas R; Markus, Hugh S

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is a common condition associated with lacunar stroke, cognitive impairment and significant functional morbidity. White matter hyperintensities and brain atrophy, seen on magnetic resonance imaging, are correlated with increasing disease severity. However, how the two are related remains an open question. To better define the relationship between white matter hyperintensity growth and brain atrophy, we applied a semi-automated magnetic resonance imaging segmentation analysis pipeline to a 3-year longitudinal cohort of 99 subjects with symptomatic small vessel disease, who were followed-up for ≥1 years. Using a novel two-stage warping pipeline with tissue repair step, voxel-by-voxel rate of change maps were calculated for each tissue class (grey matter, white matter, white matter hyperintensities and lacunes) for each individual. These maps capture both the distribution of disease and spatial information showing local rates of growth and atrophy. These were analysed to answer three primary questions: first, is there a relationship between whole brain atrophy and magnetic resonance imaging markers of small vessel disease (white matter hyperintensities or lacune volume)? Second, is there regional variation within the cerebral white matter in the rate of white matter hyperintensity progression? Finally, are there regionally specific relationships between the rates of white matter hyperintensity progression and cortical grey matter atrophy? We demonstrate that the rates of white matter hyperintensity expansion and grey matter atrophy are strongly correlated (Pearson's R = -0.69, P < 1 × 10(-7)), and significant grey matter loss and whole brain atrophy occurs annually (P < 0.05). Additionally, the rate of white matter hyperintensity growth was heterogeneous, occurring more rapidly within long association fasciculi. Using voxel-based quantification (family-wise error corrected P < 0.05), we show the rate of white matter hyperintensity

  2. Longitudinal patterns of leukoaraiosis and brain atrophy in symptomatic small vessel disease

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Philip; Zeestraten, Eva; Lawrence, Andrew J.; Barrick, Thomas R.; Markus, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is a common condition associated with lacunar stroke, cognitive impairment and significant functional morbidity. White matter hyperintensities and brain atrophy, seen on magnetic resonance imaging, are correlated with increasing disease severity. However, how the two are related remains an open question. To better define the relationship between white matter hyperintensity growth and brain atrophy, we applied a semi-automated magnetic resonance imaging segmentation analysis pipeline to a 3-year longitudinal cohort of 99 subjects with symptomatic small vessel disease, who were followed-up for ≥1 years. Using a novel two-stage warping pipeline with tissue repair step, voxel-by-voxel rate of change maps were calculated for each tissue class (grey matter, white matter, white matter hyperintensities and lacunes) for each individual. These maps capture both the distribution of disease and spatial information showing local rates of growth and atrophy. These were analysed to answer three primary questions: first, is there a relationship between whole brain atrophy and magnetic resonance imaging markers of small vessel disease (white matter hyperintensities or lacune volume)? Second, is there regional variation within the cerebral white matter in the rate of white matter hyperintensity progression? Finally, are there regionally specific relationships between the rates of white matter hyperintensity progression and cortical grey matter atrophy? We demonstrate that the rates of white matter hyperintensity expansion and grey matter atrophy are strongly correlated (Pearson’s R = −0.69, P < 1 × 10−7), and significant grey matter loss and whole brain atrophy occurs annually (P < 0.05). Additionally, the rate of white matter hyperintensity growth was heterogeneous, occurring more rapidly within long association fasciculi. Using voxel-based quantification (family-wise error corrected P < 0.05), we show the rate of white matter hyperintensity

  3. Brain Science, Brain Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruer, John T.

    1998-01-01

    Three big ideas from brain science have arisen during the past 20 to 30 years: neural connections form rapidly early in life; critical periods occur in development; and enriched environments profoundly affect brain development during the early years. Current brain research has little to offer educational practice or policy. (10 references) (MLH)

  4. Incidence of Chromosome Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    A minority of conceptions result in live births. Of recognized conceptions, 15% result in spontaneous abortions, up to 60% of which are due to chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of the different disorders is given. Of live births, one in 200 suffers a chromosome abnormality. The common abnormalities are described with their incidence. The effect of maternal age on this incidence is pronounced, but even so must be kept in proportion for counselling purposes.

  5. Brain involvement in Alström syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alström Syndrome (AS) is a rare ciliopathy characterized by cone–rod retinal dystrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiomyopathy. Most patients do not present with neurological issues and demonstrate normal intelligence, although delayed psychomotor development and psychiatric disorders have been reported. To date, brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) abnormalities in AS have not been explored. Methods We investigated structural brain changes in 12 genetically proven AS patients (mean-age 22 years; range: 6–45, 6 females) and 19 matched healthy and positive controls (mean-age 23 years; range: 6–43; 12 females) using conventional MRI, Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Results 6/12 AS patients presented with brain abnormalities such as ventricular enlargement (4/12), periventricular white matter abnormalities (3/12) and lacune-like lesions (1/12); all patients older than 30 years had vascular-like lesions. VBM detected grey and white matter volume reduction in AS patients, especially in the posterior regions. DTI revealed significant fractional anisotropy decrease and radial diffusivity increase in the supratentorial white matter, also diffusely involving those regions that appeared normal on conventional imaging. On the contrary, axial and mean diffusivity did not differ from controls except in the fornix. Conclusions Brain involvement in Alström syndrome is not uncommon. Early vascular-like lesions, gray and white matter atrophy, mostly involving the posterior regions, and diffuse supratentorial white matter derangement suggest a role of cilia in endothelial cell and oligodendrocyte function. PMID:23406482

  6. Brain herniation

    MedlinePlus

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  7. Coping with brain damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waring, W.

    1974-01-01

    Two neurological disorders, cerebral palsy, and traumatic brain damage as from an accident, are considered. The discussion covers the incidence of disabilities, their characteristics, and what is now being done to deal with them, particularly in reference to areas in which the capabilities of the engineer can be effectively applied.

  8. Assessment of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesire, David J.; Buckley, Valerie A.; Canto, Angela I.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of brain injuries, as well as their impact on individuals who sustain them, has received growing attention from American media in recent years. This attention is likely the result of high profile individuals suffering brain injuries. Greater public awareness of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) has also been promoted by sources such as…

  9. Incidence of syndesmotic injury.

    PubMed

    Vosseller, J Turner; Karl, John W; Greisberg, Justin K

    2014-03-01

    Injury to the tibiofibular syndesmosis can occur with ankle sprain or fracture. The incidence of syndesmotic injury has not been specifically studied at a population level. Data on syndesmotic injury were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), a federal-state-private partnership. It is administered by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. Two HCUP databases were queried for 8 states: the State Inpatient Database and the State Emergency Department Database. The first 6 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD-9) code diagnoses were searched for codes that are used for syndesmotic injury (ie, 845.03). These data, along with data from the 2010 US census, were used to yield incidence rates for syndesmosis injury, as well as for various demographic groups. National estimates of injury totals were also calculated. In the 8 states, there were a total of 1821 syndesmotic injuries. Given the population of these states, the incidence rate of syndesmotic injury was 2.09 syndesmotic injuries per 100,000 person-years. This incidence correlates to an estimated 6445 syndesmotic injuries per year in the United States. These data provide some baseline numbers as to the incidence of syndesmotic injury in the United States. Although the incidence was low relative to some other injuries, the fact that syndesmotic injuries tend to occur in younger patients may have a greater effect in terms of productive years of life lost. PMID:24762148

  10. Incidence of medulloblastoma in Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Donna L; Keene, Daniel; Kostova, Maria; Strother, Douglas; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Fryer, Chris; Scheinemann, Katrin; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Fleming, Adam; Percy, Vanessa; Afzal, Samina; Wilson, Beverly; Bowes, Lynette; Zelcer, Shayna; Mpofu, Chris; Silva, Mariana; Larouche, Valerie; Brossard, Josee; Bouffet, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. There was a perception of pediatric neuro-oncologists that the incidence had declined in Canada. An epidemiological survey was undertaken to determine the incidence of this tumor in Canada and if a change had indeed occurred. All patients 14 years and under diagnosed with medulloblastoma from 1990 to 2009 inclusive in Canada were included. Data collected included date of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, gender, stage, pathology, treatment, recurrence and current status. Data were analysed for change in incidence over time. Data were obtained on 574 eligible patients. The mean overall incidence per 1,000,000 persons was 4.82 (95 % CI 4.28-5.35) for the study time period. The mean age at diagnosis was 5.8 years, and there was a male predominance. Although there was an increase in incidence over the first three time periods (24 % for 1990-1994, 27.5 % for 1995-1999, 27.7 % for 2000-2004), the most recent time period (2005-2009) showed a decrease (21 %). This was true for male children while the incidence was stable for females. The mean incidence rate was double for children under the age of 5 years (7.92 per million) compared to those over 5 years (3.64 per million).This study showed that from 1990 to 2009 the incidence of medulloblastoma was relatively stable, with a slight decrease in the last five-year time period. PMID:25129547

  11. Concussion Incidence in Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, John T.; Connolly, James G.; Yuk, Frank; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the United States alone, millions of athletes participate in sports with potential for head injury each year. Although poorly understood, possible long-term neurological consequences of repetitive sports-related concussions have received increased recognition and attention in recent years. A better understanding of the risk factors for concussion remains a public health priority. Despite the attention focused on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in football, gaps remain in the understanding of the optimal methodology to determine concussion incidence and position-specific risk factors. Purpose: To calculate the rates of concussion in professional football players using established and novel metrics on a group and position-specific basis. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Athletes from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Football League (NFL) seasons were included in this analysis of publicly available data. Concussion incidence rates were analyzed using established (athlete exposure [AE], game position [GP]) and novel (position play [PP]) metrics cumulatively, by game unit and position type (offensive skill players and linemen, defensive skill players and linemen), and by position. Results: In 480 games, there were 292 concussions, resulting in 0.61 concussions per game (95% CI, 0.54-0.68), 6.61 concussions per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 5.85-7.37), 1.38 concussions per 100 GPs (95% CI, 1.22-1.54), and 0.17 concussions per 1000 PPs (95% CI, 0.15-0.19). Depending on the method of calculation, the relative order of at-risk positions changed. In addition, using the PP metric, offensive skill players had a significantly greater rate of concussion than offensive linemen, defensive skill players, and defensive linemen (P < .05). Conclusion: For this study period, concussion incidence by position and unit varied depending on which metric was used. Compared with AE and GP, the PP metric found that the relative risk of concussion for

  12. Anatomy of an incident

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; Land, Whitney M.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identifiedmore » as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.« less

  13. Brain metastases from ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This paper will focus on knowledge related to brain metastases from ovarian carcinoma. So far, less than 600 cases were documented in the literature with an incidence among ovarian carcinoma patients ranging from 0.29% to 11.6%. The ovarian carcinoma was usually an advanced-stage epithelial serous carcinoma, and the median interval between diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma and brain metastases was 2 years. Most often, brain metastases, affected the cerebrum, were multiple and part of a disseminated disease. Treatment of brain metastasis has evolved over the years from whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) only to multimodal therapy including surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery followed by WBRT and/or chemotherapy. The median survival after diagnosis of brain metastases was 6 months; nevertheless, a significantly better survival was achieved with multimodal therapy compared to WBRT only. It is suggested that brain imaging studies should be included in the followup of patients after treatment for ovarian carcinoma. PMID:22191058

  14. Ageing and the brain.

    PubMed

    Peters, R

    2006-02-01

    Ageing causes changes to the brain size, vasculature, and cognition. The brain shrinks with increasing age and there are changes at all levels from molecules to morphology. Incidence of stroke, white matter lesions, and dementia also rise with age, as does level of memory impairment and there are changes in levels of neurotransmitters and hormones. Protective factors that reduce cardiovascular risk, namely regular exercise, a healthy diet, and low to moderate alcohol intake, seem to aid the ageing brain as does increased cognitive effort in the form of education or occupational attainment. A healthy life both physically and mentally may be the best defence against the changes of an ageing brain. Additional measures to prevent cardiovascular disease may also be important. PMID:16461469

  15. Medical Perspectives on Brain Damage and Development. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Marcia Q.

    The author describes damage and normal development of the brain, as well as assessment and intervention with brain-damaged children. After a brief introduction on the complex and delicate process of brain development and a review of incidence, aspects of etiology such as genetic and postnatal causes are discussed. Brain development is examined…

  16. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  17. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hong-mei; Zheng, Rong-shou; Zhang, Si-wei; He, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cancer incidence and mortality data collected from population-based cancer registries were analyzed to present the overall cancer statistics in Chinese registration areas by age, sex and geographic area in 2007. Methods In 2010, 48 cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2007 to National Central Cancer Registry of China. Of them, 38 registries’ data met the national criteria. Incidence and mortality were calculated by cancer sites, age, gender, and area. Age-standardized rates were described by China and World population. Results The crude incidence rate for all cancers was 276.16/100,000 (305.22/100,000 for male and 246.46/100,000 for female; 284.71/100,000 in urban and 251.07/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized incidence rates by China and World population were 145.39/100,000 and 189.46/100,000 respectively. The crude mortality rate for all cancers was 177.09/100,000 (219.15/100,000 for male and 134.10/100,000 for female; 173.55/100,000 in urban and 187.49/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized mortality rates by China and World population were 86.06/100,000 and 116.46/100,000, respectively. The top 10 most frequently common cancer sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 76.12% of the total cancer cases. The top 10 causes of cancer death were cancers of the lung, liver, stomach, esophagus, colon and rectum, pancreas, breast, leukemia, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 84.37% of the total cancer deaths. Conclusion Cancer remains a major disease threatening people’s health in China. Prevention and control should be enhanced, especially for the main cancers. PMID:23359628

  18. RAPID INCIDENT RESPONSE FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Will discuss WERF Contract (RFP# 03-HHE-5PP), Protocols for the Timely Investigation of Potential Health Incidents Associated with Biosolids Land Application, as a member of the project advisory committee. The contractor, University of North Carolina, started work in early June, ...

  19. Brain abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Brain abscesses commonly occur when bacteria or fungi infect part of the brain. As a result, swelling and irritation (inflammation) develop. Infected brain cells, white blood cells, live and dead bacteria, ...

  20. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or malignant, with cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain ... targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Many people get ...

  1. Brain components

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  2. Brain surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  3. Brain Malformations

    MedlinePlus

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  4. [Epidemiology of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Taillibert, S; Le Rhun, É

    2015-02-01

    The most frequent intracranial brain tumours are brain metastases. All types of cancer can develop brain metastases but two thirds of brain metastases occurring in adult patients are secondary to one of these three cancers: lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. In accordance with these data, this review is focusing on the epidemiology of these three types of cancer. We report here the incidence, risk factors, median time of brain metastases occurrence after diagnosis of the primary cancer, prognosis and median survival for these three types of cancer. We also discuss the clinical implications of these data. The second part of this review is focusing on the Graded Prognostic Assessment scores in all types of primary cancer with brain metastases, how they can be applied in clinical research for a better stratification of patients, and to some extent in clinical practice to guide decisions for personalized treatments. These scores provide a better understanding of the different profiles of clinical evolution that can be observed amongst patients suffering from brain metastases according to the type of primary cancer. We highlighted the most remarkable and useful clinical implications of these data. PMID:25636729

  5. Brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This paper will focus on knowledge related to brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma. To date, 115 cases were documented in the literature with an incidence of 0.6% among endometrial carcinoma patients. The endometrial carcinoma was usually an advanced-stage and high-grade tumor. In most patients (~90%), brain metastasis was detected after diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma with a median interval from diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma to diagnosis of brain metastases of 17 months. Brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma was either an isolated disease limited to the brain only (~50%) or part of a disseminated disease involving also other parts of the body (~50%). Most often, brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma affected the cerebrum (~75%) and was solitary (~60%). The median survival after diagnosis of brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma was 5 months; however, a significantly better survival was achieved with multimodal therapy including surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and/or chemotherapy compared to WBRT alone. It is suggested that brain imaging studies should be considered in the routine follow up of patients with endometrial carcinoma and that the search for a primary source in females with brain metastases of unknown primary should include endometrial biopsy. PMID:22523707

  6. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  7. Racist Incident-Based Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ocampo, Carlota

    2005-01-01

    Racist incidents are potentially traumatizing forms of victimization that may lead to increased psychiatric and psychophysiological symptoms in targets. The magnitude of the problem of racist incidents in the United States is difficult to estimate; however, data from several sources permit the inference that the prevalence of racist incidents,…

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury. Fact Sheet Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet describes traumatic brain injury (TBI), an injury of the brain caused by the head being hit by something or being shaken violently. It discusses the incidence of TBI, and describes its symptoms as changes in thinking and reasoning, understanding words, remembering things, paying attention, solving problems, thinking abstractly,…

  9. Grazing incidence beam expander

    SciTech Connect

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  10. Brain abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... with certain heart disorders, may receive antibiotics before dental or other procedures to help reduce the risk of infection. Alternative Names Abscess - brain; Cerebral abscess; CNS abscess Images Amebic brain ...

  11. Brain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  12. Brain surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... Before surgery, the hair on part of the scalp is shaved and the area is cleaned. The doctor makes ...

  13. Brain Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... exercise, diet and nutrition, cognitive activity, and social engagement — can help keep your body and brain ... Stay Mentally Active > Mentally challenging activities and social engagement may support brain health. Learn More Plan ahead ...

  14. The Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubel, David H.

    1979-01-01

    This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)

  15. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  16. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  17. Brain Basics: Know Your Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... fact sheet is a basic introduction to the human brain. It may help you understand how the healthy ... largest and most highly developed part of the human brain: it consists primarily of the cerebrum ( 2 ) and ...

  18. High incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Shintani, T; Hayakawa, N; Hoshi, M; Sumida, M; Kurisu, K; Oki, S; Kodama, Y; Kajikawa, H; Inai, K; Kamada, N

    1999-03-01

    Since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, high incidences of leukemia, thyroid cancer and other tumors have been reported as atomic bomb-induced tumors. We investigated the incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. Sixty-eight patients surgically treated for meningioma who had been within 2.0 km of the hypocenter of the explosion were identified. Six hundred and seven non-exposed patients with meningioma were also studied. Treatment dates were from 1975 to 1992. The incidences of meningioma among 68 subjects within 2.0 km and 607 non-exposed patients were 8.7 and 3.0 cases per 10(5) persons per year, respectively. The incidences of meningioma among the survivors of Hiroshima in 5-year intervals since 1975 were 5.3, 7.4, 10.1, and 14.9, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by distances from the hypocenter of 1.5-2.0 km, 1.0-1.5 km and less than 1.0 km were 6.3, 7.6 and 20.0, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by doses to the brain of 0-0.099 Sv, 0.1-0.99 Sv and more than 1.0 Sv were 7.7, 9.2 and 18.2, respectively. The incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors has increased since 1975. There was a significant correlation between the incidence and the dose of radiation to the brain. The present findings strongly suggest that meningioma is one of the tumors induced by atomic bombing in Hiroshima. PMID:10408177

  19. The Brains Behind the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Arcangelo, Marcia

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with five neuroscientists--Martin Diamond, Pat Wolfe, Robert Sylwester, Geoffrey Caine, and Eric Jensen--disclose brain-research findings of practical interest to educators. Topics include brain physiology, environmental enrichment, memorization, windows of learning opportunity, brain learning capacity, attention span, student interest,…

  20. No increase in brain cancer rates during period of expanding cell phone use

    Cancer.gov

    In a new examination of United States cancer incidence data, investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that incidence trends have remained roughly constant for glioma, the main type of brain cancer hypothesized to be related to cell ph

  1. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  2. Altitude Modulates Concussion Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David W.; Myer, Gregory D.; Currie, Dustin W.; Comstock, R. Dawn; Clark, Joseph F.; Bailes, Julian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research indicates that the volume and/or pressure of intracranial fluid, a physiology affected by one’s altitude (ie, elevation above sea level), may be associated with the likelihood and/or severity of a concussion. The objective was to employ an epidemiological field investigation to evaluate the relationship between altitude and concussion rate in high school sports. Hypothesis: Because of the physiologies that occur during acclimatization, including a decline in intracranial compliance (a “tighter fit”), increased altitude may be related to a reduction in concussion rates in high school athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Data on concussions and athlete exposures (AEs) between 2005-2006 and 2011-2012 were obtained from a large national sample of high schools (National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System [High School RIO]) and were used to calculate total, competition, and practice concussion rates for aggregated sports and for football only. Results: Altitude of participating schools ranged from 7 to 6903 ft (median, 600 ft), and a total of 5936 concussions occurred in 20,618,915 exposures (2.88 per 10,000 AEs). When concussion rates were dichotomized by altitude using the median, elevated altitude was associated with a reduction in concussion rates overall (rate ratio [RR], 1.31; P < .001), in competition (RR, 1.31; P < .001), and in practice (RR, 1.29; P < .001). Specifically, high school sports played at higher altitude demonstrated a 31% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-38%) in the incidence of total reported concussions. Likewise, concussion rates at increased altitude were reduced 30% for overall exposures, 27% for competition exposures, and 28% for practice exposures in football players (P < .001). Conclusion: The results of this epidemiological investigation indicate increased physiological responses to altitude may be associated with a reduction in sports

  3. Brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

  4. Idiot savants: rate of incidence.

    PubMed

    Hill, A L

    1977-02-01

    Based on the replies to a survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded, an incidence rate for idiot savants was established. This rate of .06% is based on the reporting of 54 idiot savants within a population of 90,000 residents. Several reasons for caution in the acceptance of this incidence rate are discussed. PMID:840586

  5. Harnessing Critical Incidents for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Lowrie, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A critical incident is a situation or event that holds significance for learning, both for the students and teachers. This paper presents four examples of critical incidents from a Year 7 teacher's lesson excerpts in Indonesia involving teaching of fractions, to show how they shaped classroom situation, brought forward elements of conflict, and…

  6. Obliquely incident ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Shengyi

    2015-10-01

    A new ion beam figuring (IBF) technique, obliquely incident IBF (OI-IBF), is proposed. In OI-IBF, the ion beam bombards the optical surface obliquely with an invariable incident angle instead of perpendicularly as in the normal IBF. Due to the higher removal rate in oblique incidence, the process time in OI-IBF can be significantly shortened. The removal rates at different incident angles were first tested, and then a test mirror was processed by OI-IBF. Comparison shows that in the OI-IBF technique with a 30 deg incident angle, the process time was reduced by 56.8%, while keeping the same figure correcting ability. The experimental results indicate that the OI-IBF technique is feasible and effective to improve the surface correction process efficiency.

  7. Brain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... know what causes some brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. The symptoms of brain diseases vary widely depending on the specific problem. In some cases, damage is permanent. In other cases, treatments such as surgery, medicines, or physical therapy can correct the source of the problem or ...

  8. Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

  9. Idiot Savants: Rate of Incidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded revealed a .06 percent incidence rate for idiot savants, persons of low intelligence who possess an unusually high skill in some special task. (CL)

  10. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  11. Near anastigmatic grazing incidence telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1984-01-01

    A performance capability assessment is presently conducted for short versus long grazing incidence telescope designs, in view of the observation that the field curvature and astigmatism that are the primary residual aberrations of a Wolter-type incidence telescope can be substantially reduced through mirror length reduction. A major advantage of the short element telescope is that, if sufficiently short, both the paraboloid and hyperboloid surfaces may be fabricated as a single piece; this significantly facilitates the task of alignment.

  12. Brain investigation and brain conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Redolfi, Alberto; Bosco, Paolo; Manset, David; Frisoni, Giovanni B.

    Summary The brain of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) undergoes changes starting many years before the development of the first clinical symptoms. The recent availability of large prospective datasets makes it possible to create sophisticated brain models of healthy subjects and patients with AD, showing pathophysiological changes occurring over time. However, these models are still inadequate; representations are mainly single-scale and they do not account for the complexity and interdependence of brain changes. Brain changes in AD patients occur at different levels and for different reasons: at the molecular level, changes are due to amyloid deposition; at cellular level, to loss of neuron synapses, and at tissue level, to connectivity disruption. All cause extensive atrophy of the whole brain organ. Initiatives aiming to model the whole human brain have been launched in Europe and the US with the goal of reducing the burden of brain diseases. In this work, we describe a new approach to earlier diagnosis based on a multimodal and multiscale brain concept, built upon existing and well-characterized single modalities. PMID:24139654

  13. Neonatal Incidence of Hip Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Eli; Eidelman, Mark; Katzman, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The advantages of sonographic examination are well known, but its main disadvantage is that it might lead to overdiagnosis, which might cause overtreatment. Variations in the incidence of developmental dysplasia of the hip are well known. We ascertained the incidence of neonatal sonographic developmental dysplasia of the hip without considering the development of those joints during followup. All 45,497 neonates (90,994 hips) born in our institute between January 1992 and December 2001 were examined clinically and sonographically during the first 48 hours of life. Sonography was performed according to Graf’s method, which considers mild hip sonographic abnormalities as Type IIa. We evaluated the different severity type incidence pattern and its influence on the total incidence during and between the investigated years. According to our study, sonographic Type IIa has major effects on the incidence of overall developmental dysplasia of the hip with a correlation coefficient of 0.95, whereas more severe sonographic abnormalities show relatively stable incidence patterns. Level of Evidence: Level I, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18288551

  14. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this information available to

  15. Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) is damage ...

  16. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  17. Brain radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  18. Traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Risdall, Jane E.; Menon, David K.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of military traumatic brain injury (TBI), and similar injuries are seen in civilians in war zones or terrorist incidents. Indeed, blast-induced mild TBI has been referred to as the signature injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Assessment involves schemes that are common in civilcian practice but, in common with civilian TBI, takes little account of information available from modern imaging (particularly diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging) and emerging biomarkers. The efficient logistics of clinical care delivery in the field may have a role in optimizing outcome. Clinical care has much in common with civilian TBI, but intracranial pressure monitoring is not always available, and protocols need to be modified to take account of this. In addition, severe early oedema has led to increasing use of decompressive craniectomy, and blast TBI may be associated with a higher incidence of vasospasm and pseudoaneurysm formation. Visual and/or auditory deficits are common, and there is a significant risk of post-traumatic epilepsy. TBI is rarely an isolated finding in this setting, and persistent post-concussive symptoms are commonly associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain, a constellation of findings that has been called the polytrauma clinical triad. PMID:21149359

  19. Brain Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... new neural connections every second. This growing brain development is influenced by many factors, including a child’s relationships, experiences and environment. Learn more about the crucial role you play ...

  20. Brain herniation

    MedlinePlus

    Ling GSF. Traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 406. Stippler M. Trauma of ...

  1. Brain imaging and brain function

    SciTech Connect

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage.

  2. Methamphetamine Lab Incidents, 2004-2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liderazgo de la DEA Resource Center » Statistics & Facts » Methamphetamine Lab Incidents Methamphetamine Lab Incidents, 2004-2014 NOTE: These maps include all meth incidents, including labs, "dumpsites" or "chemical and glassware" ...

  3. Getting My Bearings, Returning to School: Issues Facing Adolescents with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Ethan J.; Getch, Yvette Q.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by a blow to the head or other penetrating head injury resulting in impairment of the brain's functioning. Despite the high incidence of TBI in adolescents, many educators still consider TBI to be a low-incidence disability. In addition, school personnel often report receiving little to no pre-service…

  4. The incidence of scarlet fever.

    PubMed Central

    Perks, E. M.; Mayon-White, R. T.

    1983-01-01

    This study attempted to find the incidence of scarlet fever in the Oxford region, including the proportion of patients from whom Streptococcus pyogenes could be isolated. General practitioners collected throat swabs from patients with suspected scarlet fever. The swabs were examined for viral and bacterial pathogens. Children admitted to hospital were used as controls. Twenty-five of 105 patients with suspected scarlet fever grew Str. pyogenes; M type 4 was the commonest type. The clinical diagnosis of scarlet fever was not always confirmed by throat culture. The annual incidence of scarlet fever was estimated to be 0.3 cases per 1000 per year. PMID:6358344

  5. Brain death.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of brain death should be based on a simple premise. If every possible confounder has been excluded and all possible treatments have been tried or considered, irreversible loss of brain function is clinically recognized as the absence of brainstem reflexes, verified apnea, loss of vascular tone, invariant heart rate, and, eventually, cardiac standstill. This condition cannot be reversed - not even partly - by medical or surgical intervention, and thus is final. Many countries in the world have introduced laws that acknowledge that a patient can be declared brain-dead by neurologic standards. The U.S. law differs substantially from all other brain death legislation in the world because the U.S. law does not spell out details of the neurologic examination. Evidence-based practice guidelines serve as a standard. In this chapter, I discuss the history of development of the criteria, the current clinical examination, and some of the ethical and legal issues that have emerged. Generally, the concept of brain death has been accepted by all major religions. But patients' families may have different ideas and are mostly influenced by cultural attitudes, traditional customs, and personal beliefs. Suggestions are offered to support these families. PMID:24182378

  6. Serious Incident Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Ike; Thorley-Smith, Sara

    2007-01-01

    As part of its efforts to ensure school safety, the government of New South Wales, Australia, has developed simulation exercises to better prepare principals to manage serious incidents, in collaboration with police. This article describes two initiatives implemented across NSW. The exercises provide principals in both secondary and primary…

  7. Benefit Incidence Analysis in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassibille, Gerard; Tan, Jee-Peng

    2007-01-01

    The standard benefit incidence algebra generally produces biased estimates of the distribution of public spending on education when students from poor and rich families are enrolled in schools that receive different levels of public spending per student. Except in very rare instances, removing these biases entails combining several sources of…

  8. [Incidence of cancer in Navarre].

    PubMed

    Ardanaz, E; Moreno, C; Pérez de Rada Arístegui, M E; Ezponda, C; Navaridas, N

    2004-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2000 an annual average of 3,303 cases of invasive cancer were registered in Navarre, 58% of them in men. If we except non melanoma skin tumours, the annual number of cases was 2,495, with gross incidence rates of 559 and 372 per 100,000 in men and women, and rates adjusted to the world population of 312 and 203 per 100,000 respectively. Amongst men, the four most frequently diagnosed tumoural localisations were the prostate, lung, colorectal and bladder, accounting for 57% of all cases. The most notable due to their frequency amongst women were tumours of the breast, colorectal, uterus body and ovary, accounting for 54% of all cases. With respect to the five year period from 1993 to 1997, the global incidence of cancer in the three year period from 1998 to 2000 has increased 4.2% in men and 7.4% in women. The incidence of lung cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in both sexes and of breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men are notable. There continues to be a fall in the incidence rates of stomach cancer in both sexes, following the tendency begun in the 1970s. PMID:15644889

  9. Modeling Wildfire Incident Complexity Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire management in the United States and elsewhere is challenged by substantial uncertainty regarding the location and timing of fire events, the socioeconomic and ecological consequences of these events, and the costs of suppression. Escalating U.S. Forest Service suppression expenditures is of particular concern at a time of fiscal austerity as swelling fire management budgets lead to decreases for non-fire programs, and as the likelihood of disruptive within-season borrowing potentially increases. Thus there is a strong interest in better understanding factors influencing suppression decisions and in turn their influence on suppression costs. As a step in that direction, this paper presents a probabilistic analysis of geographic and temporal variation in incident management team response to wildfires. The specific focus is incident complexity dynamics through time for fires managed by the U.S. Forest Service. The modeling framework is based on the recognition that large wildfire management entails recurrent decisions across time in response to changing conditions, which can be represented as a stochastic dynamic system. Daily incident complexity dynamics are modeled according to a first-order Markov chain, with containment represented as an absorbing state. A statistically significant difference in complexity dynamics between Forest Service Regions is demonstrated. Incident complexity probability transition matrices and expected times until containment are presented at national and regional levels. Results of this analysis can help improve understanding of geographic variation in incident management and associated cost structures, and can be incorporated into future analyses examining the economic efficiency of wildfire management. PMID:23691014

  10. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  11. Organic brain syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    OBS; Organic mental disorder (OMS); Chronic organic brain syndrome ... Listed below are disorders associated with OBS. Brain injury caused by ... the brain ( subarachnoid hemorrhage ) Blood clot inside the ...

  12. Animating Brains.

    PubMed

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-07-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title 'Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience'. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of 'soul catching', the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain's electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  13. Smart Brains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1995-01-01

    New techniques have opened windows to the brain. Although the biochemistry of learning remains largely a mystery, the following findings seem to have clear implications for education: (1) the importance of early-learning opportunities for the very young; (2) the connection between music and abstract reasoning; and (3) the importance of good…

  14. Vision's Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Julie Ann

    1978-01-01

    The functional architecture of the primary visual cortex has been explored by monitoring the responses of individual brain cells to visual stimuli. A combination of anatomical and physiological techniques reveals groups of functionally related cells, juxtaposed and superimposed, in a sometimes complex, but presumably efficient, structure. (BB)

  15. Long-Term Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Changes in Binswanger’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huisa, Branko N; Caprihan, Arvind; Thompson, Jeffrey; Prestopnik, Jillian; Qualls, Clifford R; Rosenberg, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The blood brain-barrier (BBB) is disrupted in small vessel disease (SVD) patients with lacunes and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). The relationship of WMHs and regional BBB permeability changes has not been studied. We hypothesized that BBB disruption occurs in normal appearing WM (NAWM) and regions near the WMHs. To test the hypothesis, we repeated BBB permeability measurements in patients with extensive WMHs related to Binswanger’s disease (BD). Methods We selected a subset of 22 BD subjects from a well-characterized larger prospective vascular cognitive impairment cohort. We used 16 age-matched controls for comparison. The abnormal WM permeability (WMP) was measured twice over several years using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI). WMP maps were constructed from voxels above a predetermined threshold. Scans from first and second visits were co-registered. WM was divided into 3 regions: NAWM, WMH ring and WMH core. The ring was defined as 2mm on each side of the WMH border. WMP was calculated in each of the three specific regions. We used paired t-test, ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test to compare individual changes. Results WMP was significantly higher in subjects than controls (p<0.001). There was no correlation between WMH load and WMP. High permeability regions had minimal overlap between first and second scans. Nine percent of WMP was within the WMHs, 49% within the NAWM, and 52% within the WMH ring (p<0.001; ANOVA). Conclusions Increased BBB permeability in NAWM and close to the WMH borders supports a relationship between BBB disruption and development of WMHs. PMID:26205374

  16. [Decreasing incidence of stent thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Lemesle, G; Delhaye, C

    2011-12-01

    Stent thrombosis (ST) remains a major pitfall of stent implantation in contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) leading to high rates of death and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Many predictors of ST have been reported worldwide but the strongest have to be highlighted regarding the catastrophic prognosis of such an event. Because platelet aggregation has a pivotal role in ST pathogenesis, the new antiplatelet regimens combining aspirin and P2Y12 receptor inhibitors have led to a remarkable decrease in the ST incidence, especially in the setting of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In this article, our purpose is to review the evolution of ST incidence since first stent use in PCI. We will also overview the main predictors of ST focusing on ACS and clopidogrel low response. PMID:22054519

  17. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  18. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  19. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  20. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...

  1. Opacity incident reduction corrective action

    SciTech Connect

    Levyash, I.G.; Benegal, S.D.; Claase, B.J.M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper illustrates some of the methods used to reduce the number of package boiler opacity incidents at the Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. East River Generating Station. The principal objective was to reduce opacity exceedances caused by the design of boiler auxiliaries. Opacity causes were identified and grouped. A matrix was developed to keep track of repairs and corrections on all package boilers. A special maintenance program was developed to sustain opacity reduction.

  2. Global Incidence of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Tielsch, James M

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the incidence of preterm birth depends on accurate assessment of gestational age and pregnancy outcomes. In many countries, such data are not routinely collected, making global estimates difficult. A recent systematic approach to this problem has estimated a worldwide incidence of 11.1 per 100 live births in 2010. Significant variation in rates by country and region of the world was noted, but this variation is smaller than observed for a number of other important reproductive outcomes. Rates range from approximately 5% in some northern European countries to over 15% in some countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Time trends suggest that preterm birth incidence is increasing, but much of this change may reflect changes in medically induced early delivery practices as improvements in survival of preterm infants has improved. Whether there have been major changes in spontaneous preterm birth is unknown. New approaches to classifying etiologic heterogeneity have been proposed and offer the promise of developing specific interventions to address the range of underlying causes of this important health problem. PMID:26111559

  3. Brain-Injured Children; With Special References to Doman-Delacato Methods of Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Evan W.; LeWinn, Edward B.

    Contents include a definition of brain injury and cerebral palsy, discussions of the pathology of cerebral palsy, incidence and prevalence of cerebral palsy, mental retardation, epilepsy, behavioral disorders, dyslexia, and a summary and conclusions on the problem of brain injury. Attention is also given to the controversy over brain injury as a…

  4. Martian 'Brain'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    5 May 2004 Most middle-latitude craters on Mars have strange landforms on their floors. Often, the floors have pitted and convoluted features that lack simple explanation. In this case, the central part of the crater floor shown in this 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image bears some resemblance to the folded nature of a brain. Or not. It depends upon the 'eye of the beholder,' perhaps. The light-toned 'ring' around the 'brain' feature is more easily explained--windblown ripples and dunes. The crater occurs near 33.1oS, 91.2oW, and is illuminated from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  5. Silicon Brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Beyond the digital neural networks of Chap. 16, the more radical mapping of brain-like structures and processes into VLSI substrates has been pioneered by Carver Mead more than 30 years ago [1]. The basic idea was to exploit the massive parallelism of such circuits and to create low-power and fault-tolerant information-processing systems. Neuromorphic engineering has recently seen a revival with the availability of deep-submicron CMOS technology, which allows for the construction of very-large-scale mixed-signal systems combining local analog processing in neuronal cells with binary signalling via action potentials. Modern implementations are able to reach the complexity-scale of large functional units of the human brain, and they feature the ability to learn by plasticity mechanisms found in neuroscience. Combined with high-performance programmable logic and elaborate software tools, such systems are currently evolving into user-configurable non-von-Neumann computing systems, which can be used to implement and test novel computational paradigms. The chapter introduces basic properties of biological brains with up to 200 Billion neurons and their 1014 synapses, where action on a synapse takes ˜10 ms and involves an energy of ˜10 fJ. We outline 10x programs on neuromorphic electronic systems in Europe and the USA, which are intended to integrate 108 neurons and 1012 synapses, the level of a cat's brain, in a volume of 1 L and with a power dissipation <1 kW. For a balanced view on intelligence, we references Hawkins' view to first perceive the task and then design an intelligent technical response.

  6. Brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions.

  7. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  8. 78 FR 38949 - Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing Timely Cyber Incident Response

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing... Technology (NIST) is seeking information relating to Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC). NIST is... Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRTs) to coordinate effectively when responding to...

  9. Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... abta.org Donate Now Menu Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ... or Complete our contact form Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ...

  10. Intervening in the psychopath's brain.

    PubMed

    Glannon, Walter

    2014-02-01

    Psychopathy is a disorder involving personality and behavioral features associated with a high rate of violent aggression and recidivism. This paper explores potential psychopharmacological therapies to modulate dysfunctional neural pathways in psychopaths and reduce the incidence of their harmful behavior, as well as the ethical and legal implications of offering these therapies as an alternative to incarceration. It also considers whether forced psychopharmacological intervention in adults and children with psychopathic traits manifesting in violent behavior can be justified. More generally, the paper addresses the question of how to weigh the psychopath's presumptive right to non-interference in his brain and mind against the public interest in avoiding harm. PMID:24381085

  11. Intracerebral hemorrhage mortality is not changing despite declining incidence

    PubMed Central

    Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Smith, Melinda A.; Brown, Devin L.; Garcia, Nelda M.; Skolarus, Lesli E.; Meurer, William J.; Burke, James F.; Adelman, Eric E.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine trends in incidence and mortality of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a rigorous population-based study. Methods: We identified all cases of spontaneous ICH in a South Texas community from 2000 to 2010 using rigorous case ascertainment methods within the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project. Yearly population counts were determined from the US Census, and deaths were determined from state and national databases. Age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted incidence was estimated for each year with Poisson regression, and a linear trend over time was investigated. Trends in 30-day case fatality and long-term mortality (censored at 3 years) were estimated with log-binomial or Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographics, stroke severity, and comorbid disease. Results: A total of 734 cases of ICH were included. The age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted ICH annual incidence rate was 5.21 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.36, 6.24) in 2000 and 4.30 per 10,000 (95% CI 3.21, 5.76) in 2010. The estimated 10-year change in demographic-adjusted ICH annual incidence rate was −31% (95% CI −47%, −11%). Yearly demographic-adjusted 30-day case fatality ranged from 28.3% (95% CI 19.9%, 40.3%) in 2006 to 46.5% (95% CI 35.5, 60.8) in 2008. There was no change in ICH case fatality or long-term mortality over time. Conclusions: ICH incidence decreased over the past decade, but case fatality and long-term mortality were unchanged. This suggests that primary prevention efforts may be improving over time, but more work is needed to improve ICH treatment and reduce the risk of death. PMID:24838789

  12. Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Eric; Bar-Ilan, Ofek; Illes, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience are increasingly intersecting with issues of ethical, legal, and social interest. This study is an analysis of press coverage of an advanced technology for brain imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, that has gained significant public visibility over the past ten years. Discussion of issues of scientific validity and interpretation dominated over ethical content in both the popular and specialized press. Coverage of research on higher order cognitive phenomena specifically attributed broad personal and societal meaning to neuroimages. The authors conclude that neuroscience provides an ideal model for exploring science communication and ethics in a multicultural context. PMID:17330151

  13. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    SciTech Connect

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980`s. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report.

  14. Emerging strategies for treating brain metastases from breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kodack, David P.; Askoxylakis, Vasileios; Ferraro, Gino B.; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Brain metastasis is an end stage in breast cancer progression. Traditional treatment options have minimal efficacy, and overall survival is on the order of months. The incidence of brain metastatic disease is increasing with the improved management of systemic disease and prolongation of survival. Unfortunately, the targeted therapies that control systemic disease have diminished efficacy against brain lesions. There are reasons to be optimistic, however, as emerging therapies have shown promise in preclinical and early clinical settings. This review discusses recent advances in breast cancer brain metastasis therapy and potential approaches for successful treatment. PMID:25670078

  15. Functional Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis is to review a spectrum of functional brain imaging technologies to identify whether there are any imaging modalities that are more effective than others for various brain pathology conditions. This evidence-based analysis reviews magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnosis or surgical management of the following conditions: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain tumours, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, degenerative, neurologic condition characterized by cognitive impairment and memory loss. The Canadian Study on Health and Aging estimated that there will be 97,000 incident cases (about 60,000 women) of dementia (including AD) in Canada in 2006. In Ontario, there will be an estimated 950 new cases and 580 deaths due to brain cancer in 2006. Treatments for brain tumours include surgery and radiation therapy. However, one of the limitations of radiation therapy is that it damages tissue though necrosis and scarring. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not distinguish between radiation effects and resistant tissue, creating a potential role for functional brain imaging. Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that provokes repetitive seizures. In Ontario, the rate of epilepsy is estimated to be 5 cases per 1,000 people. Most people with epilepsy are effectively managed with drug therapy; but about 50% do not respond to drug therapy. Surgical resection of the seizure foci may be considered in these patients, and functional brain imaging may play a role in localizing the seizure foci. Multiple sclerosis is a progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is thought to be

  16. Increasing incidence of glioblastoma multiforme and meningioma, and decreasing incidence of Schwannoma (2000–2008): Findings of a multicenter Australian study

    PubMed Central

    Dobes, Martin; Khurana, Vini G.; Shadbolt, Bruce; Jain, Sanjiv; Smith, Sarah F.; Smee, Robert; Dexter, Mark; Cook, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Background: The incidence of primary brain tumors by subtype is currently unknown in Australia. We report an analysis of incidence by tumor subtype in a retrospective multicenter study in the state of New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), with a combined population of >7 million with >97% retention rate for medical care. Methods: Data from histologically confirmed primary brain tumors diagnosed from January 2000 through December 2008 were weighted for patient outflow and data completeness, and age standardized and analyzed using joinpoint analysis. Results: A significant increasing incidence in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was observed in the study period (annual percentage change [APC], 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4–4.6, n = 2275), particularly after 2006. In GBM patients in the ≥65-year group, a significantly increasing incidence for men and women combined (APC, 3.0; 95% CI, 0.5–5.6) and men only (APC, 2.9; 95% CI, 0.1–5.8) was seen. Rising trends in incidence were also seen for meningioma in the total male population (APC, 5.3; 95% CI, 2.6–8.1, n = 515) and males aged 20–64 years (APC, 6.3; 95% CI, 3.8–8.8). Significantly decreasing incidence trends were observed for Schwannoma for the total study population (APC, –3.5; 95% CI, –7.2 to –0.2, n = 492), significant in women (APC, –5.3; 95% CI, –9.9 to –0.5) but not men. Conclusion: This collection is the most contemporary data on primary brain tumor incidence in Australia. Our registries may observe an increase in malignant tumors in the next few years that they are not detecting now due to late ascertainment. We recommend a direct, uniform, and centralized approach to monitoring primary brain tumor incidence by subtype, including the introduction of nonmalignant data collection. PMID:22276231

  17. Application of brain cholinesterase reactivation to differentiate between organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide exposure in wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W.R.; Thomas, N.J.; Hulse, C.

    1995-01-01

    Brain cholinesterase activity was measured to evaluate pesticide exposure in wild birds. Thermal reactivation of brain cholinesterase was used to differentiate between carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide exposure. Brain cholinesterase activity was compared with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of stomach contents. Pesticides were identified and confirmed in 86 of 102 incidents of mortality from 29 states within the USA from 1986 through 1991. Thermal reactivation of cholinesterase activity was used to correctly predict carbamates in 22 incidents and organophosphates in 59 incidents. Agreement (P < 0.001) between predictions based on cholinesterase activities and GC/MS results was significant.

  18. National cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zuo, Tingting; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhang, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    males, 122.06/100,000 in females), the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 112.34/100,000 and 111.25/100,000, and the cumulative mortality rate (0–74 years old) was 12.61%. The cancer mortality, ASMRC and ASMRW were 159.00/100,000, 107.231/100,000 and 106.13/100,000 in urban areas, 164.24/100,000, 118.22/100,000 and 117.06/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. Cancers of lung, stomach, liver, colorectum, esophagus, female breast, thyroid cervix, brain tumor and pancreas were the most common cancers, accounting for about 77.4% of all cancer new cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, female breast cancer, brain tumor, leukemia and lymphoma were the leading causes of cancer death, accounting for about 84.5% of all cancer deaths. The cancer spectrum showed difference between urban and rural, males and females both in incidence and mortality rates. Conclusions Cancer surveillance information in China is making great progress with the increasing number of cancer registries, population coverage and the improving data quality. Cancer registration plays a fundamental role in cancer control by providing basic information on population-based cancer incidence, mortality, survival and time trend. The disease burden of cancer is serious in China, so that, cancer prevention and control, including health education, health promotion, cancer screening and cancer care services in China, should be enhanced. PMID:27041922

  19. Adverse incident reporting in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Hart, G K; Baldwin, I; Gutteridge, G; Ford, J

    1994-10-01

    This prospective, observational, anonymous incident reporting study aimed to identify and correct factors leading to reduced patient safety in intensive care. An incident was any event which caused or had the potential to cause harm to the patient, but included problems in policy or procedure. Reports were discussed at monthly meetings. Of 390 incidents, 106 occasioned "actual" harm and 284 "potential" harm. There was one death, 86 severe complications and 88 complications of minor severity. Most were transient but the effects of 24 lasted up to a week. Most incidents affected cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Incident categories involved drugs, equipment, management or procedures. Incident causes were knowledge-based, rule-based, technical, slip/lapse, no error or unclassifiable. The study has identified some human and equipment performance problems in our intensive care unit. Correction of these should lead to a reduction in the future incidence of those events and hence an increased level of patient safety. PMID:7818059

  20. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center PTACs Workspaces Log-in Search for: Traumatic Brain Injury A legacy resource from NICHCY Disability Fact ... in her. Back to top What is Traumatic Brain Injury? A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an ...

  1. Brain-based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Ruth Palombo

    2000-01-01

    Discusses brain research and how new imaging technologies allow scientists to explore how human brains process memory, emotion, attention, patterning, motivation, and context. Explains how brain research is being used to revise learning theories. (JOW)

  2. That's Using Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Dana R.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses new adult learning theories, including those of Roger Sperry (left brain/right brain), Paul McLean (triune brain), and Howard Gardner (multiple intelligences). Relates adult learning theory to training. (JOW)

  3. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  4. Special Report: Brain Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krassner, Michael B.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical actions in the brain result in cognitive, emotional, neuroendocrine, neuromuscular, and/or neurocirculatory effects. Developments in understanding brain chemistry are discussed, considering among others, neurotransmitter chemistry, neuropeptides, drugs and the brain, antidepressants, and actions of minor tranquilizers. (JN)

  5. Brain tumor (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...

  6. Metastatic brain tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain from an unknown location. This is called cancer of unknown primary (CUP) origin. Growing brain tumors can place pressure ... not know the original location. This is called cancer of unknown primary (CUP) origin. Metastatic brain tumors occur in about ...

  7. Metastatic brain tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumor - metastatic (secondary); Cancer - brain tumor (metastatic) ... For many people with metastatic brain tumors, the cancer is not curable. It will eventually spread to other areas of the body. Prognosis depends on the type of tumor ...

  8. Defining sleep disturbance after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Clinchot, D M; Bogner, J; Mysiw, W J; Fugate, L; Corrigan, J

    1998-01-01

    Sleep disorders are a relatively common occurrence after brain injury. Sleep disturbances often result in a poor daytime performance and a poor individual sense of well-being. Unfortunately, there has been minimal attention paid to this common and often disabling sequela of brain injury. This study attempts to define and to correlate the incidence and type of sleep disturbances that occur after brain injury. Consecutive admissions to a rehabilitation unit were used to create a longitudinal database designed to predict long-term outcomes for individuals who suffered a brain injury. Fifty percent of subjects had difficulty sleeping. Sixty-four percent described waking up too early, 25% described sleeping more than usual, and 45% described problems falling asleep. Eighty percent of subjects reporting sleep problems also reported problems with fatigue. Logistic regression analysis revealed the following: the more severe the brain injury the less likely the subject would be to have a sleep disturbance; subjects who had sleep disturbances were more likely to have problems with fatigue; females were more likely to have trouble with sleep. This study demonstrates the substantial prevalence of sleep disturbances after brain injury. It underscores the relationship between sleep disorders and perception of fatigue. It also underscores the need for clinicians to strive for interventional studies to look at the treatment of sleep and fatigue problems after brain injury. PMID:9715917

  9. Pediatric Rodent Models of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Semple, Bridgette D; Carlson, Jaclyn; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Due to a high incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents, age-specific studies are necessary to fully understand the long-term consequences of injuries to the immature brain. Preclinical and translational research can help elucidate the vulnerabilities of the developing brain to insult, and provide model systems to formulate and evaluate potential treatments aimed at minimizing the adverse effects of TBI. Several experimental TBI models have therefore been scaled down from adult rodents for use in juvenile animals. The following chapter discusses these adapted models for pediatric TBI, and the importance of age equivalence across species during model development and interpretation. Many neurodevelopmental processes are ongoing throughout childhood and adolescence, such that neuropathological mechanisms secondary to a brain insult, including oxidative stress, metabolic dysfunction and inflammation, may be influenced by the age at the time of insult. The long-term evaluation of clinically relevant functional outcomes is imperative to better understand the persistence and evolution of behavioral deficits over time after injury to the developing brain. Strategies to modify or protect against the chronic consequences of pediatric TBI, by supporting the trajectory of normal brain development, have the potential to improve quality of life for brain-injured children. PMID:27604726

  10. Computer Simulation for Emergency Incident Management

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D L

    2004-12-03

    This report describes the findings and recommendations resulting from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Incident Management Simulation Workshop held by the DHS Advanced Scientific Computing Program in May 2004. This workshop brought senior representatives of the emergency response and incident-management communities together with modeling and simulation technologists from Department of Energy laboratories. The workshop provided an opportunity for incident responders to describe the nature and substance of the primary personnel roles in an incident response, to identify current and anticipated roles of modeling and simulation in support of incident response, and to begin a dialog between the incident response and simulation technology communities that will guide and inform planned modeling and simulation development for incident response. This report provides a summary of the discussions at the workshop as well as a summary of simulation capabilities that are relevant to incident-management training, and recommendations for the use of simulation in both incident management and in incident management training, based on the discussions at the workshop. In addition, the report discusses areas where further research and development will be required to support future needs in this area.

  11. Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Garib, A.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

  12. Revisiting Einstein's brain in Brain Awareness Week.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Chen, Su; Zeng, Lidan; Zhou, Lin; Hou, Shengtao

    2014-10-01

    Albert Einstein's brain has long been an object of fascination to both neuroscience specialists and the general public. However, without records of advanced neuro-imaging of his brain, conclusions regarding Einstein's extraordinary cognitive capabilities can only be drawn based on the unique external features of his brain and through comparison of the external features with those of other human brain samples. The recent discovery of 14 previously unpublished photographs of Einstein's brain taken at unconventional angles by Dr. Thomas Stoltz Harvey, the pathologist, ignited a renewed frenzy about clues to explain Einstein's genius. Dr. Dean Falk and her colleagues, in their landmark paper published in Brain (2013; 136:1304-1327), described in such details about the unusual features of Einstein's brain, which shed new light on Einstein's intelligence. In this article, we ask what are the unique structures of his brain? What can we learn from this new information? Can we really explain his extraordinary cognitive capabilities based on these unique brain structures? We conclude that studying the brain of a remarkable person like Albert Einstein indeed provides us a better example to comprehensively appreciate the relationship between brain structures and advanced cognitive functions. However, caution must be exercised so as not to over-interpret his intelligence solely based on the understanding of the surface structures of his brain. PMID:25382446

  13. Canine spontaneous brain tumors: A large animal model for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, P.R.; Kraft, S.L.; Wendling, L.R.; Miller, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    Brain tumors occur spontaneously on dogs with an incidence similar to that in humans. Brain tumors of dogs have histologic, radiologic, and other diagnostic similarities to human brain tumors. Tumor kinetics and biologic behavior of these tumors in dogs are also similar to that in man. Recent studies indicate that conventional radiation therapy of brain tumors of dogs result in a survival interval appropriate to study the late radiation reactions in the surrounding normal brain and other tissues within the irradiated field. The relatively large size of the dog allows identical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and methodology. The dog's head size enables the complex dosimetric variables to be relevant to that found in human radiation therapy. For these reasons, spontaneous brain tumors in the dog are an excellent model to study neuon capture theory (NCT). 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Brain metastases from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: review of pertinent literature.

    PubMed

    Piura, E; Piura, B

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastasis from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is rare with about 222 cases documented in the literature and an incidence of about 11% in living GTN patients. Brain metastasis from GTN was part of a disseminated disease in 90% of patients, single metastases in the brain - 80% and located in the cerebrum - 90%. Brain metastasis was the only manifestation of metastatic GTN in 11.3% of patients, appeared synchronously with metastatic GTN in other sites of the body - 30.6% and was diagnosed from 0.3 to 60 months after diagnosis of metastatic GTN in other sites (most often in the lung) - 58.1%. Overall, 83.9% of patients with brain metastases from GTN had also lung metastases from GTN. Brain metastases from GTN showed a greater tendency to be hemorrhagic compared to brain metastases from other primaries. In patients with brain metastases from GTN, the best outcome was achieved with multimodal therapy including craniotomy, whole brain radiotherapy, and EP-EMA or EMA-CO chemotherapy. Nonetheless, brain metastasis from GTN is a grave disease with a median survival time from diagnosis of brain metastasis of about 12 months. PMID:25118474

  15. Assessing Children with Traumatic Brain Injuries: Integrating Educational and Medical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Steven R.; Yingst, Christine A.

    1992-01-01

    This overview of traumatic brain injuries discusses (1) incidence and prevalence; (2) characteristics; (3) the recovery process; and (4) educational/medical assessment, including premorbid functioning, current functioning, educationally relevant medical issues, and amount and type of family support. (JDD)

  16. Spatial heterogeneity, incidence-incidence, and incidence-lesion density relationship of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) in managed orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spatial pattern of apple scab was characterized using 10 years of disease incidence and lesion density data collected in commercial orchards located in Quebec, Canada. Distributional analyses indicated that scab incidence was better characterized by the beta-binomial than the binomial distribut...

  17. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff ... Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning Donate to the ABTA Help advance the understanding ...

  18. Preserved brain metabolic activity at the age of 96 years.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Lange, Catharina; Spies, Lothar; Ritter, Kerstin; Mäurer, Anja; Seybold, Joachim; Fiebach, Jochen B; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Buchert, Ralph

    2016-09-01

    Loss of brain tissue becomes notable to cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at age 30 years, and progresses more rapidly from mid 60s. The incidence of dementia increases exponentially with age, and is all too frequent in the oldest old (≥ 90 years of age), the fastest growing age group in many countries. However, brain pathology and cognitive decline are not inevitable, even at extremely old age (den Dunnen et al., 2008). PMID:27160670

  19. Dissection of the Process of Brain Metastasis Reveals Targets and Mechanisms for Molecular-based Intervention.

    PubMed

    Weidle, Ulrich H; Birzele, Fabian; Kollmorgen, Gwendlyn; Rüger, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases outnumber the incidence of brain tumors by a factor of ten. Patients with brain metastases have a dismal prognosis and current treatment modalities achieve only a modest clinical benefit. We discuss the process of brain metastasis with respect to mechanisms and involved targets to outline options for therapeutic intervention and focus on breast and lung cancer, as well as melanoma. We describe the process of penetration of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) by disseminated tumor cells, establishment of a metastatic niche, colonization and outgrowth in the brain parenchyma. Furthermore, the role of angiogenesis in colonization of the brain parenchyma, interactions of extravasated tumor cells with microglia and astrocytes, as well as their propensity for neuromimicry, is discussed. We outline targets suitable for prevention of metastasis and summarize targets suitable for treatment of established brain metastases. Finally, we highlight the implications of findings revealing druggable mutations in brain metastases that cannot be identified in matching primary tumors. PMID:27365375

  20. Brain evolution by brain pathway duplication

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of evolution of brain pathways for complex behaviours is still in its infancy. Making further advances requires a deeper understanding of brain homologies, novelties and analogies. It also requires an understanding of how adaptive genetic modifications lead to restructuring of the brain. Recent advances in genomic and molecular biology techniques applied to brain research have provided exciting insights into how complex behaviours are shaped by selection of novel brain pathways and functions of the nervous system. Here, we review and further develop some insights to a new hypothesis on one mechanism that may contribute to nervous system evolution, in particular by brain pathway duplication. Like gene duplication, we propose that whole brain pathways can duplicate and the duplicated pathway diverge to take on new functions. We suggest that one mechanism of brain pathway duplication could be through gene duplication, although other mechanisms are possible. We focus on brain pathways for vocal learning and spoken language in song-learning birds and humans as example systems. This view presents a new framework for future research in our understanding of brain evolution and novel behavioural traits. PMID:26554045

  1. Brain evolution by brain pathway duplication.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-12-19

    Understanding the mechanisms of evolution of brain pathways for complex behaviours is still in its infancy. Making further advances requires a deeper understanding of brain homologies, novelties and analogies. It also requires an understanding of how adaptive genetic modifications lead to restructuring of the brain. Recent advances in genomic and molecular biology techniques applied to brain research have provided exciting insights into how complex behaviours are shaped by selection of novel brain pathways and functions of the nervous system. Here, we review and further develop some insights to a new hypothesis on one mechanism that may contribute to nervous system evolution, in particular by brain pathway duplication. Like gene duplication, we propose that whole brain pathways can duplicate and the duplicated pathway diverge to take on new functions. We suggest that one mechanism of brain pathway duplication could be through gene duplication, although other mechanisms are possible. We focus on brain pathways for vocal learning and spoken language in song-learning birds and humans as example systems. This view presents a new framework for future research in our understanding of brain evolution and novel behavioural traits. PMID:26554045

  2. The Incidence of Ankle Sprains in Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrand, Jan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates relationship between ankle sprains and participation time in competitive orienteering. Examined 15,474 competitors in races in the Swedish O-ringen 5-day event in 1987. Injuries requiring medical attention were analyzed, showing 137 (23.9 percent) ankle sprains. Injury incidence was 8.4/10,000 hours. Incidence of ankle sprains was…

  3. Linux Incident Response Volatile Data Analysis Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Cyber incident response is an emphasized subject area in cybersecurity in information technology with increased need for the protection of data. Due to ongoing threats, cybersecurity imposes many challenges and requires new investigative response techniques. In this study a Linux Incident Response Framework is designed for collecting volatile data…

  4. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained...

  5. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained...

  6. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained...

  7. 40 CFR 68.81 - Incident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incident investigation. 68.81 Section 68.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.81 Incident investigation....

  8. 40 CFR 68.60 - Incident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incident investigation. 68.60 Section 68.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 2 Prevention Program § 68.60 Incident investigation....

  9. The Critical Incident Technique: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fivars, Grace

    The bibliography was compiled in response to requests for background information about the critical incident technique; references were provided by those interested in the technique. Graduate students searching for guidance on the technique should find it useful, as should researchers. The critical incident technique is a method of research…

  10. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained...

  11. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained...

  12. DOE's Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, E.

    1990-09-01

    Computer security is essential in maintaining quality in the computing environment. Computer security incidents, however, are becoming more sophisticated. The DOE Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC) team was formed primarily to assist DOE sites in responding to computer security incidents. Among CIAC's other responsibilities are gathering and distributing information to DOE sites, providing training workshops, coordinating with other agencies, response teams, and vendors, creating guidelines for incident handling, and developing software tools. CIAC has already provided considerable assistance to DOE sites faced with virus infections and worm and hacker attacks, has issued over 40 information bulletins, and has developed and presented a workshop on incident handling. CIAC's experience in helping sites has produced several lessons learned, including the need to follow effective procedures to avoid virus infections in small systems and the need for sound password management and system administration in networked systems. CIAC's activity and scope will expand in the future. 4 refs.

  13. Semantic Theme Analysis of Pilot Incident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    Pilots report accidents or incidents during take-off, on flight and landing to airline authorities and Federal aviation authority as well. The description of pilot reports for an incident contains technical terms related to Flight instruments and operations. Normal text mining approaches collect keywords from text documents and relate them among documents that are stored in database. Present approach will extract specific theme analysis of incident reports and semantically relate hierarchy of terms assigning weights of themes. Once the theme extraction has been performed for a given document, a unique key can be assigned to that document to cross linking the documents. Semantic linking will be used to categorize the documents based on specific rules that can help an end-user to analyze certain types of accidents. This presentation outlines the architecture of text mining for pilot incident reports for autonomous categorization of pilot incident reports using semantic theme analysis.

  14. Incidence of lead shot in canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    During 1975 and 1976, 2,544 canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from North Dakota, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Maryland were flouroscoped to determine the incidence of body shot. A significant increase from west to east was detected in the incidence of shot for immatures from the four states. The incidence of shot in immatures after the 1975-76 hunting season was 18 percent in Maryland and 20 percent in Illinois. In Wisconsin no difference in the incidence of shot could be detected between areas trapped or time periods when trapping was conducted. In Maryland a significant decrease in the incidence of body shot was detected in adults, but not immatures, between 1975 and 1976. shot was located throughout the body of canvasbacks. Frequency varied from one to nine shot per bird and averaged 2.0 for adults and 1.5 for immatures.

  15. Trends in Incidence of Common Cancers in Iran.

    PubMed

    Enayatrad, Mostafa; Mirzaei, Maryam; Salehiniya, Hamid; Karimirad, Mohammad Reza; Vaziri, Siavash; Mansouri, Fiezollah; Moudi, Asieh

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major public health problem in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in incidence of ten common cancers in Iran, based on the national cancer registry reports from 2004 to 2009. This epidemiological study was carried out based on existing age-standardized estimate cancer data from the national report on cancer registry/Ministry of Health in Iran. The obtained data were analyzed by test for linear trend and P ≥ 0.05 was taken as the significant level. Totals of 41,169 and 32,898 cases of cancer were registered in men and females, respectively, during these years. Overall age-standard incidence rates (ASRs) per 100,000 population according to primary site weres 125.6 and 113.4 in males and females, respectively. Between 2004 and 2009, the ten most common cancers (excluding skin cancer) were stomach (16.2), bladder (12.6), prostate (11), colon-rectum (10.14), hematopoeitic system (7.1), lung (6.1), esophagus (6.4), brain (3.2), lymph node (3.8) and larynx (3.4) in males; and in females were breast (27.4), colon-rectum (9.3), stomach (7.6), esophagus (6.4), hematopoeitic system (4.9), thyroid (3.9), ovary (3.6), corpus uteri (2.9), bladder (3.2) and lung (2.6). Moreover, results showed that skin cancer was estimated as the most common cancer in both sexes. The lowest and the highest incidence in females and males were reported respectively in 2004 and 2009. Over this period, the incidence of cancer in both sexes has been significantly increasing (p<0.01). Like other less developed and epidemiologically transitioning countries, the trend of age-standardized incidence rate of cancer in Iran is rising. Due to the increasing trends, the future burden of cancer in the Iran is going to be acute with the expected increases in aging populations. Determining and controlling potential risk factors of cancer should hopefully lead to decrease in its burden. PMID:27165205

  16. Taxonometric Applications in Radiotherapy Incident Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dunscombe, Peter B. Ekaette, Edidiong U.; Lee, Robert C.; Cooke, David L.

    2008-05-01

    Recent publications in both the scientific and the popular press have highlighted the risks to which patients expose themselves when entering a healthcare system. Patient safety issues are forcing us to, not only acknowledge that incidents do occur, but also actively develop the means for assessing and managing the risks of such incidents. To do this, we ideally need to know the probability of an incident's occurrence, the consequences or severity for the patient should it occur, and the basic causes of the incident. A structured approach to the description of failure modes is helpful in terms of communication, avoidance of ambiguity, and, ultimately, decision making for resource allocation. In this report, several classification schemes or taxonomies for use in risk assessment and management are discussed. In particular, a recently developed approach that reflects the activity domains through which the patient passes and that can be used as a basis for quantifying incident severity is described. The estimation of incident severity, which is based on the concept of the equivalent uniform dose, is presented in some detail. We conclude with a brief discussion on the use of a defined basic-causes table and how adding such a table to the reports of incidents can facilitate the allocation of resources.

  17. Traumatic Brain Injury. Fact Sheet = Lesion Cerebral Traumatica (TBI). Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, offers general information about traumatic brain injury. Information includes a definition, incidence, individual characteristics, and educational implications. The signs of traumatic brain injury are listed and include physical disabilities, difficulties with thinking, and social, behavioral,…

  18. Multiple biomarkers and risk of clinical and subclinical vascular brain injury: the framingham offspring study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several biomarkers have been individually associated with vascular brain injury, but no prior study has explored the simultaneous association of a biologically plausible panel of biomarkers with the incidence of stroke/transient ischemic attack and the prevalence of subclinical brain injury. In 3127...

  19. Incidence of motile Aeromonas spp. in foods.

    PubMed

    Pin, C; Marín, M L; García, M L; Tormo, J; Selgas, M D; Casas, C

    1994-09-01

    A total of 80 food samples were purchased from local retail consumer shops and examined for the presence of motile Aeromonas spp. Of the food categories tested, poultry had the highest incidence, with 100% positive. This was followed by lamb samples, with 60% positive. Raw milk and cheese samples had very low incidence (20%). No motile Aeromonas spp. were found in pre-prepared salads. Shellfish, fish, pork and beef samples had incidences of 40%. Most of the strains isolated were Aeromonas hydrophila, and for most of the food categories, no Aeromonas caviae isolates were obtained. PMID:7873101

  20. Five years cancer incidence in Aden Cancer Registry, Yemen (2002-2006).

    PubMed

    Ba Saleem, Huda Omer; Bawazir, Amin Ahmed; Moore, Malcolm; Al-Sakkaf, Khaled Abdulla

    2010-01-01

    The population-based Aden Cancer Registry (ACR) started its activities in 1997. The objective of the registry is to establish a reliable magnitude of cancer in the area covered and the first report was published in 2003. The present article describes data from the second report of cancer incidence over a five year period (2002-2006). Internationally accepted standardized cancer registration methodologies described by IACR and IARC were used. CanReg-4 using ICDO-3 and ICD-10 were applied in the data processing and analysis. Results showed no difference in the overall incidence between the males and females (ratio was 0.83:1) and age standardized rate s(ASR) per 100,000 inhabitants were 30.2 and 31.1. The five most common cancers were breast cancer, leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NH lymphoma), brain cancer and Hodgkin's disease (16.6%, 12.6%, 7.8%, 5.2% and 4.4%, respectively). Among males, leukemia was the first followed by NH lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, brain and liver. In females, breast was the first, then leukemia, NH lymphoma, thyroid and brain cancer. The highest ASR for males (145 per 100,00 inhabitants) was observed at age 70-74 years whereas for females, two peaks (each 105 per 100,000 inhabitants) were equally noticed at age 60-64 and 70-74 years. Generally, females showed equal or higher incidence compared to males until age 55-59 where males reported higher incidence. The overall pattern of cancer incidence in this report is not much different from that in the previous report. Furthermore, the report generally indicates that the pattern of the most common registered cancer bears some similarities with the adjacent Gulf Cooperation Council States with which we share many characteristics, despite differences that warrant further investigation. PMID:20843142

  1. Modelling total duration of traffic incidents including incident detection and recovery time.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil; Shobeirinejad, Ameneh

    2014-10-01

    Traffic incidents are key contributors to non-recurrent congestion, potentially generating significant delay. Factors that influence the duration of incidents are important to understand so that effective mitigation strategies can be implemented. To identify and quantify the effects of influential factors, a methodology for studying total incident duration based on historical data from an 'integrated database' is proposed. Incident duration models are developed using a selected freeway segment in the Southeast Queensland, Australia network. The models include incident detection and recovery time as components of incident duration. A hazard-based duration modelling approach is applied to model incident duration as a function of a variety of factors that influence traffic incident duration. Parametric accelerated failure time survival models are developed to capture heterogeneity as a function of explanatory variables, with both fixed and random parameters specifications. The analysis reveals that factors affecting incident duration include incident characteristics (severity, type, injury, medical requirements, etc.), infrastructure characteristics (roadway shoulder availability), time of day, and traffic characteristics. The results indicate that event type durations are uniquely different, thus requiring different responses to effectively clear them. Furthermore, the results highlight the presence of unobserved incident duration heterogeneity as captured by the random parameter models, suggesting that additional factors need to be considered in future modelling efforts. PMID:24974360

  2. Understanding brain networks and brain organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2014-09-01

    What is the relationship between brain and behavior? The answer to this question necessitates characterizing the mapping between structure and function. The aim of this paper is to discuss broad issues surrounding the link between structure and function in the brain that will motivate a network perspective to understanding this question. However, as others in the past, I argue that a network perspective should supplant the common strategy of understanding the brain in terms of individual regions. Whereas this perspective is needed for a fuller characterization of the mind-brain, it should not be viewed as panacea. For one, the challenges posed by the many-to-many mapping between regions and functions is not dissolved by the network perspective. Although the problem is ameliorated, one should not anticipate a one-to-one mapping when the network approach is adopted. Furthermore, decomposition of the brain network in terms of meaningful clusters of regions, such as the ones generated by community-finding algorithms, does not by itself reveal "true" subnetworks. Given the hierarchical and multi-relational relationship between regions, multiple decompositions will offer different "slices" of a broader landscape of networks within the brain. Finally, I described how the function of brain regions can be characterized in a multidimensional manner via the idea of diversity profiles. The concept can also be used to describe the way different brain regions participate in networks.

  3. Understanding brain networks and brain organization

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    What is the relationship between brain and behavior? The answer to this question necessitates characterizing the mapping between structure and function. The aim of this paper is to discuss broad issues surrounding the link between structure and function in the brain that will motivate a network perspective to understanding this question. As others in the past, I argue that a network perspective should supplant the common strategy of understanding the brain in terms of individual regions. Whereas this perspective is needed for a fuller characterization of the mind-brain, it should not be viewed as panacea. For one, the challenges posed by the many-to-many mapping between regions and functions is not dissolved by the network perspective. Although the problem is ameliorated, one should not anticipate a one-to-one mapping when the network approach is adopted. Furthermore, decomposition of the brain network in terms of meaningful clusters of regions, such as the ones generated by community-finding algorithms, does not by itself reveal “true” subnetworks. Given the hierarchical and multi-relational relationship between regions, multiple decompositions will offer different “slices” of a broader landscape of networks within the brain. Finally, I described how the function of brain regions can be characterized in a multidimensional manner via the idea of diversity profiles. The concept can also be used to describe the way different brain regions participate in networks. PMID:24819881

  4. Major incident in Kent: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sophie Elizabeth Jap

    2015-01-01

    A major incident was declared after a road traffic accident involving 150 cars and 200 people in Kent, England. The emergency services oversaw coordination of the scene, recovery and triage of casualties and transfer of patients to hospital. The crash was one of the worst seen on British roads and it has been hailed as a miracle that there were no deaths and very few serious injuries.This case report is a retrospective analysis of the regional health system's response to the crash. The structure is based on the content of a report submitted using an online open access template for major incident reporting (Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 22: 5, 2014; http://www.majorincidentreporting.org ). A more comprehensive analysis of the incident has also been the theme of a Masters thesis (Hardy S. Reporting Major Incidents in England: Putting Theory into Practice. England: Queen Mary's University of London; 2014). PMID:26391879

  5. CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...

  6. Incidence of Wife Abuse in Incestuous Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truesdell, Donna L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigates a largely uncharted dynamic in the literature--the incidence of wife abuse among incestuous families--and suggests that professional caregivers reevaluate conventional treatment modalities that are based on certain assumptions regarding the mother's role in incest. (Author)

  7. Risk-based Classification of Incidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwell, William S.; Knight, John C.; Strunk, Elisabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    As the penetration of software into safety-critical systems progresses, accidents and incidents involving software will inevitably become more frequent. Identifying lessons from these occurrences and applying them to existing and future systems is essential if recurrences are to be prevented. Unfortunately, investigative agencies do not have the resources to fully investigate every incident under their jurisdictions and domains of expertise and thus must prioritize certain occurrences when allocating investigative resources. In the aviation community, most investigative agencies prioritize occurrences based on the severity of their associated losses, allocating more resources to accidents resulting in injury to passengers or extensive aircraft damage. We argue that this scheme is inappropriate because it undervalues incidents whose recurrence could have a high potential for loss while overvaluing fairly straightforward accidents involving accepted risks. We then suggest a new strategy for prioritizing occurrences based on the risk arising from incident recurrence.

  8. Cancer Incidence Among Police Officers in a U.S. Northeast Region: 1976–2006

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Luenda E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Andrew, Michael E.; Violanti, John M

    2015-01-01

    Police officers are exposed to occupational hazards which may put them at increased risk of cancer. We examined the incidence of cancer in a cohort of 2,234 white-male police officers in Buffalo, New York. The study population was followed for 31 years (1976–2006). The incidence of cancer, ascertained using a population-based tumor registry, was compared with 9 US regions using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program data. Four hundred and six officers (18.2%) developed cancer between 1976 and 2006. The risk of overall cancer among police officers was found to be similar to the general white-male population (Standardized Incidence Ratio [SIR] = 0.94, 95%, Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.85–1.03). An elevated risk of Hodgkin ‘s lymphoma was observed relative to the general population (SIR = 3.34, 95%, CI= 1.22–7.26). The risk of brain cancer, although only slightly elevated relative to the general population (SIR = 1.61, 95%, CI = 0.73–3.05), was significantly increased with 30 years or more of service (SIR = 2.92, 95%, CI = 1.07–6.36). Incidence ratios were significantly lower than expected for skin and bladder cancer. Police officers were at increased risk of Hodgkin’s lymphoma overall and of brain cancer after 30 years of service. PMID:22900461

  9. Modulating Brain Oscillations to Drive Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Thut, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Do neuronal oscillations play a causal role in brain function? In a study in this issue of PLOS Biology, Helfrich and colleagues address this long-standing question by attempting to drive brain oscillations using transcranial electrical current stimulation. Remarkably, they were able to manipulate visual perception by forcing brain oscillations of the left and right visual hemispheres into synchrony using oscillatory currents over both hemispheres. Under this condition, human observers more often perceived an inherently ambiguous visual stimulus in one of its perceptual instantiations. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying neuronal computation. They show that it is the neuronal oscillations that drive the visual experience, not the experience driving the oscillations. And they indicate that synchronized oscillatory activity groups brain areas into functional networks. This points to new ways for controlled experimental and possibly also clinical interventions for the study and modulation of brain oscillations and associated functions. PMID:25549340

  10. NONINVASIVE BRAIN STIMULATION IN TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Demirtas-Tatlidede, Asli; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew M.; Bernabeu, Montserrat; Tormos, Jose M.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Brain stimulation techniques have evolved in the last few decades with more novel methods capable of painless, noninvasive brain stimulation. While the number of clinical trials employing noninvasive brain stimulation continues to increase in a variety of medication-resistant neurological and psychiatric diseases, studies evaluating their diagnostic and therapeutic potential in traumatic brain injury (TBI) are largely lacking. This review introduces different techniques of noninvasive brain stimulation, which may find potential use in TBI. We cover transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and transcranial doppler sonography (TCD) techniques. We provide a brief overview of studies to date, discuss possible mechanisms of action, and raise a number of considerations when thinking about translating these methods to clinical use. PMID:21691215

  11. Left Brain, Right Brain: Facts and Fantasies

    PubMed Central

    Corballis, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the “norm” of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal. PMID:24465175

  12. Solar Cell Angle of Incidence Corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission has three different solar arrays each of which sees changes in incidence angle during normal operation. When solar array angle of incidence effects was researched little published data was found. The small amount of-published data created a need to obtain and evaluate such data. The donation of the needed data, which was taken in the fall of 1994, was a major factor in the preparation of this paper.

  13. How effective incident management retains market share.

    PubMed

    Enright, Courtenay

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for business continuity practitioners to make incident management a focal element of their programme. Particularly during the first few minutes and hours of a business disruption, an established incident management methodology is not only key to achieving a successful, coordinated recovery, but it can play an even more important role in maintaining customer confidence following a disruption or crisis. PMID:22948102

  14. Early childhood leukemia incidence trends in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; de Camargo, Beatriz; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2016-03-01

    Incidence rates of childhood leukemia vary between different regions of the world. The objective of this study was to test possible trends in incidence rate of early childhood leukemia (children <5 years old at the diagnosis) in Brazil. Data from 18 population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) were analyzed (period 1999-2010). The analysis consisted of frequencies, age-adjusted incidence rates, and joinpoint regression results, including annual average percent change (AAPC) in incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The median age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) of overall early childhood leukemia was 61 per million. The AAIR for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) was 44 per million and nonlymphoid acute leukemia (NLAL) was 14 per million. The median ALL/NLAL ratio was 3.0, suggesting higher incidence rate of NLAL in these settings. The joinpoint analysis demonstrated increased leukemia incidence rate in João Pessoa (AAPC = 20; 95% CI: 3.5, 39.4) and Salvador (AAPC = 8.68; 95% CI: 1.0, 16.9), respectively, whereas incidence rate in São Paulo PBCR decreased (AAPC = -4.02%; 95% CI: -6.1%, -1.9%). Correlation between ALL AAIR and selected variables of socioeconomic (SES) factors was not observed. Increased AAIR regionally overtime was observed. However, the interpretation for such phenomenon should be cautious because it might reflect the access to health care, diagnosis procedures, and improvement of PBCR´s quality. The observed trend supports the necessity of further ecological studies. PMID:26925506

  15. Establishing and operating an incident response team

    SciTech Connect

    Padgett, K.M.

    1992-09-01

    Occurrences of improprieties dealing with computer usage are on the increase. They range all the way from misuse by employees to international computer telecommunications hacking. In addition, natural disasters and other disasters such as catastrophic fires may also fall into the same category. These incidents, like any other breach of acceptable behavior, may or may not involve actual law breaking. A computer incident response team should be created as a first priority. This report discusses the establishment and operation of a response team.

  16. Establishing and operating an incident response team

    SciTech Connect

    Padgett, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    Occurrences of improprieties dealing with computer usage are on the increase. They range all the way from misuse by employees to international computer telecommunications hacking. In addition, natural disasters and other disasters such as catastrophic fires may also fall into the same category. These incidents, like any other breach of acceptable behavior, may or may not involve actual law breaking. A computer incident response team should be created as a first priority. This report discusses the establishment and operation of a response team.

  17. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... to make progress in “immunogenomics” Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  18. Genetic Brain Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

  19. Brain aneurysm repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  20. Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  1. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  2. Anatomy of the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... our existence. It controls our personality, thoughts, memory, intelligence, speech and understanding, emotions, senses, and basic body functions, as well as how we function in our environment. The diagrams below show brain anatomy, or the various parts of the brain, ...

  3. Brain natriutetic peptide test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007509.htm Brain natriuretic peptide test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) test is a blood test that measures ...

  4. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form The American Brain Tumor Association was the first and is the only national organization committed to funding brain tumor research and providing ...

  5. Brain Tumor Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... facts and statistics here include brain and central nervous system tumors (including spinal cord, pituitary and pineal gland ... U.S. living with a primary brain and central nervous system tumor. This year, nearly 17,000 people will ...

  6. Biophysics: Unfolding the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Ellen

    2016-06-01

    The folded surface of the human brain, although striking, continues to evade understanding. Experiments with swelling gels now fuel the notion that brain folding is modulated by physical forces, and not by genetic, biological or chemical events alone.

  7. Brain injury - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rehabilitation Nurses. Care of the patient with mild traumatic brain injury. Available at: www.aann.org/pubs/content/guidelines. ... Stroud, NL, Zafonte R. Rehabilitation of patients with traumatic brain injury. In: Winn HR, ed. Youman's Neurological Surgery . 6th ...

  8. Environmental protection for hazardous materials incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Barkenbus, B.D.; Carter, R.J.; Dobson, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.; Ogle, P.S.; VanCleave, A.K.

    1990-02-01

    This document was prepared to provide the US Air Force fire protection community with an integrated program for handling hazardous materials (HAZMAT)s and hazardous material incidents. The goal of the project was to define and identify a computer system for the base fire departments that would facilitate hazard assessment and response during HAZMAT emergencies, provide HAZMAT incident management guidelines, and provide a training tool to simulate emergency response during normal times. Site visits to Air Force bases were made to observe existing HAZMAT related organizations, their methods and procedures used in HAZMAT management, and to collect personnel input for the development of the computerized Hazardous Materials Incident Management System (HMIMS). The study concentrated on defining strategic areas of concern to emergency response personnel. Particular emphasis was given to such areas as responsibilities and roles for response agencies; personnel requirements to handle HAZMAT incidents; procedures to follow during HAZMAT incidents and decontamination; personnel evacuation; postincident evaluation and feedback; emergency response personnel participation in installation restoration program; personal protective clothing; mutual air requirements; and training. Future recommendations were made for purchase, use, storage, disposal, and management of HAZMATs during their life cycle on bases and during incidents. This detailed technical report and the HMIMS are expected to meet the integrated HAZMAT program needs primarily of Air Force fire departments and secondarily in other response agencies. 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Declining incidence of acromioplasty in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Paloneva, Juha; Lepola, Vesa; Karppinen, Jaro; Ylinen, Jari; Äärimaa, Ville; Mattila, Ville M

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose An increased incidence rate of acromioplasty has been reported; we analyzed data from the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register. Patients and methods During the 14-year study period (1998–2011), 68,877 acromioplasties without rotator cuff repair were performed on subjects aged 18 years or older. Results The incidence of acromioplasty increased by 117% from 75 to 163 per 105 person years between 1998 and 2007. The highest incidence was observed in 2007, after which the incidence rate decreased by 20% to 131 per 105 person years in 2011. The incidence declined even more at non-profit public hospitals from 2007 to 2011. In contrast, it continued to rise at profit-based private orthopedic clinics. Interpretation We propose that this change in clinical practice is due to accumulating high-quality scientific evidence that shows no difference in outcome between acromioplasty and non-surgical interventions for rotator cuff disease with subacromial impingement syndrome. However, the exact cause of the declining incidence cannot be defined based solely on a registry study. Interestingly, this change was not observed at private clinics, where the number of operations increased steadily from 2007 to 2011. PMID:25340548

  10. NASA Robot Brain Surgeon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer Michael Guerrero works on the Robot Brain Surgeon testbed in the NeuroEngineering Group at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Principal investigator Dr. Robert W. Mah states that potentially the simple robot will be able to feel brain structures better than any human surgeon, making slow, very precise movements during an operation. The brain surgery robot that may give surgeons finer control of surgical instruments during delicate brain operations is still under development.

  11. Neuromythology of Einstein's brain.

    PubMed

    Hines, Terence

    2014-07-01

    The idea that the brain of the great physicist Albert Einstein is different from "average" brains in both cellular structure and external shape is widespread. This belief is based on several studies examining Einstein's brain both histologically and morphologically. This paper reviews these studies and finds them wanting. Their results do not, in fact, provide support for the claim that the structure of Einstein's brain reflects his intellectual abilities. PMID:24836969

  12. [Mangement of brain metastases based on EBM].

    PubMed

    Narita, Yoshitaka

    2005-04-01

    Some three hundred thousand of patients die of cancers yearly and at least 20-40%, i. e., 60,000-120,000 of them suffered from brain metastases. Those with such metastases have a generally poor outcome with a median survival of 1-2 months with steroids only, and approximately 6 months with whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). The results of important and historical clinical trials including surgery, WBRT, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and chemotherapy are reviewed. Surgery with WBRT has been used in the treatment of a single brain metatasis with a diameter of more than 3 cm, while survival time of those patients is approximately 12 months. SRS including gamma knife is widely used for treatment of small and multiple brain metastases. However, many clinical studies have revealed that SRS+WBRT is superior to WBRT or SRS alone in survival time and local control rates. The accurate incident rates of radiation-induced dementia or neurological deficit are still unclear, so the problem and possible avoidance of an additional WBRT after surgery or SRS are discussed. To improve neurologic function and survival, the treatment for patients with brain metastases should be selected with accurate knowledge of EBM. PMID:15853211

  13. Brain metastases from cervical carcinoma: overview of pertinent literature.

    PubMed

    Piura, E; Piura, B

    2012-01-01

    Brain metastasis from cervical carcinoma is rare with only about 100 cases documented in the literature and an incidence among cervical carcinoma patients of 0.6%. The median interval between diagnosis of cervical carcinoma and brain metastases is 18 months. The brain can be the only site of distant metastasis of cervical carcinoma ("isolated brain metastases") (46.8%) or brain metastasis can be part of a disseminated cervical carcinoma involving also other sites of the body (53.2%). Brain metastasis of cervical carcinoma affects most often the cerebrum (73%) and can be either single (one metastasis) (50.6%) or multiple (> or = two metastases) (49.4%). Treatment of brain metastases has evolved over the years from whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone to multimodal therapy including surgical resection (craniotomy) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) followed by WBRT +/- chemotherapy. The median overall survival after diagnosis of brain metastases is four months; however, a better survival is achieved with multimodal therapy (craniotomy followed by WBRT) compared to craniotomy alone or WBRT alone. The worst survival is observed in patients with no treatment. Although based on a very small number of patients, the best survival is noticed in patients having SRS either alone or in combination with other treatment modality. PMID:23327047

  14. Primary lymphoma of the brain

    MedlinePlus

    Brain lymphoma; Cerebral lymphoma; Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system; Lymphoma - brain ... The cause of primary brain lymphoma is not known. People with a weakened immune system are at high risk for primary lymphoma of the brain. ...

  15. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Tumors of the brain and ...

  16. Brain Research and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claycomb, Mary

    Current research on brain activity has many implications for educators. The triune brain concept and the left and right hemisphere concepts are among the many complex theories evolving from experimentation and observation. The triune brain concept suggests that the human forebrain has expanded while retaining three structurally unique formations…

  17. Our Amazing Brains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Howard

    2005-01-01

    This article begins a regular series on how brain research can help us understand young people and ourselves as well. The intent is to alert the reader to important information from recent research on the brain. This initial installment explores the concept of the triune brain, a term coined by neuroscientist Paul MacLean. This refers to three…

  18. Brain and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damasio, Antonio R., Damasio, Hanna

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the advances made in understanding the brain structures responsible for language. Presents findings made using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomographic (PET) scans to study brain activity. These findings map the structures in the brain that manipulate concepts and those that turn concepts into words. (MCO)

  19. Aligning brains and minds

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of Neuron, Haxby and colleagues describe a new method for aligning functional brain activity patterns across participants. Their study demonstrates that objects are similarly represented across different brains, allowing for reliable classification of one person’s brain activity based on another’s. PMID:22017984

  20. Brain and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain. View Online Download PDF The Awesomely Evolved Human Brain Published: September 01, 2013 The brain is an ... mark of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week design mark, and associated trade dress are registered ... close

  1. Brain Migration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinokur, Annie

    2006-01-01

    The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…

  2. Brain Structure and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teyler, T.J.; Chiaia, N.

    1983-01-01

    Considers basic biology of brain, what is known of how it operates, and something of how it develops. Discusses properties of neurons and specialized regions of the brain in linguistic and higher order processing skills, as well as genetic and environmental influences on brain development. (CMG)

  3. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... a concussion may feel dazed and may lose vision or balance for a while after the injury A brain contusion is a bruise of the brain. This ... consciousness Headache Confusion Feeling dizzy or lightheaded Blurry vision ... or severe traumatic brain injury include all of the symptoms listed above ...

  4. Cancer incidence and mortality in Shandong province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhentao; Lu, Zilong; Li, Yingmei; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhang, Gaohui; Chen, Xianxian; Chu, Jie; Ren, Jie; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    rural areas, respectively. The cancer mortality was 164.47/100,000 (207.42/100,000 in males, 120.23/100,000 in females), the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 117.54/100,000 and 116.90/100,000, and the cumulative mortality rate (0.74 years old) was 13.53%. The cancer mortality, ASMRC and ASMRW were 141.59/100,000, 101.17/100,000 and 100.33/100,000 in urban areas, and 173.79/100,000, 124.20/100,000 and 123.64/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. Cancers of the lung, stomach, liver, esophagus, colorectum, female breast, brain, leukemia, bladder and pancreas were the most common cancers, accounting for about 82.12% of all cancer new cases. Lung cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, female breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, brain tumor, leukemia and lymphoma were the leading causes of cancer death, accounting for about 89.01% of all cancer deaths. The cancer spectrum showed difference between urban and rural, males and females both in incidence and mortality rates. Conclusions Cancer surveillance information in Shandong province is making great progress with the increasing number of cancer registries, population coverage and the improving data quality. Cancer registration plays a fundamental role in cancer control by providing basic information on population-based cancer incidence, mortality, survival and time trend. The disease burden of cancer is serious in Shandong province, and so cancer prevention and control in Shandong province should be enhanced including health education, health promotion, cancer screening and cancer care services. PMID:27478312

  5. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Rábano, Alberto; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Ruiz-Tovar, María; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Avellanal, Fuencisla; Calero, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs). Methods We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd). For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined. Findings Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD), to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD) respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a) symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b) those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c) a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20–24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration. Interpretation These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to

  6. Nanoparticle-mediated brain drug delivery: Overcoming blood-brain barrier to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Cláudia; Praça, Catarina; Ferreira, Raquel; Santos, Tiago; Ferreira, Lino; Bernardino, Liliana

    2016-08-10

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a vital boundary between neural tissue and circulating blood. The BBB's unique and protective features control brain homeostasis as well as ion and molecule movement. Failure in maintaining any of these components results in the breakdown of this specialized multicellular structure and consequently promotes neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In several high incidence pathologies such as stroke, Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) the BBB is impaired. However, even a damaged and more permeable BBB can pose serious challenges to drug delivery into the brain. The use of nanoparticle (NP) formulations able to encapsulate molecules with therapeutic value, while targeting specific transport processes in the brain vasculature, may enhance drug transport through the BBB in neurodegenerative/ischemic disorders and target relevant regions in the brain for regenerative processes. In this review, we will discuss BBB composition and characteristics and how these features are altered in pathology, namely in stroke, AD and PD. Additionally, factors influencing an efficient intravenous delivery of polymeric and inorganic NPs into the brain as well as NP-related delivery systems with the most promising functional outcomes will also be discussed. PMID:27208862

  7. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Ryota; Kuroshima, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of brain metastases for neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is reportedly 1.5~5%, and the origin is usually pulmonary. A 77-year-old man presented to our hospital with headache and disturbance of specific skilled motor activities. Computed tomography (CT) showed a massive neoplastic lesion originating in the left temporal and parietal lobes that caused a mass edematous effect. Grossly, total resection of the tumor was achieved. Histological examination revealed much nuclear atypia and mitotic figures. Staining for CD56, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin was positive, indicating NET. The MIB-1 index was 37%. Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as NET. After surgery, gastroscopy and colonoscopy were performed, but the origin was not seen. After discharge, CT and FDG-PET (fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography) were performed every 3 months. Two years later we have not determined the origin of the tumor. It is possible that the brain is the primary site of this NET. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this phenomenon. PMID:25506006

  8. Neuropathophysiology of Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Quillinan, Nidia; Herson, Paco S; Traystman, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of individuals incur ischemic brain injury from stroke, cardiac arrest, or traumatic brain injury. These acquired brain injuries can lead to death or long-term neurologic and neuropsychological impairments. The mechanisms of ischemic and traumatic brain injury that lead to these deficiencies result from a complex interplay of interdependent molecular pathways, including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. This article reviews several mechanisms of brain injury and discusses recent developments. Although much is known from animal models of injury, it has been difficult to translate these effects to humans. PMID:27521191

  9. Altered Proteins in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Elobeid, Adila; Libard, Sylwia; Leino, Marina; Popova, Svetlana N.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of common altered brain proteins in 296 cognitively unimpaired subjects ranging from age 50 to 102 years. The incidence and the stage of hyperphosphorylated-τ (HPτ), β-amyloid, α-synuclein (αS), and transactive response DNA (TDP) binding protein 43 (TDP43)-immunoreactivity (-IR) increased with age. HPτ-IR was observed in 98% of the subjects; the locus coeruleus was solely affected in 46%, and 79% of the subjects were in Braak stages a to II. β-Amyloid was seen in 47% of subjects and the Thal phase correlated with the HPτ Braak stage and age. Intermediate Alzheimer disease-related pathology (ADRP) was seen in 12%; 52% of the subjects with HPτ-IR fulfilled criteria for definite primary age-related tauopathy (PART). The incidence of concomitant pathology (αS, TDP43) did not differ between those with PART and those with ADRP but the former were younger. TDP43-IR was observed in 36%; the most frequently affected region was the medulla; αS-IR was observed in 19% of subjects. In 41% of the subjects from 80 to 89 years at death, 3 altered proteins were seen in the brain. Thus, altered proteins are common in the brains of cognitively unimpaired aged subjects; this should be considered while developing diagnostic biomarkers, particularly for identifying subjects at early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26979082

  10. Altered Proteins in the Aging Brain.

    PubMed

    Elobeid, Adila; Libard, Sylwia; Leino, Marina; Popova, Svetlana N; Alafuzoff, Irina

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the prevalence of common altered brain proteins in 296 cognitively unimpaired subjects ranging from age 50 to 102 years. The incidence and the stage of hyperphosphorylated-τ (HPτ), β-amyloid, α-synuclein (αS), and transactive response DNA (TDP) binding protein 43 (TDP43)-immunoreactivity (-IR) increased with age. HPτ-IR was observed in 98% of the subjects; the locus coeruleus was solely affected in 46%, and 79% of the subjects were in Braak stages a to II. β-Amyloid was seen in 47% of subjects and the Thal phase correlated with the HPτ Braak stage and age. Intermediate Alzheimer disease-related pathology (ADRP) was seen in 12%; 52% of the subjects with HPτ-IR fulfilled criteria for definite primary age-related tauopathy (PART). The incidence of concomitant pathology (αS, TDP43) did not differ between those with PART and those with ADRP but the former were younger. TDP43-IR was observed in 36%; the most frequently affected region was the medulla; αS-IR was observed in 19% of subjects. In 41% of the subjects from 80 to 89 years at death, 3 altered proteins were seen in the brain. Thus, altered proteins are common in the brains of cognitively unimpaired aged subjects; this should be considered while developing diagnostic biomarkers, particularly for identifying subjects at early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26979082

  11. [Time trends in cancer incidence in Osaka].

    PubMed

    Hanai, A; Fujimoto, I

    1984-03-01

    Changes in environments and life styles in Japan have caused the recent changes in the time trends of cancer incidence for various sites. Using the data from the Osaka Cancer Registry, time trends during 1966-80 were analysed for cancer incidence of the leading 5 sites: stomach, lung, liver, uterus and breast. Age-adjusted incidence rates of cancers of the stomach (both sexes) and uterus (invasive cancer) decreased to 75% and 64% respectively between the two periods of 1966-68 and 1978-80 while cancers of the lung, liver, and breast reached 163%, 140%, and 143 % during the same period. Decrease of stomach cancer incidence was observed in all age-groups under 79, however, not in the 25-44 age-groups among females. Analyzing the histological data in the registry, it was noticed that estimated incidence of the intestinal type of stomach carcinoma had decreased more rapidly than the diffuse type. In the 30-49 age-groups among females, no decrease was observed of the diffuse type of carcinoma. Concerning lung cancer, a marked increase was observed over 60 years of age. The age-specific incidence curves by birth cohort showed no or very small cohort effects for the population born 1920-29. Among males, percentages of adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma have increased and that of epidermoid carcinoma decreased. The change was more marked in the age-groups younger than 59. Liver cancer showed the 3rd highest incidence rate among males and 6th among females. A rising trend in recent years was noticeable over 45 years of age among males. For the invasive uterine carcinoma, the incidence rate has been decreasing in all ages. Comparing these figures with those of whites in Connecticut or of Japanese in Hawaii, the former was higher than the latter and the difference was larger in age-groups over 40. The recent age incidence curve of breast cancer in Osaka came to be close to that in Iceland in 1930-49 when the curve had kept a constant level for age-groups after

  12. Delphi technique used in laser incident surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Krystyn R.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Neal, Thomas A.

    2004-07-01

    There are several data sources for collecting laser incidents. All reviewed sources collect information differently for varying purposes. An effort was undertaken to combine laser exposure reporting data into a single database so that trends in laser incidents could be identified. A review of available datasets revealed significant disparities in laser exposure reporting. As a result, utilizing the existing database to predict personnel at increased risk for laser exposure and injury is challenging if not impossible. For example, many of the data sources do not contain information about physical examinations, diagnosis, or medical follow-up, which are important for studying laser injury outcomes. This study proposes using the Delphi Technique to identify relevant fields that should be collected for a laser incident database based on the experiences of three groups of United States Air Force (USAF) professionals: (1) Engineers (Bioenvironmental Engineers), (2) Health Physicists, and (3) Physicians (Ophthalmologists and Flight Surgeons). In broad terms, these three professional groups coordinate laser incident analyses and investigations. Knowing what information is most important for studying laser incidents is the first step in establishing an effective database that will assist in identifying occupations that are at high-risk for laser injury. Robust data sets obtained for analysis by these healthcare professionals can be an effective tool for laser injury prevention and management.

  13. [Chemical incidents and gathering information on toxicity].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Miyako; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2006-12-01

    Major cases of chemical incidents and information on chemical agents and chemical terrorist attacks are outlined. Since the late 1990s, major incidents occurred consecutively, such as two cases of sarin attack in 1994 and 1995, an oil spill from a Russian oil tanker in the Japan Sea in 1997, arsenic poisoning in Wakayama in 1998, the criticality incident at Tokai-Mura in 1999 in Japan, and terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, in New York. The importance of crisis management and cooperation among relevant organizations has been emphasized. To provide information for an appropriate and quick response in emergencies, we prepared a Web portal site for information on chemicals including chemical agents, a chemical incident database, and links to relevant Web sites. In intentional cases of poisoning caused by toxic chemicals in Japan, 111 cases were collected mainly from a newspaper database (1984-1999). Many copy-cat poisonings occurred, especially in 1984-1985 and in 1998 just after an arsenic poisoning incident in Wakayama. Many cases occurred in the laboratories of institutes, universities, and hospitals where various types of chemicals are used. PMID:17139152

  14. Redefining critical incidents: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Burns, C; Rosenberg, L

    2001-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to describe how some traumatic events become "critical incidents" and to generate a new understanding of the term critical incident. The qualitative research design utilized content analysis of structured interviews of six emergency nurses. The nurses were interviewed regarding the ways they think about certain patient care events, the reasons that specific events are remembered and the changes that occurred following the experience of an event they considered to be critical. The definitions of a critical incident as described in the literature--as an event, as a professional's reaction and as a professional's performance--are included in the nurses' comments. None of them, however, offers a comprehensive way of describing a critical incident. The results of this pilot study suggest one, two or all three elements may be present when a traumatic event is experienced. The interaction of these elements helps to produce a fourth "critical" component, the meaning a nurse gives to an event, which can trigger cognitive, affective and/or behavioral changes. This study acknowledges the importance of all the definitions of a critical incident and proposes a more comprehensive definition that results from the interaction among the other components and the generation of personal meaning and change. PMID:11351507

  15. Analysis of medication incidents and development of a Medication Incident Rate Clinical Indicator.

    PubMed

    Headford, C; McGowan, S; Clifford, R

    2001-07-01

    Most health service organisations depend solely upon spontaneous voluntary reporting of medication incidents and a wide variety of available denominators are used in order to calculate the Medication Incident Rate (MIR). This paper describes how nursing staff and clinical pharmacists reviewed medication incident data, revised and established new systems of reporting and developed a clinically useful, rate-based MIR Clinical Indicator. In order to make the MIR more meaningful, the frequency of occurrence of incidents was considered within the context of the total number of medications given to patients. This was achieved by undertaking a point prevalence audit of all inpatient medication charts (n=372) to determine the total number of doses of medication given to patients during a 24 hour period (n=3211). This value was then used as the denominator for the MIR indicator. During 1998, a total of 475 medication incidents were reported; the average number of incidents was 1.3 per 24 hours. The MIR per 1000 doses was calculated to be 0.4. In most cases (77%) the incident caused no harm to the patient and no change in treatment was required, and the most 'severe' category for any incident was that active treatment was required (3% of reported incidents). The most common type of incident was the omission of a dose of medication (50%). A wide range of drugs were involved in the incidents, most commonly morphine (3.4%). The authors consider that the development and use of the MIR Clinical Indicator has positively influenced clinical practice in some areas at the authors' hospital. PMID:15484647

  16. Determinants of occupational disease incidence in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Most occupational health researchers have studied individual determinants, tending to forget those causes that are universally present. To explore some determinants of occupational disease incidence in Mexico, the authors carried out an ecological study with data from 32 Mexican states. Using ordinary least squares regression, they explored associations between occupational disease incidence and the Gini coefficient, the percentage of small and median enterprises, and migration. Income inequality and the combined percentage of small and median enterprises were negatively associated with the incidence of occupational disease. In Mexico, the "population strategy" of the prevention of occupational disease suggests that big enterprises' contexts are related to a higher occurrence of occupational diseases. Further studies using multilevel approaches are needed to establish whether these occupational diseases are related to exposures present in big or in small and median enterprises. PMID:17447573

  17. Cancer incidence among Finnish nuclear reactor workers.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Hyvönen, Hannu; Hakama, Matti; Rytömaa, Tapio

    2002-07-01

    Because of their well-documented exposures to repeated low doses of ionizing radiation, nuclear reactor workers offer an opportunity to assess cancer risk from low-dose radiation. A cohort of all 15,619 Finnish nuclear reactor workers was established through dose-monitoring records. A questionnaire survey revealed no substantial differences in consumption of tobacco or alcohol between different exposure groups nor between nuclear power company employees and contract workers. In the follow-up for cancer incidence, no clear excess in cancer incidence was observed overall, nor was any observed in any of the specific cancer types studied. There was little evidence for an association between cancer incidence and cumulative radiation dose, but the statistical power was limited. More precise estimates will be available from an international collaborative study of nuclear industry workers, including our cohort. PMID:12134527

  18. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  19. Global incidence and outcome of testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugalingam, Thurkaa; Soultati, Aspasia; Chowdhury, Simon; Rudman, Sarah; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular cancer is a rare tumor type accounting for 1% of malignancies in men. It is, however, the most common cancer in young men in Western populations. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing globally, although a decline in mortality rates has been reported in Western countries. It is important to identify whether the variations in trends observed between populations are linked to genetic or environmental factors. Methods Age-standardized incidence rates and age-standardized mortality rates for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in ten countries from the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5plus) and World Health Organization (WHO) mortality databases. The annual percent change was calculated using Joinpoint regression to assess temporal changes between geographical regions. Results Testicular cancer age-standardized incidence rates are highest in New Zealand (7.8), UK (6.3), Australia (6.1), Sweden (5.6), USA (5.2), Poland (4.9), and Spain (3.8) per 100,000 men. India, China, and Colombia had the lowest incidence (0.5, 1.3, and 2.2, respectively) per 100,000 men. The annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer incidence significantly increased in the European countries Sweden 2.4%, (2.2; 2.6); UK 2.9%, (2.2; 3.6); and Spain 5.0%, (1.7; 8.4), Australia 3.0%, (2.2; 3.7), and China 3.5%, (1.9; 5.1). India had the lowest overall testicular cancer incidence −1.7%, (−2.5; −0.8). Annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer mortality rates were decreasing in all study populations, with the greatest decline observed in Sweden −4.2%, (−4.8; −3.6) and China −4.9%, (−6.5; −3.3). Conclusion Testicular cancer is increasing in incidence in many countries; however, mortality rates remain low and most men are cured. An understanding of the risks and long-term side effects of treatment are important in managing men with this disease. PMID:24204171

  20. Learning from adverse incidents involving medical devices.

    PubMed

    Amoore, John; Ingram, Paula

    While an adverse event involving a medical device is often ascribed to either user error or device failure, the causes are typically multifactorial. A number of incidents involving medical devices are explored using this approach to investigate the various causes of the incident and the protective barriers that minimised or prevented adverse consequences. User factors, including mistakes, omissions and lack of training, conspired with background factors--device controls and device design, storage conditions, hidden device damage and physical layout of equipment when in use--to cause the adverse events. Protective barriers that prevented or minimised the consequences included staff vigilance, operating procedures and alarms. PMID:12715578

  1. Transfusion associated circulatory overload: a critical incident.

    PubMed

    Goodall, E

    2014-01-01

    Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) is a serious but under-recognised complication of blood transfusion. While the exact incidence rate is unknown the associated morbidity and mortality make this a transfusion reaction worthy of attention. This article provides details of a critical incident involving TACO followed by a literature review and discussion written from the perspective of a student ODP. The goal of this article is to raise awareness of TACO amongst hospital staff to facilitate faster recognition and earlier intervention in future events. PMID:24516967

  2. Education and Training for Major Incidents Through Medical Response to Major Incidents-MRMI course.

    PubMed

    Samardzic, Josip; Hreckovski, Boris; Hasukic, Ismar

    2015-06-01

    Incidence of major incidents nowadays is in constant growth, especially in last decade. Main goal of all health systems is to minimize and prevent tragic outcomes of major incidents, thus reducing morbidity and mortality and psychological and physical suffering. Lessons learned from Major Incidents throughout the World point out that tragical outcomes could be avoided through adequate preparation and planning. Necessity to plan and to educate to response to Major incident is greater than ever. Finally it is legal obligation that every hospital has plan in case of Major Incident. Effective planning must incorporate: identification of risks, methods of prevention, identification of all recourses, anticipation of errors and detailed protocol of response for each participant. Knowledge and skills needed for Major incident situations must be adopted through interactive training and practical exercise ("learning by doing"). That can be achieved by field exercises and by simulation model. Simulation model has many advantages and enables simultaneous education and training of all participants; scene, transport, hospitals, communication and command which than can be evaluated through objective outcomes. The goal is to train medical staff in real time, on position they are assigned to, with available resources in conditions of Major incident. PMID:26236085

  3. Aneuploidy and Confined Chromosomal Mosaicism in the Developing Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Liehr, Thomas; Kolotii, Alexei D.; Kutsev, Sergei I.; Pellestor, Franck; Beresheva, Alfia K.; Demidova, Irina A.; Kravets, Viktor S.; Monakhov, Viktor V.; Soloviev, Ilia V.

    2007-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms underlying generation of neuronal variability and complexity remains the central challenge for neuroscience. Structural variation in the neuronal genome is likely to be one important mechanism for neuronal diversity and brain diseases. Large-scale genomic variations due to loss or gain of whole chromosomes (aneuploidy) have been described in cells of the normal and diseased human brain, which are generated from neural stem cells during intrauterine period of life. However, the incidence of aneuploidy in the developing human brain and its impact on the brain development and function are obscure. Methodology/Principal Findings To address genomic variation during development we surveyed aneuploidy/polyploidy in the human fetal tissues by advanced molecular-cytogenetic techniques at the single-cell level. Here we show that the human developing brain has mosaic nature, being composed of euploid and aneuploid neural cells. Studying over 600,000 neural cells, we have determined the average aneuploidy frequency as 1.25–1.45% per chromosome, with the overall percentage of aneuploidy tending to approach 30–35%. Furthermore, we found that mosaic aneuploidy can be exclusively confined to the brain. Conclusions/Significance Our data indicates aneuploidization to be an additional pathological mechanism for neuronal genome diversification. These findings highlight the involvement of aneuploidy in the human brain development and suggest an unexpected link between developmental chromosomal instability, intercellural/intertissular genome diversity and human brain diseases. PMID:17593959

  4. Non-coding RNAs in cancer brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kerui; Sharma, Sambad; Venkat, Suresh; Liu, Keqin; Zhou, Xiaobo; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2016-01-01

    More than 90% of cancer death is attributed to metastatic disease, and the brain is one of the major metastatic sites of melanoma, colon, renal, lung and breast cancers. Despite the recent advancement of targeted therapy for cancer, the incidence of brain metastasis is increasing. One reason is that most therapeutic drugs can't penetrate blood-brain-barrier and tumor cells find the brain as sanctuary site. In this review, we describe the pathophysiology of brain metastases to introduce the latest understandings of metastatic brain malignancies. This review also particularly focuses on non-coding RNAs and their roles in cancer brain metastasis. Furthermore, we discuss the roles of the extracellular vesicles as they are known to transport information between cells to initiate cancer cell-microenvironment communication. The potential clinical translation of non-coding RNAs as a tool for diagnosis and for treatment is also discussed in this review. At the end, the computational aspects of non-coding RNA detection, the sequence and structure calculation and epigenetic regulation of non-coding RNA in brain metastasis are discussed. PMID:26709907

  5. Brain iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    Iron is essential for virtually all types of cells and organisms. The significance of the iron for brain function is reflected by the presence of receptors for transferrin on brain capillary endothelial cells. The transport of iron into the brain from the circulation is regulated so that the extraction of iron by brain capillary endothelial cells is low in iron-replete conditions and the reverse when the iron need of the brain is high as in conditions with iron deficiency and during development of the brain. Whereas there is good agreement that iron is taken up by means of receptor-mediated uptake of iron-transferrin at the brain barriers, there are contradictory views on how iron is transported further on from the brain barriers and into the brain extracellular space. The prevailing hypothesis for transport of iron across the BBB suggests a mechanism that involves detachment of iron from transferrin within barrier cells followed by recycling of apo-transferrin to blood plasma and release of iron as non-transferrin-bound iron into the brain interstitium from where the iron is taken up by neurons and glial cells. Another hypothesis claims that iron-transferrin is transported into the brain by means of transcytosis through the BBB. This thesis deals with the topic "brain iron homeostasis" defined as the attempts to maintain constant concentrations of iron in the brain internal environment via regulation of iron transport through brain barriers, cellular iron uptake by neurons and glia, and export of iron from brain to blood. The first part deals with transport of iron-transferrin complexes from blood to brain either by transport across the brain barriers or by uptake and retrograde axonal transport in motor neurons projecting beyond the blood-brain barrier. The transport of iron and transport into the brain was examined using radiolabeled iron-transferrin. Intravenous injection of [59Fe-125]transferrin led to an almost two-fold higher accumulation of 59Fe than of

  6. Epilepsy in patients with gliomas: incidence and control of seizures.

    PubMed

    Iuchi, Toshihiko; Hasegawa, Yuzo; Kawasaki, Koichiro; Sakaida, Tsukasa

    2015-01-01

    Brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE) is a unique condition that is distinct from primary epilepsy. The aim of this retrospective study was to clarify the epidemiology and results of treatment of BTRE in a single institution. From a database of 121 consecutive patients with supratentorial gliomas treated at Chiba Cancer Center from 2006-2012, the incidence and control of seizures before and after surgery were retrospectively evaluated. Epilepsy occurred in 33.9% of patients before surgery. All patients received prophylactic anti-epileptic drugs (AED) during surgery; however, seizures occurred in 9.1% of patients within the first postoperative week. During follow-up, seizures occurred in 48.3% of patients. The overall incidence of seizures was 73.7% in patients with World Health Organization Grade II gliomas, 66.7% in those with Grade III and 56.8% in those with Grade IV gliomas. Levetiracetam was very well tolerated. However, carbamazepine and phenytoin were poorly tolerated because of adverse effects. AED were discontinued in 56 patients. Fifteen of these patients (26.8%) had further seizures, half occurring within 3 months and 80% within 6 months of AED withdrawal. No clinical factors that indicated it was safe to discontinue AED were identified. The unpredictable epileptogenesis associated with gliomas and their excision requires prolonged administration of AED. To maintain quality of life and to safely and effectively control the tumor, it is necessary to select AED that do not adversely affect cognitive function or interact with other drugs, including anti-cancer agents. PMID:25192590

  7. Experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex pathology of traumatic brain injury towards the development of novel treatments. Among the rodent models of traumatic brain injury the most commonly used are the weight-drop, the fluid percussion, and the cortical contusion injury models. As the entire spectrum of events that might occur in traumatic brain injury cannot be covered by one single rodent model, the design and choice of a specific model represents a major challenge for neuroscientists. This review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available rodent models for traumatic brain injury. PMID:20707892

  8. [Brain abscess - overview].

    PubMed

    Sveinsson, Olafur Arni; Asgeirsson, Hilmir; Olafsson, Ingvar H

    2013-01-01

    Brain abscess is a life threatening illness, demanding rapid diagnosis and treatment. Its development requires seeding of an organism into the brain parenchyma, often in an area of damaged brain tissue or in a region with poor microcirculation. The lesion evolves from a cerebritis stage to capsule formation. Brain abscesses can be caused by contiguous or haematogenous spread of an infection, or by head trauma/ neurosurgical procedure. The most common presentation is that of headache and vomiting due to raised intracranial pressure. Seizures have been reported in up to 50% of cases. Focal neurological deficits may be present, depending on the location of the lesion. Treatment of a brain abscess involves aspiration or excision, along with parenteral antibiotic therapy. The outcome has improved dramatically in the last decades due to improvement in diagnostic techniques, neurosurgery, and broad-spectrum antibiotics. The authors provide an overview of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of brain abscesses. PMID:23341403

  9. Schizophrenia and the gut-brain axis.

    PubMed

    Nemani, Katlyn; Hosseini Ghomi, Reza; McCormick, Beth; Fan, Xiaoduo

    2015-01-01

    Several risk factors for the development of schizophrenia can be linked through a common pathway in the intestinal tract. It is now increasingly recognized that bidirectional communication exists between the brain and the gut that uses neural, hormonal, and immunological routes. An increased incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) barrier dysfunction, food antigen sensitivity, inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome is seen in schizophrenia. These findings may be influenced by the composition of the gut microbiota. A significant subgroup of patients may benefit from the initiation of a gluten and casein-free diet. Antimicrobials and probiotics have therapeutic potential for reducing the metabolic dysfunction and immune dysregulation seen in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25240858

  10. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rik P; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Grievink, Linda; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke

    2013-10-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of the Army and Military Police who had been deployed to the Balkan region (1993-2001) was compared with their peers not deployed to the Balkans (n=135,355, median follow-up 15 years) and with the general Dutch population of comparable age and sex. The incidence of all cancers and 4 main cancer subgroups was studied in the period 1993-2008. The cancer incidence rate among Balkan deployed military men was 17% lower than among non-Balkan deployed military men (hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.00)). For the 4 main cancer subgroups, hazard ratios were statistically non-significantly below 1. Also compared to the general population cancer rates were lower in Balkan deployed personnel (standardised incidence rate ratio (SIR) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99). The SIR for leukaemia was 0.63 (0.20, 1.46). The authors conclude that earlier suggestions of increased cancer risks among veterans are not supported by empirical data. The lower risk of cancer might be explained by the 'healthy warrior effect'. PMID:23707157

  11. Assessment of Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus stubborn disease (CSD) has been a problem in California for over 90 years, yet, methods for rapidly detecting its causal agent, Spiroplasma citri, for use in estimating disease incidence have not been optimized. Two 8 ha blocks within two commercial groves were sampled in July and August, 20...

  12. 42 CFR 73.14 - Incident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incident response. 73.14 Section 73.14 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING... response procedures for the theft, loss, or release of a select agent or toxin, inventory...

  13. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... program; (2) Initiate appropriate action as specified in the Airport Emergency Plan under 14 CFR 139.325... required to have a security program under § 1542.103(c) but not subject to 14 CFR part 139, must develop... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section...

  14. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... program; (2) Initiate appropriate action as specified in the Airport Emergency Plan under 14 CFR 139.325... required to have a security program under § 1542.103(c) but not subject to 14 CFR part 139, must develop... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section...

  15. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... program; (2) Initiate appropriate action as specified in the Airport Emergency Plan under 14 CFR 139.325... required to have a security program under § 1542.103(c) but not subject to 14 CFR part 139, must develop... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section...

  16. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... program; (2) Initiate appropriate action as specified in the Airport Emergency Plan under 14 CFR 139.325... required to have a security program under § 1542.103(c) but not subject to 14 CFR part 139, must develop... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section...

  17. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... program; (2) Initiate appropriate action as specified in the Airport Emergency Plan under 14 CFR 139.325... required to have a security program under § 1542.103(c) but not subject to 14 CFR part 139, must develop... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section...

  18. Facilitating medication incident analysis through computerization.

    PubMed

    Pankoski, D G; Dinel, B A

    1988-05-01

    A computer program to facilitate medication incident analysis is described. This program was developed to provide the hospital's Medication Quality Assurance Committee with more meaningful data on medication incidents in an easily accessible database as well as enhanced data storage. The menu-driven program was developed on an Olivetti M-24 SP microcomputer using Lotus 1-2-3 and Harvard Business Graphics software. The structured format of the database contains specific information from each individual medication incident report. On a monthly basis, macro commands are used to extract criteria-based data from the database and present this information in a tabular format. In addition, annual data tables are complied to provide year-to-date data summaries. The database and tables are copied and stored on a computer diskette each month. This computer program has provided the Medication Quality Assurance Committee with an improved system for medication incident data analysis. The major benefit of this computer program over the previous manual system is the more timely identification of medication-related practices requiring closer monitoring and/or revision to improve patient care. PMID:10287638

  19. Establishing fiducials on glancing incidence mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleetwood, C. M.; Thomas, R. J.; Wright, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for aligning cylindrical glancing incidence mirrors and establishing fiducials prior to axial profile measurements. The residual uncertainty in the absolute axial position is 2.54 microns, and the uncertainty in the absolute radius is 0.812 micron.

  20. Cancer incidence and survival following bereavement.

    PubMed Central

    Levav, I; Kohn, R; Iscovich, J; Abramson, J H; Tsai, W Y; Vigdorovich, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of parental bereavement on cancer incidence and survival. METHODS: A cohort of 6284 Jewish Israelis who lost an adult son in the Yom Kippur War or in an accident between 1970 and 1977 was followed for 20 years. We compared the incidence of cancer in this cohort with that among nonbereaved members of the population by logistic regression analysis. The survival of bereaved parents with cancer was compared with that of matched controls with cancer. RESULTS: Increased incidence was found for lymphatic and hematopoietic malignancies among the parents of accident victims (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30, 3.11) and among war-bereaved parents (OR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.13, 1.92), as well as for melanomas (OR = 4.62 [95% CI = 1.93, 11.06] and 1.71 [95% CI = 1.06, 2.76], respectively). Accident-bereaved parents also had an increased risk of respiratory cancer (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.11). The survival study showed that the risk of death was increased by bereavement if the cancer had been diagnosed before the loss, but not after. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed an effect of stress on the incidence of malignancies for selected sites and accelerated demise among parents bereaved following a diagnosis of cancer, but not among those bereaved before such a diagnosis. PMID:11029995

  1. [Chronic placental insufficiency: incidence and causes].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, M V; Mariasheva, N V; Alekseevskiĭ, A V; Kotov, Iu B; Lukashenko, S Iu

    1990-08-01

    This population study has examined the incidence and determinants of placental insufficiency. Predictors of placental dysfunction were ascertained. They included somatic diseases, gestational complications, a positive obstetric and gynecologic history and a series of constitutional factors. Populations of primiparae+- and multigravidae at risk of placental insufficiency were identified. PMID:2260740

  2. [Cancer incidence in the military: an update].

    PubMed

    Peragallo, Mario Stefano; Urbano, Francesco; Sarnicola, Giuseppe; Lista, Florigio; Vecchione, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    An abnormally elevated rate of Hodgkin's lymphoma was reported in 2001 among Italian soldiers in Bosnia and Kosovo since 1995: a surveillance system was therefore set up for the military community. Preliminary results for a longer period (1996-2007) have shown incidence rates lower than expected for all malignancies. No significant difference was registered between observed and expected cases of Hodkin's lymphoma: the excess of reported cases for this malignancy in 2001-2002 was probably due to a peak occurred in 2000 among the whole military; it is therefore unrelated to deployment in the Balkans, and probably represents a chance event. Moreover, a significant excess of thyroid cancer was reported among the whole military.The estimated number of incident cases, including those missed by the surveillance system, was not significantly higher than expected for all cancers; conversely, the estimated incidence rate of thyroid cancer was significantly increased; this excess, however, is probably due to a selection bias.These data concerning cancer surveillance in the Italian military are consistent with lacking evidence of an increased cancer incidence among troops of other countries deployed in the areas of Iraq, Bosnia, and Kosovo, where armour penetrating depleted uranium shells have been used. However, a comprehensive assessment of cancer morbidity in the military requires a revision of the privacy regulations, in order to link individual records of military personnel and data bases of the National Health Service. PMID:22166781

  3. Oscillating cascade aerodynamics at large mean incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Buffum, D.H.; Capece, V.R.; King, A.J.; El-Aini, Y.M.

    1998-01-01

    The aerodynamics of a cascade of airfoils oscillating in torsion about the midchord is investigated experimentally at a large mean incidence angle and, for reference, at a low mean incidence angle. The airfoil section is representative of a modern, low-aspect-ratio, fan blade tip section. Time-dependent airfoil surface pressure measurements were made for reduced frequencies of up to 1.2 for out-of-phase oscillations at a Mach number of 0.5 and chordal incidence angles of 0 and 10 deg; the Reynolds number was 0.9 {times} 10{sup 6}. For the 10 deg chordal incidence angle, a separation bubble formed at the leading edge of the suction surface. The separated flow field was found to have a dramatic effect on the chordwise distribution of the unsteady pressure. In this region, substantial deviations from the attached flow data were found, with the deviations becoming less apparent in the aft region of the airfoil for all reduced frequencies. In particular, near the leading edge the separated flow had a strong destabilizing influence while the attached flow had a strong stabilizing influence.

  4. Injury incidence and balance in rugby players

    PubMed Central

    M, Jaco Ras; Puckree, Threethambal

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This study determined and correlated injury incidence and balance in rugby players. Methods: A prospective survey with balance testing was conducted on first year rugby academy players (N= 114). Injury incidence, static and dynamic balance were tested pre and post-season using a Biosway portable balance system. The data was analysed using paired and independent samples t-tests at p<0.05, Odds ratios, and Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Results: 75.50% participated, 71.40% were 18 years old, and 71.40% were White. Injury was sustained by 83% of players with the knee (25%) most commonly injured. Injury incidence was 1.52 per player with an injury rate of 5.95 injuries per 1000 match playing hours. The Stability Index increased significantly (p=0.03) by 15% in the medial/lateral direction post-season compared to pre-season. Significant differences in post-test anterior posterior and overall static and front and front right dynamic stability between injured and uninjured players were noted. Risk factors for injury included the scrum-half (14.80%) playing position, injuries in the 2nd half of the match (57%), and during contact (67%). Conclusion : Injury incidence was related to static and dynamic balance in forward right direction only. PMID:25674136

  5. Assessment of Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus stubborn disease, caused by Spiroplasma Citri, has occured in California for more than 90 years, however, detection methods for estimating disease incidence have not been well developed. Two 8 ha plots in Kern Co. CA were established and sampled in July and August, 2006. Different tissues o...

  6. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  7. Oscillating cascade aerodynamics at large mean incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; King, Aaron J.; El-Aini, Yehia M.; Capece, Vincent R.

    1996-01-01

    The aerodynamics of a cascade of airfoils oscillating in torsion about the midchord is investigated experimentally at a large mean incidence angle and, for reference, at a low mean incidence angle. The airfoil section is representative of a modern, low aspect ratio, fan blade tip section. Time-dependent airfoil surface pressure measurements were made for reduced frequencies of up to 1.2 for out-of-phase oscillations at a Mach number of 0.5 and chordal incidence angles of 0 deg and 10 deg; the Reynolds number was 0.9 x l0(exp 6). For the 10 deg chordal incidence angle, a separation bubble formed at the leading edge of the suction surface. The separated flow field was found to have a dramatic effect on the chordwise distribution of the unsteady pressure. In this region, substantial deviations from the attached flow data were found with the deviations becoming less apparent in the aft region of the airfoil for all reduced frequencies. In particular, near the leading edge the separated flow had a strong destabilizing influence while the attached flow had a strong stabilizing influence.

  8. Perceptions and Incidence of Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwing, Travis G.; Rash, Joshua A.; Allen Gerwing, Alyssa M.; Bramble, Bev; Landine, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety (TA) can lower student GPA and increase dropout rates in populations of university students. Despite numerous treatment options, many students still suffer from TA. The stigma attached to this type of anxiety and the incidence rates and perceptions of TA were quantified through surveys distributed to 1,099 students at a Canadian…

  9. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV degradation, particulate soiling, and background color. Only the first three are covered in this paper due to lack of sufficient data. The cosine correction is commonly used but is not sufficient when the incident angle is large. Fresnel reflection calculations require knowledge of the index of refraction of the coverglass front surface. The absolute index of refraction for the coverglass front surface was not known nor was it measured due to lack of funds. However, a value for the index of refraction was obtained by examining how the prediction errors varied with different assumed indices and selecting the best fit to the set of measured values. Corrections using front surface Fresnel reflection along with the cosine correction give very good predictive results when compared to measured data, except there is a definite trend away from predicted values at the larger incident angles. This trend could be related to edge effects and is illustrated by a use of a box plot of the errors and by plotting the deviation of the mean against incidence angle. The trend is for larger deviations at larger incidence angles and there may be a fourth order effect involved in the trend. A chi-squared test was used to determine if the measurement errors were normally distributed. At 10 degrees the chi-squared test failed, probably due to the very small numbers involved or a bias from the measurement procedure. All other angles showed a good fit to the normal distribution with increasing goodness-of-fit as the angles increased which reinforces the very small numbers hypothesis. The contributed data only went to 65 degrees

  10. [Incidence of occupational diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Szymczak, W

    1999-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland. The analysis was performed on the basis of the information included in 'occupational disease certificates'. All sanitary and epidemiological stations throughout the country are committed to send these certificates to the Central Register of Occupational Medicine in The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź. The incidence of occupational diseases during the three recent years (1996-97-98) was the subject of a thorough analysis. In all, 11,318, 11,685 and 12,017 cases of occupational diseases, respectively were registered over those three years. The corresponding rates were 116.0, 116.9 and 117.3, respectively per 100,000 people employed. In 1998, diseases of the voice organ predominated (30.4%) of all occupational diseases) and they were followed by hearing impairment (28.2%), infectious and parasitic diseases (9.9%), pneumoconioses (8.2%), dermatoses (6.4%), vibratory syndrome (2.9%) and poisoning (2.5%). These disease categories constituted over 88% of all occupational diseases registered in that year. Diseases of the voice organ which showed the greatest growth dynamic were mainly diagnosed among teachers. Neither in the United States nor in the member states of the European Union, this pathology is included into the list of occupational diseases. In view of high rates of its incidence in our country it has become one of essential problems of occupational medicine. In Poland, particular attention is paid to infectious and parasitic diseases among which hepatitis occupies the first place (65%), mostly among health service workers. The decrease in hepatitis incidence observed in the 1990s has been due to an intensive vaccination programme in this group of workers. The incidence of occupational hepatitis became rather stable and accounted for 940 cases per year, however the incidence of hepatitic C increased at the same time. Lower rates of incidence of 'classic

  11. Left Brain, Right Brain, Super Brain: The Holistic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellin, David

    Recent discoveries about the whole brain seem to call for a holistic approach to learning, one in which educators would teach the whole person, including physical and emotional states as well as cognitive abilities. Three holistic techniques are particularly relevant to education: (1) biofeedback; (2) yoga; and (3) the Lozanov method. Biofeedback…

  12. Structural brain defects.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Fricke, Stanley T; Gropman, Andrea L

    2015-06-01

    Up to 14% of patients with congenital metabolic disease may show structural brain abnormalities from perturbation of cell proliferation, migration, and/or organization. Most inborn errors of metabolism have a postnatal onset. Abnormalities from genetic disease processes have a prenatal onset. Energy impairment, substrate insufficiency, cell membrane receptor and cell signaling abnormalities, and toxic byproduct accumulation are associations between genetic disorders and structural brain anomalies. Collective imaging patterns of brain abnormalities can provide clues to the underlying etiology. We review selected metabolic diseases associated with brain malformations and highlight characteristic clinical and imaging manifestations that help narrow the differential diagnosis. PMID:26042908

  13. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children)

  14. Consciousness, brain, neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Askenasy, Jean; Lehmann, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Subjectivity, intentionality, self-awareness and will are major components of consciousness in human beings. Changes in consciousness and its content following different brain processes and malfunction have long been studied. Cognitive sciences assume that brain activities have an infrastructure, but there is also evidence that consciousness itself may change this infrastructure. The two-way influence between brain and consciousness has been at the center of philosophy and less so, of science. This so-called bottom-up and top-down interrelationship is controversial and is the subject of our article. We would like to ask: how does it happen that consciousness may provoke structural changes in the brain? The living brain means continuous changes at the synaptic level with every new experience, with every new process of learning, memorizing or mastering new and existing skills. Synapses are generated and dissolved, while others are preserved, in an ever-changing process of so-called neuroplasticity. Ongoing processes of synaptic reinforcements and decay occur during wakefulness when consciousness is present, but also during sleep when it is mostly absent. We suggest that consciousness influences brain neuroplasticity both during wakefulness as well as sleep in a top-down way. This means that consciousness really activates synaptic flow and changes brain structures and functional organization. The dynamic impact of consciousness on brain never stops despite the relative stationary structure of the brain. Such a process can be a target for medical intervention, e.g., by cognitive training. PMID:23847580

  15. The incidence of inherited porphyrias in Europe.

    PubMed

    Elder, George; Harper, Pauline; Badminton, Michael; Sandberg, Sverre; Deybach, Jean-Charles

    2013-09-01

    Retrospective estimates of the prevalence of porphyrias have been reported but there has been no large scale prospective study of their incidence. The European Porphyria Network collected information prospectively over a 3 year period about the number of newly diagnosed symptomatic patients with an inherited porphyria (335 patients from 11 countries). Prevalence was calculated from the incidence and mean disease duration. The incidence of hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC) in acute hepatic porphyria and the prevalence of patients with recurrent acute attacks of porphyria were also investigated. The incidence of symptomatic acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) was similar in all countries (0.13 per million per year; 95 % CI: 0.10 - 0.14) except Sweden (0.51; 95 % CI: 0.28-0.86). The incidence ratio for symptomatic AIP: variegate porphyria: hereditary coproporphyria was 1.00:0.62: 0.15. The prevalence of AIP (5.4 per million; 95 % CI: 4.5-6.3) was about half that previously reported. The prevalence of erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) was less uniform between countries and, in some countries, exceeded previous estimates. Fourteen new cases of HCC (11 from Sweden) were reported in patients with acute porphyria. Sixty seven patients (3 VP; 64 AIP: 53 females, 11 males) with recurrent attacks of acute porphyria were identified. The estimated percentage of patients with AIP that will develop recurrent acute attacks was 3-5 %. In conclusion, the prevalence of symptomatic acute porphyria may be decreasing, possibly due to improved management, whereas the prevalence of EPP may be increasing due to improved diagnosis and its greater recognition as a cause of photosensitivity. PMID:23114748

  16. The incidence of Gorlin syndrome in 173 consecutive cases of medulloblastoma.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D. G.; Farndon, P. A.; Burnell, L. D.; Gattamaneni, H. R.; Birch, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the incidence of Gorlin syndrome (GS) in patients with the childhood brain tumour, medulloblastoma. One hundred and seventy-three consecutive cases of medulloblastoma in the North-West Regional Health Authority between 1954 and 1989 (Manchester Regional Health Board before 1974) were studied. After review of case notes, X-rays and health surveys only 2/173 cases had evidence supporting a diagnosis of GS. A further case at 50% risk of GS died of a brain tumour aged 4 years. The incidence of GS in medulloblastoma is, therefore, probably between 1-2%. A population based study of GS in the region started in 1983 was used to assess the incidence of medulloblastoma in GS, which was found to be between 3-5%. This figure is lower than previous estimates, but this is the first population based study undertaken. In view of the early age of onset in GS (mean 2 years) children presenting with medulloblastoma, especially under 5 years, should be examined for signs of the syndrome. Those at high risk of developing multiple invasive basal cell carcinomata will then be identified. PMID:1931625

  17. POWER DENSITY, FIELD INTENSITY, AND CARRIER FREQUENCY DETERMINANTS OF RF-ENERGY-INDUCED CALCIUM-ION EFFLUX FROM BRAIN TISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To explain a carrier frequency dependence reported for radiofrequency (RF)-induced calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue, a chick-brain hemisphere bathed in buffer solution is modeled as a sphere within the uniform field of the incident electromagnetic wave. Calculations on a sphe...

  18. Traumatic Brain Injury: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 18 = Lesion Cerebral: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers general information about traumatic brain injury. Information includes a definition, incidence, individual characteristics, and educational implications. The fact sheet notes that the designation of traumatic brain injury as a separate category of disability signals that schools should provide children and youth with access…

  19. The Racialistic Incidents Inventory: Measuring Awareness of Racialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen-Claiborne, Joyce G.; Taylor, Jerome

    The Racialistic Incidents Inventory (RII) was developed to measure individual awareness of eight types of racialistic incidents. Racialistic incidents were defined as situations in which behaviors or attitudes are directed toward a particular racial/ethnic group; these may reflect racist or nonracist attitudes. The typology of incidents was…

  20. Traumatic brain injury in a rural indigenous population in Canada: a community-based approach to surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Lasry, Oliver; Dudley, Roy W.; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Torrie, Jill; Carlin, Robert; Marcoux, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background: Indigenous populations are disproportionately affected by traumatic brain injury. These populations rely on large jurisdiction surveillance efforts to inform their prevention strategies, which may not address their needs. We examined the incidence and determinants of traumatic brain injury in an indigenous population in the Terres-Cries-de-la-Baie-James health region of the province of Quebec and compared them with the incidence and determinants in 2 neighbouring health regions and in the province overall. Methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study of patients in Quebec admitted to hospital with incident traumatic brain injury, stratified by health region (Terres-Cries-de-la-Baie-James, Nunavik and Nord-du-Québec), from 2000 to 2012. We used MED-ÉCHO administrative data for case-finding. A subgroup analysis of adults in the Terres-Cries-de-la-Baie-James health region was completed to assess determinants of the severity of traumatic brain injury and patient outcomes. Results: A total of 172 hospital admissions for incident traumatic brain injury occurred in the Terres-Cries-de-la-Baie-James region during the study period. The incidence was 92.1 per 100 000 person-years, and the adjusted incidence rate ratio was 1.84 (95% confidence interval 1.56-2.17) compared with the entire province. The incidence was higher than in the neighbouring nonindigenous population (Nord-du-Québec) but significantly lower than in the neighbouring indigenous population (Nunavik). Determinants of traumatic brain injury in the Terres-Cries-de-la-Baie-James region differed from those in the neighbouring populations and in the entire province. Interpretation: We found that the incidence rates and determinants of traumatic brain injury requiring hospital admission varied greatly between the three regions studied. Community-based surveillance efforts should be encouraged to inform the development of relevant prevention strategies.

  1. Split Brain Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizing recent research, this article defines the functions performed by the left and right sides of the human brain. Attention is given to the right side, or the nondominant side, of the brain and its potential in terms of perception of the environment, music, art, geometry, and the aesthetics. (JC)

  2. Postcards from the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sam

    2009-07-01

    Brains have long been compared to the most advanced existing technology - including, at one point, telephone switchboards. Today, people often talk about brains as if they were a sort of biological computer, with pink mushy "hardware" and "software" generated by life experiences.

  3. Multiple brain abscesses.

    PubMed

    Burke, L P; Ho, S U; Cerullo, L J; Kim, K S; Harter, D H

    1981-12-01

    A young woman with 12 separate brain abscesses was treated medically after aspiration of one abscess for diagnostic bacteriological examination. She made an excellent recovery with only minimal residual neurological dysfunction. Surgical aspiration for detailed bacteriological studies followed by appropriate antimicrobial therapy is an effective way of treating multiple brain abscesses in the neurologically stable patient. PMID:7330768

  4. Imaging the Working Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swithenby, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    Very sensitive SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) detectors are used in the technique known as magnetoencephalography to provide dynamic images of the brain. This can help our fundamental understanding of the way the brain works and may be of particular use in treating disorders such as epilepsy. (Author/MKR)

  5. Using Your Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Hellen

    2011-01-01

    Many scientists have been fascinated by how the brain works, but much of what is known about the brain has been discovered within the last twenty years. In this article, the author explores how thinking and using one's mind are essential to understanding. She contends that children need to be in control of their learning; the adult's role is to…

  6. COPPER AND BRAIN FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence shows that brain development and function are impaired when the brain is deprived of copper either through dietary copper deficiency or through genetic defects in copper transport. A number of copper-dependent enzymes whose activities are lowered by copper deprivation form the ba...

  7. The Emerging Scholarly Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.

    It is now a commonplace observation that human society is becoming a coherent super-organism, and that the information infrastructure forms its emerging brain. Perhaps, as the underlying technologies are likely to become billions of times more powerful than those we have today, we could say that we are now building the lizard brain for the future organism.

  8. Drugs and the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet explores various aspects of drug addiction, with a special focus on drugs' effects on the brain. A brief introduction presents information on the rampant use of drugs in society and elaborates the distinction between drug abuse and drug addiction. Next, a detailed analysis of the brain and its functions is given. Drugs target the more…

  9. Feed Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failmezger, Tammie L.

    2006-01-01

    Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

  10. Demystifying the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the nature of brain development in adolescence helps explain why adolescents can vacillate so often between mature and immature behavior. Early and middle adolescence, in particular, are times of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior because the brain's reward center is easily aroused, but the systems that control…

  11. Brain-Flow Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robert J.

    The brain-flow writing technique, which might also be called the "fast flow" technique, offers a particularly useful means of helping adults overcome writer's block. It also offers some bonuses in the form of enhanced creativity, improved thought-flow, and much faster writing output. There are six steps to brain-flow writing. In the first, or…

  12. The Resilient Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Longhurst, James E.

    2005-01-01

    Brain research opens new frontiers in working with children and youth experiencing conflict in school and community. Blending this knowledge with resilience science offers a roadmap for reclaiming those identified as "at risk." This article applies findings from resilience research and recent brain research to identify strategies for reaching…

  13. Brain Friendly School Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Judith Anne

    2006-01-01

    This title gives concrete practical examples of how to align school library programs and instructional practice with the six key concepts of brain-compatible learning: increasing input to the brain; increasing experiential data; multiple source feedback; reducing threat; involving students in learning decision making; and interdisciplinary unit…

  14. Brain Pressure Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A transducer originally used to measure air pressure in aircraft wind tunnel tests is the basis for a development important in diagnosis and treatment of certain types of brain damage. A totally implantable device, tbe intracranial pressure monitor measures and reports brain pressure by telemetry.

  15. Inside the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Stacy S.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.

  16. Brain imaging in psychiatry

    SciTech Connect

    Morihisa, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry.

  17. [Systemic treatment of brain metastases from breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Taillibert, S; Conforti, R; Bonneterre, J; Bachelot, T; Le Rhun, E; Bernard-Marty, C

    2015-02-01

    An increase in the incidence of breast cancer patients with brain metastases has been observed over the last years, mainly because the recent development of new drugs including therapies targeting HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) resulted in an increased survival of these patients. With HER2+ patients living longer and the well-known neurotropism of HER2+ tumour cells, the resulting high incidence of brain metastases is not really surprising. Moreover, brain metastases more often occur within a context of existing extracranial metastases. These need to be treated at the same time in order to favourably impact patients' survival. Consequently, the management of breast cancer patients with brain metastases clearly relies on a multidisciplinary approach, including systemic treatment. A working group including neuro-oncologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists and oncologists was created in order to provide French national guidelines for the management of brain metastases within the "Association des neuro-oncologues d'expression française" (ANOCEF). The recommendations regarding the systemic treatment in breast cancer patients are reported here including key features of their management. PMID:25662600

  18. Incident velocity and incident angle of saltating sand grains on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiao-Jing; Fu, Lin-Tao; Bo, Tian-Li

    2013-04-01

    Incident velocity and incident angle are important parameters for Martian aeolian research. In this paper we have established a model for investigating the saltation of sand in steady state, mainly considering the hopping of sand in the air and sand-bed collision process. The model proves to be able to predict sand motion in steady-state saltation on Earth well both qualitatively and quantitatively. Thus, it was applied to the study of sand saltation on Mars. With the help of the model, we found incident velocities and incident angles of Martian grains in steady-state saltation in cases of various wind strengths. Then, these predicted velocities and angles were compared with previous studies. Besides, the model also can show information on lift-off parameters of saltating particles. Therefore, it allows us to study other features in aeolian processes such as the saltation length and sand transport rate.

  19. Critical incidents: effective communication and documentation.

    PubMed

    Carelock, J; Innerarity, S

    2001-02-01

    Critical incidents can be defined at sentinel events, critical patient care issues, or any patient event outside the normal parameters of care. Nurses are central to maintaining the standard of care for patients in these situations. Miscommunication, including inadequate communication and illegible or incomplete documentation, forms a basis for many clinical and interpersonal problems in nursing practice. This practical article discusses expectations, both professional and legal, for avoiding and/or managing critical incidents. Suggestions for assessment parameters to report are included in table format, which the nurse can 'clip and use' as a reminder of data to have prepared before calling and/or presenting the problem. Steps are proposed for a logical, organized plan to help the nurse communicate more effectively. Recommendations for essentials of documentation regarding the verbal interaction and orders received are also presented. PMID:11852951

  20. Bacillus anthracis Bioterrorism Incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993

    PubMed Central

    Keim, Paul; Kaufmann, Arnold F.; Keys, Christine; Smith, Kimothy L.; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Inouye, Sakae; Kurata, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    In July 1993, a liquid suspension of Bacillus anthracis was aerosolized from the roof of an eight-story building in Kameido, Tokyo, Japan, by the religious group Aum Shinrikyo. During 1999 to 2001, microbiologic tests were conducted on a liquid environmental sample originally collected during the 1993 incident. Nonencapsulated isolates of B. anthracis were cultured from the liquid. Multiple-locus, variable-number tandem repeat analysis found all isolates to be identical to a strain used in Japan to vaccinate animals against anthrax, which was consistent with the Aum Shinrikyo members’ testimony about the strain source. In 1999, a retrospective case-detection survey was conducted to identify potential human anthrax cases associated with the incident, but none were found. The use of an attenuated B. anthracis strain, low spore concentrations, ineffective dispersal, a clogged spray device, and inactivation of the spores by sunlight are all likely contributing factors to the lack of human cases. PMID:15112666

  1. Visually Exploring Worldwide Incidents Tracking System Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chhatwal, Shree D.; Rose, Stuart J.

    2008-01-27

    This paper presents refinements of an existing analytic tool, Juxter, which was developed for the visualization of multi-dimensional categorical data, and explores its application to support exploration and interaction with open source Worldwide Incidents Tracking System (WITS) data. The volume and complexity of data available on terrorism makes it hard to analyze. Information systems that can efficiently and effectively collect, access, analyze, and report terrorist incidents can help in further studies focused on preventing, detecting, and responding to terrorist attacks. Existing interfaces to the WITS data support advanced search capabilities, and geolocation but lack functionality for identifying patterns and trends. To better support efficient browsing we have refined Juxter’s existing capabilities for filtering, selecting, and sorting elements and categories within the visualization.

  2. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  3. Primary lymphoma of the brain

    MedlinePlus

    Brain lymphoma; Cerebral lymphoma; Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system; Lymphoma - brain ... The cause of primary brain lymphoma is not known. Patients who have a weakened immune system are at high risk of primary lymphoma of the ...

  4. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  5. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  6. Cadmium Exposure and Incident Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Devereux, Richard B.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium is a widespread toxic metal with potential cardiovascular effects, but no studies have evaluated cadmium and incident cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the association of urine cadmium concentration with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality in a large population-based cohort. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3,348 American Indian adults aged 45–74 years from Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study in 1989–1991. Urine cadmium was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Follow-up extended through 31 December 2008. Results The geometric mean cadmium level in the study population was 0.94 μg/g (95% confidence interval= 0.92 – 0.93). We identified 1,084 cardiovascular events, including 400 deaths. After adjustment for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratios (comparing the 80th to the 20th percentile of urine cadmium concentrations) was 1.43 for cardiovascular mortality (95% confidence interval=1.21 – 1.70), and 1.34 for coronary heart disease mortality (1.10 – 1.63). The corresponding hazard ratios for incident cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure were 1.24 (1.11 – 1.38), 1.22 (1.08 – 1.38), 1.75 (1.17 – 2.59) and 1.39 (1.01 – 1.94), respectively. The associations were similar in most study subgroups including never-smokers. Conclusions Urine cadmium, a biomarker of long-term exposure, was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. These findings support that cadmium exposure is a cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:23514838

  7. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Prostate Cancer Incidence

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    While early studies demonstrated a positive association between testosterone and prostate cancer, evidence on the nature of the relationship has evolved with time and newer data. Studies examining links between baseline testosterone levels as well as testosterone therapy and incident prostate cancer, reveal a more complex relationship. Moreover, investigators have reported their initial experiences with supplementing testosterone in men with a history of both treated and untreated prostate cancer. PMID:26770932

  8. A Predictive Model for Root Caries Incidence.

    PubMed

    Ritter, André V; Preisser, John S; Puranik, Chaitanya P; Chung, Yunro; Bader, James D; Shugars, Daniel A; Makhija, Sonia; Vollmer, William M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find the set of risk indicators best able to predict root caries (RC) incidence in caries-active adults utilizing data from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT). Five logistic regression models were compared with respect to their predictive performance for incident RC using data from placebo-control participants with exposed root surfaces at baseline and from two study centers with ancillary data collection (n = 155). Prediction performance was assessed from baseline variables and after including ancillary variables [smoking, diet, use of removable partial dentures (RPD), toothbrush use, income, education, and dental insurance]. A sensitivity analysis added treatment to the models for both the control and treatment participants (n = 301) to predict RC for the control participants. Forty-nine percent of the control participants had incident RC. The model including the number of follow-up years at risk, the number of root surfaces at risk, RC index, gender, race, age, and smoking resulted in the best prediction performance, having the highest AUC and lowest Brier score. The sensitivity analysis supported the primary analysis and gave slightly better performance summary measures. The set of risk indicators best able to predict RC incidence included an increased number of root surfaces at risk and increased RC index at baseline, followed by white race and nonsmoking, which were strong nonsignificant predictors. Gender, age, and increased number of follow-up years at risk, while included in the model, were also not statistically significant. The inclusion of health, diet, RPD use, toothbrush use, income, education, and dental insurance variables did not improve the prediction performance. PMID:27160516

  9. Incidence and Burden of the Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cogle, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    Since 2001, cases of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) have been tracked by cancer registries. Examining registry data in the USA, the reported age-adjusted incidence of MDS per 100,000 was 3.3 per year for 2001-2003 and 4.9 per year for 2007-2011, with increases likely a result of growing awareness of reporting requirements. However, active case-finding methods repeatedly demonstrate that population-based registries have underestimated the incidence of MDS due to underreporting and underdiagnosis. Using keyword search strategies of electronic pathology reports or other novel case capture methods, the true incidence of MDS has been estimated between 5.3 and 13.1 per 100,000. Using Medicare billing claims data, the incidence of MDS per 100,000 in patients aged ≥65 years has been estimated between 75 and 162. MDS prevalence is estimated to be 60,000 and -170,000 in the USA and projected to grow. Epidemiologic data can help estimate the burden of MDS and expose unmet clinical needs. For example, patients with MDS receiving transfusions had significantly higher reported health care costs versus those that did not (3-year mean of $88,824 vs $29,519). Epidemiologic data also revealed that most MDS patients receiving transfusions do not receive active therapies, despite strong evidence that hypomethylating agents and lenalidomide significantly reduce transfusion burden. Other unmet needs identified by epidemiologic studies include high need for treatment options after failing first-line therapy and shared decision making by older MDS patients. PMID:26134527

  10. Cancer Incidence among Former Love Canal Residents

    PubMed Central

    Gensburg, Lenore J.; Pantea, Cristian; Kielb, Christine; Fitzgerald, Edward; Stark, Alice; Kim, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Background The Love Canal was a rectangular 16-acre, 10-ft-deep chemical waste landfill situated in a residential neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York. This seriously contaminated site came to public attention in 1978. Only one prior study examined cancer incidence in former residents of the Love Canal neighborhood (LC). Objective In this study we aimed to describe cancer incidence in former LC residents from 1979 to 1996 and to investigate whether it differs from that of New York State (NYS) and Niagara County (NC). Methods From 1978 to 1982, we interviewed 6,181 former residents, and 5,052 were eligible to be included in this study. In 1996, we identified 304 cancer diagnoses in this cohort using the NYS Cancer Registry. We compared LC cancer incidence with that of NYS and NC using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), and we compared risks within the LC group by potential exposure to the landfill using survival analysis. Results SIRs were elevated for cancers of the bladder [SIRNYS = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91–2.16] and kidney (SIRNYS = 1.48; 95% CI, 0.76–2.58). Although CIs included 1.00, other studies have linked these cancers to chemicals similar to those found at Love Canal. We also found higher rates of bladder cancer among residents exposed as children, based on two cases. Conclusions In explaining these excess risks, the role of exposure to the landfill is unclear given such limitations as a relatively small and incomplete study cohort, imprecise exposure measurements, and the exclusion of cancers diagnosed before 1979. Given the relatively young age of the cohort, further surveillance is warranted. PMID:19672407

  11. The Incidence and Prevalence of Neuromyelitis Optica

    PubMed Central

    Gryba, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Interest in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has increased substantially over the last few years, but it is not known whether NMO has the same geographic and temporal variations in disease risk as multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to evaluate the worldwide incidence and prevalence of NMO through a systematic review of published peer-reviewed studies. We performed a search of the English-language literature using MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1985 to March 2012. Search terms included “neuromyelitis optica,” “Devic's,” “opticospinal,” “incidence,” “prevalence,” and “epidemiology.” We assessed study quality using a standardized instrument. A total of five studies met the inclusion criteria. Three of the studies were from North America, and all studies were published between 2005 and 2012. All studies were of good quality, but only one study reported standardized rates, and subgroup-specific estimates were rarely reported. The incidence of NMO per 100,000 population ranged from 0.053 to 0.40, while the prevalence per 100,000 population ranged from 0.52 to 4.4. Heterogeneity was high among the incidence (I2 = 68.0%) and prevalence studies (I2 = 94.0%). This review highlights the limited knowledge regarding the epidemiology of NMO and the importance of obtaining estimates standardized to common populations to enhance comparability of studies from different jurisdictions. Future studies would also benefit from reporting age-, sex-, and race- or ethnicity-specific estimates. PMID:24453773

  12. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD ); Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko ); Thompson, D.E. George Washington Univ., Rockville, MD Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki ); Soda, Midori )

    1994-02-01

    This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. High Toxoplasma gondii Seropositivity among Brain Tumor Patients in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bong-Kwang; Song, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Cho, Jaeeun; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that can modulate the environment of the infected host. An unfavorable environment modulated by T. gondii in the brain includes tumor microenvironment. Literature has suggested that T. gondii infection is associated with development of brain tumors. However, in Korea, epidemiological data regarding this correlation have been scarce. In this study, in order to investigate the relationship between T. gondii infection and brain tumor development, we investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii among 93 confirmed brain tumor patients (various histological types, including meningioma and astrocytoma) in Korea using ELISA. The results revealed that T. gondii seropositivity among brain tumor patients (18.3%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher compared with that of healthy controls (8.6%). The seropositivity of brain tumor patients showed a significant age-tendency, i.e., higher in younger age group, compared with age-matched healthy controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study supports the close relationship between T. gondii infection and incidence of brain tumors. PMID:27180580

  14. [ANOCEF guidelines for the management of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Le Rhun, É; Dhermain, F; Noël, G; Reyns, N; Carpentier, A; Mandonnet, E; Taillibert, S; Metellus, P

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of brain metastases is increasing because of the use of new therapeutic agents, which allow an improvement of overall survival, but with only a poor penetration into the central nervous system brain barriers. The management of brain metastases has changed due to a better knowledge of immunohistochemical data and molecular biological data, the development of new surgical, radiotherapeutic approaches and improvement of systemic treatments. Most of the time, the prognosis is still limited to several months, nevertheless, prolonged survival may be now observed in some sub-groups of patients. The main prognostic factors include the type and subtype of the primitive, age, general status of the patient, number and location of brain metastases, extracerebral disease. The multidisciplinary discussion should take into account all of these parameters. We should notice also that treatments including surgery or radiotherapy may be proposed in a symptomatic goal in advanced phases of the disease underlying the multidisciplinary approach until late in the evolution of the disease. This article reports on the ANOCEF (French neuro-oncology association) guidelines. The management of brain metastases of breast cancers and lung cancers are discussed in the same chapter, while the management of melanoma brain metastases is reported in a separate chapter due to different responses to the brain radiotherapy. PMID:25666314

  15. High Toxoplasma gondii Seropositivity among Brain Tumor Patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bong-Kwang; Song, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Cho, Jaeeun; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that can modulate the environment of the infected host. An unfavorable environment modulated by T. gondii in the brain includes tumor microenvironment. Literature has suggested that T. gondii infection is associated with development of brain tumors. However, in Korea, epidemiological data regarding this correlation have been scarce. In this study, in order to investigate the relationship between T. gondii infection and brain tumor development, we investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii among 93 confirmed brain tumor patients (various histological types, including meningioma and astrocytoma) in Korea using ELISA. The results revealed that T. gondii seropositivity among brain tumor patients (18.3%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher compared with that of healthy controls (8.6%). The seropositivity of brain tumor patients showed a significant age-tendency, i.e., higher in younger age group, compared with age-matched healthy controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study supports the close relationship between T. gondii infection and incidence of brain tumors. PMID:27180580

  16. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  17. Injury incidence in hip hop dance.

    PubMed

    Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H

    2012-06-01

    Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment. PMID:20807386

  18. A common language for computer security incidents

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Howard; Thomas A Longstaff

    1998-10-01

    Much of the computer security information regularly gathered and disseminated by individuals and organizations cannot currently be combined or compared because a common language has yet to emerge in the field of computer security. A common language consists of terms and taxonomies (principles of classification) which enable the gathering, exchange and comparison of information. This paper presents the results of a project to develop such a common language for computer security incidents. This project results from cooperation between the Security and Networking Research Group at the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, and the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. This Common Language Project was not an effort to develop a comprehensive dictionary of terms used in the field of computer security. Instead, the authors developed a minimum set of high-level terms, along with a structure indicating their relationship (a taxonomy), which can be used to classify and understand computer security incident information. They hope these high-level terms and their structure will gain wide acceptance, be useful, and most importantly, enable the exchange and comparison of computer security incident information. They anticipate, however, that individuals and organizations will continue to use their own terms, which may be more specific both in meaning and use. They designed the common language to enable these lower-level terms to be classified within the common language structure.

  19. Increasing incidence of canine leptospirosis in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  20. Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

    1999-06-10

    There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities.

  1. Serum fatty acids and breast cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Harri; Knekt, Paul; Järvinen, Ritva; Salminen, Irma; Hakulinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of the diet may be essential to the development of breast cancer. We studied the ability of several fatty acids of serum total lipids to predict breast cancer incidence in a case-control study nested within a longitudinal population study. The proportions of fatty acids in serum total lipids were determined from stored serum samples collected at baseline for 127 incident breast cancer cases and 242 matched controls. Women with a higher proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum had a reduced risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio (OR) between the highest and lowest tertiles of serum PUFA was 0.31 (95% confidence interval, CI = 0.12-0.77). This association was mainly due to n-6 PUFAs and especially to linoleic acid. The ORs were 0.35 (CI = 0.14-0.84) and 0.29 (CI = 0.12-0.73), respectively. Of the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), higher trans-11-18:1 levels were related to an increased breast cancer risk (OR = 3.69, CI = 1.35-10.06). The association was stronger in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. The present study suggests that higher serum proportions of the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid and lower proportions of the MUFA trans-11-18:1 fatty acid predict a reduced incidence of breast cancer. PMID:12881010

  2. Prostate cancer incidence rates in Africa.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-01-01

    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa. PMID:22111004

  3. Incidence and Demographics of Childhood Ptosis

    PubMed Central

    Griepentrog, Gregory J.; Diehl, Nancy; Mohney, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the incidence and demographics of childhood ptosis diagnosed over a 40-year period in a well-defined population. Design Retrospective, population-based cohort study. Participants Patients (< 19 years) diagnosed with childhood ptosis as residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1965, through December 31, 2004 Methods The medical records of all potential patients identified by the Rochester Epidemiology Project were reviewed. Main Outcome Measures Calculated annual age- and sex-specific incidence rates and demographic information. Results A total of 107 children were diagnosed with ptosis during the 40-year period, yielding an incidence of 7.9/100,000 < 19 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.4-9.5) of age. Ninety-six (89.7%) of the 107 were congenital in onset, 81 (75%) of which had simple congenital ptosis, yielding a birth prevalence of 1 in 842 births. A family history of childhood ptosis was present in twelve percent of queried patients with simple congenital ptosis. Three (4%) of the simple congenital ptosis cases were bilateral and 55 (68%) of the unilateral cases involved the left upper eyelid (95% CI: 57%-78%, p<0.001). Conclusion Childhood ptosis was diagnosed in 7.9 per 100,000 patients less than 19 years (95% CI: 6.4-9.5). Simple congenital ptosis was the most prevalent form, occurring in 1 in 842 births, and significantly more likely to involve the left side. PMID:21496927

  4. Intraoperative virtual brain counseling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhaowei; Grosky, William I.; Zamorano, Lucia J.; Muzik, Otto; Diaz, Fernando

    1997-06-01

    Our objective is to offer online real-tim e intelligent guidance to the neurosurgeon. Different from traditional image-guidance technologies that offer intra-operative visualization of medical images or atlas images, virtual brain counseling goes one step further. It can distinguish related brain structures and provide information about them intra-operatively. Virtual brain counseling is the foundation for surgical planing optimization and on-line surgical reference. It can provide a warning system that alerts the neurosurgeon if the chosen trajectory will pass through eloquent brain areas. In order to fulfill this objective, tracking techniques are involved for intra- operativity. Most importantly, a 3D virtual brian environment, different from traditional 3D digitized atlases, is an object-oriented model of the brain that stores information about different brain structures together with their elated information. An object-oriented hierarchical hyper-voxel space (HHVS) is introduced to integrate anatomical and functional structures. Spatial queries based on position of interest, line segment of interest, and volume of interest are introduced in this paper. The virtual brain environment is integrated with existing surgical pre-planning and intra-operative tracking systems to provide information for planning optimization and on-line surgical guidance. The neurosurgeon is alerted automatically if the planned treatment affects any critical structures. Architectures such as HHVS and algorithms, such as spatial querying, normalizing, and warping are presented in the paper. A prototype has shown that the virtual brain is intuitive in its hierarchical 3D appearance. It also showed that HHVS, as the key structure for virtual brain counseling, efficiently integrates multi-scale brain structures based on their spatial relationships.This is a promising development for optimization of treatment plans and online surgical intelligent guidance.

  5. Ensembling brain regions for brain decoding.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Sarper; Yarman-Vural, Fatos T

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we propose a new method which ensembles the brain regions for brain decoding. The ensemble is generated by clustering the fMRI images recorded during an experimental set-up which measures the cognitive states associated to semantic categories. Initially, voxel clusters are formed by using hierarchical agglomerative clustering with correlation as the similarity metric. Then, for each voxel cluster, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained to estimate the class-posteriori probabilities. Lastly, the class-posteriori probabilities are ensembled by concatenating them under the same feature space, which are then used to train a meta-layer SVM for the final classification of the cognitive states. By using the voxel clusters, we aim to utilize the distributed, but complementing nature of the semantic representations in the brain and improve the classification accuracy. Thus, we make an existential claim that the brain regions provide a natural basis for ensemble learning which should be superior to the random clusters formed over a selected set of voxels. Our approach yields to better classification accuracies in Mitchell dataset on most of the subjects, when compared to state-of-the-art which emphasizes voxel selection and ensemble learning with random subspaces. PMID:26736910

  6. Oblique incidence for broad monoenergetic proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, David; Yuan Jiankui; Chen Weimin

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: The depth dose of a monoenergetic broad parallel proton beam has been modeled in a number of ways, but evidently not yet for oblique incidence. The purpose of this investigation is to find an accurate analytic formula for this case, which can then be used to model the depth dose of a broad beam with an initial Gaussian angular distribution. Methods: The Bortfeld model of depth dose in a broad normally incident proton beam has been extended to the case of oblique incidence. This extension uses an empirically determined Gaussian parameter {sigma}{sub x} which (roughly) characterizes the off-axis dose of a proton pencil beam. As with Bortfeld's work, the modeling is done in terms of parabolic cylinder functions. To obtain the depth dose for an initial angular distribution, the result is integrated over the angle of incidence, weighted by a Gaussian probability function. The predictions of the theory have been compared to MCNPX Monte Carlo calculations for four phantom materials (water, bone, aluminum, and copper) and for initial proton energies of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 MeV. Results: Comparisons of the depth dose predicted by this theory with Monte Carlo calculations have established that with very good accuracy, {sigma}{sub x} can be taken to be independent both of the depth and of the angle of incidence. As a function of initial proton range or of initial proton energy, {sigma}{sub x} has been found to obey a power law to very high accuracy. Good fits to Monte Carlo calculations have also been found for an initial Gaussian angular distribution. Conclusions: This investigation is the first step in the accurate modeling of a proton pencil beam with initial Gaussian angular distribution. It provides the longitudinal factor, with its Bragg peak buildup and sharp distal falloff. A transverse factor must still be incorporated into this theory and this will give the lateral penumbra of a collimated proton beam. Also, it will be necessary to model the dose of

  7. [Treatment of brain metastasis from ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Bondiau, P-Y; Largillier, R; Foa, C; Rasendrarijao, D; Frenay, M; Gérard, J-P

    2003-06-01

    Systemic metastases from ovarian carcinoma are frequent, but they seldom affect the central nervous system. We present here the case of a patient treated for an ovarian cancer by surgery and chemotherapy. Three months after the end of chemotherapy, the patient developed cerebral metastases from ovarian carcinoma (CMOC) treated by iterative surgery and and whole brain irradiation. As the frequency of solitary cerebral metastasis of ovarian cancer is higher than with other cancers, it is likely that they behave slightly differently. Literature analysis reveals an increase in the incidence of CMOC since the middle of the nineties. CMOC can occur during or after adjuvant chemotherapy and the best management strategies to better define determinants of survival for patients are not well known. It appears that a better outcome of CMOC may be obtained by an aggressive treatment, if possible, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Taking into account the increase in the incidence of the CMOC and their early occurrence, some authors have proposed a prophylactic brain radiotherapy in patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:12834774

  8. Estimate of the incidence and importance of circulatory breakthrough in the surgery of cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Luessenhop, A J; Ferraz, F M; Rosa, L

    1982-01-01

    Severe hemorrhagic brain swelling has been described occasionally in patients with cerebral AVMs after surgical interruption for feeding arteries, surgical excision, and embolization. The proposed mechanism is an abrupt increase in perfusion pressure in the vasculature of the normal adjacent brain which has lost its capacity to autoregulate. The term circulatory breakthrough has been adopted to describe this. The authors found its incidence to be 3 in 66 patients in a surgical series, but lesser degrees of circulatory breakthrough in smaller lesions may have accounted for most of mortality and morbidity that was encountered. Its importance in embolization is less certain because of the possibility of infarction. It is proposed that better control of this problem by presurgical embolization, surgical staging, and graduated degrees of induced hypotension postsurgery may be necessary if the larger cerebral AVMs are to be excised with mortality and morbidity less than the natural history. PMID:6129586

  9. [New electrophysiological findings on the incidence of brain involvement in clinically and neurologically asymptomatic HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Arendt, G; Hefter, H; Elsing, C; Neuen-Jakob, E; Strohmeyer, G; Freund, H J

    1989-12-01

    Motor (postural tremor of the outstretched hands, most rapid voluntary alternating index finger movements and rise times of most rapid voluntary isometric index finger extensions) and psychometric tests (multiple choice vocabulary test - form b, syndrome short test, the German version of the standard progressive matrices - Raven, and the psychic and somatic findings according to the AMDP-system) as well as MRI-Scans were analysed in 100 HIV-infected patients of all stages according to the actual CDC-classification, but without any central-nervous or psychic deficit. Patients with drug, alcohol or tranquilizer abuse, opportunistic, cerebral infections or fever were excluded from the study. Tremor-peak-frequencies and reaction times did not show any significant difference to an age- and sex-matched control group; the other motor parameters revealed significant slowing in the patient group and a worsening with the CDC-stages. MRI-scans of all the patients were normal. The psychometric tests did not show significant alterations on a group statistical level, especially not in the depression scales. Morphologically, the motor performances of the HIV-infected patients resembled those of patients with basal ganglia diseases (M. Huntington, M. Wilson, M. Parkinson). Correspondingly, in some cases of clinically demented HIV-positive patients, MRI-scans showed lesions in the basal ganglia. It can be concluded, that there is an early subclinical central-nervous system affection in HIV-infected patients, especially of the basal ganglia, detectable with appropriate motor function tests sometimes considerably preceeding structural deficits seen later in the course of the disease in MRI-scans. PMID:2514087

  10. [Surgery of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Métellus, P; Reyns, N; Voirin, J; Menei, P; Bauchet, L; Faillot, T; Loiseau, H; Pallud, J; Guyotat, J; Mandonnet, E

    2015-02-01

    Surgical excision of brain metastases has been well evaluated in unique metastases. Two randomized phase III trial have shown that combined with adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy, it significantly improves overall survival. However, even in the presence of multiple brain metastases, surgery may be useful. Also, even in lesions amenable to radiosurgery, surgical resection is preferred when tumors displayed cystic or necrotic aspect with important edema or when located in highly eloquent areas or cortico-subcortically. Furthermore, surgery may have a diagnostic role, in the absence of histological documentation of the primary disease, to rule out a differential diagnosis (brain abscess, lymphoma, primary tumor of the central nervous system or radionecrosis). Finally, the biological documentation of brain metastatic disease might be useful in situations where a specific targeted therapy can be proposed. Selection of patients who will really benefit from surgery should take into account three factors, clinical and functional status of the patient, systemic disease status and characteristics of intracranial metastases. Given the improved overall survival of cancer patients partially due to the advent of effective targeted therapies on systemic disease, a renewed interest has been given to the local treatment of brain metastases. Surgical resection currently represents a valuable tool in the armamentarium of brain metastases but has also become a diagnostic and decision tool that can affect therapeutic strategies in these patients. PMID:25640217

  11. Aquaporins and Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Maugeri, Rosario; Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Fricano, Anna; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-01-01

    Brain primary tumors are among the most diverse and complex human cancers, and they are normally classified on the basis of the cell-type and/or the grade of malignancy (the most malignant being glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), grade IV). Glioma cells are able to migrate throughout the brain and to stimulate angiogenesis, by inducing brain capillary endothelial cell proliferation. This in turn causes loss of tight junctions and fragility of the blood-brain barrier, which becomes leaky. As a consequence, the most serious clinical complication of glioblastoma is the vasogenic brain edema. Both glioma cell migration and edema have been correlated with modification of the expression/localization of different isoforms of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water channels, some of which are also involved in the transport of other small molecules, such as glycerol and urea. In this review, we discuss relationships among expression/localization of AQPs and brain tumors/edema, also focusing on the possible role of these molecules as both diagnostic biomarkers of cancer progression, and therapeutic targets. Finally, we will discuss the possibility that AQPs, together with other cancer promoting factors, can be exchanged among brain cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). PMID:27367682

  12. Lutein and Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Erdman, John W.; Smith, Joshua W.; Kuchan, Matthew J.; Mohn, Emily S.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Wang, Lin; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Neuringer, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Lutein is one of the most prevalent carotenoids in nature and in the human diet. Together with zeaxanthin, it is highly concentrated as macular pigment in the foveal retina of primates, attenuating blue light exposure, providing protection from photo-oxidation and enhancing visual performance. Recently, interest in lutein has expanded beyond the retina to its possible contributions to brain development and function. Only primates accumulate lutein within the brain, but little is known about its distribution or physiological role. Our team has begun to utilize the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) model to study the uptake and bio-localization of lutein in the brain. Our overall goal has been to assess the association of lutein localization with brain function. In this review, we will first cover the evolution of the non-human primate model for lutein and brain studies, discuss prior association studies of lutein with retina and brain function, and review approaches that can be used to localize brain lutein. We also describe our approach to the biosynthesis of 13C-lutein, which will allow investigation of lutein flux, localization, metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Lastly, we describe potential future research opportunities. PMID:26566524

  13. Aquaporins and Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Maugeri, Rosario; Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Fricano, Anna; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-01-01

    Brain primary tumors are among the most diverse and complex human cancers, and they are normally classified on the basis of the cell-type and/or the grade of malignancy (the most malignant being glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), grade IV). Glioma cells are able to migrate throughout the brain and to stimulate angiogenesis, by inducing brain capillary endothelial cell proliferation. This in turn causes loss of tight junctions and fragility of the blood–brain barrier, which becomes leaky. As a consequence, the most serious clinical complication of glioblastoma is the vasogenic brain edema. Both glioma cell migration and edema have been correlated with modification of the expression/localization of different isoforms of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water channels, some of which are also involved in the transport of other small molecules, such as glycerol and urea. In this review, we discuss relationships among expression/localization of AQPs and brain tumors/edema, also focusing on the possible role of these molecules as both diagnostic biomarkers of cancer progression, and therapeutic targets. Finally, we will discuss the possibility that AQPs, together with other cancer promoting factors, can be exchanged among brain cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). PMID:27367682

  14. Brain specialization for music.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Isabelle

    2002-08-01

    Music, like language, is a universal and specific trait to humans. Similarly, music appreciation, like language comprehension, appears to be the product of a dedicated brain organization. Support for the existence of music-specific neural networks is found in various pathological conditions that isolate musical abilities from the rest of the cognitive system. Cerebrovascular accidents, traumatic brain damage, and congenital brain anomalies can lead to selective disorders of music processing. Conversely, autism and epilepsy can reveal the autonomous functioning and the selectivity, respectively, of the neural networks that subserve music. However, brain specialization for music should not be equated with the presence of a singular "musical center" in the brain. Rather, multiple interconnected neural networks are engaged, of which some may capture the essence of brain specialization for music. The encoding of pitch along musical scales is likely such an essential component. The implications of the existence of such special-purpose cortical processes are that the human brain might be hardwired for music. PMID:12194505

  15. The Brain from Within.

    PubMed

    di Porzio, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a powerful way to visualize brain functions and observe brain activity in response to tasks or thoughts. It allows displaying brain damages that can be quantified and linked to neurobehavioral deficits. fMRI can potentially draw a new cartography of brain functional areas, allow us to understand aspects of brain function evolution or even breach the wall into cognition and consciousness. However, fMRI is not deprived of pitfalls, such as limitation in spatial resolution, poor reproducibility, different time scales of fMRI measurements and neuron action potentials, low statistical values. Thus, caution is needed in the assessment of fMRI results and conclusions. Additional diagnostic techniques based on MRI such as arterial spin labeling (ASL) and the measurement of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provide new tools to assess normal brain development or disruption of anatomical networks in diseases. A cutting edge of recent research uses fMRI techniques to establish a "map" of neural connections in the brain, or "connectome". It will help to develop a map of neural connections and thus understand the operation of the network. New applications combining fMRI and real time visualization of one's own brain activity (rtfMRI) could empower individuals to modify brain response and thus could enable researchers or institutions to intervene in the modification of an individual behavior. The latter in particular, as well as the concern about the confidentiality and storage of sensitive information or fMRI and lie detectors forensic use, raises new ethical questions. PMID:27375460

  16. The Brain from Within

    PubMed Central

    di Porzio, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a powerful way to visualize brain functions and observe brain activity in response to tasks or thoughts. It allows displaying brain damages that can be quantified and linked to neurobehavioral deficits. fMRI can potentially draw a new cartography of brain functional areas, allow us to understand aspects of brain function evolution or even breach the wall into cognition and consciousness. However, fMRI is not deprived of pitfalls, such as limitation in spatial resolution, poor reproducibility, different time scales of fMRI measurements and neuron action potentials, low statistical values. Thus, caution is needed in the assessment of fMRI results and conclusions. Additional diagnostic techniques based on MRI such as arterial spin labeling (ASL) and the measurement of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provide new tools to assess normal brain development or disruption of anatomical networks in diseases. A cutting edge of recent research uses fMRI techniques to establish a “map” of neural connections in the brain, or “connectome”. It will help to develop a map of neural connections and thus understand the operation of the network. New applications combining fMRI and real time visualization of one’s own brain activity (rtfMRI) could empower individuals to modify brain response and thus could enable researchers or institutions to intervene in the modification of an individual behavior. The latter in particular, as well as the concern about the confidentiality and storage of sensitive information or fMRI and lie detectors forensic use, raises new ethical questions. PMID:27375460

  17. Microglia protect against brain injury and their selective elimination dysregulates neuronal network activity after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Szalay, Gergely; Martinecz, Bernadett; Lénárt, Nikolett; Környei, Zsuzsanna; Orsolits, Barbara; Judák, Linda; Császár, Eszter; Fekete, Rebeka; West, Brian L.; Katona, Gergely; Rózsa, Balázs; Dénes, Ádám

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the main immune cells of the brain and contribute to common brain diseases. However, it is unclear how microglia influence neuronal activity and survival in the injured brain in vivo. Here we develop a precisely controlled model of brain injury induced by cerebral ischaemia combined with fast in vivo two-photon calcium imaging and selective microglial manipulation. We show that selective elimination of microglia leads to a striking, 60% increase in infarct size, which is reversed by microglial repopulation. Microglia-mediated protection includes reduction of excitotoxic injury, since an absence of microglia leads to dysregulated neuronal calcium responses, calcium overload and increased neuronal death. Furthermore, the incidence of spreading depolarization (SD) is markedly reduced in the absence of microglia. Thus, microglia are involved in changes in neuronal network activity and SD after brain injury in vivo that could have important implications for common brain diseases. PMID:27139776

  18. Microglia protect against brain injury and their selective elimination dysregulates neuronal network activity after stroke.

    PubMed

    Szalay, Gergely; Martinecz, Bernadett; Lénárt, Nikolett; Környei, Zsuzsanna; Orsolits, Barbara; Judák, Linda; Császár, Eszter; Fekete, Rebeka; West, Brian L; Katona, Gergely; Rózsa, Balázs; Dénes, Ádám

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the main immune cells of the brain and contribute to common brain diseases. However, it is unclear how microglia influence neuronal activity and survival in the injured brain in vivo. Here we develop a precisely controlled model of brain injury induced by cerebral ischaemia combined with fast in vivo two-photon calcium imaging and selective microglial manipulation. We show that selective elimination of microglia leads to a striking, 60% increase in infarct size, which is reversed by microglial repopulation. Microglia-mediated protection includes reduction of excitotoxic injury, since an absence of microglia leads to dysregulated neuronal calcium responses, calcium overload and increased neuronal death. Furthermore, the incidence of spreading depolarization (SD) is markedly reduced in the absence of microglia. Thus, microglia are involved in changes in neuronal network activity and SD after brain injury in vivo that could have important implications for common brain diseases. PMID:27139776

  19. Radioresistance of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Kevin; Knisely, Jonathan; Symons, Marc; Ruggieri, Rosamaria

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as part of the standard of care treatment of the majority of brain tumors. The efficacy of RT is limited by radioresistance and by normal tissue radiation tolerance. This is highlighted in pediatric brain tumors where the use of radiation is limited by the excessive toxicity to the developing brain. For these reasons, radiosensitization of tumor cells would be beneficial. In this review, we focus on radioresistance mechanisms intrinsic to tumor cells. We also evaluate existing approaches to induce radiosensitization and explore future avenues of investigation. PMID:27043632

  20. Psychotherapy and brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Collerton, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I will review why psychotherapy is relevant to the question of how consciousness relates to brain plasticity. A great deal of the research and theorizing on consciousness and the brain, including my own on hallucinations for example (Collerton and Perry, 2011) has focused upon specific changes in conscious content which can be related to temporal changes in restricted brain systems. I will argue that psychotherapy, in contrast, allows only a focus on holistic aspects of consciousness; an emphasis which may usefully complement what can be learnt from more specific methodologies. PMID:24046752

  1. The brain drain.

    PubMed

    Rubin, I M

    1987-01-01

    The adult human brain weights around three pounds. Yet it is capable of feats that dwarf those of the most sophisticated computers. The sad fact is, those brains are largely wasted in modern organizations. Instead of tapping the full capacity of the human brains that could make our organizations more efficient and effective, we allow them to lapse into an inexcusably large amount of wasted activity. What is needed by the health care field, in a time that demands more with less, is more sensible use not only of its manpower but also of its brainpower. PMID:10312137

  2. Brain Organization and Psychodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Avi; Geva, Amir B.

    1999-01-01

    Any attempt to link brain neural activity and psychodynamic concepts requires a tremendous conceptual leap. Such a leap may be facilitated if a common language between brain and mind can be devised. System theory proposes formulations that may aid in reconceptualizing psychodynamic descriptions in terms of neural organizations in the brain. Once adopted, these formulations can help to generate testable predictions about brain–psychodynamic relations and thus significantly affect the future of psychotherapy. (The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1999; 8:24–39) PMID:9888105

  3. Outcomes in patients with brain metastasis from esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Nishi; Mellon, Eric; Hoffe, Sarah E.; Frakes, Jessica; Shridhar, Ravi; Pimiento, Jose; Meredith, Ken; Tran, Nam D.; Saeed, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Background Brain metastases from esophageal carcinoma have historically been rare and associated with poor prognosis. With improvements in systemic disease control, the incidence of brain metastases is expected to rise. To better inform management decisions, we sought to identify factors associated with survival in patients with brain metastasis from esophageal cancer. Methods We retrospectively identified 49 patients with brain metastasis from stage I–IV primary esophageal cancer treated with surgery, radiation, or a combination of modalities at our tertiary referral center between 1998 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to collect demographic and clinical information. Results Median age at diagnosis of the primary esophageal cancer was 60 years. Forty-one (84%) patients were male and forty patients (82%) had adenocarcinoma. Median overall survival (MS) following esophageal cancer diagnosis was 24 months (range, 3–71 months), and median survival after the identification of brain metastases was 5 months (range, 1–52 months). On univariate analysis, only patients with poor Karnofsky performance status (KPS <70), recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classification (III), or 3 or more brain metastases were found to have worsened survival after the diagnosis of brain metastases (all P<0.01). Factors not associated with survival were age, gender, histology (adenocarcinoma vs. other), palliative-intent treatment of the primary tumor, time to diagnosis of brain metastases from initial diagnosis, uncontrolled primary tumor at time of brain metastasis diagnosis, or extracranial metastases. On multivariate analysis (MVA, KPS excluded), patients with RPA class I (MS, 14.6 months) or II (MS, 5.0 months) disease had significantly improved overall survival compared to class III disease (MS, 1.6 months, P<0.01). Also on MVA, patients with 1 (MS, 10.7 months) or 2 (MS, 4.7 months) brain metastases had significantly improved overall survival compared to patients with 3

  4. Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.

    This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

  5. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  6. Brain Imaging and Behavioral Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D.

    1996-01-01

    This review explores the cellular pathology associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its relation to neurobehavioral outcomes, the relationship of brain imaging findings to underlying pathology, brain imaging techniques, various image analysis procedures and how they relate to neuropsychological testing, and the importance of brain imaging…

  7. Electrocardiographic Predictors of Incident Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kaylin T; Vittinghoff, Eric; Dewland, Thomas A; Mandyam, Mala C; Stein, Phyllis K; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Heckbert, Susan R; Marcus, Gregory M

    2016-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is likely secondary to multiple different pathophysiological mechanisms that are increasingly but incompletely understood. Motivated by the hypothesis that 3 previously described electrocardiographic predictors of AF identify distinct AF mechanisms, we sought to determine if these electrocardiographic findings independently predict incident disease. Among Cardiovascular Health Study participants without prevalent AF, we determined whether left anterior fascicular block (LAFB), a prolonged QTC, and atrial premature complexes (APCs) each predicted AF after adjusting for each other. We then calculated the attributable risk in the exposed for each electrocardiographic marker. LAFB and QTC intervals were assessed on baseline 12-lead electrocardiogram (n = 4,696). APC count was determined using 24-hour Holter recordings obtained in a random subsample (n = 1,234). After adjusting for potential confounders and each electrocardiographic marker, LAFB (hazard ratio [HR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 3.9, p = 0.023), a prolonged QTC (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.3, p = 0.002), and every doubling of APC count (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.3, p <0.001) each remained independently predictive of incident AF. The attributable risk of AF in the exposed was 35% (95% CI 13% to 52%) for LAFB, 25% (95% CI 0.6% to 44%) for a prolonged QTC, and 34% (95% CI 26% to 42%) for APCs. In conclusion, in a community-based cohort, 3 previously established electrocardiogram-derived AF predictors were each independently associated with incident AF, suggesting that they may represent distinct mechanisms underlying the disease. PMID:27448684

  8. Incidence of silicosis in flourmill workers

    PubMed Central

    Athavale, Amita; Iyer, Aparna; Sahoo, Debasis; Salgia, Kapil; Raut, Abhijit; Kanodra, Neeti

    2011-01-01

    Background: Silicosis is an ancient occupational illness reported in silica mill workers, agate stone workers, slate pen workers and mining industry. However its association in flour mill workers has not been established. Aims: To study the incidence of silicosis and respiratory morbidity in flour mill workers. Settings and Design: A prospective study of 56 flour mill workers working with open silica grinding stones was undertaken. Materials and Methods: 56 flour mill workers who volunteered following information regarding the study purpose were recruited from the community. Detailed clinical and occupational history, lung functions, chest x-ray, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were done. Diagnosis was made on the basis of radiological findings. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was done with the help of the statistical package for social sciences software. The Chi-square test was used for determining the relationship between qualitative data and descriptive statistics was used where required. Results: 93% had respiratory symptoms that included cough (66.1%), dyspnea (75%), chest pain (17.1%), and rhinorrhea (46.4%). Radiological abnormalities were noted in chest X-ray (60.7%) and HRCT (81.48%). A significant correlation was seen between duration of exposure and HRCT abnormalities. Lung functions revealed obstruction in 28.5% subjects, restriction in 19%, mixed ventilatory defects in 21.4%, while 18.9% had a reduced diffusion capacity. Conclusion: Incidence of silicosis in our study on flour mill workers working with silica containing grinding stones was 30.4%. They had high respiratory morbidity (93%) cough and dyspnea being predominant symptoms. Duration of exposure correlates with radiological findings and increased incidence of silicosis. PMID:22412287

  9. Pelvic Incidence in Patients with Hip Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Ibrahim J.; Rasouli, Mohammad R.; Kepler, Christopher K.; Restrepo, Santiago; Albert, Todd J.; Radcliff, Kris E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hip osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of pain and disability that results in considerable social and medical costs. Mechanics such as posture, alignment and orientation of the hips and the spinal column and the relationship between these factors have been implicated in the development of both hip and spine pathologies. This study aims to test the hypothesis if pelvic incidence varies in patients with and without osteoarthritis. We assessed the relationship between spinopelvic alignment as measured by pelvic incidence (PI) and the presence of hip OA. Methods: We collected supine pelvis CT scans of 1,012 consecutive patients not known to have hip OA. Our first group consisted of 95 patients with moderate to severe hip OA as per radiology reports. The second group included 87 patients with no evidence of hip OA. Power analysis revealed the need for 77 patients per group to find a mean difference in PI of 5° or less between both groups. Two trained physicians independently measured the PI to account for inter-observer reliability. Results: Patients with moderate to severe hip OA had a mean PI of 56.5°±12.8°. The mean PI for patients without hip OA was 57.2°±7.5°. An independent samples t-test revealed no significant difference between the PI values of the two groups. Spearman’s correlation coefficient of 0.754 demonstrated a high inter-observer reliability. Conclusion: There was no difference in PI angle of hip OA patients and “healthy” patients. Our measurements of patients without OA were almost identical to the reported normal PI values in the literature. It appears that hip OA is not associated with PI angle, refuting the hypothesis made in previous studies, stating that elevated PI contributes to the future development of hip arthritis. CT scan seems to be a reliable and accurate way of assessing pelvic incidence. PMID:27200390

  10. [Anatomic incidence of meniscochondrocalcinosis of the knee].

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, D; Stankovic, A; Morin, J; Borda-Iriarte, O; Uzan, M; Quintero, M; Memin, Y; Bard, M; de Sèze, S; Richewaert, A

    1982-06-01

    The authors have studied the incidence of menisco-calcinosis (MC) and that of menisco-chondrocalcinosis (MCC) of knee joints of 108 non selected cadavera. The mean age of the subjects was 71.8 +/- 13.8 years. The study was performed by radiographic examination of the menisci and cartilagineous fragments of femoral condyles using high contrast films. The incidence of MC or MCC was found to be 18.5 per cent. It was slightly higher in females (21.5 p. cent) than in males (15.8 p. cent) subjects but this difference failed to reach the level of statistical significance. No positive case was detected before the age of 60 years. For the age groups of: 60-69, 70-79, 80-89 and over 90 years, its incidence was: 11.7; 26.9; 21.2 and 50 (4 subjects out of 8) per cent respectively. Approximately 40 per cent of all positive cases had meniscocalcinosis without associated chondrocalcinosis. No single case of chondrocalcinosis without meniscocalcinosis was observed. Six out of 8 cases with MC calcinosis and 2 out of 12 cases with MCC were unilateral. The external menisci were more frequently and more heavily affected than internal ones. Eighty per cent of the knees affected by either MC or MCC were at the same time associated to an osteoarthrotic lesion compared to 35 p. cent of the knees without MC or MCC matched for age: a result which appeared to be highly significant difference. PMID:6896928

  11. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  12. Perceived Discrimination and Incident Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Roetker, Nicholas S.; Lewis, Tené T.; Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Alonso, Alvaro; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived discrimination is positively related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; its relationship with incident CVD is unknown. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a population-based multiethnic cohort study of 6,508 adults aged 45–84 years who were initially free of clinical CVD, we examined lifetime discrimination (experiences of unfair treatment in 6 life domains) and everyday discrimination (frequency of day-to-day occurrences of perceived unfair treatment) in relation to incident CVD. During a median 10.1 years of follow-up (2000–2011), 604 incident events occurred. Persons reporting lifetime discrimination in ≥2 domains (versus none) had increased CVD risk, after adjustment for race/ethnicity and sociodemographic factors, behaviors, and traditional CVD risk factors (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.70) and after control for chronic stress and depressive symptoms (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.60). Reported discrimination in 1 domain was unrelated to CVD (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.30). There were no differences by race/ethnicity, age, or sex. In contrast, everyday discrimination interacted with sex (P = 0.03). Stratified models showed increased risk only among men (for each 1–standard deviation increase in score, adjusted HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.27); controlling for chronic stress and depressive symptoms slightly reduced this association (HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.25). This study suggests that perceived discrimination is adversely related to CVD risk in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:26085044

  13. SLOPE PROFILOMETRY OF GRAZING INCIDENCE OPTICS.

    SciTech Connect

    TAKACS,P.Z.

    2003-01-14

    Profiling instruments are well-suited to the measurement of grazing incidence optics, such as those found in synchrotron radiation beam lines. Slope measuring profilers, based upon the principle of the pencil beam interferometer, have proven to be especially useful in measuring the figure and slope errors on cylindrical aspheres. The Long Trace Profiler, in various configurations, is the most widely used of this class of profiler. Current performance provides slope measurement accuracy at the microradian level and height measurements accurate to 25 nm over 1 meter trace lengths.

  14. General surface equations for glancing incidence telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized set of equations are derived for two mirror glancing incidence telescopes using Fermat's principle, a differential form of the law of reflection, the generalized sine condition, and a ray propagation equation described in vector form as a theoretical basis. The resulting formulation groups the possible telescope configurations into three distinct classes which are the Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and higher-order telescopes in which the Hettrick-Bowyer types are a subset. Eight configurations are possible within each class depending on the sign and magnitude of the parameters.

  15. An Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B; Payne, Patricia W

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) by centrally-located operations staff is well established in the area of emergency response, utilization by first responders in the field is uneven. Cost, complexity, and connectivity are often the deciding factors preventing wider adoption. For the past several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing a mobile GIS solution using free and open-source software targeting the needs of front-line personnel. Termed IMPACT, for Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit, this ORNL application can complement existing GIS infrastructure and extend its power and capabilities to responders first on the scene of a natural or man-made disaster.

  16. General surface equations for glancing incidence telescopes.

    PubMed

    Saha, T T

    1987-02-15

    A generalized set of equations are derived for two mirror glancing incidence telescopes using Fermat's principle, a differential form of the law of reflection, the generalized sine condition, and a ray propagation equation described in vector form as a theoretical basis. The resulting formulation groups the possible telescope configurations into three distinct classes which are the Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and higherorder telescopes in which the Hettrick-Bowyer types are a subset. Eight configurations are possible within each class depending on the sign and magnitude of the parameters. PMID:20454195

  17. Sports Related Injuries: Incidence, Management and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Michael A.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of injury related to various sports is reviewed according to sport, area of injury, number of participants and hours per week spent at the sport. Organized sports accounted for fewer injuries than unsupervised recreational activities like tree climbing, skateboarding and running. The knee is the most commonly injured site. Sensitivity to patients' commitment to their sport is necessary: sometimes instead of rest, they can substitute a less hazardous form of exercise. Principles of prevention involve proper familiarity with the sport, proper equipment and proper conditioning. PMID:21286103

  18. The Developing Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Carla J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses neural activity and stimulation crucial in fetal brain development and the formation of the mind. Focuses on activity-dependent remodeling related to development of the visual system and retinal activity. (MCO)

  19. Brains on video games.

    PubMed

    Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F; Merzenich, Michael M; Gentile, Douglas A

    2011-12-01

    The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward. PMID:22095065

  20. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities include problems with cognition (thinking, memory, and reasoning), sensory processing (sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell), ... barrier. NIH Patient Recruitment for Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. ...

  1. [Radiotherapy for brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Latorzeff, I; Antoni, D; Gaudaire-Josset, S; Feuvret, L; Tallet-Richard, A; Truc, G; Noël, G

    2016-09-01

    Radiotherapy for brain metastases has become more multifaceted. Indeed, with the improvement of the patient's life expectancy, side effects must be undeniably avoided and the retreatments or multiple treatments are common. The cognitive side effects should be warned and the most modern techniques of radiation therapy are used regularly to reach this goal. The new classifications of patients with brain metastases help guiding treatment more appropriately. Stereotactic radiotherapy has supplanted whole brain radiation therapy both for patients with metastases in place and for those who underwent surgery. Hippocampus protection is possible with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Its relevance in terms of cognitive functioning should be more clearly demonstrated but the requirement, for using it, is increasingly strong. While addressing patients in palliative phase, the treatment of brain metastases is one of the localisations where technical thinking is the most challenging. PMID:27523410

  2. Modular Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sporns, Olaf; Betzel, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    The development of new technologies for mapping structural and functional brain connectivity has led to the creation of comprehensive network maps of neuronal circuits and systems. The architecture of these brain networks can be examined and analyzed with a large variety of graph theory tools. Methods for detecting modules, or network communities, are of particular interest because they uncover major building blocks or subnetworks that are particularly densely connected, often corresponding to specialized functional components. A large number of methods for community detection have become available and are now widely applied in network neuroscience. This article first surveys a number of these methods, with an emphasis on their advantages and shortcomings; then it summarizes major findings on the existence of modules in both structural and functional brain networks and briefly considers their potential functional roles in brain evolution, wiring minimization, and the emergence of functional specialization and complex dynamics. PMID:26393868

  3. Deep brain stimulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the brain The neurostimulator, which puts out the electric current. The stimulator is similar to a heart pacemaker . It is usually placed under the skin near the collarbone, but may be ... pulses travel from the neurostimulator, along the extension ...

  4. Mind and Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbach, Gerald D.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of research findings concerning the biological foundations of conscious memory and other attributes of the mind. Includes vignettes and diagrams depicting brain structure and how neurons communicate. (MCO)

  5. Modular Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Sporns, Olaf; Betzel, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    The development of new technologies for mapping structural and functional brain connectivity has led to the creation of comprehensive network maps of neuronal circuits and systems. The architecture of these brain networks can be examined and analyzed with a large variety of graph theory tools. Methods for detecting modules, or network communities, are of particular interest because they uncover major building blocks or subnetworks that are particularly densely connected, often corresponding to specialized functional components. A large number of methods for community detection have become available and are now widely applied in network neuroscience. This article first surveys a number of these methods, with an emphasis on their advantages and shortcomings; then it summarizes major findings on the existence of modules in both structural and functional brain networks and briefly considers their potential functional roles in brain evolution, wiring minimization, and the emergence of functional specialization and complex dynamics. PMID:26393868

  6. Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... They are among the most common types of childhood cancers. Some are benign tumors, which aren't ... can still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches ...

  7. Brain catechol synthesis - Control by brain tyrosine concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, R. J.; Larin, F.; Mostafapour, S.; Fernstrom, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Brain catechol synthesis was estimated by measuring the rate at which brain dopa levels rose following decarboxylase inhibition. Dopa accumulation was accelerated by tyrosine administration, and decreased by treatments that lowered brain tyrosine concentrations (for example, intraperitoneal tryptophan, leucine, or parachlorophenylalanine). A low dose of phenylalanine elevated brain tyrosine without accelerating dopa synthesis. Our findings raise the possibility that nutritional and endocrine factors might influence brain catecholamine synthesis by controlling the availability of tyrosine.

  8. Sex, the brain and hypertension: brain oestrogen receptors and high blood pressure risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hay, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major contributor to worldwide morbidity and mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease. There are important sex differences in the onset and rate of hypertension in humans. Compared with age-matched men, premenopausal women are less likely to develop hypertension. However, after age 60, the incidence of hypertension increases in women and even surpasses that seen in older men. It is thought that changes in levels of circulating ovarian hormones as women age may be involved in the increase in hypertension in older women. One of the key mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension in both men and women is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Brain regions important for the regulation of SNA, such as the subfornical organ, the paraventricular nucleus and the rostral ventral lateral medulla, also express specific subtypes of oestrogen receptors. Each of these brain regions has also been implicated in mechanisms underlying risk factors for hypertension such as obesity, stress and inflammation. The present review brings together evidence that links actions of oestrogen at these receptors to modulate some of the common brain mechanisms involved in the ability of hypertensive risk factors to increase SNA and blood pressure. Understanding the mechanisms by which oestrogen acts at key sites in the brain for the regulation of SNA is important for the development of novel, sex-specific therapies for treating hypertension. PMID:26621877

  9. Pubertal Stage and Brain Anatomy in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Rebecca E.; Cooney, Rebecca E.; Joormann, Jutta; Eugène, Fanny; Glover, Gary H.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of puberty have focused primarily on changes in hormones and on observable physical bodily characteristics. Little is known, however, about the nature of the relation between pubertal status and brain physiology. This is particularly important given findings that have linked the onset of puberty with both changes in cognitive functioning and increases in the incidence of depression and anxiety. The present study examined relations between pubertal stage, as assessed by Tanner Staging, and brain anatomy in a sample of 54 girls aged 9 - 15 years. Brain morphometric analysis was conducted using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hippocampus and amygdala were manually traced on MRI scans in all participants. Stepwise regression analyses were conducted with total intracranial volume (ICV), age, and pubertal status as the predictor variables and hippocampus and amygdala volumes as outcome variables. Pubertal status was significantly associated with left amygdala volume, after controlling for both age and intracranial volume (ICV). In addition, puberty was related to right hippocampus and amygdala volumes, after controlling for ICV. In contrast, no significant associations were found between age and hippocampal and amygdala volumes after controlling for pubertal status and ICV. These findings highlight the importance of the relation between pubertal status and morphometry of the hippocampus and amygdala, and of limbic and subcortical structures that have been implicated in emotional and social behavior. PMID:22569152

  10. Is Brain Emulation Dangerous?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckersley, Peter; Sandberg, Anders

    2013-12-01

    Brain emulation is a hypothetical but extremely transformative technology which has a non-zero chance of appearing during the next century. This paper investigates whether such a technology would also have any predictable characteristics that give it a chance of being catastrophically dangerous, and whether there are any policy levers which might be used to make it safer. We conclude that the riskiness of brain emulation probably depends on the order of the preceding research trajectory. Broadly speaking, it appears safer for brain emulation to happen sooner, because slower CPUs would make the technology`s impact more gradual. It may also be safer if brains are scanned before they are fully understood from a neuroscience perspective, thereby increasing the initial population of emulations, although this prediction is weaker and more scenario-dependent. The risks posed by brain emulation also seem strongly connected to questions about the balance of power between attackers and defenders in computer security contests. If economic property rights in CPU cycles1 are essentially enforceable, emulation appears to be comparatively safe; if CPU cycles are ultimately easy to steal, the appearance of brain emulation is more likely to be a destabilizing development for human geopolitics. Furthermore, if the computers used to run emulations can be kept secure, then it appears that making brain emulation technologies ―open‖ would make them safer. If, however, computer insecurity is deep and unavoidable, openness may actually be more dangerous. We point to some arguments that suggest the former may be true, tentatively implying that it would be good policy to work towards brain emulation using open scientific methodology and free/open source software codebases

  11. Brain Research: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouch-Shinn, Jenella; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    This paper attempts to examine the research of split-brain, hemispheric specialization, and brain function, as it pertains to handwriting, brain wave patterns, and lateral differences. Studies are reviewed which point to asymmetric differentiated functions and capacities of the two cerebral hemispheres in split-brain patients and in normal…

  12. The brain metastatic niche.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Metastasizing cancer cells that arrest in brain microvessels have to face an organ microenvironment that is alien, and exclusive. In order to survive and thrive in this foreign soil, the malignant cells need to successfully master a sequence of steps that includes close interactions with pre-existing brain microvessels, and other nonmalignant cell types. Unfortunately, a relevant number of circulating cancer cells is capable of doing so: brain metastasis is a frequent and devastating complication of solid tumors, becoming ever more important in times where the systemic tumor disease is better controlled and life of cancer patients is prolonged. Thus, it is very important to understand which environmental cues are necessary for effective brain colonization. This review gives an overview of the niches we know, including those who govern cancer cell dormancy, survival, and proliferation in the brain. Colonization of pre-existing niches related to stemness and resistance is a hallmark of successful brain metastasis. A deeper understanding of those host factors can help to identify the most vulnerable steps of the metastatic cascade, which might be most amenable to therapeutic interventions. PMID:26489608

  13. Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Alexandra L; Lakhani, Saquib A; Hsu, Benson S

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a better understanding of pediatric traumatic brain injury and its management. Within the pediatric age group, ages 1 to 19, injuries are the number one cause of death with traumatic brain injury being involved in almost 50 percent of these cases. This, along with the fact that the medical system spends over $1 billion annually on pediatric traumatic brain injury, makes this issue both timely and relevant to health care providers. Over the course of this article the epidemiology, physiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of pediatric traumatic brain injury will be explored. Emphasis will be placed on the role of the early responder and the immediate interventions that should be considered and/or performed. The management discussed in this article follows the most recent recommendations from the 2012 edition of the Guidelines for the Acute Medical Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. Despite the focus of this article, it is important not to lose sight of the fact that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound--or, to be more precise and use the average human's brain measurements, just above three pounds--of cure. PMID:26630835

  14. Examining the decomposed brain.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, James Mackintosh

    2014-12-01

    Examination of the decomposed brain is a largely neglected area of forensic neuropathology. However, careful examination often yields valuable information that may assist in criminal proceedings. Decomposition encompasses the processes of autolysis, putrefaction, and decay. Most decomposed brains will be affected by both autolysis and putrefaction, resulting in a brain that may, at one end of the spectrum, be almost normal or, at the other end, pulpified, depending on the conditions in which the body remained after death and the postmortem interval. Naked eye examination may detect areas of hemorrhage and also guides appropriate sampling for histology. Histological appearances are often better than what would be predicted from the state of the brain. Histology often confirms macroscopic abnormalities and may also reveal other features such as ischemic injury. Silver staining demonstrates neuritic plaques, and immunocytochemistry for β-amyloid precursor protein and other molecules produces results comparable with those seen in well-preserved fixed brains. The usefulness of information derived from the examination of the decomposed brain in criminal proceedings is illustrated with 6 case reports drawn from the author's own practice. PMID:25384305

  15. [Pseudothrombocytopenia: incidence, causes and methods of detection].

    PubMed

    García Suárez, J; Merino, J L; Rodríguez, M; Velasco, A; Moreno, M C

    1991-06-01

    A prospective study of 20,761 routine clinical blood specimens was conducted in order to evaluate incidence and causes of pseudothrombocytopenia. All specimens were drawn in outpatient regimen and were analyzed by using the Coulter STKR autoanalyzer. The incidence of pseudothrombocytopenia was 0.15%, values clearly lower than others previously reported in hospitalized patients (1.9%). Of these patients, 72% had EDTA-induced platelet clumping sometimes associated to sodium citrate and 28% had spurious low platelet counts due to large platelets. No other causes of pseudothrombocytopenia were appreciated. It is important to remark that 49% of low platelet counts detected by the Coulter STKR have been due to pseudothrombocytopenia, and this instrument showed normal platelet and leukocyte histogram in 10% of these cases. Although time consuming these results confirm the necessity of preparation and examination of all blood smears presenting thrombocytopenia by automated cell-counting despite normal histograms. This approach would avoid erroneous diagnosis and dangerous medical or surgical therapy. A correlation of pseudothrombocytopenia with age, sex or clinical diagnosis were not found. PMID:1948538

  16. The incidence of diagnostic error in medicine.

    PubMed

    Graber, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    A wide variety of research studies suggest that breakdowns in the diagnostic process result in a staggering toll of harm and patient deaths. These include autopsy studies, case reviews, surveys of patient and physicians, voluntary reporting systems, using standardised patients, second reviews, diagnostic testing audits and closed claims reviews. Although these different approaches provide important information and unique insights regarding diagnostic errors, each has limitations and none is well suited to establishing the incidence of diagnostic error in actual practice, or the aggregate rate of error and harm. We argue that being able to measure the incidence of diagnostic error is essential to enable research studies on diagnostic error, and to initiate quality improvement projects aimed at reducing the risk of error and harm. Three approaches appear most promising in this regard: (1) using 'trigger tools' to identify from electronic health records cases at high risk for diagnostic error; (2) using standardised patients (secret shoppers) to study the rate of error in practice; (3) encouraging both patients and physicians to voluntarily report errors they encounter, and facilitating this process. PMID:23771902

  17. Tripod-BETA: Incident investigation and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.A.; Graaf, G.C. van der

    1996-12-31

    Tripod-BETA is a methodology for conducting an incident analysis in parallel with the investigation, supported by a PC based tool. Interaction between these two processes provides the investigators with confirmation of the relevance of their fact gathering and highlights avenues of investigation leading to latent failures. The benefit to the analysis process is that logical anomalies can be highlighted and resolved while The investigation is still active. Tripod-BETA focuses initially on the accident mechanism - the physical process of the accident - and uses it as a structure to identify the controls and defenses that should have been in place. For the incident to happen these controls and defenses either were missing or failed. The investigation then examines the immediate and latent failures behind each missing or failed defense, following the Tripod theory of accident causation. Tripod-BETA software provides the means to collect and assemble investigation facts and manipulate them on screen into a graphic representation of the event and its causes - an accident tree. The logic of the tree structure (labeling and connections) can be tested to ensure that it conforms to the concepts of the Hazard and Effects Management Process (HEMP) and the Tripod theory. When anomalies and omissions have been resolved, a draft accident report can be auto-generated for final editing using a word processing package.

  18. Assessment Competency of Nurses in Biological Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi, Abbas; Yousefi, Shahla; Khaghanizade, Morteza; Saeid, Yaser

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are two main areas within emergency care which focus on departmental and staff preparedness in biological incidents. Despite the importance, little is known about the nurse’s preparedness in facing these events. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two teaching methods (multimedia instructional module versus lecture presentation) on nurse’s competency in biological incidents. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 90 nurses were randomly divided into three groups (lecture presentation, multimedia- compact disk, and control). Data were collected by thirty-four multiple-choice questions for measuring knowledge, and a visual analogue scale graded 0 - 100 for assessing attitude. Data were analyzed using a paired t-test and one-way ANOVA with SPSS version 17.0. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The results revealed no statistically significant difference in nurse’s competency mean scores between the lecture and multimedia CDs groups. Conclusions: It is recommended to use multimedia CDs for in-service education of nurses. PMID:26839862

  19. Incidence of digoxin toxicity in outpatients.

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, J F; Robbins, L J; Hammermeister, K E; Roth, S C; Hammond, W S

    1994-01-01

    The incidence of digoxin toxicity among patients in hospitals has declined in recent years. To evaluate whether a similar decline has occurred in ambulatory care, we reviewed randomly selected medical records for 183 outpatients receiving ongoing treatment with digoxin at 10 urban and rural Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in the Rocky Mountain region. The prevalence of traditional risk factors for digoxin toxicity--elevated serum digoxin and serum creatinine levels, hypokalemia, and a new prescription of an interacting drug-was established from computerized laboratory and pharmacy records. Of the 183 patients, 50 (27.3%) had one or more risk factors for digoxin toxicity: serum digoxin levels were elevated in 13.6% of patients in whom a level was obtained, with hypokalemia in 14.3%, elevated creatinine levels in 17.9%, and possible drug interactions in 5.5% of patients over a 1-year period. Nevertheless, digoxin toxicity occurred in only 2 persons (1.1% or 1.4 per 100 patient-years of treatment). We conclude that digoxin toxicity was rare in this group of outpatients, even in persons presumed to be at high risk because of metabolic abnormalities, increased digoxin concentrations, or the use of interacting drugs. The low rate of digoxin toxicity in outpatients parallels the decline in the incidence of toxicity observed in hospital-based studies. PMID:7810124

  20. Incident and Emergency Centre of the IAEA.

    PubMed

    Baciu, Florian; Buglova, Elena; Martincic, Rafael; Spiegelberg Planer, Rejane; Stern, Warren; Winkler, Guenther

    2010-06-01

    The Incident and Emergency Centre of the International Atomic Emergency Agency is the global focal point for preparedness, event reporting, and response to nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies irrespective of their cause. The Centre continuously works to develop standards and guidance for strengthening Member States' preparedness; develops practical tools and training programs to assist Member States in promptly applying the standards and guidance; and organizes a variety of training events and exercises. The Centre evaluates national plans and assists in their development; facilitates effective communication between countries; develops response procedures; and supports national exercises. The Centre provides access to multiple information resources; assesses trends that may influence crisis and consequence management plans and response; and develops and continuously enhances methodology for identifying conditions needed for early warning and response. The Centre provides around-the-clock assistance to Member States in dealing with nuclear and radiological events, including security related events through timely and efficient services and the provision of a coordinated international response to such emergencies. PMID:20445379

  1. LEPTOSPIROSIS INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY IN MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Leong; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Hussin, Narwani; Cheah, Wee Kooi; Verasahib, Khebir; Goh, Pik Pin

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis is endemic in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. Malaysia was categorized as a probable endemic country without any available data. Thus, this study was conducted to determine incidence, case fatality rate and mortality rate of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a notifiable disease in Malaysia since 2010 whereby probable or confirmed cases must be notified to relevant health district office. There were 3,665 and 4,457 probable and laboratory confirmed leptospirosis cases notified in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In the 2-year period, the most common age group of patients was 19 years old or less (23.3%) with male:female ratio of 2.61:1. Students consisted about 16.9% of patients, followed by agriculture-based or plantation workers (14.7%). Overall age-standardized incidence rate of leptospirosis in Malaysia for 2012 and 2013 was 29.02 per 100,000. Overall case fatality rate was 1.47% for 2-year period and overall age-standardized mortality rate was 0.45 per 100,000. Leptospirosis is an emerging public health concern in Malaysia and may pose a significant health impact and burden to the nation in the coming years if not well controlled. PMID:27405126

  2. Glancing incidence telescopes for space astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A technique for determining the state of polarization of a light source by evaluating its image at the focus of a glancing telescope is reported. An analysis of the central disc of the diffraction image reveals if the light source is polarized, the plane of polarization, and the degree of polarization. When polarized light is incident at the aperture of a diffraction limited glancing telescope, the central disc of the diffraction pattern takes on an elliptical configuration. This ellipticity is caused by the tendency of the electric vector component in the plane of incidence to be absorbed by the reflecting material. As the state of polarization goes from plane polarized to decreasing degrees of elliptically polarized light, the ellipticity of the central disc goes from a maximum at plane polarization to zero at circular polarization. These curves give a direct relationship between the degree of polarization of a light source and the ellipticity of the central disc for this particular telescope, independent of the light source wavelength.

  3. The critical incident inventory: characteristics of incidents which affect emergency medical technicians and paramedics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics experience critical incidents which evoke distress and impaired functioning but it is unknown which aspects of incidents contribute to their impact. We sought to determine these specific characteristics by developing an inventory of critical incident characteristics and testing their relationship to protracted recovery from acute stress, and subsequent emotional symptoms. Methods EMT/paramedics (n = 223) completed a retrospective survey of reactions to an index critical incident, and current depressive, posttraumatic and burnout symptoms. Thirty-six potential event characteristics were evaluated; 22 were associated with peritraumatic distress and were retained. We assigned inventory items to one of three domains: situational, systemic or personal characteristics. We tested the relationships between (a) endorsing any domain item and (b) outcomes of the critical incident (peritraumatic dissociation, recovery from components of the Acute Stress Reaction and depressive, posttraumatic, and burnout symptoms). Analyses were repeated for the number of items endorsed. Results Personal and situational characteristics were most frequently endorsed. The personal domain had the strongest associations, particularly with peritraumatic dissociation, prolonged distressing feelings, and current posttraumatic symptoms. The situational domain was associated with peritraumatic dissociation, prolonged social withdrawal, and current posttraumatic symptoms. The systemic domain was associated with peritraumatic dissociation and prolonged irritability. Endorsing multiple characteristics was related to peritraumatic, acute stress, and current posttraumatic symptoms. Relationships with outcome variables were as strong for a 14-item inventory (situational and personal characteristics only) as the 22-item inventory. Conclusions Emotional sequelae are associated most strongly with EMT/paramedics’ personal experience, and least

  4. United Airlines wind shear incident of May 31, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, John

    1987-01-01

    An incident involving wind shear which occured on 31 May 1984 on a United Airlines aircraft is discussed by a member of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The meteorological parameters important to this incident are detailed.

  5. Blockade of brain angiotensin II AT1 receptors ameliorates stress, anxiety, brain inflammation and ischemia: Therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Juan M; Sánchez-Lemus, Enrique; Benicky, Julius

    2011-01-01

    , reducing the incidence of stroke, improving cognition and decreasing the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Blockade of AT(1) receptors offers a novel and safe therapeutic approach for the treatment of illnesses of increasing prevalence and socioeconomic impact, such as mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases of the brain. PMID:21035950

  6. BLOCKADE OF BRAIN ANGIOTENSIN II AT1 RECEPTORS AMELIORATES STRESS, ANXIETY, BRAIN INFLAMMATION AND ISCHEMIA: THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    SAAVEDRA, Juan M.; SÁNCHEZ-LEMUS, Enrique; BENICKY, Julius

    2010-01-01

    , reducing the incidence of stroke, improving cognition and decreasing the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Blockade of AT1 receptors offers a novel and safe therapeutic approach for the treatment of illnesses of increasing prevalence and socioeconomic impact, such as mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases of the brain. PMID:21035950

  7. Cylindrical cloaking at oblique incidence with optimized finite multilayer parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baile; Wu, Bae-Ian

    2010-08-15

    We propose multilayer cylindrical invisibility cloaks that are optimized for oblique incidences through a combination of analytic formalism of scattering and genetic optimization. We show that by using only four layers of homogeneous and anisotropic metamaterials without large values of constitutive parameters, the scattering for oblique incidences can be reduced by 2 orders. Although the optimization is done at a single incident angle, the cloak provides reduced scattering over a large range of incident angles. PMID:20717422

  8. Osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption: CT and radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Goldstein, S.; Clunie, D.A.; Stevens, J.; Hogan, R.; Monard, J.; Ramsey, F.; Neuwelt, E.A.

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare CT and radionuclide imaging of osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption, and to develop a quantitative method for imaging osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption and to see if iopamidol could be safety given intravenously in conjunction with blood-brain barrier disruption. Forty-five blood-brain barrier disruption procedures were imaged with CT and radionuclide scans. The scans were evaluated with visual and quantitative scales. Patients were observed for adverse effects after blood-brain barrier disruption. There was a 4% rate of seizures in this study. There was good agreement between visual CT and radionuclide grading systems. Quantitative disruption did not add useful information to visual interpretations. Nonionic iodine-based contrast medium has a lower incidence of seizures when injected intravenously in conjunction with osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption than ionic contrast material. Contrast-enhanced CT is the preferred method to image disruption because it has better spatial resolution than radionuclide techniques. 34 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Developmental Vitamin D3 deficiency alters the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Féron, F; Burne, T H J; Brown, J; Smith, E; McGrath, J J; Mackay-Sim, A; Eyles, D W

    2005-03-15

    There is growing evidence that Vitamin D(3) (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)) is involved in brain development. We have recently shown that the brains of newborn rats from Vitamin D(3) deficient dams were larger than controls, had increased cell proliferation, larger lateral ventricles, and reduced cortical thickness. Brains from these animals also had reduced expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The aim of the current study was to examine if there were any permanent outcomes into adulthood when the offspring of Vitamin D(3) deficient dams were restored to a normal diet. The brains of adult rats were examined at 10 weeks of age after Vitamin D(3) deficiency until birth or weaning. Compared to controls animals that were exposed to transient early Vitamin D(3) deficiency had larger lateral ventricles, reduced NGF protein content, and reduced expression of a number genes involved in neuronal structure, i.e. neurofilament or MAP-2 or neurotransmission, i.e. GABA-A(alpha4). We conclude that transient early life hypovitaminosis D(3) not only disrupts brain development but leads to persistent changes in the adult brain. In light of the high incidence of hypovitaminosis D(3) in women of child-bearing age, the public health implications of these findings warrant attention. PMID:15763180

  10. Animal models of brain maldevelopment induced by cycad plant genotoxins.

    PubMed

    Kisby, Glen E; Moore, Holly; Spencer, Peter S

    2013-12-01

    Cycads are long-lived tropical and subtropical plants that contain azoxyglycosides (e.g., cycasin, macrozamin) and neurotoxic amino acids (notably β-N-methylamino-l-alanine l-BMAA), toxins that have been implicated in the etiology of a disappearing neurodegenerative disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex that has been present in high incidence among three genetically distinct populations in the western Pacific. The neuropathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex includes features suggestive of brain maldevelopment, an experimentally proven property of cycasin attributable to the genotoxic action of its aglycone methylazoxymethanol (MAM). This property of MAM has been exploited by neurobiologists as a tool to study perturbations of brain development. Depending on the neurodevelopmental stage, MAM can induce features in laboratory animals that model certain characteristics of epilepsy, schizophrenia, or ataxia. Studies in DNA repair-deficient mice show that MAM perturbs brain development through a DNA damage-mediated mechanism. The brain DNA lesions produced by systemic MAM appear to modulate the expression of genes that regulate neurodevelopment and contribute to neurodegeneration. Epigenetic changes (histone lysine methylation) have also been detected in the underdeveloped brain after MAM administration. The DNA damage and epigenetic changes produced by MAM and, perhaps by chemically related substances (e.g., nitrosamines, nitrosoureas, hydrazines), might be an important mechanism by which early-life exposure to genotoxicants can induce long-term brain dysfunction. PMID:24339036

  11. Animal Models of Brain Maldevelopment Induced by Cycad Plant Genotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Kisby, Glen E.; Moore, Holly; Spencer, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Cycads are long-lived tropical and subtropical plants that contain azoxyglycosides (e.g., cycasin, macrozamin) and neurotoxic amino acids (notably β-N-methylamino-L-alanine L-BMAA), toxins that have been implicated in the etiology of a disappearing neurodegenerative disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex that has been present in high incidence among three genetically distinct populations in the western Pacific. The neuropathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex includes features suggestive of brain maldevelopment, an experimentally proven property of cycasin attributable to the genotoxic action of its aglycone methylazoxymethanol (MAM). This property of MAM has been exploited by neurobiologists as a tool to study perturbations of brain development. Depending on the neurodevelopmental stage, MAM can induce features in laboratory animals that model certain characteristics of epilepsy, schizophrenia, or ataxia. Studies in DNA repair-deficient mice show that MAM perturbs brain development through a DNA damage-mediated mechanism. The brain DNA lesions produced by systemic MAM appear to modulate the expression of genes that regulate neurodevelopment and contribute to neurodegeneration. Epigenetic changes (histone lysine methylation) have also been detected in the underdeveloped brain after MAM administration. The DNA damage and epigenetic changes produced by MAM and, perhaps by chemically related substances (e.g., nitrosamines, nitrosoureas, hydrazines), might be an important mechanism by which early-life exposure to genotoxicants can induce long-term brain dysfunction. PMID:24339036

  12. 49 CFR 225.11 - Reporting of accidents/incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of accidents/incidents. 225.11 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.11 Reporting of accidents/incidents. (a) Each railroad subject to this part shall submit...

  13. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Other transportation incident to farming. 780.157 Section... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  14. Incident Duration Modeling Using Flexible Parametric Hazard-Based Models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time. PMID:25530753

  15. Child Abuse and Neglect in Ontario: Incidence and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trocme, Nico; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (OIS), which is based on a survey of child protection workers involved in 2,447 abuse and neglect investigations. OIS found an incidence rate of reported maltreatment of 21 per 1,000 children and a 27% substantiation rate. Includes comparisons with incidence rates for the…

  16. 33 CFR 150.830 - Reporting a pollution incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting a pollution incident. 150.830 Section 150.830 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... pollution incident. Oil pollution incidents involving a deepwater port are reported according to §§...

  17. 33 CFR 150.830 - Reporting a pollution incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting a pollution incident. 150.830 Section 150.830 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... pollution incident. Oil pollution incidents involving a deepwater port are reported according to §§...

  18. 33 CFR 150.830 - Reporting a pollution incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting a pollution incident. 150.830 Section 150.830 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... pollution incident. Oil pollution incidents involving a deepwater port are reported according to §§...

  19. Teachers' Critical Incidents: Ethical Dilemmas in Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore ethical dilemmas in critical incidents and the emerged responses that these incidents elicit. Most teachers try to suppress these incidences because of the unpleasant feelings they evoke. Fifty teachers participated in the study. A three-stage coding process derived from grounded theory was utilized. A taxonomy…

  20. Epidemiology of Lyme disease in low-incidence states.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Joseph D; Brett, Meghan; Matthias, James; Stanek, Danielle; Springs, Chasisity Brown; Marsden-Haug, Nicola; Oltean, Hanna; Baker, JoDee Summers; Kugeler, Kiersten J; Mead, Paul S; Hinckley, Alison

    2015-09-01

    Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the U.S. Surveillance data from four states with a low-incidence of Lyme disease was evaluated. Most cases occurred after travel to high-incidence Lyme disease areas. Cases without travel-related exposure in low-incidence states differed epidemiologically; misdiagnosis may be common in these areas. PMID:26103924

  1. Practice What You Preach: Using Critical Incidents to Involve Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagravier, Sharon H.; Beatty, Paulette T.

    The critical incidents method is an instructional method that is particularly suited for use with adult learners. The method involves the following sequence of activities: brief introduction to the subject under consideration, short explanation of the critical incident technique, presentation of the critical incident and directions, group work and…

  2. 46 CFR 4.03-2 - Serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Serious marine incident. 4.03-2 Section 4.03-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-2 Serious marine incident. The term serious marine incident includes...

  3. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other transportation incident to farming. 780.157 Section... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  4. 33 CFR 150.830 - Reporting a pollution incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting a pollution incident. 150.830 Section 150.830 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... pollution incident. Oil pollution incidents involving a deepwater port are reported according to §§...

  5. Critical Incidents in Multicultural Training: An Examination of Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, M. Nicole

    2006-01-01

    This study examined critical incidents in graduate students' multicultural counseling training. Trainees (N=59) were asked to describe a critical incident and their multicultural training environment by responding to a critical incident protocol and the multicultural environment Inventory-Revised (D. B. Pope-Davis, W. M. Liu, J. Nevitt, & R. L.…

  6. 49 CFR 225.11 - Reporting of accidents/incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of accidents/incidents. 225.11 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.11 Reporting of accidents/incidents. Each railroad subject to this part shall submit to...

  7. 46 CFR 4.03-2 - Serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Serious marine incident. 4.03-2 Section 4.03-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-2 Serious marine incident. The term serious marine incident includes...

  8. 46 CFR 4.03-2 - Serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Serious marine incident. 4.03-2 Section 4.03-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-2 Serious marine incident. The term serious marine incident includes...

  9. 46 CFR 4.03-2 - Serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Serious marine incident. 4.03-2 Section 4.03-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-2 Serious marine incident. The term serious marine incident includes...

  10. 46 CFR 4.03-2 - Serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Serious marine incident. 4.03-2 Section 4.03-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-2 Serious marine incident. The term serious marine incident includes...

  11. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  12. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  13. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  14. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  15. 33 CFR 150.830 - Reporting a pollution incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting a pollution incident. 150.830 Section 150.830 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... pollution incident. Oil pollution incidents involving a deepwater port are reported according to §§...

  16. ASC deficiency suppresses proliferation and prevents medulloblastoma incidence

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Elizabeth R. W.; Patel, Esita Y.; Flowers, Cornelius A.; Crowther, Andrew J.; Ting, Jenny P.; Miller, C. Ryan; Gershon, Timothy R.; Deshmukh, Mohanish

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) is silenced by promoter methylation in many types of tumors, yet ASC’s role in most cancers remains unknown. Here, we show that ASC is highly expressed in a model of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain cancer; ASC is also expressed in human medulloblastomas. Importantly, while ASC deficiency did not affect normal cerebellar development, ASC knock-out mice on the Smoothened (ND2:SmoA1) transgenic model of medulloblastoma exhibited a profound reduction in medulloblastoma incidence and a delayed tumor onset. A similar decrease in tumorigenesis with ASC deficiency was also seen in the hGFAP-Cre:SmoM2 mouse model of medulloblastoma. Interestingly, hyperproliferation of the external granule layer (EGL) was comparable at P20 in both the wildtype and ASC-deficient SmoA1 mice. However, while the apoptosis and differentiation markers remained unchanged at this age, proliferation makers were decreased, and the EGL was reduced in thickness and area by P60. This reduction in proliferation with ASC deficiency was also seen in isolated SmoA1 cerebellar granule precursor cells in vitro, indicating that the effect of ASC deletion on proliferation was cell autonomous. Interestingly, ASC deficient SmoA1 cerebella exhibited disrupted expression of genes in the TGF-β pathway and increased level of nuclear Smad3. Together, these results demonstrate an unexpected role for ASC in Sonic hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma tumorigenesis, thus identifying ASC as a promising novel target for anti-tumor therapy. PMID:24469054

  17. ASC deficiency suppresses proliferation and prevents medulloblastoma incidence.

    PubMed

    Knight, E R W; Patel, E Y; Flowers, C A; Crowther, A J; Ting, J P; Miller, C R; Gershon, T R; Deshmukh, M

    2015-01-15

    Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) is silenced by promoter methylation in many types of tumors, yet ASC's role in most cancers remains unknown. Here, we show that ASC is highly expressed in a model of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain cancer; ASC is also expressed in human medulloblastomas. Importantly, while ASC deficiency did not affect normal cerebellar development, ASC knockout mice on the Smoothened (ND2:SmoA1) transgenic model of medulloblastoma exhibited a profound reduction in medulloblastoma incidence and a delayed tumor onset. A similar decrease in tumorigenesis with ASC deficiency was also seen in the hGFAP-Cre:SmoM2 mouse model of medulloblastoma. Interestingly, hyperproliferation of the external granule layer (EGL) was comparable at P20 in both wild-type and ASC-deficient SmoA1 mice. However, while the apoptosis and differentiation markers remained unchanged at this age, proliferation makers were decreased, and the EGL was reduced in thickness and area by P60. This reduction in proliferation with ASC deficiency was also seen in isolated SmoA1 cerebellar granule precursor cells in vitro, indicating that the effect of ASC deletion on proliferation was cell autonomous. Interestingly, ASC-deficient SmoA1 cerebella exhibited disrupted expression of genes in the transforming growth factor-β pathway and increased level of nuclear Smad3. Taken together, these results demonstrate an unexpected role for ASC in Sonic hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma tumorigenesis, thus identifying ASC as a promising novel target for antitumor therapy. PMID:24469054

  18. Hepatic encephalopathy: effects of liver failure on brain function.

    PubMed

    Felipo, Vicente

    2013-12-01

    Liver failure affects brain function, leading to neurological and psychiatric alterations; such alterations are referred to as hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Early diagnosis of minimal HE reveals an unexpectedly high incidence of mild cognitive impairment and psychomotor slowing in patients with liver cirrhosis - conditions that have serious health, social and economic consequences. The mechanisms responsible for the neurological alterations in HE are beginning to emerge. New therapeutic strategies acting on specific targets in the brain (phosphodiesterase 5, type A GABA receptors, cyclooxygenase and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38) have been shown to restore cognitive and motor function in animal models of chronic HE, and NMDA receptor antagonists have been shown to increase survival in acute liver failure. This article reviews the latest studies aimed at understanding how liver failure affects brain function and potential ways to ameliorate these effects. PMID:24149188

  19. Neurospecific proteins in the serum of patients with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Lyubimova, N V; Toms, M G; Popova, E E; Bondarenko, Y V; Krat, V B; Kushlinskii, N E

    2011-04-01

    Neurospecific proteins S-100 and GFAP were measured in the serum of 145 patients with neural tumors and 69 healthy individuals. In patients with glyoblastomas, the concentrations of S-100 and GFAP were significantly higher than in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas, benign meningiomas, and brain metastases and in healthy individuals. Serum S-100 concentrations in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas, benign meningiomas, and brain metastases were similar; significant difference from the control was found only for patients with cerebral metastases. A specific feature of GFAP was high incidence of its detection in patients with glioblastomas (83%) compared to other groups of patients with neural tumors and healthy volunteers who demonstrated practically zero level of this protein. These findings attest to the possibility of using S-100 as an additional biochemical criterion of brain involvement in tumor patients and GFAP as a glioblastoma marker. PMID:22235430

  20. Brain Plasticity and Behaviour in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Bryan; Gibb, Robbin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review general principles of brain development, identify basic principles of brain plasticity, and discuss factors that influence brain development and plasticity. Method: A literature review of relevant English-language manuscripts on brain development and plasticity was conducted. Results: Brain development progresses through a series of stages beginning with neurogenesis and progressing to neural migration, maturation, synaptogenesis, pruning, and myelin formation. Eight basic principles of brain plasticity are identified. Evidence that brain development and function is influenced by different environmental events such as sensory stimuli, psychoactive drugs, gonadal hormones, parental-child relationships, peer relationships, early stress, intestinal flora, and diet. Conclusions: The development of the brain reflects more than the simple unfolding of a genetic blueprint but rather reflects a complex dance of genetic and experiential factors that shape the emerging brain. Understanding the dance provides insight into both normal and abnormal development. PMID:22114608

  1. The problematic symmetry between brain birth and brain death.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D G

    1998-01-01

    The possible symmetry between the concepts of brain death and brain birth (life) is explored. Since the symmetry argument has tended to overlook the most appropriate definition of brain death, the fundamental concepts of whole brain death and higher brain death are assessed. In this way, a context is provided for a discussion of brain birth. Different writers have placed brain birth at numerous points: 25-40 days, eight weeks, 22-24 weeks, and 32-36 weeks gestation. For others, the concept itself is open to question. Apart from this, it needs to be asked whether a unitary concept is an oversimplification. The merits of defining two stages of brain birth, to parallel the two definitions of brain death, are discussed. An attempt is then made to map these various stages of brain birth and brain death onto a developmental continuum. Although the results hold biological interest, their ethical significance is less evident. Development and degeneration are not interchangeable, and definitions of death apply specifically to those who are dying, not those who are developing. I conclude that while a dual concept of brain death has proved helpful, a dual concept of brain birth still has problems, and the underlying concept of brain birth itself continues to be elusive. PMID:9752625

  2. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas. PMID:25823872

  3. Fatty liver incidence and predictive variables.

    PubMed

    Tsuneto, Akira; Hida, Ayumi; Sera, Nobuko; Imaizumi, Misa; Ichimaru, Shinichiro; Nakashima, Eiji; Seto, Shinji; Maemura, Koji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2010-06-01

    Although fatty liver predicts ischemic heart disease, the incidence and predictors of fatty liver need examination. The objective of this study was to determine fatty liver incidence and predictive variables. Using abdominal ultrasonography, we followed biennially through 2007 (mean follow-up, 11.6+/-4.6 years) 1635 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (606 men) without fatty liver at baseline (November 1990 through October 1992). We examined potential predictive variables with the Cox proportional hazard model and longitudinal trends with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. In all, 323 (124 men) new fatty liver cases were diagnosed. The incidence was 19.9/1000 person-years (22.3 for men, 18.6 for women) and peaked in the sixth decade of life. After controlling for age, sex, and smoking and drinking habits, obesity (relative risk (RR), 2.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.33-3.69, P<0.001), low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (RR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.42-2.47; P<0.001), hypertriglyceridemia (RR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.96-3.15; P<0.001), glucose intolerance (RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.09-2.10; P=0.013) and hypertension (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.30-2.04; P<0.001) were predictive of fatty liver. In multivariate analysis including all variables, obesity (RR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.93-3.38; P<0.001), hypertriglyceridemia (RR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.41-2.62; P<0.001) and hypertension (RR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.01-1.71; P=0.046) remained predictive. In fatty liver cases, body mass index and serum triglycerides, but not systolic or diastolic blood pressure, increased significantly and steadily up to the time of the diagnosis. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and, to a lesser extent, hypertension might serve as predictive variables for fatty liver. PMID:20379184

  4. Brain death declaration

    PubMed Central

    Wahlster, Sarah; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M.; Patel, Pratik V.; Greer, David M.; Hemphill, J. Claude; Carone, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the practices and perceptions of brain death determination worldwide and analyze the extent and nature of variations among countries. Methods: An electronic survey was distributed globally to physicians with expertise in neurocritical care, neurology, or related disciplines who would encounter patients at risk of brain death. Results: Most countries (n = 91, response rate 76%) reported a legal provision (n = 63, 70%) and an institutional protocol (n = 70, 77%) for brain death. Institutional protocols were less common in lower-income countries (2/9 of low [22%], 9/18 lower-middle [50%], 22/26 upper-middle [85%], and 37/38 high-income countries [97%], p < 0.001). Countries with an organized transplant network were more likely to have a brain death provision compared with countries without one (53/64 [83%] vs 6/25 [24%], p < 0.001). Among institutions with a formalized brain death protocol, marked variability occurred in requisite examination findings (n = 37, 53% of respondents deviated from the American Academy of Neurology criteria), apnea testing, necessity and type of ancillary testing (most commonly required test: EEG [n = 37, 53%]), time to declaration, number and qualifications of physicians present, and criteria in children (distinct pediatric criteria: n = 38, 56%). Conclusions: Substantial differences in perceptions and practices of brain death exist worldwide. The identification of discrepancies, improvement of gaps in medical education, and formalization of protocols in lower-income countries provide first pragmatic steps to reconciling these variations. Whether a harmonized, uniform standard for brain death worldwide can be achieved remains questionable. PMID:25854866

  5. Use of EPO as an adjuvant in PDT of brain tumors to reduce damage to normal brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendon, Cesar A.; Lilge, Lothar

    2004-10-01

    In order to reduce damage to surrounding normal brain in the treatment of brain tumors with photodynamic therapy (PDT), we have investigated the use of the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) to exploit its well-established role as a neuroprotective agent. In vitro experiments demonstrated that EPO does not confer protection from PDT to rat glioma cells. In vivo testing of the possibility of EPO protecting normal brain tissue was carried out. The normal brains of Lewis rats were treated with Photofrin mediated PDT (6.25 mg/Kg B.W. 22 hours pre irradiation) and the outcome of the treatment compared between animals that received EPO (5000 U/Kg B.W. 22 hours pre irradiation) and controls. This comparison was made based on the volume of necrosis, as measured with the viability stain 2,3,5- Triphenyl tetrazoium chloride (TTC), and incidence of apoptosis, as measured with in situ end labeling assay (ISEL). Western blotting showed that EPO reaches the normal brain and activates the anti-apoptotic protein PKB/AKT1 within the brain cortex. The comparison based on volume of necrosis showed no statistical significance between the two groups. No clear difference was observed in the ISEL staining between the groups. A possible lack of responsivity in the assays that give rise to these results is discussed and future corrections are described.

  6. Cognitive Impairments Are Different in Single-Incidence and Multi-Incidence ADHD Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Bruijn, Yvette G. E.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We may improve our understanding of the role of common versus unique risk factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by examining ADHD-related cognitive deficits in single- (SPX), and multi-incidence (MPX) families. Given that individuals from multiplex (MPX) families are likely to share genetic vulnerability for the…

  7. Incidence of neoplasms in ages 0-19 Y in parts of Sweden with high {sup 137}Cs fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Tondel, M.; Flodin, U.; Skoeldestig, A.; Axelson, O.

    1996-12-01

    The incidence of neoplasms in childhood and adolescence in northern and central Sweden before and after the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident was investigated in an ecologic study, 1978 to 1992. The study included all parishes in the six most contaminated counties classified after aerial mapping of ground radiation form {sup 137}Cs and investigated 746 cases of neoplasms in ages 0-19 y, diagnosed in the six counties. Incidence and relative risks of neoplasms were compared in areas with high, intermediate, and low contamination after versus before the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A continuous increase of brain tumor incidence in the ages 0-19 y during the period 1978-92 without clear relationship to the Chernobyl fallout was discovered. No clear relationship between the incidence of brain tumor and the exposure to varying levels of radiation from {sup 137}Cs was apparent. A some-what decreased relative risk of acute lymphatic leukemia appeared in areas with increased exposure. Other neoplasms showed no changes in incidence over time or with regard to exposure. Until now, there is no indication that the Chernobyl accident has affected the incidence of childhood and adolescence neoplasms in Sweden, but it is still too early for any final conclusion about the effect of this event. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Incivility in the workplace: incidence and impact.

    PubMed

    Cortina, L M; Magley, V J; Williams, J H; Langhout, R D

    2001-01-01

    This study extends the literature on interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace by examining the incidence, targets, instigators, and impact of incivility (e.g., disrespect, condescension, degradation). Data were collected from 1,180 public-sector employees, 71% of whom reported some experience of workplace incivility in the previous 5 years. As many as one third of the most powerful individuals within the organization instigated these uncivil acts. Although women endured greater frequencies of incivility than did men, both genders experienced similarly negative effects on job satisfaction, job withdrawal, and career salience. Uncivil workplace experiences were also associated with greater psychological distress; however, indices of psychological and physical health were relatively unaffected. The authors discuss these findings in the context of organizational and cognitive stress theories. PMID:11199258

  9. Selective reflection of obliquely incident polarised light

    SciTech Connect

    Fofanov, Ya A

    2009-06-30

    A series of reflection resonances formed by the hyperfine components of the D{sub 2}-lines in the spectrum of the natural mixture of rubidium isotopes is studied. Passages from resonantly frustrated total internal reflection to resonance Brewster reflection caused by the frequency tuning of the incident light are demonstrated experimentally. The contrast of the strongest refection resonances exceeds 500% at the moderate heating of reflecting cells. The intensity of the reflected light changes in this case by more than 20 times. A theory is developed which is based on a two-level model for resonance atoms and Fresnel formulas for reflection coefficients. Numerical calculations based on the proposed theory confirm main experimental results. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  10. Fatal incidents involving pickup trucks in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Hamar, G B; King, W; Bolton, A; Fine, P R

    1991-03-01

    Death or injury resulting from crashes involving light trucks (ie, pickup trucks) is a significant problem. Data show that fatal crashes and occupant fatalities involving light trucks have steadily increased since 1983. This project describes vehicle crashes involving passengers riding in the beds of pickup trucks. Actual crashes were identified through the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The 40 incidents studied involved 204 pickup truck passengers. Of these, 45 were killed, 107 sustained visible injuries or were carried from the scene, 6 had bruises and abrasions, and 2 had no visible injury but were briefly unconscious or had a documented complaint of pain. The risk of death among pickup truck passengers who were fully ejected from the vehicle was nearly six times that of passengers not fully ejected. Correspondingly, the risk of ejection from the truck was 26.7 times greater among occupants riding in the bed than occupants riding in the cab. PMID:2000522

  11. Incidence of cardiac events in burned patients.

    PubMed

    Meyers, David G; Hoestje, Sara M; Korentager, Richard A

    2003-06-01

    Given the increased level of adrenergic stimulation in burn patients, it would be expected that they would experience an increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and other cardiac events. We performed a retrospective chart review of 56 acute burn patients matched by age, length of hospital stay, and sex to 56 trauma patients, all of whom had been continuously monitored electrocardiographically. Burn and trauma patients were similar in injury severity, admission laboratory values, and prior history of cardiopulmonary diseases. Arrhythmias were noted in 34% of burn patients and 28% of trauma patients. One myocardial infarction and six deaths occurred in burn patients. No myocardial infarctions or deaths were observed in trauma patients. A past history of cardiopulmonary disease increased the risk of myocardial infarction or death by 6.6 times. Cardiac arrhythmias and other events are relatively infrequent and benign in burn patients and are similar to those experienced by other patients with acute injuries. PMID:12781616

  12. Recovery from chemical, biological, and radiological incidents :

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, David Oliver; Yang, Lynn I.; Hammer, Ann E.

    2012-06-01

    To restore regional lifeline services and economic activity as quickly as possible after a chemical, biological or radiological incident, emergency planners and managers will need to prioritize critical infrastructure across many sectors for restoration. In parallel, state and local governments will need to identify and implement measures to promote reoccupation and economy recovery in the region. This document provides guidance on predisaster planning for two of the National Disaster Recovery Framework Recovery Support Functions: Infrastructure Systems and Economic Recovery. It identifies key considerations for infrastructure restoration, outlines a process for prioritizing critical infrastructure for restoration, and identifies critical considerations for promoting regional economic recovery following a widearea disaster. Its goal is to equip members of the emergency preparedness community to systematically prioritize critical infrastructure for restoration, and to develop effective economic recovery plans in preparation for a widearea CBR disaster.

  13. Normal Incidence for Graded Index Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khankhoje, Uday K.; Van Zyl, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    A plane wave is incident normally from vacuum (eta(sub 0) = 1) onto a smooth surface. The substrate has three layers; the top most layer has thickness d(sub 1) and permittivity epsilon(sub 1). The corresponding numbers for the next layer are d(sub 2); epsilon(sub 2), while the third layer which is semi-in nite has index eta(sub 3). The Hallikainen model [1] is used to relate volumetric soil moisture to the permittivity. Here, we consider the relation for the real part of the permittivity for a typical loam soil: acute epsilon(mv) = 2.8571 + 3.9678 x mv + 118:85 x mv(sup 2).

  14. The Incidence of Abortion in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F.; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT Because of Nigeria’s low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country’s restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. METHODS A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. RESULTS An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15–49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. CONCLUSION Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26871725

  15. Post Traumatic Endophthalmitis: Incidence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Ali Reza; Rezaei, Leila; Salam, Hasan; Mohammadi, Zahra; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Post traumatic endophthalmitis is an uncommon but severe complication of ocular trauma. We aimed to identify the incidence of post traumatic endophthalmitis and its contributing risk factors in Feiz hospital (Isfahan, Iran) from 2006 until 2010. Medical records of 1042 patients with open globe injury were analyzed and data were collected including age, sex, location of being injured, visual acuity (VA), time from injury to hospitalization and to repair, site of ophthalmic injury and the presence of foreign body. The frequency of post-traumatic endophthalmitis was about 2.1% (N = 22) of all patients. Nine of 22 cases with endophthalmitis were under 8 years. The visual acuity at the time of admission was seen to be contributed to high rate of endophthalmitis. Intraocular foreign body was detected in 139 patients; and the rate of endophthalmitis was 5% among these patients. Statistical analysis showed significant relationship between presence of foreign body and higher rate of endophthalmitis. Also, duration of hospitalization was significantly different between two study groups (P = 0.019). There were no significant differences between two groups in terms of other studied variables. Patients with low age, low visual acuity at admission, presence of intraocular foreign body and long duration of hospital stay had a higher risk of endophthalmitis after the repair of the globe. Compared to the reports of other large institutions, we can attribute the low incidence rate of endophthalmitis in our institution to the early use of systemic antibiotics such as gentamycin and cephalosporins in the first hour of hospitalization until discharge. PMID:25363107

  16. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  17. Bacterial Brain Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Significant advances in the diagnosis and management of bacterial brain abscess over the past several decades have improved the expected outcome of a disease once regarded as invariably fatal. Despite this, intraparenchymal abscess continues to present a serious and potentially life-threatening condition. Brain abscess may result from traumatic brain injury, prior neurosurgical procedure, contiguous spread from a local source, or hematogenous spread of a systemic infection. In a significant proportion of cases, an etiology cannot be identified. Clinical presentation is highly variable and routine laboratory testing lacks sensitivity. As such, a high degree of clinical suspicion is necessary for prompt diagnosis and intervention. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging offer a timely and sensitive method of assessing for abscess. Appearance of abscess on routine imaging lacks specificity and will not spare biopsy in cases where the clinical context does not unequivocally indicate infectious etiology. Current work with advanced imaging modalities may yield more accurate methods of differentiation of mass lesions in the brain. Management of abscess demands a multimodal approach. Surgical intervention and medical therapy are necessary in most cases. Prognosis of brain abscess has improved significantly in the recent decades although close follow-up is required, given the potential for long-term sequelae and a risk of recurrence. PMID:25360205

  18. Immunotherapy of Brain Cancer.

    PubMed

    Roth, Patrick; Preusser, Matthias; Weller, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The brain has long been considered an immune-privileged site precluding potent immune responses. Nevertheless, because of the failure of conventional anti-cancer treatments to achieve sustained control of intracranial neoplasms, immunotherapy has been considered as a promising strategy for decades. However, several efforts aimed at exploiting the immune system as a therapeutic weapon were largely unsuccessful. The situation only changed with the introduction of the checkpoint inhibitors, which target immune cell receptors that interfere with the activation of immune effector cells. Following the observation of striking effects of drugs that target CTLA-4 or PD-1 against melanoma and other tumor entities, it was recognized that these drugs may also be active against metastatic tumor lesions in the brain. Their therapeutic activity against primary brain tumors is currently being investigated within clinical trials. In parallel, other immunotherapeutics such as peptide vaccines are at an advanced stage of clinical development. Further immunotherapeutic strategies currently under investigation comprise adoptive immune cell transfer as well as inhibitors of metabolic pathways involved in the local immunosuppression frequently found in brain tumors. Thus, the ongoing implementation of immunotherapeutic concepts into clinical routine may represent a powerful addition to the therapeutic arsenal against various brain tumors. PMID:27260656

  19. Brain controlled robots.

    PubMed

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    2008-06-01

    In January 2008, Duke University and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) publicized their successful control of a brain-machine interface for a humanoid robot by a monkey brain across the Pacific Ocean. The activities of a few hundred neurons were recorded from a monkey's motor cortex in Miguel Nicolelis's lab at Duke University, and the kinematic features of monkey locomotion on a treadmill were decoded from neural firing rates in real time. The decoded information was sent to a humanoid robot, CB-i, in ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories located in Kyoto, Japan. This robot was developed by the JST International Collaborative Research Project (ICORP) as the "Computational Brain Project." CB-i's locomotion-like movement was video-recorded and projected on a screen in front of the monkey. Although the bidirectional communication used a conventional Internet connection, its delay was suppressed below one over several seconds, partly due to a video-streaming technique, and this encouraged the monkey's voluntary locomotion and influenced its brain activity. This commentary introduces the background and future directions of the brain-controlled robot. PMID:19404467

  20. Brain tumor stem cells.

    PubMed

    Palm, Thomas; Schwamborn, Jens C

    2010-06-01

    Since the end of the 'no-new-neuron' theory, emerging evidence from multiple studies has supported the existence of stem cells in neurogenic areas of the adult brain. Along with this discovery, neural stem cells became candidate cells being at the origin of brain tumors. In fact, it has been demonstrated that molecular mechanisms controlling self-renewal and differentiation are shared between brain tumor stem cells and neural stem cells and that corruption of genes implicated in these pathways can direct tumor growth. In this regard, future anticancer approaches could be inspired by uncovering such redundancies and setting up treatments leading to exhaustion of the cancer stem cell pool. However, deleterious effects on (normal) neural stem cells should be minimized. Such therapeutic models underline the importance to study the cellular mechanisms implicated in fate decisions of neural stem cells and the oncogenic derivation of adult brain cells. In this review, we discuss the putative origins of brain tumor stem cells and their possible implications on future therapies. PMID:20370314

  1. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Zhifeng; Iraji, Armin

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy; however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrated both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the field is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treatment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plasticity investigation. PMID:25206874

  2. More Complete Removal of Malignant Brain Tumors by Fluorescence-Guided Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-13

    Benign Neoplasms, Brain; Brain Cancer; Brain Neoplasms, Benign; Brain Neoplasms, Malignant; Brain Tumor, Primary; Brain Tumor, Recurrent; Brain Tumors; Intracranial Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Brain; Neoplasms, Intracranial; Primary Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Tumors; Gliomas; Glioblastoma

  3. Neutron equivalent doses and associated lifetime cancer incidence risks for head & neck and spinal proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, Basit S.; Paganetti, Harald

    2009-08-01

    In this work we have simulated the absorbed equivalent doses to various organs distant to the field edge assuming proton therapy treatments of brain or spine lesions. We have used computational whole-body (gender-specific and age-dependent) voxel phantoms and considered six treatment fields with varying treatment volumes and depths. The maximum neutron equivalent dose to organs near the field edge was found to be approximately 8 mSv Gy-1. We were able to clearly demonstrate that organ-specific neutron equivalent doses are age (stature) dependent. For example, assuming an 8-year-old patient, the dose to brain from the spinal fields ranged from 0.04 to 0.10 mSv Gy-1, whereas the dose to the brain assuming a 9-month-old patient ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 mSv Gy-1. Further, as the field aperture opening increases, the secondary neutron equivalent dose caused by the treatment head decreases, while the secondary neutron equivalent dose caused by the patient itself increases. To interpret the dosimetric data, we analyzed second cancer incidence risks for various organs as a function of patient age and field size based on two risk models. The results show that, for example, in an 8-year-old female patient treated with a spinal proton therapy field, breasts, lungs and rectum have the highest radiation-induced lifetime cancer incidence risks. These are estimated to be 0.71%, 1.05% and 0.60%, respectively. For an 11-year-old male patient treated with a spinal field, bronchi and rectum show the highest risks of 0.32% and 0.43%, respectively. Risks for male and female patients increase as their age at treatment time decreases.

  4. Brains, Genes and Primates

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Callaway, Edward M.; Churchland, Patricia; Caddick, Sarah J.; Feng, Guoping; Homanics, Gregg E.; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Leopold, David A.; Miller, Cory T.; Mitchell, Jude F.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Moutri, Alysson R.; Movshon, J. Anthony; Okano, Hideyuki; Reynolds, John H.; Ringach, Dario; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Silva, Afonso C.; Strick, Peter L.; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    One of the great strengths of the mouse model is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed. Striking examples include methods for directed modification of the genome, and for regulated expression or inactivation of genes. Within neuroscience, it is now routine to express reporter genes, neuronal activity indicators and opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse. However, there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral differences between the mouse and the human that, in some areas of inquiry, limit the degree to which insights derived from the mouse can be applied to understanding human neurobiology. Several recent advances have now brought into reach the goal of applying these tools to understanding the primate brain. Here we describe these advances, consider their potential to advance our understanding of the human brain and brain disorders, discuss bioethical considerations, and describe what will be needed to move forward. PMID:25950631

  5. Mind, Brain and Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Hitesh C.

    2009-01-01

    There is long-standing debate about superiority of mind over brain, in other words about superiority of mind over matter. And outcome of this debate is going to decide future of psychiatry. The psychiatrists believing in materialism may say that brain is all and by changing neurotransmitters level with new molecules of drugs would cure all illnesses. On the other hand, antipsychiatry activists and some psychotherapists oppose all types of treatment despite of convincing evidence that drug therapy is effective (although sometimes it is not as effective as it claims to be). However, truth lies somewhere in between. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are like two legs of psychiatry and psychiatry cannot walk into a future on one leg. The studies have shown that judicious use of pharmacotherapy along with psychotherapy gives better outcome than any one of them used alone. We must heal dichotomy between mind and brain before we heal the patients. PMID:21938085

  6. The Geneva brain collection

    PubMed Central

    Kövari, Enikö; Hof, Patrick R.; Bouras, Constantin

    2011-01-01

    The University of Geneva brain collection was founded at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, it consists of 10,154 formaldehyde- or buffered formaldehyde–fixed brains obtained from the autopsies of the Department of Psychiatry and, since 1971, from the Department of Geriatrics as well. More than 100,000 paraffin-embedded blocks and 200,000 histological slides have also been collected since 1901. From the time of its creation, this collection has served as an important resource for pathological studies and clinicopathological correlations, primarily in the field of dementing illnesses and brain aging research. These materials have permitted a number of original neuropathological observations, such as the classification of Pick’s disease by Constantinidis, or the description of dyshoric angiopathy and laminar sclerosis by Morel. The large number of cases, including some very rare conditions, provides a unique resource and an opportunity for worldwide collaborations. PMID:21599692

  7. Brains on video games

    PubMed Central

    Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C. Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F.; Merzenich, Michael M.; Gentile, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games ‘damage the brain’ or ‘boost brain power’ do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward. PMID:22095065

  8. The metastable brain.

    PubMed

    Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J A Scott

    2014-01-01

    Neural ensembles oscillate across a broad range of frequencies and are transiently coupled or "bound" together when people attend to a stimulus, perceive, think, and act. This is a dynamic, self-assembling process, with parts of the brain engaging and disengaging in time. But how is it done? The theory of Coordination Dynamics proposes a mechanism called metastability, a subtle blend of integration and segregation. Tendencies for brain regions to express their individual autonomy and specialized functions (segregation, modularity) coexist with tendencies to couple and coordinate globally for multiple functions (integration). Although metastability has garnered increasing attention, it has yet to be demonstrated and treated within a fully spatiotemporal perspective. Here, we illustrate metastability in continuous neural and behavioral recordings, and we discuss theory and experiments at multiple scales, suggesting that metastable dynamics underlie the real-time coordination necessary for the brain's dynamic cognitive, behavioral, and social functions. PMID:24411730

  9. The Metastable Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J. A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Neural ensembles oscillate across a broad range of frequencies and are transiently coupled or “bound” together when people attend to a stimulus, perceive, think and act. This is a dynamic, self-assembling process, with parts of the brain engaging and disengaging in time. But how is it done? The theory of Coordination Dynamics proposes a mechanism called metastability, a subtle blend of integration and segregation. Tendencies for brain regions to express their individual autonomy and specialized functions (segregation, modularity) coexist with tendencies to couple and coordinate globally for multiple functions (integration). Although metastability has garnered increasing attention, it has yet to be demonstrated and treated within a fully spatiotemporal perspective. Here, we illustrate metastability in continuous neural and behavioral recordings, and we discuss theory and experiments at multiple scales suggesting that metastable dynamics underlie the real-time coordination necessary for the brain's dynamic cognitive, behavioral and social functions. PMID:24411730

  10. Brain imaging in dementia.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Guendalina; Zamboni, Giovanna

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging has contributed significantly to the understanding of different dementia syndromes. Over the past 20 years these imaging techniques have been increasingly used for clinical characterisation and differential diagnosis, and to provide insight into the effects on functional capacity of the brain, patterns of spatial distribution of different dementia syndromes and their natural history and evolution over time. Brain imaging is also increasingly used in clinical trials, as part of inclusion criteria and/or as a surrogate outcome measure. Here we review all the relatively specific findings that can be identified with different MRI and PET techniques in each of the most frequent dementing disorders. PMID:26933232

  11. Brain abscess: Current management

    PubMed Central

    Alvis Miranda, Hernando; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Elzain, Mohammed Awad; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Brain abscess (BA) is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA. PMID:24174804

  12. Brain arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Adi R

    2011-01-01

    An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a particular abnormality of blood vessels. Brain AVMs are congenital, but symptoms usually do not appear until the second decade of life - if at all. The most common presenting symptom is a brain hemorrhage, but other possible symptoms include neurological deficits, seizures and headaches. Until recently, the gold standard for diagnosing AVM was conventional angiography. However, computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography are now the first-line diagnostic tools for AVMs. This article reviews the presenting symptoms, diagnostic procedures and treatment options for brain AVMs, including embolization, micro-surgery and radiosurgery. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your CE preference. For access to other quizzes, go to www.asrt.org/store. PMID:21771938

  13. Multimodal brain visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Current connectivity diagrams of human brain image data are either overly complex or overly simplistic. In this work we introduce simple yet accurate interactive visual representations of multiple brain image structures and the connectivity among them. We map cortical surfaces extracted from human brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data onto 2D surfaces that preserve shape (angle), extent (area), and spatial (neighborhood) information for 2D (circular disk) and 3D (spherical) mapping, split these surfaces into separate patches, and cluster functional and diffusion tractography MRI connections between pairs of these patches. The resulting visualizations are easier to compute on and more visually intuitive to interact with than the original data, and facilitate simultaneous exploration of multiple data sets, modalities, and statistical maps.

  14. Brain abscess: Current management.

    PubMed

    Alvis Miranda, Hernando; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Elzain, Mohammed Awad; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2013-08-01

    Brain abscess (BA) is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA. PMID:24174804

  15. Brain development in childhood.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volume increase is mostly linear during those periods. As regards fractional anisotropy, most regions show an exponential trajectory with aging. In addition, cerebral blood flow and gray matter volume are proportional at similar developmental ages. Moreover, we show that several lifestyle choices, such as sleeping habits and breakfast staple, affect gray matter volume in healthy children. There are a number of uninvestigated important issues that require future study. PMID:23166579

  16. Improving reporting of critical incidents through education and involvement.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Critical incident reporting involves highlighting events and near-misses which have a potential impact on patient care and patient safety. Reporting of critical incidents is a recognised tool in improving patient safety. Within the community paediatric setting in the Belfast Health & Social Care Trust (BHSCT) there is a paucity of incident report forms. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to establish the barriers to reporting critical incidents and to implement plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles to create a climate for change. The methodology for this project was to firstly perform a baseline audit to review all submitted critical incident reports for the Community Paediatric team in the BHSCT for a six month period. A questionnaire was distributed to staff within the multidisciplinary team to establish examples of barriers to reporting. Interventions performed included introducing an agreed definition of a critical incident, distributing/presenting questionnaire findings to senior members of the various management teams and providing feedback to healthcare workers after presentation of a critical incident presentation. A review of incident reports was performed over the subsequent six month period to assess how the interventions impacted on incident reporting. Over 12 questionnaires 28 barriers to reporting critical incidents were reported which fell into five separate categories. Staff members were twice as likely to report negativity after reporting a critical incident. Overall critical incident reporting within the BHSCT Community Paediatric team improved from 11 incident reports (1.8 per month) to 22 incident reports (3.7 per month) after completion of the quality improvement project. This represents an increase of 100%. PMID:26734409

  17. Brain injury in sports.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, John; Conidi, Frank

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Helmets are used for sports, military, and transportation to protect against impact forces and associated injuries. The common belief among end users is that the helmet protects the whole head, including the brain. However, current consensus among biomechanists and sports neurologists indicates that helmets do not provide significant protection against concussion and brain injuries. In this paper the authors present existing scientific evidence on the mechanisms underlying traumatic head and brain injuries, along with a biomechanical evaluation of 21 current and retired football helmets. METHODS The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standard test apparatus was modified and validated for impact testing of protective headwear to include the measurement of both linear and angular kinematics. From a drop height of 2.0 m onto a flat steel anvil, each football helmet was impacted 5 times in the occipital area. RESULTS Skull fracture risk was determined for each of the current varsity football helmets by calculating the percentage reduction in linear acceleration relative to a 140-g skull fracture threshold. Risk of subdural hematoma was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in angular acceleration relative to the bridging vein failure threshold, computed as a function of impact duration. Ranking the helmets according to their performance under these criteria, the authors determined that the Schutt Vengeance performed the best overall. CONCLUSIONS The study findings demonstrated that not all football helmets provide equal or adequate protection against either focal head injuries or traumatic brain injuries. In fact, some of the most popular helmets on the field ranked among the worst. While protection is improving, none of the current or retired varsity football helmets can provide absolute protection against brain injuries, including concussions and subdural hematomas. To maximize protection against head and

  18. The Brain Prize 2011

    PubMed Central

    Soltesz, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Foundation awarded the inaugural Brain Prize 2011 to Péter Somogyi, Tamás Freund and György Buzsáki ‘for their wide-ranging, technically and conceptually brilliant research on the functional organization of neuronal circuits in the cerebral cortex, especially in the hippocampus, a region that is crucial for certain forms of memory’. The present article highlights key findings and major conceptual contributions by these three scientists that were recognized by the award. PMID:21917323

  19. Incidence of Osteoporosis in Patients with Urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Bijelic, Radojka; Milicevic, Snjezana; Balaban, Jagoda

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction. Clinical researches have shown an increased bone disintegration and lower bone mass in patients with calcium urolithiasis. Goal. The goal of our research was to establish the incidence of osteoporosis in adult patients with calcium urolithiasis, on the basis of measuring mineral bone density, using DEXA method, with a special reflection on age subgroups. Material and methods. Clinical research was prospective and it was implemented at the University Clinical Center of Banja Luka, at the Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases and at the Urology Clinic. Material in this research consisted of patients divided in two groups, a working and a control group. One hundred and twenty (120) patients were included in both these groups, divided in three age subgroups: 20-40, 40-60 and over 60. The working group consisted of the patients with calcium urolithiasis and the control group consisted of patients without calcium urolithiasis. Establishing of mineral bone density at L2-L4 of lumbal spine vertebrae and hip was done for the patients in both these groups, using DEXA method. Results. Analysis of mineral bone density using DEXA method in patients in age groups of working and control groups, as well as in the total sample of working and control groups, have shown that the patients of the working group, over 60, had a decreased mineral bone density (30% of osteopenia and 15% osteoporosis) significantly more expressed when compared to the other two age groups (12.5% in the subgroup 20-40 and 17.5% in the subgroup 40-60), which presents a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). In the control group, when taking into account age groups, osteopenia and osteoporosis were marked in 37.5% and 2.5% in the group of patients over 60, whereas in the youngest population, 5% of osteopenia was found, which presents a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). When observing the total sample of working and control group, there was a

  20. The Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, B. J.; Getz, Sarah; Galvan, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by suboptimal decisions and actions that give rise to an increased incidence of unintentional injuries and violence, alcohol and drug abuse, unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Traditional neurobiological and cognitive explanations for adolescent behavior have failed to…

  1. Incidents/accidents classification and reporting in Statoil.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Rune; Holmboe, Rolf H

    2004-07-26

    Based on requirements in the new petroleum regulations from Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) and the realisation of a need to improve and rationalise the routines for reporting and follow up of incidents, Statoil Exploration & Production Norway (Statoil E&P Norway) has formulated a new strategy and process for handling of incidents/accidents. The following past experiences serve as basis for the changes made to incident reporting in Statoil E&P Norway; too much resources were spent on a comprehensive handling and analysis of a vast amount of incidents with less importance for the safety level, taking the focus away from the more severe and important issues at hand, the assessment of "Risk Factor", i.e. the combination of recurrence frequency and consequence, was difficult to use. The high degree of subjectivity involved in the determination of the "Risk Factor" (in particular the estimation of the recurrence frequency) resulted in poor data quality and lack of consistency in the data material. The new system for categorisation and handling of undesirable incidents was established in January 2002. The intention was to get a higher degree of focus on serious incidents (injuries, damages, loss and near misses), with a thorough handling and follow-up. This is reflected throughout the handling of the serious incidents, all the way from immediate notification of the incident, through investigation and follow-up of corrective and preventive actions. Simultaneously, it was also an objective to rationalise/simplify the handling of less serious incidents. These incidents are, however, subjected to analyses twice a year in order to utilize the learning opportunity that they also provide. A year after the introduction of this new system for categorisation and follow-up of undesirable incidents, Statoil's experiences are predominantly good; the intention to get a higher degree of focus on serious incidents (injuries, damages, loss and near misses), has been met, the data

  2. Brain cancer mortality rates increase with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vittecoq, Marion; Elguero, Eric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Roche, Benjamin; Brodeur, Jacques; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of adult brain cancer was previously shown to be higher in countries where the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common, suggesting that this brain protozoan could potentially increase the risk of tumor formation. Using countries as replicates has, however, several potential confounding factors, particularly because detection rates vary with country wealth. Using an independent dataset entirely within France, we further establish the significance of the association between T. gondii and brain cancer and find additional demographic resolution. In adult age classes 55 years and older, regional mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local seroprevalence of T. gondii. This effect was particularly strong for men. While this novel evidence of a significant statistical association between T. gondii infection and brain cancer does not demonstrate causation, these results suggest that investigations at the scale of the individual are merited.

  3. Brain Arterial Diameters as a Risk Factor for Vascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Jose; Cheung, Ken; Bagci, Ahmet; Rundek, Tatjana; Alperin, Noam; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2015-01-01

    Background Arterial luminal diameters are routinely used to assess for vascular disease. Although small diameters are typically considered pathological, arterial dilatation has also been associated with disease. We hypothesize that extreme arterial diameters are biomarkers of the risk of vascular events. Methods and Results Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study who had a time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography were included in this analysis (N=1034). A global arterial Z-score, called the brain arterial remodeling (BAR) score, was obtained by averaging the measured diameters within each individual. Individuals with a BAR score <−2 SDs were considered to have the smallest diameters, individuals with a BAR score >−2 and <2 SDs had average diameters, and individuals with a BAR score >2 SDs had the largest diameters. All vascular events were recorded prospectively after the brain magnetic resonance imaging. Spline curves and incidence rates were used to test our hypothesis. The association of the BAR score with death (P=0.001), vascular death (P=0.02), any vascular event (P=0.05), and myocardial infarction (P=0.10) was U-shaped except for ischemic stroke (P=0.74). Consequently, incidence rates for death, vascular death, myocardial infarction, and any vascular event were higher in individuals with the largest diameters, whereas individuals with the smallest diameters had a higher incidence of death, vascular death, any vascular event, and ischemic stroke compared with individuals with average diameters. Conclusions The risk of death, vascular death, and any vascular event increased at both extremes of brain arterial diameters. The pathophysiology linking brain arterial remodeling to systemic vascular events needs further research. PMID:26251284

  4. Security incidents on the Internet, 1989--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an analysis of trends in Internet security based on an investigation of 4,299 Internet security-related incidents reported to the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center (CERT{reg_sign}/CC) from 1989 through 1995. Prior to this research, knowledge of actual Internet security incidents was limited and primarily anecdotal. This research: (1) developed a taxonomy to classify Internet attacks and incidents, (2) organized, classified, and analyzed CERT{reg_sign}/CC incident records, (3) summarized the relative frequency of the use of tools and vulnerabilities, success in achieving access, and results of attacks, (4) estimated total Internet incident activity, (5) developed recommendations for Internet users and suppliers, and (6) developed recommendations for future research. With the exception of denial-of-service attacks, security incidents were found to be increasing at a rate less than Internet growth. Estimates showed that most, if not all, severe incidents were reported to the CERT{reg_sign}/CC, and that more than one out of three above average incidents (in terms of duration and number of sites) were reported. Estimates also indicated that a typical Internet site was involved in, at most, around one incident (of any kind) per year, and a typical Internet host in, at most, around one incident in 45 years. The probability of unauthorized privileged access was around an order of magnitude less likely. As a result, simple and reasonable security precautions should be sufficient for most Internet users.

  5. Teaching Creativity for Right Brain and Left Brain Thinkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geske, Joel

    Right brain and left brain dominant people process information differently and need different techniques to learn how to become more creative. Various exercises can help students take advantage of both sides of their brains. Students must feel comfortable and unthreatened to reach maximal creativity, and a positive personal relationship with…

  6. Braking and Accelerating of the Adolescent Brain

    PubMed Central

    Casey, BJ; Jones, Rebecca M.; Somerville, Leah H.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period often characterized as a time of impulsive and risky choices leading to increased incidence of unintentional injuries and violence, alcohol and drug abuse, unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Traditional neurobiological and cognitive explanations for such suboptimal choices and actions have failed to account for nonlinear changes in behavior observed during adolescence, relative to childhood and adulthood. This review provides a biologically plausible conceptualization of the mechanisms underlying these nonlinear changes in behavior, as an imbalance between a heightened sensitivity to motivational cues and immature cognitive control. Recent human imaging and animal studies provide a biological basis for this view, suggesting differential development of subcortical limbic systems relative to top-down control systems during adolescence relative to childhood and adulthood. This work emphasizes the importance of examining transitions into and out of adolescence and highlights emerging avenues of future research on adolescent brain development. PMID:21475613

  7. Multifocal brain radionecrosis masquerading as tumor dissemination

    SciTech Connect

    Safdari, H.; Boluix, B.; Gros, C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors report on an autopsy-proven case of multifocal widespread radionecrosis involving both cerebral hemispheres and masquerading as tumor dissemination on a CT scan done 13 months after complete resection of an oligodendroglioma followed by radiation therapy. This case demonstrates that radiation damage may be present in a CT scan as a multifocal, disseminated lesion. Since the survival of brain-tumor patients who have undergone radiation therapy is prolonged by aggressive therapy, the incidence and variability of radiation-induced complications in such cases is likely to increase. For similar reasons, the radionecrosis in such cases should be taken into consideration. A short review of the CT scan findings and diagnostic and therapeutic considerations in a case of widespread radionecrosis is presented. The need for appropriate diagnosis and subsequent life-saving management is emphasized.

  8. EQUALIZING THE ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY WITHIN CHICK BRAIN IMMERSED IN BUFFER SOLUTION AT DIFFERENT CARRIER FREQUENCIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented here are the numerical relationships between incident power densities that produce the same average electric field intensity within a chick brain half immersed in buffered saline solution and exposed to a uniform electromagnetic field at carrier frequencies of 50, 147, ...

  9. Best Practices in Assessment and Programming for Students with Traumatic Brain Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. for Exceptional Children.

    This manual is intended to give teachers a basic understanding of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and an in-depth understanding of techniques for evaluating the student with TBI in order to provide appropriate programming. Section 1 introduces a definition of TBI including incidence and causes, an overview of neuroanatomy, primary and secondary…

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury: The Efficacy of a Half-Day Training for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Susan C.; Ray, Ashlyn M.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence rates of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are increasing, yet educators continue to be inadequately trained in assessing and serving students with TBIs. This study examined the efficacy of a half-day TBI training program for school psychologists designed to improve their knowledge and skills. Results of quantitative and qualitative…

  11. Expressive Electronic Journal Writing: Freedom of Communication for Survivors of Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, Michael; Balz, Magdalen A.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to the impaired ability to effectively communicate, adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) also experience high incidences of depression, social isolation, and decreased quality of life. Expressive writing programs have been shown to be effective in alleviating these concomitant impairments in other populations including incarcerated…

  12. The influence of incident shock Mach number on radial incident shock wave focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Tan, Sheng; He, Liming; Rong, Kang; Zhang, Qiang; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-04-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations were carried out to investigate radial incident shock focusing on a test section where the planar incident shock wave was divided into two identical ones. A conventional shock tube was used to generate the planar shock. Incident shock Mach number of 1.51, 1.84 and 2.18 were tested. CCD camera was used to obtain the schlieren photos of the flow field. Third-order, three step strong-stability-preserving (SSP) Runge-Kutta method, third-order weighed essential non-oscillation (WENO) scheme and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm were adopted to simulate the complicated flow fields characterized by shock wave interaction. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results was observed. Complex shock wave configurations and interactions (such as shock reflection, shock-vortex interaction and shock focusing) were observed in both the experiments and numerical results. Some new features were observed and discussed. The differences of structure of flow field and the variation trends of pressure were compared and analyzed under the condition of different Mach numbers while shock wave focusing.

  13. Variable magnification glancing incidence x ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A multispectral glancing incidence x ray telescope is disclosed, which capable of broadband, high resolution imaging of solar and stellar x ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources includes a primary optical system which focuses the incoming radiation to a primary focus. Two or more ellipsoidal mirrors are positioned behind the primary focus at an inclination to the optical axis, each mirror having a concave surface coated with a multilayer synthetic microstructure coating to reflect a desired wavelength. The ellipsoidal mirrors are segments of respective ellipsoids having a common first focus coincident with the primary focus. A detector such as an x ray sensitive photographic film is positioned at the second focus of each of the ellipsoids so that each of the ellipsoidal mirrors may reflect the image at the first focus to the detector. In one embodiment the mirrors are inclined at different angles and has its respective second focus at a different location, separate detectors being located at the respective second focus. The mirrors are arranged so that the magnification and field of view differ, and a solenoid activated arm may withdraw at least one mirror from the beam to select the mirror upon which the beam is to impinge so that selected magnifications and fields of view may be detected.

  14. Colorectal polyp incidence among polypropylene manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R J; Lerman, S E; Schnatter, A R; Hughes, J I; Vernon, S W

    1994-02-01

    To follow up earlier findings of increased colorectal cancer and polyp risk among a group of Texas polypropylene manufacturing workers, a second company-sponsored colorectal cancer screening program was conducted. Ninety-four (64%) of the 147 male workers negative for polyps in the first screening were rescreened. Age- and examiner-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were modestly elevated for polypropylene manufacturing workers compared with patients screened at the same clinic for total (IRR = 1.31; 90% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84 to 2.03) and adenomatous (IRR = 1.80; 90% CI = 0.68 to 4.78) polyps. However, risk of adenomas among the highest exposed group (early term process/mechanical workers: IRR = 1.77; 90% CI = 0.51 to 6.18) was similar to risk in the least-exposed group (engineer/chemist/administrative workers: IRR = 2.02; 90% CI = 0.56 to 7.31). The modest, nonsignificant excesses and the similarity in risk across job categories does not suggest an occupationally related risk, although small numbers and potential biases preclude making definitive conclusions. PMID:8176517

  15. Multispectral glancing incidence X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A multispectral glancing incidence X-ray telescope is illustrated capable of broadband, high-resolution imaging of solar and stellar X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources which includes a primary optical system preferably of the Wolter I type having a primary mirror system (20, 22). The primary optical system further includes an optical axis (24) having a primary focus (F1) at which the incoming radiation is focused by the primary mirrors. A plurality of ellipsoidal mirrors (30a, 30b, 30cand 30d) are carried at an inclination to the optical axis behind the primary focus (F1). A rotating carrier (32) is provided on which the ellipsoidal mirrors are carried so that a desired one of the ellipsoidal mirrors may be selectively positioned in front of the incoming radiation beam (26). In the preferred embodiment, each of the ellipsoidal mirrors has an identical concave surface carrying a layered synthetic microstructure coating tailored to reflect a desired wavelength of 1.5 .ANG. or longer. Each of the identical ellipsoidal mirrors has a second focus (F2) at which a detector (16) is carried. Thus the different wavelength image is focused upon the detector irregardless of which mirror is positioned in front of the radiation beam. In this manner, a plurality of low wavelengths in a wavelength band generally less than 30 angstroms can be imaged with a high resolution.

  16. Pelvic Incidence: The Great Biomechanical Effort.

    PubMed

    Diebo, Bassel G; Lafage, Virginie; Schwab, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Medical textbooks present the pelvis and the spine as distinct entities-an unfortunate practice that does not reflect the crucial and critical role that the pelvis plays in regulating spino-pelvic alignment. Researchers are working to delineate this role. Dubousset proposed the concept of the 3-dimensional pelvic vertebra, which suggested that the pelvis is just another caudal vertebra of the spine, and that analysis of the spine requires simultaneous analysis of pelvic morphology. To quantify pelvic morphology, Legaye introduced the pelvic incidence angle (PI) and espoused the theory that this angle regulates sagittal curvature of the spine. The PI is formed from 2 lines: line 1, perpendicular to the sacrum from the midline of the sacral plate, aims to quantify spatial orientation and dictate the lumbar curve; line 2, extending from the midline of the sacrum to the midpoint between femoral heads, illustrates the importance of sacral position inside the pelvis (SDC Figure 1, http://links.lww.com/BRS/B99). PMID:27015063

  17. [Megacolon and sigmoid volvulus: incidence and physiopathology].

    PubMed

    Saravia Burgos, Jaime; Acosta Canedo, Abel

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of Megacolon is multiple. One of these causes and the most frequent is Chagas disease. Its complication: sigmoid volvulus was de main diagnosis in the admitted patients at the Bolivian and Japanese Gastroenterological Institute of Cochabamba Bolivia. It usually affects people of a low economic income. In this Gastroenterological Hospital a transversal and prospective study has been done, in order to know the real incidence and the physiopathology of this disease. In a six year period, from 2000 to 2006, 8.954 patients were admitted to the Hospital: of these, 814 (9.09%), where diagnosticated as lower intestinal obstruction. In 608 (74.7%) the final diagnosis was sigmoid torsion. Radiological diagnosis was made in 84% of the patients and endoscopic decompression was successful in 88.7%. As reported in the medical literature, the main cause of megacolon in this part of the world is Chagas disease. In our investigation 22% (98 patients), were serology positive to Chagas disease, and another 21.44% (95 patients) were serology negative. They were coca leaf chewers. One of coca leaf compounds is cocaine which blocks the adrenaline and noradrenaline degradation by mean of monoamine oxidase inactivation. These two hormones stay a long term of time in the target organ: the large bowel. By this mean chronic and persistent vessel constriction develops intestinal wall atrophy and lower resistance to the intraintestinal pressure. PMID:25875517

  18. Incidence of myocardial infarction and weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staiger, Henning

    1982-08-01

    Extreme values of temperature and/or humidity in the temperate climate of Hamburg are not able to explain the influence of weather on day-to-day fluctuations of morbidity. Short term changes in weather are described by two objective classifications as deviation from the meteorological past: 1. the temperature-humidity-environment, derived from values of temperature and water vapour pressure at 07.00 h, 2. changes in the cyclonality, derived from the difference of 500 and 850 mbar vorticity values. Their suitability for human biometeorology is illustrated with a material of 1262 subjects who suffered from acute myocardial infarction. For these investigated cases it was known whether angina pectoris was already manifest before the infarction or not. The daily weather conditions have a significant effect on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction according to angina pectoris. Compared to subjects with angina pectoris those without angina pectoris show an increased susceptibility to infarction during changes in weather conditions to warmer/more humid and also during all strong changes in the cyclonality whereby the temperature-humidity-environment seems to leave only the role of an indicator too. Persons with a preceeding angina pectoris are more sensitive agains rapid changes in weather conditions.

  19. Mass casualty incidents - time to engage.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ishay, Offir; Mitaritonno, Michele; Catena, Fausto; Sartelli, Massimo; Ansaloni, Luca; Kluger, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty incident continues to overwhelm medical systems worldwide. Preparedness for an MCI is a crucial requisite for the injured better outcome. The World Society of Emergency Surgery initiated a survey in regard to its senior member's personal and institutional preparedness for MCI. The results here in presented indicate that WSES should engage in a formatted and structured preparedness course for medical institutions and individuals."By all appearances it seems to be just another normal Saturday morning in the emergency department (ED). Patients occupy thirty out of the sixty beds; some awaits discharge, some awaits admission to the hospital. All of a sudden the squeaky voice of the red phone is tearing the air, the hard metal voice on the line is reporting of an explosion in the nearby train station, estimated number of casualties is 80. You ask for their estimated time of arrival, when you hear the first sirens of ambulances parking out of the ED; no answer was needed. PMID:26848306

  20. Incidence of retrorenal colon during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Balasar, Mehmet; Kandemir, Abdülkadir; Poyraz, Necdet; Unal, Yunus; Ozturk, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate retrorenal colon incidence in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) interventions made in our clinic. Materials and Methods Clinical data of 804 PNL patients, accumulated over a 7 year period (2006-2012), was surveyed. The patient files were reviewed retrospectively, and only those who had abdominal computed tomography (CT) images before PNL intervention were included in the study. In the CT images, the position of both the ascending and descending colon in relation to the right and left kidneys were evaluated. Results According to our hospital reports, 394 patients with CT images were included in the present study 27 patients (6.9%) had retrorenal colon, of which 18 (4.6%) were on the left side, 4 (1.0%) on the right side and 5 (1.3%) had bilateral retrorenal colons. Colonic perforation complication was seen only in two patients and the colonic perforation rate was 0.3%. These two cases had no CT images. Conclusions PNL, in the process of becoming the standard treatment modality, is a safe and reliable technique for renal stone treatment. Colonic injury should be taken into consideration during PNL interventions of the lower pole of the kidney (especially on the left side) due to the location of retrorenal colon. PMID:26005968

  1. Seasonal variations of cancer incidence and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Moan, Johan; Bruland, Øyvind; Juzeniene, Asta

    2010-01-01

    The overall death rates are highest in the winter season in many countries at high latitudes. In some but not all countries, this is also true for more specific diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and influenza. For internal cancers we find no consistent, significant seasonal variation, neither of incidence nor of death rates. On the other hand, we find a significant seasonal variation of cancer prognosis with season of diagnosis in Norway. Best prognosis is found for summer and autumn diagnosis; i.e., for the seasons of the best status of vitamin D in the population. There were no corresponding seasonal variations, neither of the rates of diagnosis, nor of the rates of death which could explain the variations of prognosis. The most likely reason for this variation is that the vitamin D status in Norway is significantly better in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. Earlier, seasonal variations have been explained by circannual variations of certain hormones, but the data are not consistent. PMID:21547098

  2. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  3. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, R A; Clay, M E; Eichorst, A J

    1998-01-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. PMID:9415588

  5. Incidence of cancer among Norwegian boiler welders.

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, T E; Langård, S; Andersen, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The cancer incidence among 2957 boiler welders was investigated. The subjects were registered electrical welders from 1942 to 1981. A subcohort of 606 stainless steel welders was studied separately. METHODS: The investigation was a historical prospective cohort study based on a national registry. The loss of follow up was 4.9%. RESULTS: There were 625 deaths (659 expected). There were 269 cancer cases (264 expected). An excess of lung cancer was found; 50 cases v 37.5 expected. There were three cases of pleural mesotheliomas v 1.1 expected. The subcohort of stainless steel welders had six cases of lung cancer v 5.8 expected, and one case of pleural mesothelioma v 0.2 expected. CONCLUSIONS: The welders in the study were assumed to represent a qualified work force. These welders had a small excess risk of lung cancer. The excess risk did not seem to be associated with stainless steel welding. Smoking and asbestos exposure were potential confounders. PMID:8664959

  6. Living with a Brain Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mentor The ABTA's Online Support Community Understanding The Affordable Care Act Living with a Brain Tumor Understanding Emotions Talking ... Mentor The ABTA's Online Support Community Understanding The Affordable Care Act Living with a Brain Tumor Understanding Emotions Talking ...

  7. Brain banking for neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Samarasekera, Neshika; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Huitinga, Inge; Klioueva, Natasja; McLean, Catriona A; Kretzschmar, Hans; Smith, Colin; Ironside, James W

    2013-11-01

    Brain banks are used to gather, store, and provide human brain tissue for research and have been fundamental to improving our knowledge of the brain in health and disease. To maintain this role, the legal and ethical issues relevant to the operations of brain banks need to be more widely understood. In recent years, researchers have reported that shortages of high-quality brain tissue samples from both healthy and diseased people have impaired their efforts. Closer collaborations between brain banks and improved strategies for brain donation programmes will be essential to overcome these problems as the demand for brain tissue increases and new research techniques become more widespread, with the potential for substantial scientific advances in increasingly common neurological disorders. PMID:24074724

  8. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors This page lists cancer drugs approved by ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors Afinitor (Everolimus) Afinitor Disperz (Everolimus) Avastin (Bevacizumab) ...

  9. Radiation Injury to the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hits since January 2003 RADIATION INJURY TO THE BRAIN Radiation treatments affect all cells that are targeted. ... fractions, duration of therapy, and volume of [healthy brain] nervous tissue irradiated influence the likelihood of injury. ...

  10. BRAIN ABSCESS PRESENTING WITH CATATONIA

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elizabeth J.B.; Borde, Milind; Davis, Rachel

    1995-01-01

    A fifty year old man presented to a psychiatric unit with catatonia. He was later found to have a brain abscess in the left frontal region. Brain abscess has not been previously reported to be associated with catatonia. PMID:21743747

  11. Brain Imaging: Applications in Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreasen, Nancy C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses various brain imaging techniques, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, measurement of regional cerebral blood flow, single photo emission tomography, and position emission tomography. Describes the uses of these techniques in helping to understand brain functioning. (TW)

  12. Teen Brain: Still Under Construction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol and the Teen Brain Reprints For more information ... illness is by studying the development of the brain from birth to adulthood. Powerful new technologies have enabled them to track the growth of ...

  13. Brain birth and personal identity.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D G

    1989-01-01

    The concept of brain birth has assumed a position of some significance in discussions on the status of the human embryo and on the point in embryonic development prior to which experimental procedures may be undertaken on human embryos. This paper reviews previous discussions of this concept, which have placed brain birth at various points between 12 days' and 20 weeks' gestation and which have emphasised the symmetry of brain birth and brain death. Major developmental features of brain development are outlined, including the gradualness with which new features generally appear, and also the electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics of premature infants. From this it is concluded that, if the concept of brain birth is a valid one, it should be placed at 24-28 weeks' gestation. More importantly, it is concluded that the differences between brain development and brain death throw doubt on the concept itself. PMID:2614785

  14. Development of the Young Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... items) NIMH (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For more than twenty years, ... Giedd has studied the development of the adolescent brain. Decades of imaging work have led to remarkable ...

  15. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI) DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Traumatic Brain Injury National Data Center (TBINDC) at Kessler Medical Rehabilitation Research and Education Center is the coordinating center for the research and dissemination efforts of the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) program funded by the National Instit...

  16. Brain Tumor Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the genes can be called “genetic.” However, only about 5 to 10 percent of all cancer is hereditary (ie, passed down from one generation to another in a family). In cases of hereditary brain tumors, a mutation, or change in the DNA ...

  17. The Brain Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1998-01-01

    A cognitive-science revolution, reminiscent of Dewey's Progressive Education Movement, will profoundly affect future educational policy and practice. A comprehensive brain theory will emerge out of Darwin's discoveries about natural selection as a scientific explanation for biodiversity, Einstein's theoretical reconceptualization of…

  18. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq. New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 453–463. ... and Spotlights U.S. hospitals miss followup for suspected child abuse Q&A with NICHD Acting Director Catherine ...

  19. Mapping the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begley, Sharon; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes powerful new devices that "peer" through skull and "see" brain at work allowing neuroscientists to pursue the well springs of thought and emotion in their search for the origins of intelligence and language. Discusses the following scanning technologies: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET),…

  20. Brain Hemispheric Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeper Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Four articles consider brain hemisphere functioning of gifted students as it relates to gifted programs; alternation of education methodologies; spatial ability as an element of intellectual gifted functioning; and the interaction between hemisphere specialization, imagery, creative imagination, and sex differentiation. (SB)